Science.gov

Sample records for 55-gallon waste drums

  1. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6{prime} diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently.

  2. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  3. Criticality Safety Analysis on the Mixed Be, Nat-U, and C (Graphite) Reflectors in 55-Gallon Waste Drums and Their Equivalents for HWM Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The objective of this analysis is to develop and establish the technical basis on the criticality safety controls for the storage of mixed beryllium (Be), natural uranium (Nat-U), and carbon (C)/graphite reflectors in 55-gallon waste containers and/or their equivalents in Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on the criticality safety limits and controls outlined in Section 3.0, the operations involving the use of mixed-reflector drums satisfy the double-contingency principle as required by DOE Order 420.1 and are therefore criticality safe. The mixed-reflector mass limit is 120 grams for each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent. a reflector waiver of 50 grams is allowed for Be, Nat-U, or C/graphite combined. The waived reflectors may be excluded from the reflector mass calculations when determining if a drum is compliant. The mixed-reflector drums are allowed to mix with the typical 55-gallon one-reflector drums with a Pu mass limit of 120 grams. The fissile mass limit for the mixed-reflector container is 65 grams of Pu equivalent each. The corresponding reflector mass limits are 300 grams of Be, and/or 100 kilograms of Nat-U, and/or 110 kilograms of C/graphite for each container. All other unaffected control parameters for the one-reflector containers remain in effect for the mixed-reflector drums. For instance, Superior moderators, such as TrimSol, Superla white mineral oil No. 9, paraffin, and polyethylene, are allowed in unlimited quantities. Hydrogenous materials with a hydrogen density greater than 0.133 gram/cc are not allowed. Also, an isolation separation of no less than 76.2 cm (30-inch) is required between a mixed array and any other array. Waste containers in the action of being transported are exempted from this 76.2-cm (30-inch) separation requirement. All deviations from the CS controls and mass limits listed in Section 3.0 will require individual criticality safety analyses on a case-by-case basis for each of them to confirm their

  4. Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

  5. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55 GALLON DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-01-04

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG&G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air).

  6. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  7. Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Jason W; Clemmons, James S; Garcia, Michael D; Sur, John C; Zhang, Duan Z; Romero, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

  8. Design and fabrication of 55-gallon drum shuffler standards

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.M.; Hsue, F.; Hoth, C.; Fernandez, R.; Bjork, C.; Sprinkle, J.

    1994-08-01

    To analyze waste with varying levels of nuclear material, suitable standards are needed to calibrate analytical instrumentation. At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, the authors have designed and fabricated a single drum standard for a passive-active neutron counter (shuffler). The standard is modified simply by adding or subtracting plutonium of uranium cylinders to adapt to a range of nuclear material. The plutonium or uranium oxide was placed into small cylindrical containers (1-in. diameter by 5-in. long) and diluted with diatomaceous earth. The cylinders were welded closed and removed from the glove box environment without any external contamination. The containers were leak tested and then placed on a segmented gamma scanner to assure homogeneous distribution of the nuclear material. The cylinders are now placed into the drum to achieve the needed ranges for calibration of the instruments.

  9. Comparison of shuffler and differential die-away technique instruments for the assay of fissile materials in 55-gallon waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Coop, K.L.; Nicholas, N.J.; Menlove, H.O. )

    1994-07-01

    The authors compare the features of a [sup 252]Cf shuffler and a differential die-away technique (DDT) instrument for the assay of 208-L (55-gal.) waste drums and the experimental results obtained using drums with 20 different simulated waste matrices. Active assays of uranium and plutonium were made, along with passive assays of plutonium. The major potential sources of inaccuracy for most wastes are self-shielding and nonuniform distribution of the fissile material throughout a drum's volume. They examined the distribution problem by placing small samples of plutonium and uranium at 15 representative locations within each test matrix. The combined responses from all these locations simulated the case of a uniform distribution. Inaccuracies can grow as the density of moderator or absorber in a matrix is increased, so a wide range of absorber and moderator densities was used in the test drums. Self-shielding and effects due to high-neutron backgrounds were also examined. The instruments' minimum detectable masses for uniform distributions of uranium and plutonium were calculated for the various matrices.

  10. Results of the gamma-neutron mapper performance test on 55-gallon drums at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Roybal, L.G.; Svoboda, J.M.; Harker, D.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Carpenter, M.V.; Josten, N.E.

    1995-07-01

    The primary purpose of the gamma-neutron mapper (G@) is to provide accurate and quantitative spatial information of the gamma-ray and neutron radiation fields as a function of position about the excavation of a radioactive waste site. The GNM is designed to operate remotely and can be delivered to any point on an excavation by the robotic gantry crane developed by the dig-face project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). It can also be easily adapted to other delivery systems. The GNM can be deployed over a waste site at a predetermined scan rate and has sufficient accuracy to identify and quantify radioactive contaminants of importance. The results reported herein are from a performance test conducted at the Transuranic Storage Area, Building 628, of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex located at the INEL. This building is an active interim-storage area for 55-gal drums of transuranic waste from the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant. The performance test consisted of scanning a stack of drums five high by five wide. Prior to the test, radiation fields were measured by a health physicist at the center of the drums and ranged from 0.5 mR/h to 35 mR/h. Scans of the drums using the GNM were taken at standoff distances from the vertical drum stack of 15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, and 90 cm. Data were acquired at scan speeds of 7.5 cm/s and 15 cm/s. The results of these scans and a comparison of these results with the manifests of these drums are compared and discussed.

  11. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    SciTech Connect

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  12. Waste drum refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, L.J.

    1996-10-18

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of {minus}60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything.

  13. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  14. Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container

    SciTech Connect

    Richins, W.D.

    1996-07-01

    The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to DOT 7A Type A requirements. The controlling qualification test is a 4 ft drop onto a rigid surface. During and after this test, the container contents must remain within the container and shielding must not be reduced. The container is also designed to withstand stacking, internal pressure, lifting loads, tiedown failure, penetration, and a range of temperatures. Nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses were performed using a range of material properties. Loads in the major connections and strains in the stainless steel and lead were monitored as a function of time during impact analyses for three simulated drop orientations. Initial results were used to develop the final design. For the final design, the stainless steel and lead have maximum strains well below ultimate levels except at an impact corner where additional deformation is acceptable. The predicted loads in the connections indicate that some yielding will occur but the containment and shielding will remain intact. The results presented here provide assurance that the container will pass the DOT 7A Type A drop tests as well as the other structural requirements.

  15. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  16. Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E.; Lucero, Randy P.

    2013-07-01

    Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011

  17. One-trip drum operating instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-10-01

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant.

  18. REDWC Waste Stream Matrix Waste Treatment, Disposition and Container Selection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, R P

    2007-03-30

    There are 3 types of REWDC container types listed. Type 1 is used for long term storage of conditions waste. It's made of steel and it's a 55-gallon galvanized drum with a 90 mil HDPE liner. Type 2 is used for solid waste, point of generation and short term storage. It can be made of steel or poly. They come in 2-gallon, 5-gallon, 30-gallon, and 55-gallon drums used with 4 mil polyethylene liner. Type 3 is used for liquid waste. It can be made of steel or poly. It comes in 2-gallon, 5-gallon, 30-gallon, or 55-gallon drums. They have a closed head.

  19. Field test results for radioactive waste drum characterization with Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1997-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication, factory testing, evaluation and demonstration of waste inspection tomography (WIT). WIT consists of a self-sufficient, mobile semi-trailer for Non-Destructive Evaluation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDE/NDA) characterization of nuclear waste drums using X-ray and gamma-ray tomographic techniques. The 23-month WIT Phase I initial test results include 2 MeV Digital Radiography (DR), Computed Tomography (CT), Anger camera imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Collimated Gamma Scanning (CGS), and Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with three simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were all demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively. Preliminary field tests results with nuclear waste drums are summarized. WIT has inspected drums with 0 to 20 grams plutonium 239. The minimum measured was 0.131 gram plutonium 239 in cement. 8 figs.

  20. Low-Level Waste Drum Assay Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Greutzmacher, K.; Kuzminski, J.; Myers, S. C.

    2003-02-26

    Nuclear waste assay is an integral element of programs such as safeguards, waste management, and waste disposal. The majority of nuclear waste is packaged in drums and analyzed by various nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to identify and quantify the radioactive content. Due to various regulations and the public interest in nuclear issues, the analytical results are required to be of high quality and supported by a rigorous Quality Assurance (QA) program. A valuable QA tool is an intercomparison program in which a known sample is analyzed by a number of different facilities. While transuranic waste (TRU) certified NDA teams are evaluated through the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP), low-level waste (LLW) assay specialists have not been afforded a similar opportunity. NDA specialists from throughout the DOE complex were invited to participate in this voluntary drum assay intercomparison study that was organized and facilitated by the Solid Waste Operations and the Safeguards Science and Technology groups at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and by Eberline Services. Each participating NDA team performed six replicate blind measurements of two 55-gallon drums with relatively low-density matrices (a 19.1 kg shredded paper matrix and a 54.4 kg mixed metal, rubber, paper and plastic matrix). This paper presents the results from this study, with an emphasis on discussing the lessons learned as well as desirable follow up programs for the future. The results will discuss the accuracy and precision of the replicate measurements for each NDA team as well as any issues that arose during the effort.

  1. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  2. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, R.L.; Haecker, C.F.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided.

  3. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  4. Los Alamos waste drum shufflers users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Painter, J.

    1993-08-24

    This user manual describes the Los Alamos waste drum shufflers. The primary purpose of the instruments is to assay the mass of {sup 235}U (or other fissile materials) in drums of assorted waste. It can perform passive assays for isotopes that spontaneously emit neutrons or active assays using the shuffler technique as described on this manual.

  5. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-08-23

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site FB-Line conducted atomic energy defense activities consistent with the listing in Section 10101(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The facility mission was to process and convert dilute plutonium solution into highly purified weapons grade plutonium metal. As a result of various activities conducted in support of the mission (e.g., operation, maintenance, repair, clean up, and facility modifications), the facility generated transuranic waste. This document, along with referenced supporting documents, provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration,equipment, process operations, and waste management practices.

  6. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-04-06

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to

  7. Modeling VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the VOC permeability had been measured. Permeabilities for five VOCs [methylene chloride, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethylene] were measured across a polyethylene bag. Comparison of model and experimental results of VOC concentration as a function of time indicate that model accurately accounts for significant VOC transport mechanisms in a lab-scale waste drum.

  8. Unsteady-state VOC transport in vented waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-08-01

    A model of unsteady-state volatile organic compound (VOC) transport in a vented waste drum has been developed. Model predictions of the VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement and the drum headspace are compared to measurements in lab-scale simulated waste drums.

  9. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM SLUDGE SAMPLE BOTTLES CAUSED BY RADIOLYSIS AND CHEMISTRY WITH CONCETNRATION DETERMINATION IN A STANDARD WASTE BOX (SWB) OR DRUM FOR TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    RILEY DL; BRIDGES AE; EDWARDS WS

    2010-03-30

    A volume of 600 mL of sludge, in 4.1 L sample bottles (Appendix 7.6), will be placed in either a Super Pig (Ref. 1) or Piglet (Ref. 2, 3) based on shielding requirements (Ref. 4). Two Super Pigs will be placed in a Standard Waste Box (SWB, Ref. 5), as their weight exceeds the capacity of a drum; two Piglets will be placed in a 55-gallon drum (shown in Appendix 7.2). The generation of hydrogen gas through oxidation/corrosion of uranium metal by its reaction with water will be determined and combined with the hydrogen produced by radiolysis. The hydrogen concentration in the 55-gallon drum and SWB will be calculated to show that the lower flammability limit of 5% hydrogen is not reached. The inner layers (i.e., sample bottle, bag and shielded pig) in the SWB and drum will be evaluated to assure no pressurization occurs as the hydrogen vents from the inner containers (e.g., shielded pigs, etc.). The reaction of uranium metal with anoxic liquid water is highly exothermic; the heat of reaction will be combined with the source term decay heat, calculated from Radcalc, to show that the drum and SWB package heat load limits are satisfied. This analysis does five things: (1) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water; (2) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from radiolysis (using Radcalc 4.1); (3) Combines both H{sub 2} generation amounts, from Items 1 and 2, and determines the percent concentration of H{sub 2} in the interior of an SWB with two Super Pigs, and the interior of a 55-gallon drum with two Piglets; (4) From the combined gas generation rate, shows that the pressure at internal layers is minimal; and (5) Calculates the maximum thermal load of the package, both from radioactive decay of the source and daughter products as calculated/reported by Radcalc 4.1, and from the exothermic reaction of uranium metal with water.

  10. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  11. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  12. THERMAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR WSB DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2008-06-26

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum.

  13. Case studies of corrosion of mixed waste and transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents three case studies of corrosion of waste drums at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Corrosion was not anticipated by the waste generators, but occurred because of subtle chemical or physical mechanisms. In one case, drums of a cemented transuranic (TRU) sludge experienced general and pitting corrosion. In the second instance, a chemical from a commercial paint stripper migrated from its primary containment drums to chemically attack overpack drums made of mild carbon steel. In the third case, drums of mixed low level waste (MLLW) soil corroded drum packaging even though the waste appeared to be dry when it was placed in the drums. These case studies are jointly discussed as ``lessons learned`` to enhance awareness of subtle mechanisms that can contribute to the corrosion of radioactive waste drums during interim storage.

  14. 1994 Solid waste forecast container volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; Clary, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container type. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container types will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The forecast data for the 30-year period indicates that approximately 307,150 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed by the SWOC. The main container type for this waste is 55-gallon drums, which will be used to ship 36% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of 55-gallon drums is Past Practice Remediation. This waste will be generated by the Environmental Restoration Program during remediation of Hanford`s past practice sites. Although Past Practice Remediation is the primary generator of 55-gallon drums, most waste generators are planning to ship some percentage of their waste in 55-gallon drums. Long-length equipment containers (LECs) are forecasted to contain 32% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of LECs is the Long-Length Equipment waste generator, which is responsible for retrieving contaminated long-length equipment from the tank farms. Boxes are forecasted to contain 21% of the waste. These containers are primarily forecasted for use by the Environmental Restoration Operations--D&D of Surplus Facilities waste generator. This waste generator is responsible for the solid waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the facilities currently on the Surplus Facilities Program Plan. The remaining LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste volume is planned to be shipped in casks and other miscellaneous containers.

  15. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described.

  16. Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, H.M.

    1996-09-16

    This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

  17. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  18. Thermal sensing for characterizing the contents of waste storage drums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W. D.; Philipson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the feasibility to employ remote sensing for the characterization of the contents of liquid chemical waste storage drums. Philipson et al. (1981) had found that, when the air temperature is changing rapidly, differences in the thermal inertia of the drum contents can lead to detectable differences in the skin temperature of the drums. Thus, postsunset, airborne thermal remote sensing could potentially provide some level of discrimination among chemical storage drums. Discrimination should be possible among steel drums filled largely with: (1) aqueous solvents, (2) organic solvents, or (3) clay packing materials. The response of a drum filled with clay packing materials should be similar to that of an empty drum. The reported study had the objective to verify the theoretical findings, taking into account the use of a hand-held infrared radiometer. It was found that under the proper conditions the temperature differences among drums with the three different types of contents will be significant and consistent.

  19. Dose rate distribution from a standard waste drum arrangement.

    PubMed

    Zoeger, N; Brandl, A

    2011-11-01

    The evaluation of the dose rate distributions from radioactive sources, together with the specific detector locations with respect to those sources, in many cases presents a significant analytical challenge. With the exception of a few, simple source-detector geometries, it is not possible to find an analytical expression for these dose rate distributions as functions of detector location. In this paper, the dose rate distributions due to the arrangement of radiological waste drums on a standard wooden transport and storage pallet are investigated. The dose rates at various distances, ranging from 5 cm to 20 m, from the waste drum assembly have been evaluated by Monte Carlo calculations. The simulation data are fitted by smooth analytical functions in two independent regions, the waste drum near zone, where a logarithmic function best described the data, and the far zone, where the functional dependence closely approximates the 1/r2-law for point sources. PMID:21968820

  20. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    SciTech Connect

    DEMITER, J.A.

    1998-11-17

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods.

  1. Criticality Safety Evaluations on the Use of 200-gram Pu Mass Limit for RHWM Waste Storage Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    This work establishes the criticality safety technical basis to increase the fissile mass limit from 120 grams to 200 grams for Type A 55-gallon drums and their equivalents. Current RHWM fissile mass limit is 120 grams Pu for Type A 55-gallon containers and their equivalent. In order to increase the Type A 55-gallon drum limit to 200 grams, a few additional criticality safety control requirements are needed on moderators, reflectors, and array controls to ensure that the 200-gram Pu drums remain criticality safe with inadvertent criticality remains incredible. The purpose of this work is to analyze the use of 200-gram Pu drum mass limit for waste storage operations in Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Facilities. In this evaluation, the criticality safety controls associated with the 200-gram Pu drums are established for the RHWM waste storage operations. With the implementation of these criticality safety controls, the 200-gram Pu waste drum storage operations are demonstrated to be criticality safe and meet the double-contingency-principle requirement per DOE O 420.1.

  2. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Gilliam, T.M.; Harrington, E.S.; Youngblood, E.L. ); Baer, M.B. )

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1990-10-01

    Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste drums were sampled for gas composition. Glass, metal, graphite, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values were calculated for the waste drums. G(H{sub 2}) was below 0.6 and G(Total) was below 1.3 for all waste forms discussed in this report. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, C.F.,; Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R.,

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  5. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    WIT is a self-sufficient mobile semitrailer for nondestructive evaluation and nondestructive assay of nuclear waste drums using x-ray and gamma-ray tomography. The recently completed Phase I included the design, fabrication, and initial testing of all WIT subsystems installed on-board the trailer. Initial test results include 2 MeV digital radiography, computed tomography, Anger camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, gamma-ray spectroscopy, collimated gamma scanning, and active and passive computed tomography using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with 3 simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba with 9-250 {mu}Ci activities. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively in Phase I. Currently ongoing Phase II involves DOE site field test demonstrations at LLNL, RFETS, and INEL with real nuclear waste drums. Current WIT experience includes 55 gallon drums of cement, graphite, sludge, glass, metals, and combustibles. Thus far WIT has inspected drums with 0-20 gms of {sup 239}Pu.

  6. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1995-08-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  7. Characterization of voic volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-12-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  8. Measurement of the U-235 Content of Concreted Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rackham, J.; Hughes, K.; Oldeide, R.; Sharpe, J.; Morgan, S.

    2008-07-01

    A challenging assay situation recently arose, whereby the fissile (i.e. total plutonium plus U-235) content of a population of 164 historical waste drums containing concrete needed to be measured, to comply with nuclear safety limits for transport to, and interim storage within, an Engineered Drum Store. BIL Solutions Ltd has developed a new methodology for measurement of the U-235 content of these 'concrete' drums, because the approach normally used by the in-situ Drum Monitors was found to be overly pessimistic. Initial investigations indicated significant quantities of uranium were present in these drums (but negligible plutonium), mixed with Np-237 and / or Ra-226. These initial measurements also indicated that the uranium was likely to be depleted in enrichment. The U-235 content was therefore determined by measuring the U-238 mass via the passive coincident neutron emission, and combining this with the U-235 and U-238 isotopic abundances, obtained by analysis of a gamma spectrum. Of the uranium isotopic analysis codes available, the FRAM (Fixed energy, Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) software was selected as being most suitable for this application. A wide gamma-ray energy range is used (i.e. 120 keV to 1200 keV) which was considered more likely to yield results when there is significant attenuation. The software is also user configurable, enabling interferences from the other radionuclides present (i.e. Np-237 and Ra-226) to be accounted for. A series of test measurements were performed with well-characterised uranium sources attenuated by concrete shielding, to gain confidence in the performance of FRAM under such conditions. These test measurements indicated that FRAM was able to correctly determine the enrichment of heavily shielded uranium. The new U-235 measurement methodology was then applied to the population of concrete drums; successfully yielding U-235 results despite the dense waste matrix and significant interference from

  9. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  10. Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum Venting - Operational Experience and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Th.L.Jr.; Bhatt, R.N.; Troescher, P.D.; Lattin, W.J.

    2008-07-01

    Remote-handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste drums must be vented to meet transportation and disposal requirement before shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The capability to perform remote venting of drums was developed and implemented at the Idaho National Laboratory. Over 490 drums containing RH TRU waste were successfully vented. Later efforts developed and implemented a long-stem filter to breach inner waste bags, which reduced layers of confinement and mitigated restrictive transportation wattage limits. This paper will provide insight to the technical specifications for the drum venting system, development, and testing activities, startup, operations, and lessons learned. (authors)

  11. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site.

  12. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  13. Passive neutron design study for 200-L waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.B.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-09-01

    We have developed a passive neutron counter for the measurement of plutonium in 200-L drums of scrap and waste. The counter incorporates high efficiency for the multiplicity counting in addition to the traditional coincidence counting. The {sup 252}Cf add-a-source feature is used to provide an accurate assay over a wide range of waste matrix materials. The room background neutron rate is reduced by using 30 cm of external polyethylene shielding and the cosmic-ray background is reduced by statistical filtering techniques. Monte Carlo Code calculations were used to determine the optimum detector design, including the gas pressure, size, number, and placement of the {sup 3}He tubes in the moderator. Various moderators, including polyethylene, plastics, teflon, and graphite, were evaluated to obtain the maximum efficiency and minimum detectable mass of plutonium.

  14. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - HANDSS-55 TRANSURANIC WASTE REPACKAGING MODULE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-08-31

    The Transuranic waste generated at the Savannah River Site from nuclear weapons research, development, and production is currently estimated to be over 10,000 cubic meters. Over half of this amount is stored in 55-gallon drums. The waste in drums is primarily job control waste and equipment generated as the result of routine maintenance performed on the plutonium processing operations. Over the years that the drums have been accumulating, the regulatory definitions of materials approved for disposal have changed. Consequently, many of the drums now contain items that are not approved for disposal at DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The HANDSS-55 technology is being developed to allow remote sorting of the items in these drums and then repackaging of the compliant items for disposal at WIPP.

  15. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  19. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG&G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured.

  20. Acceptability of Bettis Laboratories waste shipment to WHC solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-04-20

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate a potential discrepancy between the Solid Waste Management (SWM) Criticality Prevention Specifications and a proposed waste receipt from Bettis Laboratories. This analysis resolves an apparent discrepancy between two different requirements of the Central Waste Complex and 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds Criticality Prevention Specifications (CPS-SW-149-00002 and CPS-SW-149-00003 respectively). The analysis is being performed to enable Solid Waste Management to accept a specific package from Bettis Laboratories. This package meets the requirements of section 2.1.1 in that the total fissile content of the drum is less than 200g and the waste occupies greater than 20% of the container volume. The package may not appear, however, to meet the requirements of section 2.1.5 for maximum enrichment of uranium bearing waste, as will be described below. Based on this analysis for this specific package, the waste is shown to be critically safe under all conditions for which the 55-gallon drums (17C, 17H, or UN1A2) specification applies. This package can be accepted under the 55-gallon drum limitations on fissile quantity. No change to the CPS is required.

  1. Thermal analysis of the 10-gallon and the 55-gallon DOT-6M containers with thermal boundary conditions corresponding to 10CFR71 normal transport and accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L.C.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Moss, M.; Haseman, G.M.; Fowler, W.E.; Roth, E.P.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the heat transfer analysis of the 10-gallon and 55-gallon 6M containers. The analysis was performed with boundary conditions corresponding to a normal transport condition and a hypothetical accident condition. Computational results indicated that the insulation material in the 6M containers will adequately protect the payload region of the 6M containers. 26 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.D.; Rahimi, R.S.; Edling, D.

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  4. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums - an interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine if the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the drum headspace is representative of the VOC concentration in the entire drum void space and to demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. An experimental test plan was developed requiring gas sampling of 66 transuranic (TRU) waste drums. This interim report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement from waste drums sampled and analyzed in FY 1994.

  5. Limitation of tritium outgassing from tritiated solid waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liger, K.; Trabuc, P.; Lefebvre, X.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C.

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the development of fusion thermonuclear reactors, tritiated solid waste is foreseen and will have to be managed. The management of tritiated waste implies limitations in terms of activity and tritium degassing. The degassing tritium can be under the form of tritiated hydrogen, tritiated water and, in some specific cases, negligible amount of tritiated volatile organic compound. Hence, considering the major forms of degassing tritium, CEA has developed a mixed-compound dedicated to tritium trapping in drums. Based on several experiments, the foreseen mixed compound is composed of MnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}O, Pt and molecular sieve, the three first species having the ability to convert tritiated hydrogen into tritiated water and the last one acting as a trap for tritiated water. To assess the performance of the trapping mixture, experimental tests were performed at room temperature on tritiated dust composed of beryllium and carbon. It was shown that the metallic oxides mixture used for tritiated hydrogen conversion is efficient and that tritiated water adsorption was limited due to an inefficient regeneration of the molecular sieve prior to its use. Apart from this point, the tritium release from waste was reduced by a factor of 5.5, which can be improved up to 87 if the adsorption step is efficient.

  6. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; McFeeters, T.L.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1991-02-11

    Rocky Flats Plant Transuranic Waste Drums were sampled for gas composition. Combustibles, plastics, Raschig rings, solidified organic sludge, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. Plastic bag material and waste samples were also taken from some solidified sludge waste drums. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values (gas generation) were calculated for the waste drums. Analytical results indicate that very low concentrations of potentially flammable or corrosive gas mixtures will be found in vented drums. G(H{sub 2}) was usually below 1.6, while G(Total) was below 4.0. Hydrogen permeability tests on different types of plastic waste bags used at Rocky Flats were also conducted. Polyvinylchloride was slightly more permeable to hydrogen than polyethylene for new or creased material. Permeability of aged material to hydrogen was slightly higher than for new material. Solidified organic and inorganic sludges were sampled for volatile organics. The analytical results from two drums of solidified organic sludges showed concentrations were above detection limits for four of the 36 volatile organics analyzed. The analytical results for four of the five solidified inorganic sludges show that concentrations were below detection limits for all volatile organics analyzed. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. L AREA WASTEWATER STORAGE DRUM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D; Dennis Vinson, D

    2007-11-30

    This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  8. Inspection, testing, and operating requiremens for the packaging and shipping of uranium trioxide in 55-gallon Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 6M shipping packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Toomer, D.V.

    1991-06-01

    This document identifies the inspection, testing and operating requirements for the packaging, loading, and shipping of uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}) in 55-gallon DOT Specification 6M shipping packagings from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Compliance with this document assures established controls for the purchasing, packaging, loading, and shipping of DOT Specification 6M shipping packagings are maintained in strict accordance with applicable Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-19

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  10. Identification of the fast and thermal neutron characteristics of transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, B.H. Jr.; Bramblett, R.L.; Hensley, C.

    1997-11-01

    Fissile and spontaneously fissioning material in transuranic waste drums can be most sensitively assayed using an active and passive neutron assay system such as the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay. Both the active and the passive assays are distorted by the presence of the waste matrix and containerization. For accurate assaying, this distortion must be characterized and accounted for. An External Matrix Probe technique has been developed that accomplishes this task. Correlations between in-drum neutron flux measurements and monitors in the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay chamber with various matrix materials provide a non-invasive means of predicting the thermal neutron flux in waste drums. Similarly, measures of the transmission of fast neutrons emitted from sources in the drum. Results obtained using the Lockheed Martin Specialty Components Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay system are discussed. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, E; Bernardi, R; Hollerbach, K; Logan, C; Martz, H; Roberson, G P

    1999-06-01

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have been increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed. (1) The computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. (2) They are developing NDE and NDE techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  12. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Harry E.; Roberson, G. Patrick; Hollerbach, Karin; Logan, Clinton M.; Ashby, Elaine; Bernardi, Richard

    1999-12-02

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have seen increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed, 1.) Our computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. 2.) We are developing NDE and NDA techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  13. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application.

  14. Comparison exercise on activity determination of radioactive waste drums in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wei-Han; Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2016-03-01

    The National Radiation Standard Laboratory of Taiwan organized in 2014 a comparison exercise by distributing 210 L drum-typed samples to seven radioactive waste analysis laboratories in Taiwan. Four drums were filled with uniformly distributed active carbon, water, resin and concrete, respectively and five drums were filled with cracked metals and heterogeneously distributed radioactive sources. Measurement uncertainties of participants results are in the range 3–40% (k=2) and about 96% of the reported results produced En values (ISO, 1997) smaller than one for drums with activity uniformly distributed. The minimum discrepancies, expressed as Bi values (ISO, 1997), of drums with heterogeneously distributed 137Cs and 60Co were 0.34 and 0.17, respectively. PMID:27358943

  15. Considerations for an active and passive scanner to assay nuclear waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.; Azevedo, S.G.; Roberson, G.P.; Schneberk, D.J.; Koenig, Z.M.; Camp, D.C. )

    1990-06-08

    Radioactive wastes are generated at many DOE laboratories, military facilities, fuel fabrication and enrichment plants, reactors, hospitals, and university research facilities. At all of these sites, wastes must be separated, packaged, categorized, and packed into some sort of container--usually 208-L (55-gal) drums--for shipment to waste-storage sites. Prior to shipment, the containers must be labeled, assayed, and certified; the assay value determines the ultimate disposition of the waste containers. An accurate nondestructive assay (NDA) method would identify all the radioisotopes present and provide a quantitative measurement of their activity in the drum. In this way, waste containers could be routed in the most cost-effective manner and without having to reopen them. Currently, the most common gamma-ray method used to assay nuclear waste drums is segmented gamma-ray scanning (SGS) spectrometer that crudely measures only the amount of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu present in the drum. This method uses a spatially-averaged, integrated, emitted gamma-ray-intensity value. The emitted intensity value is corrected by an assumed constant-attenuation value determined by a spatially-averaged, transmission (or active) measurement. Unfortunately, this typically results in an inaccurate determination of the radioactive activities within a waste drum because this measurement technique is valid only for homogeneous-attenuation or known drum matrices. However, since homogeneous-attenuation matrices are not common and may be unknown, other NDA techniques based on active and Passive CT (A PCT) are under development. The active measurement (ACT) yields a better attenuation matrix for the drum, while the passive measurement (PCT) more accurately determines the identity of the radioisotopes present and their activities. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Response to requests by FMF and DWPF concerning disposal of FMF saltstone drums in Z-Area vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1989-07-25

    Disposal of FMF saltstone in 55 gallon drums in the Z-Area Industrial Waste Landfill requires modification of the landfill permit. Approximately 5000 drums of FMF saltstone are currently stored on SC DHEC-permitted concrete storage pads adjacent to the burial ground. At a meeting with DWPF, FMF, and EPS on July 18, 1989, IWT agreed to supply the following information: (1) Consequence of disposal of CCA (Cu, Cr, As) treated wood pallets in the Z-Area vaults. (Four drums of FMF saltstone are currently banded to each pallet.) (2) Consequence of placing partially filled FMF drums in the Z-Area vaults. (3) Formulation for clean grout back-fill. Grout will be emplaced around and over the drums, thereby isolating them from environment (rainwater) prior to vault capping. (4) Maximum loading of FMF saltstone drums in the Z-Area vaults. (5) Consequence of void volume in drums, in clean grout, or both on groundwater modeling results. This document is a response to the above requests.

  17. Results for the Independent Sampling and Analysis of Used Oil Drums at the Impact Services Facility in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), via the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, perform independent sampling and analysis of used oils contained within eight 55 gallon drums stored at the former IMPACT Services facility, located at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These drums were originally delivered by LATA Sharp Remediation Services (LSRS) to IMPACT Services on January 11, 2011 as part of the Bldg. K-33 demolition project, and the drums plus contents should have been processed as non-hazardous non-radiological waste by IMPACT Services. LSRS received a certificate of destruction on August 29, 2012 (LSRS 2012a). However, IMPACT Services declared bankruptcy and abandoned the site later in 2012, and eight of the original eleven K-33 drums are currently stored at the facility. The content of these drums is the subject of this investigation. The original drum contents were sampled by LSRS in 2010 and analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), using both compositing and grab sampling techniques. The objective of this 2013 sample and analysis effort was to duplicate, to the extent possible, the 2010 sampling and analysis event to support final disposition decisions. Part of that decision process includes either verifying or refuting the assertion that oils that are currently stored in drums at the IMPACT Services facility originated from Bldg. K-33 equipment.

  18. Evaluation of a neutron-photon shield for transuranic (TRU) waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R. J.; Gallegos, M.; Ruby, R.; Sullivan, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Operational Health Physics Group, with the support of the Nuclear Materials Technology Waste Management Group, has developed a wrap-around shield for use with 0.208 cubic meter (55 gallon) drums containing transuranic (TRU) waste. The shield or 'drum cover' as it is called, is innovative in its ability to attenuate both neutron and photon radiation associated with TRU waste. This poster presents information on the design, fabrication and field use of the drum cover. Design details to be presented include the composition of the shield including the materials used, thicknesses, weight, dimensions and fastener arrangement. Information on the source supplier for the shield materials, the fabrication vendor and the drum cover cost are provided. Shielding data show the unique effectiveness of the drum cover and its ability to reduce neutron and photon radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). These data include x-ray testing of the assembled shield materials, as well as field experience report on the drum cover using TRU waste containers and neutron source drums. The poster includes discussion and photographs of recent field uses for the drum cover, user experience and acceptance of the drum cover and suggestions for future use and enhancement of the drum cover design.

  19. ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL WASTE CONFIGURATIONS AT THE SRS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V; Raymond Dewberry, R

    2007-05-14

    Job Control Waste (JCW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Solid Waste Management Facilities (SWMF) may be disposed of in special containers, and the analysis of these containers requires developing specific analysis methodologies. A method has been developed for the routine assay of prohibited items (liquids, etc.) contained in a 30-gallon drum that is then placed into a 55-gallon drum. Method development consisted of system calibration with a NIST standard at various drum-to-detector distances, method verification with a liquid sample containing a known amount of Pu-238, and modeling the inner container using Ortec Isotopic software. Using this method for measurement of the known standard in the drum-in-drum configuration produced excellent agreement (within 15%) with the known value. Savannah River Site Solid Waste Management also requested analysis of waste contained in large black boxes (commonly 18-feet x 12-feet x 7-feet) stored at the SWMF. These boxes are frequently stored in high background areas and background radiation must be considered for each analysis. A detection limit of less than 150 fissile-gram-equivalents (FGE) of TRU waste is required for the black-box analyses. There is usually excellent agreement for the measurements at different distances and measurement uncertainties of about 50% are obtained at distances of at least twenty feet from the box. This paper discusses the experimental setup, analysis and data evaluation for drum-in-drum and black box waste configurations at SRS.

  20. Hazards Associated with Legacy Nitrate Salt Waste Drums Managed under the Container Isolation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-07

    At present, there are 29 drums of nitrate waste salts (oxidizers with potentially acidic liquid bearing RCRA characteristics D001 and D002) that are awaiting processing, specifically to eliminate these characteristics and to allow for ultimate disposition at WIPP. As a result of the Feb. 14th, 2014 drum breach at WIPP, and the subsequent identification of the breached drum as a product ofLANL TRU waste disposition on May 15th, 2014, these 29 containers were moved into the Perrnacon in Dome 231 at TA-54 Area G, as part of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) approved container isolation plan. The plan is designed to mitigate hazards associated with the nitrate salt bearing waste stream. The purpose of this document is to articulate the hazards associated with un-remediated nitrate salts while in storage at LANL. These hazards are distinctly different from the Swheat-remediated nitrate salt bearing drums, and this document is intended to support the request to remove the un-remediated drums from management under the container isolation plan. Plans to remediate and/or treat both of these waste types are being developed separately, and are beyond the scope of this document.

  1. Passive neutron assay of heterogeneous waste drums using the segmented Add-a-Source method

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.

    1995-07-01

    We have developed passive neutron detectors that include the Add-a-Source (AS) technique to improve the accuracy of the nondestructive assay of plutonium in large waste containers. We have improved the AS by incorporating multiple positions for the {sup 252}Cf source on the exterior of a 200-L drum. The multiple positions give a better coverage of the drum and have the effect of segmenting the matrix as a function of fill height. We have applied the multiposition AS to the assay of drums with heterogeneous matrix combinations of concrete, polyethylene, wood, paper, and metal. The measurement errors caused by the matrix significantly reduced by the AS technique and anomalous shielding material in the drum can be flagged for more detailed investigation.

  2. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application. PMID:22134026

  3. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  4. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  5. Characterization Studies of Radioactive Waste Drums Using High Resolution Gamma Spectrometric Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, M.; Cristache, C.; Done, L.; Dragolici, F.; Sima, O.

    2010-01-21

    The problem of radioactive waste has become a critical issue in the country and worldwide. The radioactive waste containers, containing different radioactive materials, have to be characterized before their final disposal. Destructive methods, although being the most precise, are also the most expensive and not the easiest ones from the radioprotection point of view. In this situation, high resolution gamma spectrometry proved to be a reliable method for the non destructive assay method. However, the non-homogenous composition of the radioactive waste inside the drum makes the quantitative characterization of the radioactive waste drum a difficult task. Experimental studies and computed results, combined with Monte Carlo simulations using GESPECOR, are presented in this paper as a possibility to achieve this task.

  6. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums containing cemented intermediate level nuclear wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, Gustavo S.; Farina, Silvia B.; Schulz, Fátima M.; Marotta, Francesca

    2010-10-01

    Cementation processes are used as immobilization techniques for low or intermediate level radioactive waste for economical and safety reasons and for being a simple operation. In particular, ion-exchange resins commonly used for purification of radioactive liquid waste from nuclear reactors are immobilized before being stored to improve the leach resistance of the waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability. Combustible solid radioactive waste can be incinerated and the resulting ashes can also be immobilized before storage. The immobilized resins and ashes are then contained in steel drums that may undergo corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The work described in this paper was aimed at evaluating the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins and incineration ashes containing different concentrations of aggressive species (mostly chloride and sulphate ions). A special type of specimen was designed to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 1 year. The results show the deleterious effect of chloride on the expected lifespan of the waste containers.

  7. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE SOLIDIFICATION CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2009-06-01

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum. Detailed results and the cases considered in the calculations will be discussed here.

  8. Design of benign matrix drums for the non-destructive assay performance demonstration program for the National TRU Program

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP (performance demonstration program) samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards, working reference materials (WRMs). The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standard(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The scope of this document is confined to the design of the PDP drum radioactive standard internal support structure, the matrix type and the as installed configuration. The term benign is used to designate a matrix possessing properties which are nominally non-interfering to waste NDA measurement techniques. Measurement interference sources are technique specific but include attributes such as: high matrix density, heterogeneous matrix distributions, matrix compositions containing high moderator/high Z element concentrations, etc. To the extent practicable the matrix drum design should not unduly bias one NDA modality over another due to the manner in which the matrix drum configuration manifests itself to the measurement system. To this end the PDP matrix drum configuration and composition detailed below is driven primarily by the intent to minimize the incorporation of matrix attributes known to interfere with fundamental waste NDA modalities, i.e. neutron and gamma based techniques.

  9. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at a... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums...

  10. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at...

  11. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at...

  12. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at a... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums...

  13. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    SciTech Connect

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C.; Bachelet, F.

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  14. A UK comparison for measurements of low levels of gamma-emitters in waste drums.

    PubMed

    Dean, Julian

    2009-05-01

    Much of the work of the UK nuclear industry is now concerned with decommissioning many of the existing power stations and other facilities. An important aspect of this work is the accurate measurement of low levels of radioactivity in waste forms such as building materials in order that these materials can be assigned to the correct waste streams. This has led to a call for suitable standards and reference materials, and the specific needs of UK users were identified at an NPL workshop in 2005. One of the highest priorities was for 'soft waste' spiked with gamma-emitters in a 200 L drum format, with an activity concentration of just under 0.4 Bq g(-1). In response, NPL prepared a single reference drum meeting this specification. The low density was achieved by loading the drum with plastic bottles, each partially loaded with ion-exchange resin. The resin in each bottle had been previously spiked with a mixture of (241)Am, (137)Cs and (60)Co, all traceable to national standards. The drum would be used primarily as the basis of a comparison exercise, but feedback on its usefulness as a calibration standard would also be sought. The drum was measured by 17 radioassay groups at 15 UK sites. The monitors used were mostly commercial gamma-spectrometry systems designed to accommodate waste drums. Some groups measured the drum on more than one monitor and some used more than one efficiency calibration. Many of the groups used mathematical modelling to derive their efficiencies. The results of the exercise were discussed at a second NPL workshop (2007), after which the participants were allowed to submit supplementary or replacement results (with reasons for any changes clearly stated). In total, 88 results were submitted. A total of 51 results were in agreement with the NPL values; of the remaining results, 24 were explained by the participants concerned (or were revised to provide supplementary values), but the other 13 results were either clearly discrepant or

  15. APPLICATION OF NONSPHERICAL FISSILE CONFIGURATION IN WASTE CONTAINERS AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2007-01-03

    Transuranic (TRU) solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes the application of nonspherical fissile material configuration in waste containers, resulting in less restrictive mass and spacing limits, increased storage capacity, and several administrative controls for handling and storage of waste containers being modified without compromising safety.

  16. In-drum vitrification of transuranic waste sludge using microwave energy

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave vitrification of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant is being tested using actual TRU waste in a bench-scale system and simulated waste in a pilot system. In 1987, bench-scale testing was completed to determine the effectiveness of in-drum microwave vitrification of simulated precipitation sludge. The equipment used in the bench tests included a 6-kW, 2.45-GHz microwave generator, aluminum cavity, turntable, infrared (IR) thermometer, and screw feeder. Results similar to those achieved in bench-scale testing are reproducible using a 915-MHz microwave system in solidifying simulated TRU sludge. Nine samples have been processed to date. Also, preliminary results using actual TRU waste indicate that the actual waste will behave in a similar way to the surrogate waste used in the 2.45-GHz system. Work is ongoing to complete the TRU waste tests.

  17. Corrosion of steel drums containing cemented ion-exchange resins as intermediate level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Schulz, F. M.

    2013-07-01

    Exhausted ion-exchange resins used in nuclear reactors are immobilized by cementation before being stored. They are contained in steel drums that may undergo internal corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The objective of this work is to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins with different aggressive species. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, and the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored for 900 days. Results show that the cementation of ion-exchange resins seems not to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums. The corrosion rate of the steel in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins in the absence of contaminants or in the presence of 2.3 wt.% sulphate content remains low (less than 0.1 μm/year) during the whole period of the study (900 days). The presence of chloride ions increases the corrosion rate of the steel at the beginning of the exposure but, after 1 year, the corrosion rate drops abruptly reaching a value close to 0.1 μm/year. This is probably due to the lack of water to sustain the corrosion process. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years, it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. Cementation of ion-exchange resins does not seem to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums that contained them; even in the case the matrix is highly contaminated with chloride ions.

  18. Radionuclide measurement proficiency testing for SNAP using NPL waste drum standards.

    PubMed

    Miller, T J

    2010-12-01

    AWE has participated in two rounds of radionuclide measurement proficiency testing using 200 l waste drum standards prepared by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The results achieved, using the SNAP (spectral non-destructive assay platform) system, were generally within a few per cent of the true activities and gave confidence in the ability to allocate wastes to the correct categories in accordance with national legislation. This is important for reasons of public safety and also for minimisation of the amount of RSA (Radioactive Substances Act) Exempt material categorised as LLW (low level waste) as the UK's LLW storage capacity diminishes. PMID:21149939

  19. Carbon decomposition by inoculating Phanerochaete chrysosporium during drum composting of agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Ramu, Kamma; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2015-05-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation during drum composting of agricultural waste was performed at different composting stages. Three trials were carried out with (5:4:1) combination of vegetable waste, cattle manure, and sawdust along with 10 kg of dried leaves with a total mass of 100 kg in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Trial 1 was a control without inoculation of fungus, while trial 2 was inoculated during the initial day (0th day of composting), and trial 3 was inoculated after the thermophilic phase, i.e., on the 8th day of composting period. The inoculation of fungus increased the volatile solids reduction by 1.45-fold in trial 2 and 1.7-fold in trial 3 as compared to trial 1 without any fungal inoculation. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was observed with 2.31, 2.62, and 2.59% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively, at the end of 20 days of composting period. Hence, it can be concluded that inoculation of white-rot fungus increased the decomposition rate of agricultural waste within shorter time in drum composting. However, inoculation after the thermophilic phase was found more effective than inoculation during initial days of composting for producing more stabilized and nutrient-rich compost.

  20. Performance test of a gamma/neutron mapper on stored TRU waste drums at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Josten, N.E.; Lawrence, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    The results from a performance test of a {gamma}- and neutron-radiation measurement instrument used to provide two-dimensional radiation field maps are reported. The performance test was conducted at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) where interim storage is provided for 55-gal. drums of TRU waste from the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant. The performance test consisted of scanning drums stacked five high and five wide to identify high radiation areas and possible discrepancies with the waste manifest. Scans were taken at standoff distances of 15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm and 90 cm. Data were acquired at scan speeds of 7.5 cm/s and 15 cm/s. The results of these scans are presented as one, two and three dimensional contour plots of the radiation fields. A comparison of these results with manifests of these drums are compared and discussed. While the T-radiation fields as measured by the Health Physicist and by the radiation maps are in general in agreement, the TRU content as given in the manifest did not often correlate with the neutron map.

  1. Application of active and passive neutron non destructive assay methods to concrete radioactive waste drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallu, F.; Passard, C.; Brackx, E.

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with the application of non-destructive neutron measurement methods to control and characterize 200 l radioactive waste drums filled with a concrete matrix. Due to its composition, and particularly to hydrogen, concrete penalizes the use of such methods to quantify uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) components, which are mainly responsible of the α-activity of the waste. The determination of the alpha activity is the main objective of neutron measurements, in view to verify acceptance criteria in surface storage. Calibration experiments of the Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI) method lead to Detection Limit Masses (DLM) of about 1 mg of 239Pu eff in the total counting mode, and of about 10 mg of 239Pu eff in the coincidence counting mode, in case of a homogeneous Pu source and measurement times between one and two hours. Monte Carlo calculation results show a very satisfactory agreement between experimental values and calculated ones. Results of the application of passive and active neutron methods to control two real drums are presented in the last part of the paper. They show a good agreement between measured data and values declared by the waste producers. The main difficulties that had to be overcome are the low neutron signal in passive and active coincidence counting modes due to concrete, the analysis of the passive neutron signal in presence of 244Cm in the drum, which is a strong spontaneous fission neutron emitter, the variation of the active background with the concrete composition, and the analysis of the active prompt neutron signal due to the simultaneous presence of U and Pu in the drums.

  2. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of WIPP and LANL Waste Drum Samples: A Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, David M.

    2015-10-19

    On Friday, February 14, 2014, an incident in P7R7 of the WIPP underground repository released radioactive material into the environment. The direct cause of the event was a breached transuranic (TRU) waste container, subsequently identified as Drum 68660. Photographic and other evidence indicates that the breach of 68660 was caused by an exothermic event. Subsequent investigations (Britt, 2015; Clark and Funk, 2015; Wilson et al., 2015; Clark, 2015) indicate that the combination of nitrate salts, pH neutralizing chemicals, and organic-based adsorbent represented a potentially energetic mixture. The materials inside the breached steel drum consisted of remediated, 30- to 40-year old, Pu processing wastes from LANL. The contents were processed and repackaged in 2014. Processing activities at LANL included: 1) neutralization of acidic liquid contents, 2) sorption of the neutralized liquid, and 3) mixing of acidic nitrate salts with an absorber to meet waste acceptance criteria. The contents of 68660 and its sibling, 68685, were derived from the same parent drum, S855793. Drum S855793 originally contained ten plastic bags of acidic nitrate salts, and four bags of mixed nitrate and oxalate salts generated in 1985 by Pu recovery operations. These salts were predominantly oxalic acid, hydrated nitrate salts of Mg, Ca, and Fe, anhydrous Na(NO3), and minor amounts of anhydrous and hydrous nitrate salts of Pb, Al, K, Cr, and Ni. Other major components include sorbed water, nitric acid, dissolved nitrates, an absorbent (Swheat Scoop®) and a neutralizer (KolorSafe®). The contents of 68660 are described in greater detail in Appendix E of Wilson et al. (2015)

  3. Gamma-ray spectrometry method used for radioactive waste drums characterization for final disposal at National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste--Baita, Romania.

    PubMed

    Done, L; Tugulan, L C; Dragolici, F; Alexandru, C

    2014-05-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Department from IFIN-HH, Bucharest, performs the conditioning of the institutional radioactive waste in concrete matrix, in 200 l drums with concrete shield, for final disposal at DNDR - Baita, Bihor county, in an old exhausted uranium mine. This paper presents a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the characterization of the radioactive waste drums' radionuclides content, for final disposal. In order to study the accuracy of the method, a similar concrete matrix with Portland cement in a 200 l drum was used.

  4. Epithermal interrogation of fissile waste

    SciTech Connect

    Coop, K.L.; Hollas, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    Self-shielding of interrogating thermal neutrons in lumps of fissile material can be a major source of error in transuranic waste assay using the widely employed differential dieaway technique. We are developing a new instrument, the combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) interrogation instrument to detect the occurrence of self- shielding and mitigate its effects. Neutrons are moderated in the graphite walls of the CTEN instrument to provide an interrogating flux of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The induced prompt fission neutrons are detected in proportional counters. We report the results of measurements made with the CTEN instrument, using minimal and highly self-shielding plutonium and uranium sources in 55 gallon drums containing a variety of mock waste matrices. Fissile isotopes and waste forms for which the method is most applicable, and limitations associated with the hydrogen content of the waste package/matrix are described.

  5. A Review of the Different Methods to Quantify Tritium Inside Waste Drums via Helium-3 Mass Spectrometric Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Demange, D.; Varescon, M.; Le Gal, P.; Daclin, J.P.; Hubinois, J.C.; Douche, C.; Lattaud, C

    2005-07-15

    This work deals with an indirect and non destructive measurement of tritium in solids. Instead of measuring tritium, we propose to measure the production rate of the decay product: {sup 3}He.The amount of tritium enclosed inside a waste drum can be determined with an adapted {sup 3}He ingrowth method that takes into account the leak rate of the drum. The model leads to different ways to quantify tritium in the drum. It is confirmed using reference drums that measuring the {sup 3}He leak by confining the drum during its equilibrium state gives the same result as sampling the drum atmosphere at the beginning of the storage. For each method, the appropriate apparatus, experimental procedures and calculation of tritium activity from mass spectrometric {sup 3}He measurements are detailed. Performances of these techniques are studied and discussed.In addition, we describe a novel and fully automated apparatus based on the confinement method that makes it possible to achieve a close tritium inventory of all the waste drums stored or produced at CEA Valduc.

  6. Estimation of the matrix attenuation in heterogeneous radioactive waste drums using dual-energy computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert-Coutant, C.; Moulin, V.; Sauze, R.; Rizo, P.; Casagrande, J. M.

    1999-02-01

    Gamma spectroscopy measurements of the activity of radionuclides in nuclear waste drums must be corrected for the attenuation due to the non-homogeneous waste matrix. The attenuation factors depend on the matrix local density and effective atomic number, and on the energy of the gamma rays emitted by the radionuclides. The requirements for the system presented in this paper are to estimate the attenuation in low-density (<0.4 g/cm 3), 120 l drums containing radionuclides emitting in the (59.5 keV, 1.4 MeV) energy range. A series of three-dimensional (3D) attenuation maps of the drum are computed using a dual-energy computerized tomography (DE-CT) system with an external, polychromatic X-ray source. The system successively records low-energy (mean energy about 62 keV) and high-energy (about 300 keV) projections using different tube voltages, anode current, and filtration. Each projection is acquired by 22 BGO scintillators - PM detectors in fan-beam geometry. The drum is rotated and elevated in a helical scan. A DE calibration transforms pairs of DE projections into pairs of "equivalent basis materials (BM)" projections. This non-linear transformation allows to correct for polychromaticity. After reconstruction, the two "equivalent BM" 3D maps are used, together with tabulated attenuation data of the BMs, in order to extrapolate the 3D attenuation map at any energy peak. Maps of the mass density and of the effective atomic number can also be computed. The total examination time is less than 5 min. Experimental images are shown.

  7. Pre-title I safety evaluation for the retrieval operations of transuranic waste drums in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, M.S.

    1992-08-01

    Phase I of the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Facility Line Item Project includes the retrieval and safe storage of the pad drums that are stored on TRU pads 2-6 in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF). Drums containing TRU waste were placed on these pads as early as 1974. The pads, once filled, were mounded with soil. The retrieval activities will include the excavation of the soil, retrieval of the pad drums, placing the drums in overpacks (if necessary) and venting and purging the retrieved drums. Once the drums have been vented and purged, they will be transported to other pads within the SWDF or in a designated area until they are eventually treated as necessary for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This safety evaluation provides a bounding assessment of the radiological risk involved with the drum retrieval activities to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker. The results of the analysis indicate that the risk to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker using maximum frequencies and maximum consequences are within the acceptance criteria defined in WSRC Procedural Manual 9Q. The purpose of this evaluation is to demonstrate the incremental risk from the SWDF due to the retrieval activities for use as design input only. As design information becomes available, this evaluation can be revised to satisfy the safety analysis requirements of DOE Orders 4700 and 5480.23.

  8. Pipe overpack container for trasuranic waste storage and shipment

    DOEpatents

    Geinitz, Richard R.; Thorp, Donald T.; Rivera, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A Pipe Overpack Container for transuranic waste storage and shipment. The system consists of a vented pipe component which is positioned in a vented, insulated 55 gallon steel drum. Both the vented pipe component and the insulated drum are capable of being secured to prevent the contents from leaving the vessel. The vented pipe component is constructed of 1/4 inch stainless steel to provide radiation shielding. Thus, allowing shipment having high Americium-241 content. Several Pipe Overpack Containers are then positioned in a type B, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved, container. In the current embodiment, a TRUPACT-II container was employed and a maximum of fourteen Pipe Overpack Containers were placed in the TRUPACT-II. The combination received NRC approval for the shipment and storage of transuranic waste.

  9. Geometric matrix research for nuclear waste drum tomographic gamma scanning transmission image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Zhao; Tuo, Xian-Guo

    2015-06-01

    A geometric matrix model of nuclear waste drums is proposed for transmission image reconstruction from tomographic gamma scans (TGS). The model assumes that rays are conical, with intensity uniformly distributed within the cone. The attenuation coefficients are centered on the voxel (cube) of the geometric center. The proposed model is verified using the EM algorithm and compared to previously reported models. The calculated results show that the model can obtain good reconstruction results even when the sample models are highly heterogeneous. Supported by NSFC (41374130), National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (41025015) National Science Foundation (41274109, 41104118)

  10. PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF A CRITICALITY IN A WASTE CONTAINER AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D

    2006-12-26

    Transuranic solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and various size carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 grams {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes an assessment of the probability of occurrence of a criticality accident during handling of the remaining transuranic waste containers at SRS.

  11. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Worley, Christopher Gordon; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Borrego, Andres Patricio; Castro, Alonso; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Holland, Charlotte S.; Keller, Russell C.; Klundt, Dylan James; Martinez, Alexander; Martin, Frances Louise; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Myers, Steven Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Schake, Ann Rene; Schappert, Michael Francis; Soderberg, Constance B.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Xu, Ning

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  12. Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility for Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility (SaRF) for processing Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) generated transuranic (TRU) waste was conceptualized and has received funding of $1.9 million. The SaRF is scheduled for completion in September, 1989 and will eliminate a labor intensive manual repackaging effort. The semi-automated glovebox-contained SaRF is being designed to process 63,500 cubic feet of TRU waste annually for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste will enter the process through an airlock or drum dump and the combustible waste will be precompacted. Drums will be pierced to allow air to escape during supercompaction. Each drum will be supercompacted and transferred to a load out station for final packaging into a 55 gallon drum. Preliminary evaluations indicate an average 5 to 1 volume reduction, 2 to 1 increased processing rate, and 50% reduction in manpower. The SaRF will produce a significant annual savings in labor, material, shipping, and burial costs over the projected 15 year life, and also improve operator safety, reduce personnel exposure, and improve the quality of the waste product. 1 ref., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  14. Feasibility study of 235U and 239Pu characterization in radioactive waste drums using neutron-induced fission delayed gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, T.; Pérot, B.; Carasco, C.; Brackx, E.; Mariani, A.; Passard, C.; Mauerhofer, E.; Collot, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of 235U and 239Pu characterization in 225 L bituminized waste drums or 200 L concrete waste drums, by detecting delayed fission gamma rays between the pulses of a deuterium-tritium neutron generator. The delayed gamma yields were first measured with bare samples of 235U and 239Pu in REGAIN, a facility dedicated to the assay of 118 L waste drums by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) at CEA Cadarache, France. Detectability in the waste drums is then assessed using the MCNPX model of MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), another PGNAA cell dedicated to 200 L drums at FZJ, Germany. For the bituminized waste drum, performances are severely hampered by the high gamma background due to 137Cs, which requires the use of collimator and shield to avoid electronics saturation, these elements being very penalizing for the detection of the weak delayed gamma signal. However, for lower activity concrete drums, detection limits range from 10 to 290 g of 235U or 239Pu, depending on the delayed gamma rays of interest. These detection limits have been determined by using MCNPX to calculate the delayed gamma useful signal, and by measuring the experimental gamma background in MEDINA with a 200 L concrete drum mock-up. The performances could be significantly improved by using a higher interrogating neutron emission and an optimized experimental setup, which would allow characterizing nuclear materials in a wide range of low and medium activity waste packages.

  15. Proficiency test for non-destructive assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums by gamma assay systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Bruggeman, M.; Botte, J.

    2007-07-01

    The European Network of Testing Facilities for the Quality Checking of Radioactive Waste Packages (ENTRAP) initiated a feasibility study on how to organize in the most cost effective way an international proficiency tests for non-destructive, gamma-ray based, assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums in the European Union at a regular time interval of 2 or 3 years. This feasibility study addresses all aspects of proficiency testing on radioactive waste packages including the design of a commonly accepted reference 220 liter drum. This design, based on the international response on a send out questionnaire, includes matrixes, radioactive sources; a solution to overcome the tedious and expensive international transport costs of real or even simulated waste packages, general cost estimation for the organization of, and the participation in the proficiency test. The proposed concept for the proficiency testing and the estimated costs are presented. The participation costs of the first proficiency test are mainly determined by the manufacturing of the non-radioactive 220 liter drum ({+-} 55%). Applied reference sources, transport of the drum and reference sources and participation costs in the proficiency test contribute each about {+-} 15%. (authors)

  16. Results from the first Waste and Residue NDA Measurements School

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Abhold, M.; Coop, K.; Prettyman, T.; Rinard, P.; Sheppard, G.; Smith, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first Waste and Residue Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements School was given at Los Alamos on June 3--7, 1996. This school is a new part of the DOE Office of Safeguards and Security, Safeguards Training Program, with additional instructor support from the National Transuranic Waste Program, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Westinghouse savannah River Company, Pajarito Scientific Corporation, and Canberra Industries. The school was attended by 22 safeguards and waste measurement personnel from DOE facilities, and included lectures on waste characterization requirements, the WIPP Performance Demonstration Program, waste and residue NDA techniques, and a workshop discussion on waste assay issues. Hands-on training modules with 55-gallon-drum waste assay systems were held using a Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner, a Tomographic Gamma-ray Scanner, two Add-a-Source Waste-Drum Assay Systems, a Californium Shuffler, and a Differential Die-away system that included Combined Thermal-Epithermal Neutron Interrogation (CTEN). This paper will describe the new school and report on the measurement results obtained during the school with the above-mentioned waste-drum assay systems.

  17. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Pallet fire test for steel drum storage on wooden pallets

    SciTech Connect

    Snook, B.L.

    1992-06-19

    A fire test was conducted by the Martin Marietta PORTS Fire Protection Engineering Department on October 3, 1991. This test was designed and set up to simulate a proposed storage configuration. The array consisted of 55-gallon steel drums, filled with noncombustible waste material, placed on wooden pallets stacked three tiers high. Results from the test served as the basis for determining the fire protection requirements for this type of storage. Data acquired from the test indicated that relatively high temperatures were obtained from the ignition source. These readings, taken during short durations throughout the test, were recorded from digital readouts connected to individual thermocouples. The test demonstrated that the wooden pallets did not significantly ignite and basically self-extinguished once the ignition source was consumed. Based upon these findings, storage of this type may be placed in the high bay (70 foot ceilings) sprinklered areas. This is providing that good housekeeping is implemented, large ignition sources are not allowed to be stored or parked in the area, and flammable and combustible liquids and solids are not permitted within the storage zones. The area shall also be designated as a {open_quotes}NO SMOKING{close_quotes} area.

  19. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain.

  20. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. PMID:20435457

  1. Automated Sorting of Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2001-03-01

    The HANDSS-55 Transuranic Waste Sorting Module is designed to sort out items found in 55-gallon drums of waste as determined by an operator. Innovative imaging techniques coupled with fast linear motor-based motion systems and a flexible end-effector system allow the operator to remove items from the waste stream by a touch of the finger. When all desired items are removed from the waste stream, the remaining objects are automatically moved to a repackaging port for removal from the glovebox/cell. The Transuranic Waste Sorting Module consists of 1) a high accuracy XYZ Stereo Measurement and Imaging system, 2) a vibrating/tilting sorting table, 3) an XY Deployment System, 4) a ZR Deployment System, 5) several user-selectable end-effectors, 6) a waste bag opening system, 7) control and instrumentation, 8) a noncompliant waste load-out area, and 9) a Human/Machine Interface (HMI). The system is modular in design to accommodate database management tools, additional load-out ports, and other enhancements. Manually sorting the contents of a 55-gallon drum takes about one day per drum. The HANDSS-55 Waste Sorting Module is designed to significantly increase the throughput of this sorting process by automating those functions that are strenuous and tiresome for an operator to perform. The Waste Sorting Module uses the inherent ability of an operator to identify the items that need to be segregated from the waste stream and then, under computer control, picks that item out of the waste and deposits it in the appropriate location. The operator identifies the object by locating the visual image on a large color display and touches the image on the display with his finger. The computer then determines the location of the object, and performing a highspeed image analysis determines its size and orientation, so that a robotic gripper can be deployed to pick it up. Following operator verification by voice or function key, the object is deposited into a specified location.

  2. Developing Automated Methods of Waste Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the need complex-wide for remote and automated technologies as they relate to the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes. This analysis revealed that several DOE sites need the capability to open drums containing waste, visually inspect and sort the contents, and finally repackage the containers that are acceptable at a waste disposal facility such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Conditioning contaminated waste so that it is compatible with the WIPP criteria for storage is an arduous task whether the waste is contact handled (waste having radioactivity levels below 200 mrem/hr) or remote handled. Currently, WIPP non-compliant items are removed from the waste stream manually, at a rate of about one 55-gallon drum per day. Issues relating to contamination-based health hazards as well as repetitive motion health hazards are steering industry towards a more user-friendly, method of conditioning or sorting waste.

  3. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  4. The use of filtered bags to increase waste payload capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, D.F.; Thorp, D.T.; Rivera, M.A.

    1998-03-03

    For the past few years, the Department of Energy has favored the direct disposal of low plutonium content residue materials from Rocky Flats rather than engage in expensive and time consuming plutonium recovery operations. One impediment to direct disposal has been the wattage limit imposed by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on hydrogenous materials such as combustibles and sludges. The issue of concern is the radiolytic generation and accumulation of hydrogen and other explosive gases in waste containers. The wattage limits that existed through 1996 restricted the amount of plutonium bearing hydrogenous materials that could be packaged in a WIPP bound waste drum to only a fraction of the capacity of a drum. Typically, only about one kilogram of combustible residue could be packaged in a waste drum before the wattage limit was exceeded resulting in an excessively large number of drums to be procured, stored, shipped, and interred. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated the use of filtered plastic bags (called bag-out bags) used to remove transuranic waste materials from glove box lines. The bags contain small, disk like HEPA filters which are effective in containing radioactively contaminated particulate material but allow for the diffusion of hydrogen gas. Used in conjunction with filtered 55 gallon drums, filtered bag-out bags were pursued as a means to increase the allowable wattage limits for selected residue materials. In February 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the use of filtered bag-out bags for transuranic waste materials destined for WIPP. The concomitant increase in wattage limits now allows for approximately four times the payload per waste drum for wattage limited materials.

  5. An evaluation of supercompaction of drums containing solid low-level waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kennerly, J.M.; Rivera, A.L.; Morrow, R.W.; Williams, L.C.

    1988-03-01

    Supercompaction and grouting technologies were demonstrated with solid LLW from Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the solid Waste Storage Area 5 (SWSA 5). The subcontractor used its mobile supercompaction system operating at 220 tons of compressive force to volume reduce 300 55-gal drums of solid LLW. The supercompaction of these drums resulted in a disposal capacity savings of about 85% of the original disposal capacity needs. The packaging of the compacted drums into 47 overpacks decreased the disposal capacity savings by about 19%. The net disposal capacity savings from the demonstration project is about 66% of the original, uncompacted waste volume. Based on the approximately $95K in direct costs, the supercompaction of the 2304 ft/sup 3/ of waste processed cost about $41ft/sup 3/ of uncompacted waste. Once the supercompaction unit was set up and operating, the incremental cost for the supercompaction services was only about $4ft/sup 3/. The economic assessment for this project revealed that the cost-effectiveness of on-site demonstrations is very sensitive to the on-site support (non-vendor-related) costs. The minimum disposal costs for cost-effectiveness in this demonstration project was calculated to be about $18ft/sup 3/ for no on-site support costs and about $180ft/sup 3/ when the on-site support costs represented about 90% of the total demonstration project cost. (2 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Unvented Drum Handling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-08-01

    This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The

  7. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    SciTech Connect

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  8. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  9. Implementation of advanced matrix corrections for active interrogation of waste drums using the CTEN instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, S.; Estep, R.; Hollas, C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined thermal/epithermal neutron instrument (CTEN) was designed at Los Alamos to improve measurement accuracy and mitigate self shielding effects inherent in the differential dieaway technique (DDT). A major goal in this research effort has been the development of a calibration technique that incorporates recently developed matrix and self-shielding corrections using data generated from additional detectors and new acquisition techniques. A comprehensive data set containing both active and passive measurements was generated using 26 different matrices and comprising a total of 1,400 measurements. In all, 31 flux-and-matrix-dependent parameters, 24 positional parameters, two dieaway times, and a correlated ratio were determined from each of the over 1,400 measurements. A reduced list of matrix indicators, prioritized using the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm, was used to train a neural network using a generalized regression technique (GRNN) to determine matrix- and position-corrected calibration factors. This paper describes the experimental, analytical, and empirical techniques used to determine the corrected calibration factor for an unknown waste drum. Results from a range of cases are compared with those obtained using a mobile DDT instrument and traditional DDT algorithms.

  10. Acoustic mapping as an environmental management tool: I. detection of barrels of low-level radioactive waste, Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.; Schwab, William C.; Wright, A. St. C.; Drake, David E.; Chin, John L.; Danforth, William W.; Ueber, Edward

    1994-01-01

    An example of the potential of this technique is summarized herein for the Gulf of the Farallones region. More than 47 800 drums (55 gallon) and other containers of low-level radioactive waste were dumped on the continental margin offshore the San Francisco Bay between 1946 and 1970. These drums now litter a large area (1200 km2) of the sea floor within the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS). The exact location of the drums and the potential hazard the drums pose to the environment are unknown. To evaluate the risk, samples of the sediment, biota and water must be collected near and distant from the concentrations of barrels. To do this the exact location of the barrels must be known prior to sampling. The USGS, through a cooperative research agreement with GFNMS, used sidescan sonar to map two areas within the sanctuary. Total sea-floor coverage was obtained and computer-processed sonographic mosaics were constructed on board ship. Many small nongeologic targets were distributed throughout the survey areas that covered about 70 km2 on the shelf and 120 km2 on the slope. Analysis of the sidescan data suggests that the targets are 55-gallon drums. This interpretation was confirmed at one site with an underwater video and 35-mm camera system. Data were collected with both a 30-kHz and a 120-kHz sidescan system within a 15-km2 area on the shelf. We found that the barrels were more easily detected with the mid-range 30-kHz system than with the higher resolution 120-kHz system. Maps of barrel distribution derived from the sonographs are being used to design sampling schemes to evaluate the risk that the radioactivity may have on the biota and environment.

  11. Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R.

    1999-03-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques.

  12. Reconstruction of the activity of point sources for the accurate characterization of nuclear waste drums by segmented gamma scanning.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2011-06-01

    This work improves the reliability and accuracy in the reconstruction of the total isotope activity content in heterogeneous nuclear waste drums containing point sources. The method is based on χ(2)-fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution measured during a drum rotation in segmented gamma scanning. A new description of the analytical calculation of the angular count rate distribution is introduced based on a more precise model of the collimated detector. The new description is validated and compared to the old description using MCNP5 simulations of angular dependent count rate distributions of Co-60 and Cs-137 point sources. It is shown that the new model describes the angular dependent count rate distribution significantly more accurate compared to the old model. Hence, the reconstruction of the activity is more accurate and the errors are considerably reduced that lead to more reliable results. Furthermore, the results are compared to the conventional reconstruction method assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution.

  13. Design and Testing of a Novel Wide Range - Segmented Gamma Scanner Incorporating Tomographic Gamma Scanning for Measuring Both Low and Intermediate Level Waste in Drums - 13470

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Odell, Lawrence V.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N.; Hong, Dae-Seok; Jang, Won-Hyuk; Kwak, Kyung-Kil; Seo, Seung-Min; Piotrowski, Matt

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a novel automated Wide Range Segmented Gamma ray Scanning (WR-SGS) assay instrument that also incorporates Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS). The instrument is designed for the measurement of both Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW and ILW) in 200 litre drums and other waste containers covering a wide range of density. Like earlier ANTECH WR-SGS instruments, the system employs a single shielded and collimated high purity germanium (HPGe) detector to quantify the radionuclide content of the waste and like conventional SGS instruments it is suitable for the measurement of relatively homogeneous waste matrices. Also, like earlier WR-SGS systems the instrument incorporates an automated variable aperture collimator, which allows the vertical segment height to be adjusted in order to measure both high dose-rate and very low activity drums. The instrument employs both conventional discrete SGS vertical segment measurements as well as vertical segment measurement by continuous helical-scanning of the drum as it rotates. This latter method reduces measurement times for SGS measurements. In order to determine the density corrections for both low and high-density drums, a high activity Eu-152 transmission source is employed. When not in use, and in place of a conventional shutter mechanism, the shielded transmission source is moved to a shielded storage position to eliminate background radiation from the source. Due to its novel features, the WR-SGS is applicable to the measurement of both very low and very high activity waste drums as well as waste drums with a wide range of density. If located in a low background position and with the effective shielding of the strong transmission source, the instrument can be used to measure very low level or exempt waste. In order to extend the range of applicability to the measurement of heterogeneous drums, TGS measurement capability has been included in the basic WR-SGS design. This is

  14. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  15. Mechanical compaction of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M. ); Thompson, T.W.; VanBuskirk, R.G.; Patti, N.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The investigation described in this report acquired experimental information about how materials simulating transuranic (TRU) waste compact under axial compressive stress, and used these data to define a model for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room analyses. The first step was to determine compaction curves for various simultant materials characteristic of TRU waste. Stress-volume compaction curves for various combinations of these materials were than derived to represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories. Prediction of compaction response in this manner is considered essential for the WIPP program because of the difficulties inherent in working with real (radioactive) waste. Next, full-sized 55-gallon drums of simulated combustible, metallic, and sludge waste were axially compacted. These results provided data that can be directly applied to room consolidation and data for comparison with the predictions obtained in Part 1 of the investigation. Compaction curves, which represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories, were determined, and a curve for the averaged waste inventory of the entire repository was derived. 9 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Final evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company, WRAP-1,208 liter waste drum, docket 94-35-7A, type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP-1) Drum. The WRAP-1 Drum was tested for DOE-HQ in August 1994, by Los Alamos National Laboratory, under docket number 94-35-7A. Additionally, comparison and evaluation of the approved, as-tested packaging configuration was performed by WHC in September 1995. The WRAP-1 Drum was evaluated against the performance of the DOT-17C, 208 1 (55-gal) steel drums tested and evaluated under dockets 89-13-7A/90-18-7A and 94-37-7A.

  17. Low Level and Transuranic Waste Segregation and Low Level Waste Characterization at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site - 12424

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Blackford, Ty; Estes, Michael; Jasen, William; Cahill, Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the waste measurement and waste characterization activities carried out by ANTECH Corporation (ANTECH) and CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site under Contracts No. 22394 and No. 40245 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). These include Low Level Waste (LLW) and Transuranic (TRU) Waste segregation and LLW characterization for both 55-gallon (200-litre) drums with gross weight up to 454 kg and 85-gallon over-pack drums. In order to achieve efficient and effective waste drum segregation and assay, ANTECH deployed an automated Gamma Mobile Assay Laboratory (G-MAL) at the trench face in both 200 Area West and East. The unit consists of a modified 40 foot ISO shipping container with an automatic flow through roller conveyor system with internal drum weigh scale, four measurement and drum rotation positions, and four high efficiency high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors with both detector and shadow shields. The unit performs multiple far-field measurements and is able to segregate drums at levels well below 100 nCi/g. The system is sufficiently sensitive that drums, which are classified as LLW, are characterized at measurement levels that meet the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). With measurement times of between 20 and 30 minutes the unit can classify and characterize over 40 drums in an 8-hour shift. The system is well characterized with documented calibrations, lower limits of detection (LLD) and total measurement uncertainty. The calibrations are confirmed and verified using nationally traceable standards in keeping with the CHPRC measurement requirements. The performance of the system has been confirmed and validated throughout the measurement process by independent CHPRC personnel using traceable standards. All of the measurement and maintenance work has been conducted during the period under a Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) compliant with the

  18. Mobile neutron/gamma waste assay system for characterization of waste containing transuranics, uranium, and fission/activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, D.R.; Haggard, D.; Lemons, C.

    1994-12-31

    A new integrated neutron/gamma assay system has been built for measuring 55-gallon drums at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The system is unique because it allows simultaneous measurement of neutrons and gamma-rays. This technique also allows measurement of transuranics (TRU), uranium, and fission/activation products, screening for shielded Special Nuclear Material prior to disposal, and critically determinations prior to transportation. The new system is positioned on a platform with rollers and installed inside a trailer or large van to allow transportation of the system to the waste site instead of movement of the drums to the scanner. The ability to move the system to the waste drums is particularly useful for drum retrieval programs common to all DOE sites and minimizes transportation problems on the site. For longer campaigns, the system can be moved into a facility. The mobile system consists of two separate subsystems: a passive Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and a {open_quotes}clam-shell{close_quotes} passive neutron counter. The SGS with high purity germanium detector and {sup 75}Se transmission source simultaneously scan the height of the drum allowing identification of unshieled {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} in the drum or segments where the matrix is too dense for the transmission source to penetrate. Dense segments can flag shielding material that could be used to hide plutonium or uranium during the gamma analysis. The passive nuetron counter with JSR-12N Neutron Coincidence Analyzer measures the coincident neutrons from the spontaneous fission of even isotopes of plutonium. Because high-density shielding produces minimal absorption of neutrons, compared to gamma rays, the passive neutron portion of the system can detect shielded SNM. Measurements to evaluate the performance of the system are still underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  19. Out-Of-Drum Grout Mixer Testing With Simulated Liquid Effluents Originating From Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Scholes; A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; S. H. Hinckley

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering several optional processes for disposal of liquid sodium-bearing waste. During fiscal year 2003, alternatives were evaluated for grout formulation development and associated mixing for the Sodium-Bearing Waste cesium ion exchange process. The neutralization agents calcium or sodium hydroxide and the solidification agents Portland cement, with or without blast furnace slag were evaluated. A desired uniform formulation was pursued to develop a grout waste form without any bleed liquid and solidify within a reasonable period of about twenty-eight days. This testing evaluates the out-of-drum alternative of mixing the effluent with solidification agents prior to being poured into drums versus the in-drum alternative of mixing them all together after being poured into the drums. Experimental results indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be immobilized in grout using the Autocon continuous mixer within the range of 66 to 72 weight percent. Furthermore, a loading of 30 weight percent NWCF scrubber simulant also produced an acceptable grout waste form.

  20. Neutron and gamma-ray nondestructive examination of contact-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL TRU Waste Drum Assay Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Coffey, D.E.; Norris, L.B.; Haff, K.W.

    1985-03-01

    A nondestructive assay system, which includes the Neutron Assay System (NAS) and the Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS), for the quantification of contact-handled (<200 mrem/h total radiation dose rate at contact with container) transuranic elements (CH-TRU) in bulk solid waste contained in 208-L and 114-L drums has been in operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since April 1982. The NAS has been developed and demonstrated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use by most US Department of Energy Defense Plant (DOE-DP) sites. More research and development is required, however, before the NAS can provide complete assay results for other than routine defense waste. To date, 525 ORNL waste drums have been assayed, with varying degrees of success. The isotopic complexity of the ORNL waste creates a correspondingly complex assay problem. The NAS and SGS assay data are presented and discussed. Neutron matrix effects, the destructive examination facility, and enriched uranium fuel-element assays are also discussed.

  1. Stabilization of compactible waste

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. The design of a high-efficiency neutron counter for waste drums to provide optimized sensitivity for plutonium assay

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.H.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-11-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed to improve the accuracy and sensitivity for the nondestructive assay of plutonium in scrap and waste containers. The High-Efficiency Neutron Counter (HENC) was developed under a Cooperative Research Development Agreement between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Canberra Industries. The primary goal of the development was to produce a passive assay system for 200-L drums that has detectability limits and multiplicity counting features that are superior to previous systems. A detectability limit figure of merit (FOM) was defined that included the detector efficiency, the neutron die-away time, and the detector`s active volume and density that determine the cosmic-ray background. Monte Carlo neutron calculations were performed to determine the parameters to provide an optimum FOM. The system includes the {sup 252}Cf {open_quotes}add-a-source{close_quotes} feature to improve the accuracy as well as statistical filters to reduce the cosmic-ray spallation neutron background. The final decision gave an efficiency of 32% for plutonium with a detector {sup 3}He tube volume that is significantly smaller than for previous high-efficiency systems for 200-L drums. Because of the high efficiency of the HENC, we have incorporated neutron multiplicity counting for matrix corrections for those cases where the plutonium is localized in nonuniform hydrogenous materials. The paper describes the design and performance testing of the advanced system. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Survey of DOE NDA practices for CH-Tru waste certification--illustrated with a greater than 10,000 drum NDA data base

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.; Smith, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    We have compiled a greater than 10,000 CH-TRU waste drum data base from seven DOE sites which have utilized such multiple NDA measurements within the past few years. Most of these nondestructive assay (NDA) technique assay result comparisons have been performed on well-characterized, segregated waste categories such as cemented sludges, combustibles, metals, graphite residues, glasses, etc., with well-known plutonium isotopic compositions. Waste segregation and categorization practices vary from one DOE site to another. Perhaps the most systematic approach has been in use for several years at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), operated by Rockwell International, and located near Golden, Colorado. Most of the drum assays in our data base result from assays of RFP wastes, with comparisons available between the original RFP assays and PAN assays performed independently at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Solid Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) facility. Most of the RFP assays were performed with hyperpure germanium (HPGe)-based SGS assay units. However, at least one very important waste category, processed first-stage sludges, is assayed at RFP using a sludge batch-sampling procedure, prior to filling of the waste drums. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF VISUAL CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF CORRODED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE DRUMS AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (US/DOE) HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-11-01

    Fluor Hanford, Inc., at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, has recently begun retrieving some 37,000 contact-handled, suspect-Transuranic or ''Retrievably Stored Waste'' (CH-TRU) waste drums from its Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The drums are being retrieved, processed and prepared for eventual shipment to the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Immediately upon retrieval, the drums are visually inspected against requirements identified in the facility Authorization Basis to ensure they are safe for handling and fit for on-site transfer. A number of the retrieved drums did not meet specified corrosion criteria and as such required structural evaluation by Ultrasonic Test (UT) thickness checking (including mechanical surface prep) or overpacking into a Conex-type container prior to transfer. The additional evaluation and overpacking increases personnel exposure to the radioactive waste and reduces efficiency of the retrieval process. Based on historic Hanford CH-TRU waste drum corrosion data, showing very low general corrosion rates, there was reason to believe that existing Hanford site-transfer corrosion criteria were more conservative than needed. In an effort to demonstrate this belief, a corrosion investigation was performed. Eleven CH-TRU waste drums not meeting the corrosion criteria were included in the investigation and from these, 92 separate locations, or areas of corrosion, were evaluated. Each of these locations was visually characterized and evaluated for thickness using the UT method. Visual characterization consisted of ranking photographs for each location on a scale from 1 to 6, representing an increasing level of corrosion attack. UT thickness measurements were then plotted against the visual ratings to identify any significant correlation. Analysis of the data indicated that as the corrosion rating increased, wall thickness decreased. It was concluded that drum surfaces characterized by a corrosion rating of 1-4 could be

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND FIELD IMPLEMENTATION OF AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR HEADSPACE GAS SAMPLING OF TRANSURANIC WASTE DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    Polley, M.; Ankrom, J.; Wickland, T.; Warren, J.

    2003-02-27

    A fast, safe, and cost-effective method for obtaining headspace gas samples has been developed and implemented at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A sample port is installed directly into a drum lid using a pneumatic driver, allowing sampling with a side-port needle. Testing has shown that the sample port can be installed with no release of radioactive material. Use of this system at LANL has significantly reduced the time required for sampling, and eliminates the need for many safety precautions previously used. The system has significantly improved productivity and lowered radiation exposure and cost.

  6. Criticality safety analysis for remote handled TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed to store transuranic (TRU) waste underground in a mined salt bed. All fissile nuclides except U/sup 235/ are considered TRU nuclides. This report presents the results of the nuclear criticality analysis for Remote-Handled (RH) TRU waste stored at the WIPP site. The RH waste material will be contained in steel canisters that are five feet or ten feet long. Each ten foot canister is capable of holding three 55 gallon drums of waste material. The five foot canisters are to be welded together to form one ten foot long canister. In general the fissile waste material is mainly surface contamination on clothing, wipes, wrappings, tools, etc., or mixed in a borosilicate glass matrix or concrete. Other fissile material may be contained in absorbent mixtures. As a result, the fissile material will typically be spread over a large fraction of the volume in most of the waste storage canisters. Typical isotopic content of the fissile/other radioactive material is shown in Table 1-1. This analysis will analyze the RH waste storage and handling configurations at the WIPP site to show that up to 600 grams of fissile material per ten foot canister can be received and stored at the site without criticality safety concerns. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1: Volume 1, Preliminary Design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Preliminary Design Report (Title 1) for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 provides a comprehensive narrative description of the proposed facility and process systems, the basis for each of the systems design, and the engineering assessments that were performed to support the technical basis of the Title 1 design. The primary mission of the WRAP 1 Facility is to characterize and certify contact-handled (CH) waste in 55-gallon drums for disposal. Its secondary function is to certify CH waste in Standard Waste Boxes (SWBs) for disposal. The preferred plan consist of retrieving the waste and repackaging as necessary in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility to certify TRU waste for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. WIPP is a research and development facility designed to demonstrate the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of TRU waste from National Defense programs. Retrieved waste found to be Low-Level Waste (LLW) after examination in the WRAP facility will be disposed of on the Hanford site in the low-level waste burial ground. The Hanford Site TRU waste will be shipped to the WIPP for disposal between 1999 and 2013.

  8. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-09-28

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  9. Magnetic properties of unrusted steel drums from laboratory and field-magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ravat, D.

    1996-09-01

    Detection and precise location of buried ferromagnetic objects and estimation of the type and quantity of the objects are becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations worldwide. If laboratory-derived magnetizations were used to model steel drums, the models would under-estimate the resulting magnetic anomalies considerably and, in turn, would overestimate the number of buried drums at an environmental investigation site. Apparent bulk magnetization values for unrusted vertically oriented 55 and 30 gallon drums have been calculated (i.e., the values corrected for the effect of shape demagnetization of the drums). These range from {approximately}90 to {approximately}125 SI units for volume susceptibility and from {approximately} 325 to {approximately} 2,750 A/m for remanent magnetization (based on eight 55 gallon and four 30 gallon drums). Further deviations in these values could arise from the and thickness of the steel and variations in manufacturing conditions affecting magnetizations. From the point of view of modeling the drums, at most source-to-observation distances applicable to environmental investigations, the equivalent source method is able to approximate the observed anomalies of steel drums better than the 3-D modeling method. With two years of rusting, magnetic anomalies of some of the drums have reduced, while in other drums they have slightly increased. The overall magnetic changes caused by rusting appear to be more complex than anticipated, at least in the initial phase of rusting.

  10. Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-yoon; Browne, Michael C; Rael, Carlos D; Carroll, Colin J; Sunshine, Alexander; Novikov, Alexander; Lebedev, Evgeny

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

  11. Estimating radioactive nuclide inventories in waste drums with low- and intermediate-level waste from dismantling of a spent fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hanschke, C.; Stollenwerk, A.H.; Bopp, P.; Birringer, K.J

    1995-12-31

    The Karlsruhe reprocessing pilot plant, WAK, will be dismantled in the next few years. The radioactive nuclide inventory in the radioactive waste has to be determined according to legal requirements. During the operation time of WAK the declaration of radioactive waste was straightforward: the spectrum of nuclides in the waste was correlated to the fuel actually being processed. However, in decommissioning and dismantling a reprocessing plant, the accumulation of several nuclides in different parts of the plant has to be considered very carefully. Therefore the specific radioactive nuclide inventories must be determined by taking samples of the equipment in the rooms and cells. The samples are analyzed to their key nuclides (Co-60, Cs-137 etc.) and are representative for the dismantling of the equipment. The analytical results are the basis for the declaration of the waste. Nuclides which cannot be analyzed easily are correlated by a cell-burnup calculation (KORIGEN) and chemical knowledge. As was done during the operation time the radioactive waste is then declared on the basis of a shielding calculation and the measured dose rate on the surface of the drum.

  12. Model Based Structural Evaluation & Design of Overpack Container for Bag-Buster Processing of TRU Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    D. T. Clark; A. S. Siahpush; G. L. Anderson

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a materials and computational model based analysis utilized to design an engineered “overpack” container capable of maintaining structural integrity for confinement of transuranic wastes undergoing the cryo-vacuum stress based “Bag-Buster” process and satisfying DOT 7A waste package requirements. The engineered overpack is a key component of the “Ultra-BagBuster” process/system being commercially developed by UltraTech International for potential DOE applications to non-intrusively breach inner confinement layers (poly bags/packaging) within transuranic (TRU) waste drums. This system provides a lower cost/risk approach to mitigate hydrogen gas concentration buildup limitations on transport of high alpha activity organic transuranic wastes. Four evolving overpack design configurations and two materials (low carbon steel and 300 series stainless) were considered and evaluated using non-linear finite element model analyses of structural response. Properties comparisons show that 300-series stainless is required to provide assurance of ductility and structural integrity at both room and cryogenic temperatures. The overpack designs were analyzed for five accidental drop impact orientations onto an unyielding surface (dropped flat on bottom, bottom corner, side, top corner, and top). The first three design configurations failed the bottom and top corner drop orientations (flat bottom, top, and side plates breached or underwent material failure). The fourth design utilized a protruding rim-ring (skirt) below the overpack’s bottom plate and above the overpack’s lid plate to absorb much of the impact energy and maintained structural integrity under all accidental drop loads at both room and cryogenic temperature conditions. Selected drop testing of the final design will be required to confirm design performance.

  13. Site health and safety plan/work plan for further characterization of waste drums at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Abston, J.P.; Burman, S.N.; Jones, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    The health and safety plan/work plan describes a strategy for characterizing the contents of 172 liquid waste and 33 solid waste drums. It also addresses the control measures that will be taken to (1) prevent or minimize any adverse impact on the environment or personnel safety and health and (2) meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. When writing this document, the authors considered past experiences, recommendations, and best management practices to minimize possible hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or unplanned releases of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water.

  14. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Use a grid interval of 3 meters and the procedures in §§ 761.283 and 761.286 to sample bulk PCB... container. (1) Segregate the containers by type (for example, a 55-gallon drum and a roll-off container...

  15. 40 CFR 761.265 - Sampling bulk PCB remediation waste and porous surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) Use a grid interval of 3 meters and the procedures in §§ 761.283 and 761.286 to sample bulk PCB... container. (1) Segregate the containers by type (for example, a 55-gallon drum and a roll-off container...

  16. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked... regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178 and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container...

  17. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked... regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178 and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container...

  18. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

  19. Criticality evaluation for the storage of converter plates in drums

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.P.; Rorer, D.C.; Liu, H.B.

    1993-12-31

    A criticality safety evaluation was performed to support the temporary storage of 20%-enriched uranium converter plates for future use in the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). A total of twelve such plates each containing approximately one kilogram of the {sup 235}U will be stored in DOT-certified 6M-drums, which have the same dimensions as standard 55-gallon drums except that they are twice as high (178.5cm). Each drum contains a Celotex liner surrounding a central 12.7cm-dia steel pipe. The plates have a nominal size of 0.3cm{times}l0.5cm{times}l25.7cm and fit inside the steel pipe, which extends 130cm in the axial direction. Because the accommodation of twelve plates in one drum is physically possible and more economical, this option for plate storage would be recommended provided that the criticality safety limit is not exceeded. In this paper, the neutron multiplication K{sub eff} in drums is calculated using the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport code (MCNP). For conservatism, several different configurations which could result.in the most reactive conditions for K{sub eff} have been examined. As part of the effort to optimize the arrangement of plates in drums, a second group of the MCNP calculations is performed using twelve plates evenly contained within two drums placed immediately adjacent to each other model again simulates the most reactive conditions for K{sub eff} estimations.

  20. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, F.B.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-02-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation.

  1. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-02-03

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides.

  2. Thermal cycling and vibration response for PREPP concrete waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, R.M.; Welch, J.M.

    1983-06-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) will process those transuranic wastes which do not satisfy the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. Since these wastes will contain considerable quantities of combustible materials, incineration will be an integral part of the treatment process. Four basic types of PREPP ash wastes have been identified. The four types are designated high metal box waste, combustible waste, average waste, and inorganic sludge. In this process, the output of the incinerator is a mixture of ash and shredded noncombustible material (principally metals) which is separated into two sizes, -1/4 inch (under-size waste) and reverse arrow 1/4 inch (oversize waste). These wastes are solidified with hydraulic cement in 55-gallon drums. Simulated PREPP waste forms prepared by Colorado School of Mines Research Institute were subjected to thermal cycling and vibration testing to demonstrate compliance with the WIPP immobilization criterion. Although actual storage and transport conditions are expected to vary somewhat from those utilized in the testing protocol, the generation of only very small amounts of particulate suggests that the immobilization criterion should be routinely met for similar waste form formulations and production procedures. However, the behavior of waste forms containing significant quantities of off-gas scrubber sludge or considerably higher waste loadings may differ. Limited thermal cycling and vibration testing of prototype waste forms should be conducted if the final formulations or production methods used for actual waste forms differ appreciably from those tested in this study. If such testing is conducted, consideration should be given to designing the experiment to accommodate a larger number of thermal cycles more representative of the duration of storage expected.

  3. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, T.L.

    1994-06-28

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE[sub 10] rectangular mode to TE[sub 01] circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power. 4 figures.

  4. Relative performance of a TGS for the assay of drummed waste as function of collimator opening

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, S.C.; Croft, S.; McClay, P.; Venkataraman, R.; Villani, M.F.

    2007-07-01

    Improving the safety, accuracy and overall cost effectiveness of the processes and methods used to characterize and handle radioactive waste is an on-going mission for the nuclear industry. An important contributor to this goal is the development of superior non-destructive assay instruments. The Tomographic Gamma Scanner (TGS) is a case in point. The TGS applies low spatial resolution experimental computed tomography (CT) linear attenuation coefficient maps with three-dimensional high-energy resolution single photon emission reconstructions. The results are presented as quantitative matrix attenuation corrected images and assay values for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Depending on a number of operational factors, this extends the diversity of waste forms that can be assayed, to a given accuracy, to items containing more heterogeneous matrix distributions and less uniform emission activity distributions. Recent advances have significantly extended the capability to a broader range of matrix density and to a wider dynamic range of surface dose rate. Automated systems sense the operational conditions, including the container type, and configure themselves accordingly. The TGS also provides a flexible data acquisition platform and can be used to perform far-field style measurements, classical segmented gamma scanner measurements, or to implement hybrid methods, such as reconstructions that use a priori knowledge to constrain the image reconstruction or the underlying energy dependence of the attenuation. A single, yet flexible, general purpose instrument of this kind adds several tiers of strategic and tactical value to facilities challenged by a diverse and difficult to assay waste streams. The TGS is still in the early phase of industrial uptake. There are only a small number of general purpose TGS systems operating worldwide, most being configured to automatically select between a few configurations appropriate for routine operations. For special investigations

  5. Detection of free liquid in drums of radioactive waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1979-10-16

    A nondestructive thermal imaging method for detecting the presence of a liquid such as water within a sealed container is described. The process includes application of a low amplitude heat pulse to an exterior surface area of the container, terminating the heat input and quickly mapping the resulting surface temperatures. The various mapped temperature values can be compared with those known to be normal for the container material and substances in contact. The mapped temperature values show up in different shades of light or darkness that denote different physical substances. The different substances can be determined by direct observation or by comparison with known standards. The method is particularly applicable to the detection of liquids above solidified radioactive wastes stored in sealed containers.

  6. Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen; Freshwater, David

    2009-07-10

    Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.

  7. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  8. Elevated drum testing Phase 1 test plan

    SciTech Connect

    McBeath, R.S.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1994-09-01

    An important part of the Hanford environmental mission is the packaging, transportation, and storage of solid radioactive wastes in metal drums. Presently storage drums are placed four to a wooden pallet with the drums banded to each other. Palletized drums are stacked three units high in pre-engineered steel structures in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. Permitted storage space is expensive to construct, maintain, and operate. Storage capacity is increased if additional drum can be stacked within existing facilities and a cost savings over new construction realized. The purpose of this plan is to outline the testing required to provide the safety criteria for elevated (i.e., tiers of four high) drum storage. The major safety concern with elevated drum storage is the danger of a significant fire in the storage facility. The major fire load within the storage facilities is combustible material contained in the drums. If a seismic event, fork lift accident, or other credible incident were to cause drum failure or lid separation, combustible material could be available for fuel. To increase the initial burn in the facilities, the drums must spill their combustible contents, making them free for ignition. If it can be shown that there is not sufficient damage to the drums to allow for release of their solid contents, then the data used for safety documentation will be re-examined. Preliminary tests conducted in the configurations detailed in this test plan have shown that drums maintain their integrity; that is the drum covers remain attached and the drums do not breach. These tests will be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Equipment Development organization, who is the designated DOE Center of Excellence to conduct drop tests for Department of Transportation (DOT) certification of DOE designed packages and containers.

  9. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah River Site to demonstrate

  10. Drum drop test report

    SciTech Connect

    McBeath, R.S.

    1995-02-28

    Testing was performed to determine actual damage to drums when dropped from higher than currently stacked elevations. The drum configurations were the same as they are placed in storage; single drums and four drums banded to a pallet. Maximum drop weights were selected based on successful preliminary tests. Material was lost from each of the single drum tests while only a small amount of material was lost from one of the pelletized drums. The test results are presented in this report. This report also provides recommendations for further testing to determine the appropriate drum weight which can be stored on a fourth tier.

  11. Potential VOC Deflagrations in a Vented TRU Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mukesh, GUPTA

    2005-04-07

    The objective of the analysis is to examine the potential for lid ejection from a vented transuranic (TRU) waste drum due to pressure buildup caused by the deflagration of hydrogen and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside the drum. In this analysis, the AICC pressure for a stoichiometric mixture of VOCs is calculated and then compared against the experimental peak pressure of stoichiometric combustion of propane and hexane in a combustion chamber. The experimental peak pressures of propane and hexane are about 12 percent lower than the calculated AICC pressure. Additional losses in the drum are calculated due to venting of the gases, drum bulging, waste compaction, and heat losses from the presence of waste in the drum. After accounting for these losses, the final pressures are compared to the minimum observed pressure that ejects the lid from a TRU drum. The ejection pressure of 105 psig is derived from data that was recorded for a series of tests where hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited inside sealed TRU drums. Since the calculated pressures are below the minimum lid ejection pressure, none of the VOCs and the hydrogen (up to 4 percent) mixtures present in the TRU waste drum is expected to cause lid ejection if ignited. The analysis of potential VOC deflagrations in a vented TRU drum can be applied across the DOE-Complex since TRU waste is stored in drums throughout the complex.

  12. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  13. TRU drum corrosion task team report

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, K.E.; Lavery, C.A.; Zeek, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations.

  14. Plutonium leachability from alternative transuranic incinerator ash waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, R Jr; Colombo, P; Bradley, D

    1980-01-01

    Leaching experiments were conducted to determine the rate of plutonium release from Portland cement, urea-formaldehyde, and polyester-styrene waste forms incorporating incinerator ash waste. A modified IAEA leach test procedure was employing using demineralized water, simulated WIPP Brine B, simplified sodium dominated groundwater, simplified calcium dominated groundwater and simplified bicarbonate dominated groundwater leachants. The data obtained provided a good fit to a diffusion release model for semi-infinite media. This model allows the calculation of effective diffusivities for plutonium release and provides a means for the prediction of long-term plutonium releases from full-scale waste forms. The effective diffusivities determined for Portland cement and polyester-styrene waste forms varied from 1.6 x 10/sup -22/ to 3.9 x 10/sup -20/ cm/sup 2//sec. Plutonium release was more rapid from urea-formaldehyde waste forms which exhibited effective diffusivities of 2.3 x 10/sup -18/ to 1.1 x 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 2//sec. The lowest release rates were obtained for leaching in WIPP Brine B. Effective diffusivities in the range of 10/sup -22/ to 10/sup -20/ cm/sup 2//sec result in predicted fraction plutonium releases of 1.9 x 10/sup -6/ to 1.9 x 10/sup -5/ in 10/sup 5/ years (neglecting decay) from 210 liter (55 gallon drum) waste forms. As a result of the low effective diffusivities determined and for the long half-lives of TRU radionuclides, waste form stability may be the primary determinant of activity release over the time period that must be considered for TRU waste disposal.

  15. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-29

    Over 1,140 yd{sup 3} of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations ({approximately} 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system.

  16. EXAMPLE OF A RISK BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    PRIGNANO AL

    2007-11-14

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP.

  17. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.316 Disposal of small containers... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the...

  18. Improvement of non-destructive fissile mass assays in α low-level waste drums: A matrix correction method based on neutron capture gamma-rays and a neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallu, F.; Loche, F.

    2008-08-01

    Within the framework of radioactive waste control, non-destructive assay (NDA) methods may be employed. The active neutron interrogation (ANI) method is now well-known and effective in quantifying low α-activity fissile masses (mainly 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) with low densities, i.e. less than about 0.4, in radioactive waste drums of volumes up to 200 l. The PROMpt Epithermal and THErmal interrogation Experiment (PROMETHEE [F. Jallu, A. Mariani, C. Passard, A.-C. Raoux, H. Toubon, Alpha low level waste control: improvement of the PROMETHEE 6 assay system performances. Nucl. Technol. 153 (January) (2006); C. Passard, A. Mariani, F. Jallu, J. Romeyer-Dherber, H. Recroix, M. Rodriguez, J. Loridon, C. Denis, PROMETHEE: an alpha low level waste assay system using passive and active neutron measurement methods. Nucl. Technol. 140 (December) (2002) 303-314]) based on ANI has been under development since 1996 to reach the incinerating α low level waste (LLW) criterion of about 50 Bq[α] per gram of crude waste (≈50 μg Pu) in 118 l drums on the date the drums are conditioned. Difficulties arise when dealing with matrices containing neutron energy moderators such as H and neutron absorbents such as Cl. These components may have a great influence on the fissile mass deduced from the neutron signal measured by ANI. For example, the calibration coefficient measured in a 118 l drum containing a cellulose matrix (density d = 0.144 g cm -3) may be 50 times higher than that obtained in a poly-vinyl-chloride matrix ( d = 0.253 g cm -3). Without any information on the matrix, the fissile mass is often overestimated due to safety procedures and by considering the most disadvantageous calibration coefficient corresponding to the most absorbing and moderating calibration matrix. The work discussed in this paper was performed at the CEA Nuclear Measurement Laboratory in France. It concerns the development of a matrix effect correction method, which consists in identifying and quantifying

  19. DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Spritzer

    2003-02-01

    General Atomics (GA) has recently completed a Phase I program for the development of a two-step alternative to incineration for the destruction of organics in transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Site. This process is known as thermal desorption-supercritical water oxidation, or TD-SCWO. The GA TD process uses heat to volatilize and transport organics from the waste material for subsequent treatment by SCWO. SCWO oxidizes organics in a steam medium at elevated temperatures and pressures in a manner that achieves excellent destruction efficiencies and compliance with all environmental requirements without the need for complex pollution-abatement equipment. This application of TD-SCWO is focused on a full-scale batch process for 55-gallon drums of mixed transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site. The Phase I reduced-scale test results show that the process operates as intended on surrogate waste matrices chosen to be representative of Savannah River Site transuranic mixed wastes. It provides a high degree of hydrogen removal and full containment of the radionuclide surrogate, with minimal requirements for pre-treatment and post-treatment. Other test objectives were to verify that the process produces no dioxins or furans, and meets all applicable regulatory criteria for retention of toxic metals, particulate, and criteria pollutants, while meeting WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II requirements. Thermal desorption of surrogate SRS mixed wastes at 500 psi and 1000 F met all tested requirements for WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II. SCWO of the desorbed surrogate organic materials at 500 psi and 1500 F also appears to meet all requirements for a nonincineration alternative, although >99.99% DRE for chlorinated solvents has not yet been demonstrated.

  20. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests conducted on a regular frequency to evaluate the capability for nondestructive assay of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed with TRU waste characterization systems. Measurement facility performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples according to the criteria set by this Program Plan. Intercomparison between measurement groups of the DOE complex will be achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar or identical blind samples reported by the different measurement facilities. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). As defined for this program, a PDP sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components, once manufactured, will be secured and stored at each participating measurement facility designated and authorized by Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) under secure conditions to protect them from loss, tampering, or accidental damage.

  1. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-06-14

    This report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 Acceptable Knowledge from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  2. A high-sensitivity neutron counter and waste-drum counting with the high-sensitivity neutron instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Hankins, D.E.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1993-04-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a highly sensitive neutron counter was developed that can detect and accurately measure the neutrons from small quantities of plutonium or from other low-level neutron sources. This neutron counter was originally designed to survey waste containers leaving the Plutonium Facility. However, it has proven to be useful in other research applications requiring a high-sensitivity neutron instrument.

  3. Drums for Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneidek, Tony

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Lakota family tradition of passing on the responsibilities of being caretaker of the drum of the Fool Soldiers (Akicita Heyoka), warriors who risked their lives for peace in 1862. The drum and its ceremonial use symbolize nonviolence and cross-cultural understanding between the races and are a part of Lakota spiritual heritage. (SAS)

  4. Characterization of In-Drum Drying Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.; Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Harapin, D.; Hertl, B.

    2006-07-01

    A few years ago Krsko NPP decided to introduce In-Drum Drying technology for treatment and conditioning of evaporator concentrates and spent ion resins. The main reason to employ this technology was the need for waste volume reduction and experience with vermiculite-cement solidification that proved inadequate for Krsko NPP. Use of In-Drum Drying technology was encouraged by good experience in the field at some German and Spanish NPP's. In the paper, solidification techniques in vermiculite-cement matrix and In-Drum Drying System are described briefly. The resulting waste forms (so called solidification and dryer products) and containers that are used for interim storage of these wastes are described as well. A comparison of the drying versus solidification technology is performed and advantages as well as disadvantages are underlined. Experience gained during seven years of system operation has shown that crying technology resulted in volume reduction by factor of 20 for evaporator concentrates, and by factor of 5 for spent ion resin. Special consideration is paid to the characterization of dryer products. For evaporator concentrates the resulting waste form is a solid salt block with up to 5% bound water. It is packaged in stainless steel drums (net volume of 200 l) with bolted lids and lifting rings. The fluidized spent ion resins (primary and blow-down) are sluiced into the spent resin drying tank. The resin is dewatered and dried by electrical jacket heaters. The resulting waste (i.e. fine granulates) is directly discharged into a shielded stainless steel drum with bolted lid and lifting rings. Characterization of both waste forms has been performed in accordance with recommendations given in Characterization of Radioactive Waste Forms and Packages issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997. This means that radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, biological and thermal properties of the waste form has been taken into consideration. In the paper

  5. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  6. Drum lid removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Pella, Bernard M.; Smith, Philip D.

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  7. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Blanton, Paul; Bobbitt, John H.

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.

  8. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium

  9. Advantages of the shielded containers at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Roger A.; Dunagan, Sean C.

    2010-05-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal operations currently employ two different disposal methods: one for Contact Handled (CH) waste and another for Remote Handled (RH) waste. CH waste is emplaced in a variety of payload container configurations on the floor of each disposal room. In contrast, RH waste is packaged into a single type of canister and emplaced in pre-drilled holes in the walls of disposal rooms. Emplacement of the RH waste in the walls must proceed in advance of CH waste emplacement and therefore poses logistical constraints, in addition to the loss of valuable disposal capacity. To improve operational efficiency and disposal capacity, the Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed a shielded container for certain RH waste streams. RH waste with relatively low gammaemitting activity would be packaged in lead-lined containers, shipped to WIPP in existing certified transportation packages for CH waste and emplaced in WIPP among the stacks of CH waste containers on the floor of a disposal room. RH waste with high gamma-emitting activity would continue to be emplaced in the boreholes along the walls. The new RH container is similar to the nominal 208-liter (55-gallon) drum, however it includes about 2.5 cm (1 in) of lead, sandwiched between thick steel sheets. Furthermore, the top and bottom are made of thick plate steel to strengthening the package to meet transportation requirements. This robust configuration provides an overpack for materials that otherwise would be RH waste. This paper describes the container and the regulatory approach used to meet the requirements imposed by regulations that apply to WIPP. This includes a Performance Assessment used to evaluate WIPP's long-term performance and the DOE's approach to gain approval for the transportation of shielded containers. This paper also describes estimates of the DOE's RH transuranic waste inventory that may be packaged and emplaced in shielded containers. Finally, the paper includes a

  10. Packaging design criteria for the Type B Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.; Smith, R.J.; Wells, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Type B Drum package is a transportation cask capable of shipping a single 55-gal (208 L) drum of transuranic (TRU) waste. The Type B Drum is smaller than existing certified packages, such as the TRUPACT-II cask, but will allow payloads with higher thermal and gas generation rates, thus providing greater operational flexibility. The Type B Drum package has double containment so that plutonium contents and other radioactive material may be transported in Type B quantities. Conceptual designs of unshielded and shielded versions of the Type B Drum were completed in Report on the Conceptual Design of the Unshielded Type B Drum Packaging and Report on the Conceptual Design of the Shielded type B Drum Packaging (WEC 1994a, WEC 1994b), which demonstrated the Type B Drum to be a viable packaging system. A Type B package containment system must withstand the normal conditions of transport and the hypothetical accident conditions, which include a 9-m (30-ft) drop onto an unyielding surface and a 1-m (3-ft) drop onto a 15-cm (6-in.) diameter pin, and a fire and immersion scenarios.

  11. Rotating drum filter

    DOEpatents

    Anson, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  12. Reference drums used in calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in a 4π counting geometry.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, two kinds of reference drums were developed. One type was constructed with nine layers of large-area sources filled with different materials having five different densities. The other type of reference drums was constructed with nine rod sources filled with the same materials of different densities. The efficiency calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in 4π counting geometry using these two kinds of drums showed that rod-source drums resulted in higher counting efficiency than layered source drums. The counting rates obtained from rod-source drums were closer to those obtained from a standard drum with water solution than counting rates from drums with layered sources. The results of this study recommend to use reference drums with rod-sources to compensate the drawbacks of standard drums with water solution of not being able to adjust the density of material. The proposed reference drums improve the accuracy of radioactivity analysis for waste drums of different densities. PMID:26651167

  13. Rotary drum separator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, Michael R. (Inventor); Murdoch, Karen (Inventor); Scull, Timothy D. (Inventor); Fort, James H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rotary phase separator system generally includes a step-shaped rotary drum separator (RDS) and a motor assembly. The aspect ratio of the stepped drum minimizes power for both the accumulating and pumping functions. The accumulator section of the RDS has a relatively small diameter to minimize power losses within an axial length to define significant volume for accumulation. The pumping section of the RDS has a larger diameter to increase pumping head but has a shorter axial length to minimize power losses. The motor assembly drives the RDS at a low speed for separating and accumulating and a higher speed for pumping.

  14. Alternatives to reduce corrosion of carbon steel storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.

    1995-11-01

    The major tasks of this research were (a) pollution prevention opportunity assessments on the overpacking operations for failed or corroded drums, (b) research on existing container corrosion data, (c) investigation of the storage environment of the new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Type II storage modules, (d) identification of waste streams that demonstrate deleterious corrosion affects on drum storage life, and (e) corrosion test cell program development. Twenty-one waste streams from five US Department of Energy (DOE) sites within the DOE Complex were identified to demonstrate a deleterious effect to steel storage drums. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure: 0.5 to 2 years. The results of this research support the position that pollution prevention evaluations at the front end of a project or process will reduce pollution on the back end.

  15. Automation of statistical analysis in the WIPP hazardous waste facility permit for analytical results from characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Shokes, T.; Einerson, J.

    2007-07-01

    program is being developed in conjunction with a Microsoft Access database. The database acts as a central repository for all of the input and output data, records the list of analytes, and provides a graphical user interface for the end-user. The additional benefit to this tool is the incorporation of other calculations. One calculation is the compilation of the volatile organic compound data from 55-gallon drums with rigid liners that will be compacted and placed into a 100-gallon drum. Another analysis addresses the total concentration of flammable VOCs for transportation requirements. Development of such software tools improves the productivity of the groups that perform these functions. (authors)

  16. Measurements of the corrosion of low-carbon steel drums under environmental conditions at Hanford: One-year test results

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the methods used to expose low-carbon steel drums to atmospheric and soil corrosion and describes the methods used to examine specimens retrieved from both types of tests. These drums are being tested to meet requirements of radioactive waste storage for both low-level radioactive wastes and transuranic wastes.

  17. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    DOEpatents

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRU WASTE TRANSPORTATION FLEET--A SUCCESS STORY

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Murthy; Morrison, Cindy; Brown, Mike

    2003-02-27

    Since March 1999, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), as a repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. More than 1,450 shipments of TRU waste for WIPP disposal have been completed, and the WIPP is currently receiving 12 to 16 shipments per week from five DOE sites around the nation. One of the largest fleets of Type B packagings supports the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP. This paper discusses the development of this fleet since the original Certificate of Compliance (C of C) for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) was issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989. Evolving site programs, closure schedules of major sites, and the TRU waste inventory at the various DOE sites have directed the sizing and packaging mix of this fleet. This paper discusses the key issues that guided this fleet development, including the following: While the average weight of a 55-gallon drum packaging debris could be less than 300 pounds (lbs.), drums containing sludge waste or compacted waste could approach the maximum allowable weight of 1,000 lbs. A TRUPACT-II shipment may consist of three TRUPACT-II packages, each of which is limited to a total weight of 19,250 lbs. Payload assembly weights dictated by ''as-built'' TRUPACT-II weights limit each drum to an average weight of 312 lbs when three TRUPACT-IIs are shipped. To optimize the shipment of heavier drums, the HalfPACT packaging was designed as a shorter and lighter version of the TRUPACT-II to accommodate a heavier load. Additional packaging concepts are currently under development, including the ''TRUPACT-III'' packaging being designed to address ''oversized'' boxes that are currently not shippable in the TRUPACT-II or HalfPACT due to size constraints. Shipment optimization is applicable not only to the addition of new

  19. Solar drum positioner mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    The need for additional power on spinning satellites required development of deployable solar arrays activated, as on a 3-axis vehicle, after separation from a booster or shuttle orbiter. Mechanisms were developed for telescopically extending a secondary 36.3 kg (80 lb.), 2.13 m (84 in.) diameter spinning solar drum for a distance of 2.0 m (80 in.) or more along the spin axis. After extension, the system has the capability of dynamically controlling the drum tilt angle about the spin axis to provide precision in-orbit balancing of the spacecraft. This approach was selected for the SBS, ANIK C, ANIK D, WESTAR B and PALAPA B satellites. It was successfully demonstrated during the in orbit deployment of the aft solar panels of the SBS F-3 and F-1 satellites, subsequent to the November 1980 and September 1981 launches.

  20. 23. BACKING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. MAIN ENGINE STEP DRUM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BACKING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. MAIN ENGINE STEP DRUM IN CENTER. TO RIGHT NOTE CYLINDER, PISTON ROD CROSSHEAD. AT END OF CRANKSHAFT NOTE WRIST PIN AND CRANE DISK. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Selective Recovery of Enriched Uranium from Inorganic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R. T.

    2003-02-26

    Uranium as U(IV) and U(VI) can be selectively recovered from liquids and sludge containing metal precipitates, inorganic salts, sand and silt fines, debris, other contaminants, and slimes, which are very difficult to de-water. Chemical processes such as fuel manufacturing and uranium mining generate enriched and natural uranium-bearing wastes. This patented Framatome ANP (FANP) uranium recovery process reduces uranium losses, significantly offsets waste disposal costs, produces a solid waste that meets mixed-waste disposal requirements, and does not generate metal-contaminated liquids. At the head end of the process is a floating dredge that retrieves liquids, sludge, and slimes in the form of a slurry directly from the floor of a lined surface impoundment (lagoon). The slurry is transferred to and mixed in a feed tank with a turbine mixer and re-circulated to further break down the particles and enhance dissolution of uranium. This process uses direct steam injection and sodium hypochlorite addition to oxidize and dissolves any U(IV). Cellulose is added as a non-reactive filter aid to help filter slimes by giving body to the slurry. The slurry is pumped into a large recessed-chamber filter press then de-watered by a pressure cycle-controlled double-diaphragm pump. U(VI) captured in the filtrate from this process is then precipitated by conversion to U(IV) in another Framatome ANP-patented process which uses a strong reducing agent to crystallize and settle the U(IV) product. The product is then dewatered in a small filter press. To-date, over 3,000 Kgs of U at 3% U-235 enrichment were recovered from a 8100 m2 hypalon-lined surface impoundment which contained about 10,220 m3 of liquids and about 757 m3 of sludge. A total of 2,175 drums (0.208 m3 or 55 gallon each) of solid mixed-wastes have been packaged, shipped, and disposed. In addition, 9463 m3 of low-U liquids at <0.001 KgU/m3 were also further processed and disposed.

  2. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  3. Automated Store Management For Drum Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, W.; Lang, R.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes advanced system technology developed for a new Drum Storage Facility to be operated by Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A logistics management concept is applied for the storage of solid rad-wastes in terms of automated handling, transportation and storing as well as in terms of data management. The individual equipments, such as automated Bridge Cranes, Automatic Guided Vehicles and auxiliary systems are introduced in this paper and the store management process is outlined. The authors report furthermore on challenges during the design and engineering phase and review the project implementation from the equipment supplier's end. (authors)

  4. TRU waste-sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1985-08-01

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of /sup 238/Pu- and /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  10. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  11. 76 FR 43731 - Notice of Permit Emergency Provision Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... lithium and lead acid batteries filling 21 of the containers. The remaining 21 containers were filled with... permanent station for more than 12 months. Hazardous waste in the form of batteries and contaminated snow... in a 55 gallon drum. The waste was strapped to plastic air force pallets and placed in a storage...

  12. Segmented Gamma Scanner for Small Containers of Uranium Processing Waste- 12295

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, K.E.; Smith, S.K.; Gailey, S.; Nakazawa, D.R.; Venkataraman, R.

    2012-07-01

    The Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) is commonly utilized in the assay of 55-gallon drums containing radioactive waste. Successfully deployed calibration methods include measurement of vertical line source standards in representative matrices and mathematical efficiency calibrations. The SGS technique can also be utilized to assay smaller containers, such as those used for criticality safety in uranium processing facilities. For such an application, a Can SGS System is aptly suited for the identification and quantification of radionuclides present in fuel processing wastes. Additionally, since the significant presence of uranium lumping can confound even a simple 'pass/fail' measurement regimen, the high-resolution gamma spectroscopy allows for the use of lump-detection techniques. In this application a lump correction is not required, but the application of a differential peak approach is used to simply identify the presence of U-235 lumps. The Can SGS is similar to current drum SGSs, but differs in the methodology for vertical segmentation. In the current drum SGS, the drum is placed on a rotator at a fixed vertical position while the detector, collimator, and transmission source are moved vertically to effect vertical segmentation. For the Can SGS, segmentation is more efficiently done by raising and lowering the rotator platform upon which the small container is positioned. This also reduces the complexity of the system mechanism. The application of the Can SGS introduces new challenges to traditional calibration and verification approaches. In this paper, we revisit SGS calibration methodology in the context of smaller waste containers, and as applied to fuel processing wastes. Specifically, we discuss solutions to the challenges introduced by requiring source standards to fit within the confines of the small containers and the unavailability of high-enriched uranium source standards. We also discuss the implementation of a previously used technique for

  13. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Harvey E.

    1984-01-01

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  14. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, H.E.

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  15. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-03-31

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site.

  16. ARROW-PAK Macroencapsulation. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    An ARROW-PAK is a high density polyethylene (HDPE) tube, about 21 feet long and 30 inches wide. Each ARROW-PAK can hold the equivalent of 21 55-gallon drums of mixed waste debris. Each tube is fused to HDPE endcaps using localized heating and high pressure contact. The sleeves and encaps form a tube for macroencapsulating mixed waste debris. The ARROW-PAK may achieve a mixed waste debris volume one-fourth that of the conventional macroencapsulation approach. The mixed waste debris is loaded into 55-gallon drums. Once filled a 'supercompactor' crushes the drums into 12-inch thick pucks. Three pucks can be loaded into a standard 85-gallon metal drum known as an 'overpack'. Seven overpacks fit into each ARROW-PAK.

  17. Re-evaluation of the 1995 Hanford Large Scale Drum Fire Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J M

    2007-05-02

    A large-scale drum performance test was conducted at the Hanford Site in June 1995, in which over one hundred (100) 55-gal drums in each of two storage configurations were subjected to severe fuel pool fires. The two storage configurations in the test were pallet storage and rack storage. The description and results of the large-scale drum test at the Hanford Site were reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246, ''Solid Waste Drum Array Fire Performance,'' Rev. 0, 1995. This was one of the main references used to develop the analytical methodology to predict drum failures in WHC-SD-SQA-ANAL-501, 'Fire Protection Guide for Waste Drum Storage Array,'' September 1996. Three drum failure modes were observed from the test reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246. They consisted of seal failure, lid warping, and catastrophic lid ejection. There was no discernible failure criterion that distinguished one failure mode from another. Hence, all three failure modes were treated equally for the purpose of determining the number of failed drums. General observations from the results of the test are as follows: {lg_bullet} Trash expulsion was negligible. {lg_bullet} Flame impingement was identified as the main cause for failure. {lg_bullet} The range of drum temperatures at failure was 600 C to 800 C. This is above the yield strength temperature for steel, approximately 540 C (1,000 F). {lg_bullet} The critical heat flux required for failure is above 45 kW/m{sup 2}. {lg_bullet} Fire propagation from one drum to the next was not observed. The statistical evaluation of the test results using, for example, the student's t-distribution, will demonstrate that the failure criteria for TRU waste drums currently employed at nuclear facilities are very conservative relative to the large-scale test results. Hence, the safety analysis utilizing the general criteria described in the five bullets above will lead to a technically robust and defensible product that bounds the potential consequences from postulated

  18. Hand-Drumming to Build Community: The Story of the Whittier Drum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nathan Neil

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares the story of the Whittier Drum Project and how it succeeded. The Whittier Drum Project has brought the community together through the talents of youth and their dedication to drumming, and has used drumming to link professionals to their own communities. The author adapted the model to meet the therapeutic needs…

  19. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  20. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  9. Percussion Discussion: Using Drums To Reconnect Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, John; Harris, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a therapeutic program for juvenile offenders that uses drum playing and drum building to provide alternatives for youth activities. Drums play five important roles for youth: creating a sense of community, reconnecting with history and heritage, promoting healing, educating, and celebrating victories or rites of passage. Provides…

  10. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  1. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  2. Sorbent Testing for Solidification of Organic Plutonium/Uranium Extraction Waste - Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, J.L.; Joyce, H.O.; Holmes-Burns, H.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating various sorbents to solidify and immobilize hazardous constituents of the organic fraction of plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) process waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS).[5] The purpose of the solidification is to provide a cost-effective alternative to incineration of the waste. Incineration at the Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) at SRS is currently identified as the treatment technology for PUREX waste. However, the CIF is not in operation at this time, so SRS is interested in pursuing alternatives to incineration for treatment of this waste. The DOE Western Environmental Technology Office in Butte, MT was designated as the facility for conducting the sorbent testing and evaluation for the organic PUREX waste surrogate. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. tested and evaluated two clay and two polymer sorbents with the capability of solidifying organic PUREX waste. A surrogate organic PUREX waste recipe was utilized, and sorbents were tested and evaluated at bench-scale, 22-liter (5-gallon) scale, and 242-liter (55-gallon) scale. This paper presents experimental results evaluating four sorbent materials including: Imbiber Beads{sup TM} IMB230301-R, Nochar A610 Petrobond{sup TM}, Petroset II{sup TM}, and Petroset II Granular{sup TM}. Previous work at SRS indicated that these products could solidify organic PUREX waste on a bench scale [1]. The sorbents were evaluated using operational criteria and final wasteform properties. Operational criteria included: sorbent capacity; sorption rate; sorbent handling; and mixing requirements. Final wasteform evaluation properties included: ignitability; thermal stability; offgas generation, leachability tests and volumetric expansion. Bench-scale tests, 22-liter (5-gallon) tests, and initial 242-liter (55-gallon) tests are complete. This paper summarizes the results of the bench-scale, 22-liter (5-gallon) scale, and 242-liter (55-gallon) scale tests performed

  3. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  4. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  5. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Miles Conley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur

    2002-08-01

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module.

  6. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, R.A.; Walton, M.C.

    2002-05-23

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module.

  7. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  8. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

    2005-09-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27°C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully “gettered” by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in

  9. Prairie Island Nuclear Station Spent Filter Processing for Direct Disposal - 12333

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H. Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper will discuss WMG's filter processing experience within the commercial nuclear power industry, specifically recent experience processing high activity spent filters generated by Xcel Energy's Prairie Island Nuclear Station (Prairie Island), located in Welch, MN. WMG processed for disposal eighty-four 55-gallon drums filled with varying types of high activity spent filters. The scope of work involved characterization, packaging plan development, transport to the WMG's Off-Site Processing location, shredding the filter contents of each drum, cement solidifying the shredded filter material, and finally shipping the solidified container of shredded filter material to Clive, Utah where the container was presented to EnergySolutions Disposal site for disposal in their Containerised Waste Facility. This sequence of events presented in this paper took place a total of nine (9) times over a period of four weeks. All 1294 filters were successfully solidified into nine (9) -WMG 142 steel liners, and each was successfully disposed of as Class A Waste at EnergySolutions Disposal Site in Clive, Utah. Prairie Island's waste material was unique in that all its filters were packaged in 55-gallon drums; and since the station packaged its filters in drums it was much easier to develop packaging plans for such a large volume of legacy filters. For this author, having over 20-years of waste management experiences, storing and shipping waste material in 55-gallon drums is not immediately thought of as a highly efficient method of managing its waste material. However, Prairie Island's use of 55-gallon drums to store and package its filters provided a significant advantage. Drums could be mixed and matched to provide the most efficient processing method while still meeting the Waste Class A limits required for disposal. (author)

  10. ANALYSIS OF AVAILABLE HYDROGEN DATA & ACCUMULATION OF HYDROGEN IN UNVENTED TRANSURANIC (TRU) DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    DAYLEY, L

    2004-06-24

    This document provides a response to the second action required in the approval for the Justification for Continued Operations (JCO) Assay and Shipment of Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers in 218-W-4C. The Waste Management Project continues to make progress toward shipping certified TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As the existing inventory of TRU waste in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) storage buildings is shipped, and the uncovered inventory is removed from the trenches and prepared for shipment from the Hanford Site, the covered inventory of suspect TRU wastes must be retrieved and prepared for processing for shipment to WIPP. Accumulation of hydrogen in unvented TRU waste containers is a concern due to the possibility of explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. The frequency and consequence of these gas mixtures resulting in an explosion must be addressed. The purpose of this study is to recommend an approach and schedule for venting TRU waste containers in the low-level burial ground (LLBG) trenches in conjunction with TRU Retrieval Project activities. This study provides a detailed analysis of the expected probability of hydrogen gas accumulation in significant quantities in unvented drums. Hydrogen gas accumulation in TRU drums is presented and evaluated in the following three categories: Hydrogen concentrations less than 5 vol%; Hydrogen between 5-15 vol%; and Hydrogen concentrations above 15 vol%. This analysis is based on complex-wide experience with TRU waste drums, available experimental data, and evaluations of storage conditions. Data reviewed in this report includes experience from the Idaho National Environmental Engineering Laboratories (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratories, (ORNL), Rocky Flats sites, Matrix Depletion Program and the National Transportation and Packaging Program. Based on this analysis, as well as an assessment of the probability and

  11. 13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  12. Measurement and calibration of metal and non-metal wastes produced from decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2014-05-01

    This report described a radioactive waste reference drum which was established with large-area sources and metal slices. This reference drum could be applied in calibration or testing of drum counting systems having 4π counting geometry and being made with plastic scintillators. This metal reference drum has the advantages of easy operation, low natural background and it also has agreeable measurement efficiency calibration curves for the drum counting system as the non-metal reference drum studied previously. On the other hand, this study explored the counting efficiency variations of the drum counting system by simulations of the metal reference drum being filled with wastes up to different heights within the drum. With the exploration, it is feasible to correct the measurement errors caused by different quantities of waste filling.

  13. Measurement and calibration of metal and non-metal wastes produced from decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2014-05-01

    This report described a radioactive waste reference drum which was established with large-area sources and metal slices. This reference drum could be applied in calibration or testing of drum counting systems having 4π counting geometry and being made with plastic scintillators. This metal reference drum has the advantages of easy operation, low natural background and it also has agreeable measurement efficiency calibration curves for the drum counting system as the non-metal reference drum studied previously. On the other hand, this study explored the counting efficiency variations of the drum counting system by simulations of the metal reference drum being filled with wastes up to different heights within the drum. With the exploration, it is feasible to correct the measurement errors caused by different quantities of waste filling. PMID:24342558

  14. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  15. Neutron absorber inserts for 55-gal drums

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Kim, Y.S.; Toffer, H.

    2000-07-01

    Transport and temporary storage of more than 200 g of fissile material in 55-gal drums at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have received significant attention during the cleanup mission. This paper discusses successful applications and results of extensive computer studies. Interim storage and movement of fissile material in excess of standard drum limits (200 g) in a safe configuration have been accomplished using special drum inserts. Such inserts have constrained the contents of a drum to two 4-{ell} bottles. The content of the bottles was limited to 600 g Pu or U in solution or a total of 1200 g for the entire drum. The inserts were a simple design constructed of stainless steel, forming a vertical cylindrical pipe into which two bottles, one on top of the other, could be centered in the drum. The remaining drum volume was configured to preclude any additional bottle placement external to the vertical cylinder. Such inserts in drums were successfully used in moving high-concentration solution from one building to another for chemical processing. Concern about the knowledge of fissile material concentration in bottles prompted another study for drum inserts. The past practice had been to load up to fourteen 4-{ell} bottles into 55-gal drums, provided the fissile material concentration was <6 g fissile/{ell}, and the total drum contents of 200 g fissile was not exceeded. Only one determination of the solution concentration was needed. An extensive safety analysis concluded that a single measurement of bottle content could not ensure compliance with double-contingency-criterion requirements. A second determination of the bottle contents was required before bottles could be placed in a 55-gal drum. Al alternative to a dual-measurement protocol, which is for bolstering administrative control, was to develop an engineered safety feature that would eliminate expensive tests and administrative decisions. A drum insert design was evaluated that

  16. Drum plug piercing and sampling device and method

    DOEpatents

    Counts, Kevin T.

    2011-04-26

    An apparatus and method for piercing a drum plug of a drum in order to sample and/or vent gases that may accumulate in a space of the drum is provided. The drum is not damaged and can be reused since the pierced drum plug can be subsequently replaced. The apparatus includes a frame that is configured for engagement with the drum. A cylinder actuated by a fluid is mounted to the frame. A piercer is placed into communication with the cylinder so that actuation of the cylinder causes the piercer to move in a linear direction so that the piercer may puncture the drum plug of the drum.

  17. A NOVEL APPROACH TO DRUM VENTING AND DRUM MONITORINGe/pj

    SciTech Connect

    Ohl, P.C.; Farwick, C.C.; Douglas, D.G.; Cruz, E.J.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the details and specifications associated with drum venting and drum monitoring technologies, and discusses the maturity of in-place systems and current applications. Each year, unventilated drums pressurize and develop bulges and/or breaches that can result in potentially hazardous explosions, posing undesirable hazards to workers and the environment. Drum venting is accomplished by the safe and simple installation of ventilated lids at the time of packaging, or by the inherently risky in-situ ventilation (depressurization) of ''bulged'' drums. Drum monitoring employs either a Magnetically Coupled Pressure Gauge (MCPG) Patent Pending and/or a Magnetically Coupled Corrosion Gauge (MCCG) Patent Pending. Through patented magnetic sensor coupling, these devices enable the noninvasive and remote monitoring of the potentially hazardous materials and/or spent nuclear fuel that is contained in 55-gal drums and associated steel overpack containers.

  18. Ellie Mannette: Master of the Steel Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elliot ("Ellie") Mannette who has played a major role in the development and application of steel drums. States that he has spent most of his life designing and teaching the steel drums. Covers interview topics and background information on Mannette. (CMK)

  19. Drum Circles and the National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The beauty of hand drums is that a child of nearly any age can grab one and get a sound. So how can classroom teachers incorporate this enjoyable activity into something that's actually educational? For young students especially, a drum circle can be liberating. Children can be given various responsibilities--as participants, circle organizers,…

  20. Environmental policy -- A leaking drum?

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1995-07-01

    Twenty years ago, the US had virtually no overall environmental policy. Since then, one has evolved as a result of accumulated legislation, much of which was crafted in reaction to specific events, typically real or potential disasters. The familiar names of Love Canal, Times Beach, Bhopal and others are the symbolic anchor points of that evolution, which yielded Superfund, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, and other environmental statutes. The laws in each case were developed in response to particular environmental and health issues--clean water for drinking and recreation, unpolluted air, safe production of chemicals and chemical-based products. The result was a growing body of environmental legislation that eventually became an accumulate of requirements lacking internal consistency or coherence. Because policymaking followed, rather than guided, legislative actions, the policy itself became inconsistent and sometimes illogical. Like a drum that gradually and indiscriminately is filled with a mixture of mutually reactive chemicals, environmental policy increasingly became a volatile source of concern for those industries in whose midst it had been placed. Lately, there is growing consensus that the drum not only has been overfilled, it also is leaking.

  1. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Di Massa, F.V.; Elliott, D.B.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 2, the Baseline Detail.

  2. Color image digitization and analysis for drum inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.C.; Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-05-01

    A rust inspection system that uses color analysis to find rust spots on drums has been developed. The system is composed of high-resolution color video equipment that permits the inspection of rust spots on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1-in.) in diameter. Because of the modular nature of the system design, the use of open systems software (X11, etc.), the inspection system can be easily integrated into other environmental restoration and waste management programs. The inspection system represents an excellent platform for the integration of other color inspection and color image processing algorithms.

  3. Energy expenditure in rock/pop drumming.

    PubMed

    De La Rue, S E; Draper, S B; Potter, C R; Smith, M S

    2013-10-01

    Despite the vigorous nature of rock/pop drumming, there are no precise data on the energy expenditure of this activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the energy cost of rock/pop drumming. Fourteen male drummers (mean±SD; age 27±8 yrs.) completed an incremental drumming test to establish the relationship between energy expenditure and heart rate for this activity and a ramped cycle ergometer test to exhaustion as a criterion measure for peak values (oxygen uptake and heart rate). During live concert performance heart rate was continuously measured and used to estimate energy expenditure (from the energy expenditure vs. heart rate data derived from the drumming test). During concert performance, estimated energy expenditure (mean±SD) was 623±168 kcal.h⁻¹ (8.1±2.2 METs) during performances of 38.6±15.6 min, and drummers achieved a peak heart rate of 186±16 b.min⁻¹. During the drumming test participants attained 78.7±8.3% of the cycle ergometer peak oxygen uptake. Rock/pop drumming represents a relatively high-intensity form of physical activity and as such involves significant energy expenditure. Rock/pop drumming should be considered as a viable alternative to more traditional forms of physical activity.

  4. Application of spectral summing to indeterminate suspect low-level drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M; Veilleux, John M; Lucero, Randy P; Seamans, Jr., James V; Clapham, Martin J

    2010-11-09

    An analytical technique developed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation (PSC), utilizing spectral summing of spectra from groups of drums of similar waste type, is being employed by the Waste Disposition Project - Low Level Waste Disposal (WDP-LLWD) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technique has been used to disposition low-level radioactive waste that has dropped out of the transuranic (TRU) category and has no place to go unless it can be proven to be LLW and not TRU. The TRU program at LANL run by Mobile Characterization Services (MCS) employs two High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENC) with built-in gamma assay systems to assay radioactive waste for shipment and disposal as TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico. As well as being certified for WIPP assays, the HENC systems can also be used for low-level waste assays for disposal at LANL or off-site disposal facilities, such as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Some of the waste processed through the HENC systems cannot be confinned TRU due to the absence of detected TRU alpha emitters above the TRU cutoff of 100 nCi/g. This waste becomes suspect low-level waste (SLLW). In many cases, the waste also can't be classified as LLW because the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of TRU radio nuclides is above the 100 nCi/g level. These wastes that do not have enough detectable TRU activity to be classified as TRU waste and have too high a MDA to be classified as LLW enter a radioactive waste characterization indetenninate status that prevents their dispositioning as either TRU waste or LLW. Spectral summing allows an experienced ganuna spectroscopy analyst to add the HENC gamma spectra of a number of similar waste items together to form a consolidated (summed) spectrum. This summed spectrum contains the assay results of the group of items rather than the individual item, and gamma peaks that were not discernable in the individual spectra can become quantifiable in the

  5. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  6. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  7. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  8. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  9. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  10. 52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A FRENIER PUMP. THE CHARCOAL HOUSE IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND THE DRUM LEANING AGAINST THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL ANNEX. NOTE THE WELDS IN THE DRUM, THEY DELINEATE THE SPIRAL LEADING TO THE CENTER OF THE DRUM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  11. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum....

  12. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum....

  13. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  14. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  19. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  1. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  5. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  8. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  9. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  10. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  11. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  12. A Sludge Drum in the APNea System

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, D.

    1998-11-17

    The assay of sludge drums pushes the APNea System to a definite extreme. Even though it seems clear that neutron based assay should be the method of choice for sludge drums, the difficulties posed by this matrix push any NDA technique to its limits. Special emphasis is given here to the differential die-away technique, which appears to approach the desired sensitivity. A parallel analysis of ethafoam drums will be presented, since the ethafoam matrix fits well within the operating range of the AIWea System, and, having been part of the early PDP trials, has been assayed by many in the NDA community.

  13. Hazards associated with retrieval and storage of legacy waste at the Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pannell, M.A.; Grogin, P.W.; Langford, R.R.

    1998-03-01

    Approximately 17,000 containers of solid transuranic and hazardous waste have been stored beneath earthen cover for nearly twenty years at Technical Area 4 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The mission of the Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP) is to retrieve, vent, and place these containers into an inspectable storage configuration in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, prior to final disposition at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Significant hazards currently identified with TWISP activities include: (1) the pressurization of drums; (2) volatilization of organic compounds (VOCs) within the drums; and (3) the generation of elevated hydrogen levels by certain waste streams. Based on the retrieval of 15% of the waste containers, the following preliminary conclusions are presented to better protect personnel and the environment: (1) the likelihood of unvented drums becoming pressurized increases when environmental conditions change; (2) pressurized drums must be vented before they become bulging drums; (3) vented drums present the potential for VOC emissions and personnel exposure; (4) the vapor pressure and boiling points of waste stream constituents may be an indication of the likelihood of VOC emissions from stored hazardous waste containers; (5) large numbers of co-located vented drums may present the potential of increased hydrogen and VOC concentrations within unventilated storage domes; (6) monitoring and sampling vented drum storage domes is necessary to ensure that the levels of risk to drum handlers and inspection personnel are acceptable; (7) identifying, tagging, and segregating special case drums is necessary to prevent personnel overexposures and preclude environmental contamination; (8) applying rust inhibitor prolongs the useful life of waste containers stored under earthen cover; (9) acoustic drum pressure detection may be a viable tool in assessing elevated drum pressures.

  14. Application of spectral summing to indeterminate suspect low-level drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M; Veilleux, John M; Lucero, Randy P; Seamans, Jr, J. V.; Clapham, M. J.

    2011-01-27

    waste items can then be properly classified as LLW waste on the summed spectrum and valid assay values can be assigned for disposal. This technique has been successfully applied to a set of 52 debris drums - with individual MDA > 100nCi/g - with a resulting group total TRU alpha activity concentration below 40nCi/g. Further application of the technique at LANL to other debris drums and sludge drums that were measured on a WIPP certified HENe is planned and good candidate drum sets are being evaluated.

  15. Interpreting honeycomb climbing-drum peel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferdie, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Drum-peel tests are made more meaningful by use of approximations to derive analytical expressions relating failures due to bond flatwise tension, inplane tension, and shear, to adhesive weight and method of bond cure.

  16. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Peterson, E.S.

    1995-03-01

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report.

  17. Process Modeling and Analysis for Radioactive Solid Waste Management at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D.E.; Parker, R.Y.; Gonzales-Lujan, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has created a discrete-event simulation model of the nuclear waste drum characterization operations the 'processing/inspection - Los Alamos model of drums equivalent' ({pi} a la mode). This model takes drum inventory data, process-related information, and planned processing priorities related to the solid-waste management operations at Los Alamos to assess the resulting characterization process and resulting schedule for drum shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The model tracks the drum inventory, material inventory, and equipment as a function of time. Data from the model and some sample results are presented in this paper. (authors)

  18. Cutter drum drive assembly for canted end sections

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, G.L.

    1981-06-02

    A continuous mining machine includes a body portion having a longitudinal axis and mounted on endless tracks. A boom member extends forwardly from the body portion with a cutter drum member rotatably mounted on the front of the boom member. The cutter drum member has an intermediate drum section and a pair of canted end drum section. The intermediate drum section is spaced from the end drum sections to provide openings therebetween. The boom member has front end portions extending through the openings to rotatably support the cutter drum member. Input drive shafts extend from drive motors on the body portion forwardly from the boom member at an acute angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the body portion through the openings. In each end drum section meshing spiral bevel gears connect the input drive shaft through a planetary gear train to the end drum drive shaft. Rotation is transmitted from each end drum drive shaft to a drive shaft for rotating the intermediate drum section. Positioning the input drive shafts at an angle with respect to the longitudinal axis of the machine body portion facilitates positioning planetary gear trains in the end drum section to locate the cutter drum assembly for efficient feeding of dislodged material onto the machine and reduce the diameter of the intermediate drum section.

  19. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-02-27

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  20. Intelligent Mobile Sensor System for drum inspection and monitoring -- Volume 1. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in the narrow free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The first phase demonstrated an integrated system (maturity level IVa) for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle.

  1. Health assessment for Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site, Franklin, Wisconsin, Region 5. CERCLIS No. WID980901227. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-06

    The Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site is listed on the National Priorities List. Virtually no testing has been conducted at the Fadrowski site. Site characterization was only beginning at the time of the site visit. The only testing that had been done was of the contents of drums uncovered during excavations involved in construction. Samples of the contents of the drums - sludges, oily water, and paint waste - showed concentrations of lead (400 - 32,700 ppm), chromium (< 100 - 6,800 ppm), DDT (p.p. DDT - 1,000 ppm; o.p. DDT - 450 ppm), and petroleum distillates. The uncovered wastes were re-covered with clay. At that time, the presence of hazardous materials on site was verified, but the extent and limits of contamination were not and have not yet been determined.

  2. Information Gathering Document 0321-1437-30-R-OG

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-07-15

    Fines and turnings from machining depleted uranium (Dep-U), natural uranium (Nat-U), and Thorium-232, and stainless steel and aluminum. This IGO allows only small, oxidizable pieces of Dep-U/Nat-U/Th-232, with regulated metal contaminants below regulatory limits. Fines and turnings will be in 30 gallon vented drums immersed in mineral oil. The 30 gallon drums will be overpacked in 55 gallon vented drums. The waste will be stored on site until sent for stabilization & disposal with approved TSOFs.

  3. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives. PMID:26080900

  4. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives. PMID:26080900

  5. Experimental Avalanches in a Rotating Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubard, Aline; O'Hern, Corey; Shattuck, Mark

    We address the question of universality in granular avalanches and the system size effects on it. We set up an experiment made from a quasi-two-dimensional rotating drum half-filled with a monolayer of stainless-steel spheres. We measure the size of the avalanches created by the increased gravitational stress on the pile as we quasi-statically rotate the drum. We find two kinds of avalanches determined by the drum size. The size and duration distributions of the avalanches that do not span the whole system follow a power law and the avalanche shapes are self-similar and nearly parabolic. The distributions of the avalanches that span the whole system are limited by the maximal amount of potential energy stored in the system at the moment of the avalanche. NSF CMMI-1462439, CMMI-1463455.

  6. A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634

    SciTech Connect

    Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard; Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel; Nachtman, Thomas J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to

  7. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the shaft,...

  8. 25. View of drum girder, with machinecontrol room above, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. View of drum girder, with machine-control room above, and drum rollers on center pivot pier. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  9. 1. UPPER SEGMENT OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, DRUM GATES ALONG SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. UPPER SEGMENT OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, DRUM GATES ALONG SIDE OF CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH (up the channel) - Tieton Dam, Spillway & Drum Gates, South & East side of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  10. 6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM AT THE STEWARD MINE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST DRUM WAS UNDER SHOT, THE WEST OVERSHOT - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  11. 4. SPILLWAY DRUM GATES AND CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST (upstream face ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SPILLWAY DRUM GATES AND CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST (upstream face and Control House in background) - Tieton Dam, Spillway & Drum Gates, South & East side of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  12. Tensioning of a belt around a drum using membrane element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    An application of the membrane element to the problem of the tensioning of a conveyer belt which wraps around a drum is presented. Two cases were investigated: (1) belt tension increase due to drum edge wear; and (2) material trapped between the drum and the belt. In both cases it was found that the increase in belt tension was due to the additional stretching of the belt resulting from the drum radius change rather than from the transverse deflection of the belt.

  13. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  19. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  20. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design feature means either the...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... anchor bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  4. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  5. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  7. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  9. Test plan for a live drum survey using the gamma-neutron sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Roybal, L.G.; Thompson, D.N.

    1995-07-01

    This plan describes performance tests to be made with the Gamma/Neutron Sensor (GNS), which that was designed and built for infield assay at an excavation site. The performance tests will be performed in Building WMF-628 in the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on stored 55-gal drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant. The GNS is mounted on a wooden pallet that will allow horizontal and vertical scans of the stacked drums. Scanning speed and GNS sensitivity for gamma and neutron radiation fields will be estimated. Effects of temperature, electronic, and acoustic noise will be evaluated. Two- and three-dimensional plots of radiation field as a function of position will be developed from the data.

  10. 76 FR 44912 - Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    .... Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.epa.gov/region4/waste/sf/enforce.htm E-mail. Painter.Paula@epa.gov FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula V. Painter at 404/562-8887. Dated: July 7, 2011. Greg Armstrong, Acting...

  11. Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

  12. [Nineteenth century physicians against drum perforation].

    PubMed

    Kierzek, A

    1995-01-01

    The trials of "organic" closure of drum perforation are described. The achievements of Adam Politzer, Hermann Schwartze, Joseph Gruber are presented. The first who used term "myringoplasty" was Emil Berthold. The "epochal" method of Wasilij Okuniew and achievements of Beniamin Gomperz are also depicted. The scientific activities of Polish otologists: Ludwik Guranowski and Rafai Spira were presented.

  13. Extendible column can be stowed on drum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtz, G. M.; Howard, E. A.

    1965-01-01

    Column formed from a series of segments held together by an internal spring or cable can be coiled on a drum or extended into a rigid structure. This storable coil is useful in boring for soil samples and supporting electrical and optical sensors.

  14. Degradation of aldrin and endosulfan in rotary drum and windrow composting.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muntjeer; Gani, Khalid M; Kazmi, Absar A; Ahmed, Naseem

    2016-01-01

    Removal efficiencies, kinetics and degradation pathways of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β in vegetable waste were evaluated during rotary drum and conventional windrow composting. The highest percentage removal of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β in rotary drum composting was 86.8, 83.3 and 85.3% respectively, whereas in windrow composting, it was 66.6%, 77.7% and 67.2% respectively. The rate constant of degradation of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β during rotary drum composting ranged from 0.410-0.778, 0.057-0.076 and 0.009-0.061 day(-1) respectively. The pathways of degradation of these pesticides in composting process were proposed. Metabolites dieldrin and 1 hydroxychlorodene formed during composting of aldrin in the vegetable waste indicated the occurrence of epoxidation reaction and oxidation of bridge carbon of aldrin containing the methylene group. Formation of chloroendic acid and chloroendic anhydride during composting of endosulfan containing vegetable waste support the occurrence of endosulfan sulfate and dehydration reaction respectively. PMID:26828724

  15. Food of freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, Michael T.

    1982-01-01

    The abundance of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) suggests they play an important role in the Lake Erie ecosystem. Our analysis of freshwater drum digestive tracts and macrobenthic samples collected from western Lake Erie indicates that drum were selective feeders. Planktonic cladocerans and larval midges (Chironomidae) were the primary prey organisms eaten by drum. Young-of-the-year fed mostly on cladocerans, while yearling and older drum ate both cladocerans and midge larvae. Decapods, pelecypods, and fish were found only in the digestive tracts of drum longer than 250 mm. While the most abundant organisms in benthic samples were cladocerans (ephippial) and oligochaetes (89.5% by number), they constituted less than 1% of the diet. An evaluation of food selectivity, using Ivlev's index of electivity for benthic organisms, indicated that adult drum preferred midges to any other benthic food.

  16. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Phase 1. Topical report, October 1, 1992--June 8, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in narrow aisles and interpolating the free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for leak detection, and is interfaced with a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which positions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 90% of all drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase one is now complete. The first phase has demonstrated an integrated system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. This demonstration system was quickly fielded and evaluated by leveraging technologies developed from previous NASA and DARPA contracts and internal research. The second phase will demonstrate a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project.

  17. Intelligent Mobile Sensor System for drum inspection and monitoring -- Volume 2. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort was a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and creates and maintains a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort was separated into three phases of which phase three is now complete. The first phase demonstrated an integrated system (maturity level IVa) for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype employed an integrated design that considered operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase has demonstrated the commercial viability of the vehicle in operating waste storage facilities at Fernald, Ohio and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report summarizes the system upgrades performed in phase 3 and the evaluation of the IMSS Phase 3 system and vehicle.

  18. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  19. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2008-05-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  20. Slit-Drum Camera For Projectile Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liangyi, Chen; Shaoxiang, Zhou; Guanhua, Cha; Yuxi, Hu

    1983-03-01

    The' model XF-70 slit-drum camera has been developed to record projectile in flight for observation and acquisition. It has two operation modes: (1) synchro-ballistic photography, (2) streak record. The film is located on the inner surface of rotating drum to make it travel. The folding mirror is arranged to reflect light beam 90 degree on to film. The assembly of folding mirror and slit aperture can be together rotated about the optical axis of objective so that the camera makes a feature of recording projectile having any launching angle either in synchro-ballistic photography or in streak record through prerotating the folding mirror assembly by an appropriate angle. The mechanical-electric shutter preventing film from reexposing is close to the slit aperture. The loading mechanism is designed for use in daylight. LED fiducial mark and timing mark are printed at the edges of the frame for accurate measurements.

  1. Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane

    2014-05-01

    A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This

  2. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Topical report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle. Several parts of the IMSS Phase 1 Topical (Final) Report, which describes the requirements, design guidelines, and detailed design of the Phase 1 IMSS vehicle, are incorporated here, with modifications to reflect the changes in the design and the new elements added during the Phase 2 work.

  3. [Hypopharyngeal carcinoma and red ear drum].

    PubMed

    Bender, B; Widmann, G; Riechelmann, H; Schmutzhard, J

    2011-04-01

    A 46-year-old male patient with an unresectable hypopharyngeal carcinoma was treated with primary radio-chemotherapy. At follow-up, the patient presented with a red ear drum and combined hearing loss. Because of radiotherapy-induced tubal dysfunction, paracentesis was performed. Biopsy of the polypoid middle ear mucosa revealed petrous bone infiltration of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. MRI studies revealed paracarotideal tumor infiltration to the petrous bone and the middle ear arising from a cervical retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis. PMID:20963385

  4. Size limitation on zebra mussels consumed by freshwater drum may preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Love, Joy G.

    1995-01-01

    The septa lengths of bivalve shells were used to estimate shell lengths of the largest zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) crushed and consumed by freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) to determine if size limitation could preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller of the zebra mussel. We examined gut samples of drum (273 to 542 mm long) collected from western Lake Erie in 1991, found the largest mussel (shell length = 21.4 mm) in the 11th largest drum (TL = 405 mm), and observed a reduction of mussel size in larger drum. The lack of a relationship between mussel size and drum size for larger specimens suggests that either drum prefer smaller mussels or the gape between the upper and lower pharyngeal teeth restricts drum feeding to zebra mussels of limited size. Although drum may reduce zebra mussel populations, because of the apparent size limitation of prey it is unlikely that drum would be fully effective as a biological controller; thus, this fish should not be introduced beyond its native range for that purpose.

  5. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  6. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Schiavio, Andrea; Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  7. Ribbon channel plate rotating drum DNA sequencing device.

    PubMed

    Douthart, R J; Welt, M; Walling, L

    1996-01-01

    A new design DNA sequencing electrophoresis device is described. The device, called the ribbon channeled plate rotating drum (rprd), consists of two major components, the plate assembly and the drum assembly. The plate assembly contains a machined or etched plate of individual micro-channels called the ribbon channeled plate. The ribbon channeled plate and other components of the plate assembly combine the advantages of thin gels and capillary arrays in a single unit with few of the disadvantages. The other major component of rprd is the drum assembly, which facilitates direct blotting onto deposition membranes affixed to a large plastic drum. The drum with attached membrane and deposited electrophoretically resolved ladders is easily moved to special units facilitating downstream processing and detection. The drum unit, although versatile, is specifically designed to be used with multiplex sequencing. PMID:8907517

  8. Characterization and handling of 7500 old drums in Studsvik

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrs, Carin; Lindberg, Maria; Lorenzen, Joachim

    2003-02-27

    7500 old drums were characterized and sorted into a number of categories. The sorting had two main purposes the first is to divide the drums into fractions that have the same content or origin or some other sorting criteria. The second purpose is not less important, it was to limit the amount of drums to work with at each point in time and therefore get a good overview of the drums. The third reason for handling the drums were that some was in poor condition since they previously had been stored outdoors. The drums were sorted into two main fractions, one with Studsvik-ID numbers and one without. These two fractions were then divided into sub-fractions depending on content, origin, dose-rate and a recommended final repository. The work is not yet completed but the procedures are established and work well.

  9. Drum-mate: interaction dynamics and gestures in human-humanoid drumming experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kose-Bagci, Hatice; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Syrdal, Dag S.; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.

    2010-06-01

    This article investigates the role of interaction kinesics in human-robot interaction (HRI). We adopted a bottom-up, synthetic approach towards interactive competencies in robots using simple, minimal computational models underlying the robot's interaction dynamics. We present two empirical, exploratory studies investigating a drumming experience with a humanoid robot (KASPAR) and a human. In the first experiment, the turn-taking behaviour of the humanoid is deterministic and the non-verbal gestures of the robot accompany its drumming to assess the impact of non-verbal gestures on the interaction. The second experiment studies a computational framework that facilitates emergent turn-taking dynamics, whereby the particular dynamics of turn-taking emerge from the social interaction between the human and the humanoid. The results from the HRI experiments are presented and analysed qualitatively (in terms of the participants' subjective experiences) and quantitatively (concerning the drumming performance of the human-robot pair). The results point out a trade-off between the subjective evaluation of the drumming experience from the perspective of the participants and the objective evaluation of the drumming performance. A certain number of gestures was preferred as a motivational factor in the interaction. The participants preferred the models underlying the robot's turn-taking which enable the robot and human to interact more and provide turn-taking closer to 'natural' human-human conversations, despite differences in objective measures of drumming behaviour. The results are consistent with the temporal behaviour matching hypothesis previously proposed in the literature which concerns the effect that the participants adapt their own interaction dynamics to the robot's.

  10. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  11. Waste Examination Assay Facility operations: TRU waste certification

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Caylor, B.A.; Coffey, D.E.; Phoenix, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    The ORNL Waste Examination Assay Facility (WEAF) was established to nondestructively assay (NDA) transuranic (TRU) waste generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present facility charter encompasses the NDA and nondestructive examination (NDE) of both TRU and low-level wastes (LLW). Presently, equipment includes a Neutron Assay System (NAS), a Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS), a drum-sized Real-Time Radiography (RTR) system, and a Neutron Slab Detector (NSD). The first three instruments are computer interfaced. Approximately 2300 TRU waste drums have been assayed with the NAS and the SGS. Another 3000 TRU and LLW drums have been examined with the RTR unit. Computer data bases have been developed to collate the large amount of data generated during the assays and examinations. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Characterizing cemented TRU waste for RCRA hazardous constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, D.R.; Betts, S.E.; Bodenstein, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized drums of solidified transuranic (TRU) waste from four major waste streams. The data will help the State of New Mexico determine whether or not to issue a no-migration variance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) so that WIPP can receive and dispose of waste. The need to characterize TRU waste stored at LANL is driven by two additional factors: (1) the LANL RCRA Waste Analysis Plan for EPA compliant safe storage of hazardous waste; (2) the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) The LANL characterization program includes headspace gas analysis, radioassay and radiography for all drums and solids sampling on a random selection of drums from each waste stream. Data are presented showing that the only identified non-metal RCRA hazardous component of the waste is methanol.

  13. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  14. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  15. Analysis and stabilization of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s multiphase mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, B.A.

    1995-05-19

    Five drums of mixed waste were accepted from LBL during FY 1994; they contain inorganic acids and compounds, as well as organic reagents and radioactive materials. This document defines the work plan for stabilization and characterization of the waste in three of these 5 drums.

  16. Criticality Safety Evaluation for TRU Waste In Storage at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    M. E. Shaw; J. B. Briggs; C. A. Atkinson; G. J. Briscoe

    1994-04-01

    Stored containers (drums, boxes, and bins) of transuranic waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were evaluated based on inherent neutron absorption characteristics of the waste materials. It was demonstrated that these properties are sufficient to preclude a criticality accident at the actual fissile levels present in the waste stored at the RWMC. Based on the database information available, the results reported herein confirm that the waste drums, boxes, and bins currently stored at the RWMC will remain safely subcritical if rearranged, restacked, or otherwise handled. Acceptance criteria for receiving future drum shipments were established based on fully infinite systems.

  17. Criticality safety evaluation for TRU waste in storage at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.; Briggs, J.B.; Atkinson, C.A.; Briscoe, G.J.

    1993-11-01

    Stored containers (drums, boxes, and bins) of transuranic waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were evaluated based on inherent neutron absorption characteristics of the waste materials. It was demonstrated that these properties are sufficient to preclude an accidental criticality accident at the actual fissile levels present in the waste stored at the RWMC. Based on the database information available, the results reported herein confirm that the waste drums, boxes, and bins currently stored at the RWMC will remain safely subcritical if rearranged, restacked, or otherwise handled. Acceptance criteria for receiving future drum shipments were established based on fully infinite systems.

  18. Pinhole corrosion of CH-TRU waste containers by volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zeek, D.P.

    1998-03-01

    In the spring of 1996 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex, an epidemic of corroded CH-TRU waste drums was encountered. The observed corrosion was in the form of rusty brown streaks that emanated from pinholes in about the upper one-third of the 55 gal drums. Wet streaks were tested as highly acidic by litmus paper. The liquid that emanated from the pinholes was found to be hydrochloric (HCl) acid. An investigation concluded that the pinholes were localized pitting corrosion caused by HCl acid formed in the drum headspace from reactions involving chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste and the unlined steel of the internal drum wall. The pinholes occurred in the upper parts of the drums because this corresponds to the internal headspace region above the rigid liner. Affected drums had a few to hundreds of pinholes with no detectable release of radioactivity. This was due to the internal packaging of waste in heavy polyethylene and/or polyvinyl chloride waste bags inside a rigid high-density polyethylene liner. The corrective action taken was to overpack pinhole corrosion drums into polyethylene-lined 83-gal drums and to test hundreds of drums with drum filters, but without pinhole corrosion, for the presence of HCl acid in the headspace gas with colorimetric tubes fitted to the drum filters. These colorimetric tubes contain a substance that changes color in reaction to HCl acid when headspace gas is drawn by a hand pump. Only drums that had a significant probability for the presence of HCl acid in the headspace were segregated in storage to allow ready inspection and efficient handling, if needed. It is recommended that any facility involved in the long-term storage of waste or other contents, that include chlorinated VOCs in unlined steel containers, be wary for the possible development of pinhole corrosion.

  19. A robotic inspector for low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy has low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at several facilities. Weekly visual inspections are required. A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed to survey and inspect the stored drums. The robot will travel through the three- foot wide aisles of drums stacked four high and perform a visual inspection, normally performed by a human operator, making decisions about the condition of the drums and maintaining a database of pertinent information about each drum. This mobile robot system will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure.

  20. The Talking Drum: Moving toward a Psychology of Literacy Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Joseph H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the talking drum has been a viable cultural voice for many West and Central African cultures in the acquisition of literacy. Emphasizes musical character of tonal languages and the use of the talking drum for literacy purposes. Proposes research questions regarding function and use of music and language; describes role of the talking…

  1. Rhythmic Characteristics of Improvisational Drumming among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    A call-and-response drumming activity was carried out to determine the rhythmic characteristics of improvised patterns created by preschool children. Specific goals of the study were to: (1) determine the durations, start and stop times, and rhythmic patterns of improvised responses to a simple given call using drums; (2) determine the presence or…

  2. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... welded on drums designed to contain more than 40 L (11 gallons) of liquids. Body seams must be mechanically seamed or welded on drums intended to contain only solids or 40 L (11 gallons) or less of liquids... retain their protective properties under normal conditions of transport. (8) Maximum capacity of...

  3. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contain more than 40 L (11 gallons) of liquids. Body seams must be mechanically seamed or welded on drums intended to contain only solids or 40 L (11 gallons) or less of liquids. (3) Chimes must be mechanically... properties under normal conditions of transport. (8) Maximum capacity of drum: 450 L (119 gallons)....

  4. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other...

  5. Drum ring removal/installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Andrade, William Andrew

    2006-11-14

    A handheld tool, or a pair of such tools, such as for use in removing/installing a bolt-type clamping ring on a container barrel/drum, where the clamping ring has a pair of clamping ends each with a throughbore. Each tool has an elongated handle and an elongated lever arm transversely connected to one end of the handle. The lever arm is capable of being inserted into the throughbore of a selected clamping end and leveraged with the handle to exert a first moment on the selected clamping end. Each tool also has a second lever arm, such as a socket with an open-ended slot, which is suspended alongside the first lever arm. The second lever arm is capable of engaging the selected clamping end and being leveraged with the handle to exert a second moment which is orthogonal to the first moment. In this manner, the first and second moments operate to hold the selected clamping end fixed relative to the tool so that the selected clamping end may be controlled with the handle. The pair of clamping ends may also be simultaneously and independently controlled with the use of two handles/tools so as to contort the geometry of the drum clamping ring and enable its removal/installation.

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory TRU waste sampling projects

    SciTech Connect

    Yeamans, D.; Rogers, P.; Mroz, E.

    1997-02-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has begun characterizing transuranic (TRU) waste in order to comply with New Mexico regulations, and to prepare the waste for shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Sampling consists of removing some head space gas from each drum, removing a core from a few drums of each homogeneous waste stream, and visually characterizing a few drums from each heterogeneous waste stream. The gases are analyzed by GC/MS, and the cores are analyzed for VOC`s and SVOC`s by GC/MS and for metals by AA or AE spectroscopy. The sampling and examination projects are conducted in accordance with the ``DOE TRU Waste Quality Assurance Program Plan`` (QAPP) and the ``LANL TRU Waste Quality Assurance Project Plan,`` (QAPjP), guaranteeing that the data meet the needs of both the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) of DOE and the ``WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria, Rev. 5,`` (WAC).

  7. Waste receiving and processing drum weight measurement uncertainty review findings

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-05-12

    The purpose of reviewing the weight scale operation at the WRAP facility was to determine the uncertainty associated with weight measurements. Weight measurement uncertainty is needed to support WRAP Nondestructive Examination (NDE) and Non-destructive Assay (NDA) analysis.

  8. Materials science and metallurgy of the Caribbean steel drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreyra Tello, Everaldo

    The fabrication of a steel drum (or steelpan), especially the sinking of the drum head by hand with a hammer, has been examined in detail utilizing light metallography (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Residual microstructures corresponding to reductions in thickness of up to 50% at the bottom of the drum-head indicate that dislocation densities in the low carbon (0.04 to 0.09% C), ferritic steels, can exceed 1010 cm -2. This substructure in conjunction with a grain structure consisting of elongated grains produces hardness increases of up to 45% at the bottom of the drum head. The heat treatment (or ``burning'') of the Caribbean steel drum is an essential stage in the fabrication process and has been found to involve strain aging, which increases the hardness by an additional 5 to 20%. This is especially prominent in drum steels containing from 0.04 to 0.09% C. The strain aging combined with the strain hardening applied to the drum head sinking and note fabrication process, produces a requisite elastic-plastic interaction which allows for multi-harmonic tuning and the creation of the unique chromatic tones and harmonic overtones which are characteristic of the various instruments. These unique features of note vibrations were observed by comparing impact hardness profiles with the corresponding static Vickers hardness measurements for actual, tuned notes and the same, corresponding notes extracted from the drum head, respectively. Elastic-plastic and plastic hardness profiles were compared in unique color maps. In an effort to understand the influence of deformation on the sound of the steel drum, circular disks simulating free, ideal notes, and utilizing 316 stainless steel plates (0.05% C), were cold rolled to reductions up to 40%. Disks were hung on a wire through a hole drilled on the edge of the disk, and hit with a heavy (tungsten alloy) mallet to record the acoustic sound spectra. Requisite amounts of carbon interact with dislocations in

  9. Revised RCRA closure plan for the Interim Drum Yard (S-030) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.

    1994-09-01

    The Interim Drum Yard (IDY) facility is a containerized waste storage area located in the Y-12 exclusion area. It was used to store waste materials which are regulated by RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act); uranyl nitrate solutions were also stored there. The closure plan outlines the actions required to achieve closure of IDY and is being submitted in accordance with TN Rule 1200-1-11.05(7) and 40 CFR 265.110.

  10. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    SciTech Connect

    Arbon, R.E.

    2001-01-31

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  11. 55. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, LOOP B, STEAM DRUM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, LOOP B, STEAM DRUM AND DOWNCOMERS LOOKING EAST (LOCATION LLL) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  12. 49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORROLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORR-OLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN THE FILTER CAKE HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  14. The Play as Novel: Reappropriating Brecht's "Drums in the Night."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Della

    1988-01-01

    Applies Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of the novel to Bertolt Brecht's "Drums in the Night" to illuminate the play's dialogic structure and alienation value, and reappropriate its prerevolutionary dimensions for contemporary use. (MM)

  15. SWING BRIDGE AT CENTER OF SPAN. DRUM, ALTHOUGH NOT VISIBLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SWING BRIDGE AT CENTER OF SPAN. DRUM, ALTHOUGH NOT VISIBLE, IS AT CENTER OF PICTURE. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. Slit Logs and Sacred Cows: The History of the Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of the drum is presented in both pictures and prose, from its beginning in Africa and the Far Eastern world to its introduction to the Western world where it is now fully accepted as a serious instrument. (KC)

  17. 47. TRESTLE OVER DRUM ISLAND, WEST END OF COOPER RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. TRESTLE OVER DRUM ISLAND, WEST END OF COOPER RIVER SPAN, FACING NORTHWEST FROM WATER - Grace Memorial Bridge, U.S. Highway 17 spanning Cooper River & Town Creek , Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  18. View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  19. View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  20. Acoustic and visual remote sensing of barrels of radioactive waste: Application of civilian and military technology to environmental management of the oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, H.A.; Chin, J.L.; Maher, N.M.; Chavez, P.S. Jr.; Ueber, E.; Van Peeters, W.; Curl, H.

    1995-04-01

    As part of an ongoing strategic research project to find barrels of radioactive waste off San Francisco, the U.S. Navy (USN), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) pooled their expertise, resources, and technology to form a partnership to verify new computer enhancement techniques developed for detecting targets the size of 55 gallon barrels on sidescan sonar images. Between 1946 and 1970, approximately 47,800 large barrels and other containers of radioactive waste were dumped in the ocean west of San Francisco; the containers litter an area of the sea floor of at least 1400 km {sup 2} knows as the Farallon Island Radioactive Waste Dump. The exact location of the containers and the potential hazard the containers pose to the environment is unknown. The USGS developed computer techniques and contracted with private industry to enhance sidescan data, collected in cooperation with the GFNMS, to detect objects as small as 55 gallon steel barrels while conducting regional scale sidescan sonar surveys. Using a subset of the regional sonar survey, images were plotted over a 125 km {sub 2} area. The acoustic interpretations were verified visually using the USN DSV Sea Cliff and the unmanned Advanced Tethered Vehicle (ATV). Barrels and other physical features were found where image enhancement had indicated they would be found. The interagency cooperation among the USN, USGS, and GFNMS has led to develop a cost effective and time efficient method to locate the barrels of radioactive waste. This method has universal application for locating containers of hazardous waste over a regional scale in other ocean areas such as Boston Harbor and the Kara Sea in the Arctic. This successful application of military and civilian expertise and technology has provided scientific information to help formulate policy decisions that affect the environmental management and quality of the ocean.

  1. CMR Shuffler System: Passive Mode Calibration and Certification Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, Katherine C.; Gomez, Cipriano D.; Salazar, William R.; Mayo, Douglas R.; Vigil, Georgiana M.; Crooks, William J.; Stange, Sy

    2012-07-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. As debris is removed from the vessels, material will be placed in waste drums. Far-field gamma ray assay will be used to determine when a drum is nearing a {sup 239}Pu equivalent mass of less than 200 g. The drum will then be assayed using a waste drum shuffler operated in passive mode using a neutron coincidence counting method for accountability. This report focuses on the testing and calibration of the CMR waste drum shuffler in passive mode operation. Initial testing was performed to confirm previously accepted measurement parameters. The system was then calibrated using a set of weapons grade Pu (WGPu, {sup 239}Pu > 93%) oxide standards placed inside a 55 gallon drum. The calibration data ranges from Pu mass of 0.5 g to 188.9 g. The CMR waste drum shuffler has been tested and calibrated in passive mode in preparation for safeguards accountability measurements of waste drums containing material removed from CVs for the CVD project.

  2. Application of spectral summing to suspect low level debris drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M; Veilleux, John M; Lucero, Randy P; Seamans, Jr, James V; Clapham, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    The spectral summing technique developed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation (PSC) is a unique modeling technique that is being employed by the Waste Disposition Project - Low Level Waste Disposal (WDP-LLWD) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technique is being used to disposition low-level radioactive waste that has dropped out of the transuranic (TRU) category and has no place to go unless it can be proven to be LLW and not TRU. The TRU program at LANL run by Mobile Characterization Services (MCS) employs two High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENC) with built-in gamma assay systems to assay radioactive waste for shipment and disposal as TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico. As well as being certified for WIPP assays, the HENC systems can also be used for low-level waste assays for disposal at LANL or off-site disposal facilities, such as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Some of the waste processed through the HENC systems cannot be confirmed TRU due to the absence of detected TRU alpha emitters above the TRU cutoff of 100 nCi/g. This waste becomes suspect low-level waste (SLLW). In many cases, the waste also can't be classified as LLW because the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of TRU radionuclides is above the 100 nCi/g level. These wastes that do not have enough detectable TRU activity to be classified as TRU waste and have too high a MDA to be classified as LLW enter a radioactive waste characterization limbo that prevents their dispositioning as either TRU waste or LLW. Spectral summing allows an experienced gamma spectroscopy analyst to add the HENC gamma spectra of a number of similar waste items together to form a consolidated (summed) spectrum. This summed spectrum contains the assay results of the group of items rather than the individual item, and gamma peaks that were not discernable in the individual spectra become quantifiable in the summed spectrum. The group of waste items can then be properly

  3. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-08-27

    Phase I retrieval of post-1970 TRU wastes from burial ground 218-W-4C can be done in a safe, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Initiating TRU retrieval by retrieving uncovered drums from Trenches 1, 20, and 29, will allow retrieval to begin under the current SWBG safety authorization basis. The retrieval of buried drums from Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29, which will require excavation, will commence once the uncovered drum are retrieved. This phased approach allows safety analysis for drum venting and drum module excavation to be completed and approved before the excavation proceeds. In addition, the lessons learned and the operational experience gained from the retrieval of uncovered drums can be applied to the more complicated retrieval of the buried drums. Precedents that have been set at SRS and LANL to perform retrieval without a trench cover, in the open air, should be followed. Open-air retrieval will result in significant cost savings over the original plans for Phase I retrieval (Project W-113). Based on LANL and SRS experience, open-air retrieval will have no adverse impacts to the environment or to the health and safety of workers or the public. Assaying the waste in the SWBG using a mobile assay system, will result in additional cost savings. It is expected that up to 50% of the suspect-TRU wastes will assay as LLW, allowing those waste to remain disposed of in the SWBG. Further processing, with its associated costs, will only occur to the portion of the waste that is verified to be TRU. Retrieval should be done, to the extent possible, under the current SWBG safety authorization basis as a normal part of SWBG operations. The use of existing personnel and existing procedures should be optimized. By working retrieval campaigns, typically during the slow months, it is easier to coordinate the availability of necessary operations personnel, and it is easier to coordinate the availability of a mobile assay vendor.

  4. Gamma-ray Sptectrometric Characterization of Overpacked CC 104/107 RH-TRU Wastes: Surrogate Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, John Kelvin; Mc Ilwain, Michael Edward; Klann, R. T.

    2000-04-01

    Development of the gamma-ray spectrometric technique termed GSAK (Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with Acceptable Knowledge) for the characterization of CC104/107 remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes continued this year. Proof-of-principle measurements have been completed on the surrogate RH-TRU waste drums configured earlier this year. The GSAK technique uses conventional gamma-ray spectrometry to quantify the detectable fission product content of overpacked RH-TRU drums. These results are then coupled with the inventory report to characterize the waste drum content. The inventory report is based on process knowledge of the waste drum loading and calculations of the isotopic distribution in the spent fuel examined to generate the drummed wastes. Three RH-TRU surrogate drums were configured with encapsulated EBR-II driver fuel rod segments arranged in the surrogate drum assemblies. Segment-specific inventory calculations initially specified the radionuclide content of the fuel segments and thus the surrogate drums. Radiochemical assays performed on representative fuel element segments identified a problem in the accuracy of some of the fission and activation product inventory values and provided a basis for adjustment of the specified surrogate drum inventories. The three waste drum surrogates, contained within their 8.9 cm (3.5 inch) thick steel overpacks, were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Seven fission and activation product radionuclides (54Mn, 60Co, 125Sb, 134Cs, 137Cs, 144CePr, and 154Eu) were reliably detected. The gamma-ray spectral accuracy was very good. In all cases, a two-sigma error bar constructed about the measured value included the actual drum activity.

  5. Gamma-Ray Spectrometric Characterization of Overpacked CC104/107 RH-TRU Wastes: Surrogate Tests

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Hartwell; R. T. Klann; M. E. McIlwain

    2000-05-01

    Development of the gamma-ray spectrometric technique termed GSAK (Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with Acceptable Knowledge) for the characterization of CC104/107 remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes continued this year. Proof-of-principle measurements have been completed on the surrogate RH-TRU waste drums configured earlier this year. The GSAK technique uses conventional gamma-ray spectrometry to quantify the detectable fission product content of overpacked RH-TRU drums. These results are then coupled with the inventory report to characterize the waste drum content. The inventory report is based on process knowledge of the waste drum loading and calculations of the isotopic distribution in the spent fuel examined to generate the drummed wastes. Three RH-TRU surrogate drums were configured with encapsulated EBR-II driver fuel rod segments arranged in the surrogate drum assemblies. Segment-specific inventory calculations initially specified the radionuclide content of the fuel segments and thus the surrogate drums. Radiochemical assays performed on representative fuel element segments identified a problem in the accuracy of some of the fission and activation product inventory values and provided a basis for adjustment of the specified surrogate drum inventories. The three waste drum surrogates, contained within their 8.9 cm (3.5 inch) thick steel overpacks, were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Seven fission and activation product radionuclides ({sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}CePr, and {sup 154}Eu) were reliably detected. The gamma-ray spectral accuracy was very good. In all cases, a two-sigma error bar constructed about the measured value included the actual drum activity.

  6. Expert System for Building TRU Waste Payloads - 13554

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Heather; Slater, Bryant

    2013-07-01

    The process for grouping TRU waste drums into payloads for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal is a very complex process. Transportation and regulatory requirements must be met, along with striving for the goals of shipment efficiency: maximize the number of waste drums in a shipment and minimize the use of empty drums which take up precious underground storage space. The restrictions on payloads range from weight restrictions, to limitations on flammable gas in the headspace, to minimum TRU alpha activity concentration requirements. The Overpack and Payload Assistant Tool (OPAT) has been developed as a mixed-initiative intelligent system within the WIPP Waste Data System (WDS) to guide the construction of multiple acceptable payloads. OPAT saves the user time while at the same time maximizes the efficiency of shipments for the given drum population. The tool provides the user with the flexibility to tune critical factors that guide OPAT's operation based on real-time feedback concerning the results of the execution. This feedback complements the user's external knowledge of the drum population (such as location of drums, known challenges, internal shipment goals). This work demonstrates how software can be utilized to complement the unique domain knowledge of the users. The mixed-initiative approach combines the insight and intuition of the human expert with the proficiency of automated computational algorithms. The result is the ability to thoroughly and efficiently explore the search space of possible solutions and derive the best waste management decision. (authors)

  7. Mixed waste analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.J.; Turner, C.A.

    1993-12-31

    Improved superpower relations followed by the Soviet Union`s collapse acted as catalysts for changing the mission at Rocky Flats. Now, environmental concerns command as much attention as production capability. As a result, laboratory instruments once dedicated to plutonium production have a new purpose - the analysis of mixed wastes. Waste drums destined for WIPP require headspace analysis by GS/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC). Flame AA analysis provides information on inorganic constituents. EPA guidelines for waste analysis (SW-846) overlook the obstacles of glove box manipulations. Sometimes, SW-846 guidelines conflict with the Rocky Flats waste minimization effort. However, the EPA encourages SW-846 adaptations if experimental data confirms the results. For water and soil samples, AA analysis of laboratory control samples show method capability inside a glove box. Non-radioactive drum headspace samples use a revised version of USEPA compendium method TO-14. Radioactive drum headspace samples require new instrumentation and change to SW-846 methods.

  8. Continuous mining machine and cutter drum drive therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Lebegue, M.K.

    1980-09-30

    A cutter drum member of a continuous mining machine is rotatably mounted on the front end of the machine. The drum member includes an intermediate section and a pair of canted end sections. Cutting elements extend from the surface of the respective drum sections and provide a continuous cutting pattern along the entire length of the drum member. Input drive shafts extend through rear openings between the adjacent ends of the intermediate section and the end sections. Rotation is transmitted from the input drive shafts through meshing bevel gears and planetary gears to rotate the intermediate section. The adjacent ends of the intermediate section and end sections include meshing gear teeth secured to the external surface of the sections so that the canted end sections are driven by the external meshing gear teeth. Passageways formed between the gear teeth on the external cylindrical surfaces of the drum sections facilitate the flow of dislodged material between the gear teeth to prevent material from accumulating between the teeth and thereby ensure positive drive to the canted end sections.

  9. Brittle fractures of the drums of high-pressure boilers: Main causes and methods for preventing them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grin', E. A.

    2008-02-01

    Factors causing damage to the metal of the drums of high-pressure boilers, as well as the known cases of drum failures, are analyzed. The totality of factors determining the operational reliability of drums is systematized. The process-related mechanism governing the destruction of the drums at the Kurgan cogeneration station and TETs-3 Yaroslavl cogeneration station, and the general factors caused these drums to fail are identified. Recommendations for reducing the risk of drum failures are formulated.

  10. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    capture. During July, August, and September 2007, BES designed, procured, installed, and tested the slurry injection system at Beaver Valley. Slurry production was performed by Penn State University using equipment that was moved from campus to the Beaver Valley site. Waste coal fines were procured from Headwaters Inc. and transported to the site in Super Sacks. In addition, bituminous coal was pulverized at Penn State and trucked to the site in 55-gallon drums. This system was operated for three weeks during August and September 2007. NO{sub x} emission data were obtained using the plant CEM system. Hg measurements were taken using EPA Method 30B (Sorbent Trap method) both downstream of the electrostatic precipitator and in the stack. Ohio Lumex Company was on site to provide rapid Hg analysis on the sorbent traps during the tests. Key results from these tests are: (1) Coal Fines reburn alone reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 0-10% with up to 4% heat input from the CWS. However, the NO{sub x} reduction was accompanied by higher CO emissions. The higher CO limited our ability to try higher reburn rates for further NO{sub x} reduction. (2) Coal Fines reburn with Urea (Carbon enhanced SNCR) decreased NO{sub x} emissions by an additional 30% compared to Urea injection only. (3) Coal slurry injection did not change Hg capture across the ESP at full load with an inlet temperature of 400-430 F. The Hg capture in the ESP averaged 40%, with or without slurry injection; low mercury particulate capture is normally expected across a higher temperature ESP because any oxidized mercury is thought to desorb from the particulate at ESP temperatures above 250 F. (4) Coal slurry injection with halogen salts added to the mixing tank increased the Hg capture in the ESP to 60%. This significant incremental mercury reduction is important to improved mercury capture with hot-side ESP operation and wherever hindrance from sulfur oxides limit mercury reduction, because the higher temperature is

  11. Tread drum for animals. [having an electrical shock station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A device for exercising animals such as primates is described, which includes a cylindrical housing mounted for rotation about a horizontal axis of revolution and has a cylindrical treadway portion on which the animal treads while the drum is rotated by means of a motorized drive. The treadway portion of the drum includes an electrode structure with sectors being independently energizable by means of a commutator and source of potential so that an electrical shock station is created behind a running-in-place station on the moving treadway. In this manner, if the animal should fall behind its running-in-place station, it may be shocked by treading on the energized electrode structure. One end of the tread drum comprises a transparent wall for unobstructed viewing of the animal being exercised.

  12. Image data rate converter having a drum with a fixed head and a rotatable head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A data-rate converter is disclosed comprising a rotatable data-storing drum with at least one fixed read/record head and a rotatable read/record head. The latter is rotatable in a circular path about the drum axis of rotation. The drum is positionable in any one of a plurality of axial positions with respect to the heads, so that at least one drum track is aligned with the fixed head in one drum position and with the rotatable head in another drum position. When a track is aligned with the fixed head, data may be recorded therin or read out therefrom at a rate which is a function of drum rotation, while when aligned with the rotatable head, data may be recorded or read out at a rate which is a function of the rates and directions of rotation of both the drum and the head.

  13. Hazardous Waste Code Determinations for the First/Second Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    SciTech Connect

    Arbon, Rodney Edward

    2001-01-01

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  14. System design description for Waste Information and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.R.

    1994-12-16

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Hazardous Material Control Group (HMC) of the 222-S Laboratory has requested the development of a system to help resolve many of the difficulties associated with tracking and data collection of containers and drums of waste. This system has been identified as the Waste Information and Control System (WICS). WICS shall partially automate the procedure for acquisition, tracking and reporting of the container, drum, and waste data that is currently manually processed. The WICS project shall use handheld computer units (HCU) to collect laboratory data, a local database with an user friendly interface to import the laboratory data from the HCUs, and barcode technology with associated software and operational procedures. After the container, drum, and waste data has been collected and verified, WICS shall be manipulated to provide informal reports containing data required to properly document waste disposal. 8 refs, 82 figs, 69 tabs.

  15. Traveling wave of segregation in a highly filled rotating drum.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Shio; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2010-09-10

    The dynamics of a segregation pattern for a granular mixture in a highly filled rotating drum were studied. A spontaneously segregated band pattern traveled laterally and was accompanied by the repeated creation of new bands near the center of the drum and annihilation at both of its ends. The presence of nearly stationary convection plays an essential role in causing this traveling wave. Based on direct observations of both the interior and the exterior of the segregation pattern, this spatiotemporal pattern is interpreted in terms of a one-dimensional Cahn-Hilliard equation by including the effect of stationary convection. PMID:20867609

  16. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes.

  17. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Drum, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Scott A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Solana, Amy E.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rowley, Steven; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-10-20

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Drum, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Drum took place on May 4 and 5, 2010.

  18. A Stochastic Problem Arising in the Storage of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2004-07-15

    Nuclear waste drums can contain a collection of radioactive components of uncertain activity and randomly dispersed in position. This implies that the dose-rate at the surface of different drums in a large assembly of similar drums can have significant variations according to the physical makeup and configuration of the waste components. The present paper addresses this problem by treating the drum, and its waste, as a stochastic medium. It is assumed that the sources in the drum contribute a dose-rate to some external point. The strengths and positions are chosen by random numbers, the dose-rate is calculated and, from several thousand realizations, a probability distribution for the dose-rate is obtained. It is shown that a very close approximation to the dose-rate probability function is the log-normal distribution. This allows some useful statistical indicators, which are of environmental importance, to be calculated with little effort.As an example of a practical situation met in the storage of radioactive waste containers, we study the problem of 'hotspots'. These arise in drums in which most of the activity is concentrated on one radioactive component and hence can lead to the possibility of large surface dose-rates. It is shown how the dose-rate, the variance, and some other statistical indicators depend on the relative activities on the sources. The results highlight the importance of such hotspots and the need to quantify their effect.

  19. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  20. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  1. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  2. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  3. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  4. Specific Instructions Are Important for Continuous Bimanual Drumming in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringenbach, Shannon D.; Allen, Heather; Chung, Susan; Jung, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined continuous and discrete bimanual drumming in response to different instructions in 10 adults with Down syndrome, 10 mental age-matched and 10 chronological age-matched groups. For continuous drumming, participants hit two drums with both hands at the same time following verbal (e.g., "up" and "down"), visual (e.g., video…

  5. How to Drum Up a Conversation in a Required Music Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Barry Charles

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities in a secondary music class in which students communicate with talking drums. Maintains that the class project was developed during a teaching unit on the musical practices of the Ashanti ethnic group in Ghana. Includes instructions for making talking drums and four examples of orchestrating name rhythms for drums. (CFR)

  6. The Oral Tradition in the Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble is a Ghanaian drum and dance ensemble that focusses on music in the Ewe tradition. It is based in an elementary school in the Greater Toronto Area and consists of students in Grade 4 through Grade 8. Students in the ensemble study Ghanaian traditional Ewe drumming and dancing in the oral tradition. Nine students…

  7. Persons with and without Down Syndrome Use Similar Strategies when Using Visual Instructions for Bimanual Drumming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringenbach, S. D. (Robertson); Mulvey, G. M.; Beachy, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggested that persons with Down syndrome (DS) used a different strategy to drum than typical adults. Methods: The present study examined continuous bimanual drumming strategies in response to different instructions in 10 persons with DS, 10 mental age-matched and 10 chronological age-matched groups. The drumming task…

  8. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel hoist should be provided with a locking mechanism or interlocked with the brake to prevent...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel hoist should be provided with a locking mechanism or interlocked with the brake to prevent...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel hoist should be provided with a locking mechanism or interlocked with the brake to prevent...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel hoist should be provided with a locking mechanism or interlocked with the brake to prevent...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel hoist... shaft sumps. (f) Workers should wear safety belts while doing work in or over shafts....

  13. Results from simulated contact-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    We conducted in situ experiments with nonradioactive, contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility for about four years. We performed these tests in two rooms in rock salt, at WIPP, with drums surrounded by crushed salt or 70 wt % salt/30 wt % bentonite clay backfills, or partially submerged in a NaCl brine pool. Air and brine temperatures were maintained at {approximately}40C. These full-scale (210-L drum) experiments provided in situ data on: backfill material moisture-sorption and physical properties in the presence of brine; waste container corrosion adequacy; and, migration of chemical tracers (nonradioactive actinide and fission product simulants) in the near-field vicinity, all as a function of time. Individual drums, backfill, and brine samples were removed periodically for laboratory evaluations. Waste container testing in the presence of brine and brine-moistened backfill materials served as a severe overtest of long-term conditions that could be anticipated in an actual salt waste repository. We also obtained relevant operational-test emplacement and retrieval experience. All test results are intended to support both the acceptance of actual TRU wastes at the WIPP and performance assessment data needs. We provide an overview and technical data summary focusing on the WIPP CH TRU envirorunental overtests involving 174 waste drums in the presence of backfill materials and the brine pool, with posttest laboratory materials analyses of backfill sorbed-moisture content, CH TRU drum corrosion, tracer migration, and associated test observations.

  14. The Role of Piece Monitors for the Assay of Plutonium Waste in Alpha Plant Decommissioning Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.; Mullarkey, P.; Orr, C.H.H.; Sharpe, J.; Carr, E.

    2008-07-01

    Plutonium contaminated (TRU) wastes arising during decommissioning and waste retrievals operations at a UK reprocessing facility include small process items, strippable coatings, size-reduced pieces of glove box and metal pipes, etc. These waste materials are generally assayed in a 'Piece Monitor' employing neutron coincidence counting and gamma assay technologies. The major function of the TRU D{sup R} Piece Monitor is to provide an accurate assay of the TRU content of waste pieces/packages, primarily for nuclear safety purposes. The Piece Monitor follows each waste measurement by calculating the cumulative plutonium content of a waste drum as it is filled with this waste, allowing maximum filling of the drum whilst ensuring it remains within fissile content limits. TRU Piece Monitors are deployed at the interface between clean-air (C2) and the active decommissioning (C5) areas by attaching them to the wall of removable modular containment structures (MCSs). In the C5 area, the plant operator uses a variety of cold-cutting processes to size-reduce plant equipment and then places waste items in the monitor chamber for assay, prior to placing the waste in a 200 litre drum. The 're-entrant bulge' design of the assay chamber provides access from the active operations side, whilst the detection equipment remains in the C2 area. This ensures that the Piece Monitor equipment does not become contaminated and remains readily accessible for maintenance or repair. Piece monitors measure and report the plutonium content of each waste item immediately prior to placing in the waste drum, and provides a continuous 'tally' of the drum content. Warnings are shown when a drum is close to exceeding its allowable plutonium content and the waste drum can therefore be changed when either physically full or nearing its nuclear safety limits. (authors)

  15. Macroencapsulation development at Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    Yokum, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Pantex Plant is developing an innovative skid-mounted macroencapsulation technology (called a mobile treatment unit, MTU) that will economically dispose low-level radioactive mixed waste debris. Pantex`s macroencapuslation technology spin-welds a polyethylene top onto a polyethylene receiver to form a jacket that encapsulates a fifty-five (55) gallon steel drum of compacted low-level radioactive and mixed waste debris. The annulus formed by the fifty-five gallon drum and the polyethylene jacket is filled with a material (either foam or grout) to eliminate voids in the final waste form. The US EPA verified that the use of a polyethylene jacket constitutes macroencapsulation in a letter to Chemical Waste Management, Inc., dated September 19, 1995. The EPA letter stipulated that this treatment technology should not be used for D008, radioactive lead solids, and that the final waste form should be structurally sound and resistant to degradation.

  16. Supplemental Cooling for Nitrate Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Mitchell S.

    2015-08-19

    In July 2015, Los Alamos National Laboratory completed installation of a supplemental cooling system in the structure where remediated nitrate salt waste drums are stored. Although the waste currently is in a safe configuration and is monitored daily,controlling the temperature inside the structure adds another layer of protection for workers, the public,and the environment.This effort is among several layers of precautions designed to secure the waste.

  17. Characterization of chaotic motion in a rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidheiser, James E.

    Numerous studies in the past have demonstrated the potential for geometrically simple fluid systems to produce complicated dynamical behavior. In particular, small collections of non-Brownian particles moving within viscous fluids can follow chaotic trajectories. In this work, we study a rotating drum filled with pure glycerol and three large, heavy particles. In studying these rotating drum systems, we have found a rich and varied phase space, made up of several previously unseen behaviors. With varying rotation rate, the particles can undergo straightforward cascading periodic behavior, and grouped periodic cascades we have labeled as doublet and triplet states. Furthermore, we find two regimes of qualitatively distinct chaotic behavior, with one type biased to either side of the drum, and the other lacking bias. The rotating drum experiment serves as a simple model system to demonstrate chaotic behavior in fluid dynamical systems. The existence of such model systems gives a baseline to which other systems can be compared and better understood, and our use of robust, easily implemented measurements serves as a straightforward comparison point which can be applied to various other chaotic fluid systems.

  18. Middle School Drum Ensemble: An Unlikely Experience in Classroom Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbre, James

    2013-01-01

    Though music has a long and successful history within education, it is often one of the first sacrificial lambs when school budgets tighten. Over the course of an academic year, a documentary film sought to tell the story of an American middle school drum ensemble. The context of this group provided an ideal way to examine the nature of student…

  19. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html.

  20. Support for transmission shaft and hydraulic servo drum

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, K.; Sumiya, K.; Taga, Y.; Watanabe, K.

    1987-09-15

    In a support for use in an automatic transmission apparatus of the type having a transmission shaft for transmitting power, an annular hydraulic servo drum and a piston fitted in the hydraulic servo drum for engaging and disengaging a friction engaging means is described, wherein the support has an axially extending tubular supporting portion having an inner peripheral surface for supporting the transmission shaft, an outer peripheral surface for supporting an inner cylindrical portion of the hydraulic servo drum, and working oil passages formed and adapted for supplying and discharging a working oil to and from the hydraulic servo drum. The improvement consists of: a support body made of light material having a first radially extending oil passage leading from an oil pressure controller for supplying and discharging a working oil and communicating with the inner peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion; an inner sleeve of a heavier material than the support body fitting on the inner peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion to cover the inner axially extending oil groove thereby forming an oil passage for working oil; and an outer sleeve of a heavier material than the support body fitting on the outer peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion.

  1. The Way of the Drum: When Earth Becomes Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Grafton; Turchetti, Lois Provost

    Two Native people describe their respective journeys to healing, journeys that involved the rediscovery of language and culture. In Part I, "Healing the Tears of Yesterday by the Drum Today: The Oneida Language Is a Healing Medicine" (Grafton Antone), the first narrator taught the Oneida language to adult students at a community center. Lacking…

  2. 3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, NORTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, NORTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM MACHINERY ROOM. MOTOR #1 COMPARTMENT IN REAR, AUXILIARY MOTOR DRIVE SHAFT, POWER PANELS ON BACK OF AUXILIARY MOTOR HOUSE. BRIDGE DECK FRAMING ABOVE. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  3. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR... effectiveness of the drum for the purpose intended. A material other than plywood, of at least equivalent strength and durability, may be used for the manufacture of the heads. (2) At least two-ply plywood must...

  4. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  5. Flow Straightener for a Rotating-Drum Liquid Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Coin, James R.; Converse, David G.; Rethke, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    A flow straightener has been incorporated into a rotary liquid separator that originally comprised an inlet tube, a shroud plate, an impeller, an inner drum, an outer drum, a housing, a pitot tube, and a hollow shaft motor. As a consequence of the original geometry of the impeller, shroud, inner drum, and hollow shaft, swirl was created in the airflow inside the hollow shaft during operation. The swirl speed was large enough to cause a significant pressure drop. The flow straightener consists of vanes on the back side of the shroud plate. These vanes compartmentalize the inside of the inner drum in such a way as to break up the flow path and thereby stop the air from swirling; as a result, the air enters the hollow shaft with a predominantly axial velocity instead of a swirl. Tests of the rotary liquid separator at an airflow rate of 10 cu ft/min (0.0047 cu m/s) revealed that the dynamic pressure drop was 8 in. of water (approx.=2 kPa) in the absence of the flow straightener and was reduced to 1 in. of water (approx.=0.25 kPa) in the presence of the flow straightener.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Cherenkov Light Detectors in an Oil Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niduaza, Rexavalmar; Wedel, Zachary; Castro, Juan; Zavala, Favian; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) has been used in a number of research development in astro-particle physics and particle physics. In an effort to further implement the MPPC detector, we constructed a modular experimental setup using a 16-inch tall acrylic cylinder filled with distilled water as the light producing medium to determine its feasibility as a possible detector for weak Cherenkov light. We have since progressed towards utilizing an oil drum (approximately 30 gallons) as our light-tight container replacing our prototype. In this talk, we would discuss the results regarding our investigation utilizing 1-inch and 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) in an oil drum as we did for our prototype. We would also present our experimental findings comparing our prototype and our oil drum setup using PMTs in coincidence with the MPPC coupled with wavelength-shifting fibers that are submerged in distilled water inside the oil drum vessel. Department of Education grant nymber P031S90007.

  7. Development of Interpersonal Coordination between Peers during a Drumming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Ramenzoni, Veronica C. O.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their drumming with a peer. Results showed that all children…

  8. Memory Drum Theory's C Movement: Revelations from Franklin Henry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Mark G.; Christina, Robert W.; Anson, J. Greg

    2008-01-01

    Franklin Henry's "memory drum" theory of neuromotor reaction (Henry & Rogers, 1960) was one of the most influential studies of the response programming stage of information processing. The paper is the most-cited study ever published in the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport." However, few people know there is a noteworthy error in the…

  9. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... body of the drum must be constructed of multiple plies of heavy paper or fiberboard (without..., waxed kraft paper, metal foil, plastic material, or similar materials. (2) Heads must be of natural wood, fiberboard, metal, plywood, plastics, or other suitable material and may include one or more...

  10. The drum is the shaman, the spear guides his voice.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, J

    1988-01-01

    Kodi rituals of curing use anthropomorphized objects--the drum and the spear--as intermediaries to communicate with the spirits causing the affliction. The spear 'cuts through' to the cause of the illness at the divination, by guiding the arm and voice of the human diviner. The drum beaten during an all night ceremony has a more important role: a myth at the opening of the ceremony tells the drum's personal story or biography, which is identified with the suffering patient. In the course of the ceremony it travels on a shamanistic journey to the upperworld to seek the blessings of health and well-being. The myth of the drum's origin provides a narrative structure for the whole ritual, and defines the basis for its efficacy. The percussive sounds of the drum and gongs are said to make the patient feel better. A case study shows how 'ordered sound' is used to dissolve social tensions into a culturally structured pattern, so that consensus can be achieved in implicit accommodations in which neither party loses face. An older man's illness awakens guilty feelings among his younger relatives, whose thieving is believed to be responsible. The healing ritual creates the context for them to express contrition without confessing. Thus, although the rite re-establishes communication between persons and between the human and spirit worlds, it involves deception and silences as well as revelations. Through an analytic comment on social tensions, artistic illusions are used to overcome the airing of social differences. The healing rite is intended to restore a social consensus, produced by a combination of music, speech and actions, which allow signs to triumph over substance.

  11. EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-29

    The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive tests of these at Savannah River Laboratory (now Savannah River National Laboratory) were performed in 1969 and 1970. The results of these tests were reported in 'Drum and Board-Type Insulation Overpacks of Shipping Packages for Radioactive Materials', by E. E. Lewallen. The Lewallen Report was foundational to design of subsequent drum type RAM packaging. This paper summarizes this important early study of drum type packagings. The Lewallen Report demonstrated the ability packagings employing drum and insulation board overpacks and engineered containment vessels to meet the Type B package requirements. Because of the results of the Lewallen Report, package designers showed high concern for thermal protection of 'Celotex'. Subsequent packages addressed this by following strategies like those recommended by Lewallen and by internal metal shields and supplemental, encapsulated insulation disks, as in 9975. The guidance provide by the Lewallen Report was employed in design of a large number of drum size packagings over the following three decades. With the increased public concern over transportation of radioactive materials and recognition of the need for larger margins of safety, more sophisticated and complex packages have been developed and have replaced the simple packagings developed under the Lewallen Report paradigm.

  12. Environmental conditions in water storage drums and influences on Aedes aegypti in Trinidad, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Hemme, Ryan R; Tank, Jennifer L; Chadee, Dave D; Severson, David W

    2009-10-01

    Water storage drums are often a primary breeding site for Aedes aegypti in developing countries. Habitat characteristics can impact both adult and larval fitness and survival, which may potentially influence arbovirus transmission. Our objective was to compare fundamental environmental differences in water drums based on the presence or absence of larvae in Trinidad. Drums were categorized according to the larval status, and if the drum was constructed of steel or plastic. Water samples were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Continuous surface water temperatures were also recorded. Nutrient concentrations were considerably lower than those reported for other container breeding mosquitoes. No nutrient measured differed in concentration between drums positive compared to those that were negative for the presence of A. aegypti larvae. Levels of SRP and ammonium in steel drums were significantly lower than in plastic water drums. Both maximum and minimum surface temperatures were significantly lower in drums positive for the presence of larvae than in drums without larvae. Water temperatures in March and May were warmer than during October sampling periods. Larval presence is likely dependent upon the interaction among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. Despite appearance, not all water storage drums are equally suitable for A. aegypti development. Exposing water storage drums to direct sunlight or increased heat may be used in conjunction with sealing containers to reduce production of A. aegypti when draining and chemical treatment are impractical.

  13. Investigation of an Accidental Radiological Release in an Underground Disposal Facility.

    PubMed

    Poppiti, James; Sheffield, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A radioactive release took place at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico, on 14 February 2014. An alarm from a Continuous Air Monitor caused a switch from unfiltered to filtered air exiting the facility through High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance filters. The activity measured on the filters demonstrated first order decay, indicating that the release was a single release. The facility was reentered in April 2014 and photographic evidence pointed to a single breached 55-gallon drum that originated at Los Alamos as the source of the release. Data were collected and analyzed to verify the source and cause of the release. PMID:26710163

  14. Investigation of an Accidental Radiological Release in an Underground Disposal Facility.

    PubMed

    Poppiti, James; Sheffield, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A radioactive release took place at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico, on 14 February 2014. An alarm from a Continuous Air Monitor caused a switch from unfiltered to filtered air exiting the facility through High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance filters. The activity measured on the filters demonstrated first order decay, indicating that the release was a single release. The facility was reentered in April 2014 and photographic evidence pointed to a single breached 55-gallon drum that originated at Los Alamos as the source of the release. Data were collected and analyzed to verify the source and cause of the release.

  15. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.W.; Swanson, P.J.

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  16. Nondestructive Examination Equipment in the Hanford Site WRAP 1 and Retrieval Project

    SciTech Connect

    Keve, J.K.; Weber, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP-1) is currently under construction at the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington Stage. The facility is scheduled to begin operation in 1996. Its mission is to annually receive more than 6,800 55-gallon drums of both newly generated and retrieved contact-handled solid waste and prepare them for certification and disposal. WRAP 1, the Nondestructive Examination (NDE) System has two primary functions: To identify the presence or verify the absence of non-compliant materials in the un-manifested, retrieved drums, and to certify that all outgoing drums of TRU waste (newly generated and processed) are free of liquids and other non-compliant items. The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility, Phase 1 Project will unearth and recover the first 10,000 of 38,000 drums of suspect TRU waste buried between 1970 and 1985 for which no detailed contents manifests exist. Follow-on projects will recover the balance of the buried drums. To resolve safely issues about storing the newly unearthed drums, the containers and contents will be examined at the recovery site before the containers are placed in storage facilities.

  17. FY94 Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Operations Robotics Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.M.

    1994-08-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) develops technologies to help solve waste management and environmental problems at DOE sites. The OTD includes the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Together these programs will provide technologies for DOE mixed waste cleanup projects. Mixed waste contains both radioactive and hazardous constituents. DOE sites currently store over 240,000 cubic meters of low level mixed waste and cleanup activities will generate several hundred thousand more cubic meters. Federal and state regulations require that this waste must be processed before final disposal. The OTD RTDP Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) team held several robotic demonstrations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during November of 1993. Over 330 representatives from DOE, Government Contractors, industry, and universities attended. The MWO team includes: Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Engineering Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). SRTC is the lead site for MWO and provides the technical coordinator. The primary demonstration objective was to show that robotic technologies can make DOE waste facilities run better, faster, more cost effective, and safer. To meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste drum processing activities: non-destructive drum examination, drum transportation, drum opening, removing waste from a drum, characterize and sort waste items, scarify metal waste, and inspect stored drums. To further meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste box processing activities: swing free crane control, workcell modeling, and torch standoff control.

  18. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).

  19. Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

  20. Low tension graphene drums for electromechanical pressure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Raj N.; Mathew, John P.; Borah, Abhinandan; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a process to fabricate electromechanical pressure sensors using multilayer graphene in a sealed drum geometry. The drum resonators are fabricated on insulating sapphire substrates with a local back gate for direct radio frequency ({\\text{}}{{rf}}) actuation and detection of the mechanical modes. Using this scheme, we show the detection and electrostatic tuning of multiple resonant modes of the membrane up to 200 MHz. The geometry of the device also helps in attaining low tensile stress in the membrane, thereby giving high gate tunability (∼1 MHz/V) of the resonator modes. We study the resonant frequency shifts in the presence of helium gas and demonstrate a sensing capability of 1 Torr pressure in a cryogenic environment.

  1. Flow of magnetized grains in a rotating drum.

    PubMed

    Lumay, G; Vandewalle, N

    2010-10-01

    We have experimentally investigated the influence of a magnetic interaction between the grains on the flow of a granular material in a rotating drum. The magnetic cohesion is induced by applying a homogeneous external magnetic field B oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the gravity g. The drum rotating speed has been selected to obtain a continuous flow when the magnetic field is switched off. We show that, for both magnetic field orientations, the cohesion is able to induce a transition between the continuous flow regime to the discrete avalanche regime. The avalanche dynamics is periodic when B⊥g and irregular when B∥g. Moreover, the maximal angle of stability θ(m) increases strongly with the cohesion strength and could be higher than 90° when B⊥g. A toy model based on the stability of a magnetic block on a magnetic inclined plane is proposed to explain this behavior. PMID:21230228

  2. Flow of magnetized grains in a rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumay, G.; Vandewalle, N.

    2010-10-01

    We have experimentally investigated the influence of a magnetic interaction between the grains on the flow of a granular material in a rotating drum. The magnetic cohesion is induced by applying a homogeneous external magnetic field B⃗ oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the gravity g⃗ . The drum rotating speed has been selected to obtain a continuous flow when the magnetic field is switched off. We show that, for both magnetic field orientations, the cohesion is able to induce a transition between the continuous flow regime to the discrete avalanche regime. The avalanche dynamics is periodic when B⃗⊥g⃗ and irregular when B⃗∥g⃗ . Moreover, the maximal angle of stability θm increases strongly with the cohesion strength and could be higher than 90° when B⃗⊥g⃗ . A toy model based on the stability of a magnetic block on a magnetic inclined plane is proposed to explain this behavior.

  3. The evolution of harmonic Indian musical drums: A mathematical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudet, Samuel; Gauthier, Claude; Léger, Sophie

    2006-03-01

    We explain using mathematics how harmonic musical drums were discovered by Indian artisans and musicians more than 2000 years ago. To this end, we introduce a harmonic error function which measures the quality of the harmonic relationship and degeneracy of the first modes of vibration of a centrally symmetric loaded membrane. We explain that although the tabla configuration found by the ancient Indians is the most natural one, other configurations exist and some are harmonically superior to the classical one.

  4. 26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting on fixed turntable upon masonry center pier. Swing drive shaft (vertical) is turned by level gear of horizontal shaft (protruding through machine room wall), which turns pinion gear toothed to fixed turntable rack below rollers. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  5. Scaling of heat transfer in granular material in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohannes, Bereket; Emady, Heather; Pardes, Ingrid; Javed, Maham; Borghard, William; Glasser, Benjamin; Muzzio, Fernando; Cuitino, Alberto

    Several industrial processes involve thermal treatment of granular materials and powders, in devices such as rotating drums, to bring about a desired chemical and/or physical transformation. Developing a better understanding of the heat transfer process can significantly improve the quality of the end product and efficiency. However, there is a lack of predictive models, for example, to predict the evolution of the distribution and average of the particles' temperature, particularly for the purposes of scale-up from laboratory scale experiments to manufacturing scale productions. We used discrete element method (DEM) based simulations to study the distribution of particles' temperature in rotating drums at low temperature. Various physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of particles were considered in the simulations and in the analysis. In addition, the effect of operating conditions such as size of drum, material fill level, and speed of rotation on the heat transfer were investigated. Based on the simulations, we identified timescales relevant to the heat transfer process and developed a relationship between these timescales that can be used to predict the average temperature of particles. We also found that the evolution of the temperature distribution, since different particles may have different temperatures, can be predicted based on these timescales. These findings can be used to predict the required time to heat up all particles to the desired temperature.

  6. Axial transport of bidisperse granular mixtures in a rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zeina

    2005-03-01

    Bidisperse granular mixtures rapidly size segregate when tumbled in a partially filled, horizontal drum. The smaller component moves radially toward the axis of rotation and forms a buried core. On a longer time scale, axial modulations of the core may develop and grow into a series of bands along the drum, which become visible upon breaking the surface. Using a narrow pulse of the smaller component as the intitial condition, we observe that the axial transport of the radial core is a subdiffusive front advancement process. The front motion is subdiffusive in the sense that the radially integrated concentration forms a self-similar, compact axial pulse whose width grows as t^α, with α˜1/3 < 1/2, and hence it spreads much more slowly than by diffusion in a mixture which does not exhibit axial banding. By coloring some of the larger grains, we find that the mixing and axial transport of the larger grains is similarly subdiffusive. We report on the effects of changing relative grain size and drum diameter on the axial transport of grains. We find that mixing occurs in the radial core, and axial band formation is enhaced in these cases.

  7. Subdiffusion of segregated granular materials in a long rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zeina S.; Tokaruk, Wayne A.; Morris, Stephen W.

    2004-03-01

    Granular mixtures rapidly segregate radially by size when tumbled in a partially filled horizontal drum. The smaller component moves toward the axis of rotation and forms a buried core. On a longer time scale, axial modulations of the core may develop and grow into a series of bands along the drum, visible upon breaking the surface. Segregation models have generally assumed that axial diffusion of the smaller component determines the short wavelength cutoff of the band pattern. Using narrow pulses of the smaller component as initial conditions, we have characterized axial transport in the core. We find that the axial advance of the segregated core is well described by a self-similar concentration profile whose width scales as t^α, with α ˜ 0.3 < 1/2. Thus the process is subdiffusive rather than diffusive as previously assumed. We find that α is nearly independent of the grain type and drum rotation rate within the smoothly streaming regime. We compare our results to two one-dimensional PDE models which contain self-similarity and subdiffusion; a linear fractional diffusion model and the nonlinear porous medium equation.

  8. Classification and storage of wastewater from floor finish removal operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluates the wastewater generated from hard surface floor finish removal operations at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in order to determine if this wastewater is a hazardous waste, either by statistical evaluation, or other measurable regulatory guidelines established in California Regulations. This research also comparatively evaluates the 55 gallon drum and other portable tanks, all less than 1,000 gallons in size in order to determine which is most effective for the management of this waste stream at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The statistical methods in SW-846 were found to be scientifically questionable in their application to hazardous waste determination. In this statistical evaluation, the different data transformations discussed in the regulatory guidance document were applied along with the log transformation to the population of 18 samples from 55 gallon drums. Although this statistical evaluation proved awkward in its application, once the data is collected and organized on a spreadsheet this statistical analysis can be an effective tool which can aid the environmental manager in the hazardous waste classification process.

  9. Low-level stored waste inspection using mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-06-01

    A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy to replace human inspectors in the routine, regulated inspection of radioactive waste stored in drums. The robot will roam the three-foot aisles of drums, stacked four high, making decisions about the surface condition of the drums and maintaining a database of information about each drum. A distributed system of onboard and offboard computers will provide versatile, friendly control of the inspection process. This mobile robot system, based on a commercial mobile platform, will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. This paper describes and discusses primarily the computer and control processes for the system.

  10. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  11. Incidence of the leech Actinobdella pediculata on freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    Actinobdella pediculata (Glossiphoniidae), a freshwater leech, was found attached to freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie during 1991 through 1993. The animal was first observed during routine examinations of freshwater drum collected in May 1991. The leeches were usually attached to the inside, lower portion of the opercula near the isthmus. Incidence of attachment increased with freshwater drum age and length. No noticeable adverse effects on the fish from attachment by the leech were noted.

  12. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  13. Pyrolysis Autoclave Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Solidified Organic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Roesener, W.S.; Mason, J.B.; Ryan, K.; Bryson, S.; Eldredge, H.B.

    2006-07-01

    In the summer of 2005, MSE Technologies Applications, Inc. (MSE) and THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT) conducted a demonstration test of the Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR{sup sm}) in-drum pyrolysis autoclave system under contract to the Department of Energy. The purpose of the test was to demonstrate that the THOR{sup sm} pyrolysis autoclave system could successfully treat solidified organic waste to remove organics from the waste drums. The target waste was created at Rocky Flats and currently resides at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Removing the organics from these drums would allow them to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. Two drums of simulated organic setup waste were successfully treated. The simulated waste was virtually identical to the expected waste except for the absence of radioactive components. The simulated waste included carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, Texaco Regal oil, and other organics mixed with calcium silicate and Portland cement stabilization agents. The two-stage process consisted of the THOR{sup sm} electrically heated pyrolysis autoclave followed by the MSE off gas treatment system. The treatment resulted in a final waste composition that meets the requirements for WIPP transportation and disposal. There were no detectable volatile organic compounds in the treated solid residues. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for total organics in the two drums ranged from >99.999% to >99.9999%. The operation of the process proved to be easily controllable using the pyrolysis autoclave heaters. Complete treatment of a fully loaded surrogate waste drum including heat-up and cooldown took place over a two-day period. This paper discusses the results of the successful pyrolysis autoclave demonstration testing. (authors)

  14. Treatability study of Tank E-3-1 waste: mixed waste stream SR-W049

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1997-08-21

    Treatability studies were conducted for tank E-3-1 waste which was previously characterized in WSRC-RP-87-0078. The waste was determined to be mixed waste because it displayed the characteristic of metal toxicity for Hg and Cr and was also contaminated with low levels of radionuclides. Two types of treatments for qualifying this waste suitable for land disposal were evaluated: ion exchange and stabilization with hydraulic materials (portland cement, slag and magnesium phosphate cement). These treatments were selected for testing because: (1) Both treatments can be carried out as in-drum processes., (2) Cement stabilization is the RCRA/LDR best developed available technology (BDAT) for Hg (less than 280 mg/L) and for Cr., and (3) Ion exchange via Mag-Sep is a promising alternative technology for in drum treatment of liquid wastes displaying metal toxicity. Cement stabilization of the E-3-1 material ( supernate and settled solids) resulted in waste forms which passed the TCLP test for both Hg and Cr. However, the ion exchange resins tested were ineffective in removing the Hg from this waste stream. Consequently, cement stabilization is recommended for a treatment of the five drums of the actual waste.

  15. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  16. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-06-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  17. EVALUATION OF RADIOLYSIS INDUCED HYDROGEN GENERATION IN DOT 6M DRUMS FROM INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D

    2007-06-18

    Three DOT 6M 30-gallon drums are scheduled to be shipped from the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to L-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These three drums contain radioactive materials that resulted from the material recovery effort following a small explosion that had occurred in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) hot chemistry laboratory (HCL). In support of the shipment and subsequent storage of the three DOT 6M drums, an evaluation of the potential for molecular hydrogen production in the drums has been completed and documented herein. The potential sources of hydrogen evaluated in the current report include radiolytic decomposition of polymeric materials in the DOT 6M drums No.3031 and No.3598 and the radiolytic decomposition of water in drum No.20102. No other potential sources have been identified based upon reported drum contents and packaging configuration. A parametric approach was used to evaluate the maximum quantity of molecular hydrogen that can be expected to evolve in two DOT 6M 30-gallon drums in support of receipt and subsequent interim storage prior to canyon processing. These drums are two of three drums scheduled for shipment from INTEC to SRS as part of the decommissioning effort of the INTEC facility. The three DOT 6M drums will be received at L-Area in SRS and stored for up to 13-years prior to final disposition at HB-Line in 2020. Results of the current analysis do not include parametric analysis of drum No.20102 containing 114/133 SAL (salvage) which contains UO{sub 3} powder. This drum has not been identified as containing polymeric materials and a conservative calculation indicates that the maximum gross molecular hydrogen production due to the radiolysis of adsorbed moisture would yield a production rate of 5.1-cm{sup 3}/yr, driven primarily by the large surface are to volume ratio of the oxide powder. The remaining two drums, No.3031 and No.3598 contain polymer

  18. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF NGS CONCENTRATE DRUM SAMPLES [Next Generation Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Williams, M.

    2013-09-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared two drums (50 gallons each in Drum#2 and Drum#4) of NGS-MCU (Next Generation Solvent-Modular CSSX Unit) concentrate for future use at MCU in downblending the BOBCalixC6 based solvent to produce NGS-MCU solvent. Samples of each drum were sent for analysis. The results of all the analyses indicate that the blend concentrate is of the correct composition and should produce a blended solvent at MCU of the desired formulation.

  19. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-06-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles.

  20. Waste characterization: What's on second

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Smith,. M.A.

    1989-07-01

    Waste characterization is the process whereby the physical properties and chemical composition of waste are determined. Waste characterization is an important element which is necessary to certify that waste meets the acceptance criteria for storage, treatment, or disposal. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders list and describe the germane waste form, package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste package, and container criteria for the storage of both solid low-level waste (SLLW) and transuranic (TRU) waste, including chemical composition and compatibility, hazardous material content (e.g., lead), fissile material content, radioisotopic inventory, particulate content, equivalent alpha activity, thermal heat output, and absence of free liquids, explosives, and compressed gases. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responsibility for waste characterization begins with the individual or individuals who generate the waste. The generator must be able to document the type and estimate the quantity of various materials (e.g., waste forms -- physical characteristics, chemical composition, hazardous materials, major radioisotopes) which have been placed into the waste container. Analyses of process flow sheets and a statistically valid sampling program can provide much of the required information as well as a documented level of confidence in the acquired data. A program is being instituted in which major generator facilities perform radionuclide assay of small packets of waste prior to being placed into a waste drum. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-08-28

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  2. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-03-21

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  3. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-10-17

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  4. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-12-18

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  5. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-05-06

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  6. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Larval and juvenile red drum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, Jack

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for larval and juvenile red drum. The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for estimating model variables are provided.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Larval and Juvenile Red Drum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, Jack

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for larval and juvenile red drum. The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for estimating model variables are provided.

  9. A facility design for repackaging ORNL CH-TRU legacy waste in Building 3525

    SciTech Connect

    Huxford, T.J.; Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Davis, L.E.; Fuller, A.B.; Gabbard, W.A.; Smith, R.B.; Guay, K.P.; Smith, L.C.

    1995-07-01

    For the last 25 years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted operations which have generated solid, contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. At present the CH-TRU waste inventory at ORNL is about 3400 55-gal drums retrievably stored in RCRA-permitted, aboveground facilities. Of the 3400 drums, approximately 2600 drums will need to be repackaged. The current US Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for disposal of these drums is to transport them to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico which only accepts TRU waste that meets a very specific set of criteria documented in the WIPP-WAC (waste acceptance criteria). This report describes activities that were performed from January 1994 to May 1995 associated with the design and preparation of an existing facility for repackaging and certifying some or all of the CH-TRU drums at ORNL to meet the WIPP-WAC. For this study, the Irradiated Fuel Examination Laboratory (IFEL) in Building 3525 was selected as the reference facility for modification. These design activities were terminated in May 1995 as more attractive options for CH-TRU waste repackaging were considered to be available. As a result, this document serves as a final report of those design activities.

  10. TRU (transuranic) waste certification at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Legler, B M

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Certification Facility (WCF) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) assesses transuranic (TRU) waste in 55-gal drums by x-ray and neutron interrogation prior to shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The facility, equipment, and operation are described. Results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) show that the facility can be operated without undue risk to plant personnel, the public, and the environment. 4 figs.

  11. Improvement of Algorithms for Pressure Maintenance Systems in Drum-Separators of RBMK-1000 Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksakov, A. N. Yankovskiy, K. I.; Dunaev, V. I.; Kushbasov, A. N.

    2015-05-15

    The main tasks and challenges for pressure regulation in the drum-separators of RBMK-1000 reactors are described. New approaches to constructing algorithms for pressure control in drum-separators by electro-hydraulic turbine control systems are discussed. Results are provided from tests of the operation of modernized pressure regulators during fast transients with reductions in reactor power.

  12. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  13. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  14. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  15. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  16. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  17. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  18. Monkey drumming reveals common networks for perceiving vocal and nonvocal communication sounds.

    PubMed

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2009-10-20

    Salient sounds such as those created by drumming can serve as means of nonvocal acoustic communication in addition to vocal sounds. Despite the ubiquity of drumming across human cultures, its origins and the brain regions specialized in processing such signals remain unexplored. Here, we report that an important animal model for vocal communication, the macaque monkey, also displays drumming behavior, and we exploit this finding to show that vocal and nonvocal communication sounds are represented by overlapping networks in the brain's temporal lobe. Observing social macaque groups, we found that these animals use artificial objects to produce salient periodic sounds, similar to acoustic gestures. Behavioral tests confirmed that these drumming sounds attract the attention of listening monkeys similarly as conspecific vocalizations. Furthermore, in a preferential looking experiment, drumming sounds influenced the way monkeys viewed their conspecifics, suggesting that drumming serves as a multimodal signal of social dominance. Finally, by using high-resolution functional imaging we identified those brain regions preferentially activated by drumming sounds or by vocalizations and found that the representations of both these communication sounds overlap in caudal auditory cortex and the amygdala. The similar behavioral responses to drumming and vocal sounds, and their shared neural representation, suggest a common origin of primate vocal and nonvocal communication systems and support the notion of a gestural origin of speech and music. PMID:19805199

  19. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  20. Motion of a free cylinder inside a rotating water-filled drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, R. H.; Vial, A.; Barraud, C.

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental results on the motion and levitation of a freely to-move heavy cylinder, of constant diameter and varying mass, inside a water-filled drum rotating around its horizontal axis. The resulting flow field and the cylinder dynamics were determined with the aid of flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry methods. The spatial tracking of the inner cylinder was done with the aid of Fourier cross correlation methods. The steady bulk flow field created by the drum rotation generated forces that make the inner cylinder to counter-rotate without contact with the drum walls. Testing different cylinder masses and rotating drum frequencies has shown that there exists a range of stable spatial positions of the inner cylinder describing an angular segment inside the drum flow. The cylinder frequency can be set to zero if we increase the drum frequency beyond a threshold value. Increasing the drum frequency produces a stronger secondary flow circulation which is the key-mechanism responsible of the counter-rotating cylinder frequency. At this point, the inner cylinder levitates with a constant separation from the drum walls close to half of its diameter. Tests on heavy hollow cylinders revealed that the fluid filling the cylinder remains at rest while the cylinder was under levitation with zero rotation frequency.

  1. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  2. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  3. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  4. The effect of zebra mussel consumption on growth of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.

    1996-01-01

    We examined food habits and scale annuli of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie to determine whether increasing predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) had affected growth of freshwater drum. The volume of zebra mussels in drum guts was greater in older fish. Growth of age classes 3–4, which consumed few zebra mussels, was greater in the most productive year for zebra mussels, July 1990–August 1991, than in three prior years. The total lengths of 5-year-old drum changed little. The mean total length of 6-year-old females has declined since the zebra mussel invaded Lake Erie, even through mussels comprised more than two-thirds of gut samples in these fish. These studies suggest that zebra mussels may not benefit freshwater drum when serving as a staple in the diet. PDF

  5. Potential Vulnerability Issues for Drum-Type Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, L.B.; Sheaffer, M.K.; Anderson, B.L.; Hafner, R.S.; Witte, M.C.

    2000-05-24

    Type B and Type A fissile drum packages are required to undergo a series of tests that simulate both normal conditions of transport (NCT) and hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) as specified in 10 CFR Part 71. In particular for HAC, it must be demonstrated that the package can withstand a 30 ft. drop in the most unfavorable orientation without damage that would compromise its ability to survive a subsequent regulatory fire test. Historically, it has usually been assumed that the most unfavorable orientations are those that allow the maximum amount of available kinetic energy to be used for package deformation. Therefore, drop test orientations have been mostly limited to Top-Down, Bottom-Down, Side, and C.G. Over Top-Corner. (Where C.G. refers to the center of gravity of the package.) Here, it is shown that shallow angle top impact, where a portion of the translational kinetic energy of the package is transformed into rotational kinetic energy at impact, may also be a likely orientation that will lead to failure of drum packages that use bolted ring closures.

  6. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Di Massa, F.V.; Elliott, D.B.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 2, the Baseline Detail.

  7. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-07-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications.

  8. Synchronized Drumming Enhances Activity in the Caudate and Facilitates Prosocial Commitment - If the Rhythm Comes Easily

    PubMed Central

    Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter “accidentally” dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system. PMID:22110623

  9. What Employees Need (and Want) to Hear When Justifying the Suspension of a Regulated Metals Plan for the Processing of Drums Containing Metal Turnings

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Potts, T.; Hylko, J.M.

    2008-07-01

    A Regulated Metals Plan (RMP) was implemented for outdoor work activities involving the removal and disposition of approximately 4,000 deteriorated waste drums containing 236 metric tonnes (260 tons) of lead turnings from various, unspecified machine shop facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Until exposure monitoring could prove otherwise, the work area established for processing the drums was conservatively defined as a Lead Regulated Area (LRA) subject to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Lead Standard found in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.1025. The vast majority of the analytical results for the industrial hygiene breathing zone samples collected and tested for arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, selenium, silver, and thallium using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's analytical method 7300 were equivalent to the laboratory detection limits for each analyte. All results were less than 6% of their respective Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL), except for one nickel result that was approximately 17% of its PEL. The results provided justification to eventually down-post the LRA to existing employee protection requirements. In addition to removing the deteriorated drums and accompanying debris, the success of this project was quantified in terms of zero recordable injuries. The primary contributor in achieving this success was the sharing and communication of information between management, safety, and the field teams. Specifically, this was what the employees needed (and wanted) to hear when justifying the suspension of the RMP for the processing of drums containing metal turnings. Daily briefings on the status of the project and field monitoring results were just as important as maintaining budget and schedule milestones. Also, the Environmental, Safety and Health organization maintained its presence by continuing to monitor evolving field conditions to ensure the

  10. Experimental verification of modeling results for a PGNAA system for nondestructive assay of RCRA metals in drums

    PubMed

    Dulloo; Ruddy; Congedo; Seidel; McIlwain

    2000-10-01

    The use of pulsed gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the nondestructive assay of mercury, cadmium and lead in a concrete matrix has been demonstrated. Calculations have also been performed to study interference with PGNAA detection sensitivity resulting from the presence of 238U, 235U, and 239Pu at levels expected in mixed waste. Analyses based on transport calculations examined the effects of these nuclides on neutron kinetics, and the contribution from the capture, fission and decay gamma-rays emitted by the nuclides to the gamma-ray spectrum. These calculations predicted insignificant effects on the system's detection limits (115, 9 and 4400 ppm for Hg, Cd and Pb, respectively, for a 2000 s assay). This paper describes verification measurements recently conducted using samples of 235U and 231U in the test drum geometry, which have provided experimental confirmation of the modeling results.

  11. A Canadian Solution for Management of Mixed Liquid Waste - 13384

    SciTech Connect

    Suryanarayan, Sriram; Husain, Aamir

    2013-07-01

    Mixed liquid wastes (MLW) from Canadian nuclear facilities consist of solvents, PCB (Poly Chlorinated Biphenyls) and non-PCB contaminated oils and aqueous wastes. Historically, MLW drums were shipped to a licensed US facility for destruction via incineration. This option is relatively expensive considering the significant logistics and destruction costs involved. In addition, commercial waste destruction facilities in US cannot accept PCB wastes from non-US jurisdictions. Because of this, Kinectrics has recently developed a novel and flexible process for disposing both PCB as well as non-PCB contaminated MLW within Canada. This avoids the need for cross-border shipments which significantly reduces the complexity and cost for waste disposal. This paper presents an overview of the various approaches and activities undertaken to date by Kinectrics for successfully processing and disposing the MLW drums. A summary of the results, challenges and how they were overcome are also presented. (authors)

  12. TRU-ART: A cost-effective prototypical neutron imaging technique for transuranic waste certification systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The certification of defense radioactive waste as either transuranic or low-level waste requires very sensitive and accurate assay instrumentation to determine the specific radioactivity within an individual waste package. An assay instrument that employs a new technique (TRU-ART), which can identify the location of the radioactive material within a waste package, was designed, fabricated, and tested to potentially enhance the certification of problem defense waste drums. In addition, the assay instrumentation has potential application in radioactive waste reprocessing and neutron tomography. The assay instrumentation uses optimized electronic signal responses from an array of boral- and cadmium-shielded polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}H detector packages. Normally, thermal neutrons that are detected by {sup 3}H detectors have very poor spatial dependency that may be used to determine the location of the radioactive material. However, these shielded-detector packages of the TRU-ART system maintain the spatial dependency of the radioactive material in that the point of fast neutron thermalization is immediately adjacent to the {sup 3}H detector. The TRU-ART was used to determine the location of radioactive material within three mock-up drums (empty, peat moss, and concrete) and four actual waste drums. The TRU-ART technique is very analogous to emission tomography. The mock-up drum and actual waste drum data, which were collected by the TRU-ART, were directly input into a algebraic reconstruction code to produce three-dimensional isoplots. Finally, a comprehensive fabrication cost estimate of the fielded drum assay system and the TRU-ART system was determined, and, subsequently, these estimates were used in a cost-benefit analysis to compare the economic advantage of the respective systems.

  13. Granular flow in a rotating drum: Experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Li, L.; Smith, B.; Grinspun, E.

    2015-12-01

    Erosion at the base of a debris flow fundamentally controls how large the flow will become and how far it will travel. Experimental observations of this important phenomenon are rather limited, and this lack has led theoretical treatments to making ad hoc assumptions about the basal process. In light of this, we carried out a combination of laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis of granular flow in a rotating drum, a canonical example of steady grain motion in which entrainment rates can be precisely controlled. Our main result is that basal sediment is entrained as the velocity profile adjusts to imbalance in the flow of kinetic energy.Our experimental apparatus consisted of a 40cm-diameter drum, 4cm-deep, half-filled with 2.3mm grains. Rotation rates varied from 1-70 rpm. We varied the effective scale by varying effective gravity from 1g to 70g on a geotechnical centrifuge. The field of grain motion was recorded using high-speed video and mapped using particle tracking velocimetry. In tandem we developed a depth-averaged theory using balance equations for mass, momentum and kinetic energy. We assumed a linearized GDR Midi granular rheology [da Cruz, 2005] and a Coulomb friction law along the sidewalls [Jop et al., 2005]. A scaling analysis of our equations yields a dimensionless "entrainment number" En, which neatly parametrizes the flow geometry in the drum for a wide range of variables, e.g., rotation rate and effective gravity. At low En, the flow profile is planar and kinetic energy is balanced locally in the flow layer. At high En, the flow profile is sigmoidal (yin-yang shaped) and the kinetic energy is dominated by longitudinal, streamwise transfer. We observe different scaling behavior under each of these flow regimes, e.g., between En and kinetic energy, surface slope and flow depth. Our theory correctly predicts their scaling exponents and the value of En at which the regime transition takes place. We are also able to make corrections for

  14. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  15. Pu-238 assay performance with the Canberra IQ3 system

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, L.; Gillespie, B.; Seaman, G.

    1997-11-01

    Canberra Industries has recently completed a demonstration project at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRC) to characterize 55-gallon drums containing Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 waste to detection limits of less than 50 nCi/g using gamma assay techniques. This would permit reclassification of these drums from transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW). The instrument used for this assay was a Canberra IQ3 high sensitivity gamma assay system, mounted in a trailer. The results of the measurements demonstrate achievement of detection levels as low as 1 nCi/g for low density waste drums, and good correlation with known concentrations in several test drums. In addition, the data demonstrates significant advantages for using large area low-energy germanium detectors for achieving the lowest possible MDAs for gamma rays in the 80-250 keV range. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) drumming log and habitat use in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buhler, M.L.; Anderson, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    We described 15 Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) drumming logs and adjacent habitat within Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Drumming logs and adjacent habitat differed from 30 random non-drumming sites. Drumming logs had fewer limbs (8; P = 0.003) and a smaller percentage of bark remaining (12%; P = 0.0001). These logs were in advanced stages of decay but were still firm to the touch. Additionally, drumming logs were found close to clearings but in areas with increased amounts of undergrowth and mature trees. Adjacent habitat analysis (0.04-ha circular plot centered on logs) indicated drumming locations had significantly greater average canopy height, more vegetative cover consisting of conifer and total canopy cover, and more vertical foliage between 0.3 m and 3.0 m in height. Adjacent habitat was in advanced stages of maturity as indicated by significant numbers of both large-diameter logs and large-diameter lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) snags. Tree species dominating the canopy and subcanopy were large-diameter Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), lodgepole pine, and quaking aspen. Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and quaking aspen saplings were more numerous at used sites. Ruffed Grouse drummed in coniferous areas within close proximity of quaking aspen.

  17. Variation in movement patterns of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) inferred from conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Paramore, L.M.; Burdick, S.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    We used 25 years of conventional tagging data (n=6173 recoveries) and 3 years of ultrasonic telemetry data (n=105 transmitters deployed) to examine movement rates and directional preferences of four age classes of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in estuarine and coastal waters of North Carolina. Movement rates of conventionally tagged red drum were dependent on the age, region, and season of tagging. Age-1 and age-2 red drum tagged along the coast generally moved along the coast, whereas fish tagged in oligohaline waters far from the coast were primarily recovered in coastal regions in fall months. Adult (age-4+) red drum moved from overwintering grounds on the continental shelf through inlets into Pamlico Sound in spring and summer months and departed in fall. Few tagged red drum were recovered in adjacent states (0.6% of all recoveries); however, some adult red drum migrated seasonally from overwintering grounds in coastal North Carolina northward to Virginia in spring, returning in fall. Age-2 transmittertracked red drum displayed seasonal emigration from a small tributary, but upstream and downstream movements within the tributary were correlated with fluctuating salinity regimes and not season. Large-scale conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry programs can provide valuable insights into the complex movement patterns of estuarine fish.

  18. Interim storage of spent and disused sealed sources: optimisation of external dose distribution in waste grids using the MCNPX code.

    PubMed

    Paiva, I; Oliveira, C; Trindade, R; Portugal, L

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources are in use worldwide in different fields of application. When no further use is foreseen for these sources, they become spent or disused sealed sources and are subject to a specific waste management scheme. Portugal does have a Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility where spent or disused sealed sources are conditioned in a cement matrix inside concrete drums and following the geometrical disposition of a grid. The gamma dose values around each grid depend on the drum's enclosed activity and radionuclides considered, as well as on the drums distribution in the various layers of the grid. This work proposes a method based on the Monte Carlo simulation using the MCNPX code to estimate the best drum arrangement through the optimisation of dose distribution in a grid. Measured dose rate values at 1 m distance from the surface of the chosen optimised grid were used to validate the corresponding computational grid model. PMID:16604671

  19. Continuum theory of axial segregation in a long rotating drum

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I.S.; Vinokur, V.M.; Tsimring, L.S.

    1999-08-01

    We develop a continuum description for the axial segregation of granular materials in a long rotating drum based on the dynamics of the thin near-surface granular flow coupled to bulk flow. The equations of motion are reduced to the one-dimensional system for two local variables only, the concentration difference and the dynamic angle of repose, or the average slope of the free surface. The parameters of the system are established from comparison with experimental data. The resulting system describes both initial transient traveling wave dynamics and the formation of quasi-stationary bands of segregated materials. A long-term evolution proceeds through slow logarithmic coarsening of the band structure which is analogous to the spinoidal decomposition described by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. A thermal analysis for the use of cooled rotating drums in electron processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, P. Michael; Williams, Kenneth E.

    The thermal response of rotating drums under an electron beam has been analyzed using a finite difference thermal analysis computer code. Rotating drums are used to convey thin webs or films under the electron beams while controlling their temperature and, in some cases, in dissipating the exotherm involved in curing coatings applied to them. Each portion of the drum surface receives one heat pulse per rotation as it passes under the beam. The drum's thermal behavior shows both an immediate response to each heat pulse and a more gradual response to the average heat acquired over many pulses. After many rotations a steady state is reached where there is only an immediate response to each heat pulse but the gradual heating has tapered off. Nevertheless the steady state temperatures are strongly dependent on the gradual heating that led to them. Slow and fast speeds of rotation are compared showing the effects of both gradual and immediate heating components. The thermal analysis is extended to include the coolant fluid inside the drum shell and the web on the drum surface. The coolant's incoming temperature, volumetric flow rate, flow speed through the coolant channels and film coefficient between the outer shell and fluid are all included in the analysis. The small air gap between the web and drum, the convective cooling of the web to the ambient air, and the exothermic reaction of any chemical reactions on the web are included. The stresses produced in the drum shell (i.e. between the outer surface and the temperature-controlling fluid within the drum) are analyzed in order to define safe e-beam powers and rotating speeds. The analysis provides the basis for many design decisions and can give an end-user a full temperature history for his product for any set of conditions.