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Sample records for 55-gallon waste drums

  1. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6{prime} diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently.

  2. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  3. Nuclear Criticality Safety Calculational Analysis for Fissile Mass Limits and Spacing Requirements for 55 - Gallon Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Thomas C.; Hesse, David J.; Tayloe, Jr., Robert W.

    1994-05-01

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis was performed to determine the fissile mass limits and spacing requirements for the storage of 55-gallon waste drums at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS).

  4. Techniques for improving shuffler assay results for 55-gallon waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Prettyman, T.H.; Stuenkel, D.

    1994-08-01

    Accurate assays of the fissile contents in waste drums are needed to ensure the most proper and economical handling and disposal of the waste. An improvement of accuracy will mean fewer drums disposed as transuranic waste when they really contain low-level waste, saving both money and burial sites. Shufflers are used for assaying waste drums and are very accurate with nonmoderating matrices (such as iron). In the active mode they count delayed neutrons released after fissions are induced by irradiation neutrons from a {sup 252}Cf source. However, as the hydrogen density from matrices such as paper or gloves increases, the accuracy can suffer without proper attention. The neutron transport and fission probabilities change with the hydrogen density, causing the neutron count rate to vary with the position of the fissile material within the drum. The magnitude of this variation grows with the hydrogen density.

  5. Criticality Safety Analysis on the Mixed Be, Nat-U, and C (Graphite) Reflectors in 55-Gallon Waste Drums and Their Equivalents for HWM Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The objective of this analysis is to develop and establish the technical basis on the criticality safety controls for the storage of mixed beryllium (Be), natural uranium (Nat-U), and carbon (C)/graphite reflectors in 55-gallon waste containers and/or their equivalents in Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on the criticality safety limits and controls outlined in Section 3.0, the operations involving the use of mixed-reflector drums satisfy the double-contingency principle as required by DOE Order 420.1 and are therefore criticality safe. The mixed-reflector mass limit is 120 grams for each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent. a reflector waiver of 50 grams is allowed for Be, Nat-U, or C/graphite combined. The waived reflectors may be excluded from the reflector mass calculations when determining if a drum is compliant. The mixed-reflector drums are allowed to mix with the typical 55-gallon one-reflector drums with a Pu mass limit of 120 grams. The fissile mass limit for the mixed-reflector container is 65 grams of Pu equivalent each. The corresponding reflector mass limits are 300 grams of Be, and/or 100 kilograms of Nat-U, and/or 110 kilograms of C/graphite for each container. All other unaffected control parameters for the one-reflector containers remain in effect for the mixed-reflector drums. For instance, Superior moderators, such as TrimSol, Superla white mineral oil No. 9, paraffin, and polyethylene, are allowed in unlimited quantities. Hydrogenous materials with a hydrogen density greater than 0.133 gram/cc are not allowed. Also, an isolation separation of no less than 76.2 cm (30-inch) is required between a mixed array and any other array. Waste containers in the action of being transported are exempted from this 76.2-cm (30-inch) separation requirement. All deviations from the CS controls and mass limits listed in Section 3.0 will require individual criticality safety analyses on a case-by-case basis for each of them to confirm their

  6. Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

  7. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55 GALLON DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-01-04

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG&G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air).

  8. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  9. Design and fabrication of 55-gallon drum shuffler standards

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.M.; Hsue, F.; Hoth, C.; Fernandez, R.; Bjork, C.; Sprinkle, J.

    1994-08-01

    To analyze waste with varying levels of nuclear material, suitable standards are needed to calibrate analytical instrumentation. At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, the authors have designed and fabricated a single drum standard for a passive-active neutron counter (shuffler). The standard is modified simply by adding or subtracting plutonium of uranium cylinders to adapt to a range of nuclear material. The plutonium or uranium oxide was placed into small cylindrical containers (1-in. diameter by 5-in. long) and diluted with diatomaceous earth. The cylinders were welded closed and removed from the glove box environment without any external contamination. The containers were leak tested and then placed on a segmented gamma scanner to assure homogeneous distribution of the nuclear material. The cylinders are now placed into the drum to achieve the needed ranges for calibration of the instruments.

  10. Metal loss characterization in 55-gallon drum steel by the magnetic flux leakage method

    SciTech Connect

    Hockey, R.; Riechers, D.; Duncan, D.

    1995-12-31

    A technique, using Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL), has been developed for imaging corrosion damage in real-time on the inner surface of sealed 55-gallon drums. An experimental study and theoretical background are presented showing the sensitivity of an MFL technique for detecting and imaging both general and localized corrosion on the inner surface of sealed 55-gallon drums, inspected from the outer surface. Measurements resulting from studies on natural corrosion and machined defects in 55-gallon drum steel will be discussed. Image processing techniques applied to scan data show metal loss in 2-D gray scale images. This work suggests an approach to designing a real-time, full-coverage, 55-gallon drum inspection system to characterize drum wall thickness for comparison over time to determine corrosion rate.

  11. Results of the gamma-neutron mapper performance test on 55-gallon drums at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Roybal, L.G.; Svoboda, J.M.; Harker, D.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Carpenter, M.V.; Josten, N.E.

    1995-07-01

    The primary purpose of the gamma-neutron mapper (G@) is to provide accurate and quantitative spatial information of the gamma-ray and neutron radiation fields as a function of position about the excavation of a radioactive waste site. The GNM is designed to operate remotely and can be delivered to any point on an excavation by the robotic gantry crane developed by the dig-face project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). It can also be easily adapted to other delivery systems. The GNM can be deployed over a waste site at a predetermined scan rate and has sufficient accuracy to identify and quantify radioactive contaminants of importance. The results reported herein are from a performance test conducted at the Transuranic Storage Area, Building 628, of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex located at the INEL. This building is an active interim-storage area for 55-gal drums of transuranic waste from the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant. The performance test consisted of scanning a stack of drums five high by five wide. Prior to the test, radiation fields were measured by a health physicist at the center of the drums and ranged from 0.5 mR/h to 35 mR/h. Scans of the drums using the GNM were taken at standoff distances from the vertical drum stack of 15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, and 90 cm. Data were acquired at scan speeds of 7.5 cm/s and 15 cm/s. The results of these scans and a comparison of these results with the manifests of these drums are compared and discussed.

  12. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    SciTech Connect

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  13. ORNL testing of DOT specification 17H drums (55-gallon) for compliance with DOT specifications for Type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, J.S.; Lasher, L.C.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.; Van Hoesen, S.D.

    1986-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) proposes using Department of Transportation (DOT) specification 17H drums (55-gal) for transporting low-level waste (LLW) to Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) for interim storage. This container type was tested and found to be in compliance with DOT specifications for Type A packaging.

  14. Waste drum refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, L.J.

    1996-10-18

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of {minus}60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything.

  15. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  16. Impact and structural analysis of the INEL 55 gallon recycled shielded storage container

    SciTech Connect

    Richins, W.D.

    1996-07-01

    The INEL Recycled Shielded Storage Containers (RSSC) are designed primarily for the transportation and storage of mixed RH-TRU solid waste using recycled, potentially contaminated lead and stainless steel construction materials. Two versions of the RSSC have been developed accommodating either 30 or 55 gallon drums. This report addresses the structural qualification of the 55 gallon version of the RSSC to DOT 7A Type A requirements. The controlling qualification test is a 4 ft drop onto a rigid surface. During and after this test, the container contents must remain within the container and shielding must not be reduced. The container is also designed to withstand stacking, internal pressure, lifting loads, tiedown failure, penetration, and a range of temperatures. Nonlinear dynamic finite element analyses were performed using a range of material properties. Loads in the major connections and strains in the stainless steel and lead were monitored as a function of time during impact analyses for three simulated drop orientations. Initial results were used to develop the final design. For the final design, the stainless steel and lead have maximum strains well below ultimate levels except at an impact corner where additional deformation is acceptable. The predicted loads in the connections indicate that some yielding will occur but the containment and shielding will remain intact. The results presented here provide assurance that the container will pass the DOT 7A Type A drop tests as well as the other structural requirements.

  17. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  18. Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E.; Lucero, Randy P.

    2013-07-01

    Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011

  19. One-trip drum operating instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-10-01

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant.

  20. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale tests of low-level nuclear-waste-drum response to accident environments

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta, M.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Joseph, B.J.; May, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes extensive full-scale and scale-model testing of 55-gallon drums used for shipping low-level radioactive waste materials. The tests conducted include static crush, single-can impact tests, and side impact tests of eight stacked drums. Static crush forces were measured and crush energies calculated. The tests were performed in full-, quarter-, and eighth-scale with different types of waste materials. The full-scale drums were modeled with standard food product cans. The response of the containers is reported in terms of drum deformations and lid behavior. The results of the scale model tests are correlated to the results of the full-scale drums. Two computer techniques for calculating the response of drum stacks are presented. 83 figures, 9 tables.

  1. Field test results for radioactive waste drum characterization with Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1997-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication, factory testing, evaluation and demonstration of waste inspection tomography (WIT). WIT consists of a self-sufficient, mobile semi-trailer for Non-Destructive Evaluation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDE/NDA) characterization of nuclear waste drums using X-ray and gamma-ray tomographic techniques. The 23-month WIT Phase I initial test results include 2 MeV Digital Radiography (DR), Computed Tomography (CT), Anger camera imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Collimated Gamma Scanning (CGS), and Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with three simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were all demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively. Preliminary field tests results with nuclear waste drums are summarized. WIT has inspected drums with 0 to 20 grams plutonium 239. The minimum measured was 0.131 gram plutonium 239 in cement. 8 figs.

  2. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.

    1996-05-07

    In situ inspections were performed on tarp-covered 55-gallon drums of transuranic (TRU) waste stored underground at the Hanford Site. These inspections were part of a task to characterize TRU drums for extent of corrosion degradation and uncertainty in TRU designation (inaccuracy in earlier assay determinations may have led to drums that actually were low-level waste to be termed TRU), and to attempt to correlate accuracy of existing records with actual drum contents. Two separate storage trench sites were investigated; a total of 90 drums were inspected with ultrasonic techniques and 104 additional drums were visually inspected. A high-humidity environment in the underground storage trenches had been reported in earlier investigations and was expected to result in substantial corrosion degradation. However, corrosion was much less than expected. Only a small percentage of drums had significant corrosion (with one breach) and the maximum rate was estimated at 0.051 mm/yr (2 mils/yr). The corrosion time of underground exposure was 14 to 15 years. These inspection results should be applicable to other similar environments (this applicability should be restricted to arid climates such as the Hanford Site) where drums are stored underground but shielded from direct soil contact by a tarp or other means. Soil contact would lead to more rapid corrosion.

  3. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Demiter, J.A.; DeRosa, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    In situ inspections were performed on tarp-covered 55-gallon drums of transuranic (TRU) waste stored underground at the Hanford Site. These inspections were part of a task to characterize TRU drums for extent of corrosion degradation and uncertainty in TRU designation (inaccuracy in earlier assay determinations may have led to drums that actually were low-level waste to be termed TRU), and to attempt to correlate accuracy of existing records with actual drum contents. Two separate storage trench sites were investigated; a total of 90 drums were inspected with ultrasonic techniques and 104 additional drums were visually inspected. A high-humidity environment in the underground storage trenches had been reported in earlier investigations and was expected to result in substantial corrosion degradation. However, corrosion was much less than expected. Only a small percentage of drums had significant corrosion (with one breach) and the maximum rate was estimated at 0.051 mm/yr (2 mils/yr). The corrosion time of underground exposure was 14 to 15 years. These inspection results should be applicable to other similar environments (this applicability should be restricted to arid climates such as the Hanford Site) where drums are stored underground but shielded from direct soil contact by a tarp or other means. Soil contact would lead to more rapid corrosion.

  4. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  5. Final environmental assessment: TRU waste drum staging building, Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-09

    Much of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) research on plutonium metallurgy and plutonium processing is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, New Mexico. LANL`s main facility for plutonium research is the Plutonium Facility, also referred to as Technical Area 55 (TA-55). The main laboratory building for plutonium work within the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) is the Plutonium Facility Building 4, or PF-4. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if DOE were to stage sealed containers of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste in a support building at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) that is adjacent to PF-4. At present, the waste containers are staged in the basement of PF-4. The proposed project is to convert an existing support structure (Building 185), a prefabricated metal building on a concrete foundation, and operate it as a temporary staging facility for sealed containers of solid TRU and TRU mixed waste. The TRU and TRU mixed wastes would be contained in sealed 55-gallon drums and standard waste boxes as they await approval to be transported to TA-54. The containers would then be transported to a longer term TRU waste storage area at TA-54. The TRU wastes are generated from plutonium operations carried out in PF-4. The drum staging building would also be used to store and prepare for use new, empty TRU waste containers.

  6. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-08-23

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site FB-Line conducted atomic energy defense activities consistent with the listing in Section 10101(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The facility mission was to process and convert dilute plutonium solution into highly purified weapons grade plutonium metal. As a result of various activities conducted in support of the mission (e.g., operation, maintenance, repair, clean up, and facility modifications), the facility generated transuranic waste. This document, along with referenced supporting documents, provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration,equipment, process operations, and waste management practices.

  7. Nondestructive testing of waste drum integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.N. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Nondestructive techniques have been investigated to evaluate the structural integrity of low-level transuranic waste drums that have been buried in the ground for up to 15 years. Measurements of artificially corroded samples evaluated suitability, accuracy and rapidity with which commercially available instruments and transducers could perform the examination. Several available instruments have thickness measuring capability and probably could be tailored with a relatively minor amount of effort for precise measurement of the relatively thin wall thickness of a drum or bin. The ultrasonic method was shown capable of providing precise measurement of wall thickness for most critical areas of a drum. Some data were lost due to dents, rust, seams and labels. However, this work characterized the capability of the technique, and it can now be assessed against the need as repository requirements are more completely identified.

  8. Unsteady-state VOC transport in vented waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-08-01

    A model of unsteady-state volatile organic compound (VOC) transport in a vented waste drum has been developed. Model predictions of the VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement and the drum headspace are compared to measurements in lab-scale simulated waste drums.

  9. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM SLUDGE SAMPLE BOTTLES CAUSED BY RADIOLYSIS AND CHEMISTRY WITH CONCETNRATION DETERMINATION IN A STANDARD WASTE BOX (SWB) OR DRUM FOR TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    RILEY DL; BRIDGES AE; EDWARDS WS

    2010-03-30

    A volume of 600 mL of sludge, in 4.1 L sample bottles (Appendix 7.6), will be placed in either a Super Pig (Ref. 1) or Piglet (Ref. 2, 3) based on shielding requirements (Ref. 4). Two Super Pigs will be placed in a Standard Waste Box (SWB, Ref. 5), as their weight exceeds the capacity of a drum; two Piglets will be placed in a 55-gallon drum (shown in Appendix 7.2). The generation of hydrogen gas through oxidation/corrosion of uranium metal by its reaction with water will be determined and combined with the hydrogen produced by radiolysis. The hydrogen concentration in the 55-gallon drum and SWB will be calculated to show that the lower flammability limit of 5% hydrogen is not reached. The inner layers (i.e., sample bottle, bag and shielded pig) in the SWB and drum will be evaluated to assure no pressurization occurs as the hydrogen vents from the inner containers (e.g., shielded pigs, etc.). The reaction of uranium metal with anoxic liquid water is highly exothermic; the heat of reaction will be combined with the source term decay heat, calculated from Radcalc, to show that the drum and SWB package heat load limits are satisfied. This analysis does five things: (1) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water; (2) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from radiolysis (using Radcalc 4.1); (3) Combines both H{sub 2} generation amounts, from Items 1 and 2, and determines the percent concentration of H{sub 2} in the interior of an SWB with two Super Pigs, and the interior of a 55-gallon drum with two Piglets; (4) From the combined gas generation rate, shows that the pressure at internal layers is minimal; and (5) Calculates the maximum thermal load of the package, both from radioactive decay of the source and daughter products as calculated/reported by Radcalc 4.1, and from the exothermic reaction of uranium metal with water.

  10. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1998-10-26

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Savannah River Site FB-Line produced Weapons Grade Plutonium for the United States National Defense Program. The facility mission was mainly to process dilute plutonium solution received from the 221-F Canyon into highly purified plutonium metal. As a result of various activities (maintenance, repair, clean up, etc.) in support of the mission, the facility generated a transuranic heterogeneous debris waste stream. Prior to January 25, 1990, the waste stream was considered suspect mixed transuranic waste (based on potential for inclusion of F-Listed solvent rags/wipes) and is not included in this characterization. Beginning January 25, 1990, Savannah River Site began segregation of rags and wipes containing F-Listed solvents thus creating a mixed transuranic waste stream and a non-mixed transuranic waste stream. This characterization addresses the non-mixed transuranic waste stream packaged in 55-gallon drums after January 25, 1990.Characterization of the waste stream was achieved using knowledge of process operations, facility safety basis documentation, facility specific waste management procedures and storage / disposal records. The report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 "Acceptable Knowledge" from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  11. VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

  12. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  13. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  14. 1994 Solid waste forecast container volume summary

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, K.J.; Clary, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container type. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container types will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The forecast data for the 30-year period indicates that approximately 307,150 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed by the SWOC. The main container type for this waste is 55-gallon drums, which will be used to ship 36% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of 55-gallon drums is Past Practice Remediation. This waste will be generated by the Environmental Restoration Program during remediation of Hanford`s past practice sites. Although Past Practice Remediation is the primary generator of 55-gallon drums, most waste generators are planning to ship some percentage of their waste in 55-gallon drums. Long-length equipment containers (LECs) are forecasted to contain 32% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of LECs is the Long-Length Equipment waste generator, which is responsible for retrieving contaminated long-length equipment from the tank farms. Boxes are forecasted to contain 21% of the waste. These containers are primarily forecasted for use by the Environmental Restoration Operations--D&D of Surplus Facilities waste generator. This waste generator is responsible for the solid waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the facilities currently on the Surplus Facilities Program Plan. The remaining LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste volume is planned to be shipped in casks and other miscellaneous containers.

  15. THERMAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR WSB DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2008-06-26

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum.

  16. WDC - Advanced system for characterization of {alpha}-bearing waste in 200 l and 400 l drums: performances and lessons learned from the first industrial measurement campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Libens, A.; Vandorpe, M.; Cuchet, J.M.

    2007-07-01

    The Waste Drum Characterization installation was originally developed for the assay of alpha-bearing waste in standard 200 1 (55 gallons) drums during the dismantling operations of the Siemens mixed-oxide (MOX) facility in Hanau (Germany). That installation was validated and qualified by the German authorities, its main performances being: - Counting efficiency for coincident neutrons: approx. 1%; Lowest Limit of Detection (LLD): 75 mg {sup 240}Pu{sub eq}; Pu content per drum: up to 100 g tot. (35 g {sup 240}Pu{sub eq}) - Measurement duration: approx. 20 minutes. The success of this system, a passive neutron coincidence counter combined with a high resolution gamma spectrometer, led to the radiological characterization and qualification of about 1,700 drums during the period 2001 - 2004. In 2005, after completion of the dismantling operations of the Siemens MOX facility, Tecnubel took over the WDC installation which could be used in the frame of the future dismantling of the Belgonucleaire's MOX plant in Dessel (Belgium), which can be comparable to the Siemen's one. This second (and new) life for the WDC means that it must be rigorously retested and validated against the Belgian authorities requirements. Furthermore, and additionally to the future use in the Belgonucleaire's facility, Tecnubel was faced with new challenges, namely: Assay of 400 l drums together with the 200 l packages; Determination of the real LLD taking into account the background in different Belgian nuclear facilities, the determination of a value of {approx}5 mg {sup 240}Pu{sub eq} being an objective; - Assay of mixed alpha/beta-gamma wastes; Transportability of the WDC from one plant to another; Assistance to different nuclear operators for the licensing of the WDC for their own waste types. This paper describes the installation itself and its performances, presents the difficulties encountered during the new challenge and the results of the performed revalidation tests; it gives the

  17. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described.

  18. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.; DeRosa, D.C.; Demiter, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Hanford site is one of several U.S. Department of Energy locations that has transuranic radioactive Waste in storage, resulting from nuclear weapons material production. Transuranic waste has extremely long-lived radionuclides requiring great care in management; such waste is slated for eventual disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Most of this waste is stored in 208-{ell} (55-gal) drums below ground. At the Hanford site 37 641 drums are stored in several trenches. The drums were stacked up to five high with plywood sheeting between the layers and on top of the stacks. Plastic tarps were used to cover the drums and the plywood, with several feet of earth backfilled on top of the plastic. A fraction of the drums ({approximately}20%) were covered only with earth, not with plywood and plastic. The drums are either painted low-carbon steel or galvanized low-carbon steel. They have been placed in storage from 1970 to 1988, resulting in between 7 and 25 yr of storage. The environment is either soil or air atmosphere. The air atmosphere environment also includes, for some drum surfaces, contact with the underside of the tarp. The temperature of the air atmosphere is relatively uniform. Year-round measurements have not been taken, but available data suggest that the temperature span should be from {approximately} 10 to 30{degrees}C (50 to 86{degrees}F). Humidity in underground storage module mock-ups has been measured at nearly 90% during testing in the summer months. Subsequent tests have shown that the humidity probably drops to 50 to 60% during other seasons. This report describes results of a project to inspect the condition of the waste drums.

  19. Fire protection guide for solid waste metal drum storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, H.M.

    1996-09-16

    This guide provides a method to assess potential fire development in drum storage facilities. The mechanism of fire propagation/spread through stored drum arrays is a complex process. It involves flame heat transfer, transient conduction,convection, and radiation between drums (stored in an array configuration). There are several phenomena which may occur when drums are exposed to fire. The most dramatic is violent lid failure which results in total lid removal. When a drum loses its lid due to fire exposure, some or all of the contents may be ejected from the drum, and both the ejected combustible material and the combustible contents remaining within the container will burn. The scope of this guide is limited to storage arrays of steel drums containing combustible (primarily Class A) and noncombustible contents. Class B combustibles may be included in small amounts as free liquid within the solid waste contents.Storage arrays, which are anticipated in this guide, include single or multi-tier palletized (steel or wood pallets) drums,high rack storage of drums, and stacked arrays of drums where plywood sheets are used between tiers. The purpose of this guide is to describe a simple methodology that estimates the consequences of a fire in drum storage arrays. The extent of fire development and the resulting heat release rates can be estimated. Release fractions applicable to this type of storage are not addressed, and the transport of contaminants away from the source is not addressed. However, such assessments require the amount of combustible material consumed and the surface area of this burning material. The methods included in this guide do provide this information.

  20. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  1. Thermal sensing for characterizing the contents of waste storage drums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W. D.; Philipson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the feasibility to employ remote sensing for the characterization of the contents of liquid chemical waste storage drums. Philipson et al. (1981) had found that, when the air temperature is changing rapidly, differences in the thermal inertia of the drum contents can lead to detectable differences in the skin temperature of the drums. Thus, postsunset, airborne thermal remote sensing could potentially provide some level of discrimination among chemical storage drums. Discrimination should be possible among steel drums filled largely with: (1) aqueous solvents, (2) organic solvents, or (3) clay packing materials. The response of a drum filled with clay packing materials should be similar to that of an empty drum. The reported study had the objective to verify the theoretical findings, taking into account the use of a hand-held infrared radiometer. It was found that under the proper conditions the temperature differences among drums with the three different types of contents will be significant and consistent.

  2. Gas generation results and venting study for transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Arnold, P.M.; Simmons, W.C.; D'Amico, E.L.

    1985-09-23

    Sixteen waste drums, containing six categories of plutonium-contaminated waste, were monitored for venting and gas generation for six months. The venting devices tested appeared adequate to relieve pressure and prevent hydrogen accumulation. Most of the gas generation, primarily H2 and CO2, was due to radiolytic decomposition of the hydrogenous wastes. Comparison of the gas yields with those obtained previously in laboratory tests showed very reasonable agreement with few exceptions.

  3. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    SciTech Connect

    DEMITER, J.A.

    1998-11-17

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods.

  4. Wastewater Characterization and Hazardous Waste Survey, Reese Air Force Base, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    waste. The casings are neutralized with baking soda and turned In to DRMO. This generates approximately 55 gallons of hazardous waste per eight month...Facility. The remaining vats are topped off when losses from evaporation and drag-out become significant; with the exception of the hot water rinse ...Bldg 52 accumulation site. Trichloroethane is used to rinse bolts, and the waste solvent is drummed as hazardous waste and transported to the Base’s

  5. Nondestructive assay of curium-contaminated transuranic waste drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Lynn A.

    1999-01-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste drums containing non-actinide scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of 244Cm prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of 244Cm. To discrimination between the plutonium and curium materials in the matrix, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A californium shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration, which is relatively insensitive to the 244Cm contamination. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  6. Non-Destructive Assay of Curium Contaminated Transuranic Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, L.A.

    1998-11-01

    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste (TRU) drums containing non-plutonium scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of Cm-244 prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of Cm-244. To discriminate between the plutonium and curium materials present, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A Cf shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  7. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1990-10-01

    Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste drums were sampled for gas composition. Glass, metal, graphite, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values were calculated for the waste drums. G(H{sub 2}) was below 0.6 and G(Total) was below 1.3 for all waste forms discussed in this report. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Criticality Safety Evaluations on the Use of 200-gram Pu Mass Limit for RHWM Waste Storage Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    This work establishes the criticality safety technical basis to increase the fissile mass limit from 120 grams to 200 grams for Type A 55-gallon drums and their equivalents. Current RHWM fissile mass limit is 120 grams Pu for Type A 55-gallon containers and their equivalent. In order to increase the Type A 55-gallon drum limit to 200 grams, a few additional criticality safety control requirements are needed on moderators, reflectors, and array controls to ensure that the 200-gram Pu drums remain criticality safe with inadvertent criticality remains incredible. The purpose of this work is to analyze the use of 200-gram Pu drum mass limit for waste storage operations in Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Facilities. In this evaluation, the criticality safety controls associated with the 200-gram Pu drums are established for the RHWM waste storage operations. With the implementation of these criticality safety controls, the 200-gram Pu waste drum storage operations are demonstrated to be criticality safe and meet the double-contingency-principle requirement per DOE O 420.1.

  9. Payload Specific Evaluation for Concrete Lined Drums in the Standard Waste Box

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, P.G.

    2002-07-11

    Building 327 uses concrete-lined drums for handling waste generated from deactivation activities. This payload-specific evaluation assesses the shipment of these concrete-lined drums, as well as future drums, in the Standard Waste Box, certified Type A.

  10. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, C.F.,; Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R.,

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  11. A MODULAR STORE FOR DRUMS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.; Holden, G.

    2003-02-27

    Currently, the United Kingdom has no facility for the disposal of any waste above the low level category, indicating that all intermediate and high level waste, apart from spent fuel, has to be stored on the site of origin. To meet this storage requirement, nuclear sites are resorting to converting existing buildings or contemplating the construction of dedicated facilities, resulting in considerable cost implications. These financing aspects not only concern the construction strategy but also impinge on the ultimate decommissioning costs associated with each particular nuclear site. This paper reports on an investigation to apply the commercially available interlocking hollow block system to the design of a store for drums of radioactive waste. This block system can be quickly, and cost effectively, erected and filled with a choice of dense material. Later, the store can be dismantled with a minimum of disposable radioactive waste and the complete facility re - erected at another location if required, considerably reducing both capital construction and decommissioning costs. The investigation also encompassed a detailed review of the equipment required to place the drums of waste into the store, resulting in a scheme for a remotely operated vehicle that did not rely on umbilical control cables. The drum handler design included for 100% redundancy of all functions, meaning that whichever component failed, the handler was always recoverable to effect the necessary repair. The ultimate aim of the waste drum store review was to produce a facility that was as safe as a conventionally constructed unit, but at a lower overall building and decommissioning cost.

  12. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1995-08-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  13. MCNP Modeling Results for Location of Buried TRU Waste Drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D. K.; Schweitzer, J. S.

    2006-05-01

    In the 1960's, fifty-five gallon drums of TRU waste were buried in shallow pits on remote U.S. Government facilities such as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (now split into the Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Completion Project [ICP]). Subsequently, it was decided to remove the drums and the material that was in them from the burial pits and send the material to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Several technologies have been tried to locate the drums non-intrusively with enough precision to minimize the chance for material to be spread into the environment. One of these technologies is the placement of steel probe holes in the pits into which wireline logging probes can be lowered to measure properties and concentrations of material surrounding the probe holes for evidence of TRU material. There is also a concern that large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are also present that would contaminate the environment during removal. In 2001, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) built two pulsed neutron wireline logging tools to measure TRU and VOC around the probe holes. The tools are the Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) and the Pulsed Neutron Gamma (PNG), respectively. They were tested experimentally in surrogate test holes in 2003. The work reported here estimates the performance of the tools using Monte-Carlo modelling prior to field deployment. A MCNP model was constructed by INEEL personnel. It was modified by the authors to assess the ability of the tools to predict quantitatively the position and concentration of TRU and VOC materials disposed around the probe holes. The model was used to simulate the tools scanning the probe holes vertically in five centimetre increments. A drum was included in the model that could be placed near the probe hole and at other locations out to forty-five centimetres from the probe-hole in five centimetre increments. Scans were performed with no chlorine in the

  14. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  16. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site.

  17. Rotary drum composting of vegetable waste and tree leaves.

    PubMed

    Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Singh, Yatish K; Ali, Muntjeer; Khwairakpam, Meena; Kazmi, A A

    2009-12-01

    High rate composting studies on institutional waste, i.e. vegetable wastes, tree leaves, etc., were conducted on a demonstration-scale (3.5 m(3)) rotary drum composter by evaluating changes in some physico-chemical and biological parameters. During composting, higher temperature (60-70 degrees C) at inlet zone and (50-60 degrees C) at middle zone were achieved which resulted in high degradation in the drum. As a result, all parameters including TOC, C/N ratio, CO(2) evolution and coliforms were decreased significantly within few days of composting. Within a week period, quality compost with total nitrogen (2.6%) and final total phosphorus (6 g/kg) was achieved; but relatively higher final values of fecal coliforms and CO(2) evolution, suggested further maturation. Thus, two conventional composting methods namely windrow (M1) and vermicomposting (M2) tried for maturation of primary stabilized compost. By examining these methods, it was suggested that M2 was found suitable in delivering fine grained, better quality matured compost within 20 days of maturation period.

  18. Passive neutron design study for 200-L waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.B.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-09-01

    We have developed a passive neutron counter for the measurement of plutonium in 200-L drums of scrap and waste. The counter incorporates high efficiency for the multiplicity counting in addition to the traditional coincidence counting. The {sup 252}Cf add-a-source feature is used to provide an accurate assay over a wide range of waste matrix materials. The room background neutron rate is reduced by using 30 cm of external polyethylene shielding and the cosmic-ray background is reduced by statistical filtering techniques. Monte Carlo Code calculations were used to determine the optimum detector design, including the gas pressure, size, number, and placement of the {sup 3}He tubes in the moderator. Various moderators, including polyethylene, plastics, teflon, and graphite, were evaluated to obtain the maximum efficiency and minimum detectable mass of plutonium.

  19. Rotary drum composting of different organic waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Kazmi, Absar A

    2009-03-01

    The effects of three different mixtures of organic waste on composting in a rotary drum were examined by measuring changes in physico-chemical and biological parameters. It was observed that the time courses of the three mixtures: run A (grass cuttings, vegetable waste and food waste), run B (cattle manure, vegetable waste and sawdust) and run C (cattle manure, food waste, vegetable waste, paper waste and sawdust) were quite diverse. Run B, with initial C/N ratio 22 and containing a large proportion of cattle manure produced high quality and mature compost within 20 days. It showed a final total nitrogen (2.1%), final total phosphorus 3.52 g kg(-1), final total organic carbon (TOC) (24.8%) and final moisture content (44%). At the end of 20 days, higher degradation led to final chemical oxygen demand (COD) (454 mg L(- 1)), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (107 mg L(- 1)), fecal coliform (1.2 x 10(2) bacteria g(- 1)), fecal streptococci (85 bacteria g(-1)) and low electrical conductivity (1.658 dS m(-1)), respectively. Furthermore, run C with initial C/N ratio of 30 and containing a larger amount of food and vegetable waste produced good quality compost and resulted in 4.34% total nitrogen and 2.42% total phosphorus after 20 days, but, it had higher final fecal coliform 2.5 x 10(4) bacteria g( -1), fecal streptococci 2.1 x 10(4) bacteria g(-1), high TOC and NH(4)-N and a BOD/COD ratio of 0.63, which rendered it hygienically unsafe and immature. Finally, run A with initial C/N ratio of 15 showed a higher amount of EC (4.84 dS m(-1)), NH(4)-N, BOD/COD ratio of 0.4 with 15% nitrogen loss, which indicated an unstable product even after 20 days of composting. Therefore, it was found that rotary drum composting of a combination of cattle manure, vegetable waste and sawdust resulted in a primary stabilized compost within 20 days of composting.

  20. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  1. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  2. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  3. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  4. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  5. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  6. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment... of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met: (a) Hazardous...

  7. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment... small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). Small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs) may be placed in a landfill if the following requirements are met:...

  8. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  9. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG&G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured.

  10. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.D.; Rahimi, R.S.; Edling, D.

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Limitation of tritium outgassing from tritiated solid waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liger, K.; Trabuc, P.; Lefebvre, X.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C.

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the development of fusion thermonuclear reactors, tritiated solid waste is foreseen and will have to be managed. The management of tritiated waste implies limitations in terms of activity and tritium degassing. The degassing tritium can be under the form of tritiated hydrogen, tritiated water and, in some specific cases, negligible amount of tritiated volatile organic compound. Hence, considering the major forms of degassing tritium, CEA has developed a mixed-compound dedicated to tritium trapping in drums. Based on several experiments, the foreseen mixed compound is composed of MnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}O, Pt and molecular sieve, the three first species having the ability to convert tritiated hydrogen into tritiated water and the last one acting as a trap for tritiated water. To assess the performance of the trapping mixture, experimental tests were performed at room temperature on tritiated dust composed of beryllium and carbon. It was shown that the metallic oxides mixture used for tritiated hydrogen conversion is efficient and that tritiated water adsorption was limited due to an inefficient regeneration of the molecular sieve prior to its use. Apart from this point, the tritium release from waste was reduced by a factor of 5.5, which can be improved up to 87 if the adsorption step is efficient.

  12. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  13. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-19

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  14. Characterization of waste drums using nonintrusive active and passive computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G.P.; Martz, H.E.; Decman, D.J.; Camp, D.C.; Azevedo, S.G.; Keto, E.R.

    1994-08-01

    We have developed a data acquisition scanner for gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) active and passive computed tomography (A&PCT) along with associated computational techniques for image reconstruction, analysis, and display. We are using this scanner to acquire data sets of mock-waste drums at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNIL). In this paper, we discuss some issues associated with gamma-ray spectroscopy assay, NDA imaging, describe the design and construction of an NDA drum scanner and report on code development for image reconstruction. We also present representative A&PCT assay results of well characterized mock-waste drums. These preliminary results suggest that A&PCT imaging can be used to produce accurate absolute assays of radioactivity in real-waste drums.

  15. Identification of the fast and thermal neutron characteristics of transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, B.H. Jr.; Bramblett, R.L.; Hensley, C.

    1997-11-01

    Fissile and spontaneously fissioning material in transuranic waste drums can be most sensitively assayed using an active and passive neutron assay system such as the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay. Both the active and the passive assays are distorted by the presence of the waste matrix and containerization. For accurate assaying, this distortion must be characterized and accounted for. An External Matrix Probe technique has been developed that accomplishes this task. Correlations between in-drum neutron flux measurements and monitors in the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay chamber with various matrix materials provide a non-invasive means of predicting the thermal neutron flux in waste drums. Similarly, measures of the transmission of fast neutrons emitted from sources in the drum. Results obtained using the Lockheed Martin Specialty Components Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay system are discussed. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  16. L AREA WASTEWATER STORAGE DRUM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D; Dennis Vinson, D

    2007-11-30

    This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  17. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application.

  18. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Harry E.; Roberson, G. Patrick; Hollerbach, Karin; Logan, Clinton M.; Ashby, Elaine; Bernardi, Richard

    1999-12-02

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have seen increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed, 1.) Our computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. 2.) We are developing NDE and NDA techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  19. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, E; Bernardi, R; Hollerbach, K; Logan, C; Martz, H; Roberson, G P

    1999-06-01

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have been increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed. (1) The computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. (2) They are developing NDE and NDE techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  20. Evaluation of a neutron-photon shield for transuranic (TRU) waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R. J.; Gallegos, M.; Ruby, R.; Sullivan, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Operational Health Physics Group, with the support of the Nuclear Materials Technology Waste Management Group, has developed a wrap-around shield for use with 0.208 cubic meter (55 gallon) drums containing transuranic (TRU) waste. The shield or 'drum cover' as it is called, is innovative in its ability to attenuate both neutron and photon radiation associated with TRU waste. This poster presents information on the design, fabrication and field use of the drum cover. Design details to be presented include the composition of the shield including the materials used, thicknesses, weight, dimensions and fastener arrangement. Information on the source supplier for the shield materials, the fabrication vendor and the drum cover cost are provided. Shielding data show the unique effectiveness of the drum cover and its ability to reduce neutron and photon radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). These data include x-ray testing of the assembled shield materials, as well as field experience report on the drum cover using TRU waste containers and neutron source drums. The poster includes discussion and photographs of recent field uses for the drum cover, user experience and acceptance of the drum cover and suggestions for future use and enhancement of the drum cover design.

  1. Response to requests by FMF and DWPF concerning disposal of FMF saltstone drums in Z-Area vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1989-07-25

    Disposal of FMF saltstone in 55 gallon drums in the Z-Area Industrial Waste Landfill requires modification of the landfill permit. Approximately 5000 drums of FMF saltstone are currently stored on SC DHEC-permitted concrete storage pads adjacent to the burial ground. At a meeting with DWPF, FMF, and EPS on July 18, 1989, IWT agreed to supply the following information: (1) Consequence of disposal of CCA (Cu, Cr, As) treated wood pallets in the Z-Area vaults. (Four drums of FMF saltstone are currently banded to each pallet.) (2) Consequence of placing partially filled FMF drums in the Z-Area vaults. (3) Formulation for clean grout back-fill. Grout will be emplaced around and over the drums, thereby isolating them from environment (rainwater) prior to vault capping. (4) Maximum loading of FMF saltstone drums in the Z-Area vaults. (5) Consequence of void volume in drums, in clean grout, or both on groundwater modeling results. This document is a response to the above requests.

  2. Results for the Independent Sampling and Analysis of Used Oil Drums at the Impact Services Facility in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), via the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, perform independent sampling and analysis of used oils contained within eight 55 gallon drums stored at the former IMPACT Services facility, located at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These drums were originally delivered by LATA Sharp Remediation Services (LSRS) to IMPACT Services on January 11, 2011 as part of the Bldg. K-33 demolition project, and the drums plus contents should have been processed as non-hazardous non-radiological waste by IMPACT Services. LSRS received a certificate of destruction on August 29, 2012 (LSRS 2012a). However, IMPACT Services declared bankruptcy and abandoned the site later in 2012, and eight of the original eleven K-33 drums are currently stored at the facility. The content of these drums is the subject of this investigation. The original drum contents were sampled by LSRS in 2010 and analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), using both compositing and grab sampling techniques. The objective of this 2013 sample and analysis effort was to duplicate, to the extent possible, the 2010 sampling and analysis event to support final disposition decisions. Part of that decision process includes either verifying or refuting the assertion that oils that are currently stored in drums at the IMPACT Services facility originated from Bldg. K-33 equipment.

  3. Inspection, testing, and operating requiremens for the packaging and shipping of uranium trioxide in 55-gallon Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 6M shipping packagings

    SciTech Connect

    Toomer, D.V.

    1991-06-01

    This document identifies the inspection, testing and operating requirements for the packaging, loading, and shipping of uranium trioxide (UO{sub 3}) in 55-gallon DOT Specification 6M shipping packagings from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Compliance with this document assures established controls for the purchasing, packaging, loading, and shipping of DOT Specification 6M shipping packagings are maintained in strict accordance with applicable Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. A computer model of gas generation and transport within TRU waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. III

    1988-06-01

    A computer model has been developed to predict radiolytic gas generation and transport within Transuranic (TRU) waste drums and surrounding enclosures. Gas generation from the radiolytic decomposition of organic material contaminated with plutonium is modeled and the concentrations of gas throughout the waste drum and enclosures are determined using a diffusional transport model. The model accurately reproduces experimentally measured gas concentrations. With polyethylene waste in unvented drums, the model predicts that the concentration of hydrogen gas can exceed 4 mole percent (lower flammable limit) with only about 5 curies of plutonium. If the drum liner is punctured and an unrestricted 0.75-in. carbon composite filter vent is installed in the drum lid, the plutonium loading can be increased to 240 Ci without generating flammable gas mixtures. Larger diameter filters can be used to increase the curie loading. The model has been used to show that shipments of 1000 Ci of plutonium-238 contaminated waste from Savannah River to the WIPP site are feasible using the TRUPACT shipping container. 10 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Hazards Associated with Legacy Nitrate Salt Waste Drums Managed under the Container Isolation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-07

    At present, there are 29 drums of nitrate waste salts (oxidizers with potentially acidic liquid bearing RCRA characteristics D001 and D002) that are awaiting processing, specifically to eliminate these characteristics and to allow for ultimate disposition at WIPP. As a result of the Feb. 14th, 2014 drum breach at WIPP, and the subsequent identification of the breached drum as a product ofLANL TRU waste disposition on May 15th, 2014, these 29 containers were moved into the Perrnacon in Dome 231 at TA-54 Area G, as part of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) approved container isolation plan. The plan is designed to mitigate hazards associated with the nitrate salt bearing waste stream. The purpose of this document is to articulate the hazards associated with un-remediated nitrate salts while in storage at LANL. These hazards are distinctly different from the Swheat-remediated nitrate salt bearing drums, and this document is intended to support the request to remove the un-remediated drums from management under the container isolation plan. Plans to remediate and/or treat both of these waste types are being developed separately, and are beyond the scope of this document.

  6. Application of remote Raman screening to processing of mixed wastes in drums

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, B.A.; Jewett, J.R.; Parker, K.E.; Petersen, C.A.

    1993-02-01

    Disposal of transuranic and low-level drum waste involves decisions based on transportation restrictions, Waste Isolation Pilot Project - Waste Acceptance Criteria, and regulation resulting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the Washington State Department of Ecology. To support the decisions made concerning final disposition of these wastes, characterization protocols must be established that ultimately aid in defining the environmental impact. Under current methods, Intensive and expensive laboratory analyses are requested to support these decisions. Alternative screening analyses have been investigated to support characterization and reduce costs and sample turn-around times. One promising screening technique involves application of remote Raman spectroscopy for identification of unknown salts, sludges, and solids in wastes. Raman spectroscopy when used with real-time radiography and visual documentation expands the information base available for making real-time decisions for treatment of diverse drummed radioactive solid waste in a waste processing facility. Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy has been successfully employed to identify oxidizing reagent waste solutions disposed on vermiculite. In addition, it has been proven that low concentrations of material in binary salt mixtures can be detected by using fiber optic remote Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. Development of an extensive solid waste libraryis a key element in the deployment of this technology in the process environment of solid waste drums and barrels.

  7. Hazardous Waste Characterization Survey of Unknown Drums at the 21st Tactical Fighter Wing, Elmendorf and Shemya Air Force Bases, and Galena and King Salmon Airports, Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    identified by the base bioenvironmental engineer. 2 DISCUSSION Method The field work consisted of two tasks: screening all drums for waste oil and sampling...drums. At Elmendorf AFB the waste oil drums were marked to be processed through a recycle program by an Armstrong Laboratory contractor. For Shemya, the...constant Artic winds. At Galena the drums were physically moved to an adjacent waste oil storage area for use as fuel in waste oil burners being

  8. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  9. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  10. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE SOLIDIFICATION CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2009-06-01

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum. Detailed results and the cases considered in the calculations will be discussed here.

  11. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    SciTech Connect

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C.; Bachelet, F.

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  12. Design of benign matrix drums for the non-destructive assay performance demonstration program for the National TRU Program

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP (performance demonstration program) samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards, working reference materials (WRMs). The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standard(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The scope of this document is confined to the design of the PDP drum radioactive standard internal support structure, the matrix type and the as installed configuration. The term benign is used to designate a matrix possessing properties which are nominally non-interfering to waste NDA measurement techniques. Measurement interference sources are technique specific but include attributes such as: high matrix density, heterogeneous matrix distributions, matrix compositions containing high moderator/high Z element concentrations, etc. To the extent practicable the matrix drum design should not unduly bias one NDA modality over another due to the manner in which the matrix drum configuration manifests itself to the measurement system. To this end the PDP matrix drum configuration and composition detailed below is driven primarily by the intent to minimize the incorporation of matrix attributes known to interfere with fundamental waste NDA modalities, i.e. neutron and gamma based techniques.

  13. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (e) Reactive waste, other than cyanide- or sulfide-bearing waste as defined in § 261.23(a)(5) of this... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 265.316 Section 265.316 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS...

  14. A UK comparison for measurements of low levels of gamma-emitters in waste drums.

    PubMed

    Dean, Julian

    2009-05-01

    Much of the work of the UK nuclear industry is now concerned with decommissioning many of the existing power stations and other facilities. An important aspect of this work is the accurate measurement of low levels of radioactivity in waste forms such as building materials in order that these materials can be assigned to the correct waste streams. This has led to a call for suitable standards and reference materials, and the specific needs of UK users were identified at an NPL workshop in 2005. One of the highest priorities was for 'soft waste' spiked with gamma-emitters in a 200 L drum format, with an activity concentration of just under 0.4 Bq g(-1). In response, NPL prepared a single reference drum meeting this specification. The low density was achieved by loading the drum with plastic bottles, each partially loaded with ion-exchange resin. The resin in each bottle had been previously spiked with a mixture of (241)Am, (137)Cs and (60)Co, all traceable to national standards. The drum would be used primarily as the basis of a comparison exercise, but feedback on its usefulness as a calibration standard would also be sought. The drum was measured by 17 radioassay groups at 15 UK sites. The monitors used were mostly commercial gamma-spectrometry systems designed to accommodate waste drums. Some groups measured the drum on more than one monitor and some used more than one efficiency calibration. Many of the groups used mathematical modelling to derive their efficiencies. The results of the exercise were discussed at a second NPL workshop (2007), after which the participants were allowed to submit supplementary or replacement results (with reasons for any changes clearly stated). In total, 88 results were submitted. A total of 51 results were in agreement with the NPL values; of the remaining results, 24 were explained by the participants concerned (or were revised to provide supplementary values), but the other 13 results were either clearly discrepant or

  15. APPLICATION OF NONSPHERICAL FISSILE CONFIGURATION IN WASTE CONTAINERS AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2007-01-03

    Transuranic (TRU) solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes the application of nonspherical fissile material configuration in waste containers, resulting in less restrictive mass and spacing limits, increased storage capacity, and several administrative controls for handling and storage of waste containers being modified without compromising safety.

  16. In-drum vitrification of transuranic waste sludge using microwave energy

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave vitrification of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant is being tested using actual TRU waste in a bench-scale system and simulated waste in a pilot system. In 1987, bench-scale testing was completed to determine the effectiveness of in-drum microwave vitrification of simulated precipitation sludge. The equipment used in the bench tests included a 6-kW, 2.45-GHz microwave generator, aluminum cavity, turntable, infrared (IR) thermometer, and screw feeder. Results similar to those achieved in bench-scale testing are reproducible using a 915-MHz microwave system in solidifying simulated TRU sludge. Nine samples have been processed to date. Also, preliminary results using actual TRU waste indicate that the actual waste will behave in a similar way to the surrogate waste used in the 2.45-GHz system. Work is ongoing to complete the TRU waste tests.

  17. Radionuclide measurement proficiency testing for SNAP using NPL waste drum standards.

    PubMed

    Miller, T J

    2010-12-01

    AWE has participated in two rounds of radionuclide measurement proficiency testing using 200 l waste drum standards prepared by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). The results achieved, using the SNAP (spectral non-destructive assay platform) system, were generally within a few per cent of the true activities and gave confidence in the ability to allocate wastes to the correct categories in accordance with national legislation. This is important for reasons of public safety and also for minimisation of the amount of RSA (Radioactive Substances Act) Exempt material categorised as LLW (low level waste) as the UK's LLW storage capacity diminishes.

  18. Performance test of a gamma/neutron mapper on stored TRU waste drums at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Josten, N.E.; Lawrence, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    The results from a performance test of a {gamma}- and neutron-radiation measurement instrument used to provide two-dimensional radiation field maps are reported. The performance test was conducted at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) where interim storage is provided for 55-gal. drums of TRU waste from the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant. The performance test consisted of scanning drums stacked five high and five wide to identify high radiation areas and possible discrepancies with the waste manifest. Scans were taken at standoff distances of 15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm and 90 cm. Data were acquired at scan speeds of 7.5 cm/s and 15 cm/s. The results of these scans are presented as one, two and three dimensional contour plots of the radiation fields. A comparison of these results with manifests of these drums are compared and discussed. While the T-radiation fields as measured by the Health Physicist and by the radiation maps are in general in agreement, the TRU content as given in the manifest did not often correlate with the neutron map.

  19. Carbon decomposition by inoculating Phanerochaete chrysosporium during drum composting of agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Ramu, Kamma; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2015-05-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation during drum composting of agricultural waste was performed at different composting stages. Three trials were carried out with (5:4:1) combination of vegetable waste, cattle manure, and sawdust along with 10 kg of dried leaves with a total mass of 100 kg in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Trial 1 was a control without inoculation of fungus, while trial 2 was inoculated during the initial day (0th day of composting), and trial 3 was inoculated after the thermophilic phase, i.e., on the 8th day of composting period. The inoculation of fungus increased the volatile solids reduction by 1.45-fold in trial 2 and 1.7-fold in trial 3 as compared to trial 1 without any fungal inoculation. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was observed with 2.31, 2.62, and 2.59% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively, at the end of 20 days of composting period. Hence, it can be concluded that inoculation of white-rot fungus increased the decomposition rate of agricultural waste within shorter time in drum composting. However, inoculation after the thermophilic phase was found more effective than inoculation during initial days of composting for producing more stabilized and nutrient-rich compost.

  20. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... defined in § 260.10 of this chapter, must not be placed in the same outside container. (e) Reactive wastes... hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs). 264.316 Section 264.316 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS...

  1. Gamma-ray spectrometry method used for radioactive waste drums characterization for final disposal at National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste--Baita, Romania.

    PubMed

    Done, L; Tugulan, L C; Dragolici, F; Alexandru, C

    2014-05-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Department from IFIN-HH, Bucharest, performs the conditioning of the institutional radioactive waste in concrete matrix, in 200 l drums with concrete shield, for final disposal at DNDR - Baita, Bihor county, in an old exhausted uranium mine. This paper presents a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the characterization of the radioactive waste drums' radionuclides content, for final disposal. In order to study the accuracy of the method, a similar concrete matrix with Portland cement in a 200 l drum was used.

  2. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of WIPP and LANL Waste Drum Samples: A Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, David M.

    2015-10-19

    On Friday, February 14, 2014, an incident in P7R7 of the WIPP underground repository released radioactive material into the environment. The direct cause of the event was a breached transuranic (TRU) waste container, subsequently identified as Drum 68660. Photographic and other evidence indicates that the breach of 68660 was caused by an exothermic event. Subsequent investigations (Britt, 2015; Clark and Funk, 2015; Wilson et al., 2015; Clark, 2015) indicate that the combination of nitrate salts, pH neutralizing chemicals, and organic-based adsorbent represented a potentially energetic mixture. The materials inside the breached steel drum consisted of remediated, 30- to 40-year old, Pu processing wastes from LANL. The contents were processed and repackaged in 2014. Processing activities at LANL included: 1) neutralization of acidic liquid contents, 2) sorption of the neutralized liquid, and 3) mixing of acidic nitrate salts with an absorber to meet waste acceptance criteria. The contents of 68660 and its sibling, 68685, were derived from the same parent drum, S855793. Drum S855793 originally contained ten plastic bags of acidic nitrate salts, and four bags of mixed nitrate and oxalate salts generated in 1985 by Pu recovery operations. These salts were predominantly oxalic acid, hydrated nitrate salts of Mg, Ca, and Fe, anhydrous Na(NO3), and minor amounts of anhydrous and hydrous nitrate salts of Pb, Al, K, Cr, and Ni. Other major components include sorbed water, nitric acid, dissolved nitrates, an absorbent (Swheat Scoop®) and a neutralizer (KolorSafe®). The contents of 68660 are described in greater detail in Appendix E of Wilson et al. (2015)

  3. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums to be used as containers for intermediate level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, S.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.; Duffó, G.

    2013-07-01

    The present work is a study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different types and concentrations of aggressive species. A special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented ion-exchange resins in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 900 days. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The work was complemented with an analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition, as well as the morphology of the corrosion products. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drumscontaining the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina) , it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums.

  4. Pre-title I safety evaluation for the retrieval operations of transuranic waste drums in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, M.S.

    1992-08-01

    Phase I of the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Facility Line Item Project includes the retrieval and safe storage of the pad drums that are stored on TRU pads 2-6 in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF). Drums containing TRU waste were placed on these pads as early as 1974. The pads, once filled, were mounded with soil. The retrieval activities will include the excavation of the soil, retrieval of the pad drums, placing the drums in overpacks (if necessary) and venting and purging the retrieved drums. Once the drums have been vented and purged, they will be transported to other pads within the SWDF or in a designated area until they are eventually treated as necessary for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This safety evaluation provides a bounding assessment of the radiological risk involved with the drum retrieval activities to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker. The results of the analysis indicate that the risk to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker using maximum frequencies and maximum consequences are within the acceptance criteria defined in WSRC Procedural Manual 9Q. The purpose of this evaluation is to demonstrate the incremental risk from the SWDF due to the retrieval activities for use as design input only. As design information becomes available, this evaluation can be revised to satisfy the safety analysis requirements of DOE Orders 4700 and 5480.23.

  5. Pipe overpack container for trasuranic waste storage and shipment

    DOEpatents

    Geinitz, Richard R.; Thorp, Donald T.; Rivera, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A Pipe Overpack Container for transuranic waste storage and shipment. The system consists of a vented pipe component which is positioned in a vented, insulated 55 gallon steel drum. Both the vented pipe component and the insulated drum are capable of being secured to prevent the contents from leaving the vessel. The vented pipe component is constructed of 1/4 inch stainless steel to provide radiation shielding. Thus, allowing shipment having high Americium-241 content. Several Pipe Overpack Containers are then positioned in a type B, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved, container. In the current embodiment, a TRUPACT-II container was employed and a maximum of fourteen Pipe Overpack Containers were placed in the TRUPACT-II. The combination received NRC approval for the shipment and storage of transuranic waste.

  6. PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF A CRITICALITY IN A WASTE CONTAINER AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D

    2006-12-26

    Transuranic solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and various size carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 grams {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes an assessment of the probability of occurrence of a criticality accident during handling of the remaining transuranic waste containers at SRS.

  7. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums.

    PubMed

    Boshkova, T; Mitev, K

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume (152)Eu source (drum about 200L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation.

  8. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Worley, Christopher Gordon; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Borrego, Andres Patricio; Castro, Alonso; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Holland, Charlotte S.; Keller, Russell C.; Klundt, Dylan James; Martinez, Alexander; Martin, Frances Louise; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Myers, Steven Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Schake, Ann Rene; Schappert, Michael Francis; Soderberg, Constance B.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Xu, Ning

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  9. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  10. Feasibility study of 235U and 239Pu characterization in radioactive waste drums using neutron-induced fission delayed gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, T.; Pérot, B.; Carasco, C.; Brackx, E.; Mariani, A.; Passard, C.; Mauerhofer, E.; Collot, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a feasibility study of 235U and 239Pu characterization in 225 L bituminized waste drums or 200 L concrete waste drums, by detecting delayed fission gamma rays between the pulses of a deuterium-tritium neutron generator. The delayed gamma yields were first measured with bare samples of 235U and 239Pu in REGAIN, a facility dedicated to the assay of 118 L waste drums by Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) at CEA Cadarache, France. Detectability in the waste drums is then assessed using the MCNPX model of MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation), another PGNAA cell dedicated to 200 L drums at FZJ, Germany. For the bituminized waste drum, performances are severely hampered by the high gamma background due to 137Cs, which requires the use of collimator and shield to avoid electronics saturation, these elements being very penalizing for the detection of the weak delayed gamma signal. However, for lower activity concrete drums, detection limits range from 10 to 290 g of 235U or 239Pu, depending on the delayed gamma rays of interest. These detection limits have been determined by using MCNPX to calculate the delayed gamma useful signal, and by measuring the experimental gamma background in MEDINA with a 200 L concrete drum mock-up. The performances could be significantly improved by using a higher interrogating neutron emission and an optimized experimental setup, which would allow characterizing nuclear materials in a wide range of low and medium activity waste packages.

  11. Results from the first Waste and Residue NDA Measurements School

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Abhold, M.; Coop, K.; Prettyman, T.; Rinard, P.; Sheppard, G.; Smith, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first Waste and Residue Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements School was given at Los Alamos on June 3--7, 1996. This school is a new part of the DOE Office of Safeguards and Security, Safeguards Training Program, with additional instructor support from the National Transuranic Waste Program, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Westinghouse savannah River Company, Pajarito Scientific Corporation, and Canberra Industries. The school was attended by 22 safeguards and waste measurement personnel from DOE facilities, and included lectures on waste characterization requirements, the WIPP Performance Demonstration Program, waste and residue NDA techniques, and a workshop discussion on waste assay issues. Hands-on training modules with 55-gallon-drum waste assay systems were held using a Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner, a Tomographic Gamma-ray Scanner, two Add-a-Source Waste-Drum Assay Systems, a Californium Shuffler, and a Differential Die-away system that included Combined Thermal-Epithermal Neutron Interrogation (CTEN). This paper will describe the new school and report on the measurement results obtained during the school with the above-mentioned waste-drum assay systems.

  12. Proficiency test for non-destructive assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums by gamma assay systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Bruggeman, M.; Botte, J.

    2007-07-01

    The European Network of Testing Facilities for the Quality Checking of Radioactive Waste Packages (ENTRAP) initiated a feasibility study on how to organize in the most cost effective way an international proficiency tests for non-destructive, gamma-ray based, assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums in the European Union at a regular time interval of 2 or 3 years. This feasibility study addresses all aspects of proficiency testing on radioactive waste packages including the design of a commonly accepted reference 220 liter drum. This design, based on the international response on a send out questionnaire, includes matrixes, radioactive sources; a solution to overcome the tedious and expensive international transport costs of real or even simulated waste packages, general cost estimation for the organization of, and the participation in the proficiency test. The proposed concept for the proficiency testing and the estimated costs are presented. The participation costs of the first proficiency test are mainly determined by the manufacturing of the non-radioactive 220 liter drum ({+-} 55%). Applied reference sources, transport of the drum and reference sources and participation costs in the proficiency test contribute each about {+-} 15%. (authors)

  13. First Industrial Tests of a Matrix Monitor Correction for the Differential Die-away Technique of Historical Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Antoni, Rodolphe; Passard, Christian; Perot, Bertrand; Grassi, Gabriele

    2015-07-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT). In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (LMN) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor, namely a 3He proportional counter located inside the measurement cavity. After feasibility studies performed with LMN's PROMETHEE 6 laboratory measurement cell and with MCNPX simulations, this paper presents first experimental tests performed on the industrial ACC (hulls and nozzles compaction facility) measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been carried out by performing dedicated calibration measurements with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the modeling approach and the industrial feasibility of the method, which will be implemented on the industrial station for the measurement of historical wastes. (authors)

  14. Quarter-scale modeling of room convergence effects on CH (contact-handled) TRU drum waste emplacements using WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) reference design geometries

    SciTech Connect

    VandeKraats, J.

    1987-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of horizontal room convergence on CH waste packages emplaced in the WIPP Reference Design geometry (rooms 13 feet high by 33 feet wide, with minus 3/8 inch screened backfill emplaced over and around the waste packages) as a function of time. Based on two tests, predictions were made with regard to full-scale 6-packs emplaced in the Reference Design geometry. These are that load will be transmitted completely through the stack within the first five years after waste emplacement and all drums in all 6-packs will be affected; that virtually all drums will show some deformation eight years after emplacement; that some drums may breach before the eighth year after emplacement has elapsed; and that based on criteria developed during testing, it is predicted that 1% of the drums emplaced will be breached after 8 years and, after 15 years, approximately 12% of the drums are predicted to be breached. 8 refs., 41 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Automated Sorting of Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2001-03-01

    The HANDSS-55 Transuranic Waste Sorting Module is designed to sort out items found in 55-gallon drums of waste as determined by an operator. Innovative imaging techniques coupled with fast linear motor-based motion systems and a flexible end-effector system allow the operator to remove items from the waste stream by a touch of the finger. When all desired items are removed from the waste stream, the remaining objects are automatically moved to a repackaging port for removal from the glovebox/cell. The Transuranic Waste Sorting Module consists of 1) a high accuracy XYZ Stereo Measurement and Imaging system, 2) a vibrating/tilting sorting table, 3) an XY Deployment System, 4) a ZR Deployment System, 5) several user-selectable end-effectors, 6) a waste bag opening system, 7) control and instrumentation, 8) a noncompliant waste load-out area, and 9) a Human/Machine Interface (HMI). The system is modular in design to accommodate database management tools, additional load-out ports, and other enhancements. Manually sorting the contents of a 55-gallon drum takes about one day per drum. The HANDSS-55 Waste Sorting Module is designed to significantly increase the throughput of this sorting process by automating those functions that are strenuous and tiresome for an operator to perform. The Waste Sorting Module uses the inherent ability of an operator to identify the items that need to be segregated from the waste stream and then, under computer control, picks that item out of the waste and deposits it in the appropriate location. The operator identifies the object by locating the visual image on a large color display and touches the image on the display with his finger. The computer then determines the location of the object, and performing a highspeed image analysis determines its size and orientation, so that a robotic gripper can be deployed to pick it up. Following operator verification by voice or function key, the object is deposited into a specified location.

  16. Developing Automated Methods of Waste Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the need complex-wide for remote and automated technologies as they relate to the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes. This analysis revealed that several DOE sites need the capability to open drums containing waste, visually inspect and sort the contents, and finally repackage the containers that are acceptable at a waste disposal facility such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Conditioning contaminated waste so that it is compatible with the WIPP criteria for storage is an arduous task whether the waste is contact handled (waste having radioactivity levels below 200 mrem/hr) or remote handled. Currently, WIPP non-compliant items are removed from the waste stream manually, at a rate of about one 55-gallon drum per day. Issues relating to contamination-based health hazards as well as repetitive motion health hazards are steering industry towards a more user-friendly, method of conditioning or sorting waste.

  17. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    SciTech Connect

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  18. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  19. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  20. Implementation of advanced matrix corrections for active interrogation of waste drums using the CTEN instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, S.; Estep, R.; Hollas, C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined thermal/epithermal neutron instrument (CTEN) was designed at Los Alamos to improve measurement accuracy and mitigate self shielding effects inherent in the differential dieaway technique (DDT). A major goal in this research effort has been the development of a calibration technique that incorporates recently developed matrix and self-shielding corrections using data generated from additional detectors and new acquisition techniques. A comprehensive data set containing both active and passive measurements was generated using 26 different matrices and comprising a total of 1,400 measurements. In all, 31 flux-and-matrix-dependent parameters, 24 positional parameters, two dieaway times, and a correlated ratio were determined from each of the over 1,400 measurements. A reduced list of matrix indicators, prioritized using the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm, was used to train a neural network using a generalized regression technique (GRNN) to determine matrix- and position-corrected calibration factors. This paper describes the experimental, analytical, and empirical techniques used to determine the corrected calibration factor for an unknown waste drum. Results from a range of cases are compared with those obtained using a mobile DDT instrument and traditional DDT algorithms.

  1. Three dimensional reconstruction of activity profiles in 220 liters radioactive waste packages containing super-compacted 100 liters drums

    SciTech Connect

    Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Maes, J.

    2007-07-01

    The 3DRedact project's main objective is the development of a non-destructive assay (NDA) system that can replace emission computer tomography (ECT) and transmission computer tomography (TCT) for the routine characterization of decayed radioactive waste 220 liters drums. The existing fast NDA scan system has been extended with a transmission system that fulfils the requirements of fast scan measurements. The design parameters and engineering are described. As a consequence of this extension the analyze program HOLIS had to be updated, so that HOLIS can make full advantage of the transmission data generated by the analysis of a 220 liters waste drum, containing different super compacted drums. The achievements of the new HOLIS version are presented. As a first assessment, based on the presented tests results, the accuracy of the calculated coordinates of hotspots can be assessed for all coordinates {+-} 1 cm and for the activity of the hot-spot {+-} 5 %. These accuracies are within the predefined requirements e.g. coordinates uncertainty {+-} 2 cm and activity less than 10 %. Further, additional safety systems have been installed to improve a healthy and save working environment. (authors)

  2. Description of the solid waste container corrosion program at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Waste management and environmental restoration are the Prime missions of the Hanford site, owned by the Department of Energy and operated by a management and operations contractor. The Site is located in southeast Washington State; its focus since World War II was the production of nuclear material to be used in atomic weapons but now is environmental cleanup. The cleanup of the site presents formidable challenges. The degradation of containers used to store radioactive and hazardous waste presents one of these challenges. Such containers, primarily 55 gallon (208 liter) drums, have been stored for eventual retrieval and re-packing for final disposal, some since 1970, in various types of environments. The expected degradation during storage must be estimated, verified, and predicted to allow prudent waste storage. several programs have been put into place at the Hanford Site to facilitate corrosion measurement and prediction.

  3. Reconstruction of the activity of point sources for the accurate characterization of nuclear waste drums by segmented gamma scanning.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2011-06-01

    This work improves the reliability and accuracy in the reconstruction of the total isotope activity content in heterogeneous nuclear waste drums containing point sources. The method is based on χ(2)-fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution measured during a drum rotation in segmented gamma scanning. A new description of the analytical calculation of the angular count rate distribution is introduced based on a more precise model of the collimated detector. The new description is validated and compared to the old description using MCNP5 simulations of angular dependent count rate distributions of Co-60 and Cs-137 point sources. It is shown that the new model describes the angular dependent count rate distribution significantly more accurate compared to the old model. Hence, the reconstruction of the activity is more accurate and the errors are considerably reduced that lead to more reliable results. Furthermore, the results are compared to the conventional reconstruction method assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution.

  4. Acoustic mapping as an environmental management tool: I. detection of barrels of low-level radioactive waste, Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.; Schwab, William C.; Wright, A. St. C.; Drake, David E.; Chin, John L.; Danforth, William W.; Ueber, Edward

    1994-01-01

    An example of the potential of this technique is summarized herein for the Gulf of the Farallones region. More than 47 800 drums (55 gallon) and other containers of low-level radioactive waste were dumped on the continental margin offshore the San Francisco Bay between 1946 and 1970. These drums now litter a large area (1200 km2) of the sea floor within the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS). The exact location of the drums and the potential hazard the drums pose to the environment are unknown. To evaluate the risk, samples of the sediment, biota and water must be collected near and distant from the concentrations of barrels. To do this the exact location of the barrels must be known prior to sampling. The USGS, through a cooperative research agreement with GFNMS, used sidescan sonar to map two areas within the sanctuary. Total sea-floor coverage was obtained and computer-processed sonographic mosaics were constructed on board ship. Many small nongeologic targets were distributed throughout the survey areas that covered about 70 km2 on the shelf and 120 km2 on the slope. Analysis of the sidescan data suggests that the targets are 55-gallon drums. This interpretation was confirmed at one site with an underwater video and 35-mm camera system. Data were collected with both a 30-kHz and a 120-kHz sidescan system within a 15-km2 area on the shelf. We found that the barrels were more easily detected with the mid-range 30-kHz system than with the higher resolution 120-kHz system. Maps of barrel distribution derived from the sonographs are being used to design sampling schemes to evaluate the risk that the radioactivity may have on the biota and environment.

  5. Mechanical compaction of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M. ); Thompson, T.W.; VanBuskirk, R.G.; Patti, N.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The investigation described in this report acquired experimental information about how materials simulating transuranic (TRU) waste compact under axial compressive stress, and used these data to define a model for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room analyses. The first step was to determine compaction curves for various simultant materials characteristic of TRU waste. Stress-volume compaction curves for various combinations of these materials were than derived to represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories. Prediction of compaction response in this manner is considered essential for the WIPP program because of the difficulties inherent in working with real (radioactive) waste. Next, full-sized 55-gallon drums of simulated combustible, metallic, and sludge waste were axially compacted. These results provided data that can be directly applied to room consolidation and data for comparison with the predictions obtained in Part 1 of the investigation. Compaction curves, which represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories, were determined, and a curve for the averaged waste inventory of the entire repository was derived. 9 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  7. Passive neutron coincidence counting with plastic scintillators for the characterization of radioactive waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Deyglun, C.; Simony, B.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Saurel, N.; Colas, S.; Collot, J.

    2015-07-01

    neutron coincidence counting system for radioactive waste drums using plastic scintillators have been studied using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX-PoliMi v2.0 coupled to data processing algorithms developed with ROOT data analysis software. In addition to the correlated background, accidental coincidences are taken into account in the simulation by randomly merging pulses from different calculations with fission and (α,n) sources. (authors)

  8. Final evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company, WRAP-1,208 liter waste drum, docket 94-35-7A, type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP-1) Drum. The WRAP-1 Drum was tested for DOE-HQ in August 1994, by Los Alamos National Laboratory, under docket number 94-35-7A. Additionally, comparison and evaluation of the approved, as-tested packaging configuration was performed by WHC in September 1995. The WRAP-1 Drum was evaluated against the performance of the DOT-17C, 208 1 (55-gal) steel drums tested and evaluated under dockets 89-13-7A/90-18-7A and 94-37-7A.

  9. Russian Containers for Transportation of Solid Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.

    2002-02-28

    The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified.

  10. Low Level and Transuranic Waste Segregation and Low Level Waste Characterization at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site - 12424

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Blackford, Ty; Estes, Michael; Jasen, William; Cahill, Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the waste measurement and waste characterization activities carried out by ANTECH Corporation (ANTECH) and CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site under Contracts No. 22394 and No. 40245 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). These include Low Level Waste (LLW) and Transuranic (TRU) Waste segregation and LLW characterization for both 55-gallon (200-litre) drums with gross weight up to 454 kg and 85-gallon over-pack drums. In order to achieve efficient and effective waste drum segregation and assay, ANTECH deployed an automated Gamma Mobile Assay Laboratory (G-MAL) at the trench face in both 200 Area West and East. The unit consists of a modified 40 foot ISO shipping container with an automatic flow through roller conveyor system with internal drum weigh scale, four measurement and drum rotation positions, and four high efficiency high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors with both detector and shadow shields. The unit performs multiple far-field measurements and is able to segregate drums at levels well below 100 nCi/g. The system is sufficiently sensitive that drums, which are classified as LLW, are characterized at measurement levels that meet the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). With measurement times of between 20 and 30 minutes the unit can classify and characterize over 40 drums in an 8-hour shift. The system is well characterized with documented calibrations, lower limits of detection (LLD) and total measurement uncertainty. The calibrations are confirmed and verified using nationally traceable standards in keeping with the CHPRC measurement requirements. The performance of the system has been confirmed and validated throughout the measurement process by independent CHPRC personnel using traceable standards. All of the measurement and maintenance work has been conducted during the period under a Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) compliant with the

  11. Stabilization of compactible waste

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Mobile neutron/gamma waste assay system for characterization of waste containing transuranics, uranium, and fission/activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, D.R.; Haggard, D.; Lemons, C.

    1994-12-31

    A new integrated neutron/gamma assay system has been built for measuring 55-gallon drums at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The system is unique because it allows simultaneous measurement of neutrons and gamma-rays. This technique also allows measurement of transuranics (TRU), uranium, and fission/activation products, screening for shielded Special Nuclear Material prior to disposal, and critically determinations prior to transportation. The new system is positioned on a platform with rollers and installed inside a trailer or large van to allow transportation of the system to the waste site instead of movement of the drums to the scanner. The ability to move the system to the waste drums is particularly useful for drum retrieval programs common to all DOE sites and minimizes transportation problems on the site. For longer campaigns, the system can be moved into a facility. The mobile system consists of two separate subsystems: a passive Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and a {open_quotes}clam-shell{close_quotes} passive neutron counter. The SGS with high purity germanium detector and {sup 75}Se transmission source simultaneously scan the height of the drum allowing identification of unshieled {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} in the drum or segments where the matrix is too dense for the transmission source to penetrate. Dense segments can flag shielding material that could be used to hide plutonium or uranium during the gamma analysis. The passive nuetron counter with JSR-12N Neutron Coincidence Analyzer measures the coincident neutrons from the spontaneous fission of even isotopes of plutonium. Because high-density shielding produces minimal absorption of neutrons, compared to gamma rays, the passive neutron portion of the system can detect shielded SNM. Measurements to evaluate the performance of the system are still underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  13. Thermal Neutron Die-Way-Time Studies for P and DGNAA of Radioactive Waste Drums at the MEDINA Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mildenberger, Frank; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2015-07-01

    In Germany, radioactive waste with negligible heat production has to pass through a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Additionally to its radioactive components, the waste may contain non-radioactive chemically toxic substances that can adversely affect human health and pollute the environment, especially the ground water. After an adequate decay time, the waste radioactivity will become harmless but the non-radioactive substances will persist over time. In principle, these hazardous substances may be quantified from traceability and quality controls performed during the production of the waste packages. As a consequence, a research and development program was initiated in 2007 with the aim to develop a nondestructive analytical technique for radioactive waste packages based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P and DGNAA) employing a DT-neutron generator in pulsed mode. In a preliminary study it was experimentally demonstrated that P and DGNAA is suitable to determine the chemical composition of large samples. In 2010 a facility called MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) was developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of nonradioactive, toxic elements and substances in 200-l steel drums. The determination of hazardous substances and elements is generally achieved measuring the prompt gamma-rays induced by thermal neutrons. Additional information about the composition of the waste matrix could be derived measuring the delayed gamma-rays from short life activation products. However a sensitive detection of these delayed gamma-rays requires that thermal neutrons have almost vanished. Therefore, the thermal neutron die-away-time has to be known in order to achieve an optimal discrimination between prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra acquisition. Measurements Thermal neutron

  14. Performance tests on PNL`s transportable neutron/gamma waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, D.L.; Davidson, D.; Lemons, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, in conjunction with Canberra Industries, has implemented a 55-gallon drum waste assay system. The single system unit consists of a combined segmented gamma assay system and a neutron assay system. The unit is designed to function either in the laboratory or in a mobile trailer. The system is on wheels and can be moved through standard double doors. The gamma system uses an HPGe detector with a Se-75 source for transmission corrections. The neutron detector uses 40 He-3 detectors connected to a JSR-12 neutron coincidence counter. The system`s software is unique and is interactive with the user; it features a menu driven operator screen from which all functions regarding operations and calibrations can be selected. Single or combined assays with various setups, including containers smaller than 55 gallons, may be performed. The software and analysis is designed for unknown waste contents, but allows input of waste stream information prior to assay. The system was originally designed for safeguards` MC&A requirements and has enough sensitivity to determine whether a drum is TRU or LLW in one assay pass. Typical counting times are approximately 1800 seconds for a dual pass. Preliminary testing of the system with the available Pu standards has shown the system will perform to the required levels stated in the Data Quality Objectives of the WIPP Performance Demonstration program. An overall study of the system is underway to determine the lower limit of detection (LLD) for different isotopes, to best utilize the combined assay results, and to apply the appropriate data corrections for more complete answers, such as corrections for the end effects. Results from these developments will be presented at the conference.

  15. The design of a high-efficiency neutron counter for waste drums to provide optimized sensitivity for plutonium assay

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.H.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-11-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed to improve the accuracy and sensitivity for the nondestructive assay of plutonium in scrap and waste containers. The High-Efficiency Neutron Counter (HENC) was developed under a Cooperative Research Development Agreement between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Canberra Industries. The primary goal of the development was to produce a passive assay system for 200-L drums that has detectability limits and multiplicity counting features that are superior to previous systems. A detectability limit figure of merit (FOM) was defined that included the detector efficiency, the neutron die-away time, and the detector`s active volume and density that determine the cosmic-ray background. Monte Carlo neutron calculations were performed to determine the parameters to provide an optimum FOM. The system includes the {sup 252}Cf {open_quotes}add-a-source{close_quotes} feature to improve the accuracy as well as statistical filters to reduce the cosmic-ray spallation neutron background. The final decision gave an efficiency of 32% for plutonium with a detector {sup 3}He tube volume that is significantly smaller than for previous high-efficiency systems for 200-L drums. Because of the high efficiency of the HENC, we have incorporated neutron multiplicity counting for matrix corrections for those cases where the plutonium is localized in nonuniform hydrogenous materials. The paper describes the design and performance testing of the advanced system. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Criticality safety analysis for remote handled TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed to store transuranic (TRU) waste underground in a mined salt bed. All fissile nuclides except U/sup 235/ are considered TRU nuclides. This report presents the results of the nuclear criticality analysis for Remote-Handled (RH) TRU waste stored at the WIPP site. The RH waste material will be contained in steel canisters that are five feet or ten feet long. Each ten foot canister is capable of holding three 55 gallon drums of waste material. The five foot canisters are to be welded together to form one ten foot long canister. In general the fissile waste material is mainly surface contamination on clothing, wipes, wrappings, tools, etc., or mixed in a borosilicate glass matrix or concrete. Other fissile material may be contained in absorbent mixtures. As a result, the fissile material will typically be spread over a large fraction of the volume in most of the waste storage canisters. Typical isotopic content of the fissile/other radioactive material is shown in Table 1-1. This analysis will analyze the RH waste storage and handling configurations at the WIPP site to show that up to 600 grams of fissile material per ten foot canister can be received and stored at the site without criticality safety concerns. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF VISUAL CRITERIA FOR EVALUATION OF CORRODED TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE DRUMS AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (US/DOE) HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2004-11-01

    Fluor Hanford, Inc., at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, has recently begun retrieving some 37,000 contact-handled, suspect-Transuranic or ''Retrievably Stored Waste'' (CH-TRU) waste drums from its Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The drums are being retrieved, processed and prepared for eventual shipment to the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Immediately upon retrieval, the drums are visually inspected against requirements identified in the facility Authorization Basis to ensure they are safe for handling and fit for on-site transfer. A number of the retrieved drums did not meet specified corrosion criteria and as such required structural evaluation by Ultrasonic Test (UT) thickness checking (including mechanical surface prep) or overpacking into a Conex-type container prior to transfer. The additional evaluation and overpacking increases personnel exposure to the radioactive waste and reduces efficiency of the retrieval process. Based on historic Hanford CH-TRU waste drum corrosion data, showing very low general corrosion rates, there was reason to believe that existing Hanford site-transfer corrosion criteria were more conservative than needed. In an effort to demonstrate this belief, a corrosion investigation was performed. Eleven CH-TRU waste drums not meeting the corrosion criteria were included in the investigation and from these, 92 separate locations, or areas of corrosion, were evaluated. Each of these locations was visually characterized and evaluated for thickness using the UT method. Visual characterization consisted of ranking photographs for each location on a scale from 1 to 6, representing an increasing level of corrosion attack. UT thickness measurements were then plotted against the visual ratings to identify any significant correlation. Analysis of the data indicated that as the corrosion rating increased, wall thickness decreased. It was concluded that drum surfaces characterized by a corrosion rating of 1-4 could be

  18. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, Spring 1993 (Harvey and Knott Drum Site, New Castle County, Delaware)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    From 1963 to 1969, two acres of the Harvey and Knott Drum site in New Castle County, Delaware served as an open dump and burning area for sanitary, municipal, and industrial wastes. Sludge, paint pigment, and solvents contaminated the site until the State of Delaware and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) intervened in 1981. Site conditions required a combination of traditional cleanup measures. After the immediate health threats posed by the site were eliminated, EPA reached an innovative, mixed funding settlement for long-term cleanup with two parties responsible for the site contamination. The following actions highlight the success of the Superfund program: An emergency removal of contaminants reduced immediate environmental and public health effects; A rapid assessment of ground water safeguarded drinking water supplies; and The full cooperation of General Motors (GM) expedited implementation of the cleanup, valued at $3.2 million.

  19. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-09-28

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  20. Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-yoon; Browne, Michael C; Rael, Carlos D; Carroll, Colin J; Sunshine, Alexander; Novikov, Alexander; Lebedev, Evgeny

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

  1. Site health and safety plan/work plan for further characterization of waste drums at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Abston, J.P.; Burman, S.N.; Jones, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    The health and safety plan/work plan describes a strategy for characterizing the contents of 172 liquid waste and 33 solid waste drums. It also addresses the control measures that will be taken to (1) prevent or minimize any adverse impact on the environment or personnel safety and health and (2) meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. When writing this document, the authors considered past experiences, recommendations, and best management practices to minimize possible hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or unplanned releases of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water.

  2. Magnetic properties of unrusted steel drums from laboratory and field-magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ravat, D.

    1996-09-01

    Detection and precise location of buried ferromagnetic objects and estimation of the type and quantity of the objects are becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations worldwide. If laboratory-derived magnetizations were used to model steel drums, the models would under-estimate the resulting magnetic anomalies considerably and, in turn, would overestimate the number of buried drums at an environmental investigation site. Apparent bulk magnetization values for unrusted vertically oriented 55 and 30 gallon drums have been calculated (i.e., the values corrected for the effect of shape demagnetization of the drums). These range from {approximately}90 to {approximately}125 SI units for volume susceptibility and from {approximately} 325 to {approximately} 2,750 A/m for remanent magnetization (based on eight 55 gallon and four 30 gallon drums). Further deviations in these values could arise from the and thickness of the steel and variations in manufacturing conditions affecting magnetizations. From the point of view of modeling the drums, at most source-to-observation distances applicable to environmental investigations, the equivalent source method is able to approximate the observed anomalies of steel drums better than the 3-D modeling method. With two years of rusting, magnetic anomalies of some of the drums have reduced, while in other drums they have slightly increased. The overall magnetic changes caused by rusting appear to be more complex than anticipated, at least in the initial phase of rusting.

  3. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

  4. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, T.L.

    1994-06-28

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE[sub 10] rectangular mode to TE[sub 01] circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power. 4 figures.

  5. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, F.B.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-02-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation.

  6. Relative performance of a TGS for the assay of drummed waste as function of collimator opening

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, S.C.; Croft, S.; McClay, P.; Venkataraman, R.; Villani, M.F.

    2007-07-01

    Improving the safety, accuracy and overall cost effectiveness of the processes and methods used to characterize and handle radioactive waste is an on-going mission for the nuclear industry. An important contributor to this goal is the development of superior non-destructive assay instruments. The Tomographic Gamma Scanner (TGS) is a case in point. The TGS applies low spatial resolution experimental computed tomography (CT) linear attenuation coefficient maps with three-dimensional high-energy resolution single photon emission reconstructions. The results are presented as quantitative matrix attenuation corrected images and assay values for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Depending on a number of operational factors, this extends the diversity of waste forms that can be assayed, to a given accuracy, to items containing more heterogeneous matrix distributions and less uniform emission activity distributions. Recent advances have significantly extended the capability to a broader range of matrix density and to a wider dynamic range of surface dose rate. Automated systems sense the operational conditions, including the container type, and configure themselves accordingly. The TGS also provides a flexible data acquisition platform and can be used to perform far-field style measurements, classical segmented gamma scanner measurements, or to implement hybrid methods, such as reconstructions that use a priori knowledge to constrain the image reconstruction or the underlying energy dependence of the attenuation. A single, yet flexible, general purpose instrument of this kind adds several tiers of strategic and tactical value to facilities challenged by a diverse and difficult to assay waste streams. The TGS is still in the early phase of industrial uptake. There are only a small number of general purpose TGS systems operating worldwide, most being configured to automatically select between a few configurations appropriate for routine operations. For special investigations

  7. Criticality evaluation for the storage of converter plates in drums

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.P.; Rorer, D.C.; Liu, H.B.

    1993-12-31

    A criticality safety evaluation was performed to support the temporary storage of 20%-enriched uranium converter plates for future use in the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). A total of twelve such plates each containing approximately one kilogram of the {sup 235}U will be stored in DOT-certified 6M-drums, which have the same dimensions as standard 55-gallon drums except that they are twice as high (178.5cm). Each drum contains a Celotex liner surrounding a central 12.7cm-dia steel pipe. The plates have a nominal size of 0.3cm{times}l0.5cm{times}l25.7cm and fit inside the steel pipe, which extends 130cm in the axial direction. Because the accommodation of twelve plates in one drum is physically possible and more economical, this option for plate storage would be recommended provided that the criticality safety limit is not exceeded. In this paper, the neutron multiplication K{sub eff} in drums is calculated using the Monte Carlo Neutron and Photon Transport code (MCNP). For conservatism, several different configurations which could result.in the most reactive conditions for K{sub eff} have been examined. As part of the effort to optimize the arrangement of plates in drums, a second group of the MCNP calculations is performed using twelve plates evenly contained within two drums placed immediately adjacent to each other model again simulates the most reactive conditions for K{sub eff} estimations.

  8. Detection of free liquid in drums of radioactive waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1979-10-16

    A nondestructive thermal imaging method for detecting the presence of a liquid such as water within a sealed container is described. The process includes application of a low amplitude heat pulse to an exterior surface area of the container, terminating the heat input and quickly mapping the resulting surface temperatures. The various mapped temperature values can be compared with those known to be normal for the container material and substances in contact. The mapped temperature values show up in different shades of light or darkness that denote different physical substances. The different substances can be determined by direct observation or by comparison with known standards. The method is particularly applicable to the detection of liquids above solidified radioactive wastes stored in sealed containers.

  9. Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen; Freshwater, David

    2009-07-10

    Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.

  10. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah River Site to demonstrate

  11. Elevated drum testing Phase 1 test plan

    SciTech Connect

    McBeath, R.S.; Meeuwsen, P.V.

    1994-09-01

    An important part of the Hanford environmental mission is the packaging, transportation, and storage of solid radioactive wastes in metal drums. Presently storage drums are placed four to a wooden pallet with the drums banded to each other. Palletized drums are stacked three units high in pre-engineered steel structures in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. Permitted storage space is expensive to construct, maintain, and operate. Storage capacity is increased if additional drum can be stacked within existing facilities and a cost savings over new construction realized. The purpose of this plan is to outline the testing required to provide the safety criteria for elevated (i.e., tiers of four high) drum storage. The major safety concern with elevated drum storage is the danger of a significant fire in the storage facility. The major fire load within the storage facilities is combustible material contained in the drums. If a seismic event, fork lift accident, or other credible incident were to cause drum failure or lid separation, combustible material could be available for fuel. To increase the initial burn in the facilities, the drums must spill their combustible contents, making them free for ignition. If it can be shown that there is not sufficient damage to the drums to allow for release of their solid contents, then the data used for safety documentation will be re-examined. Preliminary tests conducted in the configurations detailed in this test plan have shown that drums maintain their integrity; that is the drum covers remain attached and the drums do not breach. These tests will be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Equipment Development organization, who is the designated DOE Center of Excellence to conduct drop tests for Department of Transportation (DOT) certification of DOE designed packages and containers.

  12. Reference drums used in calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in a 4π counting geometry.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, two kinds of reference drums were developed. One type was constructed with nine layers of large-area sources filled with different materials having five different densities. The other type of reference drums was constructed with nine rod sources filled with the same materials of different densities. The efficiency calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in 4π counting geometry using these two kinds of drums showed that rod-source drums resulted in higher counting efficiency than layered source drums. The counting rates obtained from rod-source drums were closer to those obtained from a standard drum with water solution than counting rates from drums with layered sources. The results of this study recommend to use reference drums with rod-sources to compensate the drawbacks of standard drums with water solution of not being able to adjust the density of material. The proposed reference drums improve the accuracy of radioactivity analysis for waste drums of different densities.

  13. Field testing an OREX{reg_sign} based {open_quotes}point of generation{close_quotes} low-level radioactive waste reduction program at FP&L`s St. Lucie Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, K.; Haynes, B.

    1996-10-01

    Nuclear power facilities, both commercial and government operated, generate material called Dry Active Waste (DAW). DAW is a by-product of maintenance and operation of the power systems which contain radioactive materials. DAW can be any material contaminated with radioactive particles as long as it is not a fluid, typically: paper, cardboard, wood, plastics, cloth, and any other solid which is contaminated and determined to be dry. DAW is generated when any material is exposed to loose radioactive particles and subsequently becomes contaminated. In the United States, once a material is contaminated it must be treated as radioactive waste and disposed of in accordance with the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Problems facing all commercial and non-commercial nuclear facilities are escalating costs of processing DAW and volumetric reduction of the DAW generated. Currently, approximately 85% of all DAW generated at a typical facility is comprised of anti-contamination clothing and protective barrier materials. Facilities that generate low-level radioactive waste need to dramatically reduce their waste volumes. This curtailment is required for several reasons: the number of radioactive waste repositories now accepting new waste is limited; the current cost of burial at an operating dump site is significant. Costs can be as high as $4,000 for a single 55 gallon drum; the cost of burial is constantly increasing; onsite storage of low-level radioactive waste is costly and results in a burial fee at plant decommissioning.

  14. Actinide removal from wastewater applying waste minimization techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, J.R.; Midkiff, W.S. ); Cadena, F. )

    1992-01-01

    A major concern at LANL is the large volume of low level radioactive sludge that is generated by the current treatment technology. The plant meets current discharge limits but annually produces 200 55-gallon drums of sludge (approximately 60 tons) during the process of removing only few grants of radioactive isotopes. Most of the sludge results from the coagulants, iron and lime, added at the plant at a concentration of 10,000 parts-per-million (ppm). If the principal actinides in the influent could be separated and reduced to pure metallic form, the annual volume of plutonium would be about the size of a marble and the americium would be about the size of a BB. Waste minimization will be a key design criteria for the new facility. Records of total suspended solids (TSS) in the influent average about 1000 Kg per year (approximately 1 ton). Therefore, the theoretical sludge volume reduction is near 98%. Research is underway to develop and evaluate technologies that achieve the desired removal efficiency with a minimum of produced waste volume.

  15. Actinide removal from wastewater applying waste minimization techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, J.R.; Midkiff, W.S.; Cadena, F.

    1992-07-01

    A major concern at LANL is the large volume of low level radioactive sludge that is generated by the current treatment technology. The plant meets current discharge limits but annually produces 200 55-gallon drums of sludge (approximately 60 tons) during the process of removing only few grants of radioactive isotopes. Most of the sludge results from the coagulants, iron and lime, added at the plant at a concentration of 10,000 parts-per-million (ppm). If the principal actinides in the influent could be separated and reduced to pure metallic form, the annual volume of plutonium would be about the size of a marble and the americium would be about the size of a BB. Waste minimization will be a key design criteria for the new facility. Records of total suspended solids (TSS) in the influent average about 1000 Kg per year (approximately 1 ton). Therefore, the theoretical sludge volume reduction is near 98%. Research is underway to develop and evaluate technologies that achieve the desired removal efficiency with a minimum of produced waste volume.

  16. Potential VOC Deflagrations in a Vented TRU Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mukesh, GUPTA

    2005-04-07

    The objective of the analysis is to examine the potential for lid ejection from a vented transuranic (TRU) waste drum due to pressure buildup caused by the deflagration of hydrogen and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside the drum. In this analysis, the AICC pressure for a stoichiometric mixture of VOCs is calculated and then compared against the experimental peak pressure of stoichiometric combustion of propane and hexane in a combustion chamber. The experimental peak pressures of propane and hexane are about 12 percent lower than the calculated AICC pressure. Additional losses in the drum are calculated due to venting of the gases, drum bulging, waste compaction, and heat losses from the presence of waste in the drum. After accounting for these losses, the final pressures are compared to the minimum observed pressure that ejects the lid from a TRU drum. The ejection pressure of 105 psig is derived from data that was recorded for a series of tests where hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited inside sealed TRU drums. Since the calculated pressures are below the minimum lid ejection pressure, none of the VOCs and the hydrogen (up to 4 percent) mixtures present in the TRU waste drum is expected to cause lid ejection if ignited. The analysis of potential VOC deflagrations in a vented TRU drum can be applied across the DOE-Complex since TRU waste is stored in drums throughout the complex.

  17. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  18. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-29

    Over 1,140 yd{sup 3} of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations ({approximately} 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system.

  19. EXAMPLE OF A RISK BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    PRIGNANO AL

    2007-11-14

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP.

  20. Final Report - Gas Generation Testing of Uranium Metal in Simulated K Basin Sludge and in Grouted Sludge Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sell, Rachel L.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Gano, Sue; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2004-08-19

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being considered for the disposal of K Basin sludge as RH-TRU. Because the hydrogen gas concentration in the 55-gallon RH-TRU sealed drums to be transported to WIPP is limited by flammability safety, the number of containers and shipments likely will be driven by the rate of hydrogen generated by the uranium metal-water reaction (U + 2 H{sub 2}O {yields} UO{sub 2} + 2 H{sub 2}) in combination with the hydrogen generated from water and organic radiolysis. Gas generation testing was conducted with uranium metal particles of known surface area, in simulated K West (KW) Basin canister sludge and immobilized in candidate grout solidification matrices. This study evaluated potential for Portland cement and magnesium phosphate grouts to inhibit the reaction of water with uranium metal in the sludge and thereby permit higher sludge loading to the disposed waste form. The best of the grouted waste forms decreased the uranium metal-water reaction by a factor of four.

  1. DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Spritzer

    2003-02-01

    General Atomics (GA) has recently completed a Phase I program for the development of a two-step alternative to incineration for the destruction of organics in transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Site. This process is known as thermal desorption-supercritical water oxidation, or TD-SCWO. The GA TD process uses heat to volatilize and transport organics from the waste material for subsequent treatment by SCWO. SCWO oxidizes organics in a steam medium at elevated temperatures and pressures in a manner that achieves excellent destruction efficiencies and compliance with all environmental requirements without the need for complex pollution-abatement equipment. This application of TD-SCWO is focused on a full-scale batch process for 55-gallon drums of mixed transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site. The Phase I reduced-scale test results show that the process operates as intended on surrogate waste matrices chosen to be representative of Savannah River Site transuranic mixed wastes. It provides a high degree of hydrogen removal and full containment of the radionuclide surrogate, with minimal requirements for pre-treatment and post-treatment. Other test objectives were to verify that the process produces no dioxins or furans, and meets all applicable regulatory criteria for retention of toxic metals, particulate, and criteria pollutants, while meeting WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II requirements. Thermal desorption of surrogate SRS mixed wastes at 500 psi and 1000 F met all tested requirements for WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II. SCWO of the desorbed surrogate organic materials at 500 psi and 1500 F also appears to meet all requirements for a nonincineration alternative, although >99.99% DRE for chlorinated solvents has not yet been demonstrated.

  2. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-06-14

    This report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 Acceptable Knowledge from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  3. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  4. Characterization of In-Drum Drying Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.; Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Harapin, D.; Hertl, B.

    2006-07-01

    A few years ago Krsko NPP decided to introduce In-Drum Drying technology for treatment and conditioning of evaporator concentrates and spent ion resins. The main reason to employ this technology was the need for waste volume reduction and experience with vermiculite-cement solidification that proved inadequate for Krsko NPP. Use of In-Drum Drying technology was encouraged by good experience in the field at some German and Spanish NPP's. In the paper, solidification techniques in vermiculite-cement matrix and In-Drum Drying System are described briefly. The resulting waste forms (so called solidification and dryer products) and containers that are used for interim storage of these wastes are described as well. A comparison of the drying versus solidification technology is performed and advantages as well as disadvantages are underlined. Experience gained during seven years of system operation has shown that crying technology resulted in volume reduction by factor of 20 for evaporator concentrates, and by factor of 5 for spent ion resin. Special consideration is paid to the characterization of dryer products. For evaporator concentrates the resulting waste form is a solid salt block with up to 5% bound water. It is packaged in stainless steel drums (net volume of 200 l) with bolted lids and lifting rings. The fluidized spent ion resins (primary and blow-down) are sluiced into the spent resin drying tank. The resin is dewatered and dried by electrical jacket heaters. The resulting waste (i.e. fine granulates) is directly discharged into a shielded stainless steel drum with bolted lid and lifting rings. Characterization of both waste forms has been performed in accordance with recommendations given in Characterization of Radioactive Waste Forms and Packages issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997. This means that radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, biological and thermal properties of the waste form has been taken into consideration. In the paper

  5. Impact of drum storage on criticality accident alarm systems

    SciTech Connect

    Finfrock, S.; Watson, T.; Byrd, J.; Miles, B.; Wilkinson, A.

    1997-12-01

    The changing mission from production to decommissioning that is taking place at many U.S. Department of Energy sites is producing an ever-increasing inventory of waste drums. These drums typically contain low-level radioactive waste and, in some cases, significant amounts of fissile materials. Such drums must be handled with all of the care necessary for radioactive materials and, where fissile materials are present, criticality safety controls. As the number of drums increases, the question inevitably arises as to where to store them. Old process buildings present one solution to that question. These buildings are typically large, designed to handle radioactive and fissile materials, and largely unused under the current mission and, as such, would seem ideal candidates for at least short-term storage of waste drums. When undergoing such a major change in mission, however, the building`s nuclear safety systems need to be reevaluated to ensure that they are appropriate for the new activity. One such system that must be evaluated is the building`s criticality accident alarm system (AAS). This system is designed to detect criticality accidents and is generally required anywhere that a criticality accident is credible. If drums are to be stored in a facility where a CAAS is required (either because of other activities in the building or because of the contents of the drums themselves), then those drums must be shown not to prevent the CAAS from functioning as designed.

  6. Operational and Regulatory Performance of Waste Crate Assay Systems at RFETS

    SciTech Connect

    Clapham, M. J.; Franco, J.; Simpson, A.; Santo, J.; Menlove, H. O.; Durel, F. M.

    2003-02-27

    As Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) approaches its closure target of 2006 emphasis for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) has shifted from small waste package assay systems towards larger systems that are designed to accommodate Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and larger Low Level Waste (LLW) containers. To this end, Kaiser Hill, with the support of BNFL Instruments, Inc. (BII) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), has recently deployed two new crate assay systems. These systems provide the capacity to meet the assay requirements associated with the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) at RFETS. The Super High Efficiency Neutron Coincidence Counting System (SuperHENC) was designed and fabricated as a collaborative effort between RFETS, LANL and BII. The purpose of this counter is to provide a WIPP certified assay capability for SWBs with a sensitivity that allows for TRU/LLW sorting. The SuperHENC has been in operation since early 2001. The BII Multi-Purpose Crate Counter (MPCC) is based on the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPAN) technology. This counter was designed to provide diverse capacity for WIPP certified assay of SWBs and to provide assay capability for larger LLW crates that are generated at RFETS. The MPCC has been in operation since early 2002. In order to meet the requirement for measurement of the WIPP tracked radionuclides, both systems incorporate a BII Gamma Energy Analysis sub-system. The unique Energy Times Attenuation (ETA) method is used to provide isotopic mass fractions for diverse waste streams. These systems were the first, and at this time the only, waste crate assay systems that have achieved WIPP certification. This represents a significant achievement given that the performance criteria applied to the measurements of large crates is identical to the criteria for 55-gallon (208 liter) drums. They are now both fully operational at RFETS and continue to successfully support the site closure mission.

  7. Operational and regulatory performance of waste crate assay systems at RFETS.

    SciTech Connect

    Clapham, M.; Franco, J. B.; Simpson, A.; Santo, J.; Menlove, Howard O.; Durel, F. M.

    2003-01-01

    As Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) approaches its closure target of 2006 emphasis for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) has shifted from small waste package assay systems towards larger systems that are designed to accommodate Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and larger Low Level Waste (LLW) containers. To this end, Kaiser Hill, with the support of BNFL Instruments, Inc . (BIn) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), has recently deployed two new crate assay systems . These systems provide the capacity to meet the assay requirements associated with the Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) at RFETS . The Super High Efficiency Neutron Coincidence Counting System (SuperHENC) was designed and fabricated as a collaborative effort between RFETS, LANL and BII. The purpose of this counter is to provide a WIPP certified assay capability for SWBs with a sensitivity that allows for TRU/LLW sorting. The SuperHENC has been in operation since early 2001 . The BII Mu1ti-Purpose Crate Counter (MPCC) is based on the Imaging Passive Active Neutron (IPANTM) technology. This counter was designed to provide diverse capacity for WIPP certified assay of SWBs and to provide assay capability for larger LLW crates that are generated at RFETS. The MPCC h as been in operation since early 2002 . In order to meet the requirement for measurement of the WIPP tracked radionuclides, both systems incorporate a BII Gamma Energy Analysis sub-system . The unique Energy Times . Attenuation (ETA) method is used to provide isotopic mass fractions for diverse wastes treams: These systems were the first, and at this time the only, waste crate assay systems that have achieved WIPP certification. This represents a significant achievement given that the performance criteria applied to the measurements of large crates is identical to the criteria for 55-gallon (208 liter) drums . They are now both fully operational at RFETS and continue to successfully support the site closure mission .

  8. TRU Drum Headspace Gas Analysis System

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, S.

    1998-10-27

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has approximately 10,000 Transuranic (TRU) waste drums whose final disposition is the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Each drum, prior to shipment to WIPP, must be inspected and tested to certify that is meets the WIPP requirements for acceptance. One, of many requirements, is the analysis of the TRU drum vapor space for hydrogen, methane, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DOE Carlsbad Area Office has published two documents specifying the analytical methodologies and the quality assurance requirements for analyzing TRU drum vapor space.The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was contracted by the Solid Waste Division of SRS to specify, assemble, and test a system that would satisfy the WIPP requirements for drum headspace gas analysis. Since no single vendor supplies a complete system, analytical instrumentation and supporting components were integrated into a configuration that performed that required analyses. This required both software and hardware design and modifications. The major goal of the design team was to integrate commercially available instrumentation and equipment into a seamless production process. The final output of the process is an analytical report formatted to the specifications outlined in the WIPP Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). SRTC has assembled the necessary analytical instrumentation and installed it in a mobile trailer to perform the TRU drum vapor space analyses. This mobile trailer had previously housed instrumentation for reactor tank inspections. As a cost savings it was decided to renovate and install the instrumentation in this trailer to eliminate the need of building or modifying permanent structures. This also allows for portability to meet future analytical needs on or off site.This task was divided into three sub tasks: headspace gas sampling, gas analysis and system component integration, and sample canister cleaning. The following sections

  9. Drum lid removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Pella, Bernard M.; Smith, Philip D.

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  10. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Blanton, Paul; Bobbitt, John H.

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.

  11. Mixed Waste Focus Area/Characterization Monitoring Sensor Technology Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project End-User Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    G. K. Becker; M. E. McIlwain; M. J. Connolly

    1998-11-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) in conjunction with the Characterization Monitoring and Sensor Technology (CMST) crosscut program identified the need to objectively evaluate the capability of nondestructive waste assay (NDA) technologies. This was done because of a general lack of NDA technology performance data with respect to a representative cross section of waste form configurations comprising the Department of Energy (DOE) contact-handled alpha contaminated [e.g., transuranic (TRU) waste]. The overall objective of the Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) was to establish a known and unbiased NDA data and information base that can be used to support end-user decisions with regards to technology system selection and to support technology development organizations in identifying technology system deficiencies. The primary performance parameters evaluated in the CEP were measurement bias and relative precision. The performance of a given NDA technology is a direct function of the attributes represented by the waste matrix configuration. Such attributes include matrix density, matrix elemental composition, radionuclidic composition, radionuclide mass loading, and the spatial variation of these components. Analyzing the manner in which bias and precision vary as a function of test sample attribute and NDA technology provides a foundation for deriving performance capability and limitation statements and determines which waste matrix attributes, or combinations of attributes, are compatible or incompatible with existing technologies. The CEP achieved the stated end-user objective. The data indicate that the nondestructive waste assay systems evaluated have a definite capability to perform assay of contact-handled TRU waste packaged in 55-gallon drums. There is, however, a performance envelope where this capability exists, an area near the envelope boundaries where it is questionable, and a realm outside the envelope where the technologies do not perform. Therefore

  12. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium

  13. Rotating drum filter

    DOEpatents

    Anson, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRU WASTE TRANSPORTATION FLEET--A SUCCESS STORY

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Murthy; Morrison, Cindy; Brown, Mike

    2003-02-27

    Since March 1999, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), as a repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. More than 1,450 shipments of TRU waste for WIPP disposal have been completed, and the WIPP is currently receiving 12 to 16 shipments per week from five DOE sites around the nation. One of the largest fleets of Type B packagings supports the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP. This paper discusses the development of this fleet since the original Certificate of Compliance (C of C) for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) was issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989. Evolving site programs, closure schedules of major sites, and the TRU waste inventory at the various DOE sites have directed the sizing and packaging mix of this fleet. This paper discusses the key issues that guided this fleet development, including the following: While the average weight of a 55-gallon drum packaging debris could be less than 300 pounds (lbs.), drums containing sludge waste or compacted waste could approach the maximum allowable weight of 1,000 lbs. A TRUPACT-II shipment may consist of three TRUPACT-II packages, each of which is limited to a total weight of 19,250 lbs. Payload assembly weights dictated by ''as-built'' TRUPACT-II weights limit each drum to an average weight of 312 lbs when three TRUPACT-IIs are shipped. To optimize the shipment of heavier drums, the HalfPACT packaging was designed as a shorter and lighter version of the TRUPACT-II to accommodate a heavier load. Additional packaging concepts are currently under development, including the ''TRUPACT-III'' packaging being designed to address ''oversized'' boxes that are currently not shippable in the TRUPACT-II or HalfPACT due to size constraints. Shipment optimization is applicable not only to the addition of new

  15. Nuclear criticality safety for drums at Babcock and Wilcox

    SciTech Connect

    Alcorn, F.M.

    1997-12-01

    The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B&W) operates a nuclear fuel facility in Lynchburg, Virginia, processing uranium over the full range of possible enrichments (depleted to 97.65 wt% {sup 235}U). Nuclear fuel is produced for defense programs and for various research and test reactors worldwide. The facility has a uranium recovery operation that handles scrap produced at B&W as well as scrap from other U.S. Department of Energy sites. B&W also has a down-blending operation that is currently completing the down-blending of the fully enriched Project Sapphire Uranium to commercial-grade fuel (4 Wt% {sup 235}U). The facility generates approximately two hundred 55-gal drums of radioactive waste each month. Just a few years ago the number of waste drums on-site stood at {approximately}5000; however, through an aggressive waste reduction program, this number has been reduced to {approximately}2000. B&W strives to avoid storing uranium scrap in 55-gal drums; however, there are approximately sixty-four 55-gal drums of scrap on-site. Scrap is that material from which the uranium is recovered because of financial, contractual, or regulatory considerations; waste is that material destined for disposal. Whether waste or scrap, nuclear criticality safety is of paramount concern in the handling, processing, and storing of uranium-bearing drums at B&W. Any shipment complies with applicable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and U.S. Department of Transportation regulations.

  16. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  17. Drum cutter mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Oberste-beulmann, K.; Schupphaus, H.

    1980-02-19

    A drum cutter mining machine includes a machine frame with a winch having a drive wheel to engage a rack or chain which extends along the path of travel by the mining machine to propel the machine along a mine face. The mining machine is made up of discrete units which include a machine body and machine housings joined to opposite sides of the machine body. The winch is either coupled through a drive train with a feed drive motor or coupled to the drive motor for cutter drums. The machine housings each support a pivot shaft coupled by an arm to a drum cutter. One of these housings includes a removable end cover and a recess adapted to receive a support housing for a spur gear system used to transmit torque from a feed drive motor to a reduction gear system which is, in turn, coupled to the drive wheel of the winch. In one embodiment, a removable end cover on the machine housing provides access to the feed drive motor. The feed drive motor is arranged so that the rotational axis of its drive output shaft extends transversely to the stow side of the machine frame. In another embodiment, the reduction gear system is arranged at one side of the pivot shaft for the cutter drum while the drive motor therefor is arranged at the other side of the pivot shaft and coupled thereto through the spur gear system. In a further embodiment, the reduction gear system is disposed between the feed motor and the pivot shaft.

  18. Selective Recovery of Enriched Uranium from Inorganic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R. T.

    2003-02-26

    Uranium as U(IV) and U(VI) can be selectively recovered from liquids and sludge containing metal precipitates, inorganic salts, sand and silt fines, debris, other contaminants, and slimes, which are very difficult to de-water. Chemical processes such as fuel manufacturing and uranium mining generate enriched and natural uranium-bearing wastes. This patented Framatome ANP (FANP) uranium recovery process reduces uranium losses, significantly offsets waste disposal costs, produces a solid waste that meets mixed-waste disposal requirements, and does not generate metal-contaminated liquids. At the head end of the process is a floating dredge that retrieves liquids, sludge, and slimes in the form of a slurry directly from the floor of a lined surface impoundment (lagoon). The slurry is transferred to and mixed in a feed tank with a turbine mixer and re-circulated to further break down the particles and enhance dissolution of uranium. This process uses direct steam injection and sodium hypochlorite addition to oxidize and dissolves any U(IV). Cellulose is added as a non-reactive filter aid to help filter slimes by giving body to the slurry. The slurry is pumped into a large recessed-chamber filter press then de-watered by a pressure cycle-controlled double-diaphragm pump. U(VI) captured in the filtrate from this process is then precipitated by conversion to U(IV) in another Framatome ANP-patented process which uses a strong reducing agent to crystallize and settle the U(IV) product. The product is then dewatered in a small filter press. To-date, over 3,000 Kgs of U at 3% U-235 enrichment were recovered from a 8100 m2 hypalon-lined surface impoundment which contained about 10,220 m3 of liquids and about 757 m3 of sludge. A total of 2,175 drums (0.208 m3 or 55 gallon each) of solid mixed-wastes have been packaged, shipped, and disposed. In addition, 9463 m3 of low-U liquids at <0.001 KgU/m3 were also further processed and disposed.

  19. Superior Barrel & Drum, Elk Township, New Jersey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Superior Barrel and Drum Superfund site is a 5.5-acre property located in Elk Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Superior Barrel and Drum is listed as a drum reconditioning business. These facilities typically clean and recondition metal

  20. TRU waste-sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1985-08-01

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of /sup 238/Pu- and /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  2. Segmented Gamma Scanner for Small Containers of Uranium Processing Waste- 12295

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, K.E.; Smith, S.K.; Gailey, S.; Nakazawa, D.R.; Venkataraman, R.

    2012-07-01

    The Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) is commonly utilized in the assay of 55-gallon drums containing radioactive waste. Successfully deployed calibration methods include measurement of vertical line source standards in representative matrices and mathematical efficiency calibrations. The SGS technique can also be utilized to assay smaller containers, such as those used for criticality safety in uranium processing facilities. For such an application, a Can SGS System is aptly suited for the identification and quantification of radionuclides present in fuel processing wastes. Additionally, since the significant presence of uranium lumping can confound even a simple 'pass/fail' measurement regimen, the high-resolution gamma spectroscopy allows for the use of lump-detection techniques. In this application a lump correction is not required, but the application of a differential peak approach is used to simply identify the presence of U-235 lumps. The Can SGS is similar to current drum SGSs, but differs in the methodology for vertical segmentation. In the current drum SGS, the drum is placed on a rotator at a fixed vertical position while the detector, collimator, and transmission source are moved vertically to effect vertical segmentation. For the Can SGS, segmentation is more efficiently done by raising and lowering the rotator platform upon which the small container is positioned. This also reduces the complexity of the system mechanism. The application of the Can SGS introduces new challenges to traditional calibration and verification approaches. In this paper, we revisit SGS calibration methodology in the context of smaller waste containers, and as applied to fuel processing wastes. Specifically, we discuss solutions to the challenges introduced by requiring source standards to fit within the confines of the small containers and the unavailability of high-enriched uranium source standards. We also discuss the implementation of a previously used technique for

  3. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  4. Final Environmental Assessment: For Okaloosa County Wastewater Treatment Facility Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    oxygen levels and result in a detrimental condition known as eutrophication . Other potential impacts to surface waters include construction impacts...waste holding area (Law Engineering, 2001). The facility stored oil in 55-gallon waste oil drums. The waste oil drums were placed on concrete...County Water and Sewer in December 1999, which revealed no visual indication of oil spills on the ground surface at the previous CRD land area (Law

  5. Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-12-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons.

  6. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-03-31

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site.

  7. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, H.E.

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  8. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Harvey E.

    1984-01-01

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  9. ARROW-PAK Macroencapsulation. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    An ARROW-PAK is a high density polyethylene (HDPE) tube, about 21 feet long and 30 inches wide. Each ARROW-PAK can hold the equivalent of 21 55-gallon drums of mixed waste debris. Each tube is fused to HDPE endcaps using localized heating and high pressure contact. The sleeves and encaps form a tube for macroencapsulating mixed waste debris. The ARROW-PAK may achieve a mixed waste debris volume one-fourth that of the conventional macroencapsulation approach. The mixed waste debris is loaded into 55-gallon drums. Once filled a 'supercompactor' crushes the drums into 12-inch thick pucks. Three pucks can be loaded into a standard 85-gallon metal drum known as an 'overpack'. Seven overpacks fit into each ARROW-PAK.

  10. Re-evaluation of the 1995 Hanford Large Scale Drum Fire Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J M

    2007-05-02

    A large-scale drum performance test was conducted at the Hanford Site in June 1995, in which over one hundred (100) 55-gal drums in each of two storage configurations were subjected to severe fuel pool fires. The two storage configurations in the test were pallet storage and rack storage. The description and results of the large-scale drum test at the Hanford Site were reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246, ''Solid Waste Drum Array Fire Performance,'' Rev. 0, 1995. This was one of the main references used to develop the analytical methodology to predict drum failures in WHC-SD-SQA-ANAL-501, 'Fire Protection Guide for Waste Drum Storage Array,'' September 1996. Three drum failure modes were observed from the test reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246. They consisted of seal failure, lid warping, and catastrophic lid ejection. There was no discernible failure criterion that distinguished one failure mode from another. Hence, all three failure modes were treated equally for the purpose of determining the number of failed drums. General observations from the results of the test are as follows: {lg_bullet} Trash expulsion was negligible. {lg_bullet} Flame impingement was identified as the main cause for failure. {lg_bullet} The range of drum temperatures at failure was 600 C to 800 C. This is above the yield strength temperature for steel, approximately 540 C (1,000 F). {lg_bullet} The critical heat flux required for failure is above 45 kW/m{sup 2}. {lg_bullet} Fire propagation from one drum to the next was not observed. The statistical evaluation of the test results using, for example, the student's t-distribution, will demonstrate that the failure criteria for TRU waste drums currently employed at nuclear facilities are very conservative relative to the large-scale test results. Hence, the safety analysis utilizing the general criteria described in the five bullets above will lead to a technically robust and defensible product that bounds the potential consequences from postulated

  11. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  12. Manufacture of PCDE Prepolymer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-01

    gallon polyethylene drum where the aqueous phase and the product-bearing organic phase separate. The sulfuric acid stream is added for two purposes. First...storage. Aqueous waste from the 55-gallon product drums and from the top of the extraction columns is collected in a 350-gallon polyethylene tank. The waste...susceptible to corrosion because of the aqueous media in the reactor and the fact that for every mole of DFU formed two moles of HF are also formed. Equipment

  13. Hand-Drumming to Build Community: The Story of the Whittier Drum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nathan Neil

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares the story of the Whittier Drum Project and how it succeeded. The Whittier Drum Project has brought the community together through the talents of youth and their dedication to drumming, and has used drumming to link professionals to their own communities. The author adapted the model to meet the therapeutic needs…

  14. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  15. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  16. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  17. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  18. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Miles Conley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur

    2002-08-01

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module.

  19. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, R.A.; Walton, M.C.

    2002-05-23

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module.

  20. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

    2005-09-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27°C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully “gettered” by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in

  1. Occupational hygiene in a Finnish drum composting plant.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Outi; Nykänen, Jenni; Nivukoski, Ulla; Himanen, Marina; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2005-01-01

    Bioaerosols (microbes, dust and endotoxins) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined in the working air of a drum composting plant treating source-separated catering waste. Different composting activities at the Oulu drum composting plant take place in their own units separated by modular design and constructions. Important implication of this is that the control room is a relatively clean working environment and the risk of exposure to harmful factors is low. However, the number of viable airborne microbes was high both in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The concentration (geometric average) of total microbes was 21.8 million pcs/m3 in the biowaste receiving hall, 13.9 million pcs/m3 in the drum composting hall, and just 1.4 million pcs/m3 in the control room. Endotoxin concentrations were high in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The average (arithmetic) endotoxin concentration was over the threshold value of 200 EU/m3 in both measurement locations. In all working areas, the average (arithmetic) dust concentrations were in a low range of 0.6-0.7 mg/m3, being below the Finnish threshold value of 5 mg/m3. In the receiving hall and drum composting hall, the concentrations of airborne microbes and endotoxins may rise to levels hazardous to health during prolonged exposure. It is advisable to use a respirator mask (class P3) in these areas. Detected volatile organic compounds were typical compounds of composting plants: carboxylic acids and their esters, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes. Concentrations of VOCs were much lower than the Finnish threshold limit values (Finnish TLVs), many of the quantified compounds exceeded their threshold odour concentrations (TOCs). Primary health effects due VOCs were not presumable at these concentrations but unpleasant odours may cause secondary symptoms such as nausea and hypersensitivity reactions. This situation is typical of composting plants where

  2. Measurement and calibration of metal and non-metal wastes produced from decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2014-05-01

    This report described a radioactive waste reference drum which was established with large-area sources and metal slices. This reference drum could be applied in calibration or testing of drum counting systems having 4π counting geometry and being made with plastic scintillators. This metal reference drum has the advantages of easy operation, low natural background and it also has agreeable measurement efficiency calibration curves for the drum counting system as the non-metal reference drum studied previously. On the other hand, this study explored the counting efficiency variations of the drum counting system by simulations of the metal reference drum being filled with wastes up to different heights within the drum. With the exploration, it is feasible to correct the measurement errors caused by different quantities of waste filling.

  3. Fort Drum Miscellaneous Building Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    ER D C/ CE R L SR -0 8 -2 Fort Drum Miscellaneous Building Survey Adam Smith and Sunny Stone February 2008 C on st ru ct io n E n...Miscellaneous Building Survey Adam Smith and Sunny Stone Construction Engineering Research Laboratory United States Army Engineer Research and...CERL). The CERL Project Manager was Mr. Adam Smith . Dr. Christopher White is Chief, CEERD-CN-C, and Dr. John Bandy is Chief, CEERD-CN. The Director

  4. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a fiber drum is 1G. (b) Construction requirements for fiber drums are as follows: (1) The body of the drum...

  5. ANALYSIS OF AVAILABLE HYDROGEN DATA & ACCUMULATION OF HYDROGEN IN UNVENTED TRANSURANIC (TRU) DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    DAYLEY, L

    2004-06-24

    This document provides a response to the second action required in the approval for the Justification for Continued Operations (JCO) Assay and Shipment of Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers in 218-W-4C. The Waste Management Project continues to make progress toward shipping certified TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As the existing inventory of TRU waste in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) storage buildings is shipped, and the uncovered inventory is removed from the trenches and prepared for shipment from the Hanford Site, the covered inventory of suspect TRU wastes must be retrieved and prepared for processing for shipment to WIPP. Accumulation of hydrogen in unvented TRU waste containers is a concern due to the possibility of explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. The frequency and consequence of these gas mixtures resulting in an explosion must be addressed. The purpose of this study is to recommend an approach and schedule for venting TRU waste containers in the low-level burial ground (LLBG) trenches in conjunction with TRU Retrieval Project activities. This study provides a detailed analysis of the expected probability of hydrogen gas accumulation in significant quantities in unvented drums. Hydrogen gas accumulation in TRU drums is presented and evaluated in the following three categories: Hydrogen concentrations less than 5 vol%; Hydrogen between 5-15 vol%; and Hydrogen concentrations above 15 vol%. This analysis is based on complex-wide experience with TRU waste drums, available experimental data, and evaluations of storage conditions. Data reviewed in this report includes experience from the Idaho National Environmental Engineering Laboratories (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratories, (ORNL), Rocky Flats sites, Matrix Depletion Program and the National Transportation and Packaging Program. Based on this analysis, as well as an assessment of the probability and

  6. Recycle of oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J. III.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes a process for recycling of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a relatively high oil content sludge and a relatively high water content sludge; introducing the high oil content sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

  7. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  8. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... professional engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope...

  13. 13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  14. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  15. Hand-drumming to build community: the story of the Whittier Drum Project.

    PubMed

    Stone, Nathan Neil

    2005-01-01

    Over the years, the author participated in drum circles and classes in Denver, Fort Collins, and Boulder, Colorado. He noticed that drumming made him feel grounded and at peace. Drumming is very accessible, not like playing the piano or violin. Simple rhythms can be taught to people with no drumming experience very quickly and an ensemble rhythm created with a group in one sitting. Drumming turned out to be a highly effective way to engage with young people not only to address their individual spirits but to join with others to create a community.

  16. Drum plug piercing and sampling device and method

    DOEpatents

    Counts, Kevin T.

    2011-04-26

    An apparatus and method for piercing a drum plug of a drum in order to sample and/or vent gases that may accumulate in a space of the drum is provided. The drum is not damaged and can be reused since the pierced drum plug can be subsequently replaced. The apparatus includes a frame that is configured for engagement with the drum. A cylinder actuated by a fluid is mounted to the frame. A piercer is placed into communication with the cylinder so that actuation of the cylinder causes the piercer to move in a linear direction so that the piercer may puncture the drum plug of the drum.

  17. Comparison of Conventional Sprocket Drum and Sprocket Drum with Modified Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Seats in conventional sprocket drums are symmetrical. Due to the set general direction of sprocket drum revolutions resulting from the direction of rock transport, the wear of the seat bottoms and teeth flanks may be reduced by introducing the asymmetry of the profile of the sprocket drum seats. The proposed modification of sprocket drum seats' profile consists of inclining the seat bottom towards the expected direction of the basic drum revolutions. The work compares the loads on the seats and teeth of a conventional drum with its profile conforming to the standard to a modified drum with an asymmetric profile of seats. For the general direction of sprocket drum revolutions, the maximum values of all forces are higher for a standard drum than for a modified drum. The profile asymmetry substantially shortens the friction path of the horizontal link front torus on the seat bottom and relative total friction work on the seat bottom and lessens the occurrence probability of the slide of the horizontal link rear torus on the tooth flank. The modification of the profile causes also the asymmetric wear of link joints. The total relative friction work is considerably reduced in the front joint as compared to a conventional drum, and the total relative friction work in the rear joint is increasing at the same time.

  18. Ellie Mannette: Master of the Steel Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elliot ("Ellie") Mannette who has played a major role in the development and application of steel drums. States that he has spent most of his life designing and teaching the steel drums. Covers interview topics and background information on Mannette. (CMK)

  19. Color image digitization and analysis for drum inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.C.; Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-05-01

    A rust inspection system that uses color analysis to find rust spots on drums has been developed. The system is composed of high-resolution color video equipment that permits the inspection of rust spots on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1-in.) in diameter. Because of the modular nature of the system design, the use of open systems software (X11, etc.), the inspection system can be easily integrated into other environmental restoration and waste management programs. The inspection system represents an excellent platform for the integration of other color inspection and color image processing algorithms.

  20. Environmental policy -- A leaking drum?

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1995-07-01

    Twenty years ago, the US had virtually no overall environmental policy. Since then, one has evolved as a result of accumulated legislation, much of which was crafted in reaction to specific events, typically real or potential disasters. The familiar names of Love Canal, Times Beach, Bhopal and others are the symbolic anchor points of that evolution, which yielded Superfund, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, and other environmental statutes. The laws in each case were developed in response to particular environmental and health issues--clean water for drinking and recreation, unpolluted air, safe production of chemicals and chemical-based products. The result was a growing body of environmental legislation that eventually became an accumulate of requirements lacking internal consistency or coherence. Because policymaking followed, rather than guided, legislative actions, the policy itself became inconsistent and sometimes illogical. Like a drum that gradually and indiscriminately is filled with a mixture of mutually reactive chemicals, environmental policy increasingly became a volatile source of concern for those industries in whose midst it had been placed. Lately, there is growing consensus that the drum not only has been overfilled, it also is leaking.

  1. Energy expenditure in rock/pop drumming.

    PubMed

    De La Rue, S E; Draper, S B; Potter, C R; Smith, M S

    2013-10-01

    Despite the vigorous nature of rock/pop drumming, there are no precise data on the energy expenditure of this activity. The aim of this study was to quantify the energy cost of rock/pop drumming. Fourteen male drummers (mean±SD; age 27±8 yrs.) completed an incremental drumming test to establish the relationship between energy expenditure and heart rate for this activity and a ramped cycle ergometer test to exhaustion as a criterion measure for peak values (oxygen uptake and heart rate). During live concert performance heart rate was continuously measured and used to estimate energy expenditure (from the energy expenditure vs. heart rate data derived from the drumming test). During concert performance, estimated energy expenditure (mean±SD) was 623±168 kcal.h⁻¹ (8.1±2.2 METs) during performances of 38.6±15.6 min, and drummers achieved a peak heart rate of 186±16 b.min⁻¹. During the drumming test participants attained 78.7±8.3% of the cycle ergometer peak oxygen uptake. Rock/pop drumming represents a relatively high-intensity form of physical activity and as such involves significant energy expenditure. Rock/pop drumming should be considered as a viable alternative to more traditional forms of physical activity.

  2. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor... Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents. (b) A temporarily...

  3. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2...

  4. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  5. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  6. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  7. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  8. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a fiber drum is 1G. (b) Construction requirements for fiber drums are as follows: (1)...

  9. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  10. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  11. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  12. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  13. 52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A FRENIER PUMP. THE CHARCOAL HOUSE IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND THE DRUM LEANING AGAINST THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL ANNEX. NOTE THE WELDS IN THE DRUM, THEY DELINEATE THE SPIRAL LEADING TO THE CENTER OF THE DRUM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  14. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Peterson, E.S.

    1995-03-01

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report.

  15. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-02-27

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  16. Application of gamma-ray active and passive computed tomography to nondestructively assay TRU waste

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H.E.; Decman, D.J.; Roberson, G.P.; Johansson, E.M.; Keto, E.R.

    1996-05-01

    The authors have developed an active and passive computed tomography scanner for assaying radioactive waste drums. They describe the hardware and software components of the system used for data acquisition, gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, and image reconstruction. They have measured the performance of the system using mock waste drums and calibrated radioactive sources. They describe the results of measurements using this system to assay a real TRU waste drum with relatively low Pu content.

  17. Intelligent Mobile Sensor System for drum inspection and monitoring -- Volume 1. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in the narrow free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The first phase demonstrated an integrated system (maturity level IVa) for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle.

  18. A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634

    SciTech Connect

    Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard; Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel; Nachtman, Thomas J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to

  19. Nondestructive assay of TRU waste using gamma-ray active and passive computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G.P.; Decman, D.; Martz, H.; Keto, E.R.; Johansson, E.M.

    1995-10-04

    The authors have developed an active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) scanner for assaying radioactive waste drums. Here they describe the hardware components of their system and the software used for data acquisition, gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis, and image reconstruction. They have measured the performance of the system using ``mock`` waste drums and calibrated radioactive sources. They also describe the results of measurements using this system to assay a real TRU waste drum with relatively low Pu content. The results are compared with X-ray NDE studies of the same TRU waste drum as well as assay results from segmented gamma scanner (SGS) measurements.

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 3): Harvey-Knott Drum site, New Castle County, Delaware, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-30

    The Harvey-Knott Drum Site is located in New Castle County, Delaware, approximately one-half mile east of the Maryland-Delaware border. The Harvey and Knotts Trucking, Inc., operated an open dump and burning ground on the site between 1963 and 1969. The facility accepted sanitary, municipal, and industrial wastes believed to be sludges, paint pigments, and solvents. Wastes were emptied onto the ground, into excavated trenches, or left in drums (some of which were buried). Some of these wastes were either burned as a means of reducing waste volume, or allowed to seep into the soil. Contamination of soil, surface water, and ground water has occurred as a result of disposal of these industrial wastes. The selected remedial action for this site is included.

  1. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Funk, David John; Clark, David Lewis

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  2. Information Gathering Document 0321-1437-30-R-OG

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-07-15

    Fines and turnings from machining depleted uranium (Dep-U), natural uranium (Nat-U), and Thorium-232, and stainless steel and aluminum. This IGO allows only small, oxidizable pieces of Dep-U/Nat-U/Th-232, with regulated metal contaminants below regulatory limits. Fines and turnings will be in 30 gallon vented drums immersed in mineral oil. The 30 gallon drums will be overpacked in 55 gallon vented drums. The waste will be stored on site until sent for stabilization & disposal with approved TSOFs.

  3. Fuzzy control of a boiler steam drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.; Crockett, W.K.

    1995-10-01

    The authors controlled the inlet water flow to a dynamic model of a steam drum using fuzzy logic. The drum level varied little with step inputs in steam flow. The fuzzy logic controller performed at least as well as a well-tuned traditional PI (which is notoriously difficult to tune). Using plant data in the model provided further evidence that fuzzy logic control gave excellent results. The drum level is a function of inlet water, steam production, and blowdown. To compensate for upsets caused by steam production, independent variables used in the fuzzy controller were drum level and change in drum level. The dependent variable was the change required in the inlet flow. By modeling a 175,000 lb/hr Riley-Stoker boiler, they determined the universe of discourse for each of the three variables. Three triangular and two trapezoidal membership functions characterize each of these universes. The knowledge of experts provided the fuzzy associative memory (FAM) for the variables. The authors modeled the complete dynamic system using Tutsim (Tutsim Products, 200 California Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94306).

  4. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-06-17

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives.

  5. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives. PMID:26080900

  6. 6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM AT THE STEWARD MINE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST DRUM WAS UNDER SHOT, THE WEST OVERSHOT - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  7. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  9. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  12. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  16. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  17. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended to its maximum working length....

  19. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... engineer. (b) A minimum of three full turns of wire rope shall be on the drum when the rope is extended...

  3. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  4. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  5. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  6. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  7. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  8. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum...

  9. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2008-05-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  10. Intelligent Mobile Sensor System for drum inspection and monitoring -- Volume 2. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort was a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and creates and maintains a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort was separated into three phases of which phase three is now complete. The first phase demonstrated an integrated system (maturity level IVa) for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype employed an integrated design that considered operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase has demonstrated the commercial viability of the vehicle in operating waste storage facilities at Fernald, Ohio and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report summarizes the system upgrades performed in phase 3 and the evaluation of the IMSS Phase 3 system and vehicle.

  11. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Phase 1. Topical report, October 1, 1992--June 8, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in narrow aisles and interpolating the free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for leak detection, and is interfaced with a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which positions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 90% of all drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase one is now complete. The first phase has demonstrated an integrated system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. This demonstration system was quickly fielded and evaluated by leveraging technologies developed from previous NASA and DARPA contracts and internal research. The second phase will demonstrate a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project.

  12. Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

  13. Recycle of oily refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bartilucci, M.P.; Karsner, G.G.; Tracy, W.J.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a process for disposing of petroleum containing sludge. It comprises segregating waste oil-containing sludges into a first sludge and a second sludge, the first sludge being of high oil content relative to the second sludge and the second sludge being of high water content relative to the first sludge; dewatering the first, high oil content sludge; introducing the dewatered sludge into a delayed coking drum under delayed coking conditions in the presence of a liquid coker hydrocarbon feedstock to form coke; introducing the second, high water content sludge into a delayed coking drum to quench the coke formed in the coking drum.

  14. Evaluating criticality safety of TRU waste with NDA measurements and risk analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hochel, R.C.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Sigg, R.A.; Winn, W.G.; Chay, S.C.

    1994-09-01

    The criticality safety of {sup 239}Pu in 55-gal. drums stored in TRU waste containers (concrete culverts) was evaluated using NDA neutron and gamma measurements and risk analyses. The neutron measurements yielded a {sup 239}Pu mass and k{sub eff} for a culvert, which contains up to 14 drums. The gamma measurements helped reveal and correct for any interfering neutron sources in the waste. Conservation probabilistic risk analyses were developed for both drums and culverts.

  15. Mobile visual examination and repackaging (MOVER) system

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    Process engineering and waste technology teams at LOS Alamos National Laboratory delivered a prototype Mobile Visual Examination and Repackaging (MOVER) system to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) outside of Carlsbad, NM in October, 2000. This system was developed in response to compliance issues with legacy waste that was packaged in 55 gallons drums prior to release of WIPP's waste acceptance criteria (WAC). A statistical percentage of these 55 gallon drums will be opened and visually examined (VE) as part of re-characterization using Non-destructive examination (NDE) procedures. VE is an intrusive technique since the drum is opened, and as a result, there are more risks in spreading contamination. Hence, VE is performed in a glovebox to protect the workers and the environment. During VE, waste is pulled out of one drum, visually examined, the amount of plutonium measured if necessary, and the waste repackaged into one or more drums. MOVER can perform all these operations, along with having the capability to house the glovebox operations and all support equipment in a 40-foot-long container that can be transported to a site on a semi-trailer. This container is divided into three rooms, providing the level of safety and containment of a fixed facility. A key asset of mobile systems is the inherent need for modular design that reduces infrastructure costs and overhead. A mobile system like MOVER represents a technology base aimed at meeting DOE schedules to accelerate decommissioning of many sites.

  16. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  17. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  18. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Topical report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle. Several parts of the IMSS Phase 1 Topical (Final) Report, which describes the requirements, design guidelines, and detailed design of the Phase 1 IMSS vehicle, are incorporated here, with modifications to reflect the changes in the design and the new elements added during the Phase 2 work.

  19. Low-activity solid waste measurements at Tokai Works

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Parker; D. H. Beddingfield; H. O. Menlove

    1999-11-01

    There is significant interest in performing assay measurements of containerized low-activity solid waste. The authors have examined the cases of typical waste drum matrices containing small quantities of plutonium and fission products. They have discussed various measurement techniques and considered the advantages and disadvantages of each method. They present a new state-of-the-art passive neutron waste drum counter with minimum detectable mass limits far below those systems which they have previously fabricated.

  20. Analysis and stabilization of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s multiphase mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, B.A.

    1995-05-19

    Five drums of mixed waste were accepted from LBL during FY 1994; they contain inorganic acids and compounds, as well as organic reagents and radioactive materials. This document defines the work plan for stabilization and characterization of the waste in three of these 5 drums.

  1. Criticality safety evaluation for TRU waste in storage at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.; Briggs, J.B.; Atkinson, C.A.; Briscoe, G.J.

    1993-11-01

    Stored containers (drums, boxes, and bins) of transuranic waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were evaluated based on inherent neutron absorption characteristics of the waste materials. It was demonstrated that these properties are sufficient to preclude an accidental criticality accident at the actual fissile levels present in the waste stored at the RWMC. Based on the database information available, the results reported herein confirm that the waste drums, boxes, and bins currently stored at the RWMC will remain safely subcritical if rearranged, restacked, or otherwise handled. Acceptance criteria for receiving future drum shipments were established based on fully infinite systems.

  2. Criticality Safety Evaluation for TRU Waste In Storage at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    M. E. Shaw; J. B. Briggs; C. A. Atkinson; G. J. Briscoe

    1994-04-01

    Stored containers (drums, boxes, and bins) of transuranic waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were evaluated based on inherent neutron absorption characteristics of the waste materials. It was demonstrated that these properties are sufficient to preclude a criticality accident at the actual fissile levels present in the waste stored at the RWMC. Based on the database information available, the results reported herein confirm that the waste drums, boxes, and bins currently stored at the RWMC will remain safely subcritical if rearranged, restacked, or otherwise handled. Acceptance criteria for receiving future drum shipments were established based on fully infinite systems.

  3. Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane

    2014-05-01

    A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This

  4. Size limitation on zebra mussels consumed by freshwater drum may preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Love, Joy G.

    1995-01-01

    The septa lengths of bivalve shells were used to estimate shell lengths of the largest zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) crushed and consumed by freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) to determine if size limitation could preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller of the zebra mussel. We examined gut samples of drum (273 to 542 mm long) collected from western Lake Erie in 1991, found the largest mussel (shell length = 21.4 mm) in the 11th largest drum (TL = 405 mm), and observed a reduction of mussel size in larger drum. The lack of a relationship between mussel size and drum size for larger specimens suggests that either drum prefer smaller mussels or the gape between the upper and lower pharyngeal teeth restricts drum feeding to zebra mussels of limited size. Although drum may reduce zebra mussel populations, because of the apparent size limitation of prey it is unlikely that drum would be fully effective as a biological controller; thus, this fish should not be introduced beyond its native range for that purpose.

  5. Pinhole corrosion of CH-TRU waste containers by volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zeek, D.P.

    1998-03-01

    In the spring of 1996 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex, an epidemic of corroded CH-TRU waste drums was encountered. The observed corrosion was in the form of rusty brown streaks that emanated from pinholes in about the upper one-third of the 55 gal drums. Wet streaks were tested as highly acidic by litmus paper. The liquid that emanated from the pinholes was found to be hydrochloric (HCl) acid. An investigation concluded that the pinholes were localized pitting corrosion caused by HCl acid formed in the drum headspace from reactions involving chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste and the unlined steel of the internal drum wall. The pinholes occurred in the upper parts of the drums because this corresponds to the internal headspace region above the rigid liner. Affected drums had a few to hundreds of pinholes with no detectable release of radioactivity. This was due to the internal packaging of waste in heavy polyethylene and/or polyvinyl chloride waste bags inside a rigid high-density polyethylene liner. The corrective action taken was to overpack pinhole corrosion drums into polyethylene-lined 83-gal drums and to test hundreds of drums with drum filters, but without pinhole corrosion, for the presence of HCl acid in the headspace gas with colorimetric tubes fitted to the drum filters. These colorimetric tubes contain a substance that changes color in reaction to HCl acid when headspace gas is drawn by a hand pump. Only drums that had a significant probability for the presence of HCl acid in the headspace were segregated in storage to allow ready inspection and efficient handling, if needed. It is recommended that any facility involved in the long-term storage of waste or other contents, that include chlorinated VOCs in unlined steel containers, be wary for the possible development of pinhole corrosion.

  6. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  7. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Schiavio, Andrea; Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition.

  8. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  9. Active and passive CT for waste assay using LaBr3(Ce) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Tushar; More, M. R.; Ratheesh, Jilju; Sinha, Amar

    2017-01-01

    An active and passive computed tomography system has been developed that localizes and quantifies 239Pu in a waste drum. The active (transmission) measurement uses an external gamma source and LaBr3(Ce) detector to determine the attenuation map of waste drum contents at different selected energies. The passive (emission) measurement uses multiple LaBr3(Ce) detectors to record the spectra of gamma-rays emitted from within the drum. The active and passive data sets are then coupled to quantitatively assay drum contents for 239Pu.

  10. Entry/Exit Port testing, test report

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, R.H.

    1993-05-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module I (WRAP-1) facility must have the ability to allow 55-gallon drums to enter and exit glovebox enclosures. An Entry/Exit Port (Appendix 1, Figure 1), designed by United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C), is one method chosen for drum transfer. The Entry/Exit Port is to be used for entry of 55-gallon drums into both process entry gloveboxes, exit of 55-gallon drum waste pucks from the low-level waste (LLW) glovebox, and loadout of waste from the restricted waste management glovebox. The Entry/Exit Port relies on capture velocity air flow and a neoprene seal to provide alpha confinement when the Port is in the open and closed positions, respectively. Since the glovebox is in a slight vacuum, air flow is directed into the glovebox through the space between the overpack drum and glovebox floor. The air flow is to direct any airborne contamination into the glovebox. A neoprene seal is used to seal the Port door to the glovebox floor, thus maintaining confinement in the closed position. Entry/Exit Port testing took place February 17, 1993, through April 14, 1993, in the 305 building of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Testing was performed in accordance with the Entry/Exit Port Testing Test Plan, document number WHC-SD-WO26-TP-005. A prototype Entry/Exit Port built at the Hanford Site was tested using fluorescent paint pigment and smoke candles as simulant contaminants. This test report is an interim test report. Further developmental testing is required to test modifications made to the Port as the original design of the Port did not provide complete confinement during all stages of operation.

  11. Frequent Questions About EPA's Mercury Lamp Drum-Top Crusher Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Frequent Questions such as Why did we do the Mercury Lamp Drum-Top Crusher Study?, Should drum-top crushers (DTCs) be used in the management of fluorescent lamps?, Are drum-top crushers (DTCs) safe to use?

  12. Implementation plan for WRAP Module 1 operational readiness review

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-11-04

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 (WRAP 1) will be used to receive, sample, treat, and ship contact-handled (CH) transuranic (TRU), low-level waste (LLW), and low-level mixed waste (LLMW) to storage and disposal sites both on the Hanford site and off-site. The primary mission of WRAP 1 is to characterize and certify CH waste in 55-gallon and 85-gallon drums; and its secondary function is to certify CH waste standard waste boxes (SWB) and boxes of similar size for disposal. The WRAP 1 will provide the capability for examination (including x-ray, visual, and contents sampling), limited treatment, repackaging, and certification of CH suspect-TRU waste in 55-gallon drums retrieved from storage, as well as newly generated CH LLW and CH TRU waste drums. The WRAP 1 will also provide examination (X-ray and visual only) and certification of CH LLW and CH TRU waste in small boxes. The decision to perform an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) was made in accordance with WHC-CM-5-34, Solid Waste Disposal Operations Administration, Section 1.4, Operational Readiness Activities. The ORR will ensure plant and equipment readiness, management and personnel readiness, and management programs readiness for the initial startup of the facility. This implementation plan is provided for defining the conduct of the WHC ORR.

  13. Retrieval of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-19

    Soil removal and drum retrieval equipment are being developed and demonstrated in support of the Transuranic Waste Facility (TWF) program. Accomplishments to date include: Soil removal equipment, a telescoping excavator and high velocity vacuum truck were selected for soil removal; Preliminary demonstrations, the capabilities of both the telescoping excavator and vacuum truck were demonstrated by the vendors; Shielding Lifting Canister, Functional parameters were defined and design is 95% complete; and Full-scale demonstration, SRL test mounds were selected for a full-scale drum retrieval demonstration. Further development will include an integrated full-scale demonstration. Several drums buried in non-radioactive TRU test mounds will be retrieved. Planning for the demonstration is underway. A telescoping excavator is being acquired, the shielded lifting canister will be fabricated and pre-tested, and a vacuum truck will be leased. 5 figs.

  14. Assessment of gas flammability in transuranic waste container

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Loehr, C.A.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    The Safety Analysis Report for the TRUPACT-II Shipping Package [Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) SARP] set limits for gas generation rates, wattage limits, and flammable volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in transuranic (TRU) waste containers that would be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Based on existing headspace gas data for drums stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), over 30 percent of the contact-handled TRU waste drums contain flammable VOC concentrations greater than the limit. Additional requirements may be imposed for emplacement of waste in the WIPP facility. The conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the facility required that flame tests be performed if significant levels of flammable VOCs were present in TRU waste containers. This paper describes an approach for investigating the potential flammability of TRU waste drums, which would increase the allowable concentrations of flammable VOCS. A flammability assessment methodology is presented that will allow more drums to be shipped to WIPP without treatment or repackaging and reduce the need for flame testing on drums. The approach includes experimental work to determine mixture lower explosive limits (MLEL) for the types of gas mixtures observed in TRU waste, a model for predicting the MLEL for mixtures of VOCS, hydrogen, and methane, and revised screening limits for total flammable VOCs concentrations and concentrations of hydrogen and methane using existing drum headspace gas data and the model predictions.

  15. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used where they are subject to open flame, hot metal, or other sources of artificial heat. (d) Unless pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic...

  16. Mobile drum crusher prevents pollution, cuts disposal costs

    SciTech Connect

    Vasseur, J.C. )

    1994-12-01

    Sfanid Renov' Cuves, of Goussainville, France, has developed an alternative to stockpiling potentially dangerous used drums. Quick Futs (''quick barrels'') is a mobile unit that neutralizes metal drums and packaging materials. The onsite treatment system saves customers money on drum processing and transportation costs. The per-ton cost of delivering drums containing chemical residues to a disposal center is substantially higher than the cost of delivering only the residues in bulk or tank trucks, and takes more time. The Quick Futs system cleans drums under high pressure, crushes them, and pumps out and recovers residual chemicals and rinse water before shipping the drums to an approved center for final destruction. As a stationary unit, the Quick Futs system can be used to process empty drums daily, avoiding the need to store used drums in an area that could be used for a more productive purpose. Quick Futs is designed to meet safety requirements for explosion-proof equipment in refineries. As a mobile unit, Quick Futs offers the advantages of the stationary unit and provides added peace of mind for those who see the unit on a customer's premises. The process is especially valuable for companies whose packaging materials cannot be reused.

  17. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a...

  18. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for fiber drums. 178.508 Section 178.508 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The identification code for a...

  19. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    SciTech Connect

    Arbon, R.E.

    2001-01-31

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  20. Drum ring removal/installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Andrade, William Andrew

    2006-11-14

    A handheld tool, or a pair of such tools, such as for use in removing/installing a bolt-type clamping ring on a container barrel/drum, where the clamping ring has a pair of clamping ends each with a throughbore. Each tool has an elongated handle and an elongated lever arm transversely connected to one end of the handle. The lever arm is capable of being inserted into the throughbore of a selected clamping end and leveraged with the handle to exert a first moment on the selected clamping end. Each tool also has a second lever arm, such as a socket with an open-ended slot, which is suspended alongside the first lever arm. The second lever arm is capable of engaging the selected clamping end and being leveraged with the handle to exert a second moment which is orthogonal to the first moment. In this manner, the first and second moments operate to hold the selected clamping end fixed relative to the tool so that the selected clamping end may be controlled with the handle. The pair of clamping ends may also be simultaneously and independently controlled with the use of two handles/tools so as to contort the geometry of the drum clamping ring and enable its removal/installation.

  1. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1994-08-08

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is being designed for construction in the north end of the Central Waste Complex. The WRAP Facility will receive, store, and process radioactive solid waste of both transuranic (TRU) and mixed waste (mixed radioactive-chemical waste) categories. Most of the waste is in 208-L (55-gal) steel drums. Other containers such as wood and steel boxes, and various sized drums will also be processed in the facility. The largest volume of waste and the type addressed in this report is TRU in 208-L (55-gal) drums that is scheduled to be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1). Half of the TRU waste processed by WRAP 1 is expected to be retrieved stored waste and the other half newly generated waste. Both the stored and new waste will be processed to certify it for permanent storage in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or disposal. The stored waste will go through a process of retrieval, examination, analysis, segregation, repackaging, relabeling, and documentation before certification and WIPP shipment. Newly generated waste should be much easier to process and certify. However, a substantial number of drums of both retrievable and newly generated waste will require temporary storage and handling in WRAP. Most of the TRU waste is combustible or has combustible components. Therefore, the presence of a substantial volume of drummed combustible waste raises concern about fire safety in WRAP and similar waste drum storage facilities. This report analyzes the fire related characteristics of the expected WRAP TRU waste stream.

  2. Drum dispersion equation for Littrow-type prism spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Sidran, M; Stalzer, H J; Hauptman, M H

    1966-07-01

    A simple analytic procedure has been developed for calibrating the wavelength drum of a Littrow-type prism spectrometer. Only three measured drum readings are required to specify the drum calibration over a broad wavelength range (uv to ir) with an accuracy of the order of the instrumental accuracy. This procedure can be applied to different prism materials for which measurements of refractive index have been performed. It is based on an approximate expression, derived from geometrical optics, relating the drum reading D(lambda) to the calculated refractive index n(lambda): D= A - B(a(2) - n(2))((1/2)). The index n(lambda) is calculated from the appropriate parametric equation. The temperature for the n(lambda) values need not be exactly that of the prism temperature during measurements. This expression was investigated for wavelengths in the range 0.3 micro to 2.25 micro using a sodium chloride prism. Computed drum positions D agreed with measured drum positions to within experimental error. Unknown wavelengths were computed from their measured drum positions to within the accuracy of the measurements.

  3. Performance assessment of improved composting system for food waste with varying aeration and use of microbial inoculum.

    PubMed

    Manu, M K; Kumar, Rakesh; Garg, Anurag

    2017-03-07

    Wet waste recycling at generation point will alleviate burden on the overflowing waste dumpsites in developing nations. Drum composting is a potential treatment option for such waste at individual or community level. The present study was aimed to produce compost from wet waste (primarily comprising food waste) in composting drums modified for improved natural air circulation. Effect of microbial inoculum and waste turning on composting process was also studied. The final results showed the production of matured and stable compost in the modified drums. Addition of the microbial inoculum resulted in thermophilic phase within a week time. The self-heating test and germination index (>80%) showed the production of non-phytotoxic and mature compost in the modified drums after 60days. The change in microbial population, humic substances and biological parameters (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose) during the study is discussed. Moreover, the reduction in waste mass and volume is also reported.

  4. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  5. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  6. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  7. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-08-27

    Phase I retrieval of post-1970 TRU wastes from burial ground 218-W-4C can be done in a safe, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Initiating TRU retrieval by retrieving uncovered drums from Trenches 1, 20, and 29, will allow retrieval to begin under the current SWBG safety authorization basis. The retrieval of buried drums from Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29, which will require excavation, will commence once the uncovered drum are retrieved. This phased approach allows safety analysis for drum venting and drum module excavation to be completed and approved before the excavation proceeds. In addition, the lessons learned and the operational experience gained from the retrieval of uncovered drums can be applied to the more complicated retrieval of the buried drums. Precedents that have been set at SRS and LANL to perform retrieval without a trench cover, in the open air, should be followed. Open-air retrieval will result in significant cost savings over the original plans for Phase I retrieval (Project W-113). Based on LANL and SRS experience, open-air retrieval will have no adverse impacts to the environment or to the health and safety of workers or the public. Assaying the waste in the SWBG using a mobile assay system, will result in additional cost savings. It is expected that up to 50% of the suspect-TRU wastes will assay as LLW, allowing those waste to remain disposed of in the SWBG. Further processing, with its associated costs, will only occur to the portion of the waste that is verified to be TRU. Retrieval should be done, to the extent possible, under the current SWBG safety authorization basis as a normal part of SWBG operations. The use of existing personnel and existing procedures should be optimized. By working retrieval campaigns, typically during the slow months, it is easier to coordinate the availability of necessary operations personnel, and it is easier to coordinate the availability of a mobile assay vendor.

  8. Acoustic and visual remote sensing of barrels of radioactive waste: Application of civilian and military technology to environmental management of the oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, H.A.; Chin, J.L.; Maher, N.M.; Chavez, P.S. Jr.; Ueber, E.; Van Peeters, W.; Curl, H.

    1995-04-01

    As part of an ongoing strategic research project to find barrels of radioactive waste off San Francisco, the U.S. Navy (USN), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) pooled their expertise, resources, and technology to form a partnership to verify new computer enhancement techniques developed for detecting targets the size of 55 gallon barrels on sidescan sonar images. Between 1946 and 1970, approximately 47,800 large barrels and other containers of radioactive waste were dumped in the ocean west of San Francisco; the containers litter an area of the sea floor of at least 1400 km {sup 2} knows as the Farallon Island Radioactive Waste Dump. The exact location of the containers and the potential hazard the containers pose to the environment is unknown. The USGS developed computer techniques and contracted with private industry to enhance sidescan data, collected in cooperation with the GFNMS, to detect objects as small as 55 gallon steel barrels while conducting regional scale sidescan sonar surveys. Using a subset of the regional sonar survey, images were plotted over a 125 km {sub 2} area. The acoustic interpretations were verified visually using the USN DSV Sea Cliff and the unmanned Advanced Tethered Vehicle (ATV). Barrels and other physical features were found where image enhancement had indicated they would be found. The interagency cooperation among the USN, USGS, and GFNMS has led to develop a cost effective and time efficient method to locate the barrels of radioactive waste. This method has universal application for locating containers of hazardous waste over a regional scale in other ocean areas such as Boston Harbor and the Kara Sea in the Arctic. This successful application of military and civilian expertise and technology has provided scientific information to help formulate policy decisions that affect the environmental management and quality of the ocean.

  9. Expert System for Building TRU Waste Payloads - 13554

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Heather; Slater, Bryant

    2013-07-01

    The process for grouping TRU waste drums into payloads for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal is a very complex process. Transportation and regulatory requirements must be met, along with striving for the goals of shipment efficiency: maximize the number of waste drums in a shipment and minimize the use of empty drums which take up precious underground storage space. The restrictions on payloads range from weight restrictions, to limitations on flammable gas in the headspace, to minimum TRU alpha activity concentration requirements. The Overpack and Payload Assistant Tool (OPAT) has been developed as a mixed-initiative intelligent system within the WIPP Waste Data System (WDS) to guide the construction of multiple acceptable payloads. OPAT saves the user time while at the same time maximizes the efficiency of shipments for the given drum population. The tool provides the user with the flexibility to tune critical factors that guide OPAT's operation based on real-time feedback concerning the results of the execution. This feedback complements the user's external knowledge of the drum population (such as location of drums, known challenges, internal shipment goals). This work demonstrates how software can be utilized to complement the unique domain knowledge of the users. The mixed-initiative approach combines the insight and intuition of the human expert with the proficiency of automated computational algorithms. The result is the ability to thoroughly and efficiently explore the search space of possible solutions and derive the best waste management decision. (authors)

  10. First Industrial Tests of a Drum Monitor Matrix Correction for the Fissile Mass Measurement in Large Volume Historic Metallic Residues with the Differential Die-away Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Vandamme, J.C.; Grassi, G.

    2015-07-01

    The fissile mass in radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant is measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT. In the next years, old hulls and nozzles mixed with Ion-Exchange Resins will be measured. The ion-exchange resins increase neutron moderation in the matrix, compared to the waste measured in the current process. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of CEA Cadarache has studied a matrix effect correction method, based on a drum monitor ({sup 3}He proportional counter inside the measurement cavity). A previous study performed with the NML R and D measurement cell PROMETHEE 6 has shown the feasibility of method, and the capability of MCNP simulations to correctly reproduce experimental data and to assess the performances of the proposed correction. A next step of the study has focused on the performance assessment of the method on the industrial station using numerical simulation. A correlation between the prompt calibration coefficient of the {sup 239}Pu signal and the drum monitor signal was established using the MCNPX computer code and a fractional factorial experimental design composed of matrix parameters representative of the variation range of historical waste. Calculations have showed that the method allows the assay of the fissile mass with an uncertainty within a factor of 2, while the matrix effect without correction ranges on 2 decades. In this paper, we present and discuss the first experimental tests on the industrial ACC measurement system. A calculation vs. experiment benchmark has been achieved by performing dedicated calibration measurement with a representative drum and {sup 235}U samples. The preliminary comparison between calculation and experiment shows a satisfactory agreement for the drum monitor. The final objective of this work is to confirm the reliability of the

  11. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... laminated together and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed kraft paper, metal foil... paper, metal foil, plastic material, or similar material. (3) The body and heads of the drum and...

  12. View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  13. The Play as Novel: Reappropriating Brecht's "Drums in the Night."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Della

    1988-01-01

    Applies Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of the novel to Bertolt Brecht's "Drums in the Night" to illuminate the play's dialogic structure and alienation value, and reappropriate its prerevolutionary dimensions for contemporary use. (MM)

  14. Slit Logs and Sacred Cows: The History of the Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of the drum is presented in both pictures and prose, from its beginning in Africa and the Far Eastern world to its introduction to the Western world where it is now fully accepted as a serious instrument. (KC)

  15. 49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORROLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORR-OLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN THE FILTER CAKE HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....507 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR... effectiveness of the drum for the purpose intended. A material other than plywood, of at least...

  17. 4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non..., with their grains crosswise. (3) The body and heads of the drum and their joints must be of a...

  19. View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  20. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., lids must be lined with kraft paper or some other equivalent material which must be securely fastened to the lid and extend to the outside along its full circumference. (5) Maximum capacity of drum:...

  1. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., lids must be lined with kraft paper or some other equivalent material which must be securely fastened to the lid and extend to the outside along its full circumference. (5) Maximum capacity of drum:...

  2. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., lids must be lined with kraft paper or some other equivalent material which must be securely fastened to the lid and extend to the outside along its full circumference. (5) Maximum capacity of drum:...

  3. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES AND BRAKE HANDLE, LOOKING NORTH - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  4. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, BRAKE HANDLE, AND REDUCTION GEARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  5. CMR Shuffler System: Passive Mode Calibration and Certification Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, Katherine C.; Gomez, Cipriano D.; Salazar, William R.; Mayo, Douglas R.; Vigil, Georgiana M.; Crooks, William J.; Stange, Sy

    2012-07-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. As debris is removed from the vessels, material will be placed in waste drums. Far-field gamma ray assay will be used to determine when a drum is nearing a {sup 239}Pu equivalent mass of less than 200 g. The drum will then be assayed using a waste drum shuffler operated in passive mode using a neutron coincidence counting method for accountability. This report focuses on the testing and calibration of the CMR waste drum shuffler in passive mode operation. Initial testing was performed to confirm previously accepted measurement parameters. The system was then calibrated using a set of weapons grade Pu (WGPu, {sup 239}Pu > 93%) oxide standards placed inside a 55 gallon drum. The calibration data ranges from Pu mass of 0.5 g to 188.9 g. The CMR waste drum shuffler has been tested and calibrated in passive mode in preparation for safeguards accountability measurements of waste drums containing material removed from CVs for the CVD project.

  6. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Projects - Fort Drum, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-21

    Army Corps of Engineers Figure 2. Solar Walls Installed on a Maintenance Shop at Fort Drum Source: IEA Energy Conservation in Buildings and...a $1.6 million Energy Conservation Investment Program project to rehabilitate and install solar walls in Fort Drum maintenance shops. What We...contracted for, and began execution of Recovery Act projects for constructing a child development center and rehabilitating and installing solar

  7. Heat loading limits for solid transuranic wastes storage

    SciTech Connect

    Spatz, T.L.

    1993-07-01

    Heat loading limits have been established for four storage configurations of TRU wastes. The calculations were performed assuming the worst case scenario whereby all the heat generated within a drum was generated within one ``cut`` and that this cut was located in the very center of the drum. Poly-boxes containing one HEPA filter were assumed to have a uniform heat generation throughout the filter. The maximum allowable temperatures were based on the materials in the containers. A comparison between the drum center temperature for a uniform heat load distribution and for the center temperature when the heat load is confined to one cut in the center of the drum is also illustrated. This comparison showed that the heat load of a particular drum can be more than doubled by distributing the sources of heat uniformly throughout the container.

  8. Volume Reduction of Solid Radioactive Waste From Research Reactor and Nuclear Laboratories - Industrial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.N.; Gandhi, K.G.; Chander, M.; Raj, K.

    2006-07-01

    Various research reactors and nuclear laboratories at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India generate approximately 600 m{sup 3} of radioactive solid waste annually. These wastes are categorized and segregated based on their radiation field, physical nature and radionuclides present. The low level waste is further segregated based on compactability criteria. The compactable wastes are packed in 200 litres carbon steel drums and pelletized to get a volume reduction factor of about five. The compaction system designed for Cat-I (Table-1) radioactive waste is having 200 Tons capacity hydraulic press, housed in a well-ventilated enclosure. Before pelletizing, the drum is assayed to estimate {beta},{gamma} activity. Further, the imaging of waste drum is also done so as to avoid any possibility of non-compactable material being taken for pelletizing. The pelletizing system comprises of conveying, pushing, indexing and compacting. All operations are controlled by programmable logic control (PLC) based control system. Apart from the drum palletising, the system is also equipped to compact the used Pre and HEPA filters, being generated from exhaust and supply air system of clean room, nuclear laboratories, research reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, high level waste management facility etc. The system is designed to handle about 5 drums or filters per hour. So far about 3000 number of each, HEPA filters and waste drums have been safely compacted and disposed. (authors)

  9. Closure report for Building 875 sump encased in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Montemayor, W.

    1991-08-01

    This report will document the post-closure activities for the 875-R1U1 Waste-Solvent Underground Storage Tank located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Site 300. The aforementioned tank waspreviously identified and registered with the California Water Resources Control Board as 875-31R. The underground tank system consists of a 55-gallon steel drum encased in concrete. The underground tank was used to collect dripping and spillage from the above-concrete drum rack storage area. The closure of this underground tank was permitted as Tank Identification No. 39-1945-21 by W.R. Snavely of SJCPHS-EHS. The last tank test, performed on February 1988, showed that the underground tank was leak tight. On May 1988, the sludge at the bottom of the tank was removed and disposed of as hazardous waste. The residual 1.5 inches of oily water in the tank was removed and the tank was washed with soap and water on December 11, 1989. The rinsate and residual sludge was disposed of as hazardous waste. The empty tank and the encasing concrete were extracted from the ground on November 5, 1990. No underground piping was associated with the removal of this underground tank since the tank was used to collect the dripping and spillage from the above-concrete drum rack. Three soil samples were collected in split tubes from approximately 1 foot below the bottom of the tank. The soil samples were collected and analyzed for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH)-Gasoline, TPH-Diesel, Total Extractable Petroleum, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethyl Benzene, Tetraethyl Lead, Metals, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB), and Ethylene Dibromide. Results indicated that the underground tank was leak tight. The concrete encasing was removed from the 55-gallon tank and disposed of as a municipal waste. The 55-gallon tank is currently stored at the Hazardous Waste Storage Area located in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California and is waiting as a hazardous waste.

  10. System design description for Waste Information and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.R.

    1994-12-16

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Hazardous Material Control Group (HMC) of the 222-S Laboratory has requested the development of a system to help resolve many of the difficulties associated with tracking and data collection of containers and drums of waste. This system has been identified as the Waste Information and Control System (WICS). WICS shall partially automate the procedure for acquisition, tracking and reporting of the container, drum, and waste data that is currently manually processed. The WICS project shall use handheld computer units (HCU) to collect laboratory data, a local database with an user friendly interface to import the laboratory data from the HCUs, and barcode technology with associated software and operational procedures. After the container, drum, and waste data has been collected and verified, WICS shall be manipulated to provide informal reports containing data required to properly document waste disposal. 8 refs, 82 figs, 69 tabs.

  11. Hazardous Waste Code Determinations for the First/Second Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    SciTech Connect

    Arbon, Rodney Edward

    2001-01-01

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  12. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    capture. During July, August, and September 2007, BES designed, procured, installed, and tested the slurry injection system at Beaver Valley. Slurry production was performed by Penn State University using equipment that was moved from campus to the Beaver Valley site. Waste coal fines were procured from Headwaters Inc. and transported to the site in Super Sacks. In addition, bituminous coal was pulverized at Penn State and trucked to the site in 55-gallon drums. This system was operated for three weeks during August and September 2007. NO{sub x} emission data were obtained using the plant CEM system. Hg measurements were taken using EPA Method 30B (Sorbent Trap method) both downstream of the electrostatic precipitator and in the stack. Ohio Lumex Company was on site to provide rapid Hg analysis on the sorbent traps during the tests. Key results from these tests are: (1) Coal Fines reburn alone reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 0-10% with up to 4% heat input from the CWS. However, the NO{sub x} reduction was accompanied by higher CO emissions. The higher CO limited our ability to try higher reburn rates for further NO{sub x} reduction. (2) Coal Fines reburn with Urea (Carbon enhanced SNCR) decreased NO{sub x} emissions by an additional 30% compared to Urea injection only. (3) Coal slurry injection did not change Hg capture across the ESP at full load with an inlet temperature of 400-430 F. The Hg capture in the ESP averaged 40%, with or without slurry injection; low mercury particulate capture is normally expected across a higher temperature ESP because any oxidized mercury is thought to desorb from the particulate at ESP temperatures above 250 F. (4) Coal slurry injection with halogen salts added to the mixing tank increased the Hg capture in the ESP to 60%. This significant incremental mercury reduction is important to improved mercury capture with hot-side ESP operation and wherever hindrance from sulfur oxides limit mercury reduction, because the higher temperature is

  13. A Stochastic Problem Arising in the Storage of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2004-07-15

    Nuclear waste drums can contain a collection of radioactive components of uncertain activity and randomly dispersed in position. This implies that the dose-rate at the surface of different drums in a large assembly of similar drums can have significant variations according to the physical makeup and configuration of the waste components. The present paper addresses this problem by treating the drum, and its waste, as a stochastic medium. It is assumed that the sources in the drum contribute a dose-rate to some external point. The strengths and positions are chosen by random numbers, the dose-rate is calculated and, from several thousand realizations, a probability distribution for the dose-rate is obtained. It is shown that a very close approximation to the dose-rate probability function is the log-normal distribution. This allows some useful statistical indicators, which are of environmental importance, to be calculated with little effort.As an example of a practical situation met in the storage of radioactive waste containers, we study the problem of 'hotspots'. These arise in drums in which most of the activity is concentrated on one radioactive component and hence can lead to the possibility of large surface dose-rates. It is shown how the dose-rate, the variance, and some other statistical indicators depend on the relative activities on the sources. The results highlight the importance of such hotspots and the need to quantify their effect.

  14. Results from simulated contact-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    We conducted in situ experiments with nonradioactive, contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility for about four years. We performed these tests in two rooms in rock salt, at WIPP, with drums surrounded by crushed salt or 70 wt % salt/30 wt % bentonite clay backfills, or partially submerged in a NaCl brine pool. Air and brine temperatures were maintained at {approximately}40C. These full-scale (210-L drum) experiments provided in situ data on: backfill material moisture-sorption and physical properties in the presence of brine; waste container corrosion adequacy; and, migration of chemical tracers (nonradioactive actinide and fission product simulants) in the near-field vicinity, all as a function of time. Individual drums, backfill, and brine samples were removed periodically for laboratory evaluations. Waste container testing in the presence of brine and brine-moistened backfill materials served as a severe overtest of long-term conditions that could be anticipated in an actual salt waste repository. We also obtained relevant operational-test emplacement and retrieval experience. All test results are intended to support both the acceptance of actual TRU wastes at the WIPP and performance assessment data needs. We provide an overview and technical data summary focusing on the WIPP CH TRU envirorunental overtests involving 174 waste drums in the presence of backfill materials and the brine pool, with posttest laboratory materials analyses of backfill sorbed-moisture content, CH TRU drum corrosion, tracer migration, and associated test observations.

  15. Supplemental Cooling for Nitrate Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Mitchell S.

    2015-08-19

    In July 2015, Los Alamos National Laboratory completed installation of a supplemental cooling system in the structure where remediated nitrate salt waste drums are stored. Although the waste currently is in a safe configuration and is monitored daily,controlling the temperature inside the structure adds another layer of protection for workers, the public,and the environment.This effort is among several layers of precautions designed to secure the waste.

  16. Operational experience acquired in radioactive waste compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.; Mohr, P.; Hempelmann, W.

    1993-12-31

    The low-level radioactive waste scrapping facility in the KfK decontamination division was commissioned in 1983. Non-combustible residues and removed system components of low activity, but which are to be handled and disposed of as radioactive waste are in drums, casks or containers delivered to the facility. The waste usually undergoes pretreatment in a crusher, with the volume being definitively reduced at a pressure of 690 bar in the high-pressure compactor. In 1990, the overhead-crane was refurbished for remote control handling in the scrapping caisson. The parts to undergo scrapping are unpacked in the material lock, and then go into the scrapping caisson. It is possible to use here various mechanical and thermal methods to dismantle the respective parts. But most of the parts to undergo scrapping are such as that it is possible to directly pretreat them in the crusher. The obtained scrap is loaded into 180-liter drums. Most of the machinery in the caisson is manually operated. The operating crew enters the caisson in fully ventilated protective overalls. The drums filled with the scrap then go to the high-pressure compactor in the caisson. The compacts are temporarily stored, until recalled depending on their height and filled into drums such as that optimal drum filling is guaranteed.

  17. Macroencapsulation development at Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    Yokum, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Pantex Plant is developing an innovative skid-mounted macroencapsulation technology (called a mobile treatment unit, MTU) that will economically dispose low-level radioactive mixed waste debris. Pantex`s macroencapuslation technology spin-welds a polyethylene top onto a polyethylene receiver to form a jacket that encapsulates a fifty-five (55) gallon steel drum of compacted low-level radioactive and mixed waste debris. The annulus formed by the fifty-five gallon drum and the polyethylene jacket is filled with a material (either foam or grout) to eliminate voids in the final waste form. The US EPA verified that the use of a polyethylene jacket constitutes macroencapsulation in a letter to Chemical Waste Management, Inc., dated September 19, 1995. The EPA letter stipulated that this treatment technology should not be used for D008, radioactive lead solids, and that the final waste form should be structurally sound and resistant to degradation.

  18. 77 FR 24200 - American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ...-04- 2012-3770 or Site name American Drum & Pallet Superfund Site by one of the following methods: www... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet Superfund...

  19. Red drum Sciaenops ocellatus mortalities associated with Streptococcus iniae infection.

    PubMed

    Eldar, A; Perl, S; Frelier, P F; Bercovier, H

    1999-05-12

    We isolated for the first time Streptococcus iniae strains associated with diseased marine fish. Diseased red drum Sciaenops ocellatus were lethargic, and presented external signs (exophthalmia and loss of orientation) resembling those of freshwater fish infected by S. iniae. Skin lesions, extending to a necrotizing myositis, were typical of S. iniae infection of red drum. Histopathological findings indicate that S. iniae infection in red drum produces a chronic disease with systemic involvement characterized by multiple necrotic foci. Molecular epidemiology (RFLP [restriction fragment length polymorphism] ribotyping) revealed that 2 different ribotypes were involved in a single outbreak. The first is the EcoRI 'Israeli' trout and tilapine ribotype (Hind III type a strains), while the second is the EcoRI 'American' ribotype (Hind III type b strains), typical of tilapines farmed in Texas and Idaho.

  20. Tread drum for animals. [having an electrical shock station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A device for exercising animals such as primates is described, which includes a cylindrical housing mounted for rotation about a horizontal axis of revolution and has a cylindrical treadway portion on which the animal treads while the drum is rotated by means of a motorized drive. The treadway portion of the drum includes an electrode structure with sectors being independently energizable by means of a commutator and source of potential so that an electrical shock station is created behind a running-in-place station on the moving treadway. In this manner, if the animal should fall behind its running-in-place station, it may be shocked by treading on the energized electrode structure. One end of the tread drum comprises a transparent wall for unobstructed viewing of the animal being exercised.

  1. Dietary choline requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Gatlin, D M

    1996-06-01

    A 6-wk feeding experiment was conducted to determine the maximal dietary choline requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Diets were formulated to provide 35 g crude protein/ 100 g dry weight from solvent-extracted lyophilized red drum muscle and an amino acid premix. This premix provided methionine precisely at the minimum requirement determined for red drum so that potential synthesis of choline from methionine would be limited. Menhaden oil and dextrin were added to all diets to provide 13.8 kJ metabolizable energy/g diet as estimated by physiological fuel values. The diets were supplemented with choline chloride to provide 0, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 1500 mg choline/kg diet. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of red drum initially averaging 5.5 g/fish in a closed, recirculating system consisting of 110-L glass aquaria. Dietary choline concentration significantly (P < 0.05) affected weight gain, feed efficiency, total lipid in liver and plasma, as well as plasma cholesterol ester, triglyceride, cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine concentrations. Least-squares regression of these responses yielded requirements ranging from 330 to 676 mg choline/kg diet. Based on weight gain data, a maximal requirement estimate (+/- SEM) of 588 (+/- 35) mg choline/kg diet was established. Red drum appear to differ from other animals in regard to the response of total lipid in liver because fish fed choline-deficient diets had reduced liver lipid rather than lipid accumulation. Cultured red drum normally store high levels of lipid in the liver.

  2. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes.

  3. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Drum, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Scott A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Solana, Amy E.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rowley, Steven; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-10-20

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Drum, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Drum took place on May 4 and 5, 2010.

  4. Wastewater and Hazardous Waste Survey, Homestead AFB Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Hexachloroexxhydro-exo,exo-dimethanonapthalene Hexamethyltetraphosphate Hydrazinecarbothioam ide Hydrazine methyl Hydrocyanic acid Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen...characteristic hazardous waste (EP Toxicity) analysis on neutralized battery acid . (5) Drums and bowsers at waste storage sites should be secured. (6) Paint...neutralized battery acid . In fact, 95% of all wastes are included in the first six categories. Table 7: Categories of Waste on Homestead AFB 1 Category

  5. Hazardous Waste Technical Assistance Survey, March AFB, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Bioenvironmental Engineer, SGPB, AV 947-3952 2Lt Bachand, Environmental Coordinator, OEEV, AV 947-4855 Ms Billy Maddi, Hazardous Waste Manager, DRMO (Located...amounts of oily rags which are drummed and disposed of as hazardous waste. Shop: Fuel Systems Building: 2307 Contact: Mr Vaughn AUTOVON: 947-5256 Shop

  6. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  7. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  8. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  9. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  10. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1...

  11. The Oral Tradition in the Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble is a Ghanaian drum and dance ensemble that focusses on music in the Ewe tradition. It is based in an elementary school in the Greater Toronto Area and consists of students in Grade 4 through Grade 8. Students in the ensemble study Ghanaian traditional Ewe drumming and dancing in the oral tradition. Nine students…

  12. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or... SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.506 Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums...

  13. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for metal drums other than steel or...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.506 Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums...

  14. FY94 Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Operations Robotics Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.M.

    1994-08-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) develops technologies to help solve waste management and environmental problems at DOE sites. The OTD includes the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Together these programs will provide technologies for DOE mixed waste cleanup projects. Mixed waste contains both radioactive and hazardous constituents. DOE sites currently store over 240,000 cubic meters of low level mixed waste and cleanup activities will generate several hundred thousand more cubic meters. Federal and state regulations require that this waste must be processed before final disposal. The OTD RTDP Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) team held several robotic demonstrations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during November of 1993. Over 330 representatives from DOE, Government Contractors, industry, and universities attended. The MWO team includes: Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Engineering Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). SRTC is the lead site for MWO and provides the technical coordinator. The primary demonstration objective was to show that robotic technologies can make DOE waste facilities run better, faster, more cost effective, and safer. To meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste drum processing activities: non-destructive drum examination, drum transportation, drum opening, removing waste from a drum, characterize and sort waste items, scarify metal waste, and inspect stored drums. To further meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste box processing activities: swing free crane control, workcell modeling, and torch standoff control.

  15. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.W.; Swanson, P.J.

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  16. Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

  17. The Way of the Drum: When Earth Becomes Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Grafton; Turchetti, Lois Provost

    Two Native people describe their respective journeys to healing, journeys that involved the rediscovery of language and culture. In Part I, "Healing the Tears of Yesterday by the Drum Today: The Oneida Language Is a Healing Medicine" (Grafton Antone), the first narrator taught the Oneida language to adult students at a community center.…

  18. Dynamics of Axial Separation in Long Rotating Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I.S.; Tsimring, L.S.

    1999-06-01

    We propose a continuum description for the axial separation of granular materials in a long rotating drum. The model, operating with two local variables, concentration difference and the dynamic angle of repose, describes both initial transient traveling wave dynamics and long-term segregation of the binary mixture. Segregation proceeds through ultraslow logarithmic coarsening. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... located within easy reach of the operator's station. (3) Electric motor operated hoists shall be provided... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... located within easy reach of the operator's station. (3) Electric motor operated hoists shall be provided... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  2. Flow Straightener for a Rotating-Drum Liquid Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Coin, James R.; Converse, David G.; Rethke, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    A flow straightener has been incorporated into a rotary liquid separator that originally comprised an inlet tube, a shroud plate, an impeller, an inner drum, an outer drum, a housing, a pitot tube, and a hollow shaft motor. As a consequence of the original geometry of the impeller, shroud, inner drum, and hollow shaft, swirl was created in the airflow inside the hollow shaft during operation. The swirl speed was large enough to cause a significant pressure drop. The flow straightener consists of vanes on the back side of the shroud plate. These vanes compartmentalize the inside of the inner drum in such a way as to break up the flow path and thereby stop the air from swirling; as a result, the air enters the hollow shaft with a predominantly axial velocity instead of a swirl. Tests of the rotary liquid separator at an airflow rate of 10 cu ft/min (0.0047 cu m/s) revealed that the dynamic pressure drop was 8 in. of water (approx.=2 kPa) in the absence of the flow straightener and was reduced to 1 in. of water (approx.=0.25 kPa) in the presence of the flow straightener.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Cherenkov Light Detectors in an Oil Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niduaza, Rexavalmar; Wedel, Zachary; Castro, Juan; Zavala, Favian; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) has been used in a number of research development in astro-particle physics and particle physics. In an effort to further implement the MPPC detector, we constructed a modular experimental setup using a 16-inch tall acrylic cylinder filled with distilled water as the light producing medium to determine its feasibility as a possible detector for weak Cherenkov light. We have since progressed towards utilizing an oil drum (approximately 30 gallons) as our light-tight container replacing our prototype. In this talk, we would discuss the results regarding our investigation utilizing 1-inch and 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) in an oil drum as we did for our prototype. We would also present our experimental findings comparing our prototype and our oil drum setup using PMTs in coincidence with the MPPC coupled with wavelength-shifting fibers that are submerged in distilled water inside the oil drum vessel. Department of Education grant nymber P031S90007.

  4. Middle School Drum Ensemble: An Unlikely Experience in Classroom Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbre, James

    2013-01-01

    Though music has a long and successful history within education, it is often one of the first sacrificial lambs when school budgets tighten. Over the course of an academic year, a documentary film sought to tell the story of an American middle school drum ensemble. The context of this group provided an ideal way to examine the nature of student…

  5. 4. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF SOUTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF SOUTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM, ONE BULL SHAFT AND GEARS, BULL RING AND ROLLERS, AND TOP OF PIER III. WILLBRIDGE AND PORTLAND WEST HILLS IN BACKGROUND. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 14. BULL SHAFT, BULL RING AND PINION, AND DRUM. TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BULL SHAFT, BULL RING AND PINION, AND DRUM. TOP OF PIER III, GRANITE COPING, AND PLAIN CONCRETE PIER BELOW. DETAILS OF WEST PIER PROTECTION FRAMING AT PIER. WILLBRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  7. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  8. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  9. Development of Interpersonal Coordination between Peers during a Drumming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Ramenzoni, Veronica C. O.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their drumming with a peer. Results showed that all children…

  10. Velocity Profiles in a Rotating Drum: The Effects of Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewster, Robert C.; Silbert, Leonardo E.; Grest, Gary S.; Levine, Alex J.

    2007-03-01

    The dynamics of granular media in a rotating drum is important in a wide range of applications in industry associated with mixing granular materials. The rotating drum also serves as a standard experimental geometry to observe continuous avalanching in the laboratory. We study the effect of interparticle cohesion on the velocity field of the rotating drum using large scale granular dynamics simulations. Such cohesion is easily introduced in the system by a wetting fluid that forms menisci at interparticle contacts. Previously, we have examined the effect of interparticle cohesion in gravity driven chute flows, and have shown that the cohesion has a dramatic effect on the granular rheology. For strong enough cohesion, these forces generate a coherently moving plug at the free surface. In this talk, we examine the velocity profile in the rotating drum geometry in this plug-flow regime. We compare our results for angle of the pile in the continuous flow regime to the experiments of Nowak et al. [Nature Physics, 1 (2005)] and we examine the stress and velocity profile within the pile as well.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  14. EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-29

    The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive tests of these at Savannah River Laboratory (now Savannah River National Laboratory) were performed in 1969 and 1970. The results of these tests were reported in 'Drum and Board-Type Insulation Overpacks of Shipping Packages for Radioactive Materials', by E. E. Lewallen. The Lewallen Report was foundational to design of subsequent drum type RAM packaging. This paper summarizes this important early study of drum type packagings. The Lewallen Report demonstrated the ability packagings employing drum and insulation board overpacks and engineered containment vessels to meet the Type B package requirements. Because of the results of the Lewallen Report, package designers showed high concern for thermal protection of 'Celotex'. Subsequent packages addressed this by following strategies like those recommended by Lewallen and by internal metal shields and supplemental, encapsulated insulation disks, as in 9975. The guidance provide by the Lewallen Report was employed in design of a large number of drum size packagings over the following three decades. With the increased public concern over transportation of radioactive materials and recognition of the need for larger margins of safety, more sophisticated and complex packages have been developed and have replaced the simple packagings developed under the Lewallen Report paradigm.

  15. 7 CFR 160.201 - Fees generally for field inspection and certification of naval stores and drum containers of rosin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and incidental certification as to class, condition and weight). (i) In drums (see Note 1) per drum—$1... certified at any plant during any calendar month is equivalent to a total of 2,400 or more drums (counting five bags as equivalent to one drum), the fee shall be computed at the rate of $1.01 per drum and...

  16. Treatability study of Tank E-3-1 waste: mixed waste stream SR-W049

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1997-08-21

    Treatability studies were conducted for tank E-3-1 waste which was previously characterized in WSRC-RP-87-0078. The waste was determined to be mixed waste because it displayed the characteristic of metal toxicity for Hg and Cr and was also contaminated with low levels of radionuclides. Two types of treatments for qualifying this waste suitable for land disposal were evaluated: ion exchange and stabilization with hydraulic materials (portland cement, slag and magnesium phosphate cement). These treatments were selected for testing because: (1) Both treatments can be carried out as in-drum processes., (2) Cement stabilization is the RCRA/LDR best developed available technology (BDAT) for Hg (less than 280 mg/L) and for Cr., and (3) Ion exchange via Mag-Sep is a promising alternative technology for in drum treatment of liquid wastes displaying metal toxicity. Cement stabilization of the E-3-1 material ( supernate and settled solids) resulted in waste forms which passed the TCLP test for both Hg and Cr. However, the ion exchange resins tested were ineffective in removing the Hg from this waste stream. Consequently, cement stabilization is recommended for a treatment of the five drums of the actual waste.

  17. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  18. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).

  19. Essential fatty acid requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Lochmann, R T; Gatlin, D M

    1993-10-01

    Feeding experiments and laboratory analyses were conducted to establish the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirement of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Juvenile red drum were maintained in aquaria containing brackish water (5 ± 2‰ total dissolved solids) for two 6-week experiments. Semipurified diets contained a total of 70% lipid consisting of different combinations of tristearin [predominantly 18:0] and the following fatty acid ethyl esters: oleate, linoleate, linolenate, and a mixture of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) containing approximately 60% eicosapentaenoate plus docosahexaenoate. EFA-deficient diets (containing only tristearin or oleate) rapidly reduced fish growth and feed efficiency, and increased mortality. Fin erosion and a "shock syndrome" also occurred in association with EFA deficiency. Of the diets containing fatty acid ethyl esters, those with 0.5-1% (n-3) HUFA (0.3-0.6% eicosapentaenoate plus docosahexaenoate) promoted the best growth, survival, and feed efficiency; however, the control diet containing 7% menhaden fish oil provided the best performance. Excess (n-3) HUFA suppressed fish weight gain; suppression became evident at 1.5% (n-3) HUFA, and was pronounced at 2.5%. Fatty acid compositions of whole-body, muscle and liver tissues from red drum fed the various diets generally reflected dietary fatty acids, but modifications of these patterns also were evident. Levels of saturated fatty acids appeared to be regulated independent of diet. In fish fed EFA-deficient diets (containing only tristearin or oleate), monoenes increased and (n-3) HUFA were preferentially conserved in polar lipid fractions. Eicosatrienoic acid [20:3(n-9)] was not elevated in EFA-deficient red drum, apparently due to their limited ability to transform fatty acids. Red drum exhibited some limited ability to elongate and desaturate linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and linolenic acid [18:3(n-3)]; however, metabolism of 18:3(n-3) did not generally result in increased

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of radioactive waste embedded into polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Tonguç; Usanmaz, Ali

    2009-09-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the nuclear applications and it should properly be managed according to the regulations set by the regulatory authority. Poly(carbonate urethane) and poly(bisphenol a- co-epichlorohydrin) are radiation-resistant polymers and they are possible candidate materials that can be used in the radioactive waste management. In this study, maximum allowable waste activity that can be embedded into these polymers and dose rate distribution of the waste drum (containing waste and the polymer matrix) were found via Monte Carlo simulations. The change of mechanical properties of above-mentioned polymers was simulated and their variations within the waste drum were determined for 15, 30 and 300 years after embedding.

  1. Classification and storage of wastewater from floor finish removal operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Charles E.

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluates the wastewater generated from hard surface floor finish removal operations at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in order to determine if this wastewater is a hazardous waste, either by statistical evaluation, or other measurable regulatory guidelines established in California Regulations. This research also comparatively evaluates the 55 gallon drum and other portable tanks, all less than 1,000 gallons in size in order to determine which is most effective for the management of this waste stream at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The statistical methods in SW-846 were found to be scientifically questionable in their application to hazardous waste determination. In this statistical evaluation, the different data transformations discussed in the regulatory guidance document were applied along with the log transformation to the population of 18 samples from 55 gallon drums. Although this statistical evaluation proved awkward in its application, once the data is collected and organized on a spreadsheet this statistical analysis can be an effective tool which can aid the environmental manager in the hazardous waste classification process.

  2. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-03-21

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  3. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-08-28

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  4. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-05-06

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  5. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-12-18

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  6. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-10-17

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  7. Gill morphometry of the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Don Stevens, E

    1992-08-01

    The structure and morphometry of the gills of the marine teleost, red drum, have been studied. The present analysis of gas exchange area of fish gills is one of the most intensive and the results are compared to less intense averaging methods. Based on the gill area estimates, red drum falls into the category of a fish of intermediate activity. Its gill clearly has an exchange area less than that of the tunas, but is slightly greater than that of trout or bass. The three components that contribute to total exchange area (filament length, lamellar density, and area of individual lamellae) are not all greater in species with a greater total exchange area. The best correlate is total filament length.

  8. Low tension graphene drums for electromechanical pressure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Raj N.; Mathew, John P.; Borah, Abhinandan; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a process to fabricate electromechanical pressure sensors using multilayer graphene in a sealed drum geometry. The drum resonators are fabricated on insulating sapphire substrates with a local back gate for direct radio frequency ({\\text{}}{{rf}}) actuation and detection of the mechanical modes. Using this scheme, we show the detection and electrostatic tuning of multiple resonant modes of the membrane up to 200 MHz. The geometry of the device also helps in attaining low tensile stress in the membrane, thereby giving high gate tunability (∼1 MHz/V) of the resonator modes. We study the resonant frequency shifts in the presence of helium gas and demonstrate a sensing capability of 1 Torr pressure in a cryogenic environment.

  9. 26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting on fixed turntable upon masonry center pier. Swing drive shaft (vertical) is turned by level gear of horizontal shaft (protruding through machine room wall), which turns pinion gear toothed to fixed turntable rack below rollers. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  10. A facility design for repackaging ORNL CH-TRU legacy waste in Building 3525

    SciTech Connect

    Huxford, T.J.; Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Davis, L.E.; Fuller, A.B.; Gabbard, W.A.; Smith, R.B.; Guay, K.P.; Smith, L.C.

    1995-07-01

    For the last 25 years, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted operations which have generated solid, contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. At present the CH-TRU waste inventory at ORNL is about 3400 55-gal drums retrievably stored in RCRA-permitted, aboveground facilities. Of the 3400 drums, approximately 2600 drums will need to be repackaged. The current US Department of Energy (DOE) strategy for disposal of these drums is to transport them to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico which only accepts TRU waste that meets a very specific set of criteria documented in the WIPP-WAC (waste acceptance criteria). This report describes activities that were performed from January 1994 to May 1995 associated with the design and preparation of an existing facility for repackaging and certifying some or all of the CH-TRU drums at ORNL to meet the WIPP-WAC. For this study, the Irradiated Fuel Examination Laboratory (IFEL) in Building 3525 was selected as the reference facility for modification. These design activities were terminated in May 1995 as more attractive options for CH-TRU waste repackaging were considered to be available. As a result, this document serves as a final report of those design activities.

  11. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  12. Evaluation of waste treatment technologies by LLWDDD (Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration) Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kennerly, J.M.; Williams, L.C.; Dole, L.R.; Genung, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Waste treatments are divided into four categories: (1) volume reduction; (2) conditioning to improve waste form performance; (3) segregation to achieve waste reduction; and (4) separation to remove radioactive (or hazardous) constituents. Two waste treatment demonstrations are described. In the first, volume reduction by mechanical means was achieved during the supercompaction of 300 55-gal drums of solid waste at ORNL. In the second demonstration, conditioning of waste through immobilization and packaging to improve the performance of the waste form is being evaluated. The final section of this paper describes potential scenarios for the management of uranium-contaminated wastes at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge and emphasizes where demonstrations of treatment technology will be needed to implement the scenarios. Separation and thermal treatment are identified as the principal means for treating these wastes. 15 figs.

  13. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  14. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  15. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  16. EVALUATION OF RADIOLYSIS INDUCED HYDROGEN GENERATION IN DOT 6M DRUMS FROM INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D

    2007-06-18

    Three DOT 6M 30-gallon drums are scheduled to be shipped from the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to L-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These three drums contain radioactive materials that resulted from the material recovery effort following a small explosion that had occurred in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) hot chemistry laboratory (HCL). In support of the shipment and subsequent storage of the three DOT 6M drums, an evaluation of the potential for molecular hydrogen production in the drums has been completed and documented herein. The potential sources of hydrogen evaluated in the current report include radiolytic decomposition of polymeric materials in the DOT 6M drums No.3031 and No.3598 and the radiolytic decomposition of water in drum No.20102. No other potential sources have been identified based upon reported drum contents and packaging configuration. A parametric approach was used to evaluate the maximum quantity of molecular hydrogen that can be expected to evolve in two DOT 6M 30-gallon drums in support of receipt and subsequent interim storage prior to canyon processing. These drums are two of three drums scheduled for shipment from INTEC to SRS as part of the decommissioning effort of the INTEC facility. The three DOT 6M drums will be received at L-Area in SRS and stored for up to 13-years prior to final disposition at HB-Line in 2020. Results of the current analysis do not include parametric analysis of drum No.20102 containing 114/133 SAL (salvage) which contains UO{sub 3} powder. This drum has not been identified as containing polymeric materials and a conservative calculation indicates that the maximum gross molecular hydrogen production due to the radiolysis of adsorbed moisture would yield a production rate of 5.1-cm{sup 3}/yr, driven primarily by the large surface are to volume ratio of the oxide powder. The remaining two drums, No.3031 and No.3598 contain polymer

  17. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF NGS CONCENTRATE DRUM SAMPLES [Next Generation Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Williams, M.

    2013-09-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared two drums (50 gallons each in Drum#2 and Drum#4) of NGS-MCU (Next Generation Solvent-Modular CSSX Unit) concentrate for future use at MCU in downblending the BOBCalixC6 based solvent to produce NGS-MCU solvent. Samples of each drum were sent for analysis. The results of all the analyses indicate that the blend concentrate is of the correct composition and should produce a blended solvent at MCU of the desired formulation.

  18. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.; Han, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    The WIT program will provide an inspection system that offers the nuclear waste evaluator a unique combination of tools for regulatory-driven characterization of low-level waste (LLW), transuranic waste (TRU), and mixed waste drums. WIT provides nondestructive, noninvasive, and environmentally safe inspections using X-ray and gamma ray technologies, with reasonable cost and throughput. Two emission imaging techniques will be employed for characterizing materials in waste containers. The first of these is gamma emission tomography, commonly called single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rather than using an external radiation source, SPECT uses the emission of radioactive materials within the object of interest for imaging. In this case, emission from actual nuclear waste within a container will provide a three-dimensional image of the radioactive substances in the container. The second emission technique will use high-purity germanium detectors for gamma ray spectroscopy. This technique, called nondestructive assay (NDA), can identify the emitting isotopic species and strength. Work in emission tomography and assay of nuclear waste has been undertaken at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a technique called Passive Tomography. Results from a process development unit are presented.

  19. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Gas Generation Testing Program at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Program are to evaluate compliance with the limits on total gas generation rates, establish the concentrations of hydrogen and methane in the total gas flow, determine the headspace concentration of VOCs in each drum prior to the start of the test, and obtain estimates of the concentrations of several compounds for mass balance purposes. Criteria for the selection of waste containers at the INEL and the parameters that must be characterized prior to and during the tests are described. Collection of gaseous samples from 55-gallon drums of contact-handled transuranic waste for the gas generation testing is discussed. Analytical methods and calibrations are summarized. Administrative quality control measures described in this QAPjP include the generation, review, and approval of project documentation; control and retention of records; measures to ensure that personnel, subcontractors or vendors, and equipment meet the specifications necessary to achieve the required data quality for the project.

  20. 49 CFR 173.12 - Exceptions for shipment of waste materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions for shipment of waste materials. 173.12... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS... materials. (a) Open head drums. If a hazardous material that is a hazardous waste is required by...

  1. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  2. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  3. 183-H Basin Mixed Waste Analysis and Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this sampling and analysis report is to provide data necessary to support treatment and disposal options for the low-level mixed waste from the 183-H solar evaporation ponds. In 1973, four of the 16 flocculation and sedimentation basins were designated for use as solar evaporation basins to provide waste reduction by natural evaporation of liquid chemical wastes from the 300 Area fuel fabrication facilities. The primary purpose of this effort is to gather chemical and bulk property data for the waste in the drums/boxes of sediment removed from the basin at Central Waste Complex.

  4. A Mini-Atlas of Ear-drum Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hawke, Michael; Kwok, Peter

    1987-01-01

    The authors provide a number of ear-drum pictures and identify and discuss diseases affecting the external ear canal, the tympanic membrane and middle ear. They also deal with the removal of foreign bodies from the external canal, perforation of the tympanic membrane, and the use of an artificial ventilation tube. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:21263886

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Larval and juvenile red drum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, Jack

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for larval and juvenile red drum. The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for estimating model variables are provided.

  6. Multi-Cultural Awareness Project, the Organization and Implementation of a "World Steel Drum Ensemble".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Stanley G.

    This proposal describes the organization and implementation of a "World Steel Drum Ensemble" as a strategy to solve the problems of low minority academic achievement, high minority discipline incidents, and minority isolationism. The drum ensemble studied and performed music from Caribbean, Hispanic, and African heritages in a middle…

  7. Nondestructive Analysis of MET-5 Drum at TA35 Building 2 A-Wing Vault.

    SciTech Connect

    Desimone, David J.; Vo, Duc Ta

    2016-11-03

    Measurements using a mechanically cooled portable high purity germanium HPGe Ortec detective were taken of a type B drum Serial number R-1157 to determine if any radioactive material was inside. The Drum, R-1157, spectrum was analyzed using PeakEasy 4.84 and a visual look at the spectrum showed background radiation.

  8. Improvement of Algorithms for Pressure Maintenance Systems in Drum-Separators of RBMK-1000 Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksakov, A. N. Yankovskiy, K. I.; Dunaev, V. I.; Kushbasov, A. N.

    2015-05-15

    The main tasks and challenges for pressure regulation in the drum-separators of RBMK-1000 reactors are described. New approaches to constructing algorithms for pressure control in drum-separators by electro-hydraulic turbine control systems are discussed. Results are provided from tests of the operation of modernized pressure regulators during fast transients with reductions in reactor power.

  9. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  10. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  11. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  12. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  13. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180...

  14. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  15. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement...

  16. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement...

  17. Monkey drumming reveals common networks for perceiving vocal and nonvocal communication sounds.

    PubMed

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2009-10-20

    Salient sounds such as those created by drumming can serve as means of nonvocal acoustic communication in addition to vocal sounds. Despite the ubiquity of drumming across human cultures, its origins and the brain regions specialized in processing such signals remain unexplored. Here, we report that an important animal model for vocal communication, the macaque monkey, also displays drumming behavior, and we exploit this finding to show that vocal and nonvocal communication sounds are represented by overlapping networks in the brain's temporal lobe. Observing social macaque groups, we found that these animals use artificial objects to produce salient periodic sounds, similar to acoustic gestures. Behavioral tests confirmed that these drumming sounds attract the attention of listening monkeys similarly as conspecific vocalizations. Furthermore, in a preferential looking experiment, drumming sounds influenced the way monkeys viewed their conspecifics, suggesting that drumming serves as a multimodal signal of social dominance. Finally, by using high-resolution functional imaging we identified those brain regions preferentially activated by drumming sounds or by vocalizations and found that the representations of both these communication sounds overlap in caudal auditory cortex and the amygdala. The similar behavioral responses to drumming and vocal sounds, and their shared neural representation, suggest a common origin of primate vocal and nonvocal communication systems and support the notion of a gestural origin of speech and music.

  18. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  19. A wasted world

    SciTech Connect

    Delbello, A. )

    1991-03-01

    It is still legal under American law to dump waste products in any country whose government consents to accept them. Many developing countries accept waste exports for a per ton charge. It does not matter to them whether the waste is hazardous, toxic, nonhazardous, or nontoxic. Nor does it matter to them whether or not they have the technology for the safe disposal of wastes. In some nations there is little or no thought about the long-term consequences of unsafe disposal of hazardous wastes to their land, air, water, quality of life, crops, animals and children. Some of the main culprits in the U.S. have been surprising: the Pentagon, other federal agencies, state and local governments, the American business community in general, and, of course, various brokers and entrepreneurs have all been documented, time and again, as exporters of hazardous waste to the Third World. And then there are the illegal waste shipments, perpetrated by hustlers and nice people alike in many industrialized nations. Here is a sample: In September 1987, Italian ships unloaded 10,000 steel drums of hazardous waste in the Nigerian port of Koko and stored them in a vacant residential lot. The press learned of it in June 1988. The Nigerian government ultimately imprisoned 54 people, including Italian nationals, and formally expressed outrage to the Italian government. The Italian government responded by sending a team of experts to arrange removal. A West German ship was loaded with the waste and went back to Ravenna, Italy, but Italian protestors prevented the ship form docking. It attempted to dock in Spain, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, without success. Finally, a home for the waste was found in an unidentified Italian port in mid-September.

  20. Interim storage of spent and disused sealed sources: optimisation of external dose distribution in waste grids using the MCNPX code.

    PubMed

    Paiva, I; Oliveira, C; Trindade, R; Portugal, L

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources are in use worldwide in different fields of application. When no further use is foreseen for these sources, they become spent or disused sealed sources and are subject to a specific waste management scheme. Portugal does have a Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Facility where spent or disused sealed sources are conditioned in a cement matrix inside concrete drums and following the geometrical disposition of a grid. The gamma dose values around each grid depend on the drum's enclosed activity and radionuclides considered, as well as on the drums distribution in the various layers of the grid. This work proposes a method based on the Monte Carlo simulation using the MCNPX code to estimate the best drum arrangement through the optimisation of dose distribution in a grid. Measured dose rate values at 1 m distance from the surface of the chosen optimised grid were used to validate the corresponding computational grid model.

  1. The effect of zebra mussel consumption on growth of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.

    1996-01-01

    We examined food habits and scale annuli of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie to determine whether increasing predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) had affected growth of freshwater drum. The volume of zebra mussels in drum guts was greater in older fish. Growth of age classes 3–4, which consumed few zebra mussels, was greater in the most productive year for zebra mussels, July 1990–August 1991, than in three prior years. The total lengths of 5-year-old drum changed little. The mean total length of 6-year-old females has declined since the zebra mussel invaded Lake Erie, even through mussels comprised more than two-thirds of gut samples in these fish. These studies suggest that zebra mussels may not benefit freshwater drum when serving as a staple in the diet. PDF

  2. Optimization of waste combinations during in-vessel composting of agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2017-01-01

    In-vessel composting of agricultural waste is a well-described approach for stabilization of compost within a short time period. Although composting studies have shown the different combinations of waste materials for producing good quality compost, studies of the particular ratio of the waste materials in the mix are still limited. In the present study, composting was conducted with a combination of vegetable waste, cow dung, sawdust and dry leaves using a 550 L rotary drum composter. Application of a radial basis functional neural network was used to simulate the composting process. The model utilizes physico-chemical parameters with different waste materials as input variables and three output variables: volatile solids, soluble biochemical oxygen demand and carbon dioxide evolution. For the selected model, the coefficient of determination reached the high value of 0.997. The complicated interaction of agricultural waste components during composting makes it a nonlinear problem so it is difficult to find the optimal waste combinations for producing quality compost. Optimization of a trained radial basis functional model has yielded the optimal proportion as 62 kg, 17 kg and 9 kg for vegetable waste, cow dung and sawdust, respectively. The results showed that the predictive radial basis functional model described for drum composting of agricultural waste was well suited for organic matter degradation and can be successfully applied.

  3. The granular mixing in a slurry rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, C. C.; Hsiau, S. S.

    2010-03-01

    The mixing dynamics of granular materials immersed in a liquid was experimentally studied in a quasi-2D rotating drum. A DV (SONY DCR-TRV900 NTSC) motion corder analyzer was used to record the motions of granular materials. The effects of interstitial fluid viscosity and filling degree on the mixing index, mixing rate constant, and dynamic repose angle in the rotating drum were investigated and discussed in this paper. The experimental results show that the interstitial fluid viscosity has almost not influence on the final stable mixing index but has significantly effects on the mixing rate constant and dynamic repose angle in slurry granular flows. The results show that the mixing rate and dynamic repose angle increase with increasing the interstitial fluid viscosity. The results also indicate that the filling degree plays an important role in mixing dynamics in slurry granular flows. The mixing rate constant is demonstrated to be decreased with increasing the filling degree. The dynamic repose angle is not altered by the filling degree. Finally, we find that the dynamic repose angle and the mixing rate constant increase slightly at high Stokes number and increase dramatically at low Stokes number with decreasing Stokes number.

  4. 76 FR 44912 - Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    .... Submit your comments by Site name Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site by one of the following...] Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning the Callaway and son Drum Service Superfund Site located in Lake Alfred, Polk County, Florida...

  5. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-05-22

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 160 grams (8). The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 gkc. PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 3 18 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. The GEA system design density correction macroscopic absorption cross section table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  6. Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for Nondestructive Assay of Transuranic (TRU) Waste at the WRAP Facility

    SciTech Connect

    CANTALOUB, M.G.

    2000-10-20

    At the WRAP facility, there are two identical imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) assay systems and two identical gamma energy assay (GEA) systems. Currently, only the GEA systems are used to characterize waste, therefore, only the GEA systems are addressed in this document. This document contains the limiting factors relating to the waste drum analysis for shipments destined for WIPP. The TMU document provides the uncertainty basis in the NDA analysis of waste containers at the WRAP facility. The defined limitations for the current analysis scheme are as follows: (1) The WRAP waste stream debris is from the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant's process lines, primarily combustible materials. (2) Plutonium analysis range is from the minimum detectable concentration (MDC), Reference 6, to 200 grams (g). (3) The GEA system calibration density ranges from 0.013 g/cc to 1.6 g/cc. (4) PDP Plutonium drum densities were evaluated from 0.065 g/cc to 0.305 g/cc. (5) PDP Plutonium source weights ranged from 0.030 g to 318 g, in both empty and combustibles matrix drums. (6) The GEA system design density correction mass absorption coefficient table (MAC) is Lucite, a material representative of combustible waste. (7) Drums with material not fitting the debris waste criteria are targeted for additional calculations, reviews, and potential re-analysis using a calibration suited for the waste type.

  7. Pu-238 assay performance with the Canberra IQ3 system

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, L.; Gillespie, B.; Seaman, G.

    1997-11-01

    Canberra Industries has recently completed a demonstration project at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site (WSRC) to characterize 55-gallon drums containing Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 contaminated waste. The goal of this project was to detect and quantify Pu-238 waste to detection limits of less than 50 nCi/g using gamma assay techniques. This would permit reclassification of these drums from transuranic (TRU) waste to low-level waste (LLW). The instrument used for this assay was a Canberra IQ3 high sensitivity gamma assay system, mounted in a trailer. The results of the measurements demonstrate achievement of detection levels as low as 1 nCi/g for low density waste drums, and good correlation with known concentrations in several test drums. In addition, the data demonstrates significant advantages for using large area low-energy germanium detectors for achieving the lowest possible MDAs for gamma rays in the 80-250 keV range. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. IMPLEMENTING HEAT SEALED BAG RELIEF & HYDROGEN & METANE TESTING TO REDUCE THE NEED TO REPACK HANFORD TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2005-01-20

    The Department of Energy's site at Hanford has a significant quantity of drums containing heat-sealed bags that required repackaging under previous revisions of the TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC) before being shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Since glovebox repackaging is the most rate-limiting and resource-intensive step for accelerating Hanford waste certification, a cooperative effort between Hanford's TRU Program and the WIPP site significantly reduced the number of drums requiring repackaging. More specifically, recent changes to the TRAMPAC (Revision 19C), allow relief for heat-sealed bags having more than 390 square inches of surface area. This relief is based on data provided by Hanford on typical Hanford heat-sealed bags, but can be applied to other sites generating transuranic waste that have waste packaged in heat-sealed bags. The paper provides data on the number of drums affected, the attendant cost savings, and the time saved. Hanford also has a significant quantity of high-gram drums with multiple layers of confinement including heat-scaled bags. These higher-gram drums are unlikely to meet the decay-heat limits required for analytical category certification under the TRAMPAC. The combination of high-gram drums and accelerated reprocessing/shipping make it even more difficult to meet the decay-heat limits because of necessary aging requirements associated with matrix depletion. Hydrogen/methane sampling of headspace gases can be used to certify waste that does not meet decay-heat limits of the more restrictive analytical category using the test category. The number of drums that can be qualified using the test category is maximized by assuring that the detection limit for hydrogen and methane is as low as possible. Sites desiring to ship higher-gram drums must understand the advantages of using hydrogen/methane sampling and shipping under the test category. Headspace gas sampling, as specified by the WIPP

  9. LL/ILW: Post-Qualification of Old Waste through Non-Destructive Extraction of Barrels from Cement Shields - 13535

    SciTech Connect

    Oehmigen, Steffen; Ambos, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Currently there is a large number of radioactive waste drums entombed in cement shields at German nuclear power plants. These concrete containers used in the past for the waste are not approved for the final repository. Compliance with current acceptance criteria of the final repository has to be proven by qualification measures on the waste. To meet these criteria, a new declaration and new packing is necessary. A simple non-destructive extraction of about 2000 drums from their concrete shields is not possible. So different methods were tested to find a way of non-destructive extraction of old waste drums from cement shields and therefore reduce the final repository volume and final repository costs by using a container accepted and approved for Konrad. The main objective was to build a mobile system to offer this service to nuclear plant stations. (authors)

  10. Uncertainty analysis of the SWEPP PAN assay system for glass waste (content codes 440, 441 and 442)

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwood, L.G.; Harker, Y.D.; Meachum, T.R.; Yoon, W.Y.

    1996-10-01

    INEL is being used as a temporary storage facility for transuranic waste generated by the Nuclear Weapons program at the Rocky Flats Plant. Currently, there is a large effort in progress to prepare to ship this waste to WIPP. In order to meet the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan nondestructive assay compliance requirements and quality assurance objectives, it is necessary to determine the total uncertainty of the radioassay results produced by the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) Passive Action Neutron (PAN) radioassay system. This paper discusses a modified statistical sampling and verification approach used to determine the total uncertainty of SWEPP PAN measurements for glass waste (content codes 440, 441, and 442) contained in 208 liter drums. In the modified statistical sampling and verification approach, the total performance of the SWEPP PAN nondestructive assay system for specifically selected waste conditions is simulated using computer models. A set of 100 cases covering the known conditions exhibited in glass waste was compiled using a combined statistical sampling and factorial experimental design approach. Parameter values assigned in each simulation were derived from reviews of approximately 100 real-time radiography video tapes of RFP glass waste drums, results from previous SWEPP PAN measurements on glass waste drums, and shipping data from RFP where the glass waste was generated. The data in the 100 selected cases form the multi-parameter input to the simulation model. The reported plutonium masses from the simulation model are compared with corresponding input masses. From these comparisons, the bias and total uncertainty associated with SWEPP PAN measurements on glass waste drums are estimated. The validity of the simulation approach is verified by comparing simulated output against results from calibration measurements using known plutonium sources and two glass waste calibration drums.

  11. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Combustion in Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Compton, L. E.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical wastes burned with minimal handling in storage containers. Technique for disposing of chemical munitions by burning them inside shells applies to disposal of toxic materials stored in drums. Fast, economical procedure overcomes heat-transfer limitations of conventional furnace designs by providing direct contact of oxygenrich combustion gases with toxic agent. No need to handle waste material, and container also decontaminated in process. Oxygen-rich torch flame cuts burster well and causes vaporization and combustion of toxic agent contained in shell.

  12. Acceptance test plan for the Waste Information Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, D.F.

    1994-09-14

    This document describes the acceptance test plan for the WICS system. The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Hazardous Material Control Group (HMC) of the 222-S Laboratory has requested the development of a system to help resolve many of the difficulties associated with tracking and data collection of containers and drums of waste. This system has been identified as Waste Information and Control System (WICS). The request for developing and implementing WICS has been made to the Automation and Simulation Engineering Group (ASE).

  13. Simulation studies of the response function of a radioactive waste assay system.

    PubMed

    Gurau, Daniela; Sima, Octavian

    2012-01-01

    A simulation program based on GEANT 3.21 toolkit was developed to simulate the response function of ISOCART (Ortec) gamma-ray spectrometry system applied to radioactive waste drum assessment. In view of studying the effects of possible non-homogeneous radioactivity distribution in the drum, the volume of the drum was fictitiously divided into several spatial domains. The simulation program was applied repeatedly considering each time the source distributed in another domain. In this way the expected spectra in the energy range from 50 to 2000keV as well as the full energy peak and the total efficiencies were obtained for the case when the source is distributed in each domain and also for the case when the source is uniformly distributed in the entire drum.

  14. Granular flow in a rotating drum: Experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Li, L.; Smith, B.; Grinspun, E.

    2015-12-01

    Erosion at the base of a debris flow fundamentally controls how large the flow will become and how far it will travel. Experimental observations of this important phenomenon are rather limited, and this lack has led theoretical treatments to making ad hoc assumptions about the basal process. In light of this, we carried out a combination of laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis of granular flow in a rotating drum, a canonical example of steady grain motion in which entrainment rates can be precisely controlled. Our main result is that basal sediment is entrained as the velocity profile adjusts to imbalance in the flow of kinetic energy.Our experimental apparatus consisted of a 40cm-diameter drum, 4cm-deep, half-filled with 2.3mm grains. Rotation rates varied from 1-70 rpm. We varied the effective scale by varying effective gravity from 1g to 70g on a geotechnical centrifuge. The field of grain motion was recorded using high-speed video and mapped using particle tracking velocimetry. In tandem we developed a depth-averaged theory using balance equations for mass, momentum and kinetic energy. We assumed a linearized GDR Midi granular rheology [da Cruz, 2005] and a Coulomb friction law along the sidewalls [Jop et al., 2005]. A scaling analysis of our equations yields a dimensionless "entrainment number" En, which neatly parametrizes the flow geometry in the drum for a wide range of variables, e.g., rotation rate and effective gravity. At low En, the flow profile is planar and kinetic energy is balanced locally in the flow layer. At high En, the flow profile is sigmoidal (yin-yang shaped) and the kinetic energy is dominated by longitudinal, streamwise transfer. We observe different scaling behavior under each of these flow regimes, e.g., between En and kinetic energy, surface slope and flow depth. Our theory correctly predicts their scaling exponents and the value of En at which the regime transition takes place. We are also able to make corrections for

  15. Variation in movement patterns of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) inferred from conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacheler, N.M.; Paramore, L.M.; Burdick, S.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    We used 25 years of conventional tagging data (n=6173 recoveries) and 3 years of ultrasonic telemetry data (n=105 transmitters deployed) to examine movement rates and directional preferences of four age classes of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in estuarine and coastal waters of North Carolina. Movement rates of conventionally tagged red drum were dependent on the age, region, and season of tagging. Age-1 and age-2 red drum tagged along the coast generally moved along the coast, whereas fish tagged in oligohaline waters far from the coast were primarily recovered in coastal regions in fall months. Adult (age-4+) red drum moved from overwintering grounds on the continental shelf through inlets into Pamlico Sound in spring and summer months and departed in fall. Few tagged red drum were recovered in adjacent states (0.6% of all recoveries); however, some adult red drum migrated seasonally from overwintering grounds in coastal North Carolina northward to Virginia in spring, returning in fall. Age-2 transmittertracked red drum displayed seasonal emigration from a small tributary, but upstream and downstream movements within the tributary were correlated with fluctuating salinity regimes and not season. Large-scale conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry programs can provide valuable insights into the complex movement patterns of estuarine fish.

  16. Savannah River Site offsite hazardous waste shipment data validation report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.; Kudera, D.E.; Page, L.A.; Rohe, M.J.

    1995-05-01

    The objective of this data validation is to verify that waste shipments reported in response to the US Department of Energy Headquarters data request are properly categorized according to DOE-HQ definitions. This report documents all findings and actions resulting from the independent review of the Savannah River Site data submittal, and provides a summary of the SRS data submittal and data validation strategy. The overall hazardous waste management and offsite release process from 1987--1991 is documented, along with an identification and description of the hazardous waste generation facilities. SRS did not ship any hazardous waste offsite before 1987. Sampling and analysis and surface surveying procedures and techniques used in determining offsite releasability of the shipments are also described in this report. SRS reported 150 manifested waste shipments from 1984 to 1991 that included 4,755 drums or lab packs and 13 tankers. Of these waste items, this report categorizes 4,251 as clean (including 12 tankers), 326 as likely clean, 138 as likely radioactive, and 55 as radioactive (including one tanker). Although outside the original scope of this report, 14 manifests from 1992 and 1993 are included, covering 393 drums or lab packs and seven tankers. From the 1992--1993 shipments, 58 drums or lab packs are categorized as radioactive and 16 drums are categorized as likely radioactive. The remainder are categorized as clean.

  17. The Telescope Array Middle Drum fluorescence detector simulation on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Zayyad, Tareq; Telescope-Array Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been recognized and widely used as an accelerator for many scientific calculations. In general, problems amenable to parallelization are ones that benefit most from the use of GPUs. The Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence detector response to air showers presents many opportunities for parallelization. In this paper we report on a Monte Carlo program used for the simulation of the Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector located at the Middle Drum site which uses GPU acceleration. All of the physics simulation from shower development, light production and atmospheric attenuation, as well as, the realistic detector optics and electronics simulations are done on the GPU. A detailed description of the code implementation is given, and results on the accuracy and performance of the simulation are presented as well. Improvements in computational throughput in excess of 50× are reported and the accuracy of the results is on par with the CPU implementation of the simulation.

  18. Continuum theory of axial segregation in a long rotating drum

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I.S.; Vinokur, V.M.; Tsimring, L.S.

    1999-08-01

    We develop a continuum description for the axial segregation of granular materials in a long rotating drum based on the dynamics of the thin near-surface granular flow coupled to bulk flow. The equations of motion are reduced to the one-dimensional system for two local variables only, the concentration difference and the dynamic angle of repose, or the average slope of the free surface. The parameters of the system are established from comparison with experimental data. The resulting system describes both initial transient traveling wave dynamics and the formation of quasi-stationary bands of segregated materials. A long-term evolution proceeds through slow logarithmic coarsening of the band structure which is analogous to the spinoidal decomposition described by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Time domain simulation and sound synthesis for the snare drum.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The snare drum is a complex system, relying on the interaction of multiple components: the drumheads, or membranes, a set of snares, the surrounding acoustic field and an internal cavity. Because these components are multidimensional, and due to a strong distributed non-linearity (the snare interaction), many techniques used frequently in physical modeling synthesis applications, such as digital waveguides and modal methods are difficult to apply. In this article, finite difference time domain techniques are applied to a full 3D system, and various features of interest, such as the coupling between membranes, and the interaction between the membranes and the snares, are examined in detail. Also discussed are various numerical features, such as spurious splitting of degenerate modes and bandwidth limitation, and estimates of computational complexity are provided. Sound examples are presented.

  20. Analysis of natural gas supply strategies at Fort Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Stucky, D.J.; Shankle, S.A.; Anderson, D.M.

    1992-07-01

    This analysis investigates strategies for Fort Drum to acquire a reliable natural gas supply while reducing its gas supply costs. The purpose of this study is to recommend an optimal supply mix based on the life-cycle costs of each strategy analyzed. In particular, this study is intended to provide initial guidance as to whether or not the building and operating of a propane-air mixing station is a feasible alternative to the current gas acquisition strategy. The analysis proceeded by defining the components of supply (gas purchase, gas transport, supplemental fuel supply); identifying alternative options for each supply component; constructing gas supply strategies from different combinations of the options available for each supply component and calculating the life-cycle costs of each supply strategy under a set of different scenarios reflecting the uncertainty of future events.

  1. MULTIPLE INPUT BINARY ADDER EMPLOYING MAGNETIC DRUM DIGITAL COMPUTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1960-12-01

    A digital computing apparatus is described for adding a plurality of multi-digit binary numbers. The apparatus comprises a rotating magnetic drum, a recording head, first and second reading heads disposed adjacent to the first and second recording tracks, and a series of timing signals recorded on the first track. A series of N groups of digit-representing signals is delivered to the recording head at time intervals corresponding to the timing signals, each group consisting of digits of the same significance in the numbers, and the signal series is recorded on the second track of the drum in synchronism with the timing signals on the first track. The multistage registers are stepped cyclically through all positions, and each of the multistage registers is coupled to the control lead of a separate gate circuit to open the corresponding gate at only one selected position in each cycle. One of the gates has its input coupled to the bistable element to receive the sum digit, and the output lead of this gate is coupled to the recording device. The inputs of the other gates receive the digits to be added from the second reading head, and the outputs of these gates are coupled to the adding register. A phase-setting pulse source is connected to each of the multistage registers individually to step the multistage registers to different initial positions in the cycle, and the phase-setting pulse source is actuated each N time interval to shift a sum digit to the bistable element, where the multistage register coupled to bistable element is operated by the phase- setting pulse source to that position in its cycle N steps before opening the first gate, so that this gate opens in synchronism with each of the shifts to pass the sum digits to the recording head.

  2. A genetic linkage map of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Renshaw, M A; Hollenbeck, C M; Gold, J R

    2010-12-01

    Second-generation, sex-specific genetic linkage maps were generated for the economically important estuarine-dependent marine fish Sciaenops ocellatus (red drum). The maps were based on F(1) progeny from each of two single-pair mating families. A total of 237 nuclear-encoded microsatellite markers were mapped to 25 linkage groups. The female map contained 226 markers, with a total length of 1270.9 centiMorgans (cM) and an average inter-marker interval of 6.53 cM; the male map contained 201 markers, with a total length of 1122.9 cM and an average inter-marker interval of 6.03 cM. The overall recombination rate was approximately equal in the two sexes (♀:♂=1.03:1). Recombination rates in a number of linkage intervals, however, differed significantly between the same sex in both families and between sexes within families. The former occurred in 2.4% of mapped intervals, while the latter occurred in 51.2% of mapped intervals. Sex-specific recombination rates varied within chromosomes, with regions of both female-biased and male-biased recombination. Original clones from which the microsatellite markers were generated were compared with genome sequence data for the spotted green puffer, Tetraodon nigroviridis; a total of 43 matches were located in 17 of 21 chromosomes of T. nigroviridis, while seven matches were in unknown portions of the T. nigroviridis genome. The map for red drum provides a new, useful tool for aquaculture, population genetics, and comparative genomics of this economically important marine species.

  3. Unresolved issues for the disposal of remote-handled transuranic waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.K.; Neill, R.H.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to dispose of 176,000 cubic meters of transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the defense activities of the US Government. The envisioned inventory contains approximately 6 million cubic feet of contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste and 250,000 cubic feet of remote handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste. CH TRU emits less than 0.2 rem/hr at the container surface. Of the 250,000 cubic feet of RH TRU waste, 5% by volume can emit up to 1,000 rem/hr at the container surface. The remainder of RH TRU waste must emit less than 100 rem/hr. These are major unresolved problems with the intended disposal of RH TRU waste in the WIPP. (1) The WIPP design requires the canisters of RH TRU waste to be emplaced in the walls (ribs) of each repository room. Each room will then be filled with drums of CH TRU waste. However, the RH TRU waste will not be available for shipment and disposal until after several rooms have already been filled with drums of CH TRU waste. RH TRU disposal capacity will be loss for each room that is first filled with CH TRU waste. (2) Complete RH TRU waste characterization data will not be available for performance assessment because the facilities needed for waste handling, waste treatment, waste packaging, and waste characterization do not yet exist. (3) The DOE does not have a transportation cask for RH TRU waste certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). These issues are discussed along with possible solutions and consequences from these solutions. 46 refs.

  4. Assay of PCM Crates and Drums using the BIL Solutions Ltd. Imaging DISPIM{sup R} System

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, A.; Sharpe, R.J.

    2006-07-01

    BIL Solutions Ltd Decommissioning In-Situ Plutonium Inventory Monitor (DISPIM{sup R}) is a versatile neutron and gamma assay system designed to be deployable in a wide range of decommissioning and waste management situations. The system utilizes Totals and Coincidence neutron counting to determine both total Pu mass values and the 3D Pu mass distribution inside the target object. DISPIM{sup R}'s modular, mobile design allows the system to be used in the assay of a range of objects of varying size and shape in locations where alternative monitoring equipment would not normally be available. The DISPIM{sup R} system has recently been successfully used for the in-situ measurement of crated and drummed Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) waste items to provide Pu mass values in preparation for their treatment as part of a decommissioning program. A description of the operation of the DISPIM{sup R} system is given, including calibration of the system prior to the on-site survey, the measurement and quality control methodology employed during assay of waste items and discussion of the data analysis techniques. The results of 'imaging' measurements (i.e. Pu mass distribution results) recorded from the PCM crate measurements are likely to be of particular benefit when planning any future operations on these waste items. The results of this DISPIM{sup R} survey represent a complete solution for the customer with minimal requirement for use of their own resources. Technically substantiated Pu mass assay results have been provided which can now be easily adopted for use in criticality safety cases for the future treatment of these waste items. In summary, the DISPIM{sup R} system has successfully delivered a safe, fast and cost effective measurement solution to this challenging assay task and demonstrated its flexibility as a PCM monitoring system. (authors)

  5. Simulation of carbon degradation in a rotary drum pilot scale composting process.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, J; Rodríguez Mayor, L; Rodríguez Romero, L; Fernández, F J

    2012-10-15

    This paper studies the simulation of carbon degradation in pilot scale solid waste composting processes using first-order kinetic models previously calibrated by laboratory experiments at different temperatures. Different solid biowastes (olive mill waste, winery waste, sewage sludge and reed biomass) were used. Three mixtures were prepared from combinations of the materials listed above, and they were used in both the laboratory kinetic experiments and the pilot scale composting experiments. Lab experiments were conducted in small reactors with temperature (T) control and forced aeration of the solid mixture. Each biowaste mixture was treated at four different temperatures, 25, 40, 50 and 60 °C, with controlled moisture; the carbon (C) concentration of the samples was measured weekly. Two different kinetic models were used to fit the carbon mineralisation curves: the 2C model, which considers two organic fractions (biodegradable and non-biodegradable), and the 3C model, which considers three fractions (easily biodegradable, slowly biodegradable and non-biodegradable). In both cases, the kinetic rate constants were calculated by mathematical fitting. The influence of temperature on the rate constants was also studied for both models using a T-dependent equation. The theoretical k(T) curves showed classical shapes, and the temperatures for optimum k values and thermal inactivation were obtained. Once the C degradation rate constants and their T dependence equations were available, it was possible to simulate the evolution of C degradation in an actual pilot scale rotary drum composting process under varying temperatures and using the same biowaste mixtures. The comparison between the theoretical profiles and the experimental data showed that the thermophilic stage could be accurately simulated; however, errors and lower levels of model accuracy occurred when the maturation stage was simulated. The simulation was valid for all of the viewed biowaste mixtures. The 2C

  6. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  7. Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal drumming (Osmia) or brushing (Melissodes, Svastra)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of western US Osmia (Cephalosmia) bees that are Asteraceae specialists (oligoleges) were observed to employ a heretofore unappreciated, stereotypical means of collecting pollen, abdominal drumming, to gather pollen from 19 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdom...

  8. Compulsive Drumming Induced by Dopamine Agonists in Parkinson’s Disease: Another Aspect of Punding

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, Carmine; Trojano, Luigi; Barone, Paolo; Errico, Domenico; Agosti, Valeria; Sorrentino, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a man affected by Parkinson’s disease who developed an unusual, severe, repetitive behavior characterized by an irrepressible need to drum and beat percussion instruments following to the introduction of pramipexole. This compulsive behavior was not associated to a pattern of chronic inappropriate overuse of dopaminergic medication or other psychiatric symptoms. Sharing many features with other repetitive behaviors, compulsive drumming might be considered a distinct manifestation of punding in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23242361

  9. Mercury concentrations in red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from estuarine and offshore waters of Florida.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Onorato, Gregory V

    2005-03-01

    Dorsal muscle tissue from 712 red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, from Florida waters were analyzed for total mercury content. Mercury levels detected in these red drum varied but in most study areas were usually lower than regulatory threshold guidelines. Total mercury levels in individual fish from all study areas ranged from 0.020 to 3.6 ppm (wet weight). Total mercury levels detected in red drum from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area were often higher than those in fish from all other estuarine study areas. Positive relationships between total mercury levels and fish size (length and weight) and fish age were observed in most Florida study areas, indicating that mercury levels tend to increase over time as red drum grow. The majority of large, mature red drum examined contained mercury levels greater than the 0.5-ppm threshold level set by the Florida Department of Health (DOH). Approximately 94% of all adult red drum from offshore waters adjacent to Tampa Bay contained mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level, and 64% contained levels greater than or equal to the DOH 1.5-ppm "no consumption" level. All fish from this area with mercury levels greater than 1.5 ppm were large individuals (670 mm SL). Eight percent of legal-size red drum from Florida waters contained total mercury levels greater than or equal to the 0.5-ppm threshold level. The majority (52%) of these legal-size fish greater than or equal to 0.5 ppm were from the Florida Keys-Florida Bay area. In the Florida recreational fishery, the current maximum size limit for this species is an effective filter that prevents humans from consuming those red drum with the greatest likelihood of containing high mercury levels.

  10. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  11. Assessment of alternatives for management of ORNL retrievable transuranic waste. Nuclear Waste Program: transuranic waste (Activity No. AR 05 15 15 0; ONL-WT04)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Since 1970, solid waste with TRU or U-233 contamination in excess of 10 ..mu..Ci per kilogram of waste has been stored in a retrievable fashion at ORNL, such as in ss drums, concrete casks, and ss-lined wells. This report describes the results of a study performed to identify and evaluate alternatives for management of this waste and of the additional waste projected to be stored through 1995. The study was limited to consideration of the following basic strategies: Strategy 1: Leave waste in place as is; Strategy 2: Improve waste confinement; and Strategy 3: Retrieve waste and process for shipment to a Federal repository. Seven alternatives were identified and evaluated, one each for Strategies 1 and 2 and five for Strategy 3. Each alternative was evaluated from the standpoint of technical feasibility, cost, radiological risk and impact, regulatory factors and nonradiological environmental impact.

  12. Application of cryogenic grinding to achieve homogenization of transuranic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, W.H.; Hill, D.D.; Lucero, M.E.; Jaramillo, L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes work done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in collaboration with the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Field Office (DOE/RFFO) and with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, Colorado. Researchers on this project have developed a method for cryogenic grinding of mixed wastes to homogenize and, thereby, to acquire a representative sample of the materials. There are approximately 220,000 waste drums owned by the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)-50,000 at RFETS and 170,000 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The cost of sampling the heterogeneous distribution of waste in each drum is prohibitive. In an attempt to produce a homogeneous mixture of waste that would reduce greatly the cost of sampling, researchers at NIST and RFETS are developing a cryogenic grinder. The Los Alamos work herein described addresses the implementation issues of the task. The first issue was to ascertain whether samples of the {open_quotes}small particle{close_quotes} mixtures of materials present in the waste drums at RFETS were representative of actual drum contents. Second, it was necessary to determine at what temperature the grinding operation must be performed in order to minimize or to eliminate the release of volatile organic compounds present in the waste. Last, it was essential to evaluate any effect the liquid cryogen might have on the structural integrity and ventilation capacity of the glovebox system. Results of this study showed that representative samples could be and had been obtained, that some release of organics occurred below freezing because of sublimation, and that operation of the cryogenic grinding equipment inside the glovebox was feasible.

  13. Assessing mixed waste treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Bloom, G.A.; Hart, P.W.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for the management and treatment of its mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). As discussed earlier in this conference MLLW are regulated under both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and various DOE orders. During the next 5 years, DOE will manage over 1,200,000 m{sup 3} of MLLW and mixed transuranic (MTRU) waste at 50 sites in 22 states (see Table 1). The difference between MLLW and MTRU waste is in the concentration of elements that have a higher atomic weight than uranium. Nearly all of this waste will be located at 13 sites. More than 1400 individual mixed waste streams exist with different chemical and physical matrices containing a wide range of both hazardous and radioactive contaminants. Their containment and packaging vary widely (e.g., drums, bins, boxes, and buried waste). This heterogeneity in both packaging and waste stream constituents makes characterization difficult, which results in costly sampling and analytical procedures and increased risk to workers.

  14. Field survey of the shallow land low-level radioactive waste burial site near Beatty, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, H.L.; Wogman, N.A.; Kirby, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine radioactivity levels in surface soil at the site as part of an effort to confirm the boundaries of existing waste burial trenches, locate any additional radioactive wastes beyond the established burial area, characterize the distribution of radionuclides around the waste burial site, and determine whether movement of radioactivity from unearthed waste drums had occurred. Cesium-137, /sup 60/Co, and some other radionuclides were measured around the perimeter fence and in the area where waste drums were excavated along the northern fence. The data are compared with information generated by subsurface pulsed radar techniques. In addition, the in-situ counting measurements were compared with analyses of soil samples taken below ground surface at each counting location.

  15. Experimental and simulated studies for the calibration of a radioactive waste assay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, M.; Sima, O.; Olteanu, C.

    2007-09-01

    The assessment of a radioactive waste drum is generally difficult due to its high volume, the complex and usually unknown distribution of the waste in the drum and its high self-attenuation. To solve these problems, a complex calibration of the system is required. An experimental calibration using the shell-sources method was performed in order to determine the efficiency appropriate for a uniformly distributed source. For this purpose, a calibration drum filled with Portland cement and provided with seven tubes, placed at different distances from its center was used. Monte Carlo calculations using the GESPECOR software were carried out in order to complement experimental calibration. Thus, efficiency values for different geometries were obtained and compared with the experimental values.

  16. Evaluation of an Innovative Sand Filter for Small System Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of evaluation of an innovative sand filter that uses the concepts of both slow and rapid sand filtration are presented in this article. The system uses a low-cost “Drum Sand Filter” (DSF) that consists of a 55-gallon drum filled with layers of sand of varying size. A low-...

  17. Road Transportable Analytical (RTAL) laboratory system. Quarterly report, February 1995--April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. The major types of contamination found at the various sites have been summarized in the `Environmental Restoration and Management Five Year Plan` and, except for radionuclides (at most locations) and high explosives (at a few locations), are representative of the types of wastes found at many industrial facilities. The DOE faces additional unique challenges in cleaning up this contamination. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, many times wastes were stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas.

  18. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mayancsik, B.A.

    1994-10-13

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above.

  19. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). RED DRUM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    RANGE MORPHOLOGY/IDENTIFICATION AIDS Scientific name ............ Sciaenops The red drum has 11 spines on the ocellatus (Linnaeus) dorsal fin (the 11th...34 prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The red drum ( Sciaenops k- .. ocellatus ) is an estuarine dependent species. It spends its...oescriptors Estuaries Growth Fishes Feeding .. Idetrf..rs/Ole. .Ended Tamn-, Red drum Habitat requirements Sciaenops ocellatus Spawning Temperature

  20. Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, Leland E.

    1990-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  1. Source Test Report for the 205 Delayed Coking Unit Drum 205-1201 and Drum 205-1202 Depressurization Vents (Marathon Petroleum Company LLC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2010 Source Test was performed during the atmospheric depressurization step of the delayed coking process prior to the removal of petroleum coke from the coke drum. The 205 DCU was operated under a variety of conditions during the 2010 Source Test.

  2. The effect of vibration on alpha radiolysis of transuranic (TRU) waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zerwekh, A.; Kosiewicz, S.; Warren, J.

    1993-02-01

    This paper reports on previously unpublished scoping work related to the potential for vibration to redistribute radionuclides on transuranic (TRU) waste. If this were to happen, the amount of gases generated, including hydrogen, could be increased above the undisturbed levels. This could be an important consideration for transport of TRU wastes either at DOE sites or from them to a future repository, e.g., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These preliminary data on drums of real waste seem to suggest that radionuclide redistribution does not occur. However improvements in the experimental methodology are suggested to enhance safety of future experiments on real wastes as well as to provide more rigorous data.

  3. Utilizing Drumming for American Indians/Alaska Natives with Substance Use Disorders: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Daniel; Robichaud, Francis; Teruya, Cheryl; Nagaran, Kathleen; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    Background Drumming has been utilized among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes for centuries to promote healing and self-expression. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA), currently under development, is a substance abuse treatment utilizing drumming as a core component. Objectives Focus groups were conducted to assist in the development of the DARTNA protocol. Feedback obtained from these focus groups will inform a subsequent pretest of DARTNA and an empirical study analyzing its effectiveness. Methods Three focus groups were conducted among AIs/ANs with substance use disorders (n = 6), substance abuse treatment providers (n = 8), and a community advisory board (n = 4) to solicit feedback prior to a pretest of the DARTNA protocol. Results Overall, participants indicated that DARTNA could be beneficial for AIs/ANs with substance use disorders. Four overarching conceptual themes emerged across the focus groups: (1) benefits of drumming, (2) importance of a culture-based focus, (3) addressing gender roles in drumming activities, and (4) providing a foundation of common AI/AN traditions. Conclusions The DARTNA protocol is a potentially beneficial and culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment strategy for AIs/ANs. In order to optimize the potential benefits of a substance abuse treatment protocol utilizing drumming for AIs/ANs, adequate attention to tribal diversity and gender roles is needed. Scientific Significance Due to the shortage of substance abuse treatments utilizing traditional healing activities for AIs/ANs, including drumming, results from this study provide an opportunity to develop an intervention that may meet the unique treatment needs of AIs/ANs. PMID:22931086

  4. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site`s inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons.

  5. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Greager, T.M.

    1994-09-01

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site`s suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling.

  6. Pyrolysis/Steam Reforming Technology for Treatment of TRU Orphan Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J. B.; McKibbin, J.; Schmoker, D.; Bacala, P.

    2003-02-27

    Certain transuranic (TRU) waste streams within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex cannot be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) because they do not meet the shipping requirements of the TRUPACT-II or the disposal requirements of the Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) in the WIPP RCRA Part B Permit. These waste streams, referred to as orphan wastes, cannot be shipped or disposed of because they contain one or more prohibited items, such as liquids, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen gas, corrosive acids or bases, reactive metals, or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), etc. The patented, non-incineration, pyrolysis and steam reforming processes marketed by THOR Treatment Technologies LLC removes all of these prohibited items from drums of TRU waste and produces a dry, inert, inorganic waste material that meets the existing TRUPACT-II requirements for shipping, as well as the existing WAP requirements for disposal of TRU waste at WIPP. THOR Treatment Technologies is a joint venture formed in June 2002 by Studsvik, Inc. (Studsvik) and Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company LLC (WGES) to further develop and deploy Studsvik's patented THORSM technology within the DOE and Department of Defense (DoD) markets. The THORSM treatment process is a commercially proven system that has treated over 100,000 cu. ft. of nuclear waste from commercial power plants since 1999. Some of this waste has had contact dose rates of up to 400 R/hr. A distinguishing characteristic of the THORSM process for TRU waste treatment is the ability to treat drums of waste without removing the waste contents from the drum. This feature greatly minimizes criticality and contamination issues for processing of plutonium-containing wastes. The novel features described herein are protected by issued and pending patents.

  7. Project management plan, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1, Project W-026

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, J.G.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 Project (WRAP 1) has been established to support the retrieval and final disposal of approximately 400K grams of plutonium and quantities of hazardous components currently stored in drums at the Hanford Site.

  8. The Goiania accident waste management - Reconditioning operation

    SciTech Connect

    Sophia Teh Whei Miaw

    1994-12-31

    As a result of an accidental breakage of a {sup 137}Cs radiotherapy source, radioactive waste was generated in Goiania-Brazil. It was collected in different types of packaging and removed to a temporary storage site near Abadia de Goias. After four years in open air storage, corrosion was detected in some packages, especially in the 200 1drums. Measures to ensure a safe interim storage were adopted, until a final disposal plan was to be executed. The objective was to make the waste product suitable for the final disposal requests according to Brazilian standards. These measures were concerned mainly with the waste reconditioning. This paper presents the waste management strategy adopted for this operation.

  9. Nonradioactive air emissions notice of construction for the Waste Receiving And Processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Waste Receiving And Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility (also referred to as WRAP 1) is to examine assay, characterize, treat, and repackage solid radioactive and mixed waste to enable permanent disposal of the wastes in accordance with all applicable regulations. WRAP 1 will contain equipment and facilities necessary for non-destructive examination (NDE) of wastes and to perform a non-destructive examination assay (NDA) of the total radionuclide content of the wastes, without opening the outer container (e.g., 55-gal drum). WRAP 1 will also be equipped to open drums which do not meet waste acceptance and shipping criteria, and to perform limited physical treatment of the wastes to ensure that storage, shipping, and disposal criteria are met. The solid wastes to be handled in the WRAP 1 facility include low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and transuranic and low level mixed wastes (LLMW). The WRAP 1 facility will only accept contact handler (CH) waste containers. A Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (TBACT) assessment has been completed for the WRAP 1 facility (WHC 1993). Because toxic emissions from the WRAP 1 facility are sufficiently low and do not pose any health or safety concerns to the public, no controls for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and installation of HEPA filters for particulates satisfy TBACT for the facility.

  10. Dietary arginine requirement of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) based on weight gain and feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Barziza, D E; Buentello, J A; Gatlin, D M

    2000-07-01

    Increasing aquacultural production of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) has prompted the determination of many of this species' nutritional requirements. However, limited information is available concerning its amino acid requirements, especially for arginine. Therefore, a feeding trial was conducted with juvenile red drum to determine their quantitative dietary requirement for arginine. Experimental diets contained 35 g crude protein/100 g from red drum muscle and crystalline amino acids. Incremental levels of arginine were added to the diets in place of a mixture of glycine and aspartic acid to maintain all diets isonitrogenous. All diets were fed in triplicate to juvenile red drum for 7 wk. Graded levels of arginine significantly (P < 0.05) affected weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio (PER) and plasma arginine levels of the fish. Based on least-squares regression of feed efficiency and PER data, the minimum requirement (+/- SEM) of red drum for arginine was estimated at 1.44 (+/- 0.15) and 1.48 (+/- 0.12) g/100 g diet (4.11 and 4.23 g/100 g dietary protein), respectively. The arginine requirements estimated from weight gain data were 1.75 (+/- 0.18) g/100 g diet or 5.0 g/100 g dietary protein. These values are similar to those reported for other carnivorous fish species.

  11. Numerical Studies on Time-Varying Stiffness of Disk-Drum Type Rotor with Bolt Loosening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhaoye; Chu, Fulei

    2015-07-01

    Disk-drum type rotors are widely used in industry for their high stiffness and low weight properties. In disk-drum type rotors, the adjacent disks and drums are commonly connected by bolted joints. Those rotating joint interfaces are subjected to numerous combinations of loads during normal operation, where loosening of the connecting bolts might occur. The bolt loosening will change the local stiffness of the rotor, which in turn affect the rotor dynamics and even result in structural failures. In this paper, the local stiffness of a disk- drum rotor with bolt loosening is investigated numerically. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model for the bolted disk-drum joint is established in ANSYS, where the bolt loosening is simulated by reducing the preloads of certain bolts, and removing those bolts as the limiting case. Simulations are performed on the FE model to evaluate the joint behaviour under static loads. Periodic variations of the joint deflections with respect to the rotation angle of the shaft are obtained, which implies the appearance of the time-varying local stiffness in the rotor system. The studies in this paper help accurate prediction of the rotor dynamics and early detection of bolt loosening.

  12. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Swale, D. J.; Stone, K.A.; Milner, T. N.

    2006-01-09

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project.

  13. Ringlike spin segregation of binary mixtures in a high-velocity rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decai, Huang; Ming, Lu; Gang, Sun; Yaodong, Feng; Min, Sun; Haiping, Wu; Kaiming, Deng

    2012-03-01

    This study presents molecular dynamics simulations on the segregation of binary mixtures in a high-velocity rotating drum. Depending on the ratio between the particle radius and density, similarities to the Brazil-nut effect and its reverse form are shown in the ringlike spin segregation patterns in radial direction. The smaller and heavier particles accumulated toward the drum wall, whereas the bigger and lighter particles accumulated toward the drum center. The effects of particle radius and density on the segregation states were quantified and the phase diagram of segregation in the ρb/ρs - rb/rs space was plotted. The observed phenomena can be explained by the combined percolation and the buoyancy effects.

  14. Lanthanide nano-drums: a new class of molecular nanoparticles for potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard A; Gnanam, Annie J; Arambula, Jonathan F; Jones, Jessica N; Swaminathan, Jagannath; Yang, Xiaoping; Schipper, Desmond; Hall, Justin W; DePue, Lauren J; Dieye, Yakhya; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Chandler, Don J; Marcotte, Edward M; Sessler, Jonathan L; Ehrlich, Lauren I R; Brown, Katherine A

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a new class of lanthanide-based self-assembling molecular nanoparticles as potential reporter molecules for imaging, and as multi-functional nanoprobes or nanosensors in diagnostic systems. These lanthanide "nano-drums" are homogeneous 4d-4f clusters approximately 25 to 30 Å in diameter that can emit from the visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. Here, we present syntheses, crystal structures, photophysical properties, and comparative cytotoxicity data for six nano-drums containing either Eu, Tb, Lu, Er, Yb or Ho. Imaging capabilities of these nano-drums are demonstrated using epifluorescence, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), and two-photon microscopy. We discuss how these molecular nanoparticles can to be adapted for a range of assays, particularly by taking advantage of functionalization strategies with chemical moieties to enable conjugation to protein or nucleic acids.

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Goose Farm, Plumsted Township, New Jersey, September 1985. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-27

    The Goose Farm site is located approximately two miles northeast of the Town of New Egypt in Plumsted Township, Ocean County, New Jersey. The Goose Farm was used as a hazardous-waste disposal site from the mid 1940's to the mid 1970's by a manufacturer of polysulfide rubber and solid rocket fuel propellant. The majority of wastes were dumped into a pit dug through the fine sand. The dimensions of the pit were approximately 100 x 300 x 15 feet. Lab packs, 55 gallon drums, and bulk liquids were dumped into the pit. Investigations found contaminated soils containing volatile, acid and base/neutral organic pollutants throughout the disposal area. In addition, sampling shows contamination of ground water up to 570 ppm total priority pollutants and contamination of the surface water up to 1100 ppb total volatile organics. The recommended remedial alternative for this site is expected to be implemented in a phased manner.

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Organic Chemicals, Inc., Operable Unit 2, Grandville, MI, February 5, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Organic Chemicals Inc. (OCI) property is located at 3291 Chicago Drive, S.W., in the city of Grandville, Kent County, Michigan. A Preliminary Assessment (PA) for the Site was completed by EPA in 1983. The PA documented potential groundwater contamination from the solvent-contaminated seepage lagoon. Soil beneath this pond were also found to be contaminated. A potential for drinking water contamination and endangerment of flora and fauna in nearby potential wetlands was indicated in the PA. Analyses taken from solid waste storage units (rolloffs and 55 gallon drums) located at the Site revealed the presence of various contaminants including methylene chloride, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and Arochlor 1242 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Analyses of soil samples taken from the vicinity of the solid waste storage units revealed the presence of methylene chloride, toluene, xylenes, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, chloroform, 1,1-dichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, and Arochlor 1242 (PCBs).

  17. Gas generation and migration studies involving recently generated /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste for the TRU Waste Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zerwekh, A.; Warren, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    This study is part of the multicontractor TRU Waste Sampling Program. Radiolytically generated gases were vented through a filtering device to determine its effectiveness in maintaining hydrogen concentrations within acceptably safe levels. In the second part of the study measurements were made to determine the ability of these gases, particularly hydrogen, to migrate through a sealed rigid polyethylene drum liner. Void volumes in these drums were found to be generally in excess of 90%. The carbon composite filter was found to satisfactorily vent hydrogen up to moderately high levels of alpha activity in the waste substrate. The sealed 90-mil liner was found to inhibit, but not prevent, the migration of hydrogen and other radiolytically generated gases.

  18. Drumming as a Medium to Promote Emotional and Social Functioning of Children in Middle Childhood in Residential Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Kim; van Niekerk, Caroline; le Roux, Liana

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential of drumming to enhance emotional and social functioning of children in residential care. Fifteen children (aged 7-12) from a child and youth care centre in South Africa attended four months of weekly drumming sessions. Gestalt theory principles informed the workshops' theoretical foundation and interpretation of…

  19. An ABC of Drumming: Children's Narratives about Beat, Rhythm and Groove in a Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I use a bricolage of arts-based research and writing practices to explore narratives by Grade 4 children about their experiences in a drumming circle called "Bam Bam" as represented in a text they created with me called An ABC of drumming. The term "narrative" is used here in a contemporary sense to…

  20. Rolling, Sliding and Mixing of a 2D Granular Media in a Thin Vertical Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolsky, Daniel; Galbreath, Ashford; Olafsen, Jeffrey S.

    2000-11-01

    Even for a relatively small number of particles, interactions of collision and friction complicate the understanding of the dynamics in granular flows. A rich assortment of interesting dynamics is exhibited in a 2D experiment of stainless steel disks contained in a rotating, thin, vertical drum. Analysis of high-speed and high-resolution photography reveals various distributions of translational and rotational kinetic energy within the granular flow as the number of particles in the drum is increased. A detailed examination of the collective behavior in this experiment is important for understanding mixing in granular flows.

  1. Short-term physiological responses of wild and hatchery-produced red drum during angling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallman, E.A.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1999-01-01

    Serum cortisol concentrations, plasma glucose concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, and plasma osmolalities increased in red drum Sciaenops ocellatus (26.0-65.5 cm total length) during angling in estuarine waters (17-33 g/L salinity, 21-31??C). Angling time varied from as fast as possible (10 s) to the point when fish ceased resisting (up to 350 s). The increases in the physiological characteristics were similar in wild and hatchery-produced fish. This study indicates that hatchery-produced red drum may be used in catch-and-release studies to simulate the responses of wild fish.

  2. Analysis of a boron-carbide-drum-controlled critical reactor experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, W. T.

    1972-01-01

    In order to validate methods and cross sections used in the neutronic design of compact fast-spectrum reactors for generating electric power in space, an analysis of a boron-carbide-drum-controlled critical reactor was made. For this reactor the transport analysis gave generally satisfactory results. The calculated multiplication factor for the most detailed calculation was only 0.7-percent Delta k too high. Calculated reactivity worth of the control drums was $11.61 compared to measurements of $11.58 by the inverse kinetics methods and $11.98 by the inverse counting method. Calculated radial and axial power distributions were in good agreement with experiment.

  3. Natural mortality rates of freshwater drum larvae in the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Hergenrader, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Instantaneous total mortality rates for planktonic larval freshwater drums (Aplodinotus grunniens) in a channelized stretch of the Missouri River were estimated from analyses of cumulative catch curves. Mortality rates, which ranged from 0.11 to 0.21 per day, were significantly greater in 1976 than in 1974. Basing our interpretation on the underrepresentation of eggs and early larvae in the channelized river samples, we hypothesize that favorable environments upstream represent a more significant source of recruitment of larvae to the freshwater drum population than the channelized river.

  4. Health assessment for Harvey and Knott Drum National Priorities List (NPL) Site, New Castle County, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980713093. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-10

    The Harvey Knott Drum National Priorities List site, located near Kirkwood in New Castle County, Delaware, is an inactive landfill that had received sanitary, municipal and industrial wastes. Contaminants released from the site include heavy metals and organic compounds and have entered groundwater, soils, sediments, and surface waters. The principal concern is that contaminated groundwater may migrate to off-site domestic, public, and agricultural water supply wells. Also, contaminants in off-site surface water and sediments pose some concern for recreational use and consumption of fish. Off-site contaminated soils near the west property line may be a threat to persons that trespass into that area. The site is of potential health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects.

  5. Synchronized drumming enhances activity in the caudate and facilitates prosocial commitment--if the rhythm comes easily.

    PubMed

    Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter "accidentally" dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system.

  6. Use of cold-bonded, waste oxide briquettes at U.S. Steel Mon Valley BOP shop

    SciTech Connect

    DiCaprio, V.; Howell, K.; Harris, R.; Toner, T.C.

    1995-09-01

    In attempts to avoid the escalated costs and environmental concerns associated with taking waste oxide materials to a landfill, National Recovery Systems Inc., in conjunction with US Steel, built a waste oxide briquetting facility at the USS Mon Valley works (Edgar Thomson plant) to recycle various sludges and scales. The waste oxide briquette is currently a blend of BOP classifier sludge, BOP filter drum sludge, casterscale and hot strip mill scale. In addition to the landfill cost avoidance, the waste oxide briquette is also a low cast, steel scrap supplement. This paper describes the production of the waste oxide briquette and the use of the recycled material at the Edgar Thomson BOP shop.

  7. ACCELERATING HANFORD TRANSURANC (TRU) WASTE CERTIFICATION & SHIPMENT FROM 2 PER YEAR TO 12 PER MONTH

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2005-01-20

    The Department of Energy's site at Hanford has significantly accelerated the characterization of transuranic (TRU) waste and its subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)--from a total of two shipments in fiscal year 2002 to twelve shipments per month. The challenges encountered and experience gained in achieving this acceleration provide valuable lessons that can be used by others in the waste industry. Lessons learned as well as estimates of cost savings and schedule benefits are described. At the start of the acceleration effort, three separate facilities managed by multiple organizations characterized and handled the drums. To consolidate the majority of these activities under one organization and in one facility required RCRA permit and safety basis modifications. and a myriad of construction activities--but all with very visible benefit. Transferring drums between the separate facilities involved multiple organizations, and required meeting a complex set of transportation and safety basis requirements. Consolidating characterization activities into a single facility greatly simplified this process, realizing very significant operational efficiencies. Drums stockpiled in buildings for future processing previously were stored with recognition of physical, chemical, and radiological hazards, but without consideration for future processing. Drums are now stored using a modular approach so that feed for characterization processing takes drums from the accessible module face rather than randomly throughout the storage building. This approach makes drum handling more efficient, minimizes the potential for worker injuries, and supports the principles of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) exposure from the waste. Sampling the headspace gas of the TRU waste packages was a major bottleneck in the characterization process, and hence an obstacle to acceleration. Sampling rates were improved by a combination of insulating and heating a waste

  8. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID{number_sign} 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 {mu} to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solution had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml. This solution was disposed of at the TAN warm waste pond, TAN782, TSF-10.

  9. The Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI)

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1995-12-31

    A mobile robot system called Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) is under development by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure to potential hazards and create accurate, high-quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance and enhance waste management operations. Development work is coordinated among several Department of Energy (DOE), academic, and commercial entities in accordance wit DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system, SWAMI I, was demonstrated at Savannah River Site (SRS) in November, 1993. SWAMI II is now under development for field trails at the Fernald site.

  10. A NEW RUSSIAN WASTE MANAGEMENT INSTALLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Andrew; Engxy, Thor; Endregard, Monica; Schwab, Patrick; Nazarian, Ashot; Krumrine, Paul; Backe, Steinar; Gorin, Stephen; Evans, Brent

    2003-02-27

    The Polyarninsky Shipyard (sometimes called Navy Yard No. 10 or the Shkval Shipyard) has been designated as the recipient for Solid Radioactive Waste (SRW) management facilities under the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation (AMEC) Program. The existing SRW storage site at this shipyard is filled to capacity, which is forcing the shipyard to reduce its submarine dismantlement activities. The Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation is planned as a combination of several AMEC projects. It will have several elements, including a set of hydraulic metal cutting tools, containers for transport and storage, the Mobile Pretreatment Facility (MPF) for Solid Radioactive Waste, the PICASSO system for radiation monitoring, and a Waste Storage Facility. Hydraulically operated cutting tools can cut many metal items via shearing so that dusts or particulates are not generated. The AMEC Program procured a cutting tool system, consisting of a motor and hydraulic pumping unit, a 38-mm conduit-cutting tool, a 100- mm pipe-cutting tool, and a spreading tool all mounted on a wheeled cart. The vendor modified the tool system for extremely cold conditions and Russian electrical standards, then delivered the tool system to the Polyarninsky shipyard. A new container for transportation and storage of SRW and been designed and fabricated. The first 400 of these containers have been delivered to the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy for use at the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation. These containers are cylindrical in shape and can hold seven standard 200-liter drums. They are the first containers ever certified in Russia for the offsite transport of military SRW. These containers can be transported by truck, rail, barge, or ship. The MPF will be the focal point of the Polyarninsky Shipyard Waste Management Installation and a key element in meeting the nuclear submarine dismantlement and waste processing needs of the Russian Federation. It will receive raw

  11. Structural Acoustic UXO Detection and Identification in Marine Environments - Interim Report for SERDP MR-2103 Follow-On

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-30

    seven include the rock (T2), the 55 gallon water filled drum (T3), the 5:1 aspect telephone pole section (T5), the panel (T10 or CP), the 2:1 aspect...telephone pole section (T15), the cement block (T18), and the tire (T19). The proud and buried targets in the target field are listed and labelled in...N1 5inch Rocket nose-up 60o T2 Rock T15 2:1 Aspect Phone Pole Section N2 5inch Rocket nose-up 30o T3 55 Gallon Filled Drum T17 2 ft Aluminum Cylinder

  12. The Extraordinary Nature of Barney's Drumming: A Complementary Study of Ordinary Noise Making in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Valérie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gayet, Pierre; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2017-01-01

    In a previous study (Dufour et al., 2015) we reported the unusual characteristics of the drumming performance of a chimpanzee named Barney. His sound production, several sequences of repeated drumming on an up-turned plastic barrel, shared features typical for human musical drumming: it was rhythmical, decontextualized, and well controlled by the chimpanzee. This type of performance raises questions about the origins of our musicality. Here we recorded spontaneously occurring events of sound production with objects in Barney's colony. First we collected data on the duration of sound making. Here we examined whether (i) the context in which objects were used for sound production, (ii) the sex of the producer, (iii) the medium, and (iv) the technique used for sound production had any effect on the duration of sound making. Interestingly, duration of drumming differed across contexts, sex, and techniques. Then we filmed as many events as possible to increase our chances of recording sequences that would be musically similar to Barney's performance in the original study. We filmed several long productions that were rhythmically interesting. However, none fully met the criteria of musical sound production, as previously reported for Barney. PMID:28154521

  13. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and..., slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors. (a) General requirements. Brake components must be... be the same. (d) Linings and pads. The thickness of the brake linings or pads shall meet...

  14. 77 FR 47840 - American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... the settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name American... AGENCY American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement... Company Superfund Site located in Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee. DATES: The Agency will...

  15. PCR primer pairs for 100 microsatellites in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred nuclear-encoded microsatellites from a genomic DNA library of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were isolated and characterized. Eight of the microsatellites had tetra-nucleotide motifs, while 92 had di-nucleotide motifs. The average number of alleles at the 100 microsatellites among a sa...

  16. Process and formulation effects on solar thermal drum dried prune pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The processing of dried plums into prune juice and concentrate yields prune pomace as a coproduct; the pomace could potentially be utilized as a food ingredient but requires stabilization for long-term storage. Drum drying is one method that could be used to dry and stabilize prune pomace, and a dru...

  17. Drums and Poems: An Intervention Promoting Empathic Connection and Literacy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassen, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Expressive therapies can be used with groups of children to increase empathy and reduce bullying and violence. When educators feel pressured to focus on standardized tests and basic skills, there is little attention and time for such programs. Drums and Poems is an intervention that counselors and teachers can use to address these problems by…

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 178 - Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans C Appendix C to Part 178 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...) SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Pt. 178, App. C Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of...