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Sample records for 55-gallon waste drums

  1. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Staggs, K.J.; Doughty, S.M.

    1993-07-01

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6{prime} diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently.

  2. Waste streams that preferentially corrode 55-gallon steel storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Beitel, G.A.; Reece, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    When 55-gal steel drum waste containers fail in service, i.e., leak, corrode or breach, the standard fix has been to overpack the drum. When a drum fails and is overpacked into an 83-gal overpack drum, there are several negative consequences. Identifying waste streams that preferentially corrode steel drums is essential to the pollution prevention philosophy that ``an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.`` It is essential that facilities perform pollution prevention measures at the front end of processes to reduce pollution on the back end. If these waste streams can be identified before they are packaged, the initial drum packaging system could be fortified or increased to eliminate future drum failures, breaches, clean-ups, and the plethora of other consequences. Therefore, a survey was conducted throughout the US Department of Energy complex for information concerning waste streams that have demonstrated preferential corrosion of 55-gal steel drums. From 21 site contacts, 21 waste streams were so identified. The major components of these waste streams include acids, salts, and solvent liquids, sludges, and still bottoms. The solvent-based waste streams typically had the shortest time to failure, 0.5 to 2 years. This report provides the results of this survey and research.

  3. Nondestructive testing methods for 55-gallon, waste storage drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, R.H.; Hildebrand, B.P.; Hockey, R.L.; Riechers, D.M.; Spanner, J.C.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) authorized Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct a feasibility study to identify promising nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for detecting general and localized (both pitting and pinhole) corrosion in the 55-gal drums that are used to store solid waste materials at the Hanford Site. This document presents results obtained during a literature survey, identifies the relevant reference materials that were reviewed, provides a technical description of the methods that were evaluated, describes the laboratory tests that were conducted and their results, identifies the most promising candidate methods along with the rationale for these selections, and includes a work plan for recommended follow-on activities. This report contains a brief overview and technical description for each of the following NDT methods: magnetic testing techniques; eddy current testing; shearography; ultrasonic testing; radiographic computed tomography; thermography; and leak testing with acoustic detection.

  4. Criticality Safety Analysis on the Mixed Be, Nat-U, and C (Graphite) Reflectors in 55-Gallon Waste Drums and Their Equivalents for HWM Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The objective of this analysis is to develop and establish the technical basis on the criticality safety controls for the storage of mixed beryllium (Be), natural uranium (Nat-U), and carbon (C)/graphite reflectors in 55-gallon waste containers and/or their equivalents in Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) facilities. Based on the criticality safety limits and controls outlined in Section 3.0, the operations involving the use of mixed-reflector drums satisfy the double-contingency principle as required by DOE Order 420.1 and are therefore criticality safe. The mixed-reflector mass limit is 120 grams for each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent. a reflector waiver of 50 grams is allowed for Be, Nat-U, or C/graphite combined. The waived reflectors may be excluded from the reflector mass calculations when determining if a drum is compliant. The mixed-reflector drums are allowed to mix with the typical 55-gallon one-reflector drums with a Pu mass limit of 120 grams. The fissile mass limit for the mixed-reflector container is 65 grams of Pu equivalent each. The corresponding reflector mass limits are 300 grams of Be, and/or 100 kilograms of Nat-U, and/or 110 kilograms of C/graphite for each container. All other unaffected control parameters for the one-reflector containers remain in effect for the mixed-reflector drums. For instance, Superior moderators, such as TrimSol, Superla white mineral oil No. 9, paraffin, and polyethylene, are allowed in unlimited quantities. Hydrogenous materials with a hydrogen density greater than 0.133 gram/cc are not allowed. Also, an isolation separation of no less than 76.2 cm (30-inch) is required between a mixed array and any other array. Waste containers in the action of being transported are exempted from this 76.2-cm (30-inch) separation requirement. All deviations from the CS controls and mass limits listed in Section 3.0 will require individual criticality safety analyses on a case-by-case basis for each of them to confirm their

  5. Criticality Safety Controls for 55-Gallon Drums with a Mass Limit of 200 grams Pu-239

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    The following 200-gram Pu drum criticality safety controls are applicable to RHWM drum storage operations: (1) Mass (Fissile/Pu) - each 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be limited to 200 gram Pu or Pu equivalent; (2) Moderation - Hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density greater than that (0.133 g H/cc) of polyethylene and paraffin are not allowed and hydrogen materials with a hydrogen density no greater than that of polyethylene and paraffin are allowed with unlimited amounts; (3) Interaction - a spacing of 30-inches (76 cm) is required between arrays and 200-gram Pu drums shall be placed in arrays for 200-gram Pu drums only (no mingling of 200-gram Pu drums with other drums not meeting the drum controls associated with the 200-gram limit); (4) Reflection - no beryllium and carbon/graphite (other than the 50-gram waiver amount) is allowed, (note that Nat-U exceeding the waiver amount is allowed when its U-235 content is included in the fissile mass limit of 200 grams); and (5) Geometry - drum geometry, only 55-gallon drum or its equivalent shall be used and array geometry, 55-gallon drums are allowed for 2-high stacking. Steel waste boxes may be stacked 3-high if constraint.

  6. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55 GALLON DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-01-04

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG&G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air).

  7. CSER 96-027: storage of cemented plutonium residue containers in 55 gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.

    1997-01-20

    A nuclear criticality safety analysis has been performed for the storage of residual plutonium cementation containers, produced at the Plutonium Finishing Plant, in 55 gallon drums. This CSER increases the limit of total plutonium stored in each 55 gallon drum from 100 to 200 grams.

  8. Development of a model for predicting transient hydrogen venting in 55-gallon drums

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Jason W; Clemmons, James S; Garcia, Michael D; Sur, John C; Zhang, Duan Z; Romero, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Remote drum venting was performed on a population of unvented high activity drums (HAD) in the range of 63 to 435 plutonium equivalent Curies (PEC). These 55-gallon Transuranic (TRU) drums will eventually be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As a part of this process, the development of a calculational model was required to predict the transient hydrogen concentration response of the head space and polyethylene liner (if present) within the 55-gallon drum. The drum and liner were vented using a Remote Drum Venting System (RDVS) that provided a vent sampling path for measuring flammable hydrogen vapor concentrations and allow hydrogen to diffuse below lower flammability limit (LFL) concentrations. One key application of the model was to determine the transient behavior of hydrogen in the head space, within the liner, and the sensitivity to the number of holes made in the liner or number of filters. First-order differential mass transport equations were solved using Laplace transformations and numerically to verify the results. the Mathematica 6.0 computing tool was also used as a validation tool and for examining larger than two chamber systems. Results will be shown for a variety of configurations, including 85-gallon and 110-gallon overpack drums. The model was also validated against hydrogen vapor concentration assay measurements.

  9. Comparison of Shuffler and Segmented Gamma Scanner Measurements of 55-Gallon Drums Containing HEU Embedded in Varied Matrices.

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J. R.; Grimes, L. V.; Gomez, C. D.; FitzPatrick, J. R.; Vigil, G. M.; Tobin, S. J.; Rinard, Phillip M.

    2002-01-01

    Many forms of nuclear waste materials are constantly generated at Los Alamos Chemical and Metallurgical Research (CMR) Facility. For disposal, accounting of the nuclear material must be done. We were recently tasked with measuring sixteen 55-gallon drums, each containing about 150 to 250 grams of HEU. The lower two-thirds of the drums consisted mostly of paper, plastics, and other combustibles. The HEU in this bulk waste had been previously assayed using a segmented gamma scanner (SGS) and ranged from 1 to 20 grams per drum. The drums were later re-opened and specific packages of HEU waste solids, mostly polyethylene bottles filled with uranium oxide and/or fluoride, were placed on top of the bulk waste. The number of bottles ranged from one to seven with an additional {sup 235}U mass between 150 to 230 grams per drum. Although many of these additional mass values were based on results from an old chemical analysis, they are expected to be reasonably accurate. We counted the drums on the SGS and shuffler instruments. The results were biased low on the SGS which was calibrated for normal combustible waste (not bottles embedded in waste) and biased high on the shuffler calibrated for small cans of oxide. The biases were caused by the differences among the calibration standards and the drums. This paper is a study of the nature of these biases, providing corrections and comparing the resulting performance characteristics of the instruments. This effort was greatly enhanced by having photographic as well as real-time radiographic information on many of the drums contents. A new software tool, recently developed at Los Alamos to calculate shuffler count rates accurately and generate bias correction factors, was applied to these drums. The application of the calculational tool to generate bias corrections for these types of matrices is described. The results from the two instruments are compared and discussed.

  10. Results of the gamma-neutron mapper performance test on 55-gallon drums at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Roybal, L.G.; Svoboda, J.M.; Harker, D.J.; Thompson, D.N.; Carpenter, M.V.; Josten, N.E.

    1995-07-01

    The primary purpose of the gamma-neutron mapper (G@) is to provide accurate and quantitative spatial information of the gamma-ray and neutron radiation fields as a function of position about the excavation of a radioactive waste site. The GNM is designed to operate remotely and can be delivered to any point on an excavation by the robotic gantry crane developed by the dig-face project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). It can also be easily adapted to other delivery systems. The GNM can be deployed over a waste site at a predetermined scan rate and has sufficient accuracy to identify and quantify radioactive contaminants of importance. The results reported herein are from a performance test conducted at the Transuranic Storage Area, Building 628, of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex located at the INEL. This building is an active interim-storage area for 55-gal drums of transuranic waste from the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant. The performance test consisted of scanning a stack of drums five high by five wide. Prior to the test, radiation fields were measured by a health physicist at the center of the drums and ranged from 0.5 mR/h to 35 mR/h. Scans of the drums using the GNM were taken at standoff distances from the vertical drum stack of 15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, and 90 cm. Data were acquired at scan speeds of 7.5 cm/s and 15 cm/s. The results of these scans and a comparison of these results with the manifests of these drums are compared and discussed.

  11. Handling and Segregating System for 55-Gallon Drums Project-Current Progress on Testing and Integration at the Western Environmental Technology Office

    SciTech Connect

    Battleson, D. M.; Johnson, S. E.; Montgomery, J. L.; Bryson, S. B.; Stacey, M. C.; Frazee, C. M.

    2002-02-25

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) along with other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites have thousands of drums of mixed transuranic (TRU) waste that are being stored awaiting transfer to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SRS drums contain noncompliant items that must meet WIPP waste acceptance criteria (WAC) before being accepted. A system is being developed by the DOE Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area (TMFA) under the Robotics Crosscut Program to repackage drummed, mixed TRU waste to meet WIPP WAC. This system, the Handling and Segregating System for 55-gallon drums (HANDSS-55), will economically and remotely open, sort, and segregate noncompliant components of the waste inside the drums and repackage the compliant components in a new drum suitable for shipment and acceptance by WIPP in New Mexico. HANDSS-55 is scheduled to be deployed for operation at the SRS Solid Waste Division by September 30, 2004. Other versions of HANDSS-55 may later be deployed at other DOE sites. MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) was selected to integrate and demonstrate the HANDSS-55 modules being developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). This paper reports progress on integration and testing to date.

  12. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    SciTech Connect

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable

  13. Waste drum refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmill, L.J.

    1996-10-18

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of {minus}60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything.

  14. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  15. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  16. Screening and Spectral Summing of LANL Empty Waste Drums - 13226

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E.; Lucero, Randy P.

    2013-07-01

    Empty 55-gallon drums that formerly held transuranic (TRU) waste (often over-packed in 85- gallon drums) are generated at LANL and require radiological characterization for disposition. These drums are typically measured and analyzed individually using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detectors. This approach can be resource and time intensive. For a project requiring several hundred drums to be characterized in a short time frame, an alternative approach was developed. The approach utilizes a combination of field screening and spectral summing that was required to be technically defensible and meet the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). In the screening phase of the operation, the drums were counted for 300 seconds (compared to 600 seconds for the typical approach) and checked against Low Level (LL)/TRU thresholds established for each drum configuration and detector. Multiple TRU nuclides and multiple gamma rays for each nuclide were evaluated using an automated spreadsheet utility that can process data from up to 42 drums at a time. Screening results were reviewed by an expert analyst to confirm the field LL/TRU determination. The spectral summing analysis technique combines spectral data (channel-by-channel) associated with a group of individual waste containers producing a composite spectrum. The grouped drums must meet specific similarity criteria. Another automated spreadsheet utility was used to spectral sum data from an unlimited number of similar drums grouped together. The composite spectrum represents a virtual combined drum for the group of drums and was analyzed using the SNAP{sup TM}/Radioassay Data Sheet (RDS)/Batch Data Report (BDR) method. The activity results for a composite virtual drum were divided equally amongst the individual drums to generate characterization results for each individual drum in the group. An initial batch of approximately 500 drums were measured and analyzed in less than 2 months in 2011

  17. Waste drum fire tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, H.M.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Olson, W.W.; Zimmer, J.J.

    1994-05-01

    Radioactive solid wastes containing combustible materials have been generated and stored in drums and boxes at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites since the 1940`s. Programs are currently underway to characterize, process, and package the post-1970 portion of these wastes for final disposal as low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste. As these programs mature and projects are defined, safety analysis reports and fire hazard analyses are required to assure the DOE of the safety of the planned activities. Review of literature and discussions with other DOE sites indicated a lack of available data regarding the behaviour and consequences of fires involving radioactive combustible wastes stored at DOE sites. In the past 2 years, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has been involved in two different waste drum fire tests. The first was performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 1993 and was patterned after a flammable liquid pool fire. The second was performed by WHC at the Hanford Site as part of a building demolition burn. These scoping tests provide useful data for the development of more structured test plans. The paper summarizes the LLNL and WHC tests and their results.

  18. One-trip drum operating instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-10-01

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant.

  19. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale tests of low-level nuclear-waste-drum response to accident environments

    SciTech Connect

    Huerta, M.; Lamoreaux, G.H.; Romesberg, L.E.; Yoshimura, H.R.; Joseph, B.J.; May, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes extensive full-scale and scale-model testing of 55-gallon drums used for shipping low-level radioactive waste materials. The tests conducted include static crush, single-can impact tests, and side impact tests of eight stacked drums. Static crush forces were measured and crush energies calculated. The tests were performed in full-, quarter-, and eighth-scale with different types of waste materials. The full-scale drums were modeled with standard food product cans. The response of the containers is reported in terms of drum deformations and lid behavior. The results of the scale model tests are correlated to the results of the full-scale drums. Two computer techniques for calculating the response of drum stacks are presented. 83 figures, 9 tables.

  20. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale tests of low-level nuclear-waste-drum response to accident environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, M.; Lamoreaux, G. H.; Romesberg, L. E.; Yoshimura, H. R.; Joseph, B. J.; May, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Extensive full scale and scale model testing of 55 gallon drums used for shipping low level radioactive waste materials are described. The tests conducted include static crush, single can impact tests, and side impact tests of eight stacked drums. Static crush forces were measured and crush energies calculated. The tests were performed in full, quarter, and eight scale with different types of waste materials. The full scale drums were modeled with standard food product cans. The response of the containers is reported in terms of drum deformations and lid behavior. The results of the scale model tests are correlated to the results of the full scale drums. Two computer techniques for calculating the response of drum stacks are presented.

  1. Field test results for radioactive waste drum characterization with Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1997-11-01

    This paper summarizes the design, fabrication, factory testing, evaluation and demonstration of waste inspection tomography (WIT). WIT consists of a self-sufficient, mobile semi-trailer for Non-Destructive Evaluation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDE/NDA) characterization of nuclear waste drums using X-ray and gamma-ray tomographic techniques. The 23-month WIT Phase I initial test results include 2 MeV Digital Radiography (DR), Computed Tomography (CT), Anger camera imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Collimated Gamma Scanning (CGS), and Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A&PCT) using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with three simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were all demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively. Preliminary field tests results with nuclear waste drums are summarized. WIT has inspected drums with 0 to 20 grams plutonium 239. The minimum measured was 0.131 gram plutonium 239 in cement. 8 figs.

  2. Determining site-specific drum loading criteria for storing combustible {sup 238}Pu waste

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.S.; Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.; Espinoza, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Reich, B.T.; Smith, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    Waste containing hydrogenous-combustible material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu can generate hydrogen gas at appreciable rates through alpha radiolysis. To ensure safe transportation of WIPP drums, the limit for {sup 238}Pu-combustible waste published in the WIPP TRUPACT-11 CONTENT (TRUCON) CODES is 21 milliwafts per 55 gallon drum. This corresponds to about 45 milligrams of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} used for satellite heat source-electrical generators. The Los Alamos waste storage site adopted a {sup 238}Pu waste storage criteria based on these TRCUCON codes. However, reviews of the content in drums of combustible waste generated during heat source assembly at Los Alamos showed the amount of {sup 238}Pu is typically much greater than 45 milligrams. It is not feasible to appreciably reduce Los Alamos {sup 238}Pu waste drum loadings without significantly increasing waste volumes or introducing unsafe practices. To address this concern, a series of studies were implemented to evaluate the applicability of the TRUCON limits for storage of this specific waste. Addressed in these evaluations were determination of the hydrogen generation rate, hydrogen diffusion rates through confinement layers and vent filters, and packaging requirements specific to Los Alamos generated {sup 238}Pu contaminated combustible waste. These studies also showed that the multiple-layer packaging practices in use at Los Alamos could be relaxed without significantly increasing the risk of contamination. Based on a model developed to predict H{sub 2} concentrations in packages and drum headspace, the site specific effective hydrogen generation rate, and hydrogen-diffusion values, and revising the waste packaging practices, we were able to raise the safe loading limit for {sup 238}Pu waste drums for on site storage to the gram levels typical of currently generated {sup 238}Pu waste.

  3. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, R.L.; Haecker, C.F.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided.

  4. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  5. Los Alamos waste drum shufflers users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Painter, J.

    1993-08-24

    This user manual describes the Los Alamos waste drum shufflers. The primary purpose of the instruments is to assay the mass of {sup 235}U (or other fissile materials) in drums of assorted waste. It can perform passive assays for isotopes that spontaneously emit neutrons or active assays using the shuffler technique as described on this manual.

  6. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-08-23

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site FB-Line conducted atomic energy defense activities consistent with the listing in Section 10101(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The facility mission was to process and convert dilute plutonium solution into highly purified weapons grade plutonium metal. As a result of various activities conducted in support of the mission (e.g., operation, maintenance, repair, clean up, and facility modifications), the facility generated transuranic waste. This document, along with referenced supporting documents, provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration,equipment, process operations, and waste management practices.

  7. Modeling VOC transport in simulated waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the VOC permeability had been measured. Permeabilities for five VOCs [methylene chloride, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethylene] were measured across a polyethylene bag. Comparison of model and experimental results of VOC concentration as a function of time indicate that model accurately accounts for significant VOC transport mechanisms in a lab-scale waste drum.

  8. POLYETHYLENE ENCAPSULATES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE DRUMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This capsule report summarizes studies of the use of polyethylene (P.E.) for encapsulating drums of hazardous wastes. Flat PE sheet is welded to roto moded PE containers which forms the encapsulates. Plastic pipe welding art was used, but the prototype welding apparatus required ...

  9. Unsteady-state VOC transport in vented waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1993-08-01

    A model of unsteady-state volatile organic compound (VOC) transport in a vented waste drum has been developed. Model predictions of the VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement and the drum headspace are compared to measurements in lab-scale simulated waste drums.

  10. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM SLUDGE SAMPLE BOTTLES CAUSED BY RADIOLYSIS AND CHEMISTRY WITH CONCETNRATION DETERMINATION IN A STANDARD WASTE BOX (SWB) OR DRUM FOR TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    RILEY DL; BRIDGES AE; EDWARDS WS

    2010-03-30

    A volume of 600 mL of sludge, in 4.1 L sample bottles (Appendix 7.6), will be placed in either a Super Pig (Ref. 1) or Piglet (Ref. 2, 3) based on shielding requirements (Ref. 4). Two Super Pigs will be placed in a Standard Waste Box (SWB, Ref. 5), as their weight exceeds the capacity of a drum; two Piglets will be placed in a 55-gallon drum (shown in Appendix 7.2). The generation of hydrogen gas through oxidation/corrosion of uranium metal by its reaction with water will be determined and combined with the hydrogen produced by radiolysis. The hydrogen concentration in the 55-gallon drum and SWB will be calculated to show that the lower flammability limit of 5% hydrogen is not reached. The inner layers (i.e., sample bottle, bag and shielded pig) in the SWB and drum will be evaluated to assure no pressurization occurs as the hydrogen vents from the inner containers (e.g., shielded pigs, etc.). The reaction of uranium metal with anoxic liquid water is highly exothermic; the heat of reaction will be combined with the source term decay heat, calculated from Radcalc, to show that the drum and SWB package heat load limits are satisfied. This analysis does five things: (1) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water; (2) Estimates the H{sub 2} generation from radiolysis (using Radcalc 4.1); (3) Combines both H{sub 2} generation amounts, from Items 1 and 2, and determines the percent concentration of H{sub 2} in the interior of an SWB with two Super Pigs, and the interior of a 55-gallon drum with two Piglets; (4) From the combined gas generation rate, shows that the pressure at internal layers is minimal; and (5) Calculates the maximum thermal load of the package, both from radioactive decay of the source and daughter products as calculated/reported by Radcalc 4.1, and from the exothermic reaction of uranium metal with water.

  11. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1998-10-26

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Savannah River Site FB-Line produced Weapons Grade Plutonium for the United States National Defense Program. The facility mission was mainly to process dilute plutonium solution received from the 221-F Canyon into highly purified plutonium metal. As a result of various activities (maintenance, repair, clean up, etc.) in support of the mission, the facility generated a transuranic heterogeneous debris waste stream. Prior to January 25, 1990, the waste stream was considered suspect mixed transuranic waste (based on potential for inclusion of F-Listed solvent rags/wipes) and is not included in this characterization. Beginning January 25, 1990, Savannah River Site began segregation of rags and wipes containing F-Listed solvents thus creating a mixed transuranic waste stream and a non-mixed transuranic waste stream. This characterization addresses the non-mixed transuranic waste stream packaged in 55-gallon drums after January 25, 1990.Characterization of the waste stream was achieved using knowledge of process operations, facility safety basis documentation, facility specific waste management procedures and storage / disposal records. The report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 "Acceptable Knowledge" from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  12. VOC transport in vented drums containing simulated waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Rae, C.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    A model is developed to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement in a lab-scale vented waste drum containing simulated waste sludge. The VOC transport model estimates the concentration using the measured VOC concentration beneath the drum lid and model parameters defined or estimated from process knowledge of drum contents and waste drum configuration. Model parameters include the VOC diffusion characteristic across the filter vent, VOC diffusivity in air, size of opening in the drum liner lid, the type and number of layers of polymer bags surrounding the waste, VOC permeability across the polymer, and the permeable surface area of the polymer bags. Comparison of model and experimental results indicates that the model can accurately estimate VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement. The model may be useful in estimating the VOC concentration in actual waste drums.

  13. Hydrogen explosion testing with a simulated transuranic drum

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Transuranic (TRU) waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored onsite for future retrieval and permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some of the TRU waste is stored in vented 210-liter (55-gallon) drums and consists of gloves, wipes, plastic valves, tools, etc. Gas generation caused by radiolysis and biodegradation of these organic waste materials may produce a flammable hydrogen-air mixture (>4% v/v) in the multi-layer plastic waste bags. Using a worst case scenario, a drum explosion test program was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration necessary to cause removal of the drum lid. Test results indicate an explosive mixture up to 15% v/v of hydrogen can be contained in an SRS TRU drum without total integrity failure via lid removal.

  14. Hydrogen explosion testing with a simulated transuranic drum

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

    1990-12-31

    Transuranic (TRU) waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored onsite for future retrieval and permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some of the TRU waste is stored in vented 210-liter (55-gallon) drums and consists of gloves, wipes, plastic valves, tools, etc. Gas generation caused by radiolysis and biodegradation of these organic waste materials may produce a flammable hydrogen-air mixture (>4% v/v) in the multi-layer plastic waste bags. Using a worst case scenario, a drum explosion test program was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration necessary to cause removal of the drum lid. Test results indicate an explosive mixture up to 15% v/v of hydrogen can be contained in an SRS TRU drum without total integrity failure via lid removal.

  15. Transuranic drum hydrogen explosion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

    1991-06-01

    Radiolysis of transuranic (TRU) waste can produce flammable ({gt}4%) mixtures of hydrogen gas in 55 gallon vented waste storage drums. Explosion testing was conducted at the E. I. duPont Explosion Hazards Laboratory to determine the minimum concentration at which a drum lid removal occurs. A secondary objective was to investigate the maximum pressure and rate of pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. Prior to beginning any drum explosion tests, small-scale pressure vessel tests and drum mixing tests were completed. The pressure vessel tests established a relationship between hydrogen concentration and the maximum pressure and pressure rise. These small-scale tests were used to establish the concentration range over which a drum lid removal might occur. Mixing tests were also conducted to determine the equilibration times for two different hydrogen-air mixtures in a TRU drum. Nine successful drum explosion tests were conducted over a hydrogen concentration range of 13--36% (v/v), test results suggest total integrity failure via drum lid removal will not occur below 15% (v/v). Controlled small-scale pressure vessel tests were conducted over a range of 5--50% (v/v) to determine the pressure and pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. No similar relationship could be established for the drum explosion tests due to the variability in drum lid sealing and retaining ring closure. Mixing tests conducted at 5% and 25% (v/v) indicate adding pure hydrogen to the middle of a drum causes some initial stratification along the drum length, but the air and hydrogen become well-mixed after 50 minutes. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  17. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.; Wagner, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions.

  18. THERMAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR WSB DRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S

    2008-06-26

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum.

  19. WDC - Advanced system for characterization of {alpha}-bearing waste in 200 l and 400 l drums: performances and lessons learned from the first industrial measurement campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Libens, A.; Vandorpe, M.; Cuchet, J.M.

    2007-07-01

    The Waste Drum Characterization installation was originally developed for the assay of alpha-bearing waste in standard 200 1 (55 gallons) drums during the dismantling operations of the Siemens mixed-oxide (MOX) facility in Hanau (Germany). That installation was validated and qualified by the German authorities, its main performances being: - Counting efficiency for coincident neutrons: approx. 1%; Lowest Limit of Detection (LLD): 75 mg {sup 240}Pu{sub eq}; Pu content per drum: up to 100 g tot. (35 g {sup 240}Pu{sub eq}) - Measurement duration: approx. 20 minutes. The success of this system, a passive neutron coincidence counter combined with a high resolution gamma spectrometer, led to the radiological characterization and qualification of about 1,700 drums during the period 2001 - 2004. In 2005, after completion of the dismantling operations of the Siemens MOX facility, Tecnubel took over the WDC installation which could be used in the frame of the future dismantling of the Belgonucleaire's MOX plant in Dessel (Belgium), which can be comparable to the Siemen's one. This second (and new) life for the WDC means that it must be rigorously retested and validated against the Belgian authorities requirements. Furthermore, and additionally to the future use in the Belgonucleaire's facility, Tecnubel was faced with new challenges, namely: Assay of 400 l drums together with the 200 l packages; Determination of the real LLD taking into account the background in different Belgian nuclear facilities, the determination of a value of {approx}5 mg {sup 240}Pu{sub eq} being an objective; - Assay of mixed alpha/beta-gamma wastes; Transportability of the WDC from one plant to another; Assistance to different nuclear operators for the licensing of the WDC for their own waste types. This paper describes the installation itself and its performances, presents the difficulties encountered during the new challenge and the results of the performed revalidation tests; it gives the

  20. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  1. Thermal sensing for characterizing the contents of waste storage drums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W. D.; Philipson, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the feasibility to employ remote sensing for the characterization of the contents of liquid chemical waste storage drums. Philipson et al. (1981) had found that, when the air temperature is changing rapidly, differences in the thermal inertia of the drum contents can lead to detectable differences in the skin temperature of the drums. Thus, postsunset, airborne thermal remote sensing could potentially provide some level of discrimination among chemical storage drums. Discrimination should be possible among steel drums filled largely with: (1) aqueous solvents, (2) organic solvents, or (3) clay packing materials. The response of a drum filled with clay packing materials should be similar to that of an empty drum. The reported study had the objective to verify the theoretical findings, taking into account the use of a hand-held infrared radiometer. It was found that under the proper conditions the temperature differences among drums with the three different types of contents will be significant and consistent.

  2. Hanford contact-handled transuranic drum retrieval project planning document

    SciTech Connect

    DEMITER, J.A.

    1998-11-17

    The Hanford Site is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the US that has generated and stored transuranic (TRU) wastes. The wastes were primarily placed in 55-gallon drums, stacked in trenches, and covered with soil. In 1970, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered that TRU wastes be segregated from other radioactive wastes and placed in retrievable storage until such time that the waste could be sent to a geologic repository and permanently disposed. Retrievable storage also defined container storage life by specifying that a container must be retrievable as a contamination-free container for 20 years. Hanford stored approximately 37,400 TRU containers in 20-year retrievable storage from 1970 to 1988. The Hanford TRU wastes placed in 20-year retrievable storage are considered disposed under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations since they were placed in storage prior to September 1988. The majority of containers were 55-gallon drums, but 20-year retrievable storage includes several TRU wastes covered with soil in different storage methods.

  3. Criticality Safety Evaluations on the Use of 200-gram Pu Mass Limit for RHWM Waste Storage Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, P

    2011-12-14

    This work establishes the criticality safety technical basis to increase the fissile mass limit from 120 grams to 200 grams for Type A 55-gallon drums and their equivalents. Current RHWM fissile mass limit is 120 grams Pu for Type A 55-gallon containers and their equivalent. In order to increase the Type A 55-gallon drum limit to 200 grams, a few additional criticality safety control requirements are needed on moderators, reflectors, and array controls to ensure that the 200-gram Pu drums remain criticality safe with inadvertent criticality remains incredible. The purpose of this work is to analyze the use of 200-gram Pu drum mass limit for waste storage operations in Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Facilities. In this evaluation, the criticality safety controls associated with the 200-gram Pu drums are established for the RHWM waste storage operations. With the implementation of these criticality safety controls, the 200-gram Pu waste drum storage operations are demonstrated to be criticality safe and meet the double-contingency-principle requirement per DOE O 420.1.

  4. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1990-10-01

    Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste drums were sampled for gas composition. Glass, metal, graphite, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values were calculated for the waste drums. G(H{sub 2}) was below 0.6 and G(Total) was below 1.3 for all waste forms discussed in this report. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, C.F.,; Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R.,

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  6. A MODULAR STORE FOR DRUMS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.; Holden, G.

    2003-02-27

    Currently, the United Kingdom has no facility for the disposal of any waste above the low level category, indicating that all intermediate and high level waste, apart from spent fuel, has to be stored on the site of origin. To meet this storage requirement, nuclear sites are resorting to converting existing buildings or contemplating the construction of dedicated facilities, resulting in considerable cost implications. These financing aspects not only concern the construction strategy but also impinge on the ultimate decommissioning costs associated with each particular nuclear site. This paper reports on an investigation to apply the commercially available interlocking hollow block system to the design of a store for drums of radioactive waste. This block system can be quickly, and cost effectively, erected and filled with a choice of dense material. Later, the store can be dismantled with a minimum of disposable radioactive waste and the complete facility re - erected at another location if required, considerably reducing both capital construction and decommissioning costs. The investigation also encompassed a detailed review of the equipment required to place the drums of waste into the store, resulting in a scheme for a remotely operated vehicle that did not rely on umbilical control cables. The drum handler design included for 100% redundancy of all functions, meaning that whichever component failed, the handler was always recoverable to effect the necessary repair. The ultimate aim of the waste drum store review was to produce a facility that was as safe as a conventionally constructed unit, but at a lower overall building and decommissioning cost.

  7. 85-GAL DRUM AND NUCFIL-007LS FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    JB WOODBURY

    2009-06-30

    {sm_bullet} 55-gallon drums were overpacked into 85-gallon drums {sm_bullet} ANucFiI-007LS long-stem filter was installed- NucFiI certified the use of NucFiI-007LS filters in 8S-gallon drums as DOT 7AType A - Wood wedges were used during the tests to center and . stabilize the inner 55-gallon drums {sm_bullet} During inspection, afew filters were found to be loose, canted, and/or with RTV seals broken - No contamination or loss of container integrity {sm_bullet} Discovered in November 2008 U.

  8. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    WIT is a self-sufficient mobile semitrailer for nondestructive evaluation and nondestructive assay of nuclear waste drums using x-ray and gamma-ray tomography. The recently completed Phase I included the design, fabrication, and initial testing of all WIT subsystems installed on-board the trailer. Initial test results include 2 MeV digital radiography, computed tomography, Anger camera imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, gamma-ray spectroscopy, collimated gamma scanning, and active and passive computed tomography using a 1.4 mCi source of {sup 166}Ho. These techniques were initially demonstrated on a 55-gallon phantom drum with 3 simulated waste matrices of combustibles, heterogeneous metals, and cement using check sources of gamma active isotopes such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 133}Ba with 9-250 {mu}Ci activities. Waste matrix identification, isotopic identification, and attenuation-corrected gamma activity determination were demonstrated nondestructively and noninvasively in Phase I. Currently ongoing Phase II involves DOE site field test demonstrations at LLNL, RFETS, and INEL with real nuclear waste drums. Current WIT experience includes 55 gallon drums of cement, graphite, sludge, glass, metals, and combustibles. Thus far WIT has inspected drums with 0-20 gms of {sup 239}Pu.

  9. Measurement of the U-235 Content of Concreted Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rackham, J.; Hughes, K.; Oldeide, R.; Sharpe, J.; Morgan, S.

    2008-07-01

    A challenging assay situation recently arose, whereby the fissile (i.e. total plutonium plus U-235) content of a population of 164 historical waste drums containing concrete needed to be measured, to comply with nuclear safety limits for transport to, and interim storage within, an Engineered Drum Store. BIL Solutions Ltd has developed a new methodology for measurement of the U-235 content of these 'concrete' drums, because the approach normally used by the in-situ Drum Monitors was found to be overly pessimistic. Initial investigations indicated significant quantities of uranium were present in these drums (but negligible plutonium), mixed with Np-237 and / or Ra-226. These initial measurements also indicated that the uranium was likely to be depleted in enrichment. The U-235 content was therefore determined by measuring the U-238 mass via the passive coincident neutron emission, and combining this with the U-235 and U-238 isotopic abundances, obtained by analysis of a gamma spectrum. Of the uranium isotopic analysis codes available, the FRAM (Fixed energy, Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies) software was selected as being most suitable for this application. A wide gamma-ray energy range is used (i.e. 120 keV to 1200 keV) which was considered more likely to yield results when there is significant attenuation. The software is also user configurable, enabling interferences from the other radionuclides present (i.e. Np-237 and Ra-226) to be accounted for. A series of test measurements were performed with well-characterised uranium sources attenuated by concrete shielding, to gain confidence in the performance of FRAM under such conditions. These test measurements indicated that FRAM was able to correctly determine the enrichment of heavily shielded uranium. The new U-235 measurement methodology was then applied to the population of concrete drums; successfully yielding U-235 results despite the dense waste matrix and significant interference from

  10. MCNP Modeling Results for Location of Buried TRU Waste Drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D. K.; Schweitzer, J. S.

    2006-05-01

    In the 1960's, fifty-five gallon drums of TRU waste were buried in shallow pits on remote U.S. Government facilities such as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (now split into the Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Completion Project [ICP]). Subsequently, it was decided to remove the drums and the material that was in them from the burial pits and send the material to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Several technologies have been tried to locate the drums non-intrusively with enough precision to minimize the chance for material to be spread into the environment. One of these technologies is the placement of steel probe holes in the pits into which wireline logging probes can be lowered to measure properties and concentrations of material surrounding the probe holes for evidence of TRU material. There is also a concern that large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are also present that would contaminate the environment during removal. In 2001, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) built two pulsed neutron wireline logging tools to measure TRU and VOC around the probe holes. The tools are the Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) and the Pulsed Neutron Gamma (PNG), respectively. They were tested experimentally in surrogate test holes in 2003. The work reported here estimates the performance of the tools using Monte-Carlo modelling prior to field deployment. A MCNP model was constructed by INEEL personnel. It was modified by the authors to assess the ability of the tools to predict quantitatively the position and concentration of TRU and VOC materials disposed around the probe holes. The model was used to simulate the tools scanning the probe holes vertically in five centimetre increments. A drum was included in the model that could be placed near the probe hole and at other locations out to forty-five centimetres from the probe-hole in five centimetre increments. Scans were performed with no chlorine in the

  11. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  12. Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum Venting - Operational Experience and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, Th.L.Jr.; Bhatt, R.N.; Troescher, P.D.; Lattin, W.J.

    2008-07-01

    Remote-handled transuranic (RH TRU) waste drums must be vented to meet transportation and disposal requirement before shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The capability to perform remote venting of drums was developed and implemented at the Idaho National Laboratory. Over 490 drums containing RH TRU waste were successfully vented. Later efforts developed and implemented a long-stem filter to breach inner waste bags, which reduced layers of confinement and mitigated restrictive transportation wattage limits. This paper will provide insight to the technical specifications for the drum venting system, development, and testing activities, startup, operations, and lessons learned. (authors)

  13. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.B.; Harrington, E.S.; Mattus, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) closed two mixed-waste surface impoundments by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage included delisting the stabilized sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as Class 1 radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, {approximately}46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and {approximately}32,000 barrels of unprocessed sludge are stored. The abandoned treatment facility still contains {approximately}16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such storage of mixed waste does not comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) guidelines. This paper describes actions that are under way to bring the storage of {approximately}78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. Remediation of this problem by treatment to meet regulatory requirements is the focus of the discussion. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1994-06-17

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums.

  15. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE`s technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site.

  16. Passive neutron design study for 200-L waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.B.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-09-01

    We have developed a passive neutron counter for the measurement of plutonium in 200-L drums of scrap and waste. The counter incorporates high efficiency for the multiplicity counting in addition to the traditional coincidence counting. The {sup 252}Cf add-a-source feature is used to provide an accurate assay over a wide range of waste matrix materials. The room background neutron rate is reduced by using 30 cm of external polyethylene shielding and the cosmic-ray background is reduced by statistical filtering techniques. Monte Carlo Code calculations were used to determine the optimum detector design, including the gas pressure, size, number, and placement of the {sup 3}He tubes in the moderator. Various moderators, including polyethylene, plastics, teflon, and graphite, were evaluated to obtain the maximum efficiency and minimum detectable mass of plutonium.

  17. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - HANDSS-55 TRANSURANIC WASTE REPACKAGING MODULE

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-08-31

    The Transuranic waste generated at the Savannah River Site from nuclear weapons research, development, and production is currently estimated to be over 10,000 cubic meters. Over half of this amount is stored in 55-gallon drums. The waste in drums is primarily job control waste and equipment generated as the result of routine maintenance performed on the plutonium processing operations. Over the years that the drums have been accumulating, the regulatory definitions of materials approved for disposal have changed. Consequently, many of the drums now contain items that are not approved for disposal at DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The HANDSS-55 technology is being developed to allow remote sorting of the items in these drums and then repackaging of the compliant items for disposal at WIPP.

  18. Modeling unsteady-state VOC transport in simulated waste drums. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Gresham, G.L.; Peterson, E.S.; Rae, C.; Hotz, N.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a revision of an EG&G Idaho informal report originally titled Modeling VOC Transport in Simulated Waste Drums. A volatile organic compound (VOC) transport model has been developed to describe unsteady-state VOC permeation and diffusion within a waste drum. Model equations account for three primary mechanisms for VOC transport from a void volume within the drum. These mechanisms are VOC permeation across a polymer boundary, VOC diffusion across an opening in a volume boundary, and VOC solubilization in a polymer boundary. A series of lab-scale experiments was performed in which the VOC concentration was measured in simulated waste drums under different conditions. A lab-scale simulated waste drum consisted of a sized-down 55-gal metal drum containing a modified rigid polyethylene drum liner. Four polyethylene bags were sealed inside a large polyethylene bag, supported by a wire cage, and placed inside the drum liner. The small bags were filled with VOC-air gas mixture and the VOC concentration was measured throughout the drum over a period of time. Test variables included the type of VOC-air gas mixtures introduced into the small bags, the small bag closure type, and the presence or absence of a variable external heat source. Model results were calculated for those trials where the permeability had been measured.

  19. Validation testing of radioactive waste drum filter vents

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.D.; Rahimi, R.S.; Edling, D.

    1997-08-01

    The minimum requirements for Drum Filter Vents (DFVs) can be met by demonstrating conformance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Trupact II Safety Assessment Report (SAR), and conformance with U.S. Federal shipping regulations 49 CFR 178.350, DOT Spec 7A, for Type A packages. These together address a number of safety related performance parameters such as hydrogen diffusivity, flow related pressure drop, filtration efficiency and, separately, mechanical stability and the ability to prevent liquid water in-leakage. In order to make all metal DFV technology (including metallic filter medium) available to DOE sites, Pall launched a product development program to validate an all metal design to meet these requirements. Numerous problems experienced by DOE sites in the past came to light during this development program. They led us to explore enhancements to DFV design and performance testing addressing these difficulties and concerns. The result is a patented all metal DFV certified to all applicable regulatory requirements, which for the first time solves operational and health safety problems reported by DOE site personnel but not addressed by previous DFV`s. The new technology facilitates operations (such as manual, automated and semi-automated drum handling/redrumming), sampling, on-site storage, and shipping. At the same time, it upgrades filtration efficiency in configurations documented to maintain filter efficiency following mechanical stress. 2 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  1. Thermal analysis of the 10-gallon and the 55-gallon DOT-6M containers with thermal boundary conditions corresponding to 10CFR71 normal transport and accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L.C.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Moss, M.; Haseman, G.M.; Fowler, W.E.; Roth, E.P.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the heat transfer analysis of the 10-gallon and 55-gallon 6M containers. The analysis was performed with boundary conditions corresponding to a normal transport condition and a hypothetical accident condition. Computational results indicated that the insulation material in the 6M containers will adequately protect the payload region of the 6M containers. 26 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums - an interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-09-01

    A test program is underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine if the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the drum headspace is representative of the VOC concentration in the entire drum void space and to demonstrate that the VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. An experimental test plan was developed requiring gas sampling of 66 transuranic (TRU) waste drums. This interim report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions of VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement from waste drums sampled and analyzed in FY 1994.

  3. Limitation of tritium outgassing from tritiated solid waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Liger, K.; Trabuc, P.; Lefebvre, X.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C.

    2015-03-15

    In the framework of the development of fusion thermonuclear reactors, tritiated solid waste is foreseen and will have to be managed. The management of tritiated waste implies limitations in terms of activity and tritium degassing. The degassing tritium can be under the form of tritiated hydrogen, tritiated water and, in some specific cases, negligible amount of tritiated volatile organic compound. Hence, considering the major forms of degassing tritium, CEA has developed a mixed-compound dedicated to tritium trapping in drums. Based on several experiments, the foreseen mixed compound is composed of MnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 2}O, Pt and molecular sieve, the three first species having the ability to convert tritiated hydrogen into tritiated water and the last one acting as a trap for tritiated water. To assess the performance of the trapping mixture, experimental tests were performed at room temperature on tritiated dust composed of beryllium and carbon. It was shown that the metallic oxides mixture used for tritiated hydrogen conversion is efficient and that tritiated water adsorption was limited due to an inefficient regeneration of the molecular sieve prior to its use. Apart from this point, the tritium release from waste was reduced by a factor of 5.5, which can be improved up to 87 if the adsorption step is efficient.

  4. L AREA WASTEWATER STORAGE DRUM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P; Cynthia Foreman, C; Zane Nelson, Z; David Hathcock, D; Dennis Vinson, D

    2007-11-30

    This report documents the determination of the cause of pressurization that led to bulging deformation of a 55 gallon wastewater drum stored in L-Area. Drum samples were sent to SRNL for evaluation. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  5. Waste drum gas generation sampling program at Rocky Flats during FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Roggenthen, D.K.; McFeeters, T.L.; Nieweg, R.G.

    1991-02-11

    Rocky Flats Plant Transuranic Waste Drums were sampled for gas composition. Combustibles, plastics, Raschig rings, solidified organic sludge, and solidified inorganic sludge transuranic waste forms were sampled. Plastic bag material and waste samples were also taken from some solidified sludge waste drums. A vacuum system was used to sample each layer of containment inside a waste drum, including individual waste bags. G values (gas generation) were calculated for the waste drums. Analytical results indicate that very low concentrations of potentially flammable or corrosive gas mixtures will be found in vented drums. G(H{sub 2}) was usually below 1.6, while G(Total) was below 4.0. Hydrogen permeability tests on different types of plastic waste bags used at Rocky Flats were also conducted. Polyvinylchloride was slightly more permeable to hydrogen than polyethylene for new or creased material. Permeability of aged material to hydrogen was slightly higher than for new material. Solidified organic and inorganic sludges were sampled for volatile organics. The analytical results from two drums of solidified organic sludges showed concentrations were above detection limits for four of the 36 volatile organics analyzed. The analytical results for four of the five solidified inorganic sludges show that concentrations were below detection limits for all volatile organics analyzed. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox operational test report

    SciTech Connect

    Kersten, J.K.

    1998-02-19

    The Low Level Waste (LLW) Process Gloveboxes are designed to: receive a 55 gallon drum in an 85 gallon overpack in the Entry glovebox (GBIOI); and open and sort the waste from the 55 gallon drum, place the waste back into drum and relid in the Sorting glovebox (GB 102). In addition, waste which requires further examination is transferred to the LLW RWM Glovebox via the Drath and Schraeder Bagiess Transfer Port (DO-07-201) or sent to the Sample Transfer Port (STC); crush the drum in the Supercompactor glovebox (GB 104); place the resulting puck (along with other pucks) into another 85 gallon overpack in the Exit glovebox (GB 105). The status of the waste items is tracked by the Data Management System (DMS) via the Plant Control System (PCS) barcode interface. As an item is moved from the entry glovebox to the exit glovebox, the Operator will track an items location using a barcode reader and enter any required data on the DMS console. The Operational Test Procedure (OTP) will perform evolution`s (described below) using the Plant Operating Procedures (POP) in order to verify that they are sufficient and accurate for controlled glovebox operation.

  7. Identification of the fast and thermal neutron characteristics of transuranic waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, B.H. Jr.; Bramblett, R.L.; Hensley, C.

    1997-11-01

    Fissile and spontaneously fissioning material in transuranic waste drums can be most sensitively assayed using an active and passive neutron assay system such as the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay. Both the active and the passive assays are distorted by the presence of the waste matrix and containerization. For accurate assaying, this distortion must be characterized and accounted for. An External Matrix Probe technique has been developed that accomplishes this task. Correlations between in-drum neutron flux measurements and monitors in the Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay chamber with various matrix materials provide a non-invasive means of predicting the thermal neutron flux in waste drums. Similarly, measures of the transmission of fast neutrons emitted from sources in the drum. Results obtained using the Lockheed Martin Specialty Components Active Passive Neutron Examination and Assay system are discussed. 12 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Harry E.; Roberson, G. Patrick; Hollerbach, Karin; Logan, Clinton M.; Ashby, Elaine; Bernardi, Richard

    1999-12-02

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have seen increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed, 1.) Our computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. 2.) We are developing NDE and NDA techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  9. Computed tomography of human joints and radioactive waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, E; Bernardi, R; Hollerbach, K; Logan, C; Martz, H; Roberson, G P

    1999-06-01

    X- and gamma-ray imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and assay (NDA) have been increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications. Much of this growth in recent years is attributed to the rapid development of computed tomography (CT) and the use of NDE throughout the life-cycle of a product. Two diverse examples of CT are discussed. (1) The computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic human joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data from scanned joints are segmented, resulting in the identification of bone and other tissues of interest, with emphasis on the articular surfaces. (2) They are developing NDE and NDE techniques to analyze closed waste drums accurately and quantitatively. Active and passive computed tomography (A and PCT) is a comprehensive and accurate gamma-ray NDA method that can identify all detectable radioisotopes present in a container and measure their radioactivity.

  10. Comparison exercise on activity determination of radioactive waste drums in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wei-Han; Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2016-03-01

    The National Radiation Standard Laboratory of Taiwan organized in 2014 a comparison exercise by distributing 210 L drum-typed samples to seven radioactive waste analysis laboratories in Taiwan. Four drums were filled with uniformly distributed active carbon, water, resin and concrete, respectively and five drums were filled with cracked metals and heterogeneously distributed radioactive sources. Measurement uncertainties of participants results are in the range 3–40% (k=2) and about 96% of the reported results produced En values (ISO, 1997) smaller than one for drums with activity uniformly distributed. The minimum discrepancies, expressed as Bi values (ISO, 1997), of drums with heterogeneously distributed 137Cs and 60Co were 0.34 and 0.17, respectively. PMID:27358943

  11. Results for the Independent Sampling and Analysis of Used Oil Drums at the Impact Services Facility in Oak Ridge, TN

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), via the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, perform independent sampling and analysis of used oils contained within eight 55 gallon drums stored at the former IMPACT Services facility, located at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These drums were originally delivered by LATA Sharp Remediation Services (LSRS) to IMPACT Services on January 11, 2011 as part of the Bldg. K-33 demolition project, and the drums plus contents should have been processed as non-hazardous non-radiological waste by IMPACT Services. LSRS received a certificate of destruction on August 29, 2012 (LSRS 2012a). However, IMPACT Services declared bankruptcy and abandoned the site later in 2012, and eight of the original eleven K-33 drums are currently stored at the facility. The content of these drums is the subject of this investigation. The original drum contents were sampled by LSRS in 2010 and analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), using both compositing and grab sampling techniques. The objective of this 2013 sample and analysis effort was to duplicate, to the extent possible, the 2010 sampling and analysis event to support final disposition decisions. Part of that decision process includes either verifying or refuting the assertion that oils that are currently stored in drums at the IMPACT Services facility originated from Bldg. K-33 equipment.

  12. Response to requests by FMF and DWPF concerning disposal of FMF saltstone drums in Z-Area vaults

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1989-07-25

    Disposal of FMF saltstone in 55 gallon drums in the Z-Area Industrial Waste Landfill requires modification of the landfill permit. Approximately 5000 drums of FMF saltstone are currently stored on SC DHEC-permitted concrete storage pads adjacent to the burial ground. At a meeting with DWPF, FMF, and EPS on July 18, 1989, IWT agreed to supply the following information: (1) Consequence of disposal of CCA (Cu, Cr, As) treated wood pallets in the Z-Area vaults. (Four drums of FMF saltstone are currently banded to each pallet.) (2) Consequence of placing partially filled FMF drums in the Z-Area vaults. (3) Formulation for clean grout back-fill. Grout will be emplaced around and over the drums, thereby isolating them from environment (rainwater) prior to vault capping. (4) Maximum loading of FMF saltstone drums in the Z-Area vaults. (5) Consequence of void volume in drums, in clean grout, or both on groundwater modeling results. This document is a response to the above requests.

  13. Development and evaluation of a neutron-photon shield for transuranic waste containers.

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R. J.; Castro, J. M.; Huchton, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Operational Health Physics Group in conjunction with the Nuclear Materials Technology Division Waste Management Group has developed a wraparound shield for use with 55-gallon (0.208 cubic meter) drums containing transuranic (TRU) waste. The shield or 'drum cover' as it is called, is innovative in its ability to shield both neutron and gamma photons associated with TRU waste. The shielding materials are comprised of a 0.275-inch (7mm) thick sheet of borated polyurethane for neutrons, and two sheets of composite lead vinyl fabric (equivalent to 0.35 mm of lead) for shielding photons. The drum covers have proven their relative effectiveness. Shielding tests have shown that the drum covers are highly effective in attenuating photons and are somewhat effective for shielding neutrons. Total (neutron and photon) radiation reduction for actual TRU drurns has been as high as 87%.

  14. Evaluation of a neutron-photon shield for transuranic (TRU) waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R. J.; Gallegos, M.; Ruby, R.; Sullivan, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Operational Health Physics Group, with the support of the Nuclear Materials Technology Waste Management Group, has developed a wrap-around shield for use with 0.208 cubic meter (55 gallon) drums containing transuranic (TRU) waste. The shield or 'drum cover' as it is called, is innovative in its ability to attenuate both neutron and photon radiation associated with TRU waste. This poster presents information on the design, fabrication and field use of the drum cover. Design details to be presented include the composition of the shield including the materials used, thicknesses, weight, dimensions and fastener arrangement. Information on the source supplier for the shield materials, the fabrication vendor and the drum cover cost are provided. Shielding data show the unique effectiveness of the drum cover and its ability to reduce neutron and photon radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). These data include x-ray testing of the assembled shield materials, as well as field experience report on the drum cover using TRU waste containers and neutron source drums. The poster includes discussion and photographs of recent field uses for the drum cover, user experience and acceptance of the drum cover and suggestions for future use and enhancement of the drum cover design.

  15. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... where they are subject to open flame, hot metal, or other sources of artificial heat. (d) Unless pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  16. ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL WASTE CONFIGURATIONS AT THE SRS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, V; Raymond Dewberry, R

    2007-05-14

    Job Control Waste (JCW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) Solid Waste Management Facilities (SWMF) may be disposed of in special containers, and the analysis of these containers requires developing specific analysis methodologies. A method has been developed for the routine assay of prohibited items (liquids, etc.) contained in a 30-gallon drum that is then placed into a 55-gallon drum. Method development consisted of system calibration with a NIST standard at various drum-to-detector distances, method verification with a liquid sample containing a known amount of Pu-238, and modeling the inner container using Ortec Isotopic software. Using this method for measurement of the known standard in the drum-in-drum configuration produced excellent agreement (within 15%) with the known value. Savannah River Site Solid Waste Management also requested analysis of waste contained in large black boxes (commonly 18-feet x 12-feet x 7-feet) stored at the SWMF. These boxes are frequently stored in high background areas and background radiation must be considered for each analysis. A detection limit of less than 150 fissile-gram-equivalents (FGE) of TRU waste is required for the black-box analyses. There is usually excellent agreement for the measurements at different distances and measurement uncertainties of about 50% are obtained at distances of at least twenty feet from the box. This paper discusses the experimental setup, analysis and data evaluation for drum-in-drum and black box waste configurations at SRS.

  17. A computer model of gas generation and transport within TRU waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. III

    1988-06-01

    A computer model has been developed to predict radiolytic gas generation and transport within Transuranic (TRU) waste drums and surrounding enclosures. Gas generation from the radiolytic decomposition of organic material contaminated with plutonium is modeled and the concentrations of gas throughout the waste drum and enclosures are determined using a diffusional transport model. The model accurately reproduces experimentally measured gas concentrations. With polyethylene waste in unvented drums, the model predicts that the concentration of hydrogen gas can exceed 4 mole percent (lower flammable limit) with only about 5 curies of plutonium. If the drum liner is punctured and an unrestricted 0.75-in. carbon composite filter vent is installed in the drum lid, the plutonium loading can be increased to 240 Ci without generating flammable gas mixtures. Larger diameter filters can be used to increase the curie loading. The model has been used to show that shipments of 1000 Ci of plutonium-238 contaminated waste from Savannah River to the WIPP site are feasible using the TRUPACT shipping container. 10 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Application of remote Raman screening to processing of mixed wastes in drums

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, B.A.; Jewett, J.R.; Parker, K.E.; Petersen, C.A.

    1993-02-01

    Disposal of transuranic and low-level drum waste involves decisions based on transportation restrictions, Waste Isolation Pilot Project - Waste Acceptance Criteria, and regulation resulting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the Washington State Department of Ecology. To support the decisions made concerning final disposition of these wastes, characterization protocols must be established that ultimately aid in defining the environmental impact. Under current methods, Intensive and expensive laboratory analyses are requested to support these decisions. Alternative screening analyses have been investigated to support characterization and reduce costs and sample turn-around times. One promising screening technique involves application of remote Raman spectroscopy for identification of unknown salts, sludges, and solids in wastes. Raman spectroscopy when used with real-time radiography and visual documentation expands the information base available for making real-time decisions for treatment of diverse drummed radioactive solid waste in a waste processing facility. Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy has been successfully employed to identify oxidizing reagent waste solutions disposed on vermiculite. In addition, it has been proven that low concentrations of material in binary salt mixtures can be detected by using fiber optic remote Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy. Development of an extensive solid waste libraryis a key element in the deployment of this technology in the process environment of solid waste drums and barrels.

  19. Nondestructive characterization of radioactive waste drums by gamma spectrometry: a Monte Carlo technique for efficiency calibration.

    PubMed

    Tzika, Faidra; Savidou, Anastasia; Stamatelatos, Ion E

    2007-11-01

    A semi-empirical non-destructive technique to assay radioactive waste drums is presented. The technique is based on gamma spectrometry performed using a portable NaI detector and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNP code in order to derive the gamma ray detector efficiency for the volume source. The derivation of detector efficiency was performed assuming homogeneous distribution of the source activity within the matrix material. Moreover, the MCNP model was used to examine the effect of inhomogeneities in activity distribution, variation of matrix material density, and drum filling height on the accuracy of the technique, and to estimate the measurement bias. The technique was verified by estimating radioactivity levels in 25 drums containing ion exchange resin waste, and comparing the results of the non-destructive method against the analytical results of samples obtained from each drum. Satisfactory agreement between the two assay techniques was observed. The discussed technique represents a cost effective technology that can be used to assay low-activity, low-density waste drums provided the contribution to the gamma ray spectrum can be resolved. PMID:18049246

  20. Reconstruction of the isotope activity content of heterogeneous nuclear waste drums.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2012-07-01

    Radioactive waste must be characterized in order to verify its conformance with national regulations for intermediate storage or its disposal. Segmented gamma scanning (SGS) is a most widely applied non-destructive analytical technique for the characterization of radioactive waste drums. The isotope specific activity content is generally calculated assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution for each measured drum segment. However, real radioactive waste drums exhibit non-uniform isotope and density distributions most affecting the reliability and accuracy of activities reconstruction in SGS. The presence of internal shielding structures in the waste drum contributes generally to a strong underestimation of the activity and this in particular for radioactive sources emitting low energy gamma-rays independently of their spatial distribution. In this work we present an improved method to quantify the activity of spatially concentrated gamma-emitting isotopes (point sources or hot spots) in heterogeneous waste drums with internal shielding structures. The isotope activity is reconstructed by numerical simulations and fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution recorded during the drum rotation in SGS using an analytical expression derived from a geometric model. First results of the improved method and enhancements of this method are shown and are compared to each other as well as to the conventional method which assumes a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. It is shown that the new model improves the accuracy and the reliability of the activity reconstruction in SGS and that the presented algorithm is suitable with respect to the framework requirement of industrial application. PMID:22134026

  1. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  2. Characterization Studies of Radioactive Waste Drums Using High Resolution Gamma Spectrometric Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, M.; Cristache, C.; Done, L.; Dragolici, F.; Sima, O.

    2010-01-21

    The problem of radioactive waste has become a critical issue in the country and worldwide. The radioactive waste containers, containing different radioactive materials, have to be characterized before their final disposal. Destructive methods, although being the most precise, are also the most expensive and not the easiest ones from the radioprotection point of view. In this situation, high resolution gamma spectrometry proved to be a reliable method for the non destructive assay method. However, the non-homogenous composition of the radioactive waste inside the drum makes the quantitative characterization of the radioactive waste drum a difficult task. Experimental studies and computed results, combined with Monte Carlo simulations using GESPECOR, are presented in this paper as a possibility to achieve this task.

  3. Confirming criticality safety of TRU waste with neutron measurements and risk analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.; Hochel, R.D.

    1992-04-01

    The criticality safety of {sup 239}Pu in 55-gallon drums stored in TRU waste containers (culverts) is confirmed using NDA neutron measurements and risk analyses. The neutron measurements yield a {sup 239}Pu mass and k{sub eff} for a culvert, which contains up to 14 drums. Conservative probabilistic risk analyses were developed for both drums and culverts. Overall {sup 239}Pu mass estimates are less than a calculated safety limit of 2800 g per culvert. The largest measured k{sub eff} is 0.904. The largest probability for a critical drum is 6.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and that for a culvert is 1.72 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}. All examined suspect culverts, totaling 118 in number, are appraised as safe based on these observations.

  4. Confirming criticality safety of TRU waste with neutron measurements and risk analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.; Hochel, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The criticality safety of {sup 239}Pu in 55-gallon drums stored in TRU waste containers (culverts) is confirmed using NDA neutron measurements and risk analyses. The neutron measurements yield a {sup 239}Pu mass and k{sub eff} for a culvert, which contains up to 14 drums. Conservative probabilistic risk analyses were developed for both drums and culverts. Overall {sup 239}Pu mass estimates are less than a calculated safety limit of 2800 g per culvert. The largest measured k{sub eff} is 0.904. The largest probability for a critical drum is 6.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and that for a culvert is 1.72 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}. All examined suspect culverts, totaling 118 in number, are appraised as safe based on these observations.

  5. Design of benign matrix drums for the non-destructive assay performance demonstration program for the National TRU Program

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    Regulatory compliance programs associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) require the collection of waste characterization data of known quality to support repository performance assessment, permitting, and associated activities. Blind audit samples, referred to as PDP (performance demonstration program) samples, are devices used in the NDA PDP program to acquire waste NDA system performance data per defined measurement routines. As defined under the current NDA PDP Program Plan, a PDP sample consists of a DOT 17C 55-gallon PDP matrix drum configured with insertable radioactive standards, working reference materials (WRMs). The particular manner in which the matrix drum and PDP standard(s) are combined is a function of the waste NDA system performance test objectives of a given cycle. The scope of this document is confined to the design of the PDP drum radioactive standard internal support structure, the matrix type and the as installed configuration. The term benign is used to designate a matrix possessing properties which are nominally non-interfering to waste NDA measurement techniques. Measurement interference sources are technique specific but include attributes such as: high matrix density, heterogeneous matrix distributions, matrix compositions containing high moderator/high Z element concentrations, etc. To the extent practicable the matrix drum design should not unduly bias one NDA modality over another due to the manner in which the matrix drum configuration manifests itself to the measurement system. To this end the PDP matrix drum configuration and composition detailed below is driven primarily by the intent to minimize the incorporation of matrix attributes known to interfere with fundamental waste NDA modalities, i.e. neutron and gamma based techniques.

  6. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums containing cemented intermediate level nuclear wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, Gustavo S.; Farina, Silvia B.; Schulz, Fátima M.; Marotta, Francesca

    2010-10-01

    Cementation processes are used as immobilization techniques for low or intermediate level radioactive waste for economical and safety reasons and for being a simple operation. In particular, ion-exchange resins commonly used for purification of radioactive liquid waste from nuclear reactors are immobilized before being stored to improve the leach resistance of the waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability. Combustible solid radioactive waste can be incinerated and the resulting ashes can also be immobilized before storage. The immobilized resins and ashes are then contained in steel drums that may undergo corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The work described in this paper was aimed at evaluating the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins and incineration ashes containing different concentrations of aggressive species (mostly chloride and sulphate ions). A special type of specimen was designed to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 1 year. The results show the deleterious effect of chloride on the expected lifespan of the waste containers.

  7. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE SOLIDIFICATION CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2009-06-01

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Programs Design Authority is in the design stage of the Waste Solidification Building (WSB) for the treatment and solidification of the radioactive liquid waste streams generated by the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The waste streams will be mixed with a cementitious dry mix in a 55-gallon waste container. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been performing the testing and evaluations to support technical decisions for the WSB. Engineering Modeling & Simulation Group was requested to evaluate the thermal performance of the 55-gallon drum containing hydration heat source associated with the current baseline cement waste form. A transient axi-symmetric heat transfer model for the drum partially filled with waste form cement has been developed and heat transfer calculations performed for the baseline design configurations. For this case, 65 percent of the drum volume was assumed to be filled with the waste form, which has transient hydration heat source, as one of the baseline conditions. A series of modeling calculations has been performed using a computational heat transfer approach. The baseline modeling results show that the time to reach the maximum temperature of the 65 percent filled drum is about 32 hours when a 43 C initial cement temperature is assumed to be cooled by natural convection with 27 C external air. In addition, the results computed by the present model were compared with analytical solutions. The modeling results will be benchmarked against the prototypic test results. The verified model will be used for the evaluation of the thermal performance for the WSB drum. Detailed results and the cases considered in the calculations will be discussed here.

  8. Nuclear waste calorimeter for very large drums with 385 litres sample volume

    SciTech Connect

    Jossens, G.; Mathonat, C.; Bachelet, F.

    2015-03-15

    Calorimetry is a very precise and well adapted tool for the classification of drums containing nuclear waste material depending on their level of activities (low, medium, high). A new calorimeter has been developed by SETARAM Instrumentation and the CEA Valduc in France. This new calorimeter is designed for drums having a volume bigger than 100 liters. It guarantees high operator safety by optimizing drum handling and air circulation for cooling, and optimized software for direct measurement of the quantity of nuclear material. The LVC1380 calorimeter makes it possible to work over the range 10 to 3000 mW, which corresponds to approximately 0.03 to 10 g of tritium or 3 to 955 g of {sup 241}Pu in a volume up to 385 liters. This calorimeter is based on the heat flow measurement using Peltier elements which surround the drum in the 3 dimensions and therefore measure all the heat coming from the radioactive stuff whatever its position inside the drum. Calorimeter's insulating layers constitute a thermal barrier designed to filter disturbances until they represent less than 0.001 Celsius degrees and to eliminate long term disturbances associated, for example, with laboratory temperature variations between day and night. A calibration device based on Joule effect has also been designed. Measurement time has been optimized but remains long compared with other methods of measurement such as gamma spectrometry but its main asset is to have a good accuracy for low level activities.

  9. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at...

  10. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at...

  11. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at...

  12. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at...

  13. 40 CFR 264.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must... CFR parts 173, 178, and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container for the waste... container (49 CFR parts 178 and 179) of no more than 416-liter (110 gallon) capacity and surrounded by, at...

  14. Leachate migration from a pesticide waste disposal site in Hardeman County, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprinkle, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Between 1964 and 1972, approximately 300,000 drums (55-gallon steel barrels) of waste derived from the manufacturing of pesticides were buried on 45 acres of land in northern Hardemen County, Tennessee. Leachates from these wastes are migrating from the disposal site in surface runoff, through shallow perched water zones, and through the local water-table aquifer. Compounds identified in the leachates included: dieldrin, endrin , chlordene, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, pentachlorocyclopentadiene, and hexachloro-bicycloheptadiene. The rate of migration of some of the leachate compounds in the water-table aquifer was found to be at least 80 feet per year. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. APPLICATION OF NONSPHERICAL FISSILE CONFIGURATION IN WASTE CONTAINERS AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2007-01-03

    Transuranic (TRU) solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes the application of nonspherical fissile material configuration in waste containers, resulting in less restrictive mass and spacing limits, increased storage capacity, and several administrative controls for handling and storage of waste containers being modified without compromising safety.

  16. Corrosion of steel drums containing cemented ion-exchange resins as intermediate level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Schulz, F. M.

    2013-07-01

    Exhausted ion-exchange resins used in nuclear reactors are immobilized by cementation before being stored. They are contained in steel drums that may undergo internal corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The objective of this work is to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins with different aggressive species. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, and the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored for 900 days. Results show that the cementation of ion-exchange resins seems not to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums. The corrosion rate of the steel in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins in the absence of contaminants or in the presence of 2.3 wt.% sulphate content remains low (less than 0.1 μm/year) during the whole period of the study (900 days). The presence of chloride ions increases the corrosion rate of the steel at the beginning of the exposure but, after 1 year, the corrosion rate drops abruptly reaching a value close to 0.1 μm/year. This is probably due to the lack of water to sustain the corrosion process. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years, it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. Cementation of ion-exchange resins does not seem to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums that contained them; even in the case the matrix is highly contaminated with chloride ions.

  17. In-drum vitrification of transuranic waste sludge using microwave energy

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Microwave vitrification of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant is being tested using actual TRU waste in a bench-scale system and simulated waste in a pilot system. In 1987, bench-scale testing was completed to determine the effectiveness of in-drum microwave vitrification of simulated precipitation sludge. The equipment used in the bench tests included a 6-kW, 2.45-GHz microwave generator, aluminum cavity, turntable, infrared (IR) thermometer, and screw feeder. Results similar to those achieved in bench-scale testing are reproducible using a 915-MHz microwave system in solidifying simulated TRU sludge. Nine samples have been processed to date. Also, preliminary results using actual TRU waste indicate that the actual waste will behave in a similar way to the surrogate waste used in the 2.45-GHz system. Work is ongoing to complete the TRU waste tests.

  18. In-drum vitrification of transuranium waste sludge using microwave energy

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.D.; Johnson, A.J. . Rocky Flats Plant)

    1989-01-01

    Microwave vitrification of transuranic (TRU) waste at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant is being tested using actual TRU waste in a bench scale system and simulated waste in a pilot system. In 1987, bench scale testing was completed to determine the effectiveness of in drum microwave vitrification of simulated precipitation sludge. The equivalent used in the bench tests included a 6KW, 2.45 GHz microwave generator, aluminum cavity, turntable, infrared (IR) thermometer and screwfeeder. Passive chokes were added to the cavity for mounting the IR thermometer and screwfeeder.

  19. A prototype of radioactive waste drum monitor by non-destructive assays using gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Tran Thien; Trang, Hoang Thi Kieu; Chuong, Huynh Dinh; Nguyen, Vo Hoang; Tran, Le Bao; Tam, Hoang Duc; Tao, Chau Van

    2016-03-01

    In this work, segmented gamma scanning and the gamma emission tomography were used to locate unknown sources in a radioactive waste drum. The simulated detector response function and full energy peak efficiency are compared to corresponding experimental data and show about 5.3% difference for an energy ranging from 81keV to 1332.5keV for point sources. Computation of the corresponding activity is in good agreement with the true values. PMID:26717796

  20. Simultaneous Thermal Analysis of WIPP and LANL Waste Drum Samples: A Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, David M.

    2015-10-19

    On Friday, February 14, 2014, an incident in P7R7 of the WIPP underground repository released radioactive material into the environment. The direct cause of the event was a breached transuranic (TRU) waste container, subsequently identified as Drum 68660. Photographic and other evidence indicates that the breach of 68660 was caused by an exothermic event. Subsequent investigations (Britt, 2015; Clark and Funk, 2015; Wilson et al., 2015; Clark, 2015) indicate that the combination of nitrate salts, pH neutralizing chemicals, and organic-based adsorbent represented a potentially energetic mixture. The materials inside the breached steel drum consisted of remediated, 30- to 40-year old, Pu processing wastes from LANL. The contents were processed and repackaged in 2014. Processing activities at LANL included: 1) neutralization of acidic liquid contents, 2) sorption of the neutralized liquid, and 3) mixing of acidic nitrate salts with an absorber to meet waste acceptance criteria. The contents of 68660 and its sibling, 68685, were derived from the same parent drum, S855793. Drum S855793 originally contained ten plastic bags of acidic nitrate salts, and four bags of mixed nitrate and oxalate salts generated in 1985 by Pu recovery operations. These salts were predominantly oxalic acid, hydrated nitrate salts of Mg, Ca, and Fe, anhydrous Na(NO3), and minor amounts of anhydrous and hydrous nitrate salts of Pb, Al, K, Cr, and Ni. Other major components include sorbed water, nitric acid, dissolved nitrates, an absorbent (Swheat Scoop®) and a neutralizer (KolorSafe®). The contents of 68660 are described in greater detail in Appendix E of Wilson et al. (2015)

  1. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums to be used as containers for intermediate level nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, S.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.; Duffó, G.

    2013-07-01

    The present work is a study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different types and concentrations of aggressive species. A special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented ion-exchange resins in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 900 days. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The work was complemented with an analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition, as well as the morphology of the corrosion products. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drumscontaining the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina) , it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums.

  2. A Review of the Different Methods to Quantify Tritium Inside Waste Drums via Helium-3 Mass Spectrometric Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Demange, D.; Varescon, M.; Le Gal, P.; Daclin, J.P.; Hubinois, J.C.; Douche, C.; Lattaud, C

    2005-07-15

    This work deals with an indirect and non destructive measurement of tritium in solids. Instead of measuring tritium, we propose to measure the production rate of the decay product: {sup 3}He.The amount of tritium enclosed inside a waste drum can be determined with an adapted {sup 3}He ingrowth method that takes into account the leak rate of the drum. The model leads to different ways to quantify tritium in the drum. It is confirmed using reference drums that measuring the {sup 3}He leak by confining the drum during its equilibrium state gives the same result as sampling the drum atmosphere at the beginning of the storage. For each method, the appropriate apparatus, experimental procedures and calculation of tritium activity from mass spectrometric {sup 3}He measurements are detailed. Performances of these techniques are studied and discussed.In addition, we describe a novel and fully automated apparatus based on the confinement method that makes it possible to achieve a close tritium inventory of all the waste drums stored or produced at CEA Valduc.

  3. Pre-title I safety evaluation for the retrieval operations of transuranic waste drums in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, M.S.

    1992-08-01

    Phase I of the Transuranic (TRU) Waste Facility Line Item Project includes the retrieval and safe storage of the pad drums that are stored on TRU pads 2-6 in the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF). Drums containing TRU waste were placed on these pads as early as 1974. The pads, once filled, were mounded with soil. The retrieval activities will include the excavation of the soil, retrieval of the pad drums, placing the drums in overpacks (if necessary) and venting and purging the retrieved drums. Once the drums have been vented and purged, they will be transported to other pads within the SWDF or in a designated area until they are eventually treated as necessary for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This safety evaluation provides a bounding assessment of the radiological risk involved with the drum retrieval activities to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker. The results of the analysis indicate that the risk to the maximally exposed offsite individual and the co-located worker using maximum frequencies and maximum consequences are within the acceptance criteria defined in WSRC Procedural Manual 9Q. The purpose of this evaluation is to demonstrate the incremental risk from the SWDF due to the retrieval activities for use as design input only. As design information becomes available, this evaluation can be revised to satisfy the safety analysis requirements of DOE Orders 4700 and 5480.23.

  4. Pipe overpack container for trasuranic waste storage and shipment

    DOEpatents

    Geinitz, Richard R.; Thorp, Donald T.; Rivera, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A Pipe Overpack Container for transuranic waste storage and shipment. The system consists of a vented pipe component which is positioned in a vented, insulated 55 gallon steel drum. Both the vented pipe component and the insulated drum are capable of being secured to prevent the contents from leaving the vessel. The vented pipe component is constructed of 1/4 inch stainless steel to provide radiation shielding. Thus, allowing shipment having high Americium-241 content. Several Pipe Overpack Containers are then positioned in a type B, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved, container. In the current embodiment, a TRUPACT-II container was employed and a maximum of fourteen Pipe Overpack Containers were placed in the TRUPACT-II. The combination received NRC approval for the shipment and storage of transuranic waste.

  5. Maximum likelihood estimation with poisson (counting) statistics for waste drum inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.

    1997-05-01

    This note provides a preliminary look at the issues involved in waste drum inspection when emission levels are so low that central limit theorem arguments do not apply and counting statistics, rather than the usual Gaussian assumption, must be considered. At very high count rates the assumption of Gaussian statistics is reasonable, and the maximum likelihood arguments that we discuss below for low count rates would lead to the usual approach of least squares fits. Least squares is not the the best technique for low counts, and we will develop the maximum likelihood estimators for the low count case.

  6. Geometric matrix research for nuclear waste drum tomographic gamma scanning transmission image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Zhao; Tuo, Xian-Guo

    2015-06-01

    A geometric matrix model of nuclear waste drums is proposed for transmission image reconstruction from tomographic gamma scans (TGS). The model assumes that rays are conical, with intensity uniformly distributed within the cone. The attenuation coefficients are centered on the voxel (cube) of the geometric center. The proposed model is verified using the EM algorithm and compared to previously reported models. The calculated results show that the model can obtain good reconstruction results even when the sample models are highly heterogeneous. Supported by NSFC (41374130), National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (41025015) National Science Foundation (41274109, 41104118)

  7. PROBABILISTIC ASSESSMENT OF A CRITICALITY IN A WASTE CONTAINER AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D

    2006-12-26

    Transuranic solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and various size carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 grams {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes an assessment of the probability of occurrence of a criticality accident during handling of the remaining transuranic waste containers at SRS.

  8. Metrological tests of a 200 L calibration source for HPGE detector systems for assay of radioactive waste drums.

    PubMed

    Boshkova, T; Mitev, K

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present test procedures, approval criteria and results from two metrological inspections of a certified large volume (152)Eu source (drum about 200L) intended for calibration of HPGe gamma assay systems used for activity measurement of radioactive waste drums. The aim of the inspections was to prove the stability of the calibration source during its working life. The large volume source was designed and produced in 2007. It consists of 448 identical sealed radioactive sources (modules) apportioned in 32 transparent plastic tubes which were placed in a wooden matrix which filled the drum. During the inspections the modules were subjected to tests for verification of their certified characteristics. The results show a perfect compliance with the NIST basic guidelines for the properties of a radioactive certified reference material (CRM) and demonstrate the stability of the large volume CRM-drum after 7 years of operation. PMID:26640236

  9. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Worley, Christopher Gordon; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Borrego, Andres Patricio; Castro, Alonso; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Holland, Charlotte S.; Keller, Russell C.; Klundt, Dylan James; Martinez, Alexander; Martin, Frances Louise; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Myers, Steven Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Schake, Ann Rene; Schappert, Michael Francis; Soderberg, Constance B.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Xu, Ning

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  10. Neutron fluence rate measurements in a PGNAA 208-liter drum assay system using silicon carbide detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulloo, A. R.; Ruddy, F. H.; Seidel, J. G.; Lee, S.; Petrović, B.; McIlwain, M. E.

    2004-01-01

    Pulsed prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is being implemented for the nondestructive assay (NDA) of mercury, cadmium and lead in containers of radioactive waste. A PGNAA prototype system capable of assaying 208-liter (55-gallon) drums has already been built and demonstrated. As part of the evaluation of this system, the thermal neutron fluence rate distribution in a drum containing a combustible waste surrogate was measured during PGNAA runs using a silicon carbide neutron detector. The fast charge-collection time of this detector type enabled the investigation of the neutron kinetics at various locations within the matrix during and between pulses of the system's 14-MeV neutron source. As expected, the response of a SiC detector equipped with a lithium-6 fluoride layer is dominated by thermal neutron-induced events between pulses. The measurement results showed that the thermal neutron fluence rate is relatively uniform over a radial depth of several centimeters in the matrix region that contributes a significant fraction of the prompt gamma radiation incident on the system's photon detector.

  11. Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility for Rocky Flats Plant transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Supercompaction and Repackaging Facility (SaRF) for processing Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) generated transuranic (TRU) waste was conceptualized and has received funding of $1.9 million. The SaRF is scheduled for completion in September, 1989 and will eliminate a labor intensive manual repackaging effort. The semi-automated glovebox-contained SaRF is being designed to process 63,500 cubic feet of TRU waste annually for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Waste will enter the process through an airlock or drum dump and the combustible waste will be precompacted. Drums will be pierced to allow air to escape during supercompaction. Each drum will be supercompacted and transferred to a load out station for final packaging into a 55 gallon drum. Preliminary evaluations indicate an average 5 to 1 volume reduction, 2 to 1 increased processing rate, and 50% reduction in manpower. The SaRF will produce a significant annual savings in labor, material, shipping, and burial costs over the projected 15 year life, and also improve operator safety, reduce personnel exposure, and improve the quality of the waste product. 1 ref., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  13. Characterizing and improving passive-active shufflers for assays of 208-Liter waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Menlove, H.O.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1992-06-01

    A passive and active neutron shuffler for 208-L waste drums has been used to perform over 1500 active and 500 passive measurements on uranium and plutonium samples in 28 different matrices. The shuffler is now better characterized and improvements have been implemented or suggested. An improved correction for the effects of the matrix material was devised from flux-monitor responses. The most important cause of inaccuracies in assays is a localized instead of a uniform distribution of fissile material in a drum; a technique for deducing the distribution from the assay data and then applying a correction is suggested and will be developed further. A technique is given to detect excessive amounts of moderator that could make hundreds of grams of {sup 235}U assay as zero grams. Sensitivities (minimum detectable masses) for {sup 235}U with active assays and for {sup 240}Pu{sub eff} with passive assays are presented and the effects of moderators and absorbers on sensitivities noted.

  14. Proficiency test for non-destructive assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums by gamma assay systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Bruggeman, M.; Botte, J.

    2007-07-01

    The European Network of Testing Facilities for the Quality Checking of Radioactive Waste Packages (ENTRAP) initiated a feasibility study on how to organize in the most cost effective way an international proficiency tests for non-destructive, gamma-ray based, assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums in the European Union at a regular time interval of 2 or 3 years. This feasibility study addresses all aspects of proficiency testing on radioactive waste packages including the design of a commonly accepted reference 220 liter drum. This design, based on the international response on a send out questionnaire, includes matrixes, radioactive sources; a solution to overcome the tedious and expensive international transport costs of real or even simulated waste packages, general cost estimation for the organization of, and the participation in the proficiency test. The proposed concept for the proficiency testing and the estimated costs are presented. The participation costs of the first proficiency test are mainly determined by the manufacturing of the non-radioactive 220 liter drum ({+-} 55%). Applied reference sources, transport of the drum and reference sources and participation costs in the proficiency test contribute each about {+-} 15%. (authors)

  15. Non-destructive assay of drum package radioactive wastes utilizing tomographic gamma scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Ausbrooks, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    A methodology for nondestructive assay of drum packaged radioactive waste materials is investigated using Emission Computed Tomography procedures. A requirement of this method is accurate gamma attenuation correction. This is accomplished by the use of a constant density distribution for the drum content, thereby requiring the need for a homogeneous medium. The current predominant NDA technique is the use of the Segmented Gamma Scanner. Tomographic Gamma Scanning improves upon this method by providing a low resolution three-dimensional image of the source distribution, yielding both spatial and activity information. Reconstruction of the source distribution is accomplished by utilization of algebraic techniques with a nine by six voxel model with detector information gathered over scanning intervals of ninety degrees. Construction of a linear system to describe the scenario was accomplished using a point-source response function methodology, where a 54 {times} 120 matrix contained the projected detector responses for each source-detector geometry. Entries in this matrix were calculated using the point-kernal shielding code QAD-CGGP. Validation was performed using the MCNP photon transport code. Solutions to the linear system were determined using the Non-Negative Least Squares (NNLS) algorithm and the LSMOD algorithm. A series of four scans were performed, each reconstructing the source distribution of a mock-up waste package containing a single 73 mCi {sup 137}Cs point source. For each scan, the source was located in a different location. Results of the reconstruction routines accurately predict the location and activity of the source. The range of activity calculated using the NNLS routine is 0.2681 mCi with an average value of 77.7995 mCi. The range of values calculated using LSMOD is 5.1843 mCi with an average of 72.8018 mCi.

  16. Expert system for transuranic waste assay

    SciTech Connect

    Zoolalian, M.L.; Gibbs, A.; Kuhns, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Transuranic wastes are generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as a result of routine production of nuclear materials. These wastes contain Pu-238 and Pu-239 and are placed into lined 55-gallon waste drums. The drums are placed on monitored storage pads pending shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. A passive-active neutron (PAN) assay system is used to determine the mass of the radioactive material within the waste drums. Assay results are used to classify the wastes as either low-level or transuranic (TRU). During assays, the PAN assay system communicates with an IBM-AT computer. A Fortran computer program, called NEUT, controls and performs all data analyses. Unassisted, the NEUT program cannot adequately interpret assay results. To eliminate this limitation, an expert system shell was used to write a new algorithm, called the Transuranic Expert System (TRUX), to drive the NEUT program and add decision making capabilities for analysis of the assay results. The TRUX knowledge base was formulated by consulting with human experts in the field of neutron assay, by direct experimentation on the PAN assay system, and by observing operations on a daily basis. TRUX, with its improved ability to interpret assay results, has eliminated the need for close supervision by a human expert, allowing skilled technicians to operate the PAN assay system. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. PMID:20435457

  18. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  19. Automated Sorting of Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2001-03-01

    The HANDSS-55 Transuranic Waste Sorting Module is designed to sort out items found in 55-gallon drums of waste as determined by an operator. Innovative imaging techniques coupled with fast linear motor-based motion systems and a flexible end-effector system allow the operator to remove items from the waste stream by a touch of the finger. When all desired items are removed from the waste stream, the remaining objects are automatically moved to a repackaging port for removal from the glovebox/cell. The Transuranic Waste Sorting Module consists of 1) a high accuracy XYZ Stereo Measurement and Imaging system, 2) a vibrating/tilting sorting table, 3) an XY Deployment System, 4) a ZR Deployment System, 5) several user-selectable end-effectors, 6) a waste bag opening system, 7) control and instrumentation, 8) a noncompliant waste load-out area, and 9) a Human/Machine Interface (HMI). The system is modular in design to accommodate database management tools, additional load-out ports, and other enhancements. Manually sorting the contents of a 55-gallon drum takes about one day per drum. The HANDSS-55 Waste Sorting Module is designed to significantly increase the throughput of this sorting process by automating those functions that are strenuous and tiresome for an operator to perform. The Waste Sorting Module uses the inherent ability of an operator to identify the items that need to be segregated from the waste stream and then, under computer control, picks that item out of the waste and deposits it in the appropriate location. The operator identifies the object by locating the visual image on a large color display and touches the image on the display with his finger. The computer then determines the location of the object, and performing a highspeed image analysis determines its size and orientation, so that a robotic gripper can be deployed to pick it up. Following operator verification by voice or function key, the object is deposited into a specified location.

  20. Unvented Drum Handling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-08-01

    This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The

  1. Developing Automated Methods of Waste Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the need complex-wide for remote and automated technologies as they relate to the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes. This analysis revealed that several DOE sites need the capability to open drums containing waste, visually inspect and sort the contents, and finally repackage the containers that are acceptable at a waste disposal facility such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Conditioning contaminated waste so that it is compatible with the WIPP criteria for storage is an arduous task whether the waste is contact handled (waste having radioactivity levels below 200 mrem/hr) or remote handled. Currently, WIPP non-compliant items are removed from the waste stream manually, at a rate of about one 55-gallon drum per day. Issues relating to contamination-based health hazards as well as repetitive motion health hazards are steering industry towards a more user-friendly, method of conditioning or sorting waste.

  2. An evaluation of supercompaction of drums containing solid low-level waste from Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kennerly, J.M.; Rivera, A.L.; Morrow, R.W.; Williams, L.C.

    1988-03-01

    Supercompaction and grouting technologies were demonstrated with solid LLW from Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the solid Waste Storage Area 5 (SWSA 5). The subcontractor used its mobile supercompaction system operating at 220 tons of compressive force to volume reduce 300 55-gal drums of solid LLW. The supercompaction of these drums resulted in a disposal capacity savings of about 85% of the original disposal capacity needs. The packaging of the compacted drums into 47 overpacks decreased the disposal capacity savings by about 19%. The net disposal capacity savings from the demonstration project is about 66% of the original, uncompacted waste volume. Based on the approximately $95K in direct costs, the supercompaction of the 2304 ft/sup 3/ of waste processed cost about $41ft/sup 3/ of uncompacted waste. Once the supercompaction unit was set up and operating, the incremental cost for the supercompaction services was only about $4ft/sup 3/. The economic assessment for this project revealed that the cost-effectiveness of on-site demonstrations is very sensitive to the on-site support (non-vendor-related) costs. The minimum disposal costs for cost-effectiveness in this demonstration project was calculated to be about $18ft/sup 3/ for no on-site support costs and about $180ft/sup 3/ when the on-site support costs represented about 90% of the total demonstration project cost. (2 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Process Knowledge Summary Report for Advanced Test Reactor Complex Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Drum TRA010029

    SciTech Connect

    B. R. Adams; R. P. Grant; P. R. Smith; J. L. Weisgerber

    2013-09-01

    This Process Knowledge Summary Report summarizes information collected to satisfy the transportation and waste acceptance requirements for the transfer of one drum containing contact-handled transuranic (TRU) actinide standards generated by the Idaho National Laboratory at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) for storage and subsequent shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for final disposal. The drum (i.e., Integrated Waste Tracking System Bar Code Number TRA010029) is currently stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex. The information collected includes documentation that addresses the requirements for AMWTP and applicable sections of their Resource Conservation and Recovery Act permits for receipt and disposal of this TRU waste generated from ATR. This Process Knowledge Summary Report includes information regarding, but not limited to, the generation process, the physical form, radiological characteristics, and chemical contaminants of the TRU waste, prohibited items, and packaging configuration. This report, along with the referenced supporting documents, will create a defensible and auditable record for this TRU waste originating from ATR.

  4. Implementation of advanced matrix corrections for active interrogation of waste drums using the CTEN instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, S.; Estep, R.; Hollas, C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined thermal/epithermal neutron instrument (CTEN) was designed at Los Alamos to improve measurement accuracy and mitigate self shielding effects inherent in the differential dieaway technique (DDT). A major goal in this research effort has been the development of a calibration technique that incorporates recently developed matrix and self-shielding corrections using data generated from additional detectors and new acquisition techniques. A comprehensive data set containing both active and passive measurements was generated using 26 different matrices and comprising a total of 1,400 measurements. In all, 31 flux-and-matrix-dependent parameters, 24 positional parameters, two dieaway times, and a correlated ratio were determined from each of the over 1,400 measurements. A reduced list of matrix indicators, prioritized using the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm, was used to train a neural network using a generalized regression technique (GRNN) to determine matrix- and position-corrected calibration factors. This paper describes the experimental, analytical, and empirical techniques used to determine the corrected calibration factor for an unknown waste drum. Results from a range of cases are compared with those obtained using a mobile DDT instrument and traditional DDT algorithms.

  5. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  6. Acoustic mapping as an environmental management tool: I. detection of barrels of low-level radioactive waste, Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.; Schwab, William C.; Wright, A. St. C.; Drake, David E.; Chin, John L.; Danforth, William W.; Ueber, Edward

    1994-01-01

    An example of the potential of this technique is summarized herein for the Gulf of the Farallones region. More than 47 800 drums (55 gallon) and other containers of low-level radioactive waste were dumped on the continental margin offshore the San Francisco Bay between 1946 and 1970. These drums now litter a large area (1200 km2) of the sea floor within the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS). The exact location of the drums and the potential hazard the drums pose to the environment are unknown. To evaluate the risk, samples of the sediment, biota and water must be collected near and distant from the concentrations of barrels. To do this the exact location of the barrels must be known prior to sampling. The USGS, through a cooperative research agreement with GFNMS, used sidescan sonar to map two areas within the sanctuary. Total sea-floor coverage was obtained and computer-processed sonographic mosaics were constructed on board ship. Many small nongeologic targets were distributed throughout the survey areas that covered about 70 km2 on the shelf and 120 km2 on the slope. Analysis of the sidescan data suggests that the targets are 55-gallon drums. This interpretation was confirmed at one site with an underwater video and 35-mm camera system. Data were collected with both a 30-kHz and a 120-kHz sidescan system within a 15-km2 area on the shelf. We found that the barrels were more easily detected with the mid-range 30-kHz system than with the higher resolution 120-kHz system. Maps of barrel distribution derived from the sonographs are being used to design sampling schemes to evaluate the risk that the radioactivity may have on the biota and environment.

  7. Three dimensional reconstruction of activity profiles in 220 liters radioactive waste packages containing super-compacted 100 liters drums

    SciTech Connect

    Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Maes, J.

    2007-07-01

    The 3DRedact project's main objective is the development of a non-destructive assay (NDA) system that can replace emission computer tomography (ECT) and transmission computer tomography (TCT) for the routine characterization of decayed radioactive waste 220 liters drums. The existing fast NDA scan system has been extended with a transmission system that fulfils the requirements of fast scan measurements. The design parameters and engineering are described. As a consequence of this extension the analyze program HOLIS had to be updated, so that HOLIS can make full advantage of the transmission data generated by the analysis of a 220 liters waste drum, containing different super compacted drums. The achievements of the new HOLIS version are presented. As a first assessment, based on the presented tests results, the accuracy of the calculated coordinates of hotspots can be assessed for all coordinates {+-} 1 cm and for the activity of the hot-spot {+-} 5 %. These accuracies are within the predefined requirements e.g. coordinates uncertainty {+-} 2 cm and activity less than 10 %. Further, additional safety systems have been installed to improve a healthy and save working environment. (authors)

  8. Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R.

    1999-03-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques.

  9. Design and Testing of a Novel Wide Range - Segmented Gamma Scanner Incorporating Tomographic Gamma Scanning for Measuring Both Low and Intermediate Level Waste in Drums - 13470

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Odell, Lawrence V.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N.; Hong, Dae-Seok; Jang, Won-Hyuk; Kwak, Kyung-Kil; Seo, Seung-Min; Piotrowski, Matt

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a novel automated Wide Range Segmented Gamma ray Scanning (WR-SGS) assay instrument that also incorporates Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS). The instrument is designed for the measurement of both Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW and ILW) in 200 litre drums and other waste containers covering a wide range of density. Like earlier ANTECH WR-SGS instruments, the system employs a single shielded and collimated high purity germanium (HPGe) detector to quantify the radionuclide content of the waste and like conventional SGS instruments it is suitable for the measurement of relatively homogeneous waste matrices. Also, like earlier WR-SGS systems the instrument incorporates an automated variable aperture collimator, which allows the vertical segment height to be adjusted in order to measure both high dose-rate and very low activity drums. The instrument employs both conventional discrete SGS vertical segment measurements as well as vertical segment measurement by continuous helical-scanning of the drum as it rotates. This latter method reduces measurement times for SGS measurements. In order to determine the density corrections for both low and high-density drums, a high activity Eu-152 transmission source is employed. When not in use, and in place of a conventional shutter mechanism, the shielded transmission source is moved to a shielded storage position to eliminate background radiation from the source. Due to its novel features, the WR-SGS is applicable to the measurement of both very low and very high activity waste drums as well as waste drums with a wide range of density. If located in a low background position and with the effective shielding of the strong transmission source, the instrument can be used to measure very low level or exempt waste. In order to extend the range of applicability to the measurement of heterogeneous drums, TGS measurement capability has been included in the basic WR-SGS design. This is

  10. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  11. Mechanical compaction of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M. ); Thompson, T.W.; VanBuskirk, R.G.; Patti, N.C. )

    1991-06-01

    The investigation described in this report acquired experimental information about how materials simulating transuranic (TRU) waste compact under axial compressive stress, and used these data to define a model for use in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal room analyses. The first step was to determine compaction curves for various simultant materials characteristic of TRU waste. Stress-volume compaction curves for various combinations of these materials were than derived to represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories. Prediction of compaction response in this manner is considered essential for the WIPP program because of the difficulties inherent in working with real (radioactive) waste. Next, full-sized 55-gallon drums of simulated combustible, metallic, and sludge waste were axially compacted. These results provided data that can be directly applied to room consolidation and data for comparison with the predictions obtained in Part 1 of the investigation. Compaction curves, which represent the combustible, metallic, and sludge waste categories, were determined, and a curve for the averaged waste inventory of the entire repository was derived. 9 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Final evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company, WRAP-1,208 liter waste drum, docket 94-35-7A, type A packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP-1) Drum. The WRAP-1 Drum was tested for DOE-HQ in August 1994, by Los Alamos National Laboratory, under docket number 94-35-7A. Additionally, comparison and evaluation of the approved, as-tested packaging configuration was performed by WHC in September 1995. The WRAP-1 Drum was evaluated against the performance of the DOT-17C, 208 1 (55-gal) steel drums tested and evaluated under dockets 89-13-7A/90-18-7A and 94-37-7A.

  13. Russian Containers for Transportation of Solid Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.

    2002-02-28

    The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified.

  14. Shuffler calibration and measurement of mixtures of uranium and plutonium TRU-waste in a plant environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The active-passive shuffler installed and certified a few years ago in Los Alamos National Laboratory`s plutonium facility has now been calibrated for different matrices to measure Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)-destined transuranic (TRU)-waste. Little or no data presently exist for these types of measurements in plant environments where there may be sudden large changes in the neutron background radiation which causes distortions in the results. Measurements and analyses of twenty-two 55-gallon drums, consisting of mixtures of varying quantities of uranium and plutonium, have been recently completed at the plutonium facility. The calibration and measurement techniques, including the method used to separate out the plutonium component, will be presented and discussed. Particular attention will be directed to those problems identified as arising from the plant environment. The results of studies to quantify the distortion effects in the data will be presented. Various solution scenarios will be indicated, along with those adopted here.

  15. Low Level and Transuranic Waste Segregation and Low Level Waste Characterization at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site - 12424

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Blackford, Ty; Estes, Michael; Jasen, William; Cahill, Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the waste measurement and waste characterization activities carried out by ANTECH Corporation (ANTECH) and CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site under Contracts No. 22394 and No. 40245 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). These include Low Level Waste (LLW) and Transuranic (TRU) Waste segregation and LLW characterization for both 55-gallon (200-litre) drums with gross weight up to 454 kg and 85-gallon over-pack drums. In order to achieve efficient and effective waste drum segregation and assay, ANTECH deployed an automated Gamma Mobile Assay Laboratory (G-MAL) at the trench face in both 200 Area West and East. The unit consists of a modified 40 foot ISO shipping container with an automatic flow through roller conveyor system with internal drum weigh scale, four measurement and drum rotation positions, and four high efficiency high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors with both detector and shadow shields. The unit performs multiple far-field measurements and is able to segregate drums at levels well below 100 nCi/g. The system is sufficiently sensitive that drums, which are classified as LLW, are characterized at measurement levels that meet the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). With measurement times of between 20 and 30 minutes the unit can classify and characterize over 40 drums in an 8-hour shift. The system is well characterized with documented calibrations, lower limits of detection (LLD) and total measurement uncertainty. The calibrations are confirmed and verified using nationally traceable standards in keeping with the CHPRC measurement requirements. The performance of the system has been confirmed and validated throughout the measurement process by independent CHPRC personnel using traceable standards. All of the measurement and maintenance work has been conducted during the period under a Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) compliant with the

  16. Mobile neutron/gamma waste assay system for characterization of waste containing transuranics, uranium, and fission/activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, D.R.; Haggard, D.; Lemons, C.

    1994-12-31

    A new integrated neutron/gamma assay system has been built for measuring 55-gallon drums at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The system is unique because it allows simultaneous measurement of neutrons and gamma-rays. This technique also allows measurement of transuranics (TRU), uranium, and fission/activation products, screening for shielded Special Nuclear Material prior to disposal, and critically determinations prior to transportation. The new system is positioned on a platform with rollers and installed inside a trailer or large van to allow transportation of the system to the waste site instead of movement of the drums to the scanner. The ability to move the system to the waste drums is particularly useful for drum retrieval programs common to all DOE sites and minimizes transportation problems on the site. For longer campaigns, the system can be moved into a facility. The mobile system consists of two separate subsystems: a passive Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) and a {open_quotes}clam-shell{close_quotes} passive neutron counter. The SGS with high purity germanium detector and {sup 75}Se transmission source simultaneously scan the height of the drum allowing identification of unshieled {open_quotes}hot spots{close_quotes} in the drum or segments where the matrix is too dense for the transmission source to penetrate. Dense segments can flag shielding material that could be used to hide plutonium or uranium during the gamma analysis. The passive nuetron counter with JSR-12N Neutron Coincidence Analyzer measures the coincident neutrons from the spontaneous fission of even isotopes of plutonium. Because high-density shielding produces minimal absorption of neutrons, compared to gamma rays, the passive neutron portion of the system can detect shielded SNM. Measurements to evaluate the performance of the system are still underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  17. Out-Of-Drum Grout Mixer Testing With Simulated Liquid Effluents Originating From Sodium-Bearing Waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Scholes; A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; S. H. Hinckley

    2003-09-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is considering several optional processes for disposal of liquid sodium-bearing waste. During fiscal year 2003, alternatives were evaluated for grout formulation development and associated mixing for the Sodium-Bearing Waste cesium ion exchange process. The neutralization agents calcium or sodium hydroxide and the solidification agents Portland cement, with or without blast furnace slag were evaluated. A desired uniform formulation was pursued to develop a grout waste form without any bleed liquid and solidify within a reasonable period of about twenty-eight days. This testing evaluates the out-of-drum alternative of mixing the effluent with solidification agents prior to being poured into drums versus the in-drum alternative of mixing them all together after being poured into the drums. Experimental results indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be immobilized in grout using the Autocon continuous mixer within the range of 66 to 72 weight percent. Furthermore, a loading of 30 weight percent NWCF scrubber simulant also produced an acceptable grout waste form.

  18. Neutron and gamma-ray nondestructive examination of contact-handled transuranic waste at the ORNL TRU Waste Drum Assay Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Coffey, D.E.; Norris, L.B.; Haff, K.W.

    1985-03-01

    A nondestructive assay system, which includes the Neutron Assay System (NAS) and the Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS), for the quantification of contact-handled (<200 mrem/h total radiation dose rate at contact with container) transuranic elements (CH-TRU) in bulk solid waste contained in 208-L and 114-L drums has been in operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory since April 1982. The NAS has been developed and demonstrated by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use by most US Department of Energy Defense Plant (DOE-DP) sites. More research and development is required, however, before the NAS can provide complete assay results for other than routine defense waste. To date, 525 ORNL waste drums have been assayed, with varying degrees of success. The isotopic complexity of the ORNL waste creates a correspondingly complex assay problem. The NAS and SGS assay data are presented and discussed. Neutron matrix effects, the destructive examination facility, and enriched uranium fuel-element assays are also discussed.

  19. Reconstruction of the activity of point sources for the accurate characterization of nuclear waste drums by segmented gamma scanning.

    PubMed

    Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

    2011-06-01

    This work improves the reliability and accuracy in the reconstruction of the total isotope activity content in heterogeneous nuclear waste drums containing point sources. The method is based on χ(2)-fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution measured during a drum rotation in segmented gamma scanning. A new description of the analytical calculation of the angular count rate distribution is introduced based on a more precise model of the collimated detector. The new description is validated and compared to the old description using MCNP5 simulations of angular dependent count rate distributions of Co-60 and Cs-137 point sources. It is shown that the new model describes the angular dependent count rate distribution significantly more accurate compared to the old model. Hence, the reconstruction of the activity is more accurate and the errors are considerably reduced that lead to more reliable results. Furthermore, the results are compared to the conventional reconstruction method assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. PMID:21353575

  20. The design of a high-efficiency neutron counter for waste drums to provide optimized sensitivity for plutonium assay

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Beddingfield, D.H.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-11-01

    An advanced passive neutron counter has been designed to improve the accuracy and sensitivity for the nondestructive assay of plutonium in scrap and waste containers. The High-Efficiency Neutron Counter (HENC) was developed under a Cooperative Research Development Agreement between the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Canberra Industries. The primary goal of the development was to produce a passive assay system for 200-L drums that has detectability limits and multiplicity counting features that are superior to previous systems. A detectability limit figure of merit (FOM) was defined that included the detector efficiency, the neutron die-away time, and the detector`s active volume and density that determine the cosmic-ray background. Monte Carlo neutron calculations were performed to determine the parameters to provide an optimum FOM. The system includes the {sup 252}Cf {open_quotes}add-a-source{close_quotes} feature to improve the accuracy as well as statistical filters to reduce the cosmic-ray spallation neutron background. The final decision gave an efficiency of 32% for plutonium with a detector {sup 3}He tube volume that is significantly smaller than for previous high-efficiency systems for 200-L drums. Because of the high efficiency of the HENC, we have incorporated neutron multiplicity counting for matrix corrections for those cases where the plutonium is localized in nonuniform hydrogenous materials. The paper describes the design and performance testing of the advanced system. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Stabilization of compactible waste

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Survey of DOE NDA practices for CH-Tru waste certification--illustrated with a greater than 10,000 drum NDA data base

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.; Smith, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    We have compiled a greater than 10,000 CH-TRU waste drum data base from seven DOE sites which have utilized such multiple NDA measurements within the past few years. Most of these nondestructive assay (NDA) technique assay result comparisons have been performed on well-characterized, segregated waste categories such as cemented sludges, combustibles, metals, graphite residues, glasses, etc., with well-known plutonium isotopic compositions. Waste segregation and categorization practices vary from one DOE site to another. Perhaps the most systematic approach has been in use for several years at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), operated by Rockwell International, and located near Golden, Colorado. Most of the drum assays in our data base result from assays of RFP wastes, with comparisons available between the original RFP assays and PAN assays performed independently at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Solid Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) facility. Most of the RFP assays were performed with hyperpure germanium (HPGe)-based SGS assay units. However, at least one very important waste category, processed first-stage sludges, is assayed at RFP using a sludge batch-sampling procedure, prior to filling of the waste drums. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    SciTech Connect

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P. ); Courtney, J.C. ); Duff, M.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m{sup 3} (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein.

  4. Characterization of mixed CH-TRU waste for the WIPP Experimental Test Program conducted at ANL-W

    SciTech Connect

    Dwight, C.C.; McClellan, G.C.; Guay, K.P.; Courtney, J.C.; Duff, M.J.

    1992-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is participating in the Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program by characterizing and repackaging mixed contact-handled transuranic waste. Characterization activities include gas sampling the waste containers, visually examining the waste contents, categorizing the contents according to their gas generation potentials, and weighing the contents. The waste is repackaged from 0.21m{sup 3} (55 gallon) drums into instrumented steel test bins which can hold up to six drum-equivalents in volume. Eventually the loaded test bins will be shipped to WIPP where they will be evaluated during a five-year test program. Three test bins of inorganic solids (primarily glass) were prepared between March and September 1991 and are ready for shipment to WIPP. The characterization activities confirmed process knowledge of the waste and verified the nondestructive examinations; the gas sample analyses showed the target constituents to be within allowable regulatory limits. A new waste characterization chamber is being developed at ANL-W which will improve worker safety, decrease the potential for contamination spread, and increase the waste characterization throughput. The new facility is expected to begin operations by Fall 1992. A comprehensive summary of the project is contained herein.

  5. Application of support vector machine to rapid classification of uranium waste drums using low-resolution γ-ray spectra.

    PubMed

    Hata, Haruhi; Yokoyama, Kaoru; Ishimori, Yuu; Ohara, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Yoshio; Sugitsue, Noritake

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using support vector machine (SVM), a computer learning method, to classify uranium waste drums as natural uranium or reprocessed uranium based on their origins. The method was trained using 12 training datasets were used and tested on 955 datasets of γ-ray spectra obtained with NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The results showed that only 4 out of 955 test datasets were different from the original labels-one of them was mislabeled and the other three were misclassified by SVM. These findings suggest that SVM is an effective method to classify a large quantity of data within a short period of time. Consequently, SVM is a feasible method for supporting the scaling factor method and as a supplemental tool to check original labels. PMID:26159663

  6. Magnetic properties of unrusted steel drums from laboratory and field-magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ravat, D.

    1996-09-01

    Detection and precise location of buried ferromagnetic objects and estimation of the type and quantity of the objects are becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations worldwide. If laboratory-derived magnetizations were used to model steel drums, the models would under-estimate the resulting magnetic anomalies considerably and, in turn, would overestimate the number of buried drums at an environmental investigation site. Apparent bulk magnetization values for unrusted vertically oriented 55 and 30 gallon drums have been calculated (i.e., the values corrected for the effect of shape demagnetization of the drums). These range from {approximately}90 to {approximately}125 SI units for volume susceptibility and from {approximately} 325 to {approximately} 2,750 A/m for remanent magnetization (based on eight 55 gallon and four 30 gallon drums). Further deviations in these values could arise from the and thickness of the steel and variations in manufacturing conditions affecting magnetizations. From the point of view of modeling the drums, at most source-to-observation distances applicable to environmental investigations, the equivalent source method is able to approximate the observed anomalies of steel drums better than the 3-D modeling method. With two years of rusting, magnetic anomalies of some of the drums have reduced, while in other drums they have slightly increased. The overall magnetic changes caused by rusting appear to be more complex than anticipated, at least in the initial phase of rusting.

  7. Digital radiography of drums

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, B.D.; Poland, R.W.; Meers, B.Z. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    It has been estimated that there are approximately 1.4 million drums buried or stored at sites within the Department of Energy complex. Most of those drums are filled with a mixture of low level radioactive waste debris but a significant number contain relatively high density, contaminated and/or radioactive substances, such as sludge, grout, sand, and moderator water. Nondestructive Examination and Nondestructive Assay acceptance criteria for transportation to and storage of low-level waste containers at long-term repositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico have been established so that waste generators are fully aware that free liquids are to be minimized, mixed waste is undersirable, and that transuranic elements must be less than specified limits.

  8. Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-yoon; Browne, Michael C; Rael, Carlos D; Carroll, Colin J; Sunshine, Alexander; Novikov, Alexander; Lebedev, Evgeny

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

  9. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-09-28

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  10. Model Based Structural Evaluation & Design of Overpack Container for Bag-Buster Processing of TRU Waste Drums

    SciTech Connect

    D. T. Clark; A. S. Siahpush; G. L. Anderson

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a materials and computational model based analysis utilized to design an engineered “overpack” container capable of maintaining structural integrity for confinement of transuranic wastes undergoing the cryo-vacuum stress based “Bag-Buster” process and satisfying DOT 7A waste package requirements. The engineered overpack is a key component of the “Ultra-BagBuster” process/system being commercially developed by UltraTech International for potential DOE applications to non-intrusively breach inner confinement layers (poly bags/packaging) within transuranic (TRU) waste drums. This system provides a lower cost/risk approach to mitigate hydrogen gas concentration buildup limitations on transport of high alpha activity organic transuranic wastes. Four evolving overpack design configurations and two materials (low carbon steel and 300 series stainless) were considered and evaluated using non-linear finite element model analyses of structural response. Properties comparisons show that 300-series stainless is required to provide assurance of ductility and structural integrity at both room and cryogenic temperatures. The overpack designs were analyzed for five accidental drop impact orientations onto an unyielding surface (dropped flat on bottom, bottom corner, side, top corner, and top). The first three design configurations failed the bottom and top corner drop orientations (flat bottom, top, and side plates breached or underwent material failure). The fourth design utilized a protruding rim-ring (skirt) below the overpack’s bottom plate and above the overpack’s lid plate to absorb much of the impact energy and maintained structural integrity under all accidental drop loads at both room and cryogenic temperature conditions. Selected drop testing of the final design will be required to confirm design performance.

  11. Site health and safety plan/work plan for further characterization of waste drums at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Abston, J.P.; Burman, S.N.; Jones, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    The health and safety plan/work plan describes a strategy for characterizing the contents of 172 liquid waste and 33 solid waste drums. It also addresses the control measures that will be taken to (1) prevent or minimize any adverse impact on the environment or personnel safety and health and (2) meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. When writing this document, the authors considered past experiences, recommendations, and best management practices to minimize possible hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or unplanned releases of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water.

  12. Hazardous-waste-characterization survey of unknown drums at the 21st Tactical Fighter Wing, Elmendorf and Shemya Air Force Bases, and Galena and King Salmon Airports, Alaska. Final report 2-13 Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    At the request of the USAF Regional Hospital Elmendorf/SGPB (PACAF), the Armstrong Laboratory, Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate, conducted a hazardous waste characterization survey of unknown drums at Elmendorf AFB from 2 Aug - 13 Aug 91. The scope of the survey was to sample and characterize drums of unknown material stored at Elmendorf AFB, Shemya AFB, and Galena and King Salmon Airports. Several waste streams were sampled at Elmendorf AFB to revalidate sample results from a previous survey.

  13. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked... regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178 and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container...

  14. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked... regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178 and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container...

  15. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked... regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178 and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container...

  16. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked... regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178 and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container...

  17. 40 CFR 265.316 - Disposal of small containers of hazardous waste in overpacked drums (lab packs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lab packs according to the requirements in 40 CFR 268.42(c)(1) may use fiber drums in place of metal outer containers. Such fiber drums must meet the DOT specifications in 49 CFR 173.12 and be overpacked... regulations (49 CFR parts 173, 178 and 179), if those regulations specify a particular inside container...

  18. Testing the Ortec's Isotopic and Eberlines Snap software for Uranium waste measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc T.; Seo, P. N.; Li, T. K.

    2003-01-01

    Uranium enrichment plants normally generate lots of wastes. The wastes are in various matrices such as clothing, glass, concrete, aluminum, and steel, etc. They are in the quantity of a few grams to many kilograms and generally stored in 55-gallon drums. For accountability, it is important to determine the amount of uranium in the waste drums to a certain level of accuracy. There are several commercially available systems that can accurately determine the uranium mass in the waste drums, such as Tomographic-Gamma-Scanner1 (TGS) or Segmented Gamma-Ray Scanner2 (SGS). However, those systems are too cumbersome and expensive. Cheap and simple single detector systems are also available commercially from several companies. The workhorse of these systems is the software, which would work with any germanium detector system. We mocked up waste drums containing several hundred grams to several kilograms of uranium with different isotopic compositions in various matrices. We acquired data using a coaxial germanium detector. We tested two different software codes from two companies, the Ortec's Isotopic software and the Eberline's Snap software. The results with the germanium detector were very encouraging, which led us to test with the NaI detectors. The NaI detectors have much worse resolution than the germanium detectors. However, they are very cheap, can be very large in detector size and, thus, efficient for a given counting time, and are simpler because of not requiring liquid nitrogen for cooling. The results, advantages, and disadvantages of the two software codes and the two detector systems will be discussed.

  19. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, F.B.; Warner, R.D.

    1996-02-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation.

  20. Biogas production from municipal solid wastes using an integrated rotary drum and anaerobic-phased solids digester system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baoning; Zhang, Ruihong; Gikas, Petros; Rapport, Joshua; Jenkins, Bryan; Li, Xiujin

    2010-08-01

    This research was conducted to develop an integrated rotary drum reactor (RDR)-anaerobic-phased solids (APS) digester system for the treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce biogas energy and achieve waste reduction. A commercial RDR facility was used to provide a 3-d pretreatment and sufficient separation of the organics from MSW and then the organics were digested in a laboratory APS-digester system for biogas production. The organics generated from the RDR contained 50% total solids (TS) and 36% volatile solids (VS) on wet basis. The APS-digester was started at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.1 gVS L(-1) d(-1) and operated at three higher OLRs of 4.6, 7.7 and 9.2 gVS L(-1) d(-1). At the OLR of 9.2 gVS L(-1) d(-1) the system biogas production rate was 3.5 L L(-1) d(-1) and the biogas and methane yields were 0.38 and 0.19 L gVS(-1), respectively. Anaerobic digestion resulted in 38% TS reduction and 53% VS reduction in the organic solids. It was found that the total VFA concentration reached a peak value of 15,000 mg L(-1) as acetic acid in the first 3d of batch digestion and later decreased to about 500 mg L(-1). The APS-digester system remained stable at each OLRs for over 100d with the pH in the hydrolysis reactors in the range of 7.3-7.8 and the pH in the biogasification reactor in 7.9-8.1. The residual solids after the digestion had a high heating value of 14.7 kJ gTS(-1). PMID:20409703

  1. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE.sub.10 rectangular mode to TE.sub.01 circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power.

  2. Microwave applicator for in-drum processing of radioactive waste slurry

    DOEpatents

    White, T.L.

    1994-06-28

    A microwave applicator for processing of radioactive waste slurry uses a waveguide network which splits an input microwave of TE[sub 10] rectangular mode to TE[sub 01] circular mode. A cylindrical body has four openings, each receiving 1/4 of the power input. The waveguide network includes a plurality of splitters to effect the 1/4 divisions of power. 4 figures.

  3. Treatment of EBR-I NaK mixed waste at Argonne National Laboratory and subsequent land disposal at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, S. D.; Buzzell, J. A.; Holzemer, M. J.

    1998-02-03

    Sodium/potassium (NaK) liquid metal coolant, contaminated with fission products from the core meltdown of Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR-I) and classified as a mixed waste, has been deactivated and converted to a contact-handled, low-level waste at Argonne's Sodium Component Maintenance Shop and land disposed at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Treatment of the EBR-I NaK involved converting the sodium and potassium to its respective hydroxide via reaction with air and water, followed by conversion to its respective carbonate via reaction with carbon dioxide. The resultant aqueous carbonate solution was solidified in 55-gallon drums. Challenges in the NaK treatment involved processing a mixed waste which was incompletely characterized and difficult to handle. The NaK was highly radioactive, i.e. up to 4.5 R/hr on contact with the mixed waste drums. In addition, the potential existed for plutonium and toxic characteristic metals to be present in the NaK, resultant from the location of the partial core meltdown of EBR-I in 1955. Moreover, the NaK was susceptible to degradation after more than 40 years of storage in unmonitored conditions. Such degradation raised the possibility of energetic exothermic reactions between the liquid NaK and its crust, which could have consisted of potassium superoxide as well as hydrated sodium/potassium hydroxides.

  4. Thermal cycling and vibration response for PREPP concrete waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, R.M.; Welch, J.M.

    1983-06-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) will process those transuranic wastes which do not satisfy the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria. Since these wastes will contain considerable quantities of combustible materials, incineration will be an integral part of the treatment process. Four basic types of PREPP ash wastes have been identified. The four types are designated high metal box waste, combustible waste, average waste, and inorganic sludge. In this process, the output of the incinerator is a mixture of ash and shredded noncombustible material (principally metals) which is separated into two sizes, -1/4 inch (under-size waste) and reverse arrow 1/4 inch (oversize waste). These wastes are solidified with hydraulic cement in 55-gallon drums. Simulated PREPP waste forms prepared by Colorado School of Mines Research Institute were subjected to thermal cycling and vibration testing to demonstrate compliance with the WIPP immobilization criterion. Although actual storage and transport conditions are expected to vary somewhat from those utilized in the testing protocol, the generation of only very small amounts of particulate suggests that the immobilization criterion should be routinely met for similar waste form formulations and production procedures. However, the behavior of waste forms containing significant quantities of off-gas scrubber sludge or considerably higher waste loadings may differ. Limited thermal cycling and vibration testing of prototype waste forms should be conducted if the final formulations or production methods used for actual waste forms differ appreciably from those tested in this study. If such testing is conducted, consideration should be given to designing the experiment to accommodate a larger number of thermal cycles more representative of the duration of storage expected.

  5. Relative performance of a TGS for the assay of drummed waste as function of collimator opening

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, S.C.; Croft, S.; McClay, P.; Venkataraman, R.; Villani, M.F.

    2007-07-01

    Improving the safety, accuracy and overall cost effectiveness of the processes and methods used to characterize and handle radioactive waste is an on-going mission for the nuclear industry. An important contributor to this goal is the development of superior non-destructive assay instruments. The Tomographic Gamma Scanner (TGS) is a case in point. The TGS applies low spatial resolution experimental computed tomography (CT) linear attenuation coefficient maps with three-dimensional high-energy resolution single photon emission reconstructions. The results are presented as quantitative matrix attenuation corrected images and assay values for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Depending on a number of operational factors, this extends the diversity of waste forms that can be assayed, to a given accuracy, to items containing more heterogeneous matrix distributions and less uniform emission activity distributions. Recent advances have significantly extended the capability to a broader range of matrix density and to a wider dynamic range of surface dose rate. Automated systems sense the operational conditions, including the container type, and configure themselves accordingly. The TGS also provides a flexible data acquisition platform and can be used to perform far-field style measurements, classical segmented gamma scanner measurements, or to implement hybrid methods, such as reconstructions that use a priori knowledge to constrain the image reconstruction or the underlying energy dependence of the attenuation. A single, yet flexible, general purpose instrument of this kind adds several tiers of strategic and tactical value to facilities challenged by a diverse and difficult to assay waste streams. The TGS is still in the early phase of industrial uptake. There are only a small number of general purpose TGS systems operating worldwide, most being configured to automatically select between a few configurations appropriate for routine operations. For special investigations

  6. Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen; Freshwater, David

    2009-07-10

    Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.

  7. Detection of free liquid in drums of radioactive waste. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1979-10-16

    A nondestructive thermal imaging method for detecting the presence of a liquid such as water within a sealed container is described. The process includes application of a low amplitude heat pulse to an exterior surface area of the container, terminating the heat input and quickly mapping the resulting surface temperatures. The various mapped temperature values can be compared with those known to be normal for the container material and substances in contact. The mapped temperature values show up in different shades of light or darkness that denote different physical substances. The different substances can be determined by direct observation or by comparison with known standards. The method is particularly applicable to the detection of liquids above solidified radioactive wastes stored in sealed containers.

  8. Lysimeter study of commercial reactor waste forms: waste form acquisition characterization and full-scale leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    This report describes work conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) as part of a joint program with Savannah River Laboratory. Typical full-scale (55-gallon drum size) waste forms were acquired by BNL from a boiling water reactor (BWR) and a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Liquid waste stream activity concentrations were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. This information was used to determine the waste from activity inventory, providing the necessary source term for lysimeter and leaching experiments. Predominant radionuclides of interest include /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, and /sup 54/Mn. A full-scale leaching experiment was initiated by BNL encompassing four representative waste stream-solidification agent combinations. Waste streams tested include PWR evaporator concentrate (boric acid waste), BWR evaporator concentrate (sodium sulfate waste) and BWR evaporator concentrate plus ion exchange resins. Solidification agents include masonry cement, portland type III cement, and vinyl ester-styrene (Dow polymer). Analyses of leachates indicate measurable leach rates of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, and /sup 60/Co from both BWR and PWR cement waste forms. The leach rates for both cesium isotopes in cement are at least two orders of magnitude greater than those for cobalt. Leachates from the BWR Dow polymer waste form include the same isotopes present in cement leachates, with the addition of /sup 54/Mn. Cesium leach rates from the Dow polymer waste form are approximately one order of magnitude lower than from an equivalent cement waste form. The /sup 60/Co cumulative fraction release, however, is approximately three times greater for the Dow polymer waste form.

  9. Integrating Volume Reduction and Packaging Alternatives to Achieve Cost Savings for Low Level Waste Disposal at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Church, A.; Gordon, J.; Montrose, J. K.

    2002-02-26

    In order to reduce costs and achieve schedules for Closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the Waste Requirements Group has implemented a number of cost saving initiatives aimed at integrating waste volume reduction with the selection of compliant waste packaging methods for the disposal of RFETS low level radioactive waste (LLW). Waste Guidance Inventory and Shipping Forecasts indicate that over 200,000 m3 of low level waste will be shipped offsite between FY2002 and FY2006. Current projections indicate that the majority of this waste will be shipped offsite in an estimated 40,000 55-gallon drums, 10,000 metal and plywood boxes, and 5000 cargo containers. Currently, the projected cost for packaging, shipment, and disposal adds up to $80 million. With these waste volume and cost projections, the need for more efficient and cost effective packaging and transportation options were apparent in order to reduce costs and achieve future Site packaging a nd transportation needs. This paper presents some of the cost saving initiatives being implemented for waste packaging at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site). There are many options for either volume reduction or alternative packaging. Each building and/or project may indicate different preferences and/or combinations of options.

  10. Cryofracture as a tool for preprocessing retrieved buried and stored transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Winberg, M.R.; Ancho, M.L. ); Osborne, D. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes important features of an experimental demonstration of applying the Cryofracture process to size-reduce retrieved buried and stored transuranic-contaminated wastes. By size reducing retrieved buried and stored waste, treatment technologies such as thermal treatment can be expedited. Additionally, size reduction of the waste can decrease the amount of storage space required by reducing the volume requirements of storage containers. A demonstration program was performed at the Cryofracture facility by Nuclear Remedial Technologies for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Cryofracture is a size-reducing process whereby objects are frozen to liquid nitrogen temperatures and crushed in a large hydraulic press. Material s at cryogenic temperatures have low ductility and are easily size-reduced by fracturing. Six 55-gallon drums and six 2 {times} 2 {times} 8 ft boxes containing simulated waste with tracers were subjected to the Cryofracture process. Data was obtained on (a) cool-down time, (b) yield strength of the containers, (c) size distribution of the waste before and after the Cryofracture process, (d) volume reduction of the waste, and (e) sampling of air and surface dusts for spread of tracers to evaluate potential contamination spread. The Cryofracture process was compared to conventional shredders and detailed cost estimates were established for construction of a Cryofracture facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  11. Cryofracture as a tool for preprocessing retrieved buried and stored transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Winberg, M.R.; Ancho, M.L.; Osborne, D.

    1992-08-01

    This paper summarizes important features of an experimental demonstration of applying the Cryofracture process to size-reduce retrieved buried and stored transuranic-contaminated wastes. By size reducing retrieved buried and stored waste, treatment technologies such as thermal treatment can be expedited. Additionally, size reduction of the waste can decrease the amount of storage space required by reducing the volume requirements of storage containers. A demonstration program was performed at the Cryofracture facility by Nuclear Remedial Technologies for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Cryofracture is a size-reducing process whereby objects are frozen to liquid nitrogen temperatures and crushed in a large hydraulic press. Material s at cryogenic temperatures have low ductility and are easily size-reduced by fracturing. Six 55-gallon drums and six 2 {times} 2 {times} 8 ft boxes containing simulated waste with tracers were subjected to the Cryofracture process. Data was obtained on (a) cool-down time, (b) yield strength of the containers, (c) size distribution of the waste before and after the Cryofracture process, (d) volume reduction of the waste, and (e) sampling of air and surface dusts for spread of tracers to evaluate potential contamination spread. The Cryofracture process was compared to conventional shredders and detailed cost estimates were established for construction of a Cryofracture facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  12. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah River Site to demonstrate

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE BARREL AND DRUM RECONDITIONING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burying of steel drums that presently or formerly contained hazardous materials often represents a wasted resource. Such drums can be reconditioned using burning or washing processes to remove and accumulate hazardous material residues so that the steel drum can be returned safel...

  14. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-05-14

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper.

  15. Potential VOC Deflagrations in a Vented TRU Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mukesh, GUPTA

    2005-04-07

    The objective of the analysis is to examine the potential for lid ejection from a vented transuranic (TRU) waste drum due to pressure buildup caused by the deflagration of hydrogen and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) inside the drum. In this analysis, the AICC pressure for a stoichiometric mixture of VOCs is calculated and then compared against the experimental peak pressure of stoichiometric combustion of propane and hexane in a combustion chamber. The experimental peak pressures of propane and hexane are about 12 percent lower than the calculated AICC pressure. Additional losses in the drum are calculated due to venting of the gases, drum bulging, waste compaction, and heat losses from the presence of waste in the drum. After accounting for these losses, the final pressures are compared to the minimum observed pressure that ejects the lid from a TRU drum. The ejection pressure of 105 psig is derived from data that was recorded for a series of tests where hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited inside sealed TRU drums. Since the calculated pressures are below the minimum lid ejection pressure, none of the VOCs and the hydrogen (up to 4 percent) mixtures present in the TRU waste drum is expected to cause lid ejection if ignited. The analysis of potential VOC deflagrations in a vented TRU drum can be applied across the DOE-Complex since TRU waste is stored in drums throughout the complex.

  16. TRU drum corrosion task team report

    SciTech Connect

    Kooda, K.E.; Lavery, C.A.; Zeek, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations.

  17. Measured HEU Content in 110-Gallon overpacks and partly filled drums by field y-PHA Assay

    SciTech Connect

    RAYMOND, DEWBERRY

    2004-12-06

    The 321-M Reactor Fuel Fabrication facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. It operated for 25 years. During this time, thousands of uranium-aluminum-alloy (U-Al) fuel tubes were produced. After the facility terminated operations in 1995, all of the easily accessible U-Al was removed from the building, and only residual amounts remained. The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was tasked to conduct the required assays of highly enriched uranium in the deactivation and decommissioning activities of the facility. In this report we demonstrate successful assay of thirteen 55-gallon and 110-gallon drums in the far field transmission corrected point source acquisition configuration. Several of the drums were assayed using the commercial Q2 instrument in both the direct mode and in the segmented gamma scanner mode adapted by SRTC in addition to the far field method described here. The 110-gallon drums would not fit into the Q2 instrument, and so assay by the far field technique was necessary. While the far field transmission corrected method used for these drums is a straightforward technique, it was important to obtain comparison measurements between it and the Q2 techniques to establish its accuracy for the 110-gallon overpack drums.

  18. Sulfur polymer stabilization/solidification (SPSS) treatment of mixed waste mercury recovered from environmental restoration activities at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.; Adams, J.; Milian, L.

    2001-01-29

    Over 1,140 yd{sup 3} of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury (Hg) and several liters of mixed-waste elemental mercury were generated during a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of several technologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and other sites across the DOE complex. This report describes work conducted at BNL on the application and pilot-scale demonstration of the newly developed Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process for treatment of contaminated mixed-waste soils containing high concentrations ({approximately} 5,000 mg/L) of mercury and liquid elemental mercury. BNL's SPSS (patent pending) process chemically stabilizes the mercury to reduce vapor pressure and leachability and physically encapsulates the waste in a solid matrix to eliminate dispersion and provide long-term durability. Two 55-gallon drums of mixed-waste soil containing high concentrations of mercury and about 62 kg of radioactive contaminated elemental mercury were successfully treated. Waste loadings of 60 wt% soil were achieved without resulting in any increase in waste volume, while elemental mercury was solidified at a waste loading of 33 wt% mercury. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) analyses indicate the final waste form products pass current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) allowable TCLP concentrations as well as the more stringent proposed Universal Treatment Standards. Mass balance measurements show that 99.7% of the mercury treated was successfully retained within the waste form, while only 0.3% was captured in the off gas system.

  19. EXAMPLE OF A RISK BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    PRIGNANO AL

    2007-11-14

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP.

  20. Example of a Risk-Based Disposal Approval: Solidification of Hanford Site Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.M.; Hyatt, J.E.; Martin, P.W.; Prignano, A.L.

    2008-07-01

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26, 2005 to June 9, 2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP. (authors)

  1. DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Spritzer

    2003-02-01

    General Atomics (GA) has recently completed a Phase I program for the development of a two-step alternative to incineration for the destruction of organics in transuranic wastes at the Savannah River Site. This process is known as thermal desorption-supercritical water oxidation, or TD-SCWO. The GA TD process uses heat to volatilize and transport organics from the waste material for subsequent treatment by SCWO. SCWO oxidizes organics in a steam medium at elevated temperatures and pressures in a manner that achieves excellent destruction efficiencies and compliance with all environmental requirements without the need for complex pollution-abatement equipment. This application of TD-SCWO is focused on a full-scale batch process for 55-gallon drums of mixed transuranic waste at the Savannah River Site. The Phase I reduced-scale test results show that the process operates as intended on surrogate waste matrices chosen to be representative of Savannah River Site transuranic mixed wastes. It provides a high degree of hydrogen removal and full containment of the radionuclide surrogate, with minimal requirements for pre-treatment and post-treatment. Other test objectives were to verify that the process produces no dioxins or furans, and meets all applicable regulatory criteria for retention of toxic metals, particulate, and criteria pollutants, while meeting WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II requirements. Thermal desorption of surrogate SRS mixed wastes at 500 psi and 1000 F met all tested requirements for WIPP/WAC and TRUPACT-II. SCWO of the desorbed surrogate organic materials at 500 psi and 1500 F also appears to meet all requirements for a nonincineration alternative, although >99.99% DRE for chlorinated solvents has not yet been demonstrated.

  2. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-06-14

    This report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 Acceptable Knowledge from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  3. Drums for Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneidek, Tony

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Lakota family tradition of passing on the responsibilities of being caretaker of the drum of the Fool Soldiers (Akicita Heyoka), warriors who risked their lives for peace in 1862. The drum and its ceremonial use symbolize nonviolence and cross-cultural understanding between the races and are a part of Lakota spiritual heritage. (SAS)

  4. Characterization of In-Drum Drying Products

    SciTech Connect

    Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.; Skanata, D.; Medakovic, S.; Harapin, D.; Hertl, B.

    2006-07-01

    A few years ago Krsko NPP decided to introduce In-Drum Drying technology for treatment and conditioning of evaporator concentrates and spent ion resins. The main reason to employ this technology was the need for waste volume reduction and experience with vermiculite-cement solidification that proved inadequate for Krsko NPP. Use of In-Drum Drying technology was encouraged by good experience in the field at some German and Spanish NPP's. In the paper, solidification techniques in vermiculite-cement matrix and In-Drum Drying System are described briefly. The resulting waste forms (so called solidification and dryer products) and containers that are used for interim storage of these wastes are described as well. A comparison of the drying versus solidification technology is performed and advantages as well as disadvantages are underlined. Experience gained during seven years of system operation has shown that crying technology resulted in volume reduction by factor of 20 for evaporator concentrates, and by factor of 5 for spent ion resin. Special consideration is paid to the characterization of dryer products. For evaporator concentrates the resulting waste form is a solid salt block with up to 5% bound water. It is packaged in stainless steel drums (net volume of 200 l) with bolted lids and lifting rings. The fluidized spent ion resins (primary and blow-down) are sluiced into the spent resin drying tank. The resin is dewatered and dried by electrical jacket heaters. The resulting waste (i.e. fine granulates) is directly discharged into a shielded stainless steel drum with bolted lid and lifting rings. Characterization of both waste forms has been performed in accordance with recommendations given in Characterization of Radioactive Waste Forms and Packages issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997. This means that radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, biological and thermal properties of the waste form has been taken into consideration. In the paper

  5. Drum drying of fabrics

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmelen, D.; Moyne, C.; Perre, R.; Lebois, P.

    1997-10-01

    A study of drying of textile fabrics on a drum heated by natural gas burner is presented. In the first stage of study, the distribution of the heat flux over the outer surface of the drum is calculated by an analytical method. In the second stage, this heat flux is entered in a numerical code able to simulate the heat and mass transfers in porous media. The simulation results validate the analytical model assumptions. Special attention is paid to the contact resistance between the drum and the fabric.

  6. Drum lid removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Pella, Bernard M.; Smith, Philip D.

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  7. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and maintaining areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes in quantities greater than 100 kg (220 lb) per month of solid waste or 55 gallons per month of liquid waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs; constructing a WAA; storing waste in a WAA; operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA. 4 figs.

  8. Impact of Different Standard Type A7A Drum Closure-Ring Practices on Gasket Contraction and Bolt Closure Distance– 15621

    SciTech Connect

    Ketusky, Edward; Blanton, Paul; Bobbitt, John H.

    2015-03-11

    The Department of Energy, the Savannah River National Laboratory, several manufacturers of specification drums, and the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) are collaborating in the development of a guidance document for DOE contractors and vendors who wish to qualify containers to DOT 7A Type A requirements. Currently, the effort is focused on DOT 7A Type A 208-liter (55-gallons) drums with a standard 12-gauge bolted closure ring. The U.S. requirements, contained in Title 49, Part 178.350 “Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A specifies a competent authority review of the packaging is not required for the transport of (Class 7) radioactive material containing less than Type A quantities of radioactive material. For Type AF drums, a 4 ft. regulatory free drop must be performed, such that the drum “suffers maximum damage.” Although the actual orientation is not defined by the specification, recent studies suggest that maximum damage would result from a shallow angle top impact, where kinetic energy is transferred to the lid, ultimately causing heavy damage to the lid, or even worse, causing the lid to come off. Since each vendor develops closure recommendations/procedures for the drums they manufacture, key parameters applied to drums during closing vary based on vendor. As part of the initial phase of the collaboration, the impact of the closure variants on the ability of the drum to suffer maximum damage is investigated. Specifically, closure testing is performed varying: 1) the amount of torque applied to the closure ring bolt; and, 2) stress relief protocol, including: a) weight of hammer; and, b) orientation that the hammer hits the closure ring. After closure, the amount of drum lid gasket contraction and the distance that the closure bolt moves through the closure ring is measured.

  9. Neutron Screening Measurements of 110 gallon drums at T Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Hilliard, James R.; Berg, Randal K.

    2011-01-14

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Service Center was contracted to develop and demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method of assaying 110 gallon drums at the Hanford Site’s T-Plant. The drums contained pucks of crushed old drums used for storage of transuranic (TRU) waste. The drums were to be assayed to determine if they meet the criteria for TRU or Low Level Waste (LLW). Because of the dense matrix (crushed steel drums) gamma measurement techniques were excluded and a mobile, configurable neutron system, consisting of four sequentially connected slab detectors was chosen to be used for this application. An optimum measurement configuration was determined through multiple test measurements with californium source. Based on these measurements the initial calibration of the system was performed applying the isotopic composition for aged weapon-grade plutonium. A series of background and blank puck drum measurements allowed estimating detection limits for both total (singles) and coincidence (doubles) counting techniques. It was found that even conservative estimates for minimum detection concentration using singles count rate were lower than the essential threshold of 100 nCi/g. Whereas the detection limit of coincidence counting appeared to be about as twice as high of the threshold. A series of measurements intended to verify the technique and revise the initial calibration obtained were performed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility with plutonium standards. Standards with a total mass of 0.3 g of plutonium (which is estimated to be equivalent of 100 nCi/g for net waste weight of 300 kg) loaded in the test puck drum were clearly detected. The following measurements of higher plutonium loadings verified the calibration factors obtained in the initial exercise. The revised and established calibration factors were also confirmed within established uncertainties by additional measurements of plutonium

  10. A field evaluation of the predictive value of a hand-held drum pressure detection device.

    PubMed

    Pannell, Michael A; Brandt, Michael T; Boatright, Daniel T

    2004-05-01

    According to Environmental Protection Agency estimates, 20% of hazardous waste drums currently managed in the 6500 known, uncontrolled Superfund removal or remediation sites contain some degree of elevated internal pressurization. This estimate increases to 90% during the summer months, and, overall, up to 5% of the drums stored in active treatment, storage, and disposal facilities may be pressurized. The ability to identify pressurized drums in real-time would enhance worker health and safety, reduce the potential for environmental contamination, and minimize property damage. A prototype hand-held drum pressure detection device was field tested at an active Resource Conservation and Recovery Act mixed waste operation using acoustic resonance spectroscopy technology to identify pressurized drums. The waste operation used a drum venting system that measured the actual drum pressure of retrieved drums. Drum venting system data were analyzed to quantify the ability of the drum pressure detection device to correctly identify drums with elevated internal pressure. After 456 drums were measured, the dichotomous pressure data (pressurized vs. nonpressurized) were analyzed. The relationship between the drum venting system and drum pressure detection device pressure data was found to be statistically significant. With alpha and beta values of 0.05, the negative predictive value was 0.94, the positive predictive value was 0.47, the sensitivity was 0.82, and the specificity was 0.77. Although capable of identifying nonpressurized drums, this instrument may not be appropriate for general use. Study results and critical improvements necessary to improve the instrument's predictive value, specificity, and sensitivity are presented. PMID:15238340

  11. Rotating drum filter

    DOEpatents

    Anson, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  12. Packaging design criteria for the Type B Drum

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, W.S.; Smith, R.J.; Wells, A.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Type B Drum package is a transportation cask capable of shipping a single 55-gal (208 L) drum of transuranic (TRU) waste. The Type B Drum is smaller than existing certified packages, such as the TRUPACT-II cask, but will allow payloads with higher thermal and gas generation rates, thus providing greater operational flexibility. The Type B Drum package has double containment so that plutonium contents and other radioactive material may be transported in Type B quantities. Conceptual designs of unshielded and shielded versions of the Type B Drum were completed in Report on the Conceptual Design of the Unshielded Type B Drum Packaging and Report on the Conceptual Design of the Shielded type B Drum Packaging (WEC 1994a, WEC 1994b), which demonstrated the Type B Drum to be a viable packaging system. A Type B package containment system must withstand the normal conditions of transport and the hypothetical accident conditions, which include a 9-m (30-ft) drop onto an unyielding surface and a 1-m (3-ft) drop onto a 15-cm (6-in.) diameter pin, and a fire and immersion scenarios.

  13. Rotary drum separator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, Michael R. (Inventor); Murdoch, Karen (Inventor); Scull, Timothy D. (Inventor); Fort, James H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rotary phase separator system generally includes a step-shaped rotary drum separator (RDS) and a motor assembly. The aspect ratio of the stepped drum minimizes power for both the accumulating and pumping functions. The accumulator section of the RDS has a relatively small diameter to minimize power losses within an axial length to define significant volume for accumulation. The pumping section of the RDS has a larger diameter to increase pumping head but has a shorter axial length to minimize power losses. The motor assembly drives the RDS at a low speed for separating and accumulating and a higher speed for pumping.

  14. Reference drums used in calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in a 4π counting geometry.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, two kinds of reference drums were developed. One type was constructed with nine layers of large-area sources filled with different materials having five different densities. The other type of reference drums was constructed with nine rod sources filled with the same materials of different densities. The efficiency calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in 4π counting geometry using these two kinds of drums showed that rod-source drums resulted in higher counting efficiency than layered source drums. The counting rates obtained from rod-source drums were closer to those obtained from a standard drum with water solution than counting rates from drums with layered sources. The results of this study recommend to use reference drums with rod-sources to compensate the drawbacks of standard drums with water solution of not being able to adjust the density of material. The proposed reference drums improve the accuracy of radioactivity analysis for waste drums of different densities. PMID:26651167

  15. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    DOEpatents

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  16. Solar drum positioner mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    The need for additional power on spinning satellites required development of deployable solar arrays activated, as on a 3-axis vehicle, after separation from a booster or shuttle orbiter. Mechanisms were developed for telescopically extending a secondary 36.3 kg (80 lb.), 2.13 m (84 in.) diameter spinning solar drum for a distance of 2.0 m (80 in.) or more along the spin axis. After extension, the system has the capability of dynamically controlling the drum tilt angle about the spin axis to provide precision in-orbit balancing of the spacecraft. This approach was selected for the SBS, ANIK C, ANIK D, WESTAR B and PALAPA B satellites. It was successfully demonstrated during the in orbit deployment of the aft solar panels of the SBS F-3 and F-1 satellites, subsequent to the November 1980 and September 1981 launches.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRU WASTE TRANSPORTATION FLEET--A SUCCESS STORY

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Murthy; Morrison, Cindy; Brown, Mike

    2003-02-27

    Since March 1999, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, has been operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO), as a repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. More than 1,450 shipments of TRU waste for WIPP disposal have been completed, and the WIPP is currently receiving 12 to 16 shipments per week from five DOE sites around the nation. One of the largest fleets of Type B packagings supports the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP. This paper discusses the development of this fleet since the original Certificate of Compliance (C of C) for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) was issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1989. Evolving site programs, closure schedules of major sites, and the TRU waste inventory at the various DOE sites have directed the sizing and packaging mix of this fleet. This paper discusses the key issues that guided this fleet development, including the following: While the average weight of a 55-gallon drum packaging debris could be less than 300 pounds (lbs.), drums containing sludge waste or compacted waste could approach the maximum allowable weight of 1,000 lbs. A TRUPACT-II shipment may consist of three TRUPACT-II packages, each of which is limited to a total weight of 19,250 lbs. Payload assembly weights dictated by ''as-built'' TRUPACT-II weights limit each drum to an average weight of 312 lbs when three TRUPACT-IIs are shipped. To optimize the shipment of heavier drums, the HalfPACT packaging was designed as a shorter and lighter version of the TRUPACT-II to accommodate a heavier load. Additional packaging concepts are currently under development, including the ''TRUPACT-III'' packaging being designed to address ''oversized'' boxes that are currently not shippable in the TRUPACT-II or HalfPACT due to size constraints. Shipment optimization is applicable not only to the addition of new

  18. 23. BACKING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. MAIN ENGINE STEP DRUM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BACKING DRUM IN FOREGROUND. MAIN ENGINE STEP DRUM IN CENTER. TO RIGHT NOTE CYLINDER, PISTON ROD CROSSHEAD. AT END OF CRANKSHAFT NOTE WRIST PIN AND CRANE DISK. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  20. Automated Store Management For Drum Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, W.; Lang, R.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes advanced system technology developed for a new Drum Storage Facility to be operated by Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A logistics management concept is applied for the storage of solid rad-wastes in terms of automated handling, transportation and storing as well as in terms of data management. The individual equipments, such as automated Bridge Cranes, Automatic Guided Vehicles and auxiliary systems are introduced in this paper and the store management process is outlined. The authors report furthermore on challenges during the design and engineering phase and review the project implementation from the equipment supplier's end. (authors)

  1. Selective Recovery of Enriched Uranium from Inorganic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, R. T.

    2003-02-26

    Uranium as U(IV) and U(VI) can be selectively recovered from liquids and sludge containing metal precipitates, inorganic salts, sand and silt fines, debris, other contaminants, and slimes, which are very difficult to de-water. Chemical processes such as fuel manufacturing and uranium mining generate enriched and natural uranium-bearing wastes. This patented Framatome ANP (FANP) uranium recovery process reduces uranium losses, significantly offsets waste disposal costs, produces a solid waste that meets mixed-waste disposal requirements, and does not generate metal-contaminated liquids. At the head end of the process is a floating dredge that retrieves liquids, sludge, and slimes in the form of a slurry directly from the floor of a lined surface impoundment (lagoon). The slurry is transferred to and mixed in a feed tank with a turbine mixer and re-circulated to further break down the particles and enhance dissolution of uranium. This process uses direct steam injection and sodium hypochlorite addition to oxidize and dissolves any U(IV). Cellulose is added as a non-reactive filter aid to help filter slimes by giving body to the slurry. The slurry is pumped into a large recessed-chamber filter press then de-watered by a pressure cycle-controlled double-diaphragm pump. U(VI) captured in the filtrate from this process is then precipitated by conversion to U(IV) in another Framatome ANP-patented process which uses a strong reducing agent to crystallize and settle the U(IV) product. The product is then dewatered in a small filter press. To-date, over 3,000 Kgs of U at 3% U-235 enrichment were recovered from a 8100 m2 hypalon-lined surface impoundment which contained about 10,220 m3 of liquids and about 757 m3 of sludge. A total of 2,175 drums (0.208 m3 or 55 gallon each) of solid mixed-wastes have been packaged, shipped, and disposed. In addition, 9463 m3 of low-U liquids at <0.001 KgU/m3 were also further processed and disposed.

  2. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  4. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1200 - Optokinetic drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optokinetic drum. 886.1200 Section 886.1200 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1200 Optokinetic drum. (a) Identification. An optokinetic drum is a drum-like device covered with alternating white and dark stripes or pictures that can...

  7. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  8. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, H.E.

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  9. Drum tie-down apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Harvey E.

    1984-01-01

    A drum tie-down apparatus for securing drum-like containers in an upright position to a floor or platform of a transportation vehicle having spaced apart cargo tie-down points. The apparatus comprises a pair of cylindrical, hollow tube segments horizontally oriented and engageable with a drum lid adjacent opposite rim edges, flexible strap segments for connecting upper and lower central portions of the tube segments together across the drum lid and a pair of elongated flexible tie-down segments, one extending horizontally through each of the tube segments, the ends thereof being attached to said spaced apart tie-down points such that end portions of the pair of tie-down segments extend downwardly and radially outwardly from the tube segments to the tie-down points.

  10. Segmented Gamma Scanner for Small Containers of Uranium Processing Waste- 12295

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, K.E.; Smith, S.K.; Gailey, S.; Nakazawa, D.R.; Venkataraman, R.

    2012-07-01

    The Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) is commonly utilized in the assay of 55-gallon drums containing radioactive waste. Successfully deployed calibration methods include measurement of vertical line source standards in representative matrices and mathematical efficiency calibrations. The SGS technique can also be utilized to assay smaller containers, such as those used for criticality safety in uranium processing facilities. For such an application, a Can SGS System is aptly suited for the identification and quantification of radionuclides present in fuel processing wastes. Additionally, since the significant presence of uranium lumping can confound even a simple 'pass/fail' measurement regimen, the high-resolution gamma spectroscopy allows for the use of lump-detection techniques. In this application a lump correction is not required, but the application of a differential peak approach is used to simply identify the presence of U-235 lumps. The Can SGS is similar to current drum SGSs, but differs in the methodology for vertical segmentation. In the current drum SGS, the drum is placed on a rotator at a fixed vertical position while the detector, collimator, and transmission source are moved vertically to effect vertical segmentation. For the Can SGS, segmentation is more efficiently done by raising and lowering the rotator platform upon which the small container is positioned. This also reduces the complexity of the system mechanism. The application of the Can SGS introduces new challenges to traditional calibration and verification approaches. In this paper, we revisit SGS calibration methodology in the context of smaller waste containers, and as applied to fuel processing wastes. Specifically, we discuss solutions to the challenges introduced by requiring source standards to fit within the confines of the small containers and the unavailability of high-enriched uranium source standards. We also discuss the implementation of a previously used technique for

  11. TRU waste-sampling program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.L.; Zerwekh, A.

    1985-08-01

    As part of a TRU waste-sampling program, Los Alamos National Laboratory retrieved and examined 44 drums of /sup 238/Pu- and /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste. The drums ranged in age from 8 months to 9 years. The majority of drums were tested for pressure, and gas samples withdrawn from the drums were analyzed by a mass spectrometer. Real-time radiography and visual examination were used to determine both void volumes and waste content. Drum walls were measured for deterioration, and selected drum contents were reassayed for comparison with original assays and WIPP criteria. Each drum tested at atmospheric pressure. Mass spectrometry revealed no problem with /sup 239/Pu-contaminated waste, but three 8-month-old drums of /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste contained a potentially hazardous gas mixture. Void volumes fell within the 81 to 97% range. Measurements of drum walls showed no significant corrosion or deterioration. All reassayed contents were within WIPP waste acceptance criteria. Five of the drums opened and examined (15%) could not be certified as packaged. Three contained free liquids, one had corrosive materials, and one had too much unstabilized particulate. Eleven drums had the wrong (or not the most appropriate) waste code. In many cases, disposal volumes had been inefficiently used. 2 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-03-31

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site.

  13. Hand-Drumming to Build Community: The Story of the Whittier Drum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nathan Neil

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares the story of the Whittier Drum Project and how it succeeded. The Whittier Drum Project has brought the community together through the talents of youth and their dedication to drumming, and has used drumming to link professionals to their own communities. The author adapted the model to meet the therapeutic needs…

  14. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  15. Re-evaluation of the 1995 Hanford Large Scale Drum Fire Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J M

    2007-05-02

    A large-scale drum performance test was conducted at the Hanford Site in June 1995, in which over one hundred (100) 55-gal drums in each of two storage configurations were subjected to severe fuel pool fires. The two storage configurations in the test were pallet storage and rack storage. The description and results of the large-scale drum test at the Hanford Site were reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246, ''Solid Waste Drum Array Fire Performance,'' Rev. 0, 1995. This was one of the main references used to develop the analytical methodology to predict drum failures in WHC-SD-SQA-ANAL-501, 'Fire Protection Guide for Waste Drum Storage Array,'' September 1996. Three drum failure modes were observed from the test reported in WHC-SD-WM-TRP-246. They consisted of seal failure, lid warping, and catastrophic lid ejection. There was no discernible failure criterion that distinguished one failure mode from another. Hence, all three failure modes were treated equally for the purpose of determining the number of failed drums. General observations from the results of the test are as follows: {lg_bullet} Trash expulsion was negligible. {lg_bullet} Flame impingement was identified as the main cause for failure. {lg_bullet} The range of drum temperatures at failure was 600 C to 800 C. This is above the yield strength temperature for steel, approximately 540 C (1,000 F). {lg_bullet} The critical heat flux required for failure is above 45 kW/m{sup 2}. {lg_bullet} Fire propagation from one drum to the next was not observed. The statistical evaluation of the test results using, for example, the student's t-distribution, will demonstrate that the failure criteria for TRU waste drums currently employed at nuclear facilities are very conservative relative to the large-scale test results. Hence, the safety analysis utilizing the general criteria described in the five bullets above will lead to a technically robust and defensible product that bounds the potential consequences from postulated

  16. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  17. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  6. Percussion Discussion: Using Drums To Reconnect Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, John; Harris, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Reports on a therapeutic program for juvenile offenders that uses drum playing and drum building to provide alternatives for youth activities. Drums play five important roles for youth: creating a sense of community, reconnecting with history and heritage, promoting healing, educating, and celebrating victories or rites of passage. Provides…

  7. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum flanges. 57.19011 Section 57.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19011 Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grooved drums. 56.19012 Section 56.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size and...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19012 - Grooved drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grooved drums. 57.19012 Section 57.19012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Hoists § 57.19012 Grooved drums. Where grooved drums are used, the grooves shall be of suitable size...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19011 - Drum flanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum flanges. 56.19011 Section 56.19011 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Drum flanges. Flanges on drums shall extend radially a minimum of 4 inches or three rope...

  18. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  19. Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-12-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU. The mobile feature of WIT allows inspection technologies to be brought to the nuclear waste drum storage site without the need to relocate drums for safe, rapid, and cost-effective characterization of regulated nuclear waste. The combination of these WIT characterization modalities provides the inspector with an unprecedented ability to non-invasively characterize the regulated contents of waste drums as large as 110 gallons, weighing up to 1,600 pounds. Any objects that fit within these size and weight restrictions can also be inspected on WIT, such as smaller waste bags and drums that are five and thirty-five gallons.

  20. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Miles Conley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur

    2002-08-01

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module.

  1. Machine Vision for Object Detection and Profiling in an Unstructured Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, R.A.; Walton, M.C.

    2002-05-23

    The Handling and Sorting System for 55-Gallon Drums (HANDSS-55) is a DOE project to develop an automated method for retrieving items that are not acceptable at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) from 55-gallon drums of low-level waste. The HANDSS-55 is a modular system that opens drums, sorts the waste, and then repackages the remaining waste in WIPP compliant barrels. The Sorting Station module relies on a non-contact measurement system to quickly provide a 3D profile of the sorting area. It then analyses the 3D profile and a color image to determine the position and orientation of an operator selected waste item. The item is then removed from the sorting area by a robotic arm. The use of both image and profile information for object determination provides a fast, effective method of finding and retrieving selected objects in the unstructured environment of the sorting module.

  2. Guidelines for Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs) at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to set conditions for establishing and containing areas for the accumulation of hazardous waste at LBL. Areas designed for accumulation of these wastes for up to 90 days in quantities greater than 55 gallons (208 liters) of hazardous waste, one quart (0.946 liter) of extremely hazardous waste, or one quart (0.946 liter) of acutely hazardous waste are called Waste Accumulation Areas (WAAs). Areas designed for accumulation of wastes in smaller amounts are called Satellite Accumulation Areas (SAAs). This document provides guidelines for employee and organizational responsibilities for WAAs, constructing a WAA, storing waste in a WAA, operating and maintaining a WAA, and responding to spills in a WAA.

  3. Prairie Island Nuclear Station Spent Filter Processing for Direct Disposal - 12333

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H. Michael

    2012-07-01

    This paper will discuss WMG's filter processing experience within the commercial nuclear power industry, specifically recent experience processing high activity spent filters generated by Xcel Energy's Prairie Island Nuclear Station (Prairie Island), located in Welch, MN. WMG processed for disposal eighty-four 55-gallon drums filled with varying types of high activity spent filters. The scope of work involved characterization, packaging plan development, transport to the WMG's Off-Site Processing location, shredding the filter contents of each drum, cement solidifying the shredded filter material, and finally shipping the solidified container of shredded filter material to Clive, Utah where the container was presented to EnergySolutions Disposal site for disposal in their Containerised Waste Facility. This sequence of events presented in this paper took place a total of nine (9) times over a period of four weeks. All 1294 filters were successfully solidified into nine (9) -WMG 142 steel liners, and each was successfully disposed of as Class A Waste at EnergySolutions Disposal Site in Clive, Utah. Prairie Island's waste material was unique in that all its filters were packaged in 55-gallon drums; and since the station packaged its filters in drums it was much easier to develop packaging plans for such a large volume of legacy filters. For this author, having over 20-years of waste management experiences, storing and shipping waste material in 55-gallon drums is not immediately thought of as a highly efficient method of managing its waste material. However, Prairie Island's use of 55-gallon drums to store and package its filters provided a significant advantage. Drums could be mixed and matched to provide the most efficient processing method while still meeting the Waste Class A limits required for disposal. (author)

  4. A Probabilistic Performance Assessment Study of Potential Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Mattie, P. D.; Kuo, M.; Tien, N.

    2006-12-01

    For several years now, Taiwan has been engaged in a process to select a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. Taiwan is generating LLW from operational and decommissioning wastes associated with nuclear power reactors, as well as research, industrial, and medical radioactive wastes. The preliminary selection process has narrowed the search to four potential candidate sites. These sites are to be evaluated in a performance assessment analysis to determine the likelihood of meeting the regulatory criteria for disposal. Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research have been working together to develop the necessary performance assessment methodology and associated computer models to perform these analyses. The methodology utilizes both deterministic (e.g., single run) and probabilistic (e.g., multiple statistical realizations) analyses to achieve the goals. The probabilistic approach provides a means of quantitatively evaluating uncertainty in the model predictions and a more robust basis for performing sensitivity analyses to better understand what is driving the dose predictions from the models. Two types of disposal configurations are under consideration: a shallow land burial concept and a cavern disposal concept. The shallow land burial option includes a protective cover to limit infiltration potential to the waste. Both conceptual designs call for the disposal of 55 gallon waste drums within concrete lined trenches or tunnels, and backfilled with grout. Waste emplaced in the drums may be solidified. Both types of sites are underlain or placed within saturated fractured bedrock material. These factors have influenced the conceptual model development of each site, as well as the selection of the models to employ for the performance assessment analyses. Several existing codes were integrated in order to facilitate a comprehensive performance assessment methodology to evaluate the potential disposal sites. First, a need

  5. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

    2005-09-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27°C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully “gettered” by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in

  6. Transport characteristics across drum filter vents and polymer bags

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    The rate at which hydrogen (H {sub 2}) or a volatile organic compound (VOC) exits a layer of confinement in a vented waste drum is proportional to the concentration difference across the layer. The proportionality constant is the gas transport characteristic. A series of transport experiments were conducted to determine H{sub 2} and VOC transport characteristics across different drum filter vents and polymer bags. This report reviews the methods and results of past investigators in defining transport characteristics across filter vents and polymer bags, describes the apparatus and procedures used in these experiments, compares the reported and estimated transport characteristics with earlier results, and discusses the impact of changing the transport characteristic values used in model calculations.

  7. 13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  8. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  9. Hand-drumming to build community: the story of the Whittier Drum Project.

    PubMed

    Stone, Nathan Neil

    2005-01-01

    Over the years, the author participated in drum circles and classes in Denver, Fort Collins, and Boulder, Colorado. He noticed that drumming made him feel grounded and at peace. Drumming is very accessible, not like playing the piano or violin. Simple rhythms can be taught to people with no drumming experience very quickly and an ensemble rhythm created with a group in one sitting. Drumming turned out to be a highly effective way to engage with young people not only to address their individual spirits but to join with others to create a community. PMID:16170932

  10. ANALYSIS OF AVAILABLE HYDROGEN DATA & ACCUMULATION OF HYDROGEN IN UNVENTED TRANSURANIC (TRU) DRUMS

    SciTech Connect

    DAYLEY, L

    2004-06-24

    This document provides a response to the second action required in the approval for the Justification for Continued Operations (JCO) Assay and Shipment of Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers in 218-W-4C. The Waste Management Project continues to make progress toward shipping certified TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). As the existing inventory of TRU waste in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) storage buildings is shipped, and the uncovered inventory is removed from the trenches and prepared for shipment from the Hanford Site, the covered inventory of suspect TRU wastes must be retrieved and prepared for processing for shipment to WIPP. Accumulation of hydrogen in unvented TRU waste containers is a concern due to the possibility of explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. The frequency and consequence of these gas mixtures resulting in an explosion must be addressed. The purpose of this study is to recommend an approach and schedule for venting TRU waste containers in the low-level burial ground (LLBG) trenches in conjunction with TRU Retrieval Project activities. This study provides a detailed analysis of the expected probability of hydrogen gas accumulation in significant quantities in unvented drums. Hydrogen gas accumulation in TRU drums is presented and evaluated in the following three categories: Hydrogen concentrations less than 5 vol%; Hydrogen between 5-15 vol%; and Hydrogen concentrations above 15 vol%. This analysis is based on complex-wide experience with TRU waste drums, available experimental data, and evaluations of storage conditions. Data reviewed in this report includes experience from the Idaho National Environmental Engineering Laboratories (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratories, (ORNL), Rocky Flats sites, Matrix Depletion Program and the National Transportation and Packaging Program. Based on this analysis, as well as an assessment of the probability and

  11. Neutron absorber inserts for 55-gal drums

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Kim, Y.S.; Toffer, H.

    2000-07-01

    Transport and temporary storage of more than 200 g of fissile material in 55-gal drums at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have received significant attention during the cleanup mission. This paper discusses successful applications and results of extensive computer studies. Interim storage and movement of fissile material in excess of standard drum limits (200 g) in a safe configuration have been accomplished using special drum inserts. Such inserts have constrained the contents of a drum to two 4-{ell} bottles. The content of the bottles was limited to 600 g Pu or U in solution or a total of 1200 g for the entire drum. The inserts were a simple design constructed of stainless steel, forming a vertical cylindrical pipe into which two bottles, one on top of the other, could be centered in the drum. The remaining drum volume was configured to preclude any additional bottle placement external to the vertical cylinder. Such inserts in drums were successfully used in moving high-concentration solution from one building to another for chemical processing. Concern about the knowledge of fissile material concentration in bottles prompted another study for drum inserts. The past practice had been to load up to fourteen 4-{ell} bottles into 55-gal drums, provided the fissile material concentration was <6 g fissile/{ell}, and the total drum contents of 200 g fissile was not exceeded. Only one determination of the solution concentration was needed. An extensive safety analysis concluded that a single measurement of bottle content could not ensure compliance with double-contingency-criterion requirements. A second determination of the bottle contents was required before bottles could be placed in a 55-gal drum. Al alternative to a dual-measurement protocol, which is for bolstering administrative control, was to develop an engineered safety feature that would eliminate expensive tests and administrative decisions. A drum insert design was evaluated that

  12. Drum plug piercing and sampling device and method

    DOEpatents

    Counts, Kevin T.

    2011-04-26

    An apparatus and method for piercing a drum plug of a drum in order to sample and/or vent gases that may accumulate in a space of the drum is provided. The drum is not damaged and can be reused since the pierced drum plug can be subsequently replaced. The apparatus includes a frame that is configured for engagement with the drum. A cylinder actuated by a fluid is mounted to the frame. A piercer is placed into communication with the cylinder so that actuation of the cylinder causes the piercer to move in a linear direction so that the piercer may puncture the drum plug of the drum.

  13. Ellie Mannette: Master of the Steel Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elliot ("Ellie") Mannette who has played a major role in the development and application of steel drums. States that he has spent most of his life designing and teaching the steel drums. Covers interview topics and background information on Mannette. (CMK)

  14. Drum Circles and the National Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The beauty of hand drums is that a child of nearly any age can grab one and get a sound. So how can classroom teachers incorporate this enjoyable activity into something that's actually educational? For young students especially, a drum circle can be liberating. Children can be given various responsibilities--as participants, circle organizers,…

  15. A NOVEL APPROACH TO DRUM VENTING AND DRUM MONITORINGe/pj

    SciTech Connect

    Ohl, P.C.; Farwick, C.C.; Douglas, D.G.; Cruz, E.J.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the details and specifications associated with drum venting and drum monitoring technologies, and discusses the maturity of in-place systems and current applications. Each year, unventilated drums pressurize and develop bulges and/or breaches that can result in potentially hazardous explosions, posing undesirable hazards to workers and the environment. Drum venting is accomplished by the safe and simple installation of ventilated lids at the time of packaging, or by the inherently risky in-situ ventilation (depressurization) of ''bulged'' drums. Drum monitoring employs either a Magnetically Coupled Pressure Gauge (MCPG) Patent Pending and/or a Magnetically Coupled Corrosion Gauge (MCCG) Patent Pending. Through patented magnetic sensor coupling, these devices enable the noninvasive and remote monitoring of the potentially hazardous materials and/or spent nuclear fuel that is contained in 55-gal drums and associated steel overpack containers.

  16. Environmental policy -- A leaking drum?

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1995-07-01

    Twenty years ago, the US had virtually no overall environmental policy. Since then, one has evolved as a result of accumulated legislation, much of which was crafted in reaction to specific events, typically real or potential disasters. The familiar names of Love Canal, Times Beach, Bhopal and others are the symbolic anchor points of that evolution, which yielded Superfund, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, and other environmental statutes. The laws in each case were developed in response to particular environmental and health issues--clean water for drinking and recreation, unpolluted air, safe production of chemicals and chemical-based products. The result was a growing body of environmental legislation that eventually became an accumulate of requirements lacking internal consistency or coherence. Because policymaking followed, rather than guided, legislative actions, the policy itself became inconsistent and sometimes illogical. Like a drum that gradually and indiscriminately is filled with a mixture of mutually reactive chemicals, environmental policy increasingly became a volatile source of concern for those industries in whose midst it had been placed. Lately, there is growing consensus that the drum not only has been overfilled, it also is leaking.

  17. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Di Massa, F.V.; Elliott, D.B.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 2, the Baseline Detail.

  18. Measurement and calibration of metal and non-metal wastes produced from decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2014-05-01

    This report described a radioactive waste reference drum which was established with large-area sources and metal slices. This reference drum could be applied in calibration or testing of drum counting systems having 4π counting geometry and being made with plastic scintillators. This metal reference drum has the advantages of easy operation, low natural background and it also has agreeable measurement efficiency calibration curves for the drum counting system as the non-metal reference drum studied previously. On the other hand, this study explored the counting efficiency variations of the drum counting system by simulations of the metal reference drum being filled with wastes up to different heights within the drum. With the exploration, it is feasible to correct the measurement errors caused by different quantities of waste filling. PMID:24342558

  19. Color image digitization and analysis for drum inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.C.; Armstrong, G.A.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Ward, C.R.

    1993-05-01

    A rust inspection system that uses color analysis to find rust spots on drums has been developed. The system is composed of high-resolution color video equipment that permits the inspection of rust spots on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1-in.) in diameter. Because of the modular nature of the system design, the use of open systems software (X11, etc.), the inspection system can be easily integrated into other environmental restoration and waste management programs. The inspection system represents an excellent platform for the integration of other color inspection and color image processing algorithms.

  20. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  1. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  2. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  3. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  4. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  5. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum;...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor... Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents. (b) A temporarily...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor... Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents. (b) A temporarily...

  9. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  13. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  16. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  17. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  18. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  19. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  20. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips after making...

  3. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor... Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents. (b) A temporarily...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one full turn around the drum spoke; (2) Securely by clips...

  7. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plywood drums. 178.507 Section 178...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:...

  8. 52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EXTERIOR DETAIL VIEW OF A SPARE DRUM FOR A FRENIER PUMP. THE CHARCOAL HOUSE IS IN THE BACKGROUND AND THE DRUM LEANING AGAINST THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL ANNEX. NOTE THE WELDS IN THE DRUM, THEY DELINEATE THE SPIRAL LEADING TO THE CENTER OF THE DRUM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  9. A Sludge Drum in the APNea System

    SciTech Connect

    Hensley, D.

    1998-11-17

    The assay of sludge drums pushes the APNea System to a definite extreme. Even though it seems clear that neutron based assay should be the method of choice for sludge drums, the difficulties posed by this matrix push any NDA technique to its limits. Special emphasis is given here to the differential die-away technique, which appears to approach the desired sensitivity. A parallel analysis of ethafoam drums will be presented, since the ethafoam matrix fits well within the operating range of the AIWea System, and, having been part of the early PDP trials, has been assayed by many in the NDA community.

  10. Application of spectral summing to indeterminate suspect low-level drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M; Veilleux, John M; Lucero, Randy P; Seamans, Jr., James V; Clapham, Martin J

    2010-11-09

    An analytical technique developed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation (PSC), utilizing spectral summing of spectra from groups of drums of similar waste type, is being employed by the Waste Disposition Project - Low Level Waste Disposal (WDP-LLWD) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technique has been used to disposition low-level radioactive waste that has dropped out of the transuranic (TRU) category and has no place to go unless it can be proven to be LLW and not TRU. The TRU program at LANL run by Mobile Characterization Services (MCS) employs two High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENC) with built-in gamma assay systems to assay radioactive waste for shipment and disposal as TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico. As well as being certified for WIPP assays, the HENC systems can also be used for low-level waste assays for disposal at LANL or off-site disposal facilities, such as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Some of the waste processed through the HENC systems cannot be confinned TRU due to the absence of detected TRU alpha emitters above the TRU cutoff of 100 nCi/g. This waste becomes suspect low-level waste (SLLW). In many cases, the waste also can't be classified as LLW because the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of TRU radio nuclides is above the 100 nCi/g level. These wastes that do not have enough detectable TRU activity to be classified as TRU waste and have too high a MDA to be classified as LLW enter a radioactive waste characterization indetenninate status that prevents their dispositioning as either TRU waste or LLW. Spectral summing allows an experienced ganuna spectroscopy analyst to add the HENC gamma spectra of a number of similar waste items together to form a consolidated (summed) spectrum. This summed spectrum contains the assay results of the group of items rather than the individual item, and gamma peaks that were not discernable in the individual spectra can become quantifiable in the

  11. Interpreting honeycomb climbing-drum peel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferdie, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Drum-peel tests are made more meaningful by use of approximations to derive analytical expressions relating failures due to bond flatwise tension, inplane tension, and shear, to adhesive weight and method of bond cure.

  12. Application of spectral summing to indeterminate suspect low-level drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M; Veilleux, John M; Lucero, Randy P; Seamans, Jr, J. V.; Clapham, M. J.

    2011-01-27

    waste items can then be properly classified as LLW waste on the summed spectrum and valid assay values can be assigned for disposal. This technique has been successfully applied to a set of 52 debris drums - with individual MDA > 100nCi/g - with a resulting group total TRU alpha activity concentration below 40nCi/g. Further application of the technique at LANL to other debris drums and sludge drums that were measured on a WIPP certified HENe is planned and good candidate drum sets are being evaluated.

  13. Measurement of VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC solubility in polyethylene drum liner

    SciTech Connect

    Liekhus, K.J.; Peterson, E.S.

    1995-03-01

    A test program conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated the use of a transport model to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration in the void volume of a waste drum. Unsteady-state VOC transport model equations account for VOC permeation of polymer bags, VOC diffusion across openings in layers of confinement, and VOC solubility in a polyethylene drum liner. In support of this program, the VOC permeability of polymer bags and VOC equilibrium concentration in a polyethylene drum liner were measured for nine VOCs. The VOCs used in experiments were dichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methanol, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (Freon-113), trichloroethylene, and p-xylene. The experimental results of these measurements as well as a method of estimating both parameters in the absence of experimental data are described in this report.

  14. Hazards associated with retrieval and storage of legacy waste at the Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pannell, M.A.; Grogin, P.W.; Langford, R.R.

    1998-03-01

    Approximately 17,000 containers of solid transuranic and hazardous waste have been stored beneath earthen cover for nearly twenty years at Technical Area 4 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The mission of the Transuranic Waste Inspectable Storage Project (TWISP) is to retrieve, vent, and place these containers into an inspectable storage configuration in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, prior to final disposition at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Significant hazards currently identified with TWISP activities include: (1) the pressurization of drums; (2) volatilization of organic compounds (VOCs) within the drums; and (3) the generation of elevated hydrogen levels by certain waste streams. Based on the retrieval of 15% of the waste containers, the following preliminary conclusions are presented to better protect personnel and the environment: (1) the likelihood of unvented drums becoming pressurized increases when environmental conditions change; (2) pressurized drums must be vented before they become bulging drums; (3) vented drums present the potential for VOC emissions and personnel exposure; (4) the vapor pressure and boiling points of waste stream constituents may be an indication of the likelihood of VOC emissions from stored hazardous waste containers; (5) large numbers of co-located vented drums may present the potential of increased hydrogen and VOC concentrations within unventilated storage domes; (6) monitoring and sampling vented drum storage domes is necessary to ensure that the levels of risk to drum handlers and inspection personnel are acceptable; (7) identifying, tagging, and segregating special case drums is necessary to prevent personnel overexposures and preclude environmental contamination; (8) applying rust inhibitor prolongs the useful life of waste containers stored under earthen cover; (9) acoustic drum pressure detection may be a viable tool in assessing elevated drum pressures.

  15. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-10-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU.

  16. Fuzzy control of a boiler steam drum

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.; Crockett, W.K.

    1995-10-01

    The authors controlled the inlet water flow to a dynamic model of a steam drum using fuzzy logic. The drum level varied little with step inputs in steam flow. The fuzzy logic controller performed at least as well as a well-tuned traditional PI (which is notoriously difficult to tune). Using plant data in the model provided further evidence that fuzzy logic control gave excellent results. The drum level is a function of inlet water, steam production, and blowdown. To compensate for upsets caused by steam production, independent variables used in the fuzzy controller were drum level and change in drum level. The dependent variable was the change required in the inlet flow. By modeling a 175,000 lb/hr Riley-Stoker boiler, they determined the universe of discourse for each of the three variables. Three triangular and two trapezoidal membership functions characterize each of these universes. The knowledge of experts provided the fuzzy associative memory (FAM) for the variables. The authors modeled the complete dynamic system using Tutsim (Tutsim Products, 200 California Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94306).

  17. Process Modeling and Analysis for Radioactive Solid Waste Management at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D.E.; Parker, R.Y.; Gonzales-Lujan, J.M.

    2006-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has created a discrete-event simulation model of the nuclear waste drum characterization operations the 'processing/inspection - Los Alamos model of drums equivalent' ({pi} a la mode). This model takes drum inventory data, process-related information, and planned processing priorities related to the solid-waste management operations at Los Alamos to assess the resulting characterization process and resulting schedule for drum shipments to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The model tracks the drum inventory, material inventory, and equipment as a function of time. Data from the model and some sample results are presented in this paper. (authors)

  18. Intelligent Mobile Sensor System for drum inspection and monitoring -- Volume 1. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in the narrow free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The first phase demonstrated an integrated system (maturity level IVa) for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle.

  19. COMBINED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION TECHNIQUES TO IDENTIFY BURIED WASTE IN AN UNCONTROLLED LANDFILL AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Peter T.; Starmer, R. John

    2003-02-27

    The primary objective of the investigation was to confirm the presence and determine the location of a cache of 30 to 60 buried 55-gallon drums that were allegedly dumped along the course of the pre-existing, northsouth diversion ditch (NSDD) adjacent to permitted landfills at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky. The ditch had been rerouted and was being filled and re-graded at the time of the alleged dumping. Historic information and interviews with individuals associated with alleged dumping activities indicated that the drums were dumped prior to the addition of other fill materials. In addition, materials alleged to have been dumped in the ditch, such as buried roofing materials, roof flashing, metal pins, tar substances, fly ash, and concrete rubble complicated data interpretation. Some clean fill materials have been placed over the site and graded. This is an environment that is extremely complicated in terms of past waste dumping activities, construction practices and miscellaneous landfill operations. The combination of site knowledge gained from interviews and research of existing site maps, variable frequency EM data, classical total magnetic field data and optimized GPR lead to success where a simpler less focused approach by other investigators using EM-31 and EM-61 electromagnetic methods and unfocused ground penetrating radar (GPR)did not produce results and defined no real anomalies. A variable frequency electromagnetic conductivity unit was used to collect the EM data at 3,030 Hz, 5,070 Hz, 8,430 Hz, and 14,010 Hz. Both in-phase and quadrature components were recorded at each station point. These results provided depth estimates for targets and some information on the subsurface conditions. A standard magnetometer was used to conduct the magnetic survey that showed the locations and extent of buried metal, the approximate volume of ferrous metal present within a particular area, and allowed estimation of approximate target depths. The GPR

  20. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives. PMID:26080900

  1. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives. PMID:26080900

  2. Experimental Avalanches in a Rotating Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubard, Aline; O'Hern, Corey; Shattuck, Mark

    We address the question of universality in granular avalanches and the system size effects on it. We set up an experiment made from a quasi-two-dimensional rotating drum half-filled with a monolayer of stainless-steel spheres. We measure the size of the avalanches created by the increased gravitational stress on the pile as we quasi-statically rotate the drum. We find two kinds of avalanches determined by the drum size. The size and duration distributions of the avalanches that do not span the whole system follow a power law and the avalanche shapes are self-similar and nearly parabolic. The distributions of the avalanches that span the whole system are limited by the maximal amount of potential energy stored in the system at the moment of the avalanche. NSF CMMI-1462439, CMMI-1463455.

  3. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The..., with their grains crosswise. (3) The body and heads of the drum and their joints must be of a...

  4. 25. View of drum girder, with machinecontrol room above, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. View of drum girder, with machine-control room above, and drum rollers on center pivot pier. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  5. 1. UPPER SEGMENT OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, DRUM GATES ALONG SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. UPPER SEGMENT OF SPILLWAY CHANNEL, DRUM GATES ALONG SIDE OF CHANNEL, LOOKING SOUTH (up the channel) - Tieton Dam, Spillway & Drum Gates, South & East side of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  6. 6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM AT THE STEWARD MINE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST DRUM WAS UNDER SHOT, THE WEST OVERSHOT - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  7. 4. SPILLWAY DRUM GATES AND CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST (upstream face ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SPILLWAY DRUM GATES AND CHANNEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST (upstream face and Control House in background) - Tieton Dam, Spillway & Drum Gates, South & East side of State Highway 12, Naches, Yakima County, WA

  8. Development of interpersonal coordination between peers during a drumming task.

    PubMed

    Endedijk, Hinke M; Ramenzoni, Veronica C O; Cox, Ralf F A; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Bekkering, Harold; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-05-01

    During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their drumming with a peer. Results showed that all children adapted their drumming to their partner's drumming by starting and stopping their drumming in a coordinated fashion, but only 4-year-olds adapted the rhythmic structure of their drumming to their partner's drumming. In all age groups, children showed similarly stable drumming. Typically, it was 1 of the 2 children who initiated drumming throughout the session. The results of this study offer new insights into the development of interpersonal coordination abilities in early childhood. PMID:25775110

  9. Information Gathering Document 0321-1437-30-R-OG

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-07-15

    Fines and turnings from machining depleted uranium (Dep-U), natural uranium (Nat-U), and Thorium-232, and stainless steel and aluminum. This IGO allows only small, oxidizable pieces of Dep-U/Nat-U/Th-232, with regulated metal contaminants below regulatory limits. Fines and turnings will be in 30 gallon vented drums immersed in mineral oil. The 30 gallon drums will be overpacked in 55 gallon vented drums. The waste will be stored on site until sent for stabilization & disposal with approved TSOFs.

  10. Tensioning of a belt around a drum using membrane element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    An application of the membrane element to the problem of the tensioning of a conveyer belt which wraps around a drum is presented. Two cases were investigated: (1) belt tension increase due to drum edge wear; and (2) material trapped between the drum and the belt. In both cases it was found that the increase in belt tension was due to the additional stretching of the belt resulting from the drum radius change rather than from the transverse deflection of the belt.

  11. Health assessment for Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site, Franklin, Wisconsin, Region 5. CERCLIS No. WID980901227. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-06

    The Fadrowski Drum Disposal Site is listed on the National Priorities List. Virtually no testing has been conducted at the Fadrowski site. Site characterization was only beginning at the time of the site visit. The only testing that had been done was of the contents of drums uncovered during excavations involved in construction. Samples of the contents of the drums - sludges, oily water, and paint waste - showed concentrations of lead (400 - 32,700 ppm), chromium (< 100 - 6,800 ppm), DDT (p.p. DDT - 1,000 ppm; o.p. DDT - 450 ppm), and petroleum distillates. The uncovered wastes were re-covered with clay. At that time, the presence of hazardous materials on site was verified, but the extent and limits of contamination were not and have not yet been determined.

  12. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The... heads of the drum and their joints must be of a design appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the drum. (4) The assembled packaging must be sufficiently water-resistant so as not to...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  15. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  16. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  18. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor... § 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists. (a) General requirements. (1) Exposed moving parts such as gears... is ineffective. (4) All base-mounted drum hoists in use shall meet the applicable requirements...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making...

  7. Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, R.T.; Han, Kyung S.

    1994-11-01

    This article describes the Waste Inspection Tomography Program. The program provides an inspection system that offers the nuclear waste evaluator a unique combination of tools for regulatory-driven characterization of low-level waste, transuranic waste, and mixed waste drums. WIT provides nondestructive, noninvasive and environmentally safe inspections using x-ray and gamma ray technologies with reasonable cost and throughput. included are background information; project description; and results. 11 figs.

  8. A Novel and Cost Effective Approach to the Decommissioning and Decontamination of Legacy Glove Boxes - Minimizing TRU Waste and Maximizing LLW Waste - 13634

    SciTech Connect

    Pancake, Daniel; Rock, Cynthia M.; Creed, Richard; Donohoue, Tom; Martin, E. Ray; Mason, John A.; Norton, Christopher J.; Crosby, Daniel; Nachtman, Thomas J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the process of decommissioning two gloveboxes at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) that were employed for work with plutonium and other radioactive materials. The decommissioning process involved an initial phase of clearing tools and materials from the glove boxes and disconnecting them from the laboratory infrastructure. The removed materials, assessed as Transuranic (TRU) waste, were packaged into 55 gallon (200 litre) drums and prepared for ultimate disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad New Mexico. The boxes were then sampled to determine the radioactive contents by means of smears that were counted with alpha and beta detectors to determine the residual surface contamination, especially in terms of alpha particle emitters that are an indicator of TRU activity. Paint chip samples were also collected and sent for laboratory analysis in order to ascertain the radioactive contamination contributing to the TRU activity as a fixed contamination. The investigations predicted that it may be feasible to reduce the residual surface contamination and render the glovebox structure low level waste (LLW) for disposal. In order to reduce the TRU activity a comprehensive decontamination process was initiated using chemical compounds that are particularly effective for lifting and dissolving radionuclides that adhere to the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes. The result of the decontamination process was a reduction in the TRU surface activity on the inner surfaces of the gloveboxes by four orders of magnitude in terms of disintegrations per unit area (DPA). The next phase of the process involved a comprehensive assay of the gloveboxes using a combination of passive neutron and gamma ray scintillation detectors and a shielded and collimated high purity Germanium (HPGe) gamma ray detector. The HPGe detector was used to obtain gamma ray spectra for a variety of measurement positions within the glovebox. The spectra were used to

  9. Extendible column can be stowed on drum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtz, G. M.; Howard, E. A.

    1965-01-01

    Column formed from a series of segments held together by an internal spring or cable can be coiled on a drum or extended into a rigid structure. This storable coil is useful in boring for soil samples and supporting electrical and optical sensors.

  10. Microsatellite primers for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this note, we document polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) primer pairs for 101, nuclear-encoded microsatellites designed and developed from a red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) genomic library. The 101 microsatellites (Genbank Accession Numbers EU015882-EU015982) were amplified successfully and used to...

  11. Test plan for a live drum survey using the gamma-neutron sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, R.J.; Roybal, L.G.; Thompson, D.N.

    1995-07-01

    This plan describes performance tests to be made with the Gamma/Neutron Sensor (GNS), which that was designed and built for infield assay at an excavation site. The performance tests will be performed in Building WMF-628 in the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on stored 55-gal drums of transuranic waste from the Rocky Flats Plant. The GNS is mounted on a wooden pallet that will allow horizontal and vertical scans of the stacked drums. Scanning speed and GNS sensitivity for gamma and neutron radiation fields will be estimated. Effects of temperature, electronic, and acoustic noise will be evaluated. Two- and three-dimensional plots of radiation field as a function of position will be developed from the data.

  12. Food of freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, Michael T.

    1982-01-01

    The abundance of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) suggests they play an important role in the Lake Erie ecosystem. Our analysis of freshwater drum digestive tracts and macrobenthic samples collected from western Lake Erie indicates that drum were selective feeders. Planktonic cladocerans and larval midges (Chironomidae) were the primary prey organisms eaten by drum. Young-of-the-year fed mostly on cladocerans, while yearling and older drum ate both cladocerans and midge larvae. Decapods, pelecypods, and fish were found only in the digestive tracts of drum longer than 250 mm. While the most abundant organisms in benthic samples were cladocerans (ephippial) and oligochaetes (89.5% by number), they constituted less than 1% of the diet. An evaluation of food selectivity, using Ivlev's index of electivity for benthic organisms, indicated that adult drum preferred midges to any other benthic food.

  13. Degradation of aldrin and endosulfan in rotary drum and windrow composting.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muntjeer; Gani, Khalid M; Kazmi, Absar A; Ahmed, Naseem

    2016-05-01

    Removal efficiencies, kinetics and degradation pathways of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β in vegetable waste were evaluated during rotary drum and conventional windrow composting. The highest percentage removal of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β in rotary drum composting was 86.8, 83.3 and 85.3% respectively, whereas in windrow composting, it was 66.6%, 77.7% and 67.2% respectively. The rate constant of degradation of aldrin, endosulfan α and endosulfan β during rotary drum composting ranged from 0.410-0.778, 0.057-0.076 and 0.009-0.061 day(-1) respectively. The pathways of degradation of these pesticides in composting process were proposed. Metabolites dieldrin and 1 hydroxychlorodene formed during composting of aldrin in the vegetable waste indicated the occurrence of epoxidation reaction and oxidation of bridge carbon of aldrin containing the methylene group. Formation of chloroendic acid and chloroendic anhydride during composting of endosulfan containing vegetable waste support the occurrence of endosulfan sulfate and dehydration reaction respectively. PMID:26828724

  14. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Phase 1. Topical report, October 1, 1992--June 8, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in narrow aisles and interpolating the free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for leak detection, and is interfaced with a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which positions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 90% of all drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase one is now complete. The first phase has demonstrated an integrated system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. This demonstration system was quickly fielded and evaluated by leveraging technologies developed from previous NASA and DARPA contracts and internal research. The second phase will demonstrate a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project.

  15. Intelligent Mobile Sensor System for drum inspection and monitoring -- Volume 2. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort was a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and creates and maintains a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort was separated into three phases of which phase three is now complete. The first phase demonstrated an integrated system (maturity level IVa) for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype employed an integrated design that considered operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase has demonstrated the commercial viability of the vehicle in operating waste storage facilities at Fernald, Ohio and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report summarizes the system upgrades performed in phase 3 and the evaluation of the IMSS Phase 3 system and vehicle.

  16. New program sizes pressure-relief drums

    SciTech Connect

    Durand, A.A.; Osorio, R.A.; Suarez, R.H.

    1996-05-06

    In accordance with API Recommended Practice 521, a new procedure has been developed for the design of relief drums. The calculation method determines by convergence the most economical length-to-diameter ratio for gas-liquid separation vessels. Drum sizing is based on the separation of a two-phase stream, taking into account the special condition of intermittent flow. Design parameters such as settling velocity and residence time also must be calculated to determine an optimum design. A new program based on a programmable algorithm can be converted from basic language to any other computer language to facilitate vessel-design computations. The program quickly and efficiently computes design values for relief systems used in refineries and petrochemical plants.

  17. Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane

    2014-05-01

    A large (0.5 m in diameter, 0.15 m wide) rotating drum is used to investigate the erosion and deposition mechanics of lahars. To systematically simulate the conditions occurring in natural mass flows our experimental setup differs from the common rotating drum employed in industrial/engineering studies. Natural materials with their typical friction properties are used, as opposed to the frequently employed spherical glass beads; the drum is completely water-proof, so solid/air and solid/liquid mixtures can be investigated; the drum velocity and acceleration can be precisely controlled using a software interface to a micro-controller, allowing for the study of steady, unsteady and intermediate flow regimes. The drum has a toughened glass door, allowing high-resolution, high-speed video recording of the material inside. Vector maps of the velocities involved in the flows are obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The changes in velocity direction and/or magnitude are used to locate the primary internal boundaries between layers of opposite flow direction, as well as secondary interfaces between shear layers. A range of variables can be measured: thickness and number of layers; the curvature of the free surface; frequency of avalanching; position of the centre of mass of the material; and the velocity profiles of the flowing material. Experiments to date have focussed on dry materials, and have had a fill factor of approximately 0.3. Combining these measured variables allows us to derive additional data of interest, such as mass and momentum flux. It is these fluxes that we propose will allow insight into the erosion/deposition mechanics of a lahar. A number of conclusions can be drawn to date. A primary interface separates flowing and passive region (this interface has been identified in previous studies). As well as the primary interface, the flowing layer separates into individual shear layers, with individual erosion/deposition and flow histories. This

  18. Mobile visual examination and repackaging (MOVER) system

    SciTech Connect

    Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    Process engineering and waste technology teams at LOS Alamos National Laboratory delivered a prototype Mobile Visual Examination and Repackaging (MOVER) system to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) outside of Carlsbad, NM in October, 2000. This system was developed in response to compliance issues with legacy waste that was packaged in 55 gallons drums prior to release of WIPP's waste acceptance criteria (WAC). A statistical percentage of these 55 gallon drums will be opened and visually examined (VE) as part of re-characterization using Non-destructive examination (NDE) procedures. VE is an intrusive technique since the drum is opened, and as a result, there are more risks in spreading contamination. Hence, VE is performed in a glovebox to protect the workers and the environment. During VE, waste is pulled out of one drum, visually examined, the amount of plutonium measured if necessary, and the waste repackaged into one or more drums. MOVER can perform all these operations, along with having the capability to house the glovebox operations and all support equipment in a 40-foot-long container that can be transported to a site on a semi-trailer. This container is divided into three rooms, providing the level of safety and containment of a fixed facility. A key asset of mobile systems is the inherent need for modular design that reduces infrastructure costs and overhead. A mobile system like MOVER represents a technology base aimed at meeting DOE schedules to accelerate decommissioning of many sites.

  19. Stabilization Using Phosphate Bonded Ceramics. Salt Containing Mixed Waste Treatment. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference No. 117

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are large inventories of homogeneous mixed waste solids, such as wastewater treatment residues, fly ashes, and sludges that contain relatively high concentrations (greater than 15% by weight) of salts. The inherent solubility of salts (e.g., nitrates, chlorides, and sulfates) makes traditional treatment of these waste streams difficult, expensive, and challenging. One alternative is low-temperature stabilization by chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). The process involves reacting magnesium oxide with monopotassium phosphate with the salt waste to produce a dense monolith. The ceramic makes a strong environmental barrier, and the metals are converted to insoluble, low-leaching phosphate salts. The process has been tested on a variety of surrogates and actual mixed waste streams, including soils, wastewater, flyashes, and crushed debris. It has also been demonstrated at scales ranging from 5 to 55 gallons. In some applications, the CBPC technology provides higher waste loadings and a more durable salt waste form than the baseline method of cementitious grouting. Waste form test specimens were subjected to a variety of performance tests. Results of waste form performance testing concluded that CBPC forms made with salt wastes meet or exceed both RCRA and recommended Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) low-level waste (LLW) disposal criteria. Application of a polymer coating to the CBPC may decrease the leaching of salt anions, but continued waste form evaluations are needed to fully assess the deteriorating effects of this leaching, if any, over time.

  20. Size limitation on zebra mussels consumed by freshwater drum may preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Love, Joy G.

    1995-01-01

    The septa lengths of bivalve shells were used to estimate shell lengths of the largest zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) crushed and consumed by freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) to determine if size limitation could preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller of the zebra mussel. We examined gut samples of drum (273 to 542 mm long) collected from western Lake Erie in 1991, found the largest mussel (shell length = 21.4 mm) in the 11th largest drum (TL = 405 mm), and observed a reduction of mussel size in larger drum. The lack of a relationship between mussel size and drum size for larger specimens suggests that either drum prefer smaller mussels or the gape between the upper and lower pharyngeal teeth restricts drum feeding to zebra mussels of limited size. Although drum may reduce zebra mussel populations, because of the apparent size limitation of prey it is unlikely that drum would be fully effective as a biological controller; thus, this fish should not be introduced beyond its native range for that purpose.

  1. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  2. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Topical report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle. Several parts of the IMSS Phase 1 Topical (Final) Report, which describes the requirements, design guidelines, and detailed design of the Phase 1 IMSS vehicle, are incorporated here, with modifications to reflect the changes in the design and the new elements added during the Phase 2 work.

  3. Drum-mate: interaction dynamics and gestures in human-humanoid drumming experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kose-Bagci, Hatice; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; Syrdal, Dag S.; Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.

    2010-06-01

    This article investigates the role of interaction kinesics in human-robot interaction (HRI). We adopted a bottom-up, synthetic approach towards interactive competencies in robots using simple, minimal computational models underlying the robot's interaction dynamics. We present two empirical, exploratory studies investigating a drumming experience with a humanoid robot (KASPAR) and a human. In the first experiment, the turn-taking behaviour of the humanoid is deterministic and the non-verbal gestures of the robot accompany its drumming to assess the impact of non-verbal gestures on the interaction. The second experiment studies a computational framework that facilitates emergent turn-taking dynamics, whereby the particular dynamics of turn-taking emerge from the social interaction between the human and the humanoid. The results from the HRI experiments are presented and analysed qualitatively (in terms of the participants' subjective experiences) and quantitatively (concerning the drumming performance of the human-robot pair). The results point out a trade-off between the subjective evaluation of the drumming experience from the perspective of the participants and the objective evaluation of the drumming performance. A certain number of gestures was preferred as a motivational factor in the interaction. The participants preferred the models underlying the robot's turn-taking which enable the robot and human to interact more and provide turn-taking closer to 'natural' human-human conversations, despite differences in objective measures of drumming behaviour. The results are consistent with the temporal behaviour matching hypothesis previously proposed in the literature which concerns the effect that the participants adapt their own interaction dynamics to the robot's.

  4. Characterization and handling of 7500 old drums in Studsvik

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrs, Carin; Lindberg, Maria; Lorenzen, Joachim

    2003-02-27

    7500 old drums were characterized and sorted into a number of categories. The sorting had two main purposes the first is to divide the drums into fractions that have the same content or origin or some other sorting criteria. The second purpose is not less important, it was to limit the amount of drums to work with at each point in time and therefore get a good overview of the drums. The third reason for handling the drums were that some was in poor condition since they previously had been stored outdoors. The drums were sorted into two main fractions, one with Studsvik-ID numbers and one without. These two fractions were then divided into sub-fractions depending on content, origin, dose-rate and a recommended final repository. The work is not yet completed but the procedures are established and work well.

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  6. Special Analysis of Transuranic Waste in Trench T04C at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell

    2008-05-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) was prepared to assess the potential impact of inadvertent disposal of a limited quantity of transuranic (TRU) waste in classified Trench 4 (T04C) within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in northern Frenchman Flat on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Area 5 RWMS is regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under DOE Order 435.1 and DOE Manual (DOE M) 435.1-1. The primary objective of the SA is to evaluate if inadvertent disposal of limited quantities of TRU waste in a shallow land burial trench at the Area 5 RWMS is in compliance with the existing, approved Disposal Authorization Statement (DAS) issued under DOE M 435.1-1. In addition, supplemental analyses are performed to determine if there is reasonable assurance that the requirements of Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 191, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level, and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, can be met. The 40 CFR 191 analyses provide supplemental information regarding the risk to human health and the environment of leaving the TRU waste in T04C. In 1989, waste management personnel reviewing classified materials records discovered that classified materials buried in trench T04C at the Area 5 RWMS contained TRU waste. Subsequent investigations determined that a total of 102 55-gallon drums of TRU waste from Rocky Flats were buried in trench T04C in 1986. The disposal was inadvertent because unclassified records accompanying the shipment indicated that the waste was low-level. The exact location of the TRU waste in T04C was not recorded and is currently unknown. Under DOE M 435.1-1, Chapter IV, Section P.5, low-level waste disposal facilities must obtain a DAS. The DAS specifies conditions that must be met to operate within the radioactive waste management basis, consisting of a

  7. Evaluating criticality safety of TRU waste with NDA measurements and risk analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hochel, R.C.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Sigg, R.A.; Winn, W.G.; Chay, S.C.

    1994-09-01

    The criticality safety of {sup 239}Pu in 55-gal. drums stored in TRU waste containers (concrete culverts) was evaluated using NDA neutron and gamma measurements and risk analyses. The neutron measurements yielded a {sup 239}Pu mass and k{sub eff} for a culvert, which contains up to 14 drums. The gamma measurements helped reveal and correct for any interfering neutron sources in the waste. Conservation probabilistic risk analyses were developed for both drums and culverts.

  8. CHARACTERIZING HETEROGENEOUS WASTES: METHODS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sites where the wastes are of large size or varied composition including landfills and drum dumps, present severe difficulties to investigators attempting to collect representative samples to acilitate site cleanup decisions. his document serves as the workshop proceedings. t sum...

  9. Entry/Exit Port testing, test report

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, R.H.

    1993-05-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module I (WRAP-1) facility must have the ability to allow 55-gallon drums to enter and exit glovebox enclosures. An Entry/Exit Port (Appendix 1, Figure 1), designed by United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C), is one method chosen for drum transfer. The Entry/Exit Port is to be used for entry of 55-gallon drums into both process entry gloveboxes, exit of 55-gallon drum waste pucks from the low-level waste (LLW) glovebox, and loadout of waste from the restricted waste management glovebox. The Entry/Exit Port relies on capture velocity air flow and a neoprene seal to provide alpha confinement when the Port is in the open and closed positions, respectively. Since the glovebox is in a slight vacuum, air flow is directed into the glovebox through the space between the overpack drum and glovebox floor. The air flow is to direct any airborne contamination into the glovebox. A neoprene seal is used to seal the Port door to the glovebox floor, thus maintaining confinement in the closed position. Entry/Exit Port testing took place February 17, 1993, through April 14, 1993, in the 305 building of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Testing was performed in accordance with the Entry/Exit Port Testing Test Plan, document number WHC-SD-WO26-TP-005. A prototype Entry/Exit Port built at the Hanford Site was tested using fluorescent paint pigment and smoke candles as simulant contaminants. This test report is an interim test report. Further developmental testing is required to test modifications made to the Port as the original design of the Port did not provide complete confinement during all stages of operation.

  10. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Portable, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping...-pass to prevent rupture of the system and the escape of such hazardous liquids or gases. (c)...

  11. Rhythmic Characteristics of Improvisational Drumming among Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    A call-and-response drumming activity was carried out to determine the rhythmic characteristics of improvised patterns created by preschool children. Specific goals of the study were to: (1) determine the durations, start and stop times, and rhythmic patterns of improvised responses to a simple given call using drums; (2) determine the presence or…

  12. The Talking Drum: Moving toward a Psychology of Literacy Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Joseph H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the talking drum has been a viable cultural voice for many West and Central African cultures in the acquisition of literacy. Emphasizes musical character of tonal languages and the use of the talking drum for literacy purposes. Proposes research questions regarding function and use of music and language; describes role of the talking…

  13. Drum ring removal/installation tool

    DOEpatents

    Andrade, William Andrew

    2006-11-14

    A handheld tool, or a pair of such tools, such as for use in removing/installing a bolt-type clamping ring on a container barrel/drum, where the clamping ring has a pair of clamping ends each with a throughbore. Each tool has an elongated handle and an elongated lever arm transversely connected to one end of the handle. The lever arm is capable of being inserted into the throughbore of a selected clamping end and leveraged with the handle to exert a first moment on the selected clamping end. Each tool also has a second lever arm, such as a socket with an open-ended slot, which is suspended alongside the first lever arm. The second lever arm is capable of engaging the selected clamping end and being leveraged with the handle to exert a second moment which is orthogonal to the first moment. In this manner, the first and second moments operate to hold the selected clamping end fixed relative to the tool so that the selected clamping end may be controlled with the handle. The pair of clamping ends may also be simultaneously and independently controlled with the use of two handles/tools so as to contort the geometry of the drum clamping ring and enable its removal/installation.

  14. Fort Drum Cogeneration Partners overview November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Fort Drum Cogeneration Facility is a steam/electric generating plant powered by three circulating fluidized bed boilers producing a total of approximately 525,000 pounds per hour of superheated steam including steam used to heat the high temperature water supplied to the military base. This steam load varies from a low of approximately 15,000 lbs/hr in the summer to a high of approximately 120,000 lbs/hr in the winter. Included in the design of the facility is redundancy required to assure a continuous supply of heat to the Army Base. This redundance requirement is why we have three independent boilers each capable of supplying the total Army heat load; and we have three hot water supply pumps and three hot water heaters, two pumps and two heaters are required to supply the maximum heat load. The single turbine (Dresser Rand) and generator (Electric Machinery) are capable of generating 58.5 mw gross. Electrical power is sold to Niagara Mohawk under a long term Power Purchase Agreement high temperature water (HTW) is sold to the Fort Drum Army Base to provide heat for their buildings.

  15. Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous drums

    SciTech Connect

    Amore, Paolo

    2013-09-15

    We derive general expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of drums of arbitrary shape and arbitrary density, obeying different boundary conditions. The formulas that we present are a generalization of the analogous formulas for one dimensional inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in a previous paper. We also discuss the extension of these formulas to higher dimensions. We show that in the special case of a density depending only on one variable the sum rules of any integer order can be expressed in terms of a single series. As an application of our result we derive exact sum rules for the homogeneous circular annulus with different boundary conditions, for a homogeneous circular sector and for a radially inhomogeneous circular annulus with Dirichlet boundary conditions. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of inhomogeneous drums. •We discuss the extension to higher dimensions. •We discuss the special case of an inhomogeneity only along one direction.

  16. Waste Examination Assay Facility operations: TRU waste certification

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Caylor, B.A.; Coffey, D.E.; Phoenix, L.B.

    1987-01-01

    The ORNL Waste Examination Assay Facility (WEAF) was established to nondestructively assay (NDA) transuranic (TRU) waste generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The present facility charter encompasses the NDA and nondestructive examination (NDE) of both TRU and low-level wastes (LLW). Presently, equipment includes a Neutron Assay System (NAS), a Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS), a drum-sized Real-Time Radiography (RTR) system, and a Neutron Slab Detector (NSD). The first three instruments are computer interfaced. Approximately 2300 TRU waste drums have been assayed with the NAS and the SGS. Another 3000 TRU and LLW drums have been examined with the RTR unit. Computer data bases have been developed to collate the large amount of data generated during the assays and examinations. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Analysis and stabilization of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s multiphase mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, B.A.

    1995-05-19

    Five drums of mixed waste were accepted from LBL during FY 1994; they contain inorganic acids and compounds, as well as organic reagents and radioactive materials. This document defines the work plan for stabilization and characterization of the waste in three of these 5 drums.

  18. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, R.; Ciebiera, L.; Tulipano, F.J.; Vinson, S.; Walters, R.T.

    1995-11-07

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium oxide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within the outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen and oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB. 1 fig.

  19. Tritium waste package

    DOEpatents

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  20. Criticality Safety Evaluation for TRU Waste In Storage at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    M. E. Shaw; J. B. Briggs; C. A. Atkinson; G. J. Briscoe

    1994-04-01

    Stored containers (drums, boxes, and bins) of transuranic waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were evaluated based on inherent neutron absorption characteristics of the waste materials. It was demonstrated that these properties are sufficient to preclude a criticality accident at the actual fissile levels present in the waste stored at the RWMC. Based on the database information available, the results reported herein confirm that the waste drums, boxes, and bins currently stored at the RWMC will remain safely subcritical if rearranged, restacked, or otherwise handled. Acceptance criteria for receiving future drum shipments were established based on fully infinite systems.

  1. Criticality safety evaluation for TRU waste in storage at the RWMC

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.; Briggs, J.B.; Atkinson, C.A.; Briscoe, G.J.

    1993-11-01

    Stored containers (drums, boxes, and bins) of transuranic waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were evaluated based on inherent neutron absorption characteristics of the waste materials. It was demonstrated that these properties are sufficient to preclude an accidental criticality accident at the actual fissile levels present in the waste stored at the RWMC. Based on the database information available, the results reported herein confirm that the waste drums, boxes, and bins currently stored at the RWMC will remain safely subcritical if rearranged, restacked, or otherwise handled. Acceptance criteria for receiving future drum shipments were established based on fully infinite systems.

  2. A robotic inspector for low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Energy has low-level radioactive waste stored in warehouses at several facilities. Weekly visual inspections are required. A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed to survey and inspect the stored drums. The robot will travel through the three- foot wide aisles of drums stacked four high and perform a visual inspection, normally performed by a human operator, making decisions about the condition of the drums and maintaining a database of pertinent information about each drum. This mobile robot system will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure.

  3. MAGNETIC DRUM SEPARATOR PERFORMANCE SCALPING SHREDDED TROMMEL OVERFLOW AT NOMINAL DESIGN CONDITIONS. TEST NO. 4.03, RECOVERY 1, NEW ORLEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the first test of the shredded trommel overs magnetic drum separator at the New Orleans, Louisiana, resource recovery facility. Shredded trommel overs refers to waste which reports to the oversize discharge from the trommel and is subsequently shredded. For ...

  4. Waste receiving and processing drum weight measurement uncertainty review findings

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-05-12

    The purpose of reviewing the weight scale operation at the WRAP facility was to determine the uncertainty associated with weight measurements. Weight measurement uncertainty is needed to support WRAP Nondestructive Examination (NDE) and Non-destructive Assay (NDA) analysis.

  5. View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  6. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES AND BRAKE HANDLE, LOOKING NORTH - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  7. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW OF HOIST, SHOWING CABLE DRUM, WOODEN BRAKE SHOES, BRAKE HANDLE, AND REDUCTION GEARS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Buffalo Coal Mine, Vulcan Cable Hoist, Wishbone Hill, Southeast end, near Moose Creek, Sutton, Matanuska-Susitna Borough, AK

  8. 14. TYPICAL WORK DECK SHOWING RING SPACERS, CABLE DRUMS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. TYPICAL WORK DECK SHOWING RING SPACERS, CABLE DRUMS AND OTHER SPECIALIZED HARDWARE; VIEW TO SOUTH. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28416, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  9. Slit Logs and Sacred Cows: The History of the Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of the drum is presented in both pictures and prose, from its beginning in Africa and the Far Eastern world to its introduction to the Western world where it is now fully accepted as a serious instrument. (KC)

  10. The Play as Novel: Reappropriating Brecht's "Drums in the Night."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Della

    1988-01-01

    Applies Mikhail Bakhtin's theory of the novel to Bertolt Brecht's "Drums in the Night" to illuminate the play's dialogic structure and alienation value, and reappropriate its prerevolutionary dimensions for contemporary use. (MM)

  11. SWING BRIDGE AT CENTER OF SPAN. DRUM, ALTHOUGH NOT VISIBLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SWING BRIDGE AT CENTER OF SPAN. DRUM, ALTHOUGH NOT VISIBLE, IS AT CENTER OF PICTURE. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of furnace feeding into the drum type coffee dryer on second floor of structure, view towards southeast - Santaella Coffee Processing Site, Highway 139, Kilometer 10.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  13. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... place. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with closures unless the closure is inherently... remain secure and drums will remain leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets or...

  14. INTERIOR STRUCTURAL DETAIL, INSIDE OF DRUM UNDER DOME ON STAIRS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR STRUCTURAL DETAIL, INSIDE OF DRUM UNDER DOME ON STAIRS, LOOKING SOUTH. - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  15. 4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF ELEVATOR DRUM AND DRIVE. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORROLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. EASTERN VIEW OF DORR-OLIVER VACUUM DRUM FILTER ASSEMBLY IN THE FILTER CAKE HOUSE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 55. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, LOOP B, STEAM DRUM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, LOOP B, STEAM DRUM AND DOWNCOMERS LOOKING EAST (LOCATION LLL) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  18. Commercial beneficial use of alkaline Fort Drum ash

    SciTech Connect

    Nickeson, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Black River Limited Partnership built a 59 megawatt fluidized bed cogeneration plant on the Fort Drum Army Base in far upstate New York, near Watertown. The primary fuel is bituminous coal with some athracite and lesser amounts of clean wood chips. Local limestone is injected as the sorbent. The plant supplies the hot water heating requirements of the Base and 50 megawatts of electricity to Niagara Mohawk. The feasibility of the commercial use of the Fort Drum ash is explored.

  19. Analyses of alternate skirt attachments to coke drums

    SciTech Connect

    Antalffy, L.P.; Baxter, J.E.; Malek, D.W.; Bardia, K.L.; Taagepera, J.

    1995-12-31

    One of the most sensitive areas to cracking in coke drums is the skirt to shell attachment joint. The severe thermal cycling from drum heat up and quenching together with the cycling pressure stresses in the drum acting on the skirt geometry will cause large stress intensity concentrations at the skirt to shell junction. This paper investigates four types of skirt attachments to a coke drum, namely: the conventional fillet weld attachment to the drum cone; a fillet weld attachment to the outside of the vessel shell; a modified design where the skirt is attached by an externally blended weld build up with an internally radiused backing weld; and a design where the skirt is attached to the drum shell by an integral contour machined plate in which the skirt attachment stub is machined. In each case, the thermal gradient and the subsequent thermal stress intensity in the skirt are determined. A comparison of the total stress intensities in each joint is provided to evaluate the comparative advantages of each design. A determination is also made on the effects of slotting in the skirt to alleviate the total stress intensity level in the skirt.

  20. Acoustic and visual remote sensing of barrels of radioactive waste: Application of civilian and military technology to environmental management of the oceans

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, H.A.; Chin, J.L.; Maher, N.M.; Chavez, P.S. Jr.; Ueber, E.; Van Peeters, W.; Curl, H.

    1995-04-01

    As part of an ongoing strategic research project to find barrels of radioactive waste off San Francisco, the U.S. Navy (USN), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) pooled their expertise, resources, and technology to form a partnership to verify new computer enhancement techniques developed for detecting targets the size of 55 gallon barrels on sidescan sonar images. Between 1946 and 1970, approximately 47,800 large barrels and other containers of radioactive waste were dumped in the ocean west of San Francisco; the containers litter an area of the sea floor of at least 1400 km {sup 2} knows as the Farallon Island Radioactive Waste Dump. The exact location of the containers and the potential hazard the containers pose to the environment is unknown. The USGS developed computer techniques and contracted with private industry to enhance sidescan data, collected in cooperation with the GFNMS, to detect objects as small as 55 gallon steel barrels while conducting regional scale sidescan sonar surveys. Using a subset of the regional sonar survey, images were plotted over a 125 km {sub 2} area. The acoustic interpretations were verified visually using the USN DSV Sea Cliff and the unmanned Advanced Tethered Vehicle (ATV). Barrels and other physical features were found where image enhancement had indicated they would be found. The interagency cooperation among the USN, USGS, and GFNMS has led to develop a cost effective and time efficient method to locate the barrels of radioactive waste. This method has universal application for locating containers of hazardous waste over a regional scale in other ocean areas such as Boston Harbor and the Kara Sea in the Arctic. This successful application of military and civilian expertise and technology has provided scientific information to help formulate policy decisions that affect the environmental management and quality of the ocean.

  1. CMR Shuffler System: Passive Mode Calibration and Certification Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, Katherine C.; Gomez, Cipriano D.; Salazar, William R.; Mayo, Douglas R.; Vigil, Georgiana M.; Crooks, William J.; Stange, Sy

    2012-07-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has a number of spherical confinement vessels (CVs) remaining from tests involving nuclear materials. These vessels have an inner diameter of 6 feet with 1 to 2 inch thick steel walls. The goal of the Confinement Vessel Disposition (CVD) project is to remove debris and reduce contamination inside the vessels. As debris is removed from the vessels, material will be placed in waste drums. Far-field gamma ray assay will be used to determine when a drum is nearing a {sup 239}Pu equivalent mass of less than 200 g. The drum will then be assayed using a waste drum shuffler operated in passive mode using a neutron coincidence counting method for accountability. This report focuses on the testing and calibration of the CMR waste drum shuffler in passive mode operation. Initial testing was performed to confirm previously accepted measurement parameters. The system was then calibrated using a set of weapons grade Pu (WGPu, {sup 239}Pu > 93%) oxide standards placed inside a 55 gallon drum. The calibration data ranges from Pu mass of 0.5 g to 188.9 g. The CMR waste drum shuffler has been tested and calibrated in passive mode in preparation for safeguards accountability measurements of waste drums containing material removed from CVs for the CVD project.

  2. Application of spectral summing to suspect low level debris drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M; Veilleux, John M; Lucero, Randy P; Seamans, Jr, James V; Clapham, Martin J

    2010-01-01

    The spectral summing technique developed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation (PSC) is a unique modeling technique that is being employed by the Waste Disposition Project - Low Level Waste Disposal (WDP-LLWD) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technique is being used to disposition low-level radioactive waste that has dropped out of the transuranic (TRU) category and has no place to go unless it can be proven to be LLW and not TRU. The TRU program at LANL run by Mobile Characterization Services (MCS) employs two High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENC) with built-in gamma assay systems to assay radioactive waste for shipment and disposal as TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) at Carlsbad, New Mexico. As well as being certified for WIPP assays, the HENC systems can also be used for low-level waste assays for disposal at LANL or off-site disposal facilities, such as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Some of the waste processed through the HENC systems cannot be confirmed TRU due to the absence of detected TRU alpha emitters above the TRU cutoff of 100 nCi/g. This waste becomes suspect low-level waste (SLLW). In many cases, the waste also can't be classified as LLW because the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of TRU radionuclides is above the 100 nCi/g level. These wastes that do not have enough detectable TRU activity to be classified as TRU waste and have too high a MDA to be classified as LLW enter a radioactive waste characterization limbo that prevents their dispositioning as either TRU waste or LLW. Spectral summing allows an experienced gamma spectroscopy analyst to add the HENC gamma spectra of a number of similar waste items together to form a consolidated (summed) spectrum. This summed spectrum contains the assay results of the group of items rather than the individual item, and gamma peaks that were not discernable in the individual spectra become quantifiable in the summed spectrum. The group of waste items can then be properly

  3. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    SciTech Connect

    Arbon, R.E.

    2001-01-31

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  4. Tread drum for animals. [having an electrical shock station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A device for exercising animals such as primates is described, which includes a cylindrical housing mounted for rotation about a horizontal axis of revolution and has a cylindrical treadway portion on which the animal treads while the drum is rotated by means of a motorized drive. The treadway portion of the drum includes an electrode structure with sectors being independently energizable by means of a commutator and source of potential so that an electrical shock station is created behind a running-in-place station on the moving treadway. In this manner, if the animal should fall behind its running-in-place station, it may be shocked by treading on the energized electrode structure. One end of the tread drum comprises a transparent wall for unobstructed viewing of the animal being exercised.

  5. Tritium waste control: April-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberger, P.H.; Rogers, M.L.

    1982-05-17

    Progress reports are presented for the following: electrolysis of tritiated water; impurity removal from combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) feed water; gas generation measurements on tritiated waste materials; fixation of aqueous tritiated waste in polymer-impregnated concrete; management of high specific activity tritiated liquid wastes; and tritium assay of low specific activity (LSA) laboratory and LSA shoe cover waste. Some of the highlights are as follows: (1) gas generation rates caused by radiolysis of tritium waste materials were determined for polymer and nonpolymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete and fixated and nonfixated, tritiated waste vacuum pump oil; (2) the drum study monitoring the release of tritium from actual burial packages showed that the maximum fractional release rate for the three types of high activity, tritiated liquid waste generated is 1.25 x 10/sup -5/, and the maximum total permeation is 122 mCi after 5.5 y. These two values represent a 9 to 20% increase for the past six months. Tritium release from the polymer-impregnated, tritiated concrete (PITC) and the control (non-PITC) remains very low. Two assays were performed on low specific activity, tritium-contaminated waste generated at Mound. In one, four LSA drums were assayed for total tritium content by leaching the contents with water. The tritium content of all four drums was well within the LSA limit of less than 25 Ci per drum. In the second study a drum of discarded shoe covers from tritium-handling areas was filled with a measureed quantity of water for leaching tritium from the shoe covers. The minimum amount of tritium within the drum was determined. An annual average estimate of tritium removed and buried as LSA shoe cover trash was also made.

  6. Gamma-ray Sptectrometric Characterization of Overpacked CC 104/107 RH-TRU Wastes: Surrogate Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, John Kelvin; Mc Ilwain, Michael Edward; Klann, R. T.

    2000-04-01

    Development of the gamma-ray spectrometric technique termed GSAK (Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with Acceptable Knowledge) for the characterization of CC104/107 remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes continued this year. Proof-of-principle measurements have been completed on the surrogate RH-TRU waste drums configured earlier this year. The GSAK technique uses conventional gamma-ray spectrometry to quantify the detectable fission product content of overpacked RH-TRU drums. These results are then coupled with the inventory report to characterize the waste drum content. The inventory report is based on process knowledge of the waste drum loading and calculations of the isotopic distribution in the spent fuel examined to generate the drummed wastes. Three RH-TRU surrogate drums were configured with encapsulated EBR-II driver fuel rod segments arranged in the surrogate drum assemblies. Segment-specific inventory calculations initially specified the radionuclide content of the fuel segments and thus the surrogate drums. Radiochemical assays performed on representative fuel element segments identified a problem in the accuracy of some of the fission and activation product inventory values and provided a basis for adjustment of the specified surrogate drum inventories. The three waste drum surrogates, contained within their 8.9 cm (3.5 inch) thick steel overpacks, were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Seven fission and activation product radionuclides (54Mn, 60Co, 125Sb, 134Cs, 137Cs, 144CePr, and 154Eu) were reliably detected. The gamma-ray spectral accuracy was very good. In all cases, a two-sigma error bar constructed about the measured value included the actual drum activity.

  7. Gamma-Ray Spectrometric Characterization of Overpacked CC104/107 RH-TRU Wastes: Surrogate Tests

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Hartwell; R. T. Klann; M. E. McIlwain

    2000-05-01

    Development of the gamma-ray spectrometric technique termed GSAK (Gamma-Ray Spectrometry with Acceptable Knowledge) for the characterization of CC104/107 remote-handled transuranic (RH-TRU) wastes continued this year. Proof-of-principle measurements have been completed on the surrogate RH-TRU waste drums configured earlier this year. The GSAK technique uses conventional gamma-ray spectrometry to quantify the detectable fission product content of overpacked RH-TRU drums. These results are then coupled with the inventory report to characterize the waste drum content. The inventory report is based on process knowledge of the waste drum loading and calculations of the isotopic distribution in the spent fuel examined to generate the drummed wastes. Three RH-TRU surrogate drums were configured with encapsulated EBR-II driver fuel rod segments arranged in the surrogate drum assemblies. Segment-specific inventory calculations initially specified the radionuclide content of the fuel segments and thus the surrogate drums. Radiochemical assays performed on representative fuel element segments identified a problem in the accuracy of some of the fission and activation product inventory values and provided a basis for adjustment of the specified surrogate drum inventories. The three waste drum surrogates, contained within their 8.9 cm (3.5 inch) thick steel overpacks, were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Seven fission and activation product radionuclides ({sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}CePr, and {sup 154}Eu) were reliably detected. The gamma-ray spectral accuracy was very good. In all cases, a two-sigma error bar constructed about the measured value included the actual drum activity.

  8. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund...

  9. Image data rate converter having a drum with a fixed head and a rotatable head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A data-rate converter is disclosed comprising a rotatable data-storing drum with at least one fixed read/record head and a rotatable read/record head. The latter is rotatable in a circular path about the drum axis of rotation. The drum is positionable in any one of a plurality of axial positions with respect to the heads, so that at least one drum track is aligned with the fixed head in one drum position and with the rotatable head in another drum position. When a track is aligned with the fixed head, data may be recorded therin or read out therefrom at a rate which is a function of drum rotation, while when aligned with the rotatable head, data may be recorded or read out at a rate which is a function of the rates and directions of rotation of both the drum and the head.

  10. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-08-27

    Phase I retrieval of post-1970 TRU wastes from burial ground 218-W-4C can be done in a safe, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Initiating TRU retrieval by retrieving uncovered drums from Trenches 1, 20, and 29, will allow retrieval to begin under the current SWBG safety authorization basis. The retrieval of buried drums from Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29, which will require excavation, will commence once the uncovered drum are retrieved. This phased approach allows safety analysis for drum venting and drum module excavation to be completed and approved before the excavation proceeds. In addition, the lessons learned and the operational experience gained from the retrieval of uncovered drums can be applied to the more complicated retrieval of the buried drums. Precedents that have been set at SRS and LANL to perform retrieval without a trench cover, in the open air, should be followed. Open-air retrieval will result in significant cost savings over the original plans for Phase I retrieval (Project W-113). Based on LANL and SRS experience, open-air retrieval will have no adverse impacts to the environment or to the health and safety of workers or the public. Assaying the waste in the SWBG using a mobile assay system, will result in additional cost savings. It is expected that up to 50% of the suspect-TRU wastes will assay as LLW, allowing those waste to remain disposed of in the SWBG. Further processing, with its associated costs, will only occur to the portion of the waste that is verified to be TRU. Retrieval should be done, to the extent possible, under the current SWBG safety authorization basis as a normal part of SWBG operations. The use of existing personnel and existing procedures should be optimized. By working retrieval campaigns, typically during the slow months, it is easier to coordinate the availability of necessary operations personnel, and it is easier to coordinate the availability of a mobile assay vendor.

  11. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Drum, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Scott A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Solana, Amy E.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rowley, Steven; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-10-20

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Drum, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Drum took place on May 4 and 5, 2010.

  12. Cascade generalized predictive control strategy for boiler drum level.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Li, Shaoyuan; Cai, Wenjian

    2005-07-01

    This paper proposes a cascade model predictive control scheme for boiler drum level control. By employing generalized predictive control structures for both inner and outer loops, measured and unmeasured disturbances can be effectively rejected, and drum level at constant load is maintained. In addition, nonminimum phase characteristic and system constraints in both loops can be handled effectively by generalized predictive control algorithms. Simulation results are provided to show that cascade generalized predictive control results in better performance than that of well tuned cascade proportional integral differential controllers. The algorithm has also been implemented to control a 75-MW boiler plant, and the results show an improvement over conventional control schemes. PMID:16082788

  13. Expert System for Building TRU Waste Payloads - 13554

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Heather; Slater, Bryant

    2013-07-01

    The process for grouping TRU waste drums into payloads for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal is a very complex process. Transportation and regulatory requirements must be met, along with striving for the goals of shipment efficiency: maximize the number of waste drums in a shipment and minimize the use of empty drums which take up precious underground storage space. The restrictions on payloads range from weight restrictions, to limitations on flammable gas in the headspace, to minimum TRU alpha activity concentration requirements. The Overpack and Payload Assistant Tool (OPAT) has been developed as a mixed-initiative intelligent system within the WIPP Waste Data System (WDS) to guide the construction of multiple acceptable payloads. OPAT saves the user time while at the same time maximizes the efficiency of shipments for the given drum population. The tool provides the user with the flexibility to tune critical factors that guide OPAT's operation based on real-time feedback concerning the results of the execution. This feedback complements the user's external knowledge of the drum population (such as location of drums, known challenges, internal shipment goals). This work demonstrates how software can be utilized to complement the unique domain knowledge of the users. The mixed-initiative approach combines the insight and intuition of the human expert with the proficiency of automated computational algorithms. The result is the ability to thoroughly and efficiently explore the search space of possible solutions and derive the best waste management decision. (authors)

  14. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  15. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  16. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  17. 77 FR 47840 - American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... AGENCY American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement... Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet... Drum and Pallet Company Site by one of the following methods:...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75.1403-3 Section 75.1403-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel...

  19. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... drums/rotors. 393.47 Section 393.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation..., slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors. (a) General requirements. Brake components must be... shoe with two pads; or worn to the wear indicator if the lining is so marked, for air drum brakes....

  20. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... drums/rotors. 393.47 Section 393.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation..., slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors. (a) General requirements. Brake components must be... shoe with two pads; or worn to the wear indicator if the lining is so marked, for air drum brakes....

  1. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... drums/rotors. 393.47 Section 393.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation..., slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors. (a) General requirements. Brake components must be... shoe with two pads; or worn to the wear indicator if the lining is so marked, for air drum brakes....

  2. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75.1403-3 Section 75.1403-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel...

  3. Specific Instructions Are Important for Continuous Bimanual Drumming in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringenbach, Shannon D.; Allen, Heather; Chung, Susan; Jung, Michelle L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined continuous and discrete bimanual drumming in response to different instructions in 10 adults with Down syndrome, 10 mental age-matched and 10 chronological age-matched groups. For continuous drumming, participants hit two drums with both hands at the same time following verbal (e.g., "up" and "down"), visual (e.g., video…

  4. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... drums/rotors. 393.47 Section 393.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation..., slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors. (a) General requirements. Brake components must be... shoe with two pads; or worn to the wear indicator if the lining is so marked, for air drum brakes....

  5. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75.1403-3 Section 75.1403-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel...

  6. 77 FR 24200 - American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... AGENCY American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet Superfund Site...-04- 2012-3770 or Site name American Drum & Pallet Superfund Site by one of the following methods:...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75.1403-3 Section 75.1403-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1403-3 - Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Drum clutch; cage construction. 75.1403-3 Section 75.1403-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 75.1403-3 Criteria—Drum clutch; cage construction. (a) The clutch of a free-drum on a personnel...

  9. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... drums/rotors. 393.47 Section 393.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation..., slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors. (a) General requirements. Brake components must be... shoe with two pads; or worn to the wear indicator if the lining is so marked, for air drum brakes....

  10. How to Drum Up a Conversation in a Required Music Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Barry Charles

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities in a secondary music class in which students communicate with talking drums. Maintains that the class project was developed during a teaching unit on the musical practices of the Ashanti ethnic group in Ghana. Includes instructions for making talking drums and four examples of orchestrating name rhythms for drums. (CFR)

  11. The Oral Tradition in the Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble: Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble is a Ghanaian drum and dance ensemble that focusses on music in the Ewe tradition. It is based in an elementary school in the Greater Toronto Area and consists of students in Grade 4 through Grade 8. Students in the ensemble study Ghanaian traditional Ewe drumming and dancing in the oral tradition. Nine students…

  12. Persons with and without Down Syndrome Use Similar Strategies when Using Visual Instructions for Bimanual Drumming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringenbach, S. D. (Robertson); Mulvey, G. M.; Beachy, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research suggested that persons with Down syndrome (DS) used a different strategy to drum than typical adults. Methods: The present study examined continuous bimanual drumming strategies in response to different instructions in 10 persons with DS, 10 mental age-matched and 10 chronological age-matched groups. The drumming task…

  13. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  14. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  15. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. 178.509... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums and jerricans. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans: (1) 1H1 for a...

  16. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180 Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180 Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180 Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  19. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180 Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 417.180 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. 417.180 Section 417.180 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Drum Dried Detergents Subcategory § 417.180 Applicability; description of the manufacture of drum dried detergents subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. Heat loading limits for solid transuranic wastes storage

    SciTech Connect

    Spatz, T.L.

    1993-07-01

    Heat loading limits have been established for four storage configurations of TRU wastes. The calculations were performed assuming the worst case scenario whereby all the heat generated within a drum was generated within one ``cut`` and that this cut was located in the very center of the drum. Poly-boxes containing one HEPA filter were assumed to have a uniform heat generation throughout the filter. The maximum allowable temperatures were based on the materials in the containers. A comparison between the drum center temperature for a uniform heat load distribution and for the center temperature when the heat load is confined to one cut in the center of the drum is also illustrated. This comparison showed that the heat load of a particular drum can be more than doubled by distributing the sources of heat uniformly throughout the container.

  2. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    capture. During July, August, and September 2007, BES designed, procured, installed, and tested the slurry injection system at Beaver Valley. Slurry production was performed by Penn State University using equipment that was moved from campus to the Beaver Valley site. Waste coal fines were procured from Headwaters Inc. and transported to the site in Super Sacks. In addition, bituminous coal was pulverized at Penn State and trucked to the site in 55-gallon drums. This system was operated for three weeks during August and September 2007. NO{sub x} emission data were obtained using the plant CEM system. Hg measurements were taken using EPA Method 30B (Sorbent Trap method) both downstream of the electrostatic precipitator and in the stack. Ohio Lumex Company was on site to provide rapid Hg analysis on the sorbent traps during the tests. Key results from these tests are: (1) Coal Fines reburn alone reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 0-10% with up to 4% heat input from the CWS. However, the NO{sub x} reduction was accompanied by higher CO emissions. The higher CO limited our ability to try higher reburn rates for further NO{sub x} reduction. (2) Coal Fines reburn with Urea (Carbon enhanced SNCR) decreased NO{sub x} emissions by an additional 30% compared to Urea injection only. (3) Coal slurry injection did not change Hg capture across the ESP at full load with an inlet temperature of 400-430 F. The Hg capture in the ESP averaged 40%, with or without slurry injection; low mercury particulate capture is normally expected across a higher temperature ESP because any oxidized mercury is thought to desorb from the particulate at ESP temperatures above 250 F. (4) Coal slurry injection with halogen salts added to the mixing tank increased the Hg capture in the ESP to 60%. This significant incremental mercury reduction is important to improved mercury capture with hot-side ESP operation and wherever hindrance from sulfur oxides limit mercury reduction, because the higher temperature is

  3. Mixed waste analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.J.; Turner, C.A.

    1993-12-31

    Improved superpower relations followed by the Soviet Union`s collapse acted as catalysts for changing the mission at Rocky Flats. Now, environmental concerns command as much attention as production capability. As a result, laboratory instruments once dedicated to plutonium production have a new purpose - the analysis of mixed wastes. Waste drums destined for WIPP require headspace analysis by GS/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) for volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC). Flame AA analysis provides information on inorganic constituents. EPA guidelines for waste analysis (SW-846) overlook the obstacles of glove box manipulations. Sometimes, SW-846 guidelines conflict with the Rocky Flats waste minimization effort. However, the EPA encourages SW-846 adaptations if experimental data confirms the results. For water and soil samples, AA analysis of laboratory control samples show method capability inside a glove box. Non-radioactive drum headspace samples use a revised version of USEPA compendium method TO-14. Radioactive drum headspace samples require new instrumentation and change to SW-846 methods.

  4. TRU waste characterization chamber gloveboxes.

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D. S.

    1998-07-02

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) is participating in the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Transuranic Waste Program in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The Laboratory's support currently consists of intrusive characterization of a selected population of drums containing transuranic waste. This characterization is performed in a complex of alpha containment gloveboxes termed the Waste Characterization Gloveboxes. Made up of the Waste Characterization Chamber, Sample Preparation Glovebox, and the Equipment Repair Glovebox, they were designed as a small production characterization facility for support of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This paper presents salient features of these gloveboxes.

  5. Macroencapsulation development at Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    Yokum, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Pantex Plant is developing an innovative skid-mounted macroencapsulation technology (called a mobile treatment unit, MTU) that will economically dispose low-level radioactive mixed waste debris. Pantex`s macroencapuslation technology spin-welds a polyethylene top onto a polyethylene receiver to form a jacket that encapsulates a fifty-five (55) gallon steel drum of compacted low-level radioactive and mixed waste debris. The annulus formed by the fifty-five gallon drum and the polyethylene jacket is filled with a material (either foam or grout) to eliminate voids in the final waste form. The US EPA verified that the use of a polyethylene jacket constitutes macroencapsulation in a letter to Chemical Waste Management, Inc., dated September 19, 1995. The EPA letter stipulated that this treatment technology should not be used for D008, radioactive lead solids, and that the final waste form should be structurally sound and resistant to degradation.

  6. 3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, NORTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM MACHINERY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO NORTHEAST, NORTH SIDE OF CENTER DRUM MACHINERY ROOM. MOTOR #1 COMPARTMENT IN REAR, AUXILIARY MOTOR DRIVE SHAFT, POWER PANELS ON BACK OF AUXILIARY MOTOR HOUSE. BRIDGE DECK FRAMING ABOVE. - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  7. Support for transmission shaft and hydraulic servo drum

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, K.; Sumiya, K.; Taga, Y.; Watanabe, K.

    1987-09-15

    In a support for use in an automatic transmission apparatus of the type having a transmission shaft for transmitting power, an annular hydraulic servo drum and a piston fitted in the hydraulic servo drum for engaging and disengaging a friction engaging means is described, wherein the support has an axially extending tubular supporting portion having an inner peripheral surface for supporting the transmission shaft, an outer peripheral surface for supporting an inner cylindrical portion of the hydraulic servo drum, and working oil passages formed and adapted for supplying and discharging a working oil to and from the hydraulic servo drum. The improvement consists of: a support body made of light material having a first radially extending oil passage leading from an oil pressure controller for supplying and discharging a working oil and communicating with the inner peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion; an inner sleeve of a heavier material than the support body fitting on the inner peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion to cover the inner axially extending oil groove thereby forming an oil passage for working oil; and an outer sleeve of a heavier material than the support body fitting on the outer peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion.

  8. The Way of the Drum: When Earth Becomes Heart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Grafton; Turchetti, Lois Provost

    Two Native people describe their respective journeys to healing, journeys that involved the rediscovery of language and culture. In Part I, "Healing the Tears of Yesterday by the Drum Today: The Oneida Language Is a Healing Medicine" (Grafton Antone), the first narrator taught the Oneida language to adult students at a community center. Lacking…

  9. Memory Drum Theory's C Movement: Revelations from Franklin Henry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Mark G.; Christina, Robert W.; Anson, J. Greg

    2008-01-01

    Franklin Henry's "memory drum" theory of neuromotor reaction (Henry & Rogers, 1960) was one of the most influential studies of the response programming stage of information processing. The paper is the most-cited study ever published in the "Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport." However, few people know there is a noteworthy error in the…

  10. Flow Straightener for a Rotating-Drum Liquid Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Coin, James R.; Converse, David G.; Rethke, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    A flow straightener has been incorporated into a rotary liquid separator that originally comprised an inlet tube, a shroud plate, an impeller, an inner drum, an outer drum, a housing, a pitot tube, and a hollow shaft motor. As a consequence of the original geometry of the impeller, shroud, inner drum, and hollow shaft, swirl was created in the airflow inside the hollow shaft during operation. The swirl speed was large enough to cause a significant pressure drop. The flow straightener consists of vanes on the back side of the shroud plate. These vanes compartmentalize the inside of the inner drum in such a way as to break up the flow path and thereby stop the air from swirling; as a result, the air enters the hollow shaft with a predominantly axial velocity instead of a swirl. Tests of the rotary liquid separator at an airflow rate of 10 cu ft/min (0.0047 cu m/s) revealed that the dynamic pressure drop was 8 in. of water (approx.=2 kPa) in the absence of the flow straightener and was reduced to 1 in. of water (approx.=0.25 kPa) in the presence of the flow straightener.

  11. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  12. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  14. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  15. 7 CFR 1434.8 - Containers and drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.8 Containers and drums. (a)(1) To be eligible for assistance under this part, honey must be packed in: (i) CCC-approved, 5-gallon plastic containers; (ii) 5-gallon metal containers... Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBC's). (2) Honey stored in plastic containers must be determined safe and...

  16. Development of Interpersonal Coordination between Peers during a Drumming Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Hinke M.; Ramenzoni, Veronica C. O.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Bekkering, Harold; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their drumming with a peer. Results showed that all children…

  17. Middle School Drum Ensemble: An Unlikely Experience in Classroom Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbre, James

    2013-01-01

    Though music has a long and successful history within education, it is often one of the first sacrificial lambs when school budgets tighten. Over the course of an academic year, a documentary film sought to tell the story of an American middle school drum ensemble. The context of this group provided an ideal way to examine the nature of student…

  18. 29 CFR 1926.553 - Base-mounted drum hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Base-mounted drum hoists. 1926.553 Section 1926.553 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and...

  19. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. PMID:21913285

  20. Dynamics of Axial Separation in Long Rotating Drums

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I.S.; Tsimring, L.S.

    1999-06-01

    We propose a continuum description for the axial separation of granular materials in a long rotating drum. The model, operating with two local variables, concentration difference and the dynamic angle of repose, describes both initial transient traveling wave dynamics and long-term segregation of the binary mixture. Segregation proceeds through ultraslow logarithmic coarsening. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Assay of heavy water in drums for safeguards purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Fainberg, A.; Zucker, M.S.; Lemley, J.R.; Weinstock, E.V.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines several techniques for rapid nondestructive assay of drums of D/sub 2/O. Five methods have been examined: neutron capture in hydrogen, photodisintegration of deuterium, neutron transmission, neutron die-away time measurements, and acoustic velocity measurements.

  2. Characterization of chaotic motion in a rotating drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidheiser, James E.

    Numerous studies in the past have demonstrated the potential for geometrically simple fluid systems to produce complicated dynamical behavior. In particular, small collections of non-Brownian particles moving within viscous fluids can follow chaotic trajectories. In this work, we study a rotating drum filled with pure glycerol and three large, heavy particles. In studying these rotating drum systems, we have found a rich and varied phase space, made up of several previously unseen behaviors. With varying rotation rate, the particles can undergo straightforward cascading periodic behavior, and grouped periodic cascades we have labeled as doublet and triplet states. Furthermore, we find two regimes of qualitatively distinct chaotic behavior, with one type biased to either side of the drum, and the other lacking bias. The rotating drum experiment serves as a simple model system to demonstrate chaotic behavior in fluid dynamical systems. The existence of such model systems gives a baseline to which other systems can be compared and better understood, and our use of robust, easily implemented measurements serves as a straightforward comparison point which can be applied to various other chaotic fluid systems.

  3. An application of the RFQ Linac: Nuclear waste assay characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamkin, K.; Schultz, F.; Womble, P.; Humphrey, D.; Vourvopoulos, G.

    1997-02-01

    A collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Western Kentucky University examines the problem of characterization and assay of nuclear waste with high intrinsic neutron and gamma-ray fields. This waste is defined as Remote Handled-Transuranic waste (RH-TRU). A Radiofrequency Quadrupole Linac is used to produce pulses of neutrons, which impinge on the drum that contains the nuclear waste. The neutrons, after being thermalized in the matrix of the drum, are captured by the fissile material (239Pu or 235U), which releases fast neutrons upon fission. Experimental results will be presented to show the versatility of employing the RFQ with the Differential Die-away Technique.

  4. EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-29

    The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive tests of these at Savannah River Laboratory (now Savannah River National Laboratory) were performed in 1969 and 1970. The results of these tests were reported in 'Drum and Board-Type Insulation Overpacks of Shipping Packages for Radioactive Materials', by E. E. Lewallen. The Lewallen Report was foundational to design of subsequent drum type RAM packaging. This paper summarizes this important early study of drum type packagings. The Lewallen Report demonstrated the ability packagings employing drum and insulation board overpacks and engineered containment vessels to meet the Type B package requirements. Because of the results of the Lewallen Report, package designers showed high concern for thermal protection of 'Celotex'. Subsequent packages addressed this by following strategies like those recommended by Lewallen and by internal metal shields and supplemental, encapsulated insulation disks, as in 9975. The guidance provide by the Lewallen Report was employed in design of a large number of drum size packagings over the following three decades. With the increased public concern over transportation of radioactive materials and recognition of the need for larger margins of safety, more sophisticated and complex packages have been developed and have replaced the simple packagings developed under the Lewallen Report paradigm.

  5. First-year evaluation of a nondestructive assay system for the examination of ORNL TRU waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, F.J.; Haff, K.W.; Coffey, D.E.; Norris, L.B.; Caldwell, J.T.; Close, D.A.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Kunz, W.E.; Pratt, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been selected as the demonstration site for a new transuranic neutron assay system (NAS) developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. In addition, in order to meet specific ORNL program objectives, an upgraded segmented gamma-ray drum scanner has been integrated into the nondestructive assay (NDA) system to serve as a radioisotope identifier and as a quantitative assay backup to the NAS. A verification study, wherein selected waste drums will be emptied into glove boxes and their contents sampled and subsequently gamma-ray assayed, will take place in FY 1984. Results will be compared to those obtained from the NDA techniques. The NAS uses pulsed-neutron interrogation (differential- dieaway technique) and passive neutron measurements to determine fissile component and an upper-limit estimate of the total TRU activity contained in each waste drum. Of the 171 waste drums assayed to date, nine drums were determined to contain less than 10 nCi/g TRU isotopes. An additional number of drums (approximately 20%) are expected to be categorized as non-TRU, which is presently defined as less than 100 nCi/g TRU concentration. This requires a detailed analysis of the data which includes waste matrix compensation, systematic qualitative and quantitative gamma-ray analyses, and interpretation of neutron multiplicity data. Reproducibility of the active assay measurements on a single waste drum indicate agreement to +-3% relative error. 14 references, 24 figures, 8 tables.

  6. Hazardous Waste Code Determinations for the First/Second Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    SciTech Connect

    Arbon, Rodney Edward

    2001-01-01

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  7. A Stochastic Problem Arising in the Storage of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2004-07-15

    Nuclear waste drums can contain a collection of radioactive components of uncertain activity and randomly dispersed in position. This implies that the dose-rate at the surface of different drums in a large assembly of similar drums can have significant variations according to the physical makeup and configuration of the waste components. The present paper addresses this problem by treating the drum, and its waste, as a stochastic medium. It is assumed that the sources in the drum contribute a dose-rate to some external point. The strengths and positions are chosen by random numbers, the dose-rate is calculated and, from several thousand realizations, a probability distribution for the dose-rate is obtained. It is shown that a very close approximation to the dose-rate probability function is the log-normal distribution. This allows some useful statistical indicators, which are of environmental importance, to be calculated with little effort.As an example of a practical situation met in the storage of radioactive waste containers, we study the problem of 'hotspots'. These arise in drums in which most of the activity is concentrated on one radioactive component and hence can lead to the possibility of large surface dose-rates. It is shown how the dose-rate, the variance, and some other statistical indicators depend on the relative activities on the sources. The results highlight the importance of such hotspots and the need to quantify their effect.

  8. Investigation of an Accidental Radiological Release in an Underground Disposal Facility.

    PubMed

    Poppiti, James; Sheffield, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A radioactive release took place at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico, on 14 February 2014. An alarm from a Continuous Air Monitor caused a switch from unfiltered to filtered air exiting the facility through High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance filters. The activity measured on the filters demonstrated first order decay, indicating that the release was a single release. The facility was reentered in April 2014 and photographic evidence pointed to a single breached 55-gallon drum that originated at Los Alamos as the source of the release. Data were collected and analyzed to verify the source and cause of the release. PMID:26710163

  9. The Role of Piece Monitors for the Assay of Plutonium Waste in Alpha Plant Decommissioning Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.; Mullarkey, P.; Orr, C.H.H.; Sharpe, J.; Carr, E.

    2008-07-01

    Plutonium contaminated (TRU) wastes arising during decommissioning and waste retrievals operations at a UK reprocessing facility include small process items, strippable coatings, size-reduced pieces of glove box and metal pipes, etc. These waste materials are generally assayed in a 'Piece Monitor' employing neutron coincidence counting and gamma assay technologies. The major function of the TRU D{sup R} Piece Monitor is to provide an accurate assay of the TRU content of waste pieces/packages, primarily for nuclear safety purposes. The Piece Monitor follows each waste measurement by calculating the cumulative plutonium content of a waste drum as it is filled with this waste, allowing maximum filling of the drum whilst ensuring it remains within fissile content limits. TRU Piece Monitors are deployed at the interface between clean-air (C2) and the active decommissioning (C5) areas by attaching them to the wall of removable modular containment structures (MCSs). In the C5 area, the plant operator uses a variety of cold-cutting processes to size-reduce plant equipment and then places waste items in the monitor chamber for assay, prior to placing the waste in a 200 litre drum. The 're-entrant bulge' design of the assay chamber provides access from the active operations side, whilst the detection equipment remains in the C2 area. This ensures that the Piece Monitor equipment does not become contaminated and remains readily accessible for maintenance or repair. Piece monitors measure and report the plutonium content of each waste item immediately prior to placing in the waste drum, and provides a continuous 'tally' of the drum content. Warnings are shown when a drum is close to exceeding its allowable plutonium content and the waste drum can therefore be changed when either physically full or nearing its nuclear safety limits. (authors)

  10. Results from simulated contact-handled transuranic waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Sorensen, N.R.; Krumhansl, J.L.

    1993-12-31

    We conducted in situ experiments with nonradioactive, contact-handled transuranic (CH TRU) waste drums at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility for about four years. We performed these tests in two rooms in rock salt, at WIPP, with drums surrounded by crushed salt or 70 wt % salt/30 wt % bentonite clay backfills, or partially submerged in a NaCl brine pool. Air and brine temperatures were maintained at {approximately}40C. These full-scale (210-L drum) experiments provided in situ data on: backfill material moisture-sorption and physical properties in the presence of brine; waste container corrosion adequacy; and, migration of chemical tracers (nonradioactive actinide and fission product simulants) in the near-field vicinity, all as a function of time. Individual drums, backfill, and brine samples were removed periodically for laboratory evaluations. Waste container testing in the presence of brine and brine-moistened backfill materials served as a severe overtest of long-term conditions that could be anticipated in an actual salt waste repository. We also obtained relevant operational-test emplacement and retrieval experience. All test results are intended to support both the acceptance of actual TRU wastes at the WIPP and performance assessment data needs. We provide an overview and technical data summary focusing on the WIPP CH TRU envirorunental overtests involving 174 waste drums in the presence of backfill materials and the brine pool, with posttest laboratory materials analyses of backfill sorbed-moisture content, CH TRU drum corrosion, tracer migration, and associated test observations.

  11. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).

  12. Low tension graphene drums for electromechanical pressure sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Raj N.; Mathew, John P.; Borah, Abhinandan; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a process to fabricate electromechanical pressure sensors using multilayer graphene in a sealed drum geometry. The drum resonators are fabricated on insulating sapphire substrates with a local back gate for direct radio frequency ({\\text{}}{{rf}}) actuation and detection of the mechanical modes. Using this scheme, we show the detection and electrostatic tuning of multiple resonant modes of the membrane up to 200 MHz. The geometry of the device also helps in attaining low tensile stress in the membrane, thereby giving high gate tunability (∼1 MHz/V) of the resonator modes. We study the resonant frequency shifts in the presence of helium gas and demonstrate a sensing capability of 1 Torr pressure in a cryogenic environment.

  13. Flow of magnetized grains in a rotating drum.

    PubMed

    Lumay, G; Vandewalle, N

    2010-10-01

    We have experimentally investigated the influence of a magnetic interaction between the grains on the flow of a granular material in a rotating drum. The magnetic cohesion is induced by applying a homogeneous external magnetic field B oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the gravity g. The drum rotating speed has been selected to obtain a continuous flow when the magnetic field is switched off. We show that, for both magnetic field orientations, the cohesion is able to induce a transition between the continuous flow regime to the discrete avalanche regime. The avalanche dynamics is periodic when B⊥g and irregular when B∥g. Moreover, the maximal angle of stability θ(m) increases strongly with the cohesion strength and could be higher than 90° when B⊥g. A toy model based on the stability of a magnetic block on a magnetic inclined plane is proposed to explain this behavior. PMID:21230228

  14. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.W.; Swanson, P.J.

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  15. Gastrointestinal anthrax after an animal-hide drumming event - New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 2009.

    PubMed

    2010-07-23

    On December 24, 2009, a woman aged 24 years from New Hampshire was confirmed to have gastrointestinal anthrax on the basis of clinical findings and a Bacillus anthracis blood culture isolate. Her symptoms began on December 5. One day before symptom onset, she had participated in a drumming event at a community organization's building where animal-hide drums of multiple ages and origins were played. This report describes the case and subsequent investigation, which identified 84 persons potentially exposed to anthrax, including those persons at the drumming event and those who lived or worked at the event site. Review of New Hampshire disease surveillance data and clinical microbiology records for periods before and after the event identified no additional anthrax cases. Initial qualitative environmental testing of the event site yielded three positive samples (two from drum heads and one composite sample of three electrical outlets in the main drumming room). Wider, targeted, semi-quantitative environmental testing of the site and additional drums yielded six positive samples (two from one drum and four from environmental locations in the building). These results suggested that aerosolization of spores from drumheads had occurred. All isolates obtained from environmental and drum samples matched the patient's isolate by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis using eight loci (MLVA-8). Public health agencies and persons with exposure to animal-hide drums should be aware of the potential, although remote, risk for anthrax exposure associated with these drums. PMID:20651643

  16. Supplemental Cooling for Nitrate Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Mitchell S.

    2015-08-19

    In July 2015, Los Alamos National Laboratory completed installation of a supplemental cooling system in the structure where remediated nitrate salt waste drums are stored. Although the waste currently is in a safe configuration and is monitored daily,controlling the temperature inside the structure adds another layer of protection for workers, the public,and the environment.This effort is among several layers of precautions designed to secure the waste.

  17. Nondestructive Examination Equipment in the Hanford Site WRAP 1 and Retrieval Project

    SciTech Connect

    Keve, J.K.; Weber, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1 (WRAP-1) is currently under construction at the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington Stage. The facility is scheduled to begin operation in 1996. Its mission is to annually receive more than 6,800 55-gallon drums of both newly generated and retrieved contact-handled solid waste and prepare them for certification and disposal. WRAP 1, the Nondestructive Examination (NDE) System has two primary functions: To identify the presence or verify the absence of non-compliant materials in the un-manifested, retrieved drums, and to certify that all outgoing drums of TRU waste (newly generated and processed) are free of liquids and other non-compliant items. The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility, Phase 1 Project will unearth and recover the first 10,000 of 38,000 drums of suspect TRU waste buried between 1970 and 1985 for which no detailed contents manifests exist. Follow-on projects will recover the balance of the buried drums. To resolve safely issues about storing the newly unearthed drums, the containers and contents will be examined at the recovery site before the containers are placed in storage facilities.

  18. 26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail view of drum girder with rollers below, resting on fixed turntable upon masonry center pier. Swing drive shaft (vertical) is turned by level gear of horizontal shaft (protruding through machine room wall), which turns pinion gear toothed to fixed turntable rack below rollers. (Nov. 25, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  19. The evolution of harmonic Indian musical drums: A mathematical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudet, Samuel; Gauthier, Claude; Léger, Sophie

    2006-03-01

    We explain using mathematics how harmonic musical drums were discovered by Indian artisans and musicians more than 2000 years ago. To this end, we introduce a harmonic error function which measures the quality of the harmonic relationship and degeneracy of the first modes of vibration of a centrally symmetric loaded membrane. We explain that although the tabla configuration found by the ancient Indians is the most natural one, other configurations exist and some are harmonically superior to the classical one.

  20. Scaling of heat transfer in granular material in rotating drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohannes, Bereket; Emady, Heather; Pardes, Ingrid; Javed, Maham; Borghard, William; Glasser, Benjamin; Muzzio, Fernando; Cuitino, Alberto

    Several industrial processes involve thermal treatment of granular materials and powders, in devices such as rotating drums, to bring about a desired chemical and/or physical transformation. Developing a better understanding of the heat transfer process can significantly improve the quality of the end product and efficiency. However, there is a lack of predictive models, for example, to predict the evolution of the distribution and average of the particles' temperature, particularly for the purposes of scale-up from laboratory scale experiments to manufacturing scale productions. We used discrete element method (DEM) based simulations to study the distribution of particles' temperature in rotating drums at low temperature. Various physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of particles were considered in the simulations and in the analysis. In addition, the effect of operating conditions such as size of drum, material fill level, and speed of rotation on the heat transfer were investigated. Based on the simulations, we identified timescales relevant to the heat transfer process and developed a relationship between these timescales that can be used to predict the average temperature of particles. We also found that the evolution of the temperature distribution, since different particles may have different temperatures, can be predicted based on these timescales. These findings can be used to predict the required time to heat up all particles to the desired temperature.

  1. Classification and storage of wastewater from floor finish removal operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, C.E.

    1996-05-01

    This study evaluates the wastewater generated from hard surface floor finish removal operations at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in order to determine if this wastewater is a hazardous waste, either by statistical evaluation, or other measurable regulatory guidelines established in California Regulations. This research also comparatively evaluates the 55 gallon drum and other portable tanks, all less than 1,000 gallons in size in order to determine which is most effective for the management of this waste stream at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The statistical methods in SW-846 were found to be scientifically questionable in their application to hazardous waste determination. In this statistical evaluation, the different data transformations discussed in the regulatory guidance document were applied along with the log transformation to the population of 18 samples from 55 gallon drums. Although this statistical evaluation proved awkward in its application, once the data is collected and organized on a spreadsheet this statistical analysis can be an effective tool which can aid the environmental manager in the hazardous waste classification process.

  2. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  3. W-026, acceptance test report TRU empty drum compactor (submittal{number_sign}634)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, T.L.

    1997-06-18

    On 10/19/96 and 10/21/96, the 06/04/96 version of the Empty Drum Compactor Acceptance Test Procedure was used to perform tests by INET Corporation at the Hanford WRAP facility. The INET compaction components were installed in the Diversified glovebox. The Diversified glovebox and cart and the INET compaction components, EDC HPU and drum centering device constitute the Empty Drum Compactor.

  4. Incidence of the leech Actinobdella pediculata on freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bur, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    Actinobdella pediculata (Glossiphoniidae), a freshwater leech, was found attached to freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie during 1991 through 1993. The animal was first observed during routine examinations of freshwater drum collected in May 1991. The leeches were usually attached to the inside, lower portion of the opercula near the isthmus. Incidence of attachment increased with freshwater drum age and length. No noticeable adverse effects on the fish from attachment by the leech were noted.

  5. FY94 Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Operations Robotics Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.M.

    1994-08-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) develops technologies to help solve waste management and environmental problems at DOE sites. The OTD includes the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Together these programs will provide technologies for DOE mixed waste cleanup projects. Mixed waste contains both radioactive and hazardous constituents. DOE sites currently store over 240,000 cubic meters of low level mixed waste and cleanup activities will generate several hundred thousand more cubic meters. Federal and state regulations require that this waste must be processed before final disposal. The OTD RTDP Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) team held several robotic demonstrations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during November of 1993. Over 330 representatives from DOE, Government Contractors, industry, and universities attended. The MWO team includes: Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Engineering Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). SRTC is the lead site for MWO and provides the technical coordinator. The primary demonstration objective was to show that robotic technologies can make DOE waste facilities run better, faster, more cost effective, and safer. To meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste drum processing activities: non-destructive drum examination, drum transportation, drum opening, removing waste from a drum, characterize and sort waste items, scarify metal waste, and inspect stored drums. To further meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste box processing activities: swing free crane control, workcell modeling, and torch standoff control.

  6. Waste gas recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Lintonbon, R.F.; Shore, D.

    1981-06-02

    A waste gas recovery system employs a compressor which takes in raw waste gas from an inlet knock-out drum and passes compressed gas through a heat exchanger to an outlet knock-out drum. The temperature at the outlet of the compressor is sensed by a device which operates valves to inject liquid coolant into the compressor inlet and to re-circulate gas back from the outlet of the outlet knock-out drum to inhibit an excessive temperature rise. A pressure-sensing device senses the pressure of the gas passing into the compressor and controls both the speed of the compressor and an adjustable throttle valve to regulate the gas flow. The throttle valve is closed automatically should there be a fall in the pressure of the gas at the inlet below a safe level. In this event, further pressure-sensing devices act additionally to close the recirculating gas valve and a further valve in the main inlet flow path to reliably isolate the compressor.

  7. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-06-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  8. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF NGS CONCENTRATE DRUM SAMPLES [Next Generation Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Williams, M.

    2013-09-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared two drums (50 gallons each in �Drum#2� and �Drum#4�) of NGS-MCU (Next Generation Solvent-Modular CSSX Unit) concentrate for future use at MCU in downblending the BOBCalixC6 based solvent to produce NGS-MCU solvent. Samples of each drum were sent for analysis. The results of all the analyses indicate that the blend concentrate is of the correct composition and should produce a blended solvent at MCU of the desired formulation.

  9. EVALUATION OF RADIOLYSIS INDUCED HYDROGEN GENERATION IN DOT 6M DRUMS FROM INTEC

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D

    2007-06-18

    Three DOT 6M 30-gallon drums are scheduled to be shipped from the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to L-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These three drums contain radioactive materials that resulted from the material recovery effort following a small explosion that had occurred in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) hot chemistry laboratory (HCL). In support of the shipment and subsequent storage of the three DOT 6M drums, an evaluation of the potential for molecular hydrogen production in the drums has been completed and documented herein. The potential sources of hydrogen evaluated in the current report include radiolytic decomposition of polymeric materials in the DOT 6M drums No.3031 and No.3598 and the radiolytic decomposition of water in drum No.20102. No other potential sources have been identified based upon reported drum contents and packaging configuration. A parametric approach was used to evaluate the maximum quantity of molecular hydrogen that can be expected to evolve in two DOT 6M 30-gallon drums in support of receipt and subsequent interim storage prior to canyon processing. These drums are two of three drums scheduled for shipment from INTEC to SRS as part of the decommissioning effort of the INTEC facility. The three DOT 6M drums will be received at L-Area in SRS and stored for up to 13-years prior to final disposition at HB-Line in 2020. Results of the current analysis do not include parametric analysis of drum No.20102 containing 114/133 SAL (salvage) which contains UO{sub 3} powder. This drum has not been identified as containing polymeric materials and a conservative calculation indicates that the maximum gross molecular hydrogen production due to the radiolysis of adsorbed moisture would yield a production rate of 5.1-cm{sup 3}/yr, driven primarily by the large surface are to volume ratio of the oxide powder. The remaining two drums, No.3031 and No.3598 contain polymer

  10. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of radioactive waste embedded into EPDM and effect of lead filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Tonguç

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the nuclear industry and should be processed and disposed of according to the regulations set by the appropriate regulatory authority. Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) is a widely used polymer and might be considered as a potential candidate radioactive waste encapsulation material. In this study, the dose rate distribution in the radioactive waste drum (containing radioactive waste and the polymer matrix) was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. The change in the dose rate within the waste drum with different amounts of lead filler was also simulated. It was seen that lead filler would decrease the dose delivered to the polymer by means of energy dissipation. Moreover, the change of mechanical properties of EPDM was estimated and their variation within the waste drum was determined for the duration of 15, 30 and 300 years after embedding.

  12. Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

  13. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  14. An overview of flammable liquid drum storage and protection

    SciTech Connect

    Capizzani, R.E.

    1984-08-01

    There has been a number of different approaches to protecting warehousing of finished and intermediate products in steel and plastic drums. While most protection schemes meet immediate needs and solve fire protection problems, they are not without disadvantages or immune to unique design pre-conditions. Every Loss Prevention Engineer must be aware of the concept of each design, the conditions controlling design parameters, and the limited testing on which all schemes have been based. Misapplication or poor assumptions could lead to catastrophic results.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Larval and Juvenile Red Drum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, Jack

    1984-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for larval and juvenile red drum. The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for estimating model variables are provided.

  16. Tomographic gamma scanning to assay heterogeneous radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Estep, R.J.; Prettyman, T.H.; Sheppard, G.A. )

    1994-11-01

    Current methods for the nondestructive assay of special nuclear materials (SNM) and transuranic (TRU) waste in 208-l drums can give assay errors of 100% or more when the drum matrix and/or radionuclide distribution is nonuniform. This problem is addressed by the development of the tomographic-gamma-scanner (TGS) method for assaying heterogeneous drummed SNM/TRU waste. The TGS method improves on the well-established segmented-gamma-scanner (SGS) method by performing low-resolution tomographic emission and transmission scans on the drum, yielding coarse three-dimensional images of the matrix density and radionuclide distributions. The images are used to make accurate, point-to-point attenuation corrections. The TGS geometric counting efficiency is 60% that of a typical SGS device, allowing a TGS assay time of only 28 min/drum with a one-detector system. The TGS method may also be useful for nondestructive examination. Currently, TGS is the only practical method of imaging SNM in drums.

  17. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  18. Low-level stored waste inspection using mobile robots

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-06-01

    A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy to replace human inspectors in the routine, regulated inspection of radioactive waste stored in drums. The robot will roam the three-foot aisles of drums, stacked four high, making decisions about the surface condition of the drums and maintaining a database of information about each drum. A distributed system of onboard and offboard computers will provide versatile, friendly control of the inspection process. This mobile robot system, based on a commercial mobile platform, will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. This paper describes and discusses primarily the computer and control processes for the system.

  19. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Gas Generation Testing Program at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Program are to evaluate compliance with the limits on total gas generation rates, establish the concentrations of hydrogen and methane in the total gas flow, determine the headspace concentration of VOCs in each drum prior to the start of the test, and obtain estimates of the concentrations of several compounds for mass balance purposes. Criteria for the selection of waste containers at the INEL and the parameters that must be characterized prior to and during the tests are described. Collection of gaseous samples from 55-gallon drums of contact-handled transuranic waste for the gas generation testing is discussed. Analytical methods and calibrations are summarized. Administrative quality control measures described in this QAPjP include the generation, review, and approval of project documentation; control and retention of records; measures to ensure that personnel, subcontractors or vendors, and equipment meet the specifications necessary to achieve the required data quality for the project.

  20. Monkey drumming reveals common networks for perceiving vocal and nonvocal communication sounds

    PubMed Central

    Remedios, Ryan; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Kayser, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Salient sounds such as those created by drumming can serve as means of nonvocal acoustic communication in addition to vocal sounds. Despite the ubiquity of drumming across human cultures, its origins and the brain regions specialized in processing such signals remain unexplored. Here, we report that an important animal model for vocal communication, the macaque monkey, also displays drumming behavior, and we exploit this finding to show that vocal and nonvocal communication sounds are represented by overlapping networks in the brain's temporal lobe. Observing social macaque groups, we found that these animals use artificial objects to produce salient periodic sounds, similar to acoustic gestures. Behavioral tests confirmed that these drumming sounds attract the attention of listening monkeys similarly as conspecific vocalizations. Furthermore, in a preferential looking experiment, drumming sounds influenced the way monkeys viewed their conspecifics, suggesting that drumming serves as a multimodal signal of social dominance. Finally, by using high-resolution functional imaging we identified those brain regions preferentially activated by drumming sounds or by vocalizations and found that the representations of both these communication sounds overlap in caudal auditory cortex and the amygdala. The similar behavioral responses to drumming and vocal sounds, and their shared neural representation, suggest a common origin of primate vocal and nonvocal communication systems and support the notion of a gestural origin of speech and music. PMID:19805199

  1. Motion of a free cylinder inside a rotating water-filled drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, R. H.; Vial, A.; Barraud, C.

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental results on the motion and levitation of a freely to-move heavy cylinder, of constant diameter and varying mass, inside a water-filled drum rotating around its horizontal axis. The resulting flow field and the cylinder dynamics were determined with the aid of flow visualizations and particle image velocimetry methods. The spatial tracking of the inner cylinder was done with the aid of Fourier cross correlation methods. The steady bulk flow field created by the drum rotation generated forces that make the inner cylinder to counter-rotate without contact with the drum walls. Testing different cylinder masses and rotating drum frequencies has shown that there exists a range of stable spatial positions of the inner cylinder describing an angular segment inside the drum flow. The cylinder frequency can be set to zero if we increase the drum frequency beyond a threshold value. Increasing the drum frequency produces a stronger secondary flow circulation which is the key-mechanism responsible of the counter-rotating cylinder frequency. At this point, the inner cylinder levitates with a constant separation from the drum walls close to half of its diameter. Tests on heavy hollow cylinders revealed that the fluid filling the cylinder remains at rest while the cylinder was under levitation with zero rotation frequency.

  2. Bringing Carnaval Drum and Dance Traditions into 4-H Programming for Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin-Ginop, Evelyn; Braverman, Marc T.; Caruso, Robyn; Bone, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    4-H Bloco Drum and Dance is an afterschool program that teaches adolescents drumming, dancing, and theater arts in the rich traditions of Brazilian Carnaval. Teens learn to express themselves in a variety of modalities and perform at community events. The program was developed by a community coalition that included 4-H, other youth programs, and…

  3. Electric-stepping-motor tests for a control-drum actuator of a nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieffer, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted on two stepping motors for application as reactor control-drum actuators. Various control-drum loads with frictional resistances ranging from approximately zero to 40 N-m and inertias ranging from zero to 0.424 kg-sq m were tested.

  4. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: RAIL TANK CAR, TANK TRUCK, AND DRUM CLEANING, STATE-OF-THE-ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reviews the state of the art of air emissions and water pollutants from cleaning rail tank cars, tank trucks, and drums. Composition, quantity, and rate of emissions and pollutants are described. Rail tank cars, tank trucks, and drums are used to transport chemical ...

  5. Multi-Cultural Awareness Project, the Organization and Implementation of a "World Steel Drum Ensemble".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Stanley G.

    This proposal describes the organization and implementation of a "World Steel Drum Ensemble" as a strategy to solve the problems of low minority academic achievement, high minority discipline incidents, and minority isolationism. The drum ensemble studied and performed music from Caribbean, Hispanic, and African heritages in a middle school…

  6. Improvement of Algorithms for Pressure Maintenance Systems in Drum-Separators of RBMK-1000 Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksakov, A. N. Yankovskiy, K. I.; Dunaev, V. I.; Kushbasov, A. N.

    2015-05-15

    The main tasks and challenges for pressure regulation in the drum-separators of RBMK-1000 reactors are described. New approaches to constructing algorithms for pressure control in drum-separators by electro-hydraulic turbine control systems are discussed. Results are provided from tests of the operation of modernized pressure regulators during fast transients with reductions in reactor power.

  7. EMISSION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DRUM-MIX ASPHALT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was undertaken in order to develop a quantitative estimate of the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from drum-mix asphalt plants. The study was carried out by field sampling of five drum-mix plants under a variety of operating conditions. Include...

  8. 49 CFR 178.509 - Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.509 Standards for plastic drums... plastic drums and jerricans are as follows: (1) The packaging must be manufactured from suitable plastic... the Associate Administrator. The packaging must be adequately resistant to aging and to...

  9. Pyrolysis Autoclave Technology Demonstration Program for Treatment of DOE Solidified Organic Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Roesener, W.S.; Mason, J.B.; Ryan, K.; Bryson, S.; Eldredge, H.B.

    2006-07-01

    In the summer of 2005, MSE Technologies Applications, Inc. (MSE) and THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT) conducted a demonstration test of the Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR{sup sm}) in-drum pyrolysis autoclave system under contract to the Department of Energy. The purpose of the test was to demonstrate that the THOR{sup sm} pyrolysis autoclave system could successfully treat solidified organic waste to remove organics from the waste drums. The target waste was created at Rocky Flats and currently resides at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Removing the organics from these drums would allow them to be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for disposal. Two drums of simulated organic setup waste were successfully treated. The simulated waste was virtually identical to the expected waste except for the absence of radioactive components. The simulated waste included carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, Texaco Regal oil, and other organics mixed with calcium silicate and Portland cement stabilization agents. The two-stage process consisted of the THOR{sup sm} electrically heated pyrolysis autoclave followed by the MSE off gas treatment system. The treatment resulted in a final waste composition that meets the requirements for WIPP transportation and disposal. There were no detectable volatile organic compounds in the treated solid residues. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for total organics in the two drums ranged from >99.999% to >99.9999%. The operation of the process proved to be easily controllable using the pyrolysis autoclave heaters. Complete treatment of a fully loaded surrogate waste drum including heat-up and cooldown took place over a two-day period. This paper discusses the results of the successful pyrolysis autoclave demonstration testing. (authors)

  10. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Di Massa, F.V.; Elliott, D.B.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Shankle, S.A.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program`s (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk`s primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 2, the Baseline Detail.

  11. Rotating drum tests of particle suspensions within a fines dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Gollin, Devis; Kaitna, Roland; Wu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Natural flows like mudflows, debris flow, and hyperconcentrated flows are commonly composed by a matrix of particles suspended in a viscous fluid. The nature of the interactions between particles immersed in a fluid is related to its size. While coarse particles (sand, gravel, and boulders) interact with each other or with the surrounding fluid, a dispersion of fine particles interacts with each other through colloidal forces or Brownian motion effects (Coussot and Piau, 1995, and Ancey and Jorrot, 2001). The predominance of one of the previous interactions defines the rheology of the flow. On this sense, experimental insight is required to validate the limits where the rheology of a dispersion of fines is valid. For this purpose, an experimental program in a rotating drum is performed over samples of sand, loess, and kaolin. The solid concentration and angular velocity of the rotating drum are varied. Height and normal loads are measured during flow. High-speed videos are performed to obtain the flow patterns of the mixtures. The experiments provide new laboratory evidence of granular mixture behaviour within an increased viscous fluid phase and its characterization. The results show an apparent threshold in terms of solid concentration, in which the mixtures started to behave as a shear-dependent material.

  12. Radioactive liquid waste treatment facility

    SciTech Connect

    Black, R.L.

    1984-07-01

    The Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho provides improved treatment for low-level aqueous waste compared to conventional systems. A unique, patented evaporated system is used in the RLWTF. SHADE (shielded hot air drum evaporator, US Patent No. 4,305,780) is a low-cost disposable unit constructed from standard components and is self-shielded. The results of testing and recent operations indicate that evaporation rates of 2 to 6 gph (8 to 23 L/h) can be achieved with a single unit housed in a standard 30-gal (114-L) drum container. The operating experience has confirmed the design evaporation rate of 60,000 gal (227,000 L) per year, using six SHADE's. 2 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Treatability study of Tank E-3-1 waste: mixed waste stream SR-W049

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1997-08-21

    Treatability studies were conducted for tank E-3-1 waste which was previously characterized in WSRC-RP-87-0078. The waste was determined to be mixed waste because it displayed the characteristic of metal toxicity for Hg and Cr and was also contaminated with low levels of radionuclides. Two types of treatments for qualifying this waste suitable for land disposal were evaluated: ion exchange and stabilization with hydraulic materials (portland cement, slag and magnesium phosphate cement). These treatments were selected for testing because: (1) Both treatments can be carried out as in-drum processes., (2) Cement stabilization is the RCRA/LDR best developed available technology (BDAT) for Hg (less than 280 mg/L) and for Cr., and (3) Ion exchange via Mag-Sep is a promising alternative technology for in drum treatment of liquid wastes displaying metal toxicity. Cement stabilization of the E-3-1 material ( supernate and settled solids) resulted in waste forms which passed the TCLP test for both Hg and Cr. However, the ion exchange resins tested were ineffective in removing the Hg from this waste stream. Consequently, cement stabilization is recommended for a treatment of the five drums of the actual waste.

  14. The effect of zebra mussel consumption on growth of freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Bur, Michael T.

    1996-01-01

    We examined food habits and scale annuli of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie to determine whether increasing predation on zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) had affected growth of freshwater drum. The volume of zebra mussels in drum guts was greater in older fish. Growth of age classes 3–4, which consumed few zebra mussels, was greater in the most productive year for zebra mussels, July 1990–August 1991, than in three prior years. The total lengths of 5-year-old drum changed little. The mean total length of 6-year-old females has declined since the zebra mussel invaded Lake Erie, even through mussels comprised more than two-thirds of gut samples in these fish. These studies suggest that zebra mussels may not benefit freshwater drum when serving as a staple in the diet. PDF

  15. Numerical study of the stress state of the bodies of coal-pulverizer drums

    SciTech Connect

    Abrosov, A.N.; Artemko, V.A.; Grigorenko, Y.M.; Sudautsova, G.K.; Trifsik, M.L.; Vasilenko, A.T.

    1985-11-01

    This article reports results of a calculation of the stress-strain state of the body of the drum of coal pulverizers using a method developed at the Institute of Mechanics to solve problems of shell statics. The method has been successfully used for several years at a pipe construction plant to design drums for ore crushers. The design diagram of the body of the coal pulverizer drum is shown. Numerical calculations of the stress-strain state of the drum of an Sh-50A coal pulverizer shows good convergence of the results with the summation of six to ten terms of the series. The calculations make it possible to model the stress-strain of the entire drum and select design parameters which are optimum from the point of view of strength and rigidity.

  16. Synchronized Drumming Enhances Activity in the Caudate and Facilitates Prosocial Commitment - If the Rhythm Comes Easily

    PubMed Central

    Kokal, Idil; Engel, Annerose; Kirschner, Sebastian; Keysers, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter “accidentally” dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system. PMID:22110623

  17. 76 FR 44912 - Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... AGENCY Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Callaway and son Drum Service Superfund Site located in Lake Alfred, Polk County.... Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site by one of...

  18. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-08-28

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  19. CH Packaging Operations for High Wattage Waste at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-12-18

    This procedure provides instructions for assembling the following contact-handled (CH) packaging payloads: - Drum payload assembly - Standard Waste Box (SWB) assembly - Ten-Drum Overpack (TDOP) In addition, this procedure also provides operating instructions for the TRUPACT-II CH waste packaging. This document also provides instructions for performing ICV and OCV preshipment leakage rate tests on the following packaging seals, using a nondestructive helium (He) leak test: - ICV upper main O-ring seal - ICV outer vent port plug O-ring seal - OCV upper main O-ring seal - OCV vent port plug O-ring seal.

  20. Low-speed shredder and waste shreddability tests

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, G.R.; Aldrich, W.C.

    1983-04-01

    Most waste drums and large crates in the nuclear industry are or will be opened by hand, in gloveboxes, or with manipulators. The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF), which was being designed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), was no exception. The TWTF's manipulator concept required 4 to 6 hours to open and route a crate or drum for further processing; a costly operation. An alternative method was sought. Four of the relatively new low-speed shredders were tested on simulated transuranic waste packaged in 55-gal drums and 4- x 4- x 4-ft boxes. Three of the shredders were capable of shredding these containers and their contents in 1 to 15 minutes. Two were able to shred typical TWTF waste to acceptable particle size. The test waste included concrete, 1/4-in. steel plate (carbon and stainless), 1-in. rebar, rock, glass, plastic, paper, cloth, wood, steel cable, chain, etc. The two shredders were able to shred drums even with unshreddable items inside; the unshreddable items lay on top for later recovery by a manipulator while the other waste was being shredded.