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Sample records for 56717-56766 facilitating shareholder

  1. 17 CFR 240.14a-17 - Electronic shareholder forums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic shareholder forums... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14a-17 Electronic shareholder... establish, maintain, or operate an electronic shareholder forum to facilitate interaction among...

  2. 17 CFR 240.14a-17 - Electronic shareholder forums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic shareholder forums... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14a-17 Electronic shareholder... establish, maintain, or operate an electronic shareholder forum to facilitate interaction among...

  3. Shareholding Networks in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souma, Wataru; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Aoyama, Hideaki

    2005-06-01

    The Japanese shareholding network existing at the end of March 2002 is studied empirically. The network is constructed from 2,303 listed companies and 53 non-listed financial institutions. We consider this network as a directed graph by drawing edges from shareholders to stock corporations. The lengths of the shareholder lists vary with the companies, and the most comprehensive lists contain the top 30 shareholders. Consequently, the distribution of incoming edges has an upper bound, while that of outgoing edges has no bound. The distribution of outgoing degrees is well explained by the power law function with an exponential tail. The exponent in the power law range is γ = 1.7. To understand these features from the viewpoint of a company's growth, we consider the correlations between the outgoing degree and the company's age, profit, and total assets.

  4. Shareholder interests and utility competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-03-15

    The process of determining how to implement utility competition is often cast as a struggle between two opposing camps: shareholders and ratepayers. There are, of course, two other major players, management and regulators. The bipolar view tacitly assumes that shareholder and management interests coincide and that regulators have customer interests at heart. Neither assumption is valid. Shareholder interests deviate from management interests in important ways, just as the interests of the entrenched regulatory bureaucracy diverge from the public interest. Therefore, shareholder and management interests must be considered separately. In the past, managements have often pursued their own interests, with devastating financial impact on shareholders. Competition offers shareholders an opportunity to increase their leverage over managements, thereby increasing their returns as well.

  5. 75 FR 56667 - Facilitating Shareholder Director Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Industrial Organizations (``AFL-CIO''); California Public Employees' Retirement System (``CalPERS''); Council...''); Ohio Public Employees Retirement System (``OPERS''); Pax World; Teamsters. \\32\\ Id. \\33\\ See letters from AFL-CIO; CalPERS; California State Teachers' Retirement System (``CalSTRS''); CII; L....

  6. 75 FR 64641 - Facilitating Shareholder Director Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... petition for review in Business Roundtable, et al. v. SEC, No. 10-1305 (D.C. Cir., filed Sept. 29, 2010) (``Business Roundtable''), the effective and compliance dates of amendments to the federal proxy and related... state law rights to nominate and elect directors to company boards of directors. We are publishing...

  7. 12 CFR 552.6 - Shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., addressed to the shareholder at the address appearing on the stock transfer books or records of the... of the shareholders, the officer or agent having charge of the stock transfer books for the shares of... the entire time of the meeting. The original stock transfer book shall constitute prima facie...

  8. 10 ways to create shareholder value.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Alfred

    2006-09-01

    Executives have developed tunnel vision in their pursuit of shareholder value, focusing on short-term performance at the expense of investing in long-term growth. It's time to broaden that perspective and begin shaping business strategies in light of the competitive landscape, not the shareholder list. In this article, Alfred Rappaport offers ten basic principles to help executives create lasting shareholder value. For starters, companies should not manage earnings or provide earnings guidance; those that fail to embrace this first principle of shareholder value will almost certainly be unable to follow the rest. Additionally, leaders should make strategic decisions and acquisitions and carry assets that maximize expected value, even if near-term earnings are negatively affected as a result. During times when there are no credible value-creating opportunities to invest in the business, companies should avoid using excess cash to make investments that look good on the surface but might end up destroying value, such as ill-advised, overpriced acquisitions. It would be better to return the cash to shareholders in the form of dividends and buybacks. Rappaport also offers guidelines for establishing effective pay incentives at every level of management; emphasizes that senior executives need to lay their wealth on the line just as shareholders do; and urges companies to embrace full disclosure, an antidote to short-term earnings obsession that serves to lessen investor uncertainty, which could reduce the cost of capital and increase the share price. The author notes that a few types of companies--high-tech start-ups, for example, and severely capital-constrained organizations--cannot afford to ignore market pressures for short-term performance. Most companies with a sound, well-executed business model, however, could better realize their potential for creating shareholder value by adopting the ten principles.

  9. 26 CFR 1.815-3 - Shareholders surplus account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the amount of the distributions to shareholders made by the company during 1958. For example, assume S... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-3 Shareholders surplus account. (a) In general. Every stock life insurance company subject to the tax imposed by section 802 shall establish...

  10. 26 CFR 1.926(a)-1 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distributions to shareholders. 1.926(a)-1... Distributions to shareholders. (a) Treatment of distributions. . For guidance, see § 1.926(a)-1T(a). (b) Order of distribution—(1) In general—(i) Distributions by a FSC received by a shareholder in a taxable...

  11. 26 CFR 1.926(a)-1 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distributions to shareholders. 1.926(a)-1... Distributions to shareholders. (a) Treatment of distributions. . For guidance, see § 1.926(a)-1T(a). (b) Order of distribution—(1) In general—(i) Distributions by a FSC received by a shareholder in a taxable...

  12. Visual analysis and exploration of complex corporate shareholder networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekušová, Tatiana; Kohlhammer, Jörn

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of large corporate shareholder network structures is an important task in corporate governance, in financing, and in financial investment domains. In a modern economy, large structures of cross-corporation, cross-border shareholder relationships exist, forming complex networks. These networks are often difficult to analyze with traditional approaches. An efficient visualization of the networks helps to reveal the interdependent shareholding formations and the controlling patterns. In this paper, we propose an effective visualization tool that supports the financial analyst in understanding complex shareholding networks. We develop an interactive visual analysis system by combining state-of-the-art visualization technologies with economic analysis methods. Our system is capable to reveal patterns in large corporate shareholder networks, allows the visual identification of the ultimate shareholders, and supports the visual analysis of integrated cash flow and control rights. We apply our system on an extensive real-world database of shareholder relationships, showing its usefulness for effective visual analysis.

  13. 12 CFR 7.2001 - Notice of shareholders' meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of shareholders' meetings. 7.2001 Section 7.2001 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2001 Notice of shareholders' meetings. A national bank...

  14. 12 CFR 7.2001 - Notice of shareholders' meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of shareholders' meetings. 7.2001 Section 7.2001 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2001 Notice of shareholders' meetings. A national bank...

  15. 12 CFR 7.2001 - Notice of shareholders' meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of shareholders' meetings. 7.2001 Section 7.2001 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2001 Notice of shareholders' meetings. A national bank...

  16. 12 CFR 7.2001 - Notice of shareholders' meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of shareholders' meetings. 7.2001 Section 7.2001 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2001 Notice of shareholders' meetings. A national bank...

  17. 12 CFR 7.2001 - Notice of shareholders' meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of shareholders' meetings. 7.2001 Section 7.2001 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2001 Notice of shareholders' meetings. A national bank...

  18. 12 CFR 620.5 - Contents of the annual report to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., processing and marketing loans, farm business loans, and international loans), indicating the approximate... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of the annual report to shareholders... SHAREHOLDERS Annual Report to Shareholders § 620.5 Contents of the annual report to shareholders. The...

  19. On the topological properties of the cross-shareholding networks of listed companies in China: Taking shareholders’ cross-shareholding relationships into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Huang, Jiachen; Xu, Qun

    2014-07-01

    Shareholders are the owners of listed companies, and their relationships can directly affect the structure of the stock market. In this paper, we analyze the topological properties and evolution of the cross-shareholding networks of listed companies in the past 5 years in China from 2007 to 2011, an infrequently considered topic, by taking shareholders' cross-shareholding relationships into account. This analysis arrives at a deeper insight into the inner characteristics of China's stock market. We find that the cross-shareholding networks of listed companies with shareholders' cross-shareholding relationships display statistical features that reveal the stock market's complex relationships more precisely. In particular, the results show that when the shareholders' cross-shareholding relationships are considered, first, the In-degree and Out-degree of the cross-shareholding networks follow power-law distribution and the R2 of the linear regression analysis of the cumulative degree distribution is relatively higher; second, the modularity of the communities is larger; finally, both the number of members of top-ranked communities and the number of communities that have a large number of members are larger than those of which only considering the relationships between shareholders and listed companies are taken into account. Such cross-shareholding networks analysis taking shareholders' cross-shareholding relations into account would be a helpful tool for supervisory departments and for stock market researchers to grasp the inner cross-shareholding relationships of listed companies in China, and it will be also helpful for the further researches about the "agent problems" in the stock markets from a whole point of view.

  20. 26 CFR 1.1366-1 - Shareholder's share of items of an S corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... principal purpose of selling or exchanging contributed property that in the hands of the shareholder or... availed of by any shareholder or group of shareholders for a principal purpose of selling or exchanging... thereunder. (f) Cross-reference. For rules relating to the consistent tax treatment of subchapter S...

  1. 17 CFR 240.14a-8 - Shareholder proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirement that the company and/or its board of directors take action, which you intend to present at a... held at least $2,000 in market value, or 1%, of the company's securities entitled to be voted on the... appear personally at the shareholders' meeting to present the proposal? (1) Either you, or...

  2. Annual Reports to Shareholders: Historical Collections in Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the scope and depth of the historic corporate annual report collections in twelve academic/research libraries in North America. For many decades, a few major academic business libraries have been collecting and preserving corporate Annual Reports (ARS), the reports sent to shareholders documenting the…

  3. 26 CFR 1.815-3 - Shareholders surplus account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) In general. Every stock life insurance company subject to the tax imposed by section 802 shall..., 1958, and the beginning or opening balance of the shareholders surplus account on that date shall be... account for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1957, shall be the amount by which the sum...

  4. 26 CFR 1.815-3 - Shareholders surplus account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) In general. Every stock life insurance company subject to the tax imposed by section 802 shall..., 1958, and the beginning or opening balance of the shareholders surplus account on that date shall be... account for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1957, shall be the amount by which the sum...

  5. 26 CFR 1.815-3 - Shareholders surplus account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) In general. Every stock life insurance company subject to the tax imposed by section 802 shall..., 1958, and the beginning or opening balance of the shareholders surplus account on that date shall be... account for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1957, shall be the amount by which the sum...

  6. Who should set CEO pay? The press? Congress? Shareholders?

    PubMed

    Brownstein, A R; Panner, M J

    1992-01-01

    Populist fervor in an election year has transformed executive compensation from a business issue into a political one. Critics, led by Graef Crystal, author of In Search of Excess: The Overcompensation of American Executives, charge that CEOs are ripping off shareholders with their outrageous salaries while running U.S. corporations into the ground. Politicians claim overpaid CEOs are the root cause of the U.S. competitiveness problem. Add a recessionary business climate to the fact that some CEOs earn 130 times more than their lowest paid employees, and you have the makings of a populist rebellion. In a bid to appease voters, Congress is considering several bills that would limit the deductibility of "excessive executive salaries," the SEC has opened the issue to shareholder comment, and the Financial Accounting Standards Board is looking at new accounting standards for granting stock options to executives as part of company compensation schemes. Andrew R. Brownstein and Morris J. Panner say it's time to put the debate back where it belongs--in a business context. The real question is not are executives paid too much, but are shareholders getting their money's worth. Most U.S. corporations use stock compensation to link company long-term performance to executive salaries. And because of the staggering market performance of U.S. corporations in the 1980s, an overwhelming majority of CEOs are actually paid in line with their performance. Rather than cut executive pay, Brownstein and Panner suggest that corporations extend incentive-based compensation plans to all employees, thus narrowing the salary gap and establishing pay for performance at every level of the organization.

  7. 26 CFR 1.883-4T - Qualified shareholder stock ownership test (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualified shareholder stock ownership test... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.883-4T Qualified shareholder stock...)(B). (C) If the individual directly owns stock in the corporation seeking qualified...

  8. 26 CFR 1.852-4 - Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies. 1.852-4 Section 1.852-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Investment Trusts § 1.852-4 Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies....

  9. 26 CFR 1.1291-1T - Taxation of United States persons that are shareholders of section 1291 funds (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shareholders of section 1291 funds (temporary). (a) through (b)(2)(i) (ii) Pedigreed QEF. A PFIC is a pedigreed QEF with respect to a shareholder if the PFIC has been a QEF with respect to the shareholder for all taxable years during which the corporation was a PFIC that are included wholly or partly in...

  10. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  11. Facilitating submetering implementation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    Residential submetering is the measurement and billing of electric use in individual apartments in master-metered buildings. In master-metered building situations, residents do not bear electricity costs in proportion to consumption levels. As a result, studies have confirmed that residents in master-metered buildings tend to consume more electricity than residents with individual apartment metering, and have established electrical submetering as an effective energy conservation measure. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA) has commissioned a project called Facilitating Submetering Implementation to identify and analyze barriers to the implementation of residential electrical submetering in New York and to formulate recommendations that would facilitate the removal of these barriers, streamlining the process. Experienced professionals in the technical, legal, regulatory, analytical, financial, and other aspects of submetering were retained to interview key interested parties and conduct public forums. This and other data were then analyzed to ascertain the barriers to submetering and develop recommendations designed to reduce or eliminate these barriers. The key barriers to submetering implementation were found to be the Public Service Commission (PSC) requirement for a vote of a majority of shareholders (for coops and condos) and the high initial cost that cannot easily be recouped by owners of both rental and shareholder-owned buildings. The key recommendations are to repeal the voting requirement, maintain the utility incentives, adopt a uniform dispute resolution mechanism, and increase awareness through an Ad-hoc Submetering Committee and supporting educational materials. Other funding sources not fully available can also be made available with regulatory agency support.

  12. Identification of shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects.

    PubMed

    Hatipkarasulu, Yilmaz; Gill, James H

    2004-04-01

    The increasing number of companies providing internet services and auction tools helped popularize the online reverse auction trend for purchasing commodities and services in the last decade. As a result, a number of owners, both public and private, accepted the online reverse auctions as the bidding technique for their construction projects. Owners, while trying to minimize their costs for construction projects, are also required to address their ethical responsibilities to the shareholders. In the case of online reverse auctions for construction projects, the ethical issues involved in the bidding technique directly reflects on the owner's ethical and social responsibilities to their shareholders. The goal of this paper is to identify the shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects by analyzing the ethical issues for the parties involved in the process. The identification of the ethical issues and responsibilities requires clear definition and understanding of professional ethics and the roles of the involved parties. In this paper, first, the concept of professional ethics and social responsibility is described in a general form. To illustrate the ethical issues and responsibilities, a sample case of bidding for a construction project using online reverse auction techniques is presented in which the shareholders were actively involved in questioning the ethical issues. The issues involved in the bidding process and their reflection on the shareholder responsibilities are described and analyzed for each stage of the process. A brief discussion of the overall process is also included to address the general ethical issues involved in online reverse auctions.

  13. 26 CFR 1.902-3 - Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a foreign corporation for foreign income taxes paid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... product of— (i) The percentage of voting stock owned by the domestic shareholder in the first-tier... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a... (CONTINUED) Income from Sources Without the United States § 1.902-3 Credit for domestic corporate...

  14. 26 CFR 1.902-1 - Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a foreign corporation for foreign income taxes paid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a... domestic corporation from a foreign corporation after December 31, 1986, the term domestic shareholder..., 1986, the term first-tier corporation means a foreign corporation, at least 10 percent of the...

  15. 75 FR 66589 - Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...We are proposing amendments to our rules to implement the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act relating to shareholder approval of executive compensation and ``golden parachute'' compensation arrangements. Section 951 of the Dodd-Frank Act amends the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by adding Section 14A, which requires companies to conduct a separate......

  16. 76 FR 6009 - Shareholder Approval of Executive Compensation and Golden Parachute Compensation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ...We are adopting amendments to our rules to implement the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act relating to shareholder approval of executive compensation and ``golden parachute'' compensation arrangements. Section 951 of the Dodd-Frank Act amends the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 by adding Section 14A, which requires companies to conduct a separate......

  17. 26 CFR 1.1254-4 - Special rules for S corporations and their shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... property. A and B are equal shareholders in X, an S corporation. On January 1, 1997, X acquires for $90,000 an undeveloped mineral property, its sole property. During 1997, X expends and deducts $100,000 in developing the property. On January 15, 1998, X sells the property for $250,000 when X's basis in...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1254-4 - Special rules for S corporations and their shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... property. A and B are equal shareholders in X, an S corporation. On January 1, 1997, X acquires for $90,000 an undeveloped mineral property, its sole property. During 1997, X expends and deducts $100,000 in developing the property. On January 15, 1998, X sells the property for $250,000 when X's basis in...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1254-4 - Special rules for S corporations and their shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... property. A and B are equal shareholders in X, an S corporation. On January 1, 1997, X acquires for $90,000 an undeveloped mineral property, its sole property. During 1997, X expends and deducts $100,000 in developing the property. On January 15, 1998, X sells the property for $250,000 when X's basis in...

  20. 17 CFR 274.128 - Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified... Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. This form shall be used by registered management investment... of this chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-CSR, see the List...

  1. 17 CFR 249.331 - Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. 249.331 Section 249.331 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Under Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 § 249.331 Form N-CSR,...

  2. 26 CFR 1.964-3 - Records to be provided by United States shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... maintained in the English language, either (i) an accurate English translation of such books or records or... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.964-3 Records to be... for the taxable year of a controlled foreign corporation each United State shareholder (as defined...

  3. 76 FR 72362 - Application of the Segregation Rules to Small Shareholders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... of stock of the loss corporation owned by such shareholders at any time during the testing period..., the comment observed that revisions allowing substantial infusions of capital into a loss corporation... transferred will be treated as being acquired proportionately by the public groups existing at the time of...

  4. 78 FR 79650 - Definitions and Reporting Requirements for Shareholders of Passive Foreign Investment Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... investment company (PFIC), the annual filing requirements for shareholders of PFICs, and an exclusion from... Electing Fund'', with respect to their PFIC interests. The temporary regulations also affect certain... fact that most small entities do not own an interest in a PFIC, and the fact that PFIC...

  5. 17 CFR 240.14a-20 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... executive compensation of TARP recipients. 240.14a-20 Section 240.14a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... § 240.14a-20 Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients. If a solicitation is made by a registrant that is a TARP recipient, as defined in section 111(a)(3) of the...

  6. 17 CFR 240.14a-20 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... executive compensation of TARP recipients. 240.14a-20 Section 240.14a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... § 240.14a-20 Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients. If a solicitation is made by a registrant that is a TARP recipient, as defined in section 111(a)(3) of the...

  7. 17 CFR 240.14a-20 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... executive compensation of TARP recipients. 240.14a-20 Section 240.14a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... § 240.14a-20 Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients. If a solicitation is made by a registrant that is a TARP recipient, as defined in section 111(a)(3) of the...

  8. 17 CFR 240.14a-20 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... executive compensation of TARP recipients. 240.14a-20 Section 240.14a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... § 240.14a-20 Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients. If a solicitation is made by a registrant that is a TARP recipient, as defined in section 111(a)(3) of the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.883-4 - Qualified shareholder stock ownership test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified shareholder stock ownership test. 1... stock ownership test. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation satisfies the stock ownership test of § 1... will not be considered to satisfy the stock ownership test of § 1.883-1(c)(2) pursuant to this...

  10. 26 CFR 1.883-4 - Qualified shareholder stock ownership test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Qualified shareholder stock ownership test. 1... stock ownership test. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation satisfies the stock ownership test of § 1... will not be considered to satisfy the stock ownership test of § 1.883-1(c)(2) pursuant to this...

  11. 26 CFR 1.883-4 - Qualified shareholder stock ownership test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified shareholder stock ownership test. 1... stock ownership test. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation satisfies the stock ownership test of § 1... will not be considered to satisfy the stock ownership test of § 1.883-1(c)(2) pursuant to this...

  12. 26 CFR 1.883-4 - Qualified shareholder stock ownership test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified shareholder stock ownership test. 1... stock ownership test. (a) General rule. A foreign corporation satisfies the stock ownership test of § 1... will not be considered to satisfy the stock ownership test of § 1.883-1(c)(2) pursuant to this...

  13. 17 CFR 240.14a-20 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients. 240.14a-20 Section 240.14a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF...

  14. 26 CFR 1.951-1 - Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....955-1 for a special rule applicable to exclusions and withdrawals occurring before the date on which...-1 for a special rule applicable to exclusions and withdrawals occurring before the date on which the... shareholder's pro rata share of such corporation's subpart F income or withdrawal for the taxable year...

  15. 26 CFR 1.951-1 - Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....955-1 for a special rule applicable to exclusions and withdrawals occurring before the date on which...-1 for a special rule applicable to exclusions and withdrawals occurring before the date on which the... shareholder's pro rata share of such corporation's subpart F income or withdrawal for the taxable year...

  16. 26 CFR 1.951-1 - Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....955-1 for a special rule applicable to exclusions and withdrawals occurring before the date on which...-1 for a special rule applicable to exclusions and withdrawals occurring before the date on which the... shareholder's pro rata share of such corporation's subpart F income or withdrawal for the taxable year...

  17. 78 FR 62418 - Application of the Segregation Rules to Small Shareholders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... transfers of stock from the segregation rules of Sec. 1.382-2T(j)(2)(iii) and (3). Terms and nomenclature... owner of P that is a 5-percent shareholder of L. Because A's sale of the P stock is to a member...

  18. 26 CFR 1.857-6 - Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-6 Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts. (a) Ordinary income. Except... receiving dividends from a real estate investment trust shall include such dividends in gross income for...

  19. 26 CFR 1.995-1 - Taxation of DISC income to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of DISC income to shareholders. 1.995...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.995-1 Taxation of DISC... to taxation on the earnings and profits of the DISC in accordance with the provisions of chapter 1...

  20. 17 CFR 270.30d-1 - Filing of copies of reports to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.30d-1 Filing of copies of reports to shareholders. A registered management investment company, other than a small business investment company... and procedures specified therefor, of reports on Form N-CSR (§§ 249.331 and 274.128 of this...

  1. 17 CFR 274.128 - Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified... Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. This form shall be used by registered management investment... of this chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-CSR, see the List...

  2. 17 CFR 249.331 - Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. 249.331 Section 249.331 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Under Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 § 249.331 Form N-CSR,...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1366-1 - Shareholder's share of items of an S corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...); deduction under an election to expense certain depreciable business expenses (section 179); medical, dental... elects to expense the entire cost of the property. Shareholder A owns 50 percent of the stock of... section 179 expense may not exceed $19,000 (the aggregate maximum cost that may be taken into...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1366-1 - Shareholder's share of items of an S corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...); deduction under an election to expense certain depreciable business expenses (section 179); medical, dental... elects to expense the entire cost of the property. Shareholder A owns 50 percent of the stock of... section 179 expense may not exceed $19,000 (the aggregate maximum cost that may be taken into...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1366-1 - Shareholder's share of items of an S corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...); deduction under an election to expense certain depreciable business expenses (section 179); medical, dental... elects to expense the entire cost of the property. Shareholder A owns 50 percent of the stock of... section 179 expense may not exceed $19,000 (the aggregate maximum cost that may be taken into...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1366-1 - Shareholder's share of items of an S corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...); deduction under an election to expense certain depreciable business expenses (section 179); medical, dental... elects to expense the entire cost of the property. Shareholder A owns 50 percent of the stock of... section 179 expense may not exceed $19,000 (the aggregate maximum cost that may be taken into...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1254-4 - Special rules for S corporations and their shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... property, its sole property. During 1997, Y expends in developing the property $40,000 in intangible... disposition of which would result in the recognition by the shareholder of ordinary income under section 1254... of stock. (ii) Transactions entered into as part of a plan to avoid recognition of ordinary...

  8. 17 CFR 274.128 - Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified... Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. This form shall be used by registered management investment... of this chapter. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting Form N-CSR, see the List...

  9. 17 CFR 249.331 - Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. 249.331 Section 249.331 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Under Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 § 249.331 Form N-CSR,...

  10. The shareholding similarity of the shareholders of the worldwide listed energy companies based on a two-mode primitive network and a one-mode derivative holding-based network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Yan, LiLi

    2014-12-01

    Two-mode and multi-mode networks represent new directions of simulating a complex network that can simulate the relationships among the entities more precisely. In this paper, we constructed two different levels of networks: one is the two-mode primitive networks of the energy listed companies and their shareholders on the basis of the two-mode method of complex theory, and the other is the derivative one-mode holding-based network based on the equivalence network theory. We calculated two different topological characteristics of the two networks, that is, the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network (9003 nodes) and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network (619,766 edges), and we analyzed the distribution features of both of the two topological characteristics. In this paper, we define both the weighted and un-weighted Shareholding Similarity Coefficient, and using the data of the worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders as empirical study subjects, we calculated and compared both the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies. The result of the analysis indicates that (1) both the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network follow a power-law distribution; (2) there are significant differences between the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies, and the weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is of greater regularity than the un-weighted one; (3) there are a vast majority of shareholders who hold stock in only one or a few of the listed energy companies; and (4) the shareholders hold stock in the same listed energy companies when the value of the un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is between 0.4 and 0.8. The study will be a helpful tool to analyze the relationships of the nodes of the one-mode network, which is constructed based

  11. 77 FR 34884 - Basis of Indebtedness of S Corporations to Their Shareholders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... shareholder to create basis of indebtedness. See, for example, Maloof v. Comm'r, 456 F.3d 645, 649-650 (6th Cir. 2006); Spencer v. Comm'r, 110 T.C. 62, 78-79 (1998), aff'd without published opinion, 194 F.3d... the loan. See, for example, Oren v. Comm'r, 357 F.3d 854, 857-859 (8th Cir. 2004); Bergman v....

  12. Network of listed companies based on common shareholders and the prediction of market volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Ren, Da; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Yongjie

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we build a network of listed companies in the Chinese stock market based on common shareholding data from 2003 to 2013. We analyze the evolution of topological characteristics of the network (e.g., average degree, diameter, average path length and clustering coefficient) with respect to the time sequence. Additionally, we consider the economic implications of topological characteristic changes on market volatility and use them to make future predictions. Our study finds that the network diameter significantly predicts volatility. After adding control variables used in traditional financial studies (volume, turnover and previous volatility), network topology still significantly influences volatility and improves the predictive ability of the model.

  13. 26 CFR 1.6035-1 - Returns of U.S. officers, directors and 10-percent shareholders of foreign personal holding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-percent shareholders of foreign personal holding companies for taxable years beginning after September 3..., directors and 10-percent shareholders of foreign personal holding companies for taxable years beginning... personal holding company beginning after September 3, 1982, each United States citizen or resident who...

  14. Facilitating Facilitators: Enhancing PBL through a Structured Facilitator Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinitri, Francine D.; Wilhelm, Sheila M.; Crabtree, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing adoption of the problem-based learning (PBL) model, creative approaches to enhancing facilitator training and optimizing resources to maintain effective learning in small groups is essential. We describe a theoretical framework for the development of a PBL facilitator training program that uses the constructivist approach as the…

  15. 26 CFR 1.956-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... controlled foreign corporation's investment of earnings in United States property—(1) Dividend limitation... foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property. 1.956-1 Section 1.956-1...) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.956-1 Shareholder's pro rata share of a...

  16. 26 CFR 1.1291-0 - Treatment of shareholders of certain passive foreign investment companies; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Pedigreed QEF. (iii) Unpedigreed QEF. (iv) Former PFIC. (3) Shareholder. (k) Effective date. § 1.1291-10... PFICs that are not pedigreed QEFs. (a) through (b) (c) Coordination with other PFIC rules. (1) and (2) (3) Coordination with section 1296: distributions and dispositions. (4) Coordination with mark...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1291-0 - Treatment of shareholders of certain passive foreign investment companies; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Pedigreed QEF. (iii) Unpedigreed QEF. (iv) Former PFIC. (3) Shareholder. (k) Effective date. § 1.1291-10... PFICs that are not pedigreed QEFs. (a) through (b) (c) Coordination with other PFIC rules. (1) and (2) (3) Coordination with section 1296: distributions and dispositions. (4) Coordination with mark...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1291-0 - Treatment of shareholders of certain passive foreign investment companies; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... are not pedigreed QEFs. (a) through (b) (c) Coordination with other PFIC rules. (1) and (2) (3...) Pedigreed QEF. (iii) Unpedigreed QEF. (iv) Former PFIC. (3) Shareholder. (k) Effective date. § 1.1291-10...) Elections made after March 31, 1995, and before January 27, 1997. (i) In general. (ii) Exception....

  19. 26 CFR 1.1291-0 - Treatment of shareholders of certain passive foreign investment companies; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Pedigreed QEF. (iii) Unpedigreed QEF. (iv) Former PFIC. (3) Shareholder. (k) Effective date. § 1.1291-10... PFICs that are not pedigreed QEFs. (a) through (b) (c) Coordination with other PFIC rules. (1) and (2) (3) Coordination with section 1296: distributions and dispositions. (4) Coordination with mark...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1291-0 - Treatment of shareholders of certain passive foreign investment companies; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Pedigreed QEF. (iii) Unpedigreed QEF. (iv) Former PFIC. (3) Shareholder. (k) Effective date. § 1.1291-10... PFICs that are not pedigreed QEFs. (a) through (b) (c) Coordination with other PFIC rules. (1) and (2) (3) Coordination with section 1296: distributions and dispositions. (4) Coordination with mark...

  1. 29 CFR 2509.08-2 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 2509.08-2 Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and... voting, or if the exercise of voting results in the imposition of unwarranted trading or...

  2. Digging Deep for Meaning: A Critical Hermeneutic Analysis of CEO Letters to Shareholders in the Oil Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Anshuman; Mir, Raza

    2002-01-01

    Uses the methodology of critical hermeneutics to analyze Chief Executive Officers' letters to shareholders in the United States petroleum industry during the 1970s and 1980s. Suggests these letters were deployed to produce a certain attitude toward OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) among their readers that deflected attention of…

  3. Shareholder Value and the Performance of a Large Nursing Home Chain

    PubMed Central

    Kitchener, Martin; O'Meara, Janis; Brody, Ab; Lee, Hyang Yuol; Harrington, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze corporate governance arrangements and quality and financial performance outcomes among large multi-facility nursing home corporations (chains) that pursue stakeholder value (profit maximization) strategies. Study Design To establish a foundation of knowledge about the focal phenomenon and processes, we conducted an historical (1993–2005) case study of one of the largest chains (Sun Helathcare Inc.) that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data sources. Data Sources Two main sets of information were compared: (1) corporate sources including Sun's Security Exchange Commission (SEC) Form 10-K annual reports, industry financial reports, and the business press; and (2) external sources including, legal documents, press reports, and publicly available California facility cost reports and quality data. Principal Findings Shareholder value was pursued at Sun through three inter-linked strategies: (1) rapid growth through debt-financed mergers; (2) labor cost constraint through low nurse staffing levels; and (3) a model of corporate governance that views sanctions for fraud and poor quality as a cost of business. Conclusions Study findings and evidence from other large nursing home chains underscore calls from the Institute of Medicine and other bodies for extended oversight of the corporate governance and performance of large nursing home chains. PMID:18454781

  4. Shareholding relationships in the Euro Area banking market: A network perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the topological properties of the network of the Euro Area banking market network, with the primary aim of assessing the importance of a bank in the financial system with respect to ownership and control of other credit institutions. The network displays power law distributions in both binary and weighted degree metrics indicating a robust yet fragile structure and a direct link between an increase of control diversification and a rise in the market power. Therefore while in good time the network is seemingly robust, in bad times many banks can simultaneously go into distress. This behavior paves the way for Central bank's actions. In particular we investigate whether the Single Supervisory Mechanism introduced by the European Central Banks and based on banks' total asset is a good proxy to quantify their systemic importance. Results indicate that not all the financial institutions with high valued total assets are systemically important but only few of them. Moreover the network structure reveals that control is highly concentrated, with few important shareholders approximately controlling a separate subset of banks.

  5. Facilitating Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the three papers in this symposium, "Conflicts that Arise in Small Group Facilitation: A Descriptive Study of Accounts, Actions, Outcomes, and Assessments" (Judith A. Kolb, William J. Rothwell), contains self-report verbatim accounts contributed by facilitators and the results of a literature review on small group conflict.…

  6. Evaluator or Facilitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, James T.

    1978-01-01

    In American schools, the classroom teacher must act in two conflicting capacities: as a facilitator of learning and as an evaluator of his own facilitating activities. To avoid problems inherent in this, the evaluator role could be assigned elsewhere, as in the Boy Scouts' merit badge system. (SJL)

  7. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  8. [Drug facilitated sexual assault].

    PubMed

    Alempijević, Djordje; Savić, Slobodan; Stojanović, Jovan; Spasić, Andjelka

    2007-01-01

    In line with the fact that there is little information regarding drug facilitated sexual assault in national medical literature, the authors aimed to prepare a review of the phenomenon based on available international references. Therefore we offered a definition of the concept of sexual assault, and rape in particular. Consent and ability for valid consent for sexual intercourse were defined as well. A review contains discussion about the basic elements of a concept of drug-facilitated sexual assault. There is also available information in regard to pharmacology of common data rape drugs, i.e. flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and ketamine. We indicate the utmost importance of prompt collecting of biological samples for toxicological screening in patients who are suspected victims of drug facilitated sexual assault.

  9. Understanding Facilitation: Theory and Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Christine

    This book introduces newcomers to the concept of facilitation, and it presents a critical analysis of established and current theory on facilitation for existing practitioners. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) emergence of the field of facilitation; (2) development of facilitation in management; (3) development of facilitation in…

  10. Empirical Assessment of Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms Designs under Aggressive Savings Goals: Case Study of a Kansas"Super-Utility"

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2009-08-03

    Achieving significant reductions in retail electric sales is becoming a priority for policymakers in many states and is echoed at the federal level with the introduction of legislation to establish a national energy efficiency resource standard. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. In response to an information request from the Kansas Corporation Commission staff, we conducted a financial analysis to assess the utility business case in Kansas for pursuing more aggressive energy efficiency that complies with recent state legislation. Kansas' utilities are vertically integrated and don't face retail competition. With historically low retail rates and modest experience with energy efficiency, the achievement of rapid and substantial sales reductions from energy efficiency will require a viable utility business model. Using a conglomerate of the three largest utilities in Kansas, we quantitatively illustrate the tradeoff between ratepayer and shareholder interests when a 1percent reduction in incremental sales is achieved through energy efficiency both with and without the impact of future carbon regulation. We then assess if the utility can be compensated in a manner that produces a sufficient business case but leaves an adequate amount of net resource benefits for ratepayers at a cost that is not overly burdensome. Finally, we show how several common shareholder incentive mechanisms would be designed to achieve this balance.

  11. Facilitation of Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  12. Facilitator's Guide: Censorship Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layden, Kent

    To help leaders or "facilitators" of a series of simulation exercises on controversial issues for school board members, this guide describes how the simulations work and provides some of the materials required for the simulation exercise on censorship and book banning. After defining simulation or gaming exercises, the author notes the…

  13. Facilitating Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Mark H., Ed.; Rossman, Maxine E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This collection of articles on distance learning reflects the perspectives and concerns of the learner and the facilitator of learning in distance education setting. Eight chapters are included: (1) "The Evolution and Advantages of Distance Education" (John E. Cantelon) traces the history of distance education and demonstrates how it transcends…

  14. Facilitative Strategies in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Thara M. A.; Haugabrook, Adrian K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes campus-based strategies to facilitate collaboration by examining the process of restructuring a division of student affairs as an educational partner with academic affairs. Describes three collaborative efforts at the University of Massachusetts Boston: the Beacon Leadership Project, the Diversity Research Initiative, and the Beacon…

  15. The Inclusion Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Schuh, Mary C.; Nisbet, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion facilitators are educators who do more than teach children with disabilities--they advocate for change in schools and communities, sparking a passion for inclusion in teachers, administrators, and families and giving them the practical guidance they need to make it work. This is an essential new role in today's schools, and this guide…

  16. Program Facilitates Distributed Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    KNET computer program facilitates distribution of computing between UNIX-compatible local host computer and remote host computer, which may or may not be UNIX-compatible. Capable of automatic remote log-in. User communicates interactively with remote host computer. Data output from remote host computer directed to local screen, to local file, and/or to local process. Conversely, data input from keyboard, local file, or local process directed to remote host computer. Written in ANSI standard C language.

  17. 26 CFR 1.1297-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a section 1297...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....S. person that is a shareholder of a section 1297(e) PFIC. 1.1297-3 Section 1.1297-3 Internal...)(2), and the foreign corporation thereafter qualifies as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Time for... corporation thereafter qualifies as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Post-1986 earnings and profits...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1297-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a section 1297...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... person that is a shareholder of a section 1297(e) PFIC. 1.1297-3 Section 1.1297-3 Internal Revenue... thereafter qualifies as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Time for making the deemed sale election. Except as... in 1993, X could have made an election under § 1.1298-3 to purge the PFIC taint of FC for that...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1298-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC. 1.1298-3 Section 1.1298-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...)(3)) of a foreign corporation that is a former PFIC, (as defined in § 1.1291-9(j)(2)(iv)) with... PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Time for making the deemed sale election. Except as provided...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1297-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a section 1297...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....S. person that is a shareholder of a section 1297(e) PFIC. 1.1297-3 Section 1.1297-3 Internal...)(2), and the foreign corporation thereafter qualifies as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Time for... corporation thereafter qualifies as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Post-1986 earnings and profits...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1297-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a section 1297...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....S. person that is a shareholder of a section 1297(e) PFIC. 1.1297-3 Section 1.1297-3 Internal...)(2), and the foreign corporation thereafter qualifies as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Time for... corporation thereafter qualifies as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Post-1986 earnings and profits...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1297-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a section 1297...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....S. person that is a shareholder of a section 1297(e) PFIC. 1.1297-3 Section 1.1297-3 Internal...)(2), and the foreign corporation thereafter qualifies as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Time for... corporation thereafter qualifies as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Post-1986 earnings and profits...

  3. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration. PMID:28360878

  4. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration.

  5. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  6. Millennium Pharma Summit--strategic planning to increase growth and generate pharmaceutical shareholder value. 26-27 January 2000, London, UK.

    PubMed

    Worker, C; Kibble, A

    2000-05-01

    With mergers and acquisitions (M&As) being the 'watch words' of the moment among those involved in the pharmaceutical industry, this meeting aimed to bring together the senior hierarchy of both medium and big pharma to discuss the issues pertinent to competitive survival and shareholder profit delivery. Along with a more objective analysis delivered by a number of management consultancy representatives, the summit presented delegates with interesting and often controversial viewpoints on: strategic partnerships and alliances; developing organizational models to generate profitability; the promotion of innovative R&D to maximize shareholder value; the development of marketing strategies in line with increasing consumer power; and, past, present and future consequences for the industry as a result of 'merger mania'.

  7. 26 CFR 1.1298-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....S. person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC. 1.1298-3 Section 1.1298-3 Internal Revenue... in § 1.1291-9(j)(3)) of a foreign corporation that is a former PFIC, (as defined in § 1.1291-9(j)(2... as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Time for making the deemed sale election. Except as provided...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1298-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....S. person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC. 1.1298-3 Section 1.1298-3 Internal Revenue... in § 1.1291-9(j)(3)) of a foreign corporation that is a former PFIC, (as defined in § 1.1291-9(j)(2... as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Time for making the deemed sale election. Except as provided...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1298-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....S. person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC. 1.1298-3 Section 1.1298-3 Internal Revenue... in § 1.1291-9(j)(3)) of a foreign corporation that is a former PFIC, (as defined in § 1.1291-9(j)(2... as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Time for making the deemed sale election. Except as provided...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1298-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....S. person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC. 1.1298-3 Section 1.1298-3 Internal Revenue... in § 1.1291-9(j)(3)) of a foreign corporation that is a former PFIC, (as defined in § 1.1291-9(j)(2... as a PFIC under section 1297(a). (3) Time for making the deemed sale election. Except as provided...

  11. Research on the relationships of the domestic mutual investment of China based on the cross-shareholding networks of the listed companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuan-yuan; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Li, Ling-xuan

    2011-02-01

    Enterprises are the core power and the carriers to promote the country's economy developing sustainably and rapidly; the listed enterprises are the outstanding companies which can represent the economic level at the places where the enterprises are located, so we establish the cross-shareholding networks of the listed companies between 2002 and 2009, and then analyze the mutual investment at company-level, province-level and region-level. We have researched the overall trend of economic development and the overall tendency of capital flow of China in the recent 8 years based on the cross-shareholding networks, the influence of a global economic crisis on the stock markets and the overall economics of China in 2008 and the recovery of the economy after the economic crisis. Moreover, we analyze the variations of the cross-shareholding networks and the influence of the state-owned large and medium enterprises listing frequently on Chinese stock markets. We divide the provinces of China into 3 main categories according to their industrial situations. Though the analysis, we find that the wealth gap between the different areas is not significantly reduced even though the government has carried out strategies such as the Development of the West Regions and the Rejuvenation of Old Industrial Bases in Northeastern China. We analyze the cumulative distribution function of the degree of the vertices and use large amounts of data to do empirical analysis. The methods used include the hierarchical cluster analysis, regression analysis, etc.

  12. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  13. Facilitated Communication in Mainstream Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington-Gurney, Jane; Crossley, Rosemary

    Facilitated communication is described as a method of training communication partners or facilitators to provide physical assistance to communication aid users, to help them overcome physical and emotional problems in using their aids. In Melbourne (Victoria, Australia), the DEAL (Dignity, Education and Language) Centre has identified 96 people…

  14. A Manual for Group Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auvine, Brian; And Others

    This resource manual presents guidelines and effective techniques for people who want to acquire group facilitation skills. It is a valuable resource for anyone planning or presenting a workshop; trainers or teachers interested in innovative classroom techniques; and anyone involved in a group as leader, facilitator, or participant. The manual…

  15. Facilitation of learning: part 1.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-06

    This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning.

  16. Social Facilitation of Aiding Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Patricia; And Others

    Research on individual's response to emergency situations in the presence of others has produced conflicting results. The bystander effect is the label applied to inaction or the unlikelihood of assistance with others present. The social facilitation effect occurs when the presence of others energizes response; strong habit responses are…

  17. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  18. SUPERFUND GROUNDWATER ISSUE - FACILITATED TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a group of ground-water scientists representing EPA's Regional Superfund Offices, organized to exchange up to date information related to ground-water remediation at Superfund sites. Facilitated transport is an issue identified by the ...

  19. Facilitating Conditions for School Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; McInerney, Dennis M.

    Primary and high school students (277 in grades 5-6; 615 in grades 7-12) in the United States (47 percent boys) responded to 26 items of the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire (FCQ). Results indicate 7 distinct FCQ factors: perceived value of schooling; affect toward schooling; peer positive academic climate (Peer Positive); encouragement from…

  20. Parietal connectivity mediates multisensory facilitation.

    PubMed

    Brang, David; Taich, Zachary J; Hillyard, Steven A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Ramachandran, V S

    2013-09-01

    Our senses interact in daily life through multisensory integration, facilitating perceptual processes and behavioral responses. The neural mechanisms proposed to underlie this multisensory facilitation include anatomical connections directly linking early sensory areas, indirect connections to higher-order multisensory regions, as well as thalamic connections. Here we examine the relationship between white matter connectivity, as assessed with diffusion tensor imaging, and individual differences in multisensory facilitation and provide the first demonstration of a relationship between anatomical connectivity and multisensory processing in typically developed individuals. Using a whole-brain analysis and contrasting anatomical models of multisensory processing we found that increased connectivity between parietal regions and early sensory areas was associated with the facilitation of reaction times to multisensory (auditory-visual) stimuli. Furthermore, building on prior animal work suggesting the involvement of the superior colliculus in this process, using probabilistic tractography we determined that the strongest cortical projection area connected with the superior colliculus includes the region of connectivity implicated in our independent whole-brain analysis.

  1. Facilitation of Mourning During Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliman, Gilbert; And Others

    This paper discusses case studies of children psychologically disturbed by the death of parents or siblings. Illustrations of mourning facilitation were mainly gathered from 16 orphaned children, ages 3-14. Some techniques used in helping children mourn include: discussing physical details of the illness, discussing previous deaths of animals and…

  2. Facilitating Facilitators to Facilitate, in Problem or Enquiry Based Learning Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) has been used in dental education over the past 20 years and uses a patient case scenario to stimulate learning in a small group setting, where a trained facilitator does not teach but guides the group to bring about deep contextualized learning, to be empathetic to each other and to encourage fair and equitable…

  3. Stochastic facilitation in the brain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Lawrence M.; Greenwood, Priscilla E.

    2016-05-01

    We describe the context for three unsolved problems of noise in the brain as well as provide some new results relevant to one of them. The problems are: are neural oscillations better described as noisy limit cycles or as noise-driven quasicycles, does noise facilitate synchronization and information transmission in the brain, and do noise-driven spatial patterns (quasipatterns) coexist with noise-driven quasicycles in the brain? We provide a few new results indicating that, in models at least, spatial quasipatterns of quasicycles can occur, and resemble patterns observed in other areas, such as predator-prey systems and chemical reactions.

  4. The Influence of Facilitator and Facilitation Characteristics on Participants' Ratings of Stepfamily Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Brian J.; Myler, Cory

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relative importance of facilitator and facilitation characteristics on participant ratings of a stepfamily education program. Data from 48 facilitators and 598 participants suggest that quality facilitation is more meaningful to participants than whether facilitators have comparable demographic characteristics or life experiences.…

  5. The Teacher and Town Planner as Facilitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of theories of facilitation in teaching focuses on citizen participation and the role of the facilitator in town planning. Highlights include hierarchies of learning; student-centered learning; facilitating community participation; information technology skills and interpersonal skills; and a rationale for participation. (LRW)

  6. Evaluation of the Facilitated Communication Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Martin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Special Education and Student Services asked the Office of Shared Accountability to evaluate the "Facilitated Communication Pilot." In facilitated communication (FC), people with communication impairments express themselves by typing with the aid of a communication partner, called a facilitator, who provides physical (and…

  7. Technologies and Techniques for Supporting Facilitated Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, demand for education of all kinds is increasing beyond the capacity to provide it. One approach that shows potential for addressing this demand is facilitated video. In facilitated video, an educator is recorded teaching, and that video is sent to a remote site where it is shown to students by a facilitator who creates interaction…

  8. Fungal phylogenetic diversity drives plant facilitation.

    PubMed

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia; Segarra-Moragues, J G; Valiente-Banuet, A; Verdú, M

    2016-06-01

    Plant-plant facilitation is a crucial ecological process, as many plant species (facilitated) require the presence of an established individual (nurse) to recruit. Some plant facilitative interactions disappear during the ontogenetic development of the facilitated plant but others persist, even when the two plants are adults. We test whether the persistence of plant facilitative interactions is explained by the phylogenetic diversity of mutualistic and non-mutualistic fungi that the nurse and the facilitated species add to the shared rhizosphere. We classify plant facilitative interactions as persistent and non-persistent interactions and quantify the phylogenetic diversity of mutualistic and non-mutualistic fungi added by the plant species to the shared rhizosphere. Our results show that the facilitated species add less phylogenetic diversity of non-mutualistic fungi when plant facilitative interactions persist than when they do not persist. However, persistent and non-persistent facilitative interactions did not differ in the phylogenetic diversity of mutualistic fungi added by the facilitated species to the shared rhizosphere. Finally, the fungal phylogenetic diversity added by the nurse to the shared rhizosphere did not differ between persistent and non-persistent interactions. This study suggests that considering the fungal associates of the plant species involved in facilitative interactions can shed light on the mechanisms of persistence for plant-plant interactions.

  9. Simple scale interpolator facilitates reading of graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, D. E., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Simple transparent overlay with interpolation scale facilitates accurate, rapid reading of graph coordinate points. This device can be used for enlarging drawings and locating points on perspective drawings.

  10. Facilitation of calcium-dependent potassium current.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S H

    1994-12-01

    The activation of Ca-dependent K+ current, Ic, was studied in macropatches on the cell bodies of molluscan neurons. When a depolarizing voltage-clamp pulse was applied repeatedly, Ic facilitated in a manner that resembled the facilitation of synaptic transmitter release. Facilitation was characterized by an increase in Ic amplitude, a progressive increase in instantaneous outward current, and a decrease in utilization time. Experiments were done to investigate the mechanism responsible for Ic facilitation. Facilitation was reduced by microinjection of an exogenous Ca2+ buffer into the cytoplasm, indicating that facilitation is a Ca(2+)-dependent process. It was also reduced at elevated temperatures. Conversely, facilitation was greatly potentiated by blocking the Na/Ca exchange mechanism. It is concluded that the facilitation of Ca-dependent K+ current results from the accumulation of Ca2+ at the inner face of the membrane during the repeated activation of Ca2+ channels by depolarization. The Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 was used in fluorescence imaging experiments to measure changes in [Ca]i near the cell membrane during repeated depolarizing pulses and the interpretation of these results was aided by numerical simulations of Ca2+ accumulation, diffusion, and buffering in the peripheral cytoplasm. These experiments showed that the time course of Ic facilitation matches the time course of Ca2+ accumulation at the membrane. It was found that the strength of Ic facilitation varies among patches on the same neuron, suggesting that the accumulation of Ca2+ is not uniform along the inner surface of the membrane and that gradients in [Ca]i develop and are maintained during trains of depolarizing pulses. Potential mechanisms that may lead to local differences in Ca2+ accumulation and Ic facilitation are discussed.

  11. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  12. Caring and Sharing: Becoming a Peer Facilitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Robert D.; Erney, Tom

    This book contains information and skill-building activities designed to train adolescents as peer facilitators. The first chapter describes peer facilitation and provides an overview of the book. The second chapter discusses principles, concepts, and ideas to help better understand how people learn, make decisions, change, and develop their own…

  13. Facilitated Communication: The Clinical and Social Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Howard C., Ed.

    This text explains the phenomenon of facilitated communication (FC) from an empirical, data-based, and/or clinical perspective. It is not a how-to-facilitate text, but one that explores the clinical and sociological reality of FC. A common theme running through each of the papers in the book is the question of FC's legitimacy. The papers reveal…

  14. Interaction Patterns and Facilitation of Peer Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marvin E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Data show that giving information to members of a group is more important in determining the perception by others that the person is facilitating group performance. Asking for information and opinions is more important in actual facilitation of group learning. Social-emotional support becomes important after initial phases of group interaction.…

  15. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  16. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  17. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  18. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  19. A Dialogic Approach to Online Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Social construction of understanding has long been a significant underlying principle of learning and teaching, and while there are many models for the design of online activities to promote this, there are considerably fewer models for the facilitation of such dialogue. This paper examines some of these facilitation models from the point of view…

  20. Getting the Words Out: Facilitated Communication Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Rosemary; Remington-Gurney, Jane

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of facilitated communication training with individuals labeled as intellectually impaired, including individuals diagnosed as autistic, at the DEAL Communication Centre in Victoria, Australia. The paper describes the clients, hand use problems addressed by facilitation, literacy, structuring success, fading support,…

  1. "Stepping Up": A Focus on Facilitator Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostouros, Patricia; Warthe, D. Gaye; Carter-Snell, Catherine; Burnett, Che

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact on peer facilitators in "Stepping Up," a dating violence prevention program at a Canadian university. A focus group held eight months following the delivery of the program determined the personal impact of involvement in the program. Results indicate that peer facilitators experienced personal growth as…

  2. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  3. Facilitator Talk in EAP Reading Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Current sociocultural perspectives on language learning call on teachers to reinvent themselves in ways which facilitate student learning rather than transmit knowledge. For teachers, this means adopting new roles, and acquiring a new repertoire of teacher talk. This paper aims to further the work on facilitator talk begun by Clifton (2006) and…

  4. Toward Facilitative Mentoring and Catalytic Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…

  5. Facilitative Leadership: How Principals Lead without Dominating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Goldman, Paul

    1994-01-01

    "Facilitative leadership" may be defined as the ability of principals to lead without controlling, while making it easier for all members of the school community to achieve agreed-upon goals. The bulk of the Bulletin consists of a discussion of 10 propositions related to facilitative leadership drawn from 3 sources: (1) studies in…

  6. The Limited Facilitative Effect of Typographical Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Jonathan M.; Fowler, Susan B.

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments with 188 college students investigated the facilitative effect of typographical signals such as underlining, headings, or other devices to help readers identify specific points. Results do not support a general facilitative effect of typographical signals but suggest that use of signals depends on the reader's strategic processing.…

  7. Facilitated versus Non-Facilitated Online Case Discussions: Comparing Differences in Problem Space Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The facilitator plays a key role in guiding students' efforts during case discussions. However, few studies have compared differences in learning outcomes for students participating in facilitated versus non-facilitated discussions. In this research, we used "problem space coverage" as a learning measure to compare outcomes between…

  8. Hippocratic obligation to shareholder profit? Medical treatment patents and the Australian High Court in Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd [2013] HCA 50.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The method of treatment of suffering in patients, including through surgery and the administration of therapeutic drugs, are essential features of medical professionalism. Few, if any practitioners committed to developing the core professional virtue of loyalty to relief of patient suffering through consistently implementing the basic principles of medical ethics, would consider that such beneficial methods of practice are, or should be, the subject of a patent--requiring the practitioner utilising them to pay a royalty or risk infringement proceedings. Indeed a formal opinion of the American Medical Association declares "the use of patents, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements, or other means to limit the availability of medical procedures places significant limitation on the dissemination of medical knowledge, and is therefore unethical". Yet this could be the direction in which Australian patent law is heading. The decision of the High Court of Australia in Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd [2013] HCA 50, upholding a patent over a method of using a known drug to prevent or treat psoriasis, may ultimately force practitioners to re-consider whether their basic ethical obligations to patients are secondary to a requirement to maximise profit for shareholders in companies holding medical patents. This column reviews this decision and its possible implications for health practitioners. It places it in context of other recent court decisions that have expanded the intrusion of corporate-owned intellectual property monopolies into Australian medical practices, and how legislative restrictions upon them in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) places practitioners and patients at risk of more costly, ineffective or restricted health care. This column concludes by cautioning that Australia's scope to address policy problems caused by this case may be limited should it sign up to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, particularly if that preferential trade

  9. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the United States. (b) With respect to new investment in Burma, the prohibition against facilitation... may be waived by the President upon the making of certain determinations and notification to...

  10. Suicide: Issues of Prevention, Intervention, and Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Franklyn L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of suicide intervention which allows for the possibility of death facilitation as well as prevention. A proposed suicide intervention model is contrasted with the goals and methods of existing suicide prevention and crisis counseling services. (JAC)

  11. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  12. Facilitating LOS Debriefings: A Training Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonnell, Lori K.; Jobe, Kimberly K.; Dismukes, R. Key

    1997-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide to help airline instructors effectively facilitate debriefings of Line Oriented Simulations (LOS). It is based on a recently completed study of Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings at several U.S. airlines. This manual presents specific facilitation tools instructors can use to achieve debriefing objectives. The approach of the manual is to be flexible so it can be tailored to the individual needs of each airline. Part One clarifies the purpose and objectives of facilitation in the LOS setting. Part Two provides recommendations for clarifying roles and expectations and presents a model for organizing discussion. Part Tree suggests techniques for eliciting active crew participation and in-depth analysis and evaluation. Finally, in Part Four, these techniques are organized according to the facilitation model. Examples of how to effectively use the techniques are provided throughout, including strategies to try when the debriefing objectives are not being fully achieved.

  13. Facilitating Transfer in College Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie; Simpson, Michele L.

    1987-01-01

    Gives three activities--journal writing, microteaching partners, and the PLAE model (planning, listing, activating, and evaluating)--that can facilitate learner independence and transfer of efficient and effective study strategies in college developmental reading programs. (NKA)

  14. Facilitation as a ubiquitous driver of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Eliot J B; Fajardo, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Models describing the biotic drivers that create and maintain biological diversity within trophic levels have focused primarily on negative interactions (i.e. competition), leaving marginal room for positive interactions (i.e. facilitation). We show facilitation to be a ubiquitous driver of biodiversity by first noting that all species use resources and thus change the local biotic or abiotic conditions, altering the available multidimensional niches. This can cause a shift in local species composition, which can cause an increase in beta, and sometimes alpha, diversity. We show that these increases are ubiquitous across ecosystems. These positive effects on diversity occur via a broad host of disparate direct and indirect mechanisms. We identify and unify several of these facilitative mechanisms and discuss why it has been easy to underappreciate the importance of facilitation. We show that net positive effects have a long history of being considered ecologically or evolutionarily unstable, and we present recent evidence of its potential stability. Facilitation goes well beyond the common case of stress amelioration and it probably gains importance as community complexity increases. While biodiversity is, in part, created by species exploiting many niches, many niches are available to exploit only because species create them.

  15. Facilitation: An Essential Ingredient in Online Coursework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristvey, J.; Bogner, D.

    2003-12-01

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) partnered with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to offer the ESSEA Earth System Science Online Course for Middle School Teachers during the 2002-2003 school year. During the two semesters that the course was offered, we were able to retain 75% of our enrollees. We found that course facilitation was the key ingredient in retaining this large number of students-who are not only scattered across the U.S., but around the world-in a rigorous online course. In this poster session, we will share what we have learned about online facilitation as part of this course, and how this knowledge might translate into other online coursework. Online facilitation begins as soon as a student enrolls in the course. When a student registers online or at CSM, McREL receives notification and then sends course materials and e-mail and written confirmation to the enrollee within 24 hours. This sets the tone for the type of communications that students can expect during the 16-week course. McREL facilitators know how time consuming monitoring participant progress can be, but feel strongly about its importance when facilitating learners who are working in small groups and are completing independent research. Timely monitoring of discussion spaces and e-mail messages is essential to maintaining a high student-retention rate. Kearsley (2000) confirms this when he states that, "the most important role of the instructor in online classes is to ensure that there is a high degree of interactivity and participation." In the ESSEA courses, the isolation of students working independently on classroom applications and reflection is balanced with group construction of interactions and causal chains. Each step of the way facilitators use guided questioning in group discussion sessions and serve as a mentor when participants develop individualized classroom assignments, giving participants the opportunity to apply what they have learned in a

  16. The mechanism of facilitated cell membrane resealing.

    PubMed

    Togo, T; Alderton, J M; Bi, G Q; Steinhardt, R A

    1999-03-01

    Disruption of the plasma membrane evokes an exocytotic response that is required for rapid membrane resealing. We show here in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts that a second disruption at the same site reseals more rapidly than the initial wound. This facilitated response of resealing was inhibited by both low external Ca2+ concentration and specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, bisindolylmaleimide I (BIS) and Gö-6976. In addition, activation of PKC by phorbol ester facilitated the resealing of a first wound. BIS and Gö-6976 suppressed the effect of phorbol ester on resealing rate. Fluorescent dye loss from a FM1-43 pre-labeled endocytotic compartment was used to investigate the relationship between exocytosis, resealing and the facilitation of resealing. Exocytosis of endocytotic compartments near the wounding site was correlated with successful resealing. The destaining did not occur when exocytosis and resealing were inhibited by low external Ca2+ concentration or by injected tetanus toxin. When the dye loaded cells were wounded twice, FM1-43 destaining at the second wound was less than at the first wound. Less destaining was also observed in cells pre-treated with phorbol ester, suggesting newly formed vesicles, which were FM1-43 unlabeled, were exocytosed in the resealing at repeated woundings. Facilitation was also blocked by brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite that inhibits vesicle formation at the Golgi apparatus. Lowering the temperature below 20 degrees C also blocked facilitation as expected from a block of Golgi function. BFA had no effect on the resealing rate of an initial wound. The facilitation of the resealing by phorbol ester was blocked by pre-treatment with BFA. These results suggest that at first wounding the cell used the endocytotic compartment to add membrane necessary for resealing. At a second wounding, PKC, activated by Ca2+ entry at the first wound, stimulated vesicle formation from the Golgi apparatus, resulting in more rapid resealing

  17. Factors for Effective Facilitator Training Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    34 Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59(6): 1216-1229( 1990 ). Hackman , J. Richard and Greg R. Oldham. Work Redesign. Reading MA: Addison...the Effect of Response Distortion On Those Validities," Journal of Applied Psychology 75: 581-595 ( 1990 ). "Introduction to Facilitator Training...4 """’. r "- " \\ <*’ -#äJ ^’i&fc^i*^’.-J litSt ... A**" ■ 4? FACTORS FOR EFFECTIVE FACILITATOR TRAINING EVALUATION THESIS Mark I

  18. Facilitated diffusion buffers noise in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Schoech, Armin P; Zabet, Nicolae Radu

    2014-09-01

    Transcription factors perform facilitated diffusion [three-dimensional (3D) diffusion in the cytosol and 1D diffusion on the DNA] when binding to their target sites to regulate gene expression. Here, we investigated the influence of this binding mechanism on the noise in gene expression. Our results showed that, for biologically relevant parameters, the binding process can be represented by a two-state Markov model and that the accelerated target finding due to facilitated diffusion leads to a reduction in both the mRNA and the protein noise.

  19. Facilitated diffusion buffers noise in gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoech, Armin P.; Zabet, Nicolae Radu

    2014-09-01

    Transcription factors perform facilitated diffusion [three-dimensional (3D) diffusion in the cytosol and 1D diffusion on the DNA] when binding to their target sites to regulate gene expression. Here, we investigated the influence of this binding mechanism on the noise in gene expression. Our results showed that, for biologically relevant parameters, the binding process can be represented by a two-state Markov model and that the accelerated target finding due to facilitated diffusion leads to a reduction in both the mRNA and the protein noise.

  20. The Resourceful Facilitator: Teacher Leaders Constructing Identities as Facilitators of Teacher Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of teacher peer groups is a prevalent strategy for school-based professional development and instructional improvement. Facilitation of such groups is an increasingly vital dimension of teacher leadership as a component of school improvement efforts. Drawing on a qualitative study of facilitation of teacher peer groups, the article…

  1. The spatial range of peripheral collinear facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Maniglia, Marcello; Pavan, Andrea; Aedo-Jury, Felipe; Trotter, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Contrast detection thresholds for a central Gabor patch (target) can be modulated by the presence of co-oriented and collinear high contrast Gabors flankers. In foveal vision collinear facilitation can be observed for target-to-flankers relative distances beyond two times the wavelength (λ) of the Gabor’s carrier, while for shorter relative distances (<2λ) there is suppression. These modulatory influences seem to disappear after 12λ. In this study, we measured contrast detection thresholds for different spatial frequencies (1, 4 and 6 cpd) and target-to-flankers relative distances ranging from 6 to 16λ, but with collinear configurations presented in near periphery at 4° of eccentricity. Results showed that in near periphery collinear facilitation extends beyond 12λ for the higher spatial frequencies tested (4 and 6 cpd), while it decays already at 10λ for the lowest spatial frequency used (i.e., 1 cpd). In addition, we found that increasing the spatial frequency the peak of collinear facilitation shifts towards larger target-to-flankers relative distances (expressed as multiples of the stimulus wavelength), an effect never reported neither for near peripheral nor for central vision. The results suggest that the peak and the spatial extent of collinear facilitation in near periphery depend on the spatial frequency of the stimuli used. PMID:26502834

  2. Effective tactile noise facilitates visual perception.

    PubMed

    Lugo, J E; Doti, R; Faubert, J

    2012-01-01

    The fulcrum principle establishes that a subthreshold excitatory signal (entering in one sense) that is synchronous with a facilitation signal (entering in a different sense) can be increased (up to a resonant-like level) and then decreased by the energy and frequency content of the facilitating signal. As a result, the sensation of the signal changes according to the excitatory signal strength. In this context, the sensitivity transitions represent the change from subthreshold activity to a firing activity in multisensory neurons. Initially the energy of their activity (supplied by the weak signals) is not enough to be detected but when the facilitating signal enters the brain, it generates a general activation among multisensory neurons, modifying their original activity. In our opinion, the result is an integrated activation that promotes sensitivity transitions and the signals are then perceived. In other words, the activity created by the interaction of the excitatory signal (e.g., visual) and the facilitating signal (tactile noise) at some specific energy, produces the capability for a central detection of an otherwise weak signal. In this work we investigate the effect of an effective tactile noise on visual perception. Specifically we show that tactile noise is capable of decreasing luminance modulated thresholds.

  3. Infant Day Care Facilitates Preschool Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compared play, social, and attachment behaviors of 71 preschool children who had entered infant day care at varying ages and received varying amounts of day care. Concluded that continuous infant day care in quality centers appears to facilitate preschool social behavior and does not negatively affect attachment behavior. (NH)

  4. Facilitation and Practice in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by…

  5. Writing To Facilitate Learning in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Linda E.

    This paper describes a microbiology course that utilizes writing to facilitate learning of complex concepts, for communicating experimental results, and as a diagnostic tool for the instructor in monitoring the students' understanding of material on an on-going basis. In-class writing assignments that summarize subject units are accompanied by a…

  6. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  7. Using Assistive Technology To Facilitate Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Brian R.; Rivera, Diane Pedrotty

    This conference paper describes the cooperative learning structure; presents the elements of cooperative learning; discusses how to plan, implement, and evaluate using the cooperative learning structure; introduces assistive technology services for students with disabilities; and examines how devices and services can be used to facilitate active…

  8. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  9. Competency Based Vocational Education Workshop Facilitators Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Michigan Center for Career and Technical Education.

    This workshop facilitator's guide is designed to inform professional staff about competency-based vocational education (CBVE) to help eligible persons on public assistance acquire competencies necessary for gainful employment in the following occupational areas: airline reservations and travel services; computer applications; dental care;…

  10. Plant facilitation of a belowground predator.

    PubMed

    Preisser, Evan L; Dugaw, Christopher J; Dennis, Brian; Strong, Donald R

    2006-05-01

    Interest in facilitative predator plant interactions has focused upon above-ground systems. Underground physical conditions are distinctive, however, and we provide evidence that bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus, facilitates the survival of the predatory nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus. Because H. marelatus is prone to desiccation and lupines maintain a zone of moist soil around their taproots even during dry periods, we hypothesized that dry-season nematode survival under lupines might be higher than in the surrounding grasslands. We performed field surveys and measured nematode survival in lupine and grassland rhizospheres under wet- and dry-season conditions. Nematodes survived the crucial summer period better under lupines than in grasslands; however, this advantage disappeared in wet, winter soils. Modeling the probability of nematode population extinction showed that, while even large nematode cohorts were likely to go extinct in grasslands, even small cohorts in lupine rhizospheres were likely to survive until the arrival of the next prey generation. Because this nematode predator has a strong top-down effect on lupine survival via its effect on root-boring larvae of the ghost moth Hepialus californicus, this facilitative interaction may enable a belowground trophic cascade. Similar cases of predator facilitation in seasonally stressful environments are probably common in nature.

  11. Supervisor Behaviours that Facilitate Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Sue; Di Milia, Lee; Cameron, Roslyn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the supervisor behaviours that employees found to be helpful and unhelpful in facilitating training transfer. The study aims to provide rich qualitative data from the employee's perspective. Design/methodology/approach: This study utilises a cross-sectional design. A case study and a qualitative…

  12. Retrieval during Learning Facilitates Subsequent Memory Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastotter, Bernhard; Schicker, Sabine; Niedernhuber, Julia; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2011-01-01

    In multiple-list learning, retrieval during learning has been suggested to improve recall of the single lists by enhancing list discrimination and, at test, reducing interference. Using electrophysiological, oscillatory measures of brain activity, we examined to what extent retrieval during learning facilitates list encoding. Subjects studied 5…

  13. International Collaborative Learning--The Facilitation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, A. G.

    International collaborative learning is becoming more viable through a variety of Internet enabled software products. Group Support Systems appear to offer promise. But it is not well understood how to facilitate the teaching and learning process in electronic environments. If education is to involve an interactive process of collaborative inquiry…

  14. Videoconferencing: A New Opportunity to Facilitate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Cheryl; Ming, Kavin

    2015-01-01

    The use of distance learning techniques as a means of delivering instruction in higher education classrooms has become increasingly popular with the growing diversity of today's college students. Videoconferencing has been used as a tool to facilitate the simultaneous communication of individuals across varying geographic regions through the use…

  15. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  16. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  17. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  18. Questioning as Facilitating Strategies in Online Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation of online discussions presents a challenge to online learning instructors. Unlike in face-to-face courses, students in online learning do not have physical contacts with instructors. They might view instructors as authoritarian figures and perceive instructor's comments as impersonal. This article details the author's personal…

  19. Teacher Actions to Facilitate Early Algebraic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on integrating the teaching of arithmetic and algebra in primary school classrooms. This requires teachers to develop links between arithmetic and algebra and use pedagogical actions that facilitate algebraic reasoning. Drawing on findings from a classroom-based study, this paper provides an…

  20. Does Teaching Creationism Facilitate Student Autonomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Fooce, C. David

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of evolution in US public schools continues to generate controversy. One argument for including creationism in science classrooms is based on the goal of facilitating student autonomy. Autonomy requires that students be exposed to significant alternatives, it is argued, and religious creation stories offer a significant alternative to…

  1. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  2. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 538.206 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 538.206 Section 538.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  4. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  5. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  6. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PHP-c90

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…

  7. Facilitating Learning Spaces in Forum Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…

  8. 31 CFR 542.210 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 542.210 Section 542.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions §...

  9. Perceived Benefits of Human Sexuality Peer Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.; Sherwood, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Peer education, facilitation, and counseling programs are commonly utilized in primary and secondary prevention programs within colleges and universities. In addition, peer-based human sexuality discussions have been used as an adjunct to traditional human sexuality pedagogic programs over the last 20 years. Whereas ample evidence suggests that…

  10. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  11. How Academic Teachers Perceive and Facilitate Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity…

  12. Prose Learning for Veterinary Educators: Facilitating Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, John E.

    1978-01-01

    A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…

  13. Dynamic Flexibility and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lew; Jones, David

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments are described which investigated whether results obtained in studies of static flexibility tranfer to dynamic flexibility. In both experiments, subjects were assigned to a group receiving proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training, ballistic stretching technique training or a control group. Results are presented and…

  14. Guide to Resources for ESL Literacy Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber-Katz, Elaine; Zettel, Kathryn

    This resource guide, for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy facilitators, reviews a variety of resources for ESL literacy. The guide contains three sections. The first section cites four books that provide a theoretical context for literacy work: "Ah-Hah! A New Approach to Popular Education" (Gatt-Fly); "Approaches and Methods in Language…

  15. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2011-10-01 2005-10-01 true Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., provide a safe ladder, manrope, safety line and illumination of the ladder; and (4) Take such...

  16. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., provide a safe ladder, manrope, safety line and illumination of the ladder; and (4) Take such...

  17. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., provide a safe ladder, manrope, safety line and illumination of the ladder; and (4) Take such...

  18. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., provide a safe ladder, manrope, safety line and illumination of the ladder; and (4) Take such...

  19. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., provide a safe ladder, manrope, safety line and illumination of the ladder; and (4) Take such...

  20. Improving the Human Environment of Schools: Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, Joan P.; Bigelow, Elizabeth D.

    This training guide and reference manual helps educational leaders learn to be facilitators in the program called "Improving the Human Environment of Schools" (IHES), a participative problem-solving method designed to improve a school's "quality of life." An introductory chapter reviews the history of IHES and outlines IHES…

  1. Facilitating International Business Communication: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    This document, which is intended for business educators at all levels, outlines two approaches to facilitating international business communication by adopting a global approach in business communication and related business education courses. In the first half of the document, the following steps in implementing the separate-course approach, are…

  2. 31 CFR 538.206 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 538.206 Section 538.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  3. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  4. Facilitation of Retention by White Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Kistler, Doris

    1975-01-01

    This study attempted to determine if white noise (an arousing stimulus), when presented at the time of recall, facilitates performance of second and fifth grade students, and if this effect generalizes across different kinds of learning tasks. Findings indicate that white noise produces improvements in performance in both age groups. (GO)

  5. Building Better Career Futures: Facilitator Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezanson, Lynne; Hopkins, Sareena

    This guide, designed to be used by facilitators of the Building Better Career Futures, a comprehensive career development program for young adults, is to be used in conjunction with the Backgrounder and the Portfolio Builder. It includes an introduction to the full program and lesson plans for all topics. Each lesson plan begins with a cover sheet…

  6. Facilitating Team Learning through Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…

  7. Facilitated communication and authorship: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Balandin, Susan; Hemsley, Bronwyn; Iacono, Teresa; Probst, Paul; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Facilitated Communication (FC) is a technique whereby individuals with disabilities and communication impairments allegedly select letters by typing on a keyboard while receiving physical support, emotional encouragement, and other communication supports from facilitators. The validity of FC stands or falls on the question of who is authoring the typed messages--the individual with a disability or the facilitator. The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) formed an Ad Hoc Committee on FC and charged this committee to synthesize the evidence base related to this question in order to develop a position statement. The purpose of this paper is to report this synthesis of the extant peer-reviewed literature on the question of authorship in FC. A multi-faceted search was conducted including electronic database searches, ancestry searches, and contacting selected authors. The authors considered synopses of systematic reviews, and systematic reviews, which were supplemented with individual studies not included in any prior reviews. Additionally, documents submitted by the membership were screened for inclusion. The evidence was classified into articles that provided (a) quantitative experimental data related to the authorship of messages, (b) quantitative descriptive data on the output generated through FC without testing of authorship, (c) qualitative descriptive data on the output generated via FC without testing of authorship, and (d) anecdotal reports in which writers shared their perspectives on FC. Only documents with quantitative experimental data were analyzed for authorship. Results indicated unequivocal evidence for facilitator control: messages generated through FC are authored by the facilitators rather than the individuals with disabilities. Hence, FC is a technique that has no validity.

  8. Shareholder Protection Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Capuano, Michael E. [D-MA-8

    2011-07-13

    08/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Excessive Pay Shareholder Approval Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Durbin, Richard [D-IL

    2009-05-07

    05/07/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5291) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Does supplementary reinforcement of stereotypy facilitate extinction?

    PubMed

    Dozier, Claudia L; Iwata, Brian A; Wilson, David M; Thomason-Sassi, Jessica L; Roscoe, Eileen M

    2013-01-01

    Results of several studies suggest that delivery of supplemental (social) reinforcement for stereotypy might facilitate its subsequent extinction. We examined this possibility with 9 subjects who engaged in stereotypy by including methodological refinements to ensure that (a) subjects' stereotypy was maintained in the absence of social consequences, (b) supplementary reinforcers were highly preferred and were shown to be reinforcers for some behavior, and (c) subjects were exposed to lengthy reinforcement and extinction conditions. In spite of these modifications, only 4 subjects' stereotypy increased when supplementary reinforcement was delivered contingent on stereotypy, and no subject's stereotypy decreased below initial baseline levels when social reinforcement was subsequently withheld. Decreases in stereotypy occurred with the implementation of noncontingent reinforcement. Thus, delivery of supplementary reinforcers either did not increase stereotypy or did not facilitate extinction of stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement. We discuss the practical and conceptual bases of these results with respect to our current understanding of function-based interventions.

  11. Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A

    2000-06-01

    In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault.

  12. Drug-facilitated sexual assault using tetrahydrozoline.

    PubMed

    Spiller, Henry A; Siewert, Dennis J

    2012-05-01

    Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) has been defined as the use of a chemical agent to facilitate a sexual assault. We report two cases of the use of tetrahydrozoline for DFSA. We believe this is the first report with urinary quantification of tetrahydrozoline levels postassault. Blood and urine were obtained c. 20 h postexposure in two cases of reported DFSA. Tetrahydrozoline was not detected in blood but was identified in urine in both victims. After initial identification in the urine using the 2010 update to the AAFS mass spectrometry database library, tetrahydrozoline was quantified at 114 and 150 ng/mL, respectively, using GC/MS. Two unique clinical features reported in these cases were intermittent periods of consciousness and postexposure vomiting. Use of GC/MS was successful in identifying tetrahydrozoline in the 100 ng/mL range up to 20 h postexposure. For victims with late presentation, urine may be a better sample for evaluation for tetrahydrozoline.

  13. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    PubMed

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p < .05) for the two tests that required participants to recall and produce spoken Hungarian phrases. The differences in performance were not explained by potentially influencing factors such as age, gender, mood, phonological working memory ability, or musical ability and training. These results suggest that a "listen-and-sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  14. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition.

  15. Anticipatory coarticulation facilitates word recognition in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T M; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Edwards, Jan

    2015-09-01

    Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18-24 month-olds (n=29) used coarticulatory cues on the word "the" when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral vs. facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition.

  16. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  17. A facilitated mentoring process for engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, L.; Clark, M.

    1993-11-01

    Mentoring has been occurring in organizations for many, many years through a natural pairing process of people wanting to help one another. The numerous benefits of mentoring to both the protege and the mentor are widely known. In this paper we describe a Facilitated Mentoring Pilot Program for engineers, successfully completed in June, 1993. This career development tool can help make ``Every Engineer a Leader.``

  18. Top-down facilitation of visual recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bar, M.; Kassam, K. S.; Ghuman, A. S.; Boshyan, J.; Schmid, A. M.; Dale, A. M.; Hämäläinen, M. S.; Marinkovic, K.; Schacter, D. L.; Rosen, B. R.; Halgren, E.

    2006-01-01

    Cortical analysis related to visual object recognition is traditionally thought to propagate serially along a bottom-up hierarchy of ventral areas. Recent proposals gradually promote the role of top-down processing in recognition, but how such facilitation is triggered remains a puzzle. We tested a specific model, proposing that low spatial frequencies facilitate visual object recognition by initiating top-down processes projected from orbitofrontal to visual cortex. The present study combined magnetoencephalography, which has superior temporal resolution, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and a behavioral task that yields successful recognition with stimulus repetitions. Object recognition elicited differential activity that developed in the left orbitofrontal cortex 50 ms earlier than it did in recognition-related areas in the temporal cortex. This early orbitofrontal activity was directly modulated by the presence of low spatial frequencies in the image. Taken together, the dynamics we revealed provide strong support for the proposal of how top-down facilitation of object recognition is initiated, and our observations are used to derive predictions for future research. PMID:16407167

  19. Spatial part-set cuing facilitation.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Parasiuk, Yuri; Salgado-Benz, Jennifer; Crocco, Megan

    2016-07-01

    Cole, Reysen, and Kelley [2013. Part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 39, 1615-1620] reported robust part-set cuing facilitation for spatial information using snap circuits (a colour-coded electronics kit designed for children to create rudimentary circuit boards). In contrast, Drinkwater, Dagnall, and Parker [2006. Effects of part-set cuing on experienced and novice chess players' reconstruction of a typical chess midgame position. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 102(3), 645-653] and Watkins, Schwartz, and Lane [1984. Does part-set cuing test for memory organization? Evidence from reconstructions of chess positions. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 38(3), 498-503] showed no influence of part-set cuing for spatial information when using chess boards. One key difference between the two procedures was that the snap circuit stimuli were explicitly connected to one another, whereas chess pieces were not. Two experiments examined the effects of connection type (connected vs. unconnected) and cue type (cued vs. uncued) on memory for spatial information. Using chess boards (Experiment 1) and snap circuits (Experiment 2), part-set cuing facilitation only occurred when the stimuli were explicitly connected; there was no influence of cuing with unconnected stimuli. These results are potentially consistent with the retrieval strategy disruption hypothesis, as well as the two- and three-mechanism accounts of part-set cuing.

  20. Cognitive Fatigue Facilitates Procedural Sequence Learning

    PubMed Central

    Borragán, Guillermo; Slama, Hichem; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue (CF). We tested the hypothesis that CF, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, 23 young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT) following the induction of high or low levels of CF, in a counterbalanced order. CF was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback) paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual’s optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times (RT) in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement was higher for the sequential than the motor components. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of CF on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms. PMID:26973501

  1. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26514583

  2. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders.

  3. Faulty ECM signaling facilitates autoimmune lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Brekken, Rolf A

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to the microenvironment of solid tumors is appreciated although not completely understood; however, the contribution of the ECM to the development of hematopoietic tumors has not been investigated in depth. A new study by Sangaletti and colleagues demonstrates that faulty ECM signaling can facilitate malignant lymphoproliferation in mice predisposed to autoimmunity. Similar changes in ECM construction, consistent with a loss of inhibitory ECM signaling, were identified in the transition from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia to malignant chronic lymphocytic leukemia in patients. These results reveal a critical contribution of reduced collagen signaling in lymphoma and highlight the importance of appropriate ECM construction for maintenance of tissue homeostasis.

  4. Microgravity: New opportunities to facilitate biotechnology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Terry; Todd, Paul; Stodieck, Louis S.

    1996-03-01

    New opportunities exist to use the microgravity environment to facilitate biotechnology development. BioServe Space Technologies Center for the Commercial Development of Space offers access to microgravity environments for companies who wish to perform research or develop products in three specific life-science fields: Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research, Biotechnology and Bioprocessing Research, and Agricultural and Environmental Research. Examples of each include physiological testing of new pharmaceutical countermeasures against symptoms that are exaggerated in space flight, crystallization and testing of novel, precompetitive biopharmaceutical substances in a convection-free environment, and closed life-support system product development.

  5. A new 'enterocompressor' to facilitate rectal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Barraza, R P

    1990-02-01

    A newly devised enterocompressor facilitates low rectal anastomosis in children with Hirschsprung's disease. This simple surgical instrument, composed of two semicylindrical valves, a hinge, and a regulating screw, maintains intestinal anastomoses properly placed and produces spur crushing. In addition, it is inexpensive and reusable. The enterocompressor, used in 33 primary and 15 secondary Duhamel operations, and applied to normalize intestinal transit in 10 colectomies, provided adequate anastomosis and prevented leakage of intestinal contents. This enterocompressor can be used safely in children as young as six months of age.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Microbially Facilitated Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-23

    AD-A173 862 MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MICR38IRLLY FACILITATED 1/2 CORROSION(U) TENNESSEE UNIV K~NOXVILLE INST FOR APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY D C WHITE 23 OCT...of Tennessee 10515 Research Drive, Building # 1, Suite 300 Knoxville, Tennessee 37932-2567 N 615-675-9520 October 23, 1986 00 Dr. Eli D . Schmell ELECTE...V) Program Manager, Molecular Biology NOV 4 NO8 Code 041M - Office of Naval Research 800 North Quincy Street D Arlington, VA 22217-5000. Dear Eli

  7. Orienting attention during phonetic training facilitates learning.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Eric; Guion-Anderson, Susan

    2010-02-01

    The role of consciously directed attention toward speech input in learning has not yet been determined. Previous phonetic learning studies have manipulated acoustic signals and response feedback, but not conscious control over attentional orienting. This study tests whether directed attention facilitates learning of phonetic information. Two monolingual English-speaking groups were trained with feedback on the same auditory stimuli: Hindi words. One group was instructed to attend to the consonants and the other to the vowels. The consonant-oriented group, but not the vowel-oriented group, demonstrated post-training improvement in consonant perception, confirming a role for consciously directed attentional mechanisms during phonetic learning.

  8. Learned interval time facilitates associate memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue–time–target associations between cue–target pairs and specific cue–target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying matching cue–target pairs if the time interval during testing matched the implicitly learned interval. A control experiment showed that participants had no explicit knowledge about the cue–time associations. We suggest that “elapsed time” can act as a temporal mnemonic associate that can facilitate retrieval of events associated in memory. PMID:28298554

  9. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.

  10. Both predictability and familiarity facilitate contour integration.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Michaël; Demeyer, Maarten; Machilsen, Bart; Putzeys, Tom; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-05-30

    Research has shown that contour detection is impaired in the visual periphery for snake-shaped Gabor contours but not for circular and elliptical contours. This discrepancy in findings could be due to differences in intrinsic shape properties, including shape closure and curvature variation, as well as to differences in stimulus predictability and familiarity. In a detection task using only circular contours, the target shape is both more familiar and more predictable to the observer compared with a detection task in which a different snake-shaped contour is presented on each trial. In this study, we investigated the effects of stimulus familiarity and predictability on contour integration by manipulating and disentangling the familiarity and predictability of snakelike stimuli. We manipulated stimulus familiarity by extensively training observers with one particular snake shape. Predictability was varied by alternating trial blocks with only a single target shape and trial blocks with multiple target shapes. Our results show that both predictability and familiarity facilitated contour integration, which constitutes novel behavioral evidence for the adaptivity of the contour integration mechanism in humans. If familiarity or predictability facilitated contour integration in the periphery specifically, this could explain the discrepant findings obtained with snake contours as compared with circles or ellipses. However, we found that their facilitatory effects did not differ between central and peripheral vision and thus cannot explain that particular discrepancy in the literature.

  11. The nested assembly of plant facilitation networks prevents species extinctions.

    PubMed

    Verdú, Miguel; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso

    2008-12-01

    Facilitation is a positive interaction assembling ecological communities and preserving global biodiversity. Although communities acquire emerging properties when many species interact, most of our knowledge about facilitation is based on studies between pairs of species. To understand how plant facilitation preserves biodiversity in complex ecological communities, we propose to move from the study of pairwise interactions to the network approach. We show that facilitation networks behave as mutualistic networks do, characterized by a nonrandom, nested structure of plant-plant interactions in which a few generalist nurses facilitate a large number of species while the rest of the nurses facilitate only a subset of them. Consequently, generalist nurses shape a dense and highly connected network. Interestingly, such generalist nurses are the most abundant species in the community, making facilitation-shaped communities strongly resistant to extinction, as revealed by coextinction simulations. The nested structure of facilitative networks explains why facilitation, by preventing extinction, preserves biodiversity.

  12. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language.

  13. Facilitating scholarly writing in academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Pololi, Linda; Knight, Sharon; Dunn, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scholarly writing is a critical skill for faculty in academic medicine; however, few faculty receive instruction in the process. We describe the experience of 18 assistant professors who participated in a writing and faculty development program which consisted of 7 monthly 75-minute sessions embedded in a Collaborative Mentoring Program (CMP). Participants identified barriers to writing, developed personal writing strategies, had time to write, and completed monthly writing contracts. Participants provided written responses to open-ended questions about the learning experience, and at the end of the program, participants identified manuscripts submitted for publication, and completed an audiotaped interview. Analysis of qualitative data using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification showed that this writing program facilitated the knowledge, skills, and support needed to foster writing productivity. All participants completed at least 1 scholarly manuscript by the end of the CMP. The impact on participants' future academic productivity requires long-term follow-up.

  14. On facilitated oxygen diffusion in muscle tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, J E

    1980-01-01

    The role of myoglobin in facilitated diffusion of oxygen in muscle in examined in a tissue model that utilizes a central supplying capillary and a tissue cylinder concentric with the central capillary, and that includes the nonlinear characteristics of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation reaction. In contrast to previous work, this model exhibits the effect of blood flow and a realistic, though ideal, tissue-capillary geometry. Solutions of the model equations are obtained by a singular-perturbation technique, and numerical results are discussed for model parameters of physiologic interest. In contrast to the findings of Murray, Rubinow, Taylor, and others, fractional order perturbation terms obtained for the "boundary-layer" regions near the supplying capillaries are quite significant in the overall interpretation of the modeling results. Some closed solutions are found for special cases, and these are contrasted with the full singular-perturbation solution. Interpretations are given for parameters of physiologic interest. PMID:7295866

  15. Facilitating critical discourse through "meaningful disagreement" online.

    PubMed

    Dalley-Hewer, Jayne; Clouder, Deanne Lynn; Jackson, Ann; Goodman, Simon; Bluteau, Patricia; Davies, Bernadette

    2012-11-01

    This paper is concerned with identifying ways of facilitating "meaningful disagreement" amongst students in interprofessional online discussion forums. It builds on previous research that identified a trend toward polite agreement and only limited evidence of disagreement in this setting. Given the suggestion that disagreement indicates a deeper level of engagement in group discussion and therefore leads to deeper learning, our aim was to critique the pedagogical approach adopted by analyzing whether we were promoting a particular interprofessional discourse amongst students that favored agreement and therefore limited potential learning. Agreement in this context has been conceptualized as a form of online interprofessional "netiquette" existing amongst participants. Findings suggest that creating an online context for critical discourse is challenging; however, the careful construction of learning outcomes, trigger material/resources and learning activities, as well as attention to students' stage of study and life experience, can provoke the desired effects.

  16. Facilitating disaster preparedness through local radio broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Romo-Murphy, Eila; James, Ross; Adams, Mike

    2011-10-01

    The 2008 Disaster Mitigation Preparedness (DMP) study took place in Aceh province, Indonesia. It sought to help develop radio programmes and messages to increase resilience to disasters. The role of radio was evaluated during and after the 2004 Asian tsunami disaster. The study team interviewed 984 tsunami survivors from nine sub-districts of Banda Aceh, and local nongovernmental organisations convened eight focus groups around the area of Aceh Besar. Six key informant interviews were held with government disaster management agencies. The DMP survey is the first of its kind to interview a representative random sample of Banda Aceh residents. It reveals the importance of community and social networks, during disaster situations, when essential communications are down. A disaster warning information system based on a multi-media approach needs to be developed. The wider community should be involved in the planning, education and training of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar residents to facilitate appropriate personal and community survival strategies.

  17. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication

    PubMed Central

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal. PMID:23034703

  18. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication.

    PubMed

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-12-07

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal.

  19. Fertile green: green facilitates creative performance.

    PubMed

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Elliot, Andrew J; Maier, Markus A; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2012-06-01

    The present research sought to extend the nascent literature on color and psychological functioning by examining whether perception of the color green facilitates creativity. In four experiments, we demonstrated that a brief glimpse of green prior to a creativity task enhances creative performance. This green effect was observed using both achromatic (white, gray) and chromatic (red, blue) contrast colors that were carefully matched on nonhue properties, and using both picture-based and word-based assessments of creativity. Participants were not aware of the purpose of the experiment, and null effects were obtained on participants' self-reported mood and positive activation. These findings indicate that green has implications beyond aesthetics and suggest the need for sustained empirical work on the functional meaning of green.

  20. Criminal poisoning: drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Laura K; Holstege, Christopher P

    2007-05-01

    Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a complex and ever-prevalent problem presenting to emergency departments. Emergency personnel should consider DFSA in patients who are amnestic to the specific details of the event following a reported sexual assault. The presence of ethanol or a positive routine drug screen in a sexual assault victim does not exclude the potential of a surreptitious drug being present. In addition, a negative routine drug screen does not exclude all potential agents that are used in DFSA. This article discusses agents reported in DFSA. It is imperative for emergency personnel to clearly document the history and the presenting signs and symptoms to assist laboratory personnel to hone in and detect the correct agent used in a DFSA.

  1. Drug facilitated sexual assault--a review.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Moore, C B T

    2008-07-01

    This review was undertaken to identify the evolutionary process in the current understanding of allegations of drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), so that those who work in this field may gain a better understanding of the complexities involved in such cases. Several definitions of DFSA are provided as well as a list of intoxicating substances which have so far been incriminated in this crime. Perception and alcohol use is addressed, whilst an examination of intoxication and victim outcomes reveals disturbing but important information which needs to be centrally placed within health education campaigns with a degree of urgency. The review identifies the effects of alcohol on sexual behaviour, drinking patterns and specific quantitative research indicating very high alcohol levels in some instances. In practical terms, suggestions are made following Operation Matisse, to address prevention, early detection and easier identification of DFSA cases so that victims' needs are prioritised and appropriately addressed.

  2. Facilitating consumer access to health information.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.

  3. Component with inspection-facilitating features

    DOEpatents

    Marra, John J; Zombo, Paul J

    2014-02-11

    A turbine airfoil can be formed with features to facilitate measurement of its wall thickness. An outer wall of the airfoil can include an outer surface and an inner surface. The outer surface of the airfoil can have an outer inspection target surface, and the inner surface of the airfoil can have an inner inspection target surface. The inner and outer target surfaces can define substantially flat regions in surfaces that are otherwise highly contoured. The inner and outer inspection target surfaces can be substantially aligned with each other. The inner and outer target surfaces can be substantially parallel to each other. As a result of these arrangements, a highly accurate measurement of wall thickness can be obtained. In one embodiment, the outer inspection target surface can be defined by an innermost surface of a groove formed in the outer surface of the outer wall of the airfoil.

  4. Podosomes of dendritic cells facilitate antigen sampling

    PubMed Central

    Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; Cambi, Alessandra; Figdor, Carl G.; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dendritic cells sample the environment for antigens and play an important role in establishing the link between innate and acquired immunity. Dendritic cells contain mechanosensitive adhesive structures called podosomes that consist of an actin-rich core surrounded by integrins, adaptor proteins and actin network filaments. They facilitate cell migration via localized degradation of extracellular matrix. Here we show that podosomes of human dendritic cells locate to spots of low physical resistance in the substrate (soft spots) where they can evolve into protrusive structures. Pathogen recognition receptors locate to these protrusive structures where they can trigger localized antigen uptake, processing and presentation to activate T-cells. Our data demonstrate a novel role in antigen sampling for podosomes of dendritic cells. PMID:24424029

  5. Podosomes of dendritic cells facilitate antigen sampling.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Maksim V; Ter Beest, Martin; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge; Cambi, Alessandra; Figdor, Carl G; van den Bogaart, Geert

    2014-03-01

    Dendritic cells sample the environment for antigens and play an important role in establishing the link between innate and acquired immunity. Dendritic cells contain mechanosensitive adhesive structures called podosomes that consist of an actin-rich core surrounded by integrins, adaptor proteins and actin network filaments. They facilitate cell migration via localized degradation of extracellular matrix. Here, we show that podosomes of human dendritic cells locate to spots of low physical resistance in the substrate (soft spots) where they can evolve into protrusive structures. Pathogen recognition receptors locate to these protrusive structures where they can trigger localized antigen uptake, processing and presentation to activate T-cells. Our data demonstrate a novel role in antigen sampling for the podosomes of dendritic cells.

  6. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  7. NIRPS - Solutions Facilitator Team Overview and Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas M., III; Childress, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) purpose is to help preserve and align government and private rocket propulsion capabilities to meet present and future US commercial, civil, and defense needs, while providing authoritative insight and recommendations to National decisional authorities. Stewardship: Monitor and analyze the state of the industry in order to formulate and recommend National Policy options and strategies that promote a healthy industrial base and ensure best-value for the American taxpayer. Technology: Identify technology needs and recommend technology insertions by leading roadmap assessments and actively participating in program formulation activities. Solutions Facilitator/Provider: Maintain relationships and awareness across the Government, industry and academia, to align available capacity with emerging demand.

  8. Bacterial Nanowires Facilitate Extracellular Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorby, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, including Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens, produce electrically conductive nanowires that facilitate electron transfer to solid phase iron oxides. Nanowires produced by S. oneidensis strain MR-1 are functionalized by decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA that are distributed along the length of the nanowires, as confirmed by immunolocalization experiments using peptide specific antibodies. Mutants lacking MtrC and OmcA produce nanowires that were poorly conductive, are unable to reduce solid phase iron oxides, and do not produce electric current in microbial fuel cells. Although less completely characterized, nanowires are also produced by organisms throughout a broad metabolic spectrum, from sulfate reducing bacteria to oxygenic, phototrophic cyanobacteria. Our research suggests that electrically conductive nanowires may be common throughout the microbial world and may serve as structures for efficient electron transfer and energy dissemination in complex communities such as microbial mats and biofilms.

  9. Histamine facilitates consolidation of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Juliana Sartori; Da Silva, Weber Cláudio; Da Silveira, Clarice Kras Borges; Köhler, Cristiano André; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2011-10-01

    Non-reinforced retrieval induces memory extinction, a phenomenon characterized by a decrease in the intensity of the learned response. This attribute has been used to develop extinction-based therapies to treat anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders. Histamine modulates memory and anxiety but its role on fear extinction has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, using male Wistar rats, we determined the effect of the intra-hippocampal administration of different histaminergic agents on the extinction of step-down inhibitory avoidance (IA), a form of aversive learning. We found that intra-CA1 infusion of histamine immediately after non-reinforced retrieval facilitated consolidation of IA extinction in a dose-dependent manner. This facilitation was mimicked by the histamine N-methyltransferase inhibitor SKF91488 and the H2 receptor agonist dimaprit, reversed by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine, and unaffected by the H1 antagonist pyrilamine, the H3 antagonist thioperamide and the antagonist at the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) polyamine-binding site ifenprodil. Neither the H1 agonist 2-2-pyridylethylamine nor the NMDAR polyamine-binding site agonist spermidine affected the consolidation of extinction while the H3 receptor agonist imetit hampered it. Extinction induced the phosphorylation of ERK1 in dorsal CA1 while intra-CA1 infusion of the MEK inhibitor U0126 blocked extinction of the avoidance response. The extinction-induced phosphorylation of ERK1 was enhanced by histamine and dimaprit and blocked by ranitidine administered to dorsal CA1 after non-reinforced retrieval. Taken together, our data indicate that the hippocampal histaminergic system modulates the consolidation of fear extinction through a mechanism involving the H2-dependent activation of ERK signalling.

  10. Nicotine facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Beer, Anton L; Vartak, Devavrat; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'.

  11. Modeling Facilitated Contaminant Transport by Mobile Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz; Kim, Seunghyun

    1995-01-01

    Introduction of exogenous biocolloids such as genetically engineered bacteria in a bioremediation operation can enhance the transport of contaminants in groundwater by reducing the retardation effects. Because of their colloidal size and favorable surface conditions, bacteria are efficient contaminant carriers. In cases where contaminants have a low mobility in porous media because of their high partition with solid matrix, facilitated contaminant transport by mobile bacteria can create high contaminant fluxes. When metabolically active mobile bacteria are present in a subsurface environment, the system can be treated as consisting of three phases: water phase, bacterial phase, and stationary solid matrix phase. In this work a mathematical model based on mass balance equations is developed to describe the facilitated transport and fate of a contaminant and bacteria in a porous medium. Bacterial partition between the bulk solution and the stationary solid matrix and contaminant partition among three phases are represented by expressions in terms of measurable quantities. Solutions were obtained to provide estimates of contaminant and bacterial concentrations. A dimensional analysis of the transport model was utilized to estimate model parameters from the experimental data and to assess the effect of several parameters on model behavior. The model results matched favorably with experimental data of Jenkins and Lion (1993). The presence of mobile bacteria enhances the contaminant transport. However, bacterial consumption of the contaminant, which serves as a bacterial nutrient, can attenuate the contaminant mobility. The work presented in this paper is the first three-phase model to include the effects of substrate metabolism on the fate of groundwater contaminants.

  12. Hyaluronidase facilitated subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jolles, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)-replacement therapy represents the mainstay of treatment for patients with primary antibody deficiency and is administered either intravenously (IVIg) or subcutaneously (SCIg). While hyaluronidase has been used in clinical practice for over 50 years, the development of a high-purity recombinant form of this enzyme (recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20) has recently enabled the study of repeated and more prolonged use of hyaluronidase in facilitating the delivery of SC medicines. It has been used in a wide range of clinical settings to give antibiotics, local anesthetics, insulin, morphine, fluid replacement, and larger molecules, such as antibodies. Hyaluronidase has been used to help overcome the limitations on the maximum volume that can be delivered into the SC space by enabling dispersion of SCIg and its absorption into lymphatics. The rate of facilitated SCIg (fSCIg) infusion is equivalent to that of IVIg, and the volume administered at a single site can be greater than 700 mL, a huge increase over conventional SCIg, at 20–40 mL. The use of fSCIg avoids the higher incidence of systemic side effects of IVIg, and it has higher bioavailability than SCIg. Data on the long-term safety of this approach are currently lacking, as fSCIg has only recently become available. fSCIg may help several areas of patient management in primary antibody deficiency, and the extent to which it may be used in future will depend on long-term safety data and cost–benefit analysis. PMID:27471693

  13. Leading Instructional Rounds in Education: A Facilitator?'s Guide. Instructional Rounds Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler-Finn, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Instructional rounds is a powerful form of professional learning aimed at helping schools and systems develop the capacity to educate all children to high levels. In this practical book, Thomas Fowler-Finn, an experienced consultant who has worked closely with the Harvard team that pioneered instructional rounds, discusses how facilitators can…

  14. Facilitation in Action: The Reflective Practice of Two Facilitators Using a Participation Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treff, Marjorie E.; Earnest, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of two graduate faculty members from Indiana University who facilitated two workshops sponsored by Ball State University at Highlander Research and Education Center, one in May of 2013, and another in May of 2014. We describe the history of Participation Training, the program we used to plan and conduct…

  15. The Role of the Facilitator on Total Quality Management Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, William L.

    1993-01-01

    As Total Quality Management teams work to improve organizational processes, several types of facilitators emerge: the director, the workhorse, and the cheerleader. Experience at the University of Kansas illustrates how different facilitator styles can affect team learning. (MSE)

  16. Oligonucleotide facilitators may inhibit or activate a hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Jankowsky, E; Schwenzer, B

    1996-01-01

    Facilitators are oligonucleotides capable of affecting hammerhead ribozyme activity by interacting with the substrate at the termini of the ribozyme. Facilitator effects were determined in vitro using a system consisting of a ribozyme with 7 nucleotides in every stem sequence and two substrates with inverted facilitator binding sequences. The effects of 9mer and 12mer RNA as well as DNA facilitators which bind either adjacent to the 3'- or 5'-end of the ribozyme were investigated. A kinetic model was developed which allows determination of the apparent dissociation constant of the ribozyme-substrate complex from single turnover reactions. We observed a decreased dissociation constant of the ribozyme-substrate complex due to facilitator addition corresponding to an additional stabilization energy of delta delta G=-1.7 kcal/mol with 3'-end facilitators. The cleavage rate constant was increased by 3'-end facilitators and decreased by 5'-end facilitators. Values for Km were slightly lowered by all facilitators and kcat was increased by 3'-end facilitators and decreased by 5'-end facilitators in our system. Generally the facilitator effects increased with the length of the facilitators and RNA provided greater effects than DNA of the same sequence. Results suggest facilitator influences on several steps of the hammerhead reaction, substrate association, cleavage and dissociation of products. Moreover, these effects are dependent in different manners on ribozyme and substrate concentration. This leads to the conclusion that there is a concentration dependence whether activation or inhibition is caused by facilitators. Conclusions are drawn with regard to the design of hammerhead ribozyme facilitator systems. PMID:8602353

  17. A Gestalt Point of View on Facilitating Growth in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    If counselors are to be facilitators of client growth, it would seem essentail that they become familiar with the concept of growth and ways to facilitate it. The author defines growth from a gestalt therapy point of view and provides techniques and examples of ways to facilitate client growth. (Author)

  18. The Dynamics of Syntax Acquisition: Facilitation between Syntactic Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Keren, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to show how facilitation between different clause structures operates over time in syntax acquisition. The phenomenon of facilitation within given structures has been widely documented, yet inter-structure facilitation has rarely been reported so far. Our findings are based on the naturalistic production corpora of six toddlers…

  19. Sound symbolism facilitates early verb learning.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel sound-symbolic verbs whose sounds were judged to match certain actions better than others, as confirmed by adult Japanese- as well as English speakers, and by 2- and 3-year-old Japanese-speaking children. These sound-symbolic verbs, together with other novel non-sound-symbolic verbs, were used in a verb learning task with 3-year-old Japanese children. In line with the previous literature, 3-year-olds could not generalize the meaning of novel non-sound-symbolic verbs on the basis of the sameness of action. However, 3-year-olds could correctly generalize the meaning of novel sound-symbolic verbs. These results suggest that iconic scaffolding by means of sound symbolism plays an important role in early verb learning.

  20. Motor imagery facilitates force field learning.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Muhammad Nabeel; Tomi, Naoki; Ito, Koji

    2011-06-13

    Humans have the ability to produce an internal reproduction of a specific motor action without any overt motor output. Recent findings show that the processes underlying motor imagery are similar to those active during motor execution and both share common neural substrates. This suggests that the imagery of motor movements might play an important role in acquiring new motor skills. In this study we used haptic robot in conjunction with motor imagery technique to improve learning in a robot-based adaptation task. Two groups of subjects performed reaching movements with or without motor imagery in a velocity-dependent and position-dependent mixed force field. The groups performed movements with motor imagery produced higher after effects and decreased muscle co-contraction with respect to no-motor imagery group. These results showed a positive influence of motor imagery on acquiring new motor skill and suggest that motor learning can be facilitated by mental practice and could be used to increase the rate of adaptation.

  1. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  2. An enhanced archive facilitating climate impacts analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, E.P.; Brekke, L.; Pruitt, T.; Thrasher, B.; Long, J.; Duffy, P.; Dettinger, M.; Cayan, D.; Arnold, J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the expansion of a publicly available archive of downscaled climate and hydrology projections for the United States. Those studying or planning to adapt to future climate impacts demand downscaled climate model output for local or regional use. The archive we describe attempts to fulfill this need by providing data in several formats, selectable to meet user needs. Our archive has served as a resource for climate impacts modelers, water managers, educators, and others. Over 1,400 individuals have transferred more than 50 TB of data from the archive. In response to user demands, the archive has expanded from monthly downscaled data to include daily data to facilitate investigations of phenomena sensitive to daily to monthly temperature and precipitation, including extremes in these quantities. New developments include downscaled output from the new Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model simulations at both the monthly and daily time scales, as well as simulations of surface hydrologi- cal variables. The web interface allows the extraction of individual projections or ensemble statistics for user-defined regions, promoting the rapid assessment of model consensus and uncertainty for future projections of precipitation, temperature, and hydrology. The archive is accessible online (http://gdo-dcp.ucllnl.org/downscaled_ cmip_projections).

  3. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as ‘storage’. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation—which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes—with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  4. Facilitated auditory detection for speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Signoret, Carine; Gaudrain, Etienne; Tillmann, Barbara; Grimault, Nicolas; Perrin, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    If it is well known that knowledge facilitates higher cognitive functions, such as visual and auditory word recognition, little is known about the influence of knowledge on detection, particularly in the auditory modality. Our study tested the influence of phonological and lexical knowledge on auditory detection. Words, pseudo-words, and complex non-phonological sounds, energetically matched as closely as possible, were presented at a range of presentation levels from sub-threshold to clearly audible. The participants performed a detection task (Experiments 1 and 2) that was followed by a two alternative forced-choice recognition task in Experiment 2. The results of this second task in Experiment 2 suggest a correct recognition of words in the absence of detection with a subjective threshold approach. In the detection task of both experiments, phonological stimuli (words and pseudo-words) were better detected than non-phonological stimuli (complex sounds), presented close to the auditory threshold. This finding suggests an advantage of speech for signal detection. An additional advantage of words over pseudo-words was observed in Experiment 2, suggesting that lexical knowledge could also improve auditory detection when listeners had to recognize the stimulus in a subsequent task. Two simulations of detection performance performed on the sound signals confirmed that the advantage of speech over non-speech processing could not be attributed to energetic differences in the stimuli.

  5. The epidemiology of drug facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Michael; Parker, Helen; Wells, David L

    2006-05-01

    The files of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine were reviewed for all cases of alleged drug facilitated sexual assault for the 12 month period concluding in April 2003. Seventy-six cases were identified from a total of 434 (17.5%) cases of adult sexual assault. The median delay from alleged incident to time of examination was 20 h. Alcohol consumption in the hours prior to the assault was reported by 77%. Alcohol was still present in 37% when subsequently examined, with an average blood alcohol concentration of 0.11% at the time of examination. Forty-nine percent reported using prescription medications and 26% reported the use of recreational drugs. Drugs not reportedly consumed by the subject were detected in 15 cases (20%) of the study group or 3% of all adult sexual assault cases. The drugs detected included cannabis (four cases), antidepressants (4), amphetamines (3), benzodiazepines (4) and opiates (3). The study indicates that covert administration of drugs in the setting of adult sexual assault appears uncommon. The true incidence however may be higher (due to non or delayed reporting) or lower (due to inaccurate self reporting of drug consumption) however the frequent findings of high concentrations of alcohol has implications for the health and safety of these individuals.

  6. Challenges of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, M A; Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    This article provides the reader with an understanding of the numerous challenges of drug-facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA). The challenges are categorized as follows: the drugs, reporting the crime, evidence collection, and laboratory analysis of specimens. The challenges associated with the drugs used to commit DFSA emphasizes the pharmacological effects of strong central nervous system depressants and how the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these drugs create difficulties in an investigation. For example, while sexual assaults are generally considered to be a significantly underreported crime, the drug effects further complicate victims' reporting to law enforcement. Any delay in reporting decreases the ability of a laboratory to detect the presence of drugs or metabolites in useful evidentiary specimens such as blood and urine. Finally, differences in instrumentation and mission from one laboratory to the next will impact the ability to provide consistent identification of DFSA drugs or metabolites in these cases. Although the true prevalence of DFSAs will never be fully known, acknowledgment of the many challenges that come with these cases provides insight as to how to improve chances of successfully investigating DFSA allegations.

  7. Protected areas facilitate species’ range expansions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Chris D.; Gillingham, Phillipa K.; Bradbury, Richard B.; Roy, David B.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Baxter, John M.; Bourn, Nigel A. D.; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Findon, Richard A.; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A.; Holt, Alison R.; Morecroft, Mike D.; O’Hanlon, Nina J.; Oliver, Tom H.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Procter, Deborah A.; Thomas, Jeremy A.; Walker, Kevin J.; Walmsley, Clive A.; Wilson, Robert J.; Hill, Jane K.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  8. Free radical facilitated damage of ungual keratin.

    PubMed

    Khengar, Rajeshree H; Brown, Marc B; Turner, Rob B; Traynor, Matthew J; Holt, Katherine B; Jones, Stuart A

    2010-09-01

    Thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) are thought to disrupt alpha-keratin disulfide links in the nail. However, optimal clinical use of these agents to improve the treatment of nail disorders is currently hindered by a lack of fundamental data to support their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how the redox environment of ungual keratin, when manipulated by TA and urea H(2)O(2), influenced the properties of the nail barrier. Potentiometric and voltammetric measurements demonstrated that urea H(2)O(2) obeyed the Nernst equation for a proton coupled one-electron transfer redox process while TA underwent a series of redox reactions that was complicated by electrode adsorption and dimer formation. The functional studies demonstrated that nail permeability, measured through TBF penetration (38.51+/-10.94 microg/cm(2)/h) and nail swelling (244.10+/-14.99% weight increase), was greatest when relatively low concentrations of the thiolate ion were present in the applied solution. Limiting the thiolate ion to low levels in the solution retards thiolate dimerisation and generates thiyl free radicals. It appeared that this free radical generation was fundamental in facilitating the redox-mediated keratin disruption of the ungual membrane.

  9. Contrast, induction, facilitation, suppression, and conservation1

    PubMed Central

    Allison, James

    1976-01-01

    Ten rats received all of their water in daily 1-hr sessions. Following a baseline phase in which lever and water spout were freely available throughout each session, subjects were trained to press the lever for water on mixed schedules composed of two alternating components. Each component gave access to water for a fixed cumulation of drinking time every time the rat cumulated a fixed amount of lever-pressing time. Changes in one component produced contrast and induction effects, both positive and negative, with respect to both lever pressing and drinking in the unchanged component. All schedules facilitated lever pressing relative to baseline. All schedules suppressed drinking relative to baseline, even though contingency sessions allowed ample time to perform the baseline amount of drinking. The entire pattern of results was predicted in quantitative detail by assuming that the total amount of a dimension apportioned to lever pressing and drinking is conserved between baseline and contingency sessions. Conservation theory was shown to predict several effects produced by simple fixed-ratio schedules, and was compared favorably with probability-differential (Premack, 1971) and response-deprivation (Timberlake and Allison, 1974) theory. PMID:16811902

  10. Interspecific competition/facilitation among insect parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Competition for limited resources is a widespread ecological interaction in animals. In the case of insect parasitoids, species can compete for host resources both at the adult stage as well as at the larval stage. Interspecific competition can play a role in sizing and shaping community structures. In addition of being relevant for basic ecological studies, understanding how interspecific competition between parasitoids affects pest suppression is important for biological control. In this opinion paper we review recent advances in the field of interspecific competition among parasitoids in a biological control perspective. We first discuss adult competition, highlighting which factors are likely to play a role in the outcome of competition when adults interact either directly or indirectly. Then we focus on the interactions occurring between competing larvae that develop within the same host taking also into account the fitness consequences of competition for the larva surviving interspecific competition. We also explore the possibility of interspecific facilitation among parasitoids in those situations in which a given species may benefit from interspecific competition.

  11. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  12. Spatiotopic updating facilitates perception immediately after saccades

    PubMed Central

    Fabius, Jasper H.; Fracasso, Alessio; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    As the neural representation of visual information is initially coded in retinotopic coordinates, eye movements (saccades) pose a major problem for visual stability. If no visual information were maintained across saccades, retinotopic representations would have to be rebuilt after each saccade. It is currently strongly debated what kind of information (if any at all) is accumulated across saccades, and when this information becomes available after a saccade. Here, we use a motion illusion to examine the accumulation of visual information across saccades. In this illusion, an annulus with a random texture slowly rotates, and is then replaced with a second texture (motion transient). With increasing rotation durations, observers consistently perceive the transient as large rotational jumps in the direction opposite to rotation direction (backward jumps). We first show that accumulated motion information is updated spatiotopically across saccades. Then, we show that this accumulated information is readily available after a saccade, immediately biasing postsaccadic perception. The current findings suggest that presaccadic information is used to facilitate postsaccadic perception and are in support of a forward model of transsaccadic perception, aiming at anticipating the consequences of eye movements and operating within the narrow perisaccadic time window. PMID:27686998

  13. Open rhinoplasty concepts in facilitating tip reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Carminati, Marcello; Robotti, Enrico

    2014-06-01

    The nose is a frequent site for skin cancer, accounting for approximately 26% of basal cell carcinomas and approximately 13% of spinal cell carcinomas of the facial district. Also melanomas, mostly as lentigo maligna melanomas, are frequently located at the nasal pyramid. Although defects can be of varying size and depth, some even involving the whole trilaminar structure of the nose, most remain superficial and seldom reach and infiltrate the underlying framework. In contrast, they can be wide, thus requesting large flaps to resurface the defect. Although a technically well-planned and well-performed surgery can lead to excellent aesthetic results, scars from both donor and recipient sites can be noticeable. Since skin cancers generally affect older people, we often deal with aged noses. Such noses typically present some common features such as plunging tip, increased length, and a prominent hump due to several reasons, already well described in the literature. In this scenario, by reducing and addressing the framework, we can obtain a variable quota of downsizing of the original defect, thus requiring less skin for coverage, and thus reducing the size of needed flaps and consequent scars. This is greatly facilitated by the open rhinoplasty approach. Most of the maneuvers aimed at reducing the framework are indeed the same.

  14. Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heon-Jin; Macbeth, Abbe H.; Pagani, Jerome; Young, W. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) is a nonapeptide hormone best known for its role in lactation and parturition. Since 1906 when its uterine-contracting properties were described until 50 years later when its sequence was elucidated, research focused on its peripheral roles in reproduction. Only over the past several decades have researchers focused on what functions Oxt might have in the brain, the subject of this review. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei are the neurons of origin for the Oxt released from the posterior pituitary. Smaller cells in various parts of the brain, as well as release from magnocellular dendrites, provide the Oxt responsible for modulating various behaviors at its only identified receptor. Although Oxt is implicated in a variety of “non-social” behaviors, such as learning, anxiety, feeding and pain perception, it is Oxt’s roles in various social behaviors that have come to the fore recently. Oxt is important for social memory and attachment, sexual and maternal behavior, and aggression. Recent work implicates Oxt in human bonding and trust as well. Human disorders characterized by aberrant social interactions, such as autism and schizophrenia, may also involve Oxt expression. Many, if not most, of Oxt’s functions, from social interactions (affiliation, aggression) and sexual behavior to eventual parturition, lactation and maternal behavior, may be viewed as specifically facilitating PMID:19482229

  15. Transducer model produces facilitation from opposite-sign flanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Watson, A. B.; Morgan, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Small spots, lines and Gabor patterns can be easier to detect when they are superimposed upon similar spots, lines and Gabor patterns. Traditionally, such facilitation has been understood to be a consequence of nonlinear contrast transduction. Facilitation has also been reported to arise from non-overlapping patterns with opposite sign. We point out that this result does not preclude the traditional explanation for superimposed targets. Moreover, we find that facilitation from opposite-sign flanks is weaker than facilitation from same-sign flanks. Simulations with a transducer model produce opposite-sign facilitation.

  16. Anomalous excitation facilitation in inhomogeneously broadened Rydberg gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letscher, F.; Thomas, O.; Niederprüm, T.; Ott, H.; Fleischhauer, M.

    2017-02-01

    When atomic gases are laser driven to Rydberg states in an off-resonant way, a single Rydberg atom may enhance the excitation rate of surrounding atoms. This leads to a facilitated excitation referred to as Rydberg antiblockade. In the usual facilitation scenario, the detuning of the laser from resonance compensates the interaction shift. Here, we discuss a different excitation mechanism, which we call anomalous facilitation. This occurs on the "wrong side" of the resonance and originates from inhomogeneous broadening. The anomalous facilitation may be seen in experiments of attractively interacting atoms on the blue detuned side, where facilitation is not expected to appear.

  17. Metadherin facilitates podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Ting; Peng, Fen-Fen; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Gong, Wang-Qiu; Chen, Wen-Jing; Chen, Yi-Hua; Li, Pei-Lin; Li, Shu-Ting; Xu, Zhao-Zhong; Long, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis, one of the major causes of podocyte loss, has been reported to have a vital role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) pathogenesis, and understanding the mechanisms underlying the regulation of podocyte apoptosis is crucial. Metadherin (MTDH) is an important oncogene, which is overexpressed in most cancers and responsible for apoptosis, metastasis, and poor patient survival. Here we show that the expression levels of Mtdh and phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are significantly increased, whereas those of the microRNA-30 family members (miR-30s) are considerably reduced in the glomeruli of DN rat model and in high glucose (HG)-induced conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes (MPC5). These levels are positively correlated with podocyte apoptosis rate. The inhibition of Mtdh expression, using small interfering RNA, but not Mtdh overexpression, was shown to inhibit HG-induced MPC5 apoptosis and p38 MAPK pathway, and Bax and cleaved caspase 3 expression. This was shown to be similar to the effects of p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, luciferase assay results demonstrated that Mtdh represents the target of miR-30s. Transient transfection experiments, using miR-30 microRNA (miRNA) inhibitors, led to the increase in Mtdh expression and induced the apoptosis of MPC5, whereas the treatment with miR-30 miRNA mimics led to the reduction in Mtdh expression and apoptosis of HG-induced MPC5 cells in comparison with their respective controls. Our results demonstrate that Mtdh is a potent modulator of podocyte apoptosis, and that it represents the target of miR-30 miRNAs, facilitating podocyte apoptosis through the activation of HG-induced p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. PMID:27882943

  18. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule

    PubMed Central

    Batterink, Laura J.; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J.; Paller, Ken A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. PMID:25447376

  19. Facilitating Analysis of Multiple Partial Data Streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maimone, Mark W.; Liebersbach, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    Robotic Operations Automation: Mechanisms, Imaging, Navigation report Generation (ROAMING) is a set of computer programs that facilitates and accelerates both tactical and strategic analysis of time-sampled data especially the disparate and often incomplete streams of Mars Explorer Rover (MER) telemetry data described in the immediately preceding article. As used here, tactical refers to the activities over a relatively short time (one Martian day in the original MER application) and strategic refers to a longer time (the entire multi-year MER missions in the original application). Prior to installation, ROAMING must be configured with the types of data of interest, and parsers must be modified to understand the format of the input data (many example parsers are provided, including for general CSV files). Thereafter, new data from multiple disparate sources are automatically resampled into a single common annotated spreadsheet stored in a readable space-separated format, and these data can be processed or plotted at any time scale. Such processing or plotting makes it possible to study not only the details of a particular activity spanning only a few seconds, but also longer-term trends. ROAMING makes it possible to generate mission-wide plots of multiple engineering quantities [e.g., vehicle tilt as in Figure 1(a), motor current, numbers of images] that, heretofore could be found only in thousands of separate files. ROAMING also supports automatic annotation of both images and graphs. In the MER application, labels given to terrain features by rover scientists and engineers are automatically plotted in all received images based on their associated camera models (see Figure 2), times measured in seconds are mapped to Mars local time, and command names or arbitrary time-labeled events can be used to label engineering plots, as in Figure 1(b).

  20. Does polyploidy facilitate long-distance dispersal?

    PubMed Central

    Linder, H. Peter; Barker, Nigel P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The ability of plant lineages to reach all continents contributes substantially to their evolutionary success. This is exemplified by the Poaceae, one of the most successful angiosperm families, in which most higher taxa (tribes, subfamilies) have global distributions. Due to the old age of the ocean basins relative to the major angiosperm radiations, this is only possible by means of long-distance dispersal (LDD), yet the attributes of lineages with successful LDD remain obscure. Polyploid species are over-represented in invasive floras and in the previously glaciated Arctic regions, and often have wider ecological tolerances than diploids; thus polyploidy is a candidate attribute of successful LDD. Methods The link between polyploidy and LDD was explored in the globally distributed grass subfamily Danthonioideae. An almost completely sampled and well-resolved species-level phylogeny of the danthonioids was used, and the available cytological information was assembled. The cytological evolution in the clade was inferred using maximum likelihood (ML) as implemented in ChromEvol. The biogeographical evolution in the clade was reconstructed using ML and Bayesian approaches. Key Results Numerous increases in ploidy level are demonstrated. A Late Miocene–Pliocene cycle of polyploidy is associated with LDD, and in two cases (the Australian Rytidosperma and the American Danthonia) led to secondary polyploidy. While it is demonstrated that successful LDD is more likely in polyploid than in diploid lineages, a link between polyploidization events and LDD is not demonstrated. Conclusions The results suggest that polyploids are more successful at LDD than diploids, and that the frequent polyploidy in the grasses might have facilitated the extensive dispersal among continents in the family, thus contributing to their evolutionary success. PMID:24694830

  1. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input.

  2. Neighborhood functions alter unbalanced facilitation on a stress gradient.

    PubMed

    Malanson, George P; Resler, Lynn M

    2015-01-21

    The stress-gradient hypothesis states that individual and species competitive and facilitative effects change in relative importance or intensity along environmental gradients of stress. The importance of the number of facilitators in the neighborhood of a potential beneficiary has not been explored. Evenly distributed and stress-correlated facilitation and the increase in the intensity of facilitation with neighbors as linear, logarithmic, and unimodal functions is simulated for two hypothetical species, both of which improve the local environment. The mutualism is unbalanced in that the establishment of one species is enhanced by neighbors more than the other. Compared to no facilitation or evenly distributed facilitation, the stress gradient produces more edges in the spatially advancing population, more overall intensity of facilitation, and more individuals further advanced into the area of higher stress; the more enhanced species has increased population relative to the other - to the point where they are equal. Among three neighborhood functions, little difference exists in outcomes between the linear and logarithmic functions, but the unimodal function, which shifts peak facilitation intensity to fewer neighbors, increases the above state variables more than the differences between the even and stress gradient facilitation scenarios; the population of the beneficiary species exceeds that of the other. Different neighborhood functions change the effects of spatial pattern on the biological outcome. The unbalanced mutualism may be important where additional species alter the basic interaction in the high stress area of the environmental gradient, such as ecotones where the spatial pattern becomes central to facilitation.

  3. A grid to facilitate physics staffing justification.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eric E

    2009-12-03

    Justification of clinical physics staffing levels is difficult due to the lack of direction as how to equate clinical needs with the staffing levels and competency required. When a physicist negotiates staffing requests to administration, she/he often refers to American College of Radiology staffing level suggestions, and resources such as the Abt studies. This approach is often met with questions as to how to fairly derive the time it takes to perform tasks. The result is often insufficient and/or inexperienced staff handling complex and cumbersome tasks. We undertook development of a staffing justification grid to equate the clinical needs to the quantity and quality of staffing required. The first step is using the Abt study, customized to the clinical setting, to derive time per task multiplied by the anticipated number of such tasks. Inclusion of vacation, meeting, and developmental time may be incorporated along with allocated time for education and administration. This is followed by mapping the tasks to the level of competency/experience needed. For example, in an academic setting the faculty appointment levels correlate with experience. Non-staff personnel, such as IMRT QA technicians or clerical staff, should also be part of the equation. By using the staffing justification grid, we derived strong documentation to justify a substantial budget increase. The grid also proved useful when our clinical demands changed. Justification for physics staffing can be significantly strengthened with a properly developed data-based time and work analysis. A staffing grid is presented, along with a development methodology that facilitated our justification. Though our grid is for a large academic facility, the methodology can be extended to a non-academic setting, and to a smaller scale. This grid method not only equates the clinical needs with the quantity of staffing, but can also help generate the personnel budget, based on the type of staff and personnel required

  4. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-2-0010 TITLE: Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas W. Britt...SUBTITLE Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0010 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...the final version of the ’’Facilitating Mental Health Treatment (FMHT)" unit and leader training, gaining Institutional Review Board (and MRMC

  5. L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behney, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

  6. 50 CFR 300.5 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 300.5 Section 300.5 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS General § 300.5 Facilitation of enforcement. (a) Compliance. The operator of, or any other...

  7. The Principal as a Catalyst and Facilitator of Planned Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamley, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Educational change must be facilitated, not dictated, to be successful. Since most new curriculum programs ignore complex classroom realities, teachers usually view them negatively. Facilitative principals create the necessary conditions for change by progressing through three stages: creating new roles and expectations, mobilizing proponents for…

  8. Facilitated transport of copper with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) at different pore water velocities (0.22-2.2 cm min–1), solution pH (6.2-9.0), and fraction of Fe oxide coating on grain surfaces (', 0-0.36). The facilitated tr...

  9. The New England School Effectiveness Project: A Facilitator's Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Exchange, Inc., Chelmsford, MA.

    The School Team Facilitator assists participating New England secondary schools in planning and implementing improvement efforts based on school effectiveness research. This publication, distributed at a team training conference, begins with the conference schedule, a list of facilitators, instructions on choosing a school team, and letters to…

  10. "Just Add Facilitators and Stir": Stimulating Policy Uptake in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Hay, Peter; McCuaig, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation findings of an education policy initiative that involved the employment of facilitators to broker the policy and its implementation. An Australian state's education authority piloted the employment of physical activity facilitators to expedite the implementation of "Smart Moves" in schools, a…

  11. A Facilitator Guide. Outdoor Education for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Univ., Lexington.

    The concept and purpose of this facilitator guide is to provide the three facilitator groups of educators, park and resource management personnel, and parents of handicapped children with information on how to cooperatively design and implement an outdoor education program for handicapped students. Chapter 1 (contributed by Vicki Stayton) outlines…

  12. 50 CFR 600.752 - Use of conveners and facilitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... issues of concern, and to ascertain whether the establishment of an FNP regarding such matter is feasible... an impartial, neutral facilitator for the negotiations of the FNP, subject to the approval of the FNP... section. If the FNP does not approve the nominee of the Council or NMFS for facilitator, the FNP...

  13. Exploring Dimensions of Critical Reflection in Activist-Facilitator Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how 14 diverse, Canadian activist-facilitators working in international development experience and understand "critical reflection" as a component of participatory methodologies in facilitation practices. The findings, based on my doctoral study, demonstrate that although critical reflection is often discussed as…

  14. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  15. The Facilitator's Edge: Group Sessions for Edge-ucators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handcock, Helen

    The Facilitator's Edge is a workshop series based on the life/work messages of The Edge magazine. The workshops are deigned to help educators, youth workers, and their career practitioners facilitate conscious career building. This manual consists of five group sessions, each focusing on a different career-building theme. "Megatrends and…

  16. Connectivity of Learning in MOOCs: Facilitators' Experiences in Team Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercado-Varela, Martin Alonso; Beltran, Jesus; Perez, Marisol Villegas; Vazquez, Nohemi Rivera; Ramirez-Montoya, Maria-Soledad

    2017-01-01

    The role of facilitators in distance learning environments is of substantial importance in supporting the learning process. This article specifically discusses the role of the facilitator in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC), which are characterized by their stimulation of learning connections. The study analyzes the experiences of 135…

  17. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault on Campus: Challenges and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura G.

    2002-01-01

    The use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) to facilitate sexual assault is increasing on campuses nationwide. This article provides college counselors with an overview of the use of GHB in campus sexual assault, outlines suggestions for crisis intervention, and discusses the challenges of counseling survivors of drug-facilitated sexual assault.…

  18. Orthographic Facilitation Effects on Spoken Word Production: Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qingfang; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the time course of orthographic facilitation on picture naming in Chinese. We used a picture-word paradigm to investigate orthographic and phonological facilitation on monosyllabic spoken word production in native Mandarin speakers. Both the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and the picture-word…

  19. 31 CFR 537.418 - Facilitating new investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Facilitating new investment. 537.418 Section 537.418 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... § 537.418 Facilitating new investment. Consistent with § 537.530, U.S. persons may approve,...

  20. An Analysis of Instructional Facilitators' Relationships with Teachers and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Bret G.; Pijanowski, John C.; Duncan, Heather; Scherz, Susan; Hvidston, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the perspectives of Wyoming instructional facilitators, concerning three coaching constructs--namely, their instructional leadership roles, teachers' instructional practices, and the support that they receive from principals and teachers. Findings suggest that instructional facilitators were positive about their instructional…

  1. Self-Motivated Personal Career Planning Program. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Verne; Wallace, Melvin

    The guide presents a process of self-assessment and goal-setting involving employee planners and management facilitators. An overview and rationale of the program and instructions and procedures are discussed in Chapters 1 and 2. Chapter 3 deals with effective facilitator skills and procedural steps for self-assessment, comparison with others, and…

  2. The Relationship of Facilitative Functioning to Effective Peer Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Linda

    1978-01-01

    This study investigates peer supervision. The criterion used was counselor trainees' growth in facilitative functioning. The study sought to ascertain whether the facilitative counselor trainee was also the effective peer supervisor, to provide information on evaluating peer-supervisory experience, and to shed light on the most effective…

  3. Barriers to and Facilitators of Health for Latina Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Latina undergraduate students' barriers and facilitators of health are examined: Barriers to psychological health--separating from family, pressure to succeed, and racism; Barriers to physical health--lacking health insurance, and discomfort using campus sports facilities; and Facilitators of psychological health--membership in Latina student…

  4. Computation Of Facilitated Transport of O2 In Hemoglobin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford

    1991-01-01

    Report describes computations of unsteady facilitated transport of oxygen through liquid membrane of hemoglobin. Used here, "facilitated transport" means diffusion of permeant through membrane in which that diffusion enhanced by reversible chemical reaction between permeant and membrane. In this case, reversible reactions between hemoglobin and oxygen.

  5. Using Text Mining to Characterize Online Discussion Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ming, Norma; Baumer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating class discussions effectively is a critical yet challenging component of instruction, particularly in online environments where student and faculty interaction is limited. Our goals in this research were to identify facilitation strategies that encourage productive discussion, and to explore text mining techniques that can help…

  6. Evidence for rotational contribution to protein-facilitated proton transport.

    PubMed Central

    Gros, G; Lavalette, D; Moll, W; Gros, H; Amand, B; Pochon, F

    1984-01-01

    Two modes of molecular motion of carrier molecules can, in principle, lead to a facilitated transport of a substrate: translational and rotational diffusion. In the present study, which deals with the mechanism of the facilitated diffusion of H+ and O2 in solutions of earthworm hemoglobin, examples for both types of facilitation are presented. Only translational, not rotational, diffusion of earthworm hemoglobin appears to lead to a facilitated O2 flux. In contrast, substantial facilitated H+ fluxes of comparable size arise from rotational diffusion as well as from translational diffusion of this large protein. This is derived from measurements of facilitated H+ and O2 fluxes in earthworm hemoglobin solutions and determinations of the rotational and translational diffusion coefficients of earthworm hemoglobin with the help of a theoretical treatment of facilitated diffusion by rotational carrier diffusion. H+ transport by rotational protein diffusion appears to be a case where the often-postulated mechanism of facilitated transport by rotation of a carrier lends itself to experimental verification. Images PMID:6324213

  7. The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 7 is required for synaptic facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Skyler L.; Turecek, Josef; Belinsky, Justine E.

    2015-01-01

    It has been known for over 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner1. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement where each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release2. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release manyfold and profoundly influence information transfer across synapses3, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. Among the proposed mechanisms is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release2,4 and is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed5,6. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at multiple central synapses. In syt7 knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation. PMID:26738595

  8. Team Building. Baldor Electric Company. [Facilitator Guide and Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Community Coll., MO. Workplace Literacy Services Center.

    This document contains the facilitator and participant guides for a course in team building that was developed by a community college for a St. Louis (Missouri) electric company. The facilitator's guide contains the transparency masters, outlines, learning activities, questionnaires, and other handouts required for two course sessions. The first…

  9. Facilitated Communication and Its Legitimacy--Twenty-First Century Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostert, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    By 2001, Facilitated Communication (FC) had largely been empirically discredited as an effective intervention for previously uncommunicative persons with disabilities, especially those with autism and related disorders. Key empirical findings consistently showed that the facilitator and not the client initiated communication. I analyze the extant…

  10. Applications of Motivational Interviewing in Career Counseling: Facilitating Career Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz, Kevin B.; Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Protean and Boundaryless career paradigms are calling for new ways to provide career counseling to clients. Career counselors need methods for facilitating client's career transition across all stages of career development. This facilitation requires career counselors to be armed with methods for promoting client's autonomy,…

  11. Partners in Quality: Facilitator's Guide = Partenaires Pour la Qualite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Sandra

    Partners in Quality is a research and development project sponsored by the Canadian Child Care Federation and its affiliates to explore how child care providers, parents, and other partners can work together to support and improve quality in child care. This facilitator's guide is designed to help facilitators prepare and deliver workshops based…

  12. Facilitator control as automatic behavior: A verbal behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Genae A.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies of facilitated communication have demonstrated that the facilitators were controlling and directing the typing, although they appeared to be unaware of doing so. Such results shift the focus of analysis to the facilitator's behavior and raise questions regarding the controlling variables for that behavior. This paper analyzes facilitator behavior as an instance of automatic verbal behavior, from the perspective of Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior. Verbal behavior is automatic when the speaker or writer is not stimulated by the behavior at the time of emission, the behavior is not edited, the products of behavior differ from what the person would produce normally, and the behavior is attributed to an outside source. All of these characteristics appear to be present in facilitator behavior. Other variables seem to account for the thematic content of the typed messages. These variables also are discussed. PMID:22477083

  13. The neural correlates of picture naming facilitated by auditory repetition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overt repetition of auditorily presented words can facilitate picture naming performance in both unimpaired speakers and individuals with word retrieval difficulties, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and longevity of such effects remain unclear. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether different neurological mechanisms underlie short-term (within minutes) and long-term (within days) facilitation effects from an auditory repetition task in healthy older adults. Results The behavioral results showed that both short- and long-term facilitated items were named significantly faster than unfacilitated items, with short-term items significantly faster than long-term items. Neuroimaging analyses identified a repetition suppression effect for long-term facilitated items, relative to short-term facilitated and unfacilitated items, in regions known to be associated with both semantic and phonological processing. A repetition suppression effect was also observed for short-term facilitated items when compared to unfacilitated items in a region of the inferior temporal lobe linked to semantic processing and object recognition, and a repetition enhancement effect when compared to long-term facilitated items in a posterior superior temporal region associated with phonological processing. Conclusions These findings suggest that different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie short- and long-term facilitation of picture naming by an auditory repetition task, reflecting both phonological and semantic processing. More specifically, the brain areas engaged were consistent with the view that long-term facilitation may be driven by a strengthening of semantic-phonological connections. Short-term facilitation, however, appears to result in more efficient semantic processing and/or object recognition, possibly in conjunction with active recognition of the phonological form. PMID:22364354

  14. Implementation of the Clinical Facilitation Model within an Australian rural setting: the role of the Clinical Facilitator.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Helena; Lea, Jacqueline

    2012-11-01

    Education providers globally use various models for undergraduate nurse clinical education. This paper presents the major findings of a research project conducted by a rural university in Australia that aimed to explore the Clinical Facilitation Model of undergraduate nursing education from a rural perspective. In particular how the Clinical Facilitators enacted their role within the rural environment and to identify any barriers to the provision of effective clinical learning during facilitated clinical experience within this context. This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to explore the experiences of Clinical Facilitators. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with eight Clinical Facilitators. Data was analysed using thematic analysis and several themes emerged from the study. This paper will report two of the major findings which are based on how Clinical Facilitators enacted their role within the rural environment. Whilst this study has a rural focus the findings will add to the limited body of knowledge internationally regarding the Clinical Facilitation model used as a result of balancing educational needs of the student with the care needs of the patients in the current health policy climate. The findings will be useful for informing undergraduate curricula, and will assist faculty and health services in planning and implementation of models of clinical education that meet the needs of the student and that are specific to the rural environment. In addition, the findings will provide insight into strategies that the rural Clinical Facilitator can utilise to assist in fulfilling their teaching role.

  15. Trait divergence and indirect interactions allow facilitation of congeneric species

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Elisa; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Verdú, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant facilitation occurs when the presence of a plant (i.e. a nurse plant) modifies the environment, making it more favourable for the establishment and survival of other species (i.e. facilitated plants), which can germinate and grow nearby. Facilitative associations can be maintained or turned into competition as the facilitated seedling grows. According to the competition-relatedness hypothesis that suggests that closely related species tend to compete more, facilitation turns into competition between phylogenetically close species. However, some examples of facilitation between congeneric species, which are supposed to be closely related species, have been found in nature. Scope In this work, some examples of congeneric facilitation and subsequent coexistence are reviewed and an attempt is made to explain those exceptions to the competition-relatedness hypothesis. Conclusions Two mechanisms are proposed that can switch the facilitation–competition balance: trait divergence and indirect interactions. When traits have diverged within the genus, the niche overlap is reduced and competition relaxed, thus allowing the coexistence of congeneric species. The presence of third interplayers (mycorrhizal fungi, seed dispersers, pollinators or pathogens) participating in the interaction between plants can alleviate the competition or enhance the reproduction and allow the coexistence of species that could not coexist in their absence. PMID:22543178

  16. Inflatable bladder to facilitate handling of heavy objects - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Goldrick, G. J.

    1969-01-01

    Inflatable bladder facilitates the removal of heavy, highly finished metal parts from tote boxes or shipping containers. The proposed concept permits removal without danger of damage to the parts or injury to handling personnel.

  17. Encountering Carl Rogers: His Views on Facilitating Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landreth, Garry L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents Carl Rogers' views on facilitating groups, as expressed in a telephone dialogue seminar with graduate students in counselor education at North Texas State University. Discusses extended group marathons, cocounseling, nonverbal group exercises and the future of group work. (JAC)

  18. Dynamic facilitation picture of a higher-order glass singularity.

    PubMed

    Sellitto, Mauro; De Martino, Daniele; Caccioli, Fabio; Arenzon, Jeferson J

    2010-12-31

    We show that facilitated spin mixtures with a tunable facilitation reproduce, on a Bethe lattice, the simplest higher-order singularity scenario predicted by the mode-coupling theory (MCT) of liquid-glass transition. Depending on the facilitation strength, they yield either a discontinuous glass transition or a continuous one, with no underlying thermodynamic singularity. Similar results are obtained for facilitated spin models on a diluted Bethe lattice. The mechanism of dynamical arrest in these systems can be interpreted in terms of bootstrap and standard percolation and corresponds to a crossover from a compact to a fractal structure of the incipient spanning cluster of frozen spins. Theoretical and numerical simulation results are fully consistent with MCT predictions.

  19. The Overlooked Role of Facilitation in Biodiversity Experiments.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alexandra J; Wardle, David A; Callaway, Ragan; Gaxiola, Aurora

    2017-03-08

    Past research has demonstrated that decreased biodiversity often reduces ecosystem productivity, but variation in the shape of biodiversity-ecosystem function (BEF) relationships begets the need for a deeper mechanistic understanding of what drives these patterns. While mechanisms involving competition are often invoked, the role of facilitation is overlooked, or lumped within several less explicitly defined processes (e.g., complementarity effects). Here, we explore recent advances in understanding how facilitation affects BEF relationships and identify three categories of facilitative mechanisms that can drive variation in those relationships. Species interactions underlying BEF relationships are complex, but the framework we present provides a step toward understanding this complexity and predicting how facilitation contributes to the ecosystem role of biodiversity in a rapidly changing environment.

  20. Biohydrogen facilitated denitrification at biocathode in bioelectrochemical system (BES).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Yan, Qun; Shen, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Reductive removal of nitrate in bioelectrochemical system (BES) at abiotic cathode, biocathode and biohydrogen facilitated biocathode were investigated. It was found that nitrate removal efficiency reached 95% and 59% at the biohydrogen facilitated biocathode and biocathode respectively, while which was only 13% at the abiotic cathode. Meanwhile, activity of nitrate reductase reached 0.701 g-N/Lh for the biohydrogen facilitated group, which was about 9.3 times of the biocathode group. Moreover, electrochemical performances as power density, ohmic resistance, and polarization resistance of the biohydrogen facilitated group reached 76.96 mW/m(3), 8.63 ohm and 383 ohm, respectively, which were better than two other groups. Finally, an obvious shift of bacterial community responsible for the enhanced nitrate reduction between the two biocathode groups was observed. Therefore, nitrate reduction in BES could be enhanced at the biocathode than that of the abiotic cathode, and then be further boosted with the combination of biohydrogen.

  1. The Role of the Facilitator in Couple Relationship Education.

    PubMed

    Ketring, Scott A; Bradford, Angela B; Davis, Stephanie Y; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; McGill, Julianne; Smith, Thomas A

    2017-03-11

    While much of the Couple Relationship Education (CRE) research has focused on participant factors, unexpectedly little research has considered how characteristics of those providing the programming shape its efficacy. The current study draws upon a diverse sample of 225 couples who received CRE from community educators to examine how facilitation alliance is related to relationship outcomes for men and women and whether having a facilitator with similar demographic characteristics is related to the alliance. Results suggest that the facilitation alliance is related to some-though not all-postprogram outcomes and these effects were uniform across gender and relationship status (married vs. unmarried). Having a facilitator of the same gender was associated with a stronger alliance. Implications are discussed.

  2. Facilitating Vocational Development Among Disadvantaged Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdani, Asma

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the vocational development process of tenth-grade disadvantaged students can be facilitated through deliberate intervention in the form of supplementary learning experiences. (Author)

  3. Premovement facilitation of corticospinal excitability in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Notani, Masaru; Iwata, Akira; Minamida, Fumiko; Abe, Kazuo

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of premovement facilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease. Seven patients with Parkinson's disease and seven healthy subjects participated in this study. The subjects attempted abduction of the index finger in response to a visual start cue, and motor-evoked potentials were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle before movement onset. The rate of premovement facilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease was slower than that in healthy subjects. Additionally, the rate of premovement facilitation as a function of delay from the start cue was positively correlated with the reaction time. These findings indicate that premovement facilitation is abnormal in patients with Parkinson's disease. This abnormality may be partially related to akinesia.

  4. Reciprocal feeding facilitation between above- and below-ground herbivores.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Scott W; Vanbergen, Adam J; Hails, Rosemary S; Jones, T Hefin; Johnson, Scott N

    2013-10-23

    Interspecific interactions between insect herbivores predominantly involve asymmetric competition. By contrast, facilitation, whereby herbivory by one insect benefits another via induced plant susceptibility, is uncommon. Positive reciprocal interactions between insect herbivores are even rarer. Here, we reveal a novel case of reciprocal feeding facilitation between above-ground aphids (Amphorophora idaei) and root-feeding vine weevil larvae (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), attacking red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). Using two raspberry cultivars with varying resistance to these herbivores, we further demonstrate that feeding facilitation occurred regardless of host plant resistance. This positive reciprocal interaction operates via an, as yet, unreported mechanism. Specifically, the aphid induces compensatory growth, possibly as a prelude to greater resistance/tolerance, whereas the root herbivore causes the plant to abandon this strategy. Both herbivores may ultimately benefit from this facilitative interaction.

  5. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care.

  6. Online Chemistry Modules: Interaction and Effective Faculty Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Laura E.; Towns Marcy Hamby; Zielinski, Theresa Julia

    2004-01-01

    Computer supported collaborative learning, cooperative learning combined with electronic communication, physical chemistry online modules, use of discussion boards, its advantages and limitations are experimented and discussed. The most important finding is the example of effective online faculty facilitation and interaction.

  7. Role of "external facilitation" in implementation of research findings: a qualitative evaluation of facilitation experiences in the Veterans Health Administration

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, Cheryl B; Legro, Marcia W; Rycroft-Malone, Joanne; Bowman, Candice; Curran, Geoffrey; Guihan, Marylou; Hagedorn, Hildi; Pineros, Sandra; Wallace, Carolyn M

    2006-01-01

    Background Facilitation has been identified in the literature as a potentially key component of successful implementation. It has not, however, either been well-defined or well-studied. Significant questions remain about the operational definition of facilitation and about the relationship of facilitation to other interventions, especially to other change agent roles when used in multi-faceted implementation projects. Researchers who are part of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) are actively exploring various approaches and processes, including facilitation, to enable implementation of best practices in the Veterans Health Administration health care system – the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes a systematic, retrospective evaluation of implementation-related facilitation experiences within QUERI, a quality improvement program developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Methods A post-hoc evaluation was conducted through a series of semi-structured interviews to examine the concept of facilitation across several multi-site QUERI implementation studies. The interview process is based on a technique developed in the field of education, which systematically enhances learning through experience by stimulating recall and reflection regarding past complex activities. An iterative content analysis approach relative to a set of conceptually-based interview questions was used for data analysis. Findings Findings suggest that facilitation, within an implementation study initiated by a central change agency, is a deliberate and valued process of interactive problem solving and support that occurs in the context of a recognized need for improvement and a supportive interpersonal relationship. Facilitation was described primarily as a distinct role with a number of potentially crucial behaviors and activities. Data further suggest that external facilitators were likely to use or integrate other

  8. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides through the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Zachara, John M.; McCarthy, John F.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2006-05-31

    This project seeks to improve the basic understanding of the role of colloids in facilitating the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. We focus on three major thrusts: (1) thermodynamic stability and mobility of colloids formed by reactions of sediments with highly alkaline tank waste solutions, (2) colloid-contaminant interactions, and (3) in-situ colloid mobilization and colloid facilitated contaminant transport occurring in both contaminated and uncontaminated Hanford sediments.

  9. The Use of Benzodiazepines to Facilitate Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, M A

    2010-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are one of the classes of drugs most commonly associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault. As a widely prescribed class of medications and abused drugs, benzodiazepines are extensively available. Their sedating and amnesic effects make them effective candidates for use in drug-facilitated assaults. Detection methods for benzodiazepines and their metabolites in biological fluids are plentiful, but methods must be tailored to the low concentrations of drugs and metabolites expected to be encountered in these cases.

  10. [Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release facilitation in strontium solutions].

    PubMed

    Mukhamed'iarov, M A; Kochunova, Iu O; Telina, E N; Zefirov, A L

    2008-02-01

    Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release facilitation were studied using electrophysiological recording of end-plate currents (EPC) and nerve ending (NE) responses after substitution of extracellular Ca ions with Sr ions at the frog neuromuscular junction. The solutions with 0.5 mM concentration of Ca ions (calcium solution) or 1 mM concentration of Sr ions (strontium solution) were used where baseline neurotransmitter release (at low-frequency stimulation) is equal. Decay of paired-pulse facilitation of EPC at calcium solutions with increase of interpulse interval from 5 to 500 ms was well described by three-exponential function consisting of early, first and second components. Facilitation at strontium solutions was significantly diminished due mainly to decrease of early and first components. At the same time, EPC facilitation with rhythmic stimulation (10 or 50 imp/s) at strontium solutions was significantly increased. Also more pronounced decrease of NE response 3rd phase, reflecting potassium currents was detected under rhythmic stimulation of 50 imp/s at strontium solutions comparing to calcium solutions. It was concluded that facilitation sites underlying first and early components had lower affinity to Sr ions than to Ca ions. The enhancement of frequency facilitation at strontium solutions is mediated by two mechanisms: more pronounced broadening of NE action potential and increase of bivalent cation influx due to feebly marked activation of Ca(2+)-dependent potassium current by Sr ions, and slower dynamics of Sr(2+) removal from NE axoplasm comparing to Ca(2+).

  11. Facilitating classroom based interprofessional learning: a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of their role adequacy as facilitators.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture.

  12. Neophyte facilitator experiences of interprofessional education: implications for faculty development.

    PubMed

    Egan-Lee, Eileen; Baker, Lindsay; Tobin, Stasey; Hollenberg, Elisa; Dematteo, Dale; Reeves, Scott

    2011-09-01

    The facilitation of learners from different professional groups requires a range of interprofessional knowledge and skills (e.g. an understanding of possible sources of tension between professions) in addition to those that are more generic, such as how to manage a small group of learners. The development and delivery of interprofessional education (IPE) programs tends to rely on a small cohort of facilitators who have typically gained expertise through 'hands-on' involvement in facilitating IPE and through mentorship from more experienced colleagues. To avoid burn-out and to meet a growing demand for IPE, a larger number of facilitators are needed. However, empirical evidence regarding effective approaches to prepare for this type of work is limited. This article draws on data from a multiple case study of four IPE programs based in an urban setting in North America with a sample of neophyte facilitators and provides insight into their perceptions and experiences in preparing for and delivering IPE. Forty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted before (n = 20) and after (n = 21) program delivery with 21 facilitators. Findings indicated that despite participating in a three-fold faculty development strategy designed to support them in their IPE facilitation work, many felt unprepared and continued to have a poor conceptual understanding of core IPE and interprofessional collaboration principles, resulting in problematic implications (e.g. 'missed teachable moments') within their IPE programs. Findings from this study are discussed in relation to the IPE, faculty development and wider educational literature before implications are offered for the future delivery of interprofessional faculty development activities.

  13. Recruitment facilitation can drive alternative states on temperate reefs.

    PubMed

    Baskett, Marissa L; Salomon, Anne K

    2010-06-01

    How the combination of positive and negative species interactions acts to drive community dynamics is a fundamental question in ecology. Here we explore one aspect of this question by expanding the theory of predator-mediated coexistence to include the potential role of facilitation between the predator and inferior competitor. To motivate and illustrate our simple model, we focus on sea-urchin-algae interactions in temperate rocky reef systems and incorporate recruitment facilitation, a common characteristic of marine systems. Specifically, the model represents sea urchin grazing on macroalgae, macroalgal competition with crustose coralline algae (CCA), and facilitation of sea urchin recruitment to CCA. These interactions generate alternative stable states, one dominated by macroalgae and the other by urchins, which do not occur when recruitment facilitation of urchins to CCA is ignored. Therefore, recruitment facilitation provides a possible mechanism for alternative kelp forest and urchin barren states in temperate marine systems, where storm events or harvesting of urchins or their predators can drive switches between states that are difficult to reverse. In systems with such dynamics, spatial management such as no-take marine reserves may play a crucial role in protecting community structure by increasing the resilience to shifts between states.

  14. Handwriting generates variable visual input to facilitate symbol learning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913

  15. Stochastic dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma with cooperation facilitators.

    PubMed

    Mobilia, Mauro

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the paradigmatic prisoner's dilemma game, we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of social dilemmas in the presence of "cooperation facilitators." In our model, cooperators and defectors interact as in the classical prisoner's dilemma, where selection favors defection. However, here the presence of a small number of cooperation facilitators enhances the fitness (reproductive potential) of cooperators, while it does not alter that of defectors. In a finite population of size N, the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma with facilitators is characterized by the probability that cooperation takes over (fixation probability) by the mean times to reach the absorbing states. These quantities are computed exactly using Fokker-Planck equations. Our findings, corroborated by stochastic simulations, demonstrate that the influence of facilitators crucially depends on the difference between their density z and the game's cost-to-benefit ratio r. When z > r, the fixation of cooperators is likely in a large population and, under weak selection pressure, invasion and replacement of defection by cooperation is favored by selection if b(z - r)(1 - z) > N(-1), where 0facilitators but defection is the dominating strategy.

  16. Synchronized reproduction promotes species coexistence through reproductive facilitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yun; Hsu, Sze-Bi

    2011-04-07

    Theories for species coexistence often emphasize niche differentiation and temporal segregation of recruitment to avoid competition. Recent work on mutualism suggested that plant species sharing pollinators provide mutual facilitation when exhibit synchronized reproduction. The facilitation on reproduction may enhance species persistence and coexistence. Theoretical ecologists paid little attention to such indirect mutualistic systems by far. We propose a new model for a two-species system using difference equations. The model focuses on adult plants and assumes no resource competition between these well-established individuals. Our formulas include demographic parameters, such as mortality and recruitment rates, and functions of reproductive facilitation. Both recruitment and facilitation effects reach saturation levels when flower production is at high levels. We conduct mathematical analyses to assess conditions of coexistence. We establish demographical conditions permitting species coexistence. Our analyses suggest a "rescue" effect from a "superior" species to a "weaker" species under strong recruitment enhancement effect when the later is not self-sustainable. The facilitation on rare species may help to overcome Allee effect.

  17. Facilitation techniques as predictors of crew participation in LOFT debriefings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonnell, L. K.

    1996-01-01

    Based on theories of adult learning and airline industry guidelines for Crew Resource Management (CRM), the stated objective during Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings is for instructor pilots (IP's) to facilitate crew self-analysis of performance. This study reviews 19 LOFT debriefings from two major U.S. airlines to examine the relationship between IP efforts at facilitation and associated characteristics of crew participation. A subjective rating scale called the Debriefing Assessment Battery was developed and utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of IP facilitation and the quality of crew participation. The results indicate that IP content, encouragement, and questioning techniques are highly and significantly correlated with, and can therefore predict, the degree and depth of crew participation.

  18. Facilitation of shape-from-shading perception by random textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Ko; Narushima, Kazuki; Aoki, Natsuko

    2006-08-01

    Most natural objects have a texture on their surface, so the segregation between shading and texture is crucial for the robust perception of three-dimensional structure: The visual system has to decide whether shading or texture evoked the luminance change. We found that the contextual pop-out that results from shading was not suppressed, but was even facilitated, when random texture was added to the luminance of the entire stimulus, indicating the functional segregation and facilitative interaction between shading and texture cues. The local contrast evoked by random texture within a figure or at a boundary was a major factor in the facilitation, suggesting the crucial role of early vision in the interaction between the cues.

  19. Object-based attentional facilitation and inhibition are neuropsychologically dissociated.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel T; Ball, Keira; Swalwell, Robert; Schenk, Thomas

    2016-01-08

    Salient peripheral cues produce a transient shift of attention which is superseded by a sustained inhibitory effect. Cueing part of an object produces an inhibitory cueing effect (ICE) that spreads throughout the object. In dynamic scenes the ICE stays with objects as they move. We examined object-centred attentional facilitation and inhibition in a patient with visual form agnosia. There was no evidence of object-centred attentional facilitation. In contrast, object-centred ICE was observed in 3 out of 4 tasks. These inhibitory effects were strongest where cues to objecthood were highly salient. These data are evidence of a neuropsychological dissociation between the facilitatory and inhibitory effects of attentional cueing. From a theoretical perspective the findings suggest that 'grouped arrays' are sufficient for object-based inhibition, but insufficient to generate object-centred attentional facilitation.

  20. If a Student Takes Control: Facilitator's Tasks and Responsibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väljataga, Terje

    This paper presents initial research results of an intervention into higher educational teaching and studying practices from facilitators‘ point of view. The intervention was implemented into an international Master’s level online course mediated by landscapes of social media tools and services. In this course more emphasis was put on a shift of control from a facilitator to a student or a group of students in the following aspects: setting up one’s study goals, choosing activities, selecting appropriate resources, including technology and defining one’s evaluation criteria. The initial analysis showed that the facilitators gained a lot in terms of understanding the benefits of exploiting social media tools and services for their teaching practices, perceiving a need of having a different role as well as the shortages and problems while being a facilitator in such a course.

  1. Partner Facilitation and Partner Interference in Individuals' Weight Loss Goals.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Jennifer A; Carpenter, Amanda M; Leustek, John

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on the logic of the relational turbulence model, this study examined the ways in which romantic partners facilitate and interfere with individuals' weight loss goals. Participants (N = 122) described the ways in which their romantic partner had recently helped or hindered their weight loss at four times over the course of 2 months. We conducted a content analysis of responses to identify themes of partner facilitation (Research Question 1 [RQ1]) and partner interference (RQ2) in individuals' weight loss goals. Results revealed seven themes of partner facilitation: (a) partner enabling diet, (b) motivation and encouragement, (c) emotional support and positive reinforcement, (d) exercising together, (e) partner enabling exercise, (f) dieting together, and (g) relationship influence and priorities. Four themes of partner interference emerged in the data: (a) inability to plan for healthy meals, (b) inability to control the food environment, (c) preventing or discouraging exercise, and (d) emotional or relational discouragement.

  2. Effect of support group peer facilitator training programmes on peer facilitator and support group member outcomes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Delisle, Vanessa C; Gumuchian, Stephanie T; Kloda, Lorie A; Boruff, Jill; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Körner, Annett; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Thombs, Brett D

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer facilitators play an important role in determining the success of many support groups for patients with medical illnesses. However, many facilitators do not receive training for their role and report a number of challenges in fulfilling their responsibilities. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of training and support programmes for peer facilitators of support groups for people with medical illnesses on (1) the competency and self-efficacy of group facilitators and (2) self-efficacy for disease management, health outcomes and satisfaction with support groups among group members. Methods Searches included the CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases from inception through 8 April 2016; reference list reviews; citation tracking of included articles; and trial registry reviews. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language that evaluated the effects of training programmes for peer facilitators compared with no training or alternative training formats on (1) competency or self-efficacy of peer facilitators, and (2) self-efficacy for disease management, health outcomes and satisfaction with groups of group members. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess risk of bias. Results There were 9757 unique titles/abstracts and 2 full-text publications reviewed. 1 RCT met inclusion criteria. The study evaluated the confidence and self-efficacy of cancer support group facilitators randomised to 4 months access to a website and discussion forum (N=23; low resource) versus website, discussion forum and 2-day training workshop (N=29). There were no significant differences in facilitator confidence (Hedges' g=0.16, 95% CI −0.39 to 0.71) or self-efficacy (Hedges' g=0.31, 95% CI −0.24 to 0.86). Risk of bias was unclear or high for 4 of 6 domains. Conclusions Well-designed and well-conducted, adequately powered trials of peer support group facilitator training

  3. Business-IT Alignment in Trade Facilitation: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adaba, Godfried; Rusu, Lazar; El-Mekawy, Mohamed

    In the information age, no organization can thrive without harnessing the power of IT. The effective deployment of IT to achieve business goals and gain competitive advantage requires the alignment of business and IT strategies of organizations. Using the Strategic Alignment Maturity model, this paper evaluates strategic alignment maturity of Customs Excise Preventive service, a frontline public organization charged with trade facilitation in Ghana. Strategic alignment maturity is at level 3; which implies the existence of an established process to leverage IT for efficiency and effectiveness. Efforts are required to strengthen alignment and fully harness the potential of IT to facilitate trade in Ghana.

  4. Using a media centre to facilitate team-based learning.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rafael A; Stanley, Glynne; Snavely, Adam

    2006-06-01

    Team-based learning is a relatively new educational approach in which learning occurs in three phases. Team-based learning is so named because in the third and final phase, students are organized into teams to participate in a classroom team-based learning session. In the Department of Anesthesiology at Boston University Medical Center, a multi-purpose Media Centre is used to facilitate the team-based learning approach. This Media Centre facilitates the creation and study of team-based learning educational materials distributed through a course website.

  5. Lights, Camera, Action: Facilitating PETE Students' Reflection through Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okseon; Ravizza, Dean; Lee, Myung-Ah

    2009-01-01

    Preparing teacher candidates to be reflective professionals is a critical component of physical education teacher education programs. Although many specific strategies have been developed to facilitate post-lesson reflection, strategies for reflecting on future work and professional life have not been widely explored. As a way to facilitate…

  6. Tales for Trainers. Using Stories and Metaphors to Facilitate Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Margaret

    This book is a resource for trainers or managers who provide training. The book is divided into two parts. Part one provides a brief overview of stories, metaphors, and myths and the purpose they have played over the years--and still do today. It explains how and why stories help to facilitate the learning process, and it gives guidance on where…

  7. Facilitative Orthographic Neighborhood Effects: The SERIOL Model Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carol; Lavidor, Michal

    2005-01-01

    A large orthographic neighborhood (N) facilitates lexical decision for central and left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH) presentation, but not for right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) presentation. Based on the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding, this asymmetric N effect is explained by differential activation patterns at the…

  8. How to Facilitate Teachers' Understanding of Hypotheses and Predictions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to facilitate inservice high school and university teachers' understanding of the difference between the terms "hypothesis" and "prediction." The context for understanding these terms was Columbus's discovery of America (as in the previous study). Control group teachers (N = 94) were evaluated before the discussion…

  9. Developing Critical Reflection in Professional Focused Doctorates: A Facilitator's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambrook, Sally; Stewart, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the challenges and opportunities for expediting critical reflection in management education and development to highlight particularly how critical reflection has been facilitated within the context of a professionally focused doctoral programme. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on empirical research…

  10. Thermal noise can facilitate energy conversion by a ratchet system.

    PubMed

    Takagi, F; Hondou, T

    1999-10-01

    Molecular motors in biological systems are expected to use ambient fluctuation. In a recent paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5251 (1998)], it was shown that the following question was unanswered: Can thermal noise facilitate energy conversion by ratchet system? We consider it using stochastic energetics, and show that there exist systems where thermal noise helps the energy conversion.

  11. Whose statistical reasoning is facilitated by a causal structure intervention?

    PubMed

    McNair, Simon; Feeney, Aidan

    2015-02-01

    People often struggle when making Bayesian probabilistic estimates on the basis of competing sources of statistical evidence. Recently, Krynski and Tenenbaum (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 430-450, 2007) proposed that a causal Bayesian framework accounts for peoples' errors in Bayesian reasoning and showed that, by clarifying the causal relations among the pieces of evidence, judgments on a classic statistical reasoning problem could be significantly improved. We aimed to understand whose statistical reasoning is facilitated by the causal structure intervention. In Experiment 1, although we observed causal facilitation effects overall, the effect was confined to participants high in numeracy. We did not find an overall facilitation effect in Experiment 2 but did replicate the earlier interaction between numerical ability and the presence or absence of causal content. This effect held when we controlled for general cognitive ability and thinking disposition. Our results suggest that clarifying causal structure facilitates Bayesian judgments, but only for participants with sufficient understanding of basic concepts in probability and statistics.

  12. Peer-to-Peer Training Facilitator’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Peer -to- Peer Training Peer Collaboration Peer Learning Unit Training Program Video-Teleconference Facilitation SECURITY...Adults learn best when they are working on current, real-life challenges and exchanging feedback with others in similar situations (Senge, 1990...programs, peers often can schedule and locate their own learning sessions which makes the sessions very accommodating to busy schedules (Authenticity

  13. Facilitating Meaningful Discussion Groups in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lindsey; Ogden, Meridith; Kelly, Laura Beth

    2015-01-01

    This Teaching Tips describes a yearlong process of facilitating meaningful discussion groups about literature with first-grade students in an urban Title I school. At the beginning of the year, the teacher provided explicit instruction in speaking and listening skills to support students with the social skills needed for thoughtful discussion. She…

  14. Using a Hybrid Approach to Facilitate Learning Introductory Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Unal

    2013-01-01

    In order to facilitate students' understanding in introductory programming courses, different types of teaching approaches were conducted. In this study, a hybrid approach including comment first coding (CFC), analogy and template approaches were used. The goal was to investigate the effect of such a hybrid approach on students' understanding in…

  15. Bibliotherapy: A Resource to Facilitate Emotional Healing and Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Sheen, Dawn; Leavy, Deon; Young, Ellie; Money, Kristy

    2005-01-01

    Children's literature is a therapeutic tool for facilitating emotional growth and healing. Stories provide a catalyst for change, providing children with other perspectives and options for thoughts, feelings and behaviours. Appropriately shared stories provide opportunities for children to gain insight and learn healthier ways to face…

  16. 50 CFR 654.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 654.8 Section 654.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO General Measures §...

  17. Facilitating Problem Framing in Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard

    2016-01-01

    While problem solving is a relatively well understood process, problem framing is less well understood, particularly with regard to supporting students to learn as they frame problems. Project-based learning classrooms are an ideal setting to investigate how teachers facilitate this process. Using participant observation, this study investigated…

  18. 50 CFR 654.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 654.8 Section 654.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO General Measures §...

  19. Facilitating Participation: Teacher Roles in a Multiuser Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a task-based language teaching course in Second Life. The data set consists of transcribed recordings and a teacher interview. Focusing on how the teacher facilitated student participation, this paper aims to explore the discourse functions in the teacher language output and then to address the teacher roles in three…

  20. Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Mason, Susan Dale

    Expert systems are computer programs that are designed to advise or assist users by storing the knowledge of human experts and applying the computer's mathematical ability to search and sort this information. This study investigated the use of an expert system as a mindtool and whether or not creating a simple expert system would facilitate the…

  1. Process Memos: Facilitating Dialogues about Writing between Students and Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Cherry, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    We have created a new teaching tool--process memos--to improve student writing. Process memos are guided reflections submitted with scaffolded assignments that facilitate a written dialogue between students and instructors about the process of writing. Within these memos, students critically assess available teaching tools, discuss their writing…

  2. Facilitation: A Novel Way to Improve Students' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2013-01-01

    In this article we analyze a project that used facilitation techniques, which are known from training in industry, to improve the study environment at a public research university in Denmark. In 2009, the project was initiated in one graduate program; and it has subsequently been modified and institutionalized. The project did not change the…

  3. Using Structured Reading Groups to Facilitate Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Cherry, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Two significant challenges in teaching college courses are getting students to complete the readings and, beyond that, having them engage in deep reading. We have developed a specific group work format within our courses to facilitate both deep reading and active discussion of course material. Early in the semester, students are assigned to their…

  4. Graphite cloth facilitates vacuum evaporation of silicon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carithers, M. D.

    1968-01-01

    Woven graphite cloth facilitates the vacuum deposition of thin films of silicon monoxide on substrate surfaces. The cloth serves both as a container and electric heating element for the silicon monoxide. It minimizes and prevents the silicon monoxide particle ejection, provides uniform heat distribution, and cools rapidly by radiation.

  5. Evaluation of a Mechanical Hand Support for Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Stephen M.; Rimland, Bernard; Berger, Carol Lee; Billings, Donald

    1998-01-01

    A specially designed hand-support device was evaluated for its effectiveness in assisting six autistic individuals (ages 5 to 31) to transition from facilitated communication to independent typing. Postassessment measures after eight weeks of training (and again after an informal extension of another four months) did not reveal any evidence of…

  6. Facilitating Attuned Interactions: Using the FAN Approach to Family Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…

  7. Facilitating normative judgments of conditional probability: frequency or nested sets?

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Kimihiko

    2003-01-01

    Recent probability judgment research contrasts two opposing views. Some theorists have emphasized the role of frequency representations in facilitating probabilistic correctness; opponents have noted that visualizing the probabilistic structure of the task sufficiently facilitates normative reasoning. In the current experiment, the following conditional probability task, an isomorph of the "Problem of Three Prisoners" was tested. "A factory manufactures artificial gemstones. Each gemstone has a 1/3 chance of being blurred, a 1/3 chance of being cracked, and a 1/3 chance of being clear. An inspection machine removes all cracked gemstones, and retains all clear gemstones. However, the machine removes 1/2 of the blurred gemstones. What is the chance that a gemstone is blurred after the inspection?" A 2 x 2 design was administered. The first variable was the use of frequency instruction. The second manipulation was the use of a roulette-wheel diagram that illustrated a "nested-sets" relationship between the prior and the posterior probabilities. Results from two experiments showed that frequency alone had modest effects, while the nested-sets instruction achieved a superior facilitation of normative reasoning. The third experiment compared the roulette-wheel diagram to tree diagrams that also showed the nested-sets relationship. The roulette-wheel diagram outperformed the tree diagrams in facilitation of probabilistic reasoning. Implications for understanding the nature of intuitive probability judgments are discussed.

  8. Are Facilitated Mentoring Programs Beneficial? A Randomized Experimental Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Toby Marshall; Song, Zhaoli

    2008-01-01

    Results from a pretest-posttest randomized field experiment study with a control group comparing the impact of high- and low-level-facilitated mentoring programs on new employees' performance and perceptions about their jobs and organization were reported in this paper. Results indicated increases in job satisfaction, organizational commitment,…

  9. Facilitating Transdisciplinary Sustainable Development Research Teams through Online Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Ann; Newman, Lenore; Ling, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential of online communication technologies to facilitate university-led transdisciplinary sustainable development research and lower the ecological footprints of such research projects. A series of case studies is to be explored. Design/methodology/approach: A one year project is conducted…

  10. Facilitating Learning in Multidisciplinary Groups with Transactive CSCL Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noroozi, Omid; Teasley, Stephanie D.; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Weinberger, Armin; Mulder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and transfer are essential for learning in groups, especially when group members have different disciplinary expertise and collaborate online. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments have been designed to facilitate transactive knowledge sharing and transfer in collaborative problem-solving settings. This…

  11. Determiner Primes as Facilitators of Lexical Retrieval in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Emma; Varley, Rosemary; Herbert, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Gender priming studies have demonstrated facilitation of noun production following pre-activation of a target noun's grammatical gender. Findings provide support for models in which syntactic information relating to words is stored within the lexicon and activated during lexical retrieval. Priming effects are observed in the context of determiner…

  12. Facilitating Trust in Privacy-Preserving E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, M.; Greer, J.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores a new model for facilitating trust in online e-learning activities. We begin by protecting the privacy of learners through identity management (IM), where personal information can be protected through some degree of participant anonymity or pseudonymity. In order to expect learners to trust other pseudonymous participants,…

  13. A Facilitation of Dyslexia through a Remediation of Shakespeare's Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Petronilla

    2016-01-01

    This article shares the author's research focusing on the facilitation of acting students with dyslexia in actor-training. For some individuals with dyslexia the translation of the written text into image-based symbols using technological modalities can play a crucial role to access and make concrete the meaning of the words; in this case…

  14. Facilitating Employees' and Students' Process towards Nascent Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Lenita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate a model for facilitating employees' and full-time, non-business students' entrepreneurial capabilities during their optional entrepreneurship studies at one Finnish Open University. Design/methodology/approach: The case study investigates the course in which transitions from employees or…

  15. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  16. The Role of Preoperative TIPSS to Facilitate Curative Gastric Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.A.; Vickers, J.; Callaway, M.P. Alderson, D.

    2003-08-15

    The use of TIPSS to facilitate radical curative upper gastrointestinal surgery has not been reported. We describe a case in which curative gastric resection was performed for carcinoma of the stomach after a preoperative TIPSS and embolization of a large gastric varix in a patient with portal hypertension.

  17. 50 CFR 697.9 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 697.9 Section 697.9 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) ATLANTIC COASTAL FISHERIES COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT...

  18. Describing Computer-Facilitated Learning Environments in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, John D.; McNaught, Carmel; Mills, Colleen; Lueckenhausen, Gillian

    1998-01-01

    Reports research on ways in which university academics design and incorporate computer-facilitated learning (CFL) environments into their courses. The study was based on archive material for 36 externally-funded technology-based projects. Projects were sorted into categories based on educational assumptions and practices, and use of educational…

  19. Exploring How Collaborative Dialogues Facilitate Synchronous Collaborative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Hui-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative writing (CW) research has gained prevalence in recent years. However, the ways in which students interact socially to produce written texts through synchronous collaborative writing (SCW) is rarely studied. This study aims to investigate the effects of SCW on students' writing products and how collaborative dialogues facilitate SCW.…

  20. 50 CFR 640.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 640.8 Section 640.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC...

  1. 50 CFR 640.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 640.8 Section 640.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC...

  2. 50 CFR 640.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 640.8 Section 640.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC...

  3. 17 CFR 202.4 - Facilitating administrative hearings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Facilitating administrative hearings. 202.4 Section 202.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION..., interested persons may informally discuss the problems therein raised to the extent that time and the...

  4. Facilitating Critical Thinking in an Introduction to Business Freshman Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    The current article presents an example of the development, implementation, and evaluation of a teaching intervention intended to facilitate student critical thinking through the integration of knowledge in an introductory business course. The intervention is grounded in the scholarship of teaching and learning literature. A discussion of the…

  5. Facilitator, Teacher, or Leader? Managing Conflicting Roles in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    A facilitator is commonly defined as a substantively neutral person who manages the group process in order to help groups achieve identified goals or purposes. However, outdoor educators rarely experience the luxury of only managing the group process, because they are typically responsible for the provision of leadership, skill instruction, and…

  6. Facilitating the Development of School-Based Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Chris; Bertram, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge base on leading and facilitating the growth of school improvement networks by describing the activities and challenges faced by network leaders. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 19 co-leaders from 12 networks were interviewed using a semi-structured schedule about the growth of their…

  7. One-to-One Encounters: Facilitators, Participants, and Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I explore the claim that one-to-one encounters between community music facilitators and music participants can be described as friendships. By exploring the relational structure through the call and the welcome, I make some general comments on friendship before finally tackling the question lying at the heart of this article: How…

  8. The Use of a Contract to Facilitate Sensitivity Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drennen, Will; Pugh, Marta

    1979-01-01

    This study assessed Egan's hypothesis that a contract, spelling out in advance sensitivity group goals and member behaviors, facilitates positive interaction and interpersonal growth. Although results were not definitive, the contract group did seem to receive some additional benefits from sensitivity training, when compared to the non-contract…

  9. Antechamber facilitates loading and unloading of vacuum furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, P. J.; Mills, J. A.; Orth, N. W.; Quatinetz, M.; Wagner, J. G.

    1968-01-01

    Antechamber facilitates the use of a furnace in which materials are heat treated in a high vacuum or a gas atmosphere. It has a high vacuum pumping system, a means for backfilling with a selected gas, an access door, glove ports, and a motor driven platform.

  10. Barriers and facilitators to shelter utilization among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yoonsook; Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    Rates of shelter use among homeless youth are low compared to use of other supportive services, yet research on barriers to shelter use has been conducted in limited regions, specifically in West Coast or Midwest cities. Additionally, while studies have generally focused on barriers to shelter use, studies on what might facilitate shelter use are lacking. This study explores barriers and facilitators to shelter use among homeless young adults from a large city in the Southwest region. Focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of 49 homeless young adults ages 18-24. Drawing on models of health service use, findings were categorized into two domains--attitudinal and access. Themes related to attitudinal barriers include stigma/shame and self-reliance/pride. Attitudinal facilitators include the desire to extricate themselves from street life and turn their lives in a new direction. Access-related themes include barriers such as a lack of shelters and services available to meet the needs of youth, adverse shelter conditions, staff attitudes that are not acceptable to youth, restrictive shelter rules, restrictive definitions of homelessness, and a desire to differentiate themselves from older homeless individuals. Certain characteristics or circumstances (e.g., being pregnant), having supportive others, and shelters' ability to connect them to other services emerged as access facilitators to shelter use. Implications for policymakers, service providers, and future research are discussed.

  11. Barriers to and Facilitators of Perinatal Depression Screening.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    Depression is a significant health issue for women of reproductive age. A number of professional organizations have issued guidance regarding perinatal depression screening. However, some health care providers are reluctant to screen women. This column takes a second look at two recent research studies in which investigators examined the barriers to and facilitators of perinatal depression screening.

  12. An Ounce of Prevention: A Course for Blacks. Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Alcohol Education, Arlington, VA.

    This kit was developed as part of a series called Decisions and Drinking, which focusses on intelligent decision-making about alcohol use based on knowledge and freedom of choice. Each kit in the series contains a facilitator handbook, session outline cards, a set of transparencies, participant work sheets, and "take-home" summaries for…

  13. Challenge Course Facilitator Technical Skills Assessment Tool Mark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, William Quinn

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a technical skills assessment tool for the training and development of challenge course facilitators. Researchers accessed two professional on-line listserves to collect a sample size of twenty-seven currently used technical skills assessment tools. The assessment tools were critically analysed by three independent…

  14. Transcription and the IELTS Speaking Test: Facilitating Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a transcription task cycle that was designed to facilitate the development of skills for the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) speaking test at a language school in Japan. The cycle involved practice test, transcription, student correction, teacher correction, and retrial of the original test and…

  15. Perceived Fear Appeals and Examination Performance: Facilitating or Debilitating Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Symes, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether students' perception of classroom fear appeals concerning a forthcoming high-stakes examination are associated with facilitating or debilitating performance outcomes. Self-report data were collected for perceived fear appeals, test anxiety and achievement goals from a sample of 273 students in their final year of…

  16. Facilitators of and Barriers to Model School Psychological Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; Arroyo-Plaza, Javier; Tan, Sim Yin; Sabnis, Sujay; Mattison, Amira

    2017-01-01

    This study examined facilitators of and barriers to comprehensive and integrated services. A national sample of 267 full-time practicing school psychologists who were Regular Members or Early Career Members of the National Association of School Psychologists participated. We administered a survey to participants that measured the extent to which…

  17. Public Schools and the Juvenile Justice System: Facilitating Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Higgins, Kyle

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the importance of facilitating relationships between schools and the Juvenile Justice System. Emphasis is placed on statistics concerning children/youth involved in the Juvenile Justice System and the current state of school programs. Strategies for developing integrated programs between schools and the Juvenile Justice…

  18. Group Facilitator Training Package: Trainer's Manual and Participant's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph P.; Tait, Raymond C.

    These materials, consisting of a trainer's manual and a participant's manual, are designed to meet the need for a balanced approach to training counselors and other helping professionals in group counseling and group facilitation skills. The emphasis of these materials is on the experiential aspect of training through exercises designed to promote…

  19. Autobiographical memory in multiple sclerosis patients: assessment and cognitive facilitation.

    PubMed

    Ernst, A; Blanc, F; Voltzenlogel, V; de Seze, J; Chauvin, B; Manning, L

    2013-01-01

    The multifocal nature of lesions in multiple sclerosis hints at the occurrence of autobiographical memory (AbM) impairment. However, the dearth of studies on AbM in multiple sclerosis is noticeable, notwithstanding the importance of AbM in everyday life. In the first section of this study, 25 multiple sclerosis patients and 35 controls underwent a detailed episodic AbM assessment. Results obtained by means of ANOVA suggested an AbM retrieval deficit in every patient. That pattern of performance paved the way for the second section of the study, in which we followed up 10 out of the 25 patients. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of a cognitive facilitation programme designed to alleviate AbM retrieval deficits, based on the key role of mental visual imagery on AbM. Statistical group analyses by means of ANOVA and individual analyses using the χ(2) test showed significant differences in AbM test results, in post-facilitation relative to pre-facilitation training, in all 10 patients. Moreover, the patients' comments showed that the positive effects were transferred in their daily life functioning. We would like to suggest that the facilitation programme efficiently enhanced the process of self-centred mental visual imagery, which might have compensated for poor retrieval of personal memories by providing better access to visual details and detailed visual scenes of personal recollections.

  20. Using Individualized Learning Plans to Facilitate Learner-Centered Teaching.

    PubMed

    Lockspeiser, Tai M; Kaul, Paritosh

    2016-06-01

    Individualized learning plans (ILPs) are helpful tools that can facilitate learner-centered education and can be used with all levels of learners. We introduce the concept of ILPs, the rationale for their use in pediatric and adolescent gynecology education, and review the challenges that learners might face in creating ILPs, and describes how educators can support learners during this process.

  1. Studying and Facilitating Dialogue in Select Online Management Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancevich, John M.; Gilbert, Jacqueline A.; Konopaske, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Dialogue is arguably one of the most significant elements of learning in higher education. The premise of this article is that online instructors can creatively facilitate dialogue for effectively teaching online management courses. This article presents a dialogue-focused framework for addressing significant behavioral, structural, and…

  2. Sexuality and the Chemically Dependent Woman. A Group Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    This manual contains the first 2-hour session of a six-session sexuality guide designed for clinicians and facilitators working with chemically dependent women. The content of the manual is appropriate for inpatient programs, outpatient programs, and after-care groups. The manual begins with an introduction to women's sexuality in the 1980s and an…

  3. Facilitating the Identity Development of Counseling Graduate Students as Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benishek, Lois A.; Chessler, Marcy

    2005-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts to modify research training environments to facilitate interest in research, graduate students in applied areas of counseling publish at low rates. This article discusses 2 identity development theories and provides suggestions for how these theories can be used by counseling-related programs to foster students'…

  4. Tools made of ice facilitate forming of soft, sticky materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. E.; Ramsey, J. G., Jr.; Schinbeckler, K. D.

    1969-01-01

    Tools made of ice facilitate the forming or shaping of materials that are soft and sticky in the uncured state. The low-temperature of the ice slows the curing of the material, extending the working time available before setup. Handling problems are eliminated because the material does not adhere to the tool, and the melting ice serves as a lubricant.

  5. Posting with Intentionality in Online Instruction: Supporting Instructors' Facilitation Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Judith; van Barneveld, Angela; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2016-01-01

    As higher education institutions move to incorporate more online learning into their long-term strategies, it is important for instructors to become adept at facilitating discussions in ways that engage learners, promote critical thinking, and support the development of a learning community. Through the strategic application of effective…

  6. Language Development for English Language Learners. Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Mabel O.; Moughamian, Ani; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This Facilitator's Guide has been prepared for presenters of the "Language Development for English Language Learners" professional development module. It accompanies the 67-slide PowerPoint presentation with speaker's notes and contains materials to help prepare for a professional development session, including activity instructions, handouts,…

  7. Methodological Understandings from Elementary Science Lesson Study Facilitation and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Teacher learning, as well as the development and testing of curriculum materials, are key for teaching lessons that bring the goals of the Next Generation Science Standards to life in classrooms. Lesson study is a process that links standards, teacher learning, curriculum materials, and instructional enactment together to facilitate student…

  8. Academic Professional Development Strategies to Facilitate Educational Changes in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez Alonso, Gloria Amparo

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative within-case study explored how planned educational change in universities can be facilitated through academic professional development strategies. Thus this study attempted to shed some light on the dynamics of educational planned change in universities and their implications for academic professional development of faculty. The…

  9. Picture this! Using photovoice to facilitate cultural competence in students.

    PubMed

    Garner, Shelby

    2013-01-01

    The use of digital images is a prevalent practice in today's society, especially in social media. Photovoice is a qualitative research methodology used to express the experiences of participants from a variety of populations. Photovoice can be utilized as a teaching and learning tool to facilitate cultural competence among undergraduate nursing students.

  10. Collaboration around Facilitating Emergent Literacy: Role of Occupational Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Asha; Nichols, Joy D.

    2016-01-01

    The article uses a case study to illustrate transdisciplinary perspectives on facilitating emergent literacy skills of Elsa, a primary grade student with autism. The study demonstrates how a professional learning community implemented motor, sensory, and speech/language components to generate a classroom model supporting emergent literacy skills.…

  11. Mind Maps as Facilitative Tools in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safar, Ammar H.; Jafer,Yaqoub J.; Alqadiri, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions, attitudes, and willingness of pre-service science teachers in the College of Education at Kuwait University about using concept/mind maps and its related application software as facilitative tools, for teaching and learning, in science education. The first level (i.e., reaction) of Kirkpatrick's/Phillips'…

  12. Transpersonal Psychology: Facilitating Transformation in Outdoor Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael H.

    1989-01-01

    Explores how outdoor experiential education can facilitate personal growth and transformation by balancing adventure-based activities with inner-directed processes. Discusses transpersonal psychology and research on consciousness and brain functions relevant to the process of transformation. Describes a specific technique to access deeper levels…

  13. Part-Set Cuing Facilitation for Spatial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sydni M.; Reysen, Matthew B.; Kelley, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Part-set cuing "inhibition" refers to the counterintuitive finding that hints--specifically, part of the set of to-be-remembered information--often impair memory performance in free recall tasks. Although inhibition is the most commonly reported result, part-set cuing "facilitation" has been shown with serial order tasks. The…

  14. Inquiry-Based Learning with or without Facilitator Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerasinghe, Thushani Alwis; Ramberg, Robert; Hewagamage, Kamalanath Priyantha

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings of a study investigating how students, in four online courses, engaged in inquiry-based learning with and without support from a facilitator. The investigation was conducted by analyzing discussions of the online courses using the community of inquiry model. The results of the study imply that students in online…

  15. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  16. The Global Career Development Facilitator Credential: An International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale; Neault, Roberta A.; Pickerell, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The Global Career Development Facilitator (GCDF) credential was established to provide professional training and standards for individuals working in the career field. GCDF programs are now available in the United States and 10 other countries. The authors highlight the first international GCDF program in New Zealand, new online GCDF training in…

  17. Guide for Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) Group Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R., Ed.; Lilly, Mary, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota is a primary academic support program for historically difficult, introductory college courses that serve as gatekeepers to academic degree programs. This document is the training manual used for the new PAL facilitators that manage the small study groups. Based upon operating…

  18. 15 CFR 990.15 - Considerations to facilitate restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Considerations to facilitate restoration. 990.15 Section 990.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  19. 15 CFR 990.15 - Considerations to facilitate restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Considerations to facilitate restoration. 990.15 Section 990.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  20. 15 CFR 990.15 - Considerations to facilitate restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Considerations to facilitate restoration. 990.15 Section 990.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  1. 15 CFR 990.15 - Considerations to facilitate restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Considerations to facilitate restoration. 990.15 Section 990.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL...

  2. Facilitating Successful Postsecondary Transitions for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Diana K.; Grapin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, school psychologists' role in facilitating the transition from high school to college for students with disabilities has become increasingly complex. Practitioners are faced with the difficult task of navigating the conspicuous disconnect between disability eligibility criteria at the secondary and postsecondary levels…

  3. Knowing the Ropes and Showing the Ropes. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storer, John H.

    This document consists of a facilitator's guide and related materials for implementing a program that teaches social, communication, and study skills to middle school and junior high school students. The goal of the program, which incorporates peer tutoring, is the prevention of drug and alcohol abuse. This program was developed in Iowa to address…

  4. DigiMemo: Facilitating the Note Taking Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Serhat

    2009-01-01

    Everyone takes notes daily for various reasons. Note taking is very popular in school settings and generally recognized as an effective learning strategy. Further, note taking is a complex process because it requires understanding, selection of information and writing. Some new technological tools may facilitate the note taking process. Among such…

  5. Facilitating Conditions for School Motivation: Construct Validity and Applicability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Dowson, Martin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2005-01-01

    Elementary students (n = 277, in Grades 5-6) and high school students (n = 615, in Grades 7-12) responded to 26 items of McInerneys Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire (FCQ). Confirmatory factor analyses of the FCQ found seven distinct factors underlying these items. These were perceived value of schooling (Value), affect toward schooling…

  6. Using Modeling Tasks to Facilitate the Development of Percentages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh; Peled, Irit

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the development of percentages knowledge by seventh graders given a sequence of activities starting with a realistic modeling task, in which students were expected to create a model that would facilitate the reinvention of percentages. In the first two activities, students constructed their own pricing model using fractions and…

  7. Lunar Farside Radio Astronomy Base Facilitated by Lunar Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eubanks, T. M.; Maccone, C.; Radley, C. F.

    2015-10-01

    Dr. JD-Wörner, DG of ESA intends to align ESA to develop a “Moon Village” on the far side for radio astronomy and other purposes. This would encourage new infrastructure reducing transport costs. A lunar lift greatly facilitates this vision.

  8. Nanoparticle Facilitated Extracellular Electron Transfer in Microbial Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-13

    KEYWORDS: Bacteria, facilitated electron transport, electrochemically active, iron sulfide, Shewanella Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are capable of...to MFC technology is the unique capability of electrochemically active bacteria, such as Shewanella and Geobacter, to divert electrons from the... electrochemical studies also demonstra- ted that the current contribution from remote bacterial cells was significantly diminished at longer cell−electrode dis

  9. Mentoring clinical ladder advancement with a facilitated prep class.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Susan A; Blankenship, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe a strategy for encouraging participation and overcoming reluctance of staff to participate in an optional professional advancement career ladder program. A facilitated prep class in a computer skills laboratory provides nurses with the framework for completing application requirements in a casual, supportive atmosphere.

  10. Action Research Facilitated by University-School Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    While Action Research (AR) is promoted as a powerful route for teachers' professional development, different contextual challenges may arise during the process; teachers may be helped to overcome these challenges with the guidance of external facilitators. Drawing on data from interviews and the teachers' AR reports, this article explores how two…

  11. Designing an Electronic Educational Game to Facilitate Immersion and Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yuxin; Williams, Doug; Prejean, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Advocates of electronic educational games often cite the work on motivation to support the use of games in education. However, motivation alone is inadequate to facilitate learning. Many of the educational games that focused their game design solely on the motivational effect failed to be either educational or entertaining. Theory and research is…

  12. The Fantastic Facilitator: Engaging Activities for Leading Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud

    This document is designed to help facilitators with the formation and development of effective teams of people who have no previous history as a team and no training in group processes. Part 1 provides a narrative explanation of the stages of group development (investing in membership, forming attachments to subgroups, confronting/debating issues,…

  13. Learned face-voice pairings facilitate visual search

    PubMed Central

    Zweig, L. Jacob; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Voices provide a rich source of information that is important for identifying individuals and for social interaction. During search for a face in a crowd, voices often accompany visual information and they facilitate localization of the sought individual. However, it is unclear whether this facilitation occurs primarily because the voice cues the location of the face or because it also increases the salience of the associated face. Here we demonstrate that a voice that provides no location information nonetheless facilitates visual search for an associated face. We trained novel face/voice associations and verified learning using a two-alternative forced-choice task in which participants had to correctly match a presented voice to the associated face. Following training, participants searched for a previously learned target face among other faces while hearing one of the following sounds (localized at the center of the display): a congruent-learned voice, an incongruent but familiar voice, an unlearned and unfamiliar voice, or a time-reversed voice. Only the congruent-learned voice speeded visual search for the associated face. This result suggests that voices facilitate visual detection of associated faces, potentially by increasing their visual salience, and that the underlying crossmodal associations can be established through brief training. PMID:25023955

  14. Learned face-voice pairings facilitate visual search.

    PubMed

    Zweig, L Jacob; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Voices provide a rich source of information that is important for identifying individuals and for social interaction. During search for a face in a crowd, voices often accompany visual information, and they facilitate localization of the sought-after individual. However, it is unclear whether this facilitation occurs primarily because the voice cues the location of the face or because it also increases the salience of the associated face. Here we demonstrate that a voice that provides no location information nonetheless facilitates visual search for an associated face. We trained novel face-voice associations and verified learning using a two-alternative forced choice task in which participants had to correctly match a presented voice to the associated face. Following training, participants searched for a previously learned target face among other faces while hearing one of the following sounds (localized at the center of the display): a congruent learned voice, an incongruent but familiar voice, an unlearned and unfamiliar voice, or a time-reversed voice. Only the congruent learned voice speeded visual search for the associated face. This result suggests that voices facilitate the visual detection of associated faces, potentially by increasing their visual salience, and that the underlying crossmodal associations can be established through brief training.

  15. Teaching Strategies for Multilevel ESL Classes. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Eve; Williams, Molly

    A guide for teacher strategies in multilevel English-as-a-Second Language classes, developed at Clackamas Community College, Oregon, is presented. It contains the following materials: time schedule for a one-day workshop; facilitator's annotated agenda; five transparencies, including teaching objectives and sample lesson plans; various handouts,…

  16. Essential Metalloelement Chelates Facilitate Repair of Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Soderberg, Lee S. F.; Chang, Louis W.; Walker, Richard B.

    2001-01-01

    Treatment with essential metalloelement (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) chelates or combinations of them before and/or after radiation injury is a useful approach to overcoming radiation injury. No other agents are known to increase survival when they are used to treat after irradiation, in a radiorecovery treatment paradigm. These chelates may be useful in facilitating de novo syntheses of essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes required to repair radiation injury. Reports of radioprotection, which involves treatment before irradiation, with calcium-channel blockers, acyl Melatonin homologs, and substituted anilines, which may serve as chelating agents after biochemical modification in vivo, as well as Curcumin, which is a chelating agent, have been included in this review. These inclusions are intended to suggest additional approaches to combination treatments that may be useful in facilitating radiation recovery. These approaches to radioprotection and radiorecovery offer promise in facilitating recovery from radiation-induced injury experienced by patients undergoing radiotherapy for neoplastic disease and by individuals who experience environmental, occupational, or accidental exposure to ultraviolet, x-ray, or γ-ray radiation. Since there are no existing treatments of radiation-injury intended to facilitate tissue repair, studies of essential metalloelement chelates and combinations of them, as well as combinations of them with existing organic radioprotectants, seem worthwhile. PMID:18475999

  17. Eating and Emotions in Obese Toddlers: Facilitating Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoor, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Infants and young children have the ability to regulate their food intake according to their energy needs, and parents play an important role in facilitating their children's self-regulation. When overweight children learn to eat in accordance with feelings of hunger and fullness and learn to soothe themselves without eating, they will reduce…

  18. Greatly facilitated oxygen vacancy formation in ceria nanocrystallites.

    PubMed

    Migani, Annapaola; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Bromley, Stefan T; Illas, Francesc; Neyman, Konstantin M

    2010-08-28

    The formation of oxygen vacancies in nanoparticles Ce(n)O(2n) (n < or = 80), studied using density-functional calculations, is found to be greatly facilitated compared to extended surfaces, which explains the observed spectacular reactivity of nanostructured ceria.

  19. Facilitated Ion Transport in Smectic Ordered Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hong; Han, Kee Sung; Lee, Je Seung; Lee, Albert S; Park, Seo Kyung; Hong, Sung Yun; Lee, Jong-Chan; Mueller, Karl T; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min

    2016-11-01

    A novel ionic mixture of an imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquid containing ethylene-oxide-functionalized phosphite anions is fabricated, which, when doped with lithium salt, self-assembles into a smectic-ordered ionic liquid crystal through Coulombic interactions between the ion species. Interestingly, the smectic order in the ionic-liquid-crystal ionogel facilitates ionic transport.

  20. Facilitating Disclosure of HIV-Positive Status to Family Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Charles H.

    1996-01-01

    Based on a review of an article and drawing on the experiences of five women, offers a model for facilitating disclosure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus status. Outlines a six-step process for understanding disclosure, which includes adjusting to the diagnosis, evaluating personal disclosure skills, and taking inventory. Lists implications for…

  1. Movement Instruction to Facilitate Beat Competency in Instrumental Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Colleen; Marshall, Herbert; Hartz, Barry

    2014-01-01

    This article offers instrumental directors at all levels some suggestions for the use of movement to facilitate "beat competency". We use the term beat competency to refer to a musician's ability to play with a consistent sense of pulse and balanced subdivision, as well as the eventual ability to bring that sense of pulse to reading…

  2. Using Synchronous Communication to Facilitate Graduate Students' Online Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maushak, Nancy J.; Ou, Chaohua

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed primarily to examine how synchronous communication facilitated graduate students' online collaboration and their perceptions of synchronous communication. Thirty online graduate students were required to use instant messenger (IM) to discuss their group projects and later post their reflections on their collaboration. The…

  3. Leadership and Learning: Facilitating Self-Directed Learning in Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.; Sadler-Smith, Eugene; Robertson, Ian; Wakefield, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to show that a key aspect of learning and development of individual employees is that of self-directedness. This paper will consider the role of the leader in facilitating workforce development in terms of employees' self-directedness for learning. The research was designed to investigate the views that…

  4. Do Facilitated Online Dual Credit Classes Result in Deep Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark Education Partnership, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This study, with funding from the Jennings Foundation, sought to answer the following broad research question: Do facilitated online dual credit courses result in deep learning? The answer to this question is key to addressing barriers many students face in bridging from high school to college. This report includes a descriptive case study that…

  5. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Boiling Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costu, Bayram; Ayas, Alipasa; Niaz, Mansoor; Unal, Suat; Calik, Muammer

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to construct a teaching strategy for facilitating students' conceptual understanding of the boiling concept. The study is based on 52 freshman students in the primary science education department. Students' ideas were elicited by a test consisting of nine questions. Conceptual change strategy was designed based on…

  6. Preparing Collaborative Leaders: A Facilitator's Guide. Resources and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Wendy R.

    This facilitator's guide offers tools for training leaders to solve problems in new and collaborative ways. It distinguishes between having knowledge about a subject and being able to use that knowledge effectively. The guide offers 15 units designed to meet the following objectives: (1) draw on each participant's work experience; (2) engage…

  7. Process-Oriented Pedagogy: Facilitation, Empowerment, or Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William

    2009-01-01

    A feature of language teaching in recent decades has been the development of process-oriented approaches. This orientation towards processes encourages us to facilitate learner choice and individual development. However, it is challenged by the current educational climate, which prioritizes accountability and assessment. In this situation, a new…

  8. Facilitating Designs: For Inquiry with the Four-Question Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2008-01-01

    Inquiry is a goal of science education reform. Middle school science teachers and their students can develop understanding of inquiry by using an experimental design format. Facilitating this format with the four-question strategy helps students to design their investigations. An example of varying concentrations of vinegar and water illustrates…

  9. 50 CFR 600.730 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 600.730 Section 600.730 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions...

  10. 50 CFR 600.752 - Use of conveners and facilitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of conveners and facilitators. 600.752 Section 600.752 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Fishery Negotiation...

  11. 50 CFR 600.504 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 600.504 Section 600.504 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...), or a substantially equivalent national standard approved by letter from the Assistant...

  12. 50 CFR 600.730 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 600.730 Section 600.730 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions...

  13. 50 CFR 600.504 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 600.504 Section 600.504 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...), or a substantially equivalent national standard approved by letter from the Assistant...

  14. Thoughts & Views on the Gulf War. Facilitators Notes and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollings, Rick; Berghoff, Beth K.

    This document presents a workbook and facilitator's notes designed for use with small groups or with individual students in secondary schools to help them cope with troubling events related to the Gulf War. The material contained in the workbook is designed to help students deal with each of seven stages that the mastery model sees individuals…

  15. The Role of Facilitators in Project Action Learning Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Rui; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chao, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai; Law, Mo Yin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the importance of a more proactive role of organizational learning (OL) facilitators, learning motivation reinforcer, through a two-part longitudinal study in a case company. The first part of this study aims to investigate and analyze some unexpected challenges in the project action learning-driven (PAL) OL…

  16. The Hourglass Approach: A Conceptual Model for Group Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriner, Lon S.; Goulet, Everett F.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a model to clarify the facilitator's role in working with groups. The Hourglass Approach model incorporates Carkhuff's empathetic levels of communication and Schultz's theory of personality. It is designed to be a systematic and comprehensive method usable with a variety of counseling approaches in all types of groups. (JAC)

  17. Facilitating Chemistry Teachers' Understanding of Alternative Interpretations of Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2006-01-01

    Historians and philosophers of science have recognized the importance of controversies in the progress of science. The objective of this study was to facilitate in-service chemistry teachers' understanding of conceptual change based on alternative philosophical interpretations (controversies). Selected controversies formed part of the chemistry…

  18. Ores and Climate Change - Primary Shareholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.

    2015-04-01

    Many in the economic geology community concern themselves with details of ore formation at the deposit scale, whether tallying fluid inclusion data to get at changes in ore-forming fluids or defining structures that aid and abet mineralization. These compilations are generally aimed at interpretation of events at the site of ore formation, with the goal being assignment of the deposit to a sanctioned ore deposit model. While providing useful data, this approach is incomplete and does not, by itself, serve present-day requirements for true interdisciplinary science. The ore-forming environment is one of chaos and disequilibrium at nearly all scales (Stein, 2014). Chaos and complexity are documented by variably altered rocks, veins or disseminated mineralization with multi-generational fluid histories, erratic and unusual textures in host rocks, and the bitumen or other hydrocarbon products entwined within many ore deposits. This should give pause to our drive for more data as a means to find "the answer". The answer lies in the kind of data collected and more importantly, in the way we interpret those data. Rather than constructing an ever-increasing catalog of descriptive mutations on sanctioned ore deposit models (e.g., IOGC or Iron-Oxide Copper Gold deposits), the way forward is to link source and transport of metals, sulfur, and organic material with regional and ultimately whole Earth chemical evolution. Important experimental work provides chemical constraints in controlled and behaved environments. To these data, we add imagination and interpretation, always tying back to field observations. In this paper, several key points are made by way of ore deposit examples: (1) many IOCG deposits are outcomes of profound changes in the chemistry of the Earth's surface, in the interplay of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere; (2) the redox history of Fe in deep earth may be ultimately expressed in the ore-forming sequence; and (3) the formation of many giant Cu-Mo-Au ore deposits may be arrested when the surface is catastrophically breached, as multiple km-scale breccia pipes empty their volatile and metal contents into the atmosphere. The new equation for studying ore geology should be one that reconstructs ore formation from beginning to end, that is, from source, release, and transport, to breach. Of course, detailed measurements and mapping of ore bodies remains essential, but a full understanding of metal migration and budgets can only be achieved if we model what might have been left behind in deeper Earth, and what may have been lost to the atmosphere. To do this, we need to understand much more than the geology at our ore deposit of interest. Stein, H.J. (2014) Dating and Tracing the History of Ore Formation. Treatise on Geochemistry 13: 87-118. Elsevier. Support for time to think - CHRONOS, funded by a consortium of Norwegian petroleum companies.

  19. 12 CFR 239.26 - Shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... on the stock transfer books or records of the subsidiary holding company as of the record date... officer or agent having charge of the stock transfer books for the shares of the subsidiary holding... entire time of the meeting. The original stock transfer book shall constitute prima facie evidence of...

  20. A limited contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the rat calyx of Held.

    PubMed

    Müller, Martin; Felmy, Felix; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2008-11-15

    Recent studies have suggested that transmitter release facilitation at synapses is largely mediated by presynaptic Ca(2+) current facilitation, but the exact contribution of Ca(2+) current facilitation has not been determined quantitatively. Here, we determine the contribution of Ca(2+) current facilitation, and of an increase in the residual free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in the nerve terminal, to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held. Under conditions of low release probability imposed by brief presynaptic voltage-clamp steps, transmitter release facilitation at short interstimulus intervals (4 ms) was 227 +/- 31% of control, Ca(2+) current facilitation was 113 +/- 4% of control, and the peak residual [Ca(2+)](i) was 252 +/- 18 nm over baseline. By inferring the 'local' [Ca(2+)](i) transients that drive transmitter release during these voltage-clamp stimuli with the help of a kinetic release model, we estimate that Ca(2+) current facilitation contributes to approximately 40% to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release. The remaining component of facilitation strongly depends on the build-up, and on the decay of the residual free [Ca(2+)](i), but cannot be explained by linear summation of the residual free [Ca(2+)](i), and the back-calculated 'local' [Ca(2+)](i) signal, which only accounts for approximately 10% of the total release facilitation. Further voltage-clamp experiments designed to compensate for Ca(2+) current facilitation demonstrated that about half of the observed transmitter release facilitation remains in the absence of Ca(2+) current facilitation. Our results indicate that paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held is driven by at least two distinct mechanisms: Ca(2+) current facilitation, and a mechanism independent of Ca(2+) current facilitation that closely tracks the time course of residual free [Ca(2+)](i).

  1. A limited contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the rat calyx of Held

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martin; Felmy, Felix; Schneggenburger, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that transmitter release facilitation at synapses is largely mediated by presynaptic Ca2+ current facilitation, but the exact contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation has not been determined quantitatively. Here, we determine the contribution of Ca2+ current facilitation, and of an increase in the residual free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the nerve terminal, to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held. Under conditions of low release probability imposed by brief presynaptic voltage-clamp steps, transmitter release facilitation at short interstimulus intervals (4 ms) was 227 ± 31% of control, Ca2+ current facilitation was 113 ± 4% of control, and the peak residual [Ca2+]i was 252 ± 18 nm over baseline. By inferring the ‘local’[Ca2+]i transients that drive transmitter release during these voltage-clamp stimuli with the help of a kinetic release model, we estimate that Ca2+ current facilitation contributes to ∼40% to paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release. The remaining component of facilitation strongly depends on the build-up, and on the decay of the residual free [Ca2+]i, but cannot be explained by linear summation of the residual free [Ca2+]i, and the back-calculated ‘local’[Ca2+]i signal, which only accounts for ∼10% of the total release facilitation. Further voltage-clamp experiments designed to compensate for Ca2+ current facilitation demonstrated that about half of the observed transmitter release facilitation remains in the absence of Ca2+ current facilitation. Our results indicate that paired-pulse facilitation of transmitter release at the calyx of Held is driven by at least two distinct mechanisms: Ca2+ current facilitation, and a mechanism independent of Ca2+ current facilitation that closely tracks the time course of residual free [Ca2+]i. PMID:18832426

  2. Bacteria facilitate prey retention by the pitcher plant Darlingtonia californica.

    PubMed

    Armitage, David W

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria are hypothesized to provide a variety of beneficial functions to plants. Many carnivorous pitcher plants, for example, rely on bacteria for digestion of captured prey. This bacterial community may also be responsible for the low surface tensions commonly observed in pitcher plant digestive fluids, which might facilitate prey capture. I tested this hypothesis by comparing the physical properties of natural pitcher fluid from the pitcher plant Darlingtonia californica and cultured 'artificial' pitcher fluids and tested these fluids' prey retention capabilities. I found that cultures of pitcher leaves' bacterial communities had similar physical properties to raw pitcher fluids. These properties facilitated the retention of insects by both fluids and hint at a previously undescribed class of plant-microbe interaction.

  3. Facilitating HIV Disclosure Across Diverse Settings: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Baijal, Parijat; Pegurri, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    HIV status disclosure is central to debates about HIV because of its potential for HIV prevention and its links to privacy and confidentiality as human-rights issues. Our review of the HIV-disclosure literature found that few people keep their status completely secret; disclosure tends to be iterative and to be higher in high-income countries; gender shapes disclosure motivations and reactions; involuntary disclosure and low levels of partner disclosure highlight the difficulties faced by health workers; the meaning and process of disclosure differ across settings; stigmatization increases fears of disclosure; and the ethical dilemmas resulting from competing values concerning confidentiality influence the extent to which disclosure can be facilitated. Our results suggest that structural changes, including making more services available, could facilitate HIV disclosure as much as individual approaches and counseling do. PMID:21493947

  4. Language learners restructure their input to facilitate efficient communication.

    PubMed

    Fedzechkina, Maryia; Jaeger, T Florian; Newport, Elissa L

    2012-10-30

    Languages of the world display many structural similarities. We test the hypothesis that some of these structural properties may arise from biases operating during language acquisition that shape languages over time. Specifically, we investigate whether language learners are biased toward linguistic systems that strike an efficient balance between robust information transfer, on the one hand, and effort or resource demands, on the other hand, thereby increasing the communicative utility of the acquired language. In two experiments, we expose learners to miniature artificial languages designed in such a way that they do not use their formal devices (case marking) efficiently to facilitate robust information transfer. We find that learners restructure such languages in ways that facilitate efficient information transfer compared with the input language. These systematic changes introduced by the learners follow typologically frequent patterns, supporting the hypothesis that some of the structural similarities found in natural languages are shaped by biases toward communicatively efficient linguistic systems.

  5. Use facilitated case discussions for significant event auditing.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, L. A.; Stacy, R.; Spencer, J. A.; Bhopal, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    An important type of review undertaken routinely in health care teams is analysis of individual cases. This informal process can be turned into a structured and effective form of audit by using an adaptation of the "critical incident" technique in facilitated case discussions. Participants are asked to recall personal situations that they feel represent either effective or ineffective practice. From such review of individual cases arise general standards to improve the quality of care. On the basis of a study of audit of deaths in general practice, we describe how to implement such a system, including forming and maintaining the discussion group, methodology, and guidelines for facilitators. Problems that may arise during the case discussions are outlined and their management discussed, including problems within the team and with the process of the discussions. PMID:7633248

  6. School nurse facilitated programs for families living fit.

    PubMed

    Speroni, Karen Gabel

    2014-05-01

    School nurses are in a unique position to facilitate provision of knowledge to children and their parents regarding balanced, healthy lifestyles. Nurses can become empowered with the knowledge gained from reviewing obesity programs with demonstrated improvements in obesity-related outcomes such as Kids Living Fit (KLF) and Nurses Living Fit (NLF). Garnering resources from your school and community, school nurses can create programs using methods from KLF and NLF to facilitate Families Living Fit (FLF). With the provision of programs, ideally children and parents will also feel empowered through knowledge gained as a result of their participation in FLF programs focusing on healthy lifestyles, incorporating the balance between activities chosen/exercise and foods consumed/nutrition.

  7. Facilitators of HIV Medical Care Engagement among Former Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Natalie; Hilliard, Charles; McCuller, William J.; Harawa, Nina T.

    2016-01-01

    Linkage to and retention in medical care is a concern for HIV-positive individuals leaving custody settings in the United States. The minimal existing research points to low rates of entry into care in the months following release and lapsed viral control among releasees who are subsequently reincarcerated. We conducted seven small focus group discussions with 27 HIV-positive individuals who were recently incarceration in a California State prison to understand those factors that facilitated linkage to and retention in HIV care following their release. We used a consensual approach to code and analyze the focus group transcripts. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: 1) interpersonal relationships, 2) professional relationships, 3) coping strategies and resources, and 4) individual attitudes. Improving HIV-related outcomes among individuals after their release from prison requires strengthening supportive relationships, fostering the appropriate attitudes and skills, and ensuring access to resources that stabilize daily living and facilitate the process of accessing care. PMID:26595268

  8. Sleep Facilitates Memory by Blocking Dopamine Neuron-Mediated Forgetting.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jacob A; Cervantes-Sandoval, Isaac; Chakraborty, Molee; Davis, Ronald L

    2015-06-18

    Early studies from psychology suggest that sleep facilitates memory retention by stopping ongoing retroactive interference caused by mental activity or external sensory stimuli. Neuroscience research with animal models, on the other hand, suggests that sleep facilitates retention by enhancing memory consolidation. Recently, in Drosophila, the ongoing activity of specific dopamine neurons was shown to regulate the forgetting of olfactory memories. Here, we show this ongoing dopaminergic activity is modulated with behavioral state, increasing robustly with locomotor activity and decreasing with rest. Increasing sleep-drive, with either the sleep-promoting agent Gaboxadol or by genetic stimulation of the neural circuit for sleep, decreases ongoing dopaminergic activity, while enhancing memory retention. Conversely, increasing arousal stimulates ongoing dopaminergic activity and accelerates dopaminergic-based forgetting. Therefore, forgetting is regulated by the behavioral state modulation of dopaminergic-based plasticity. Our findings integrate psychological and neuroscience research on sleep and forgetting.

  9. Gut microbes of mammalian herbivores facilitate intake of plant toxins.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kevin D; Weiss, Robert B; Cox, James; Dale, Colin; Dearing, M Denise

    2014-10-01

    The foraging ecology of mammalian herbivores is strongly shaped by plant secondary compounds (PSCs) that defend plants against herbivory. Conventional wisdom holds that gut microbes facilitate the ingestion of toxic plants; however, this notion lacks empirical evidence. We investigated the gut microbiota of desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida), some populations of which specialise on highly toxic creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). Here, we demonstrate that gut microbes are crucial in allowing herbivores to consume toxic plants. Creosote toxins altered the population structure of the gut microbiome to facilitate an increase in abundance of genes that metabolise toxic compounds. In addition, woodrats were unable to consume creosote toxins after the microbiota was disrupted with antibiotics. Last, ingestion of toxins by naïve hosts was increased through microbial transplants from experienced donors. These results demonstrate that microbes can enhance the ability of hosts to consume PSCs and therefore expand the dietary niche breadth of mammalian herbivores.

  10. Implicit learning of arithmetic regularities is facilitated by proximal contrast.

    PubMed

    Prather, Richard W

    2012-01-01

    Natural number arithmetic is a simple, powerful and important symbolic system. Despite intense focus on learning in cognitive development and educational research many adults have weak knowledge of the system. In current study participants learn arithmetic principles via an implicit learning paradigm. Participants learn not by solving arithmetic equations, but through viewing and evaluating example equations, similar to the implicit learning of artificial grammars. We expand this to the symbolic arithmetic system. Specifically we find that exposure to principle-inconsistent examples facilitates the acquisition of arithmetic principle knowledge if the equations are presented to the learning in a temporally proximate fashion. The results expand on research of the implicit learning of regularities and suggest that contrasting cases, show to facilitate explicit arithmetic learning, is also relevant to implicit learning of arithmetic.

  11. Implementing thrombolytic guidelines in stroke care: perceived facilitators and barriers.

    PubMed

    Stecksén, Anna; Lundman, Berit; Eriksson, Marie; Glader, Eva-Lotta; Asplund, Kjell

    2014-03-01

    We performed a qualitative study to identify facilitators of and barriers to the implementation of national guidelines on thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. We interviewed physicians and nurses at nine Swedish hospitals using 16 explorative, semistructured interviews, and selected hospitals based on their implementation rate of new stroke care methods according to data from the Swedish Stroke Register, Riks-Stroke. Through content analysis, we identified facilitators and barriers to implementation, which we classified into three categories: (a) individuals, (b) social interactions and context, and (c) organizational and resource issues. Insights obtained from this study can be used to identify target areas for improving the implementation of thrombolytic therapy and other new methods in stroke care.

  12. Cutting Edge: Regulatory T Cells Facilitate Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Nosbaum, Audrey; Prevel, Nicolas; Truong, Hong-An; Mehta, Pooja; Ettinger, Monika; Scharschmidt, Tiffany C; Ali, Niwa H; Pauli, Mariela L; Abbas, Abul K; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2016-03-01

    Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) reside in tissues where they control inflammation and mediate tissue-specific functions. The skin of mice and humans contain a large number of Tregs; however, the mechanisms of how these cells function in skin remain largely unknown. In this article, we show that Tregs facilitate cutaneous wound healing. Highly activated Tregs accumulated in skin early after wounding, and specific ablation of these cells resulted in delayed wound re-epithelialization and kinetics of wound closure. Tregs in wounded skin attenuated IFN-γ production and proinflammatory macrophage accumulation. Upon wounding, Tregs induce expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Lineage-specific deletion of EGFR in Tregs resulted in reduced Treg accumulation and activation in wounded skin, delayed wound closure, and increased proinflammatory macrophage accumulation. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for Tregs in facilitating skin wound repair and suggest that they use the EGFR pathway to mediate these effects.

  13. Facilitated Ion Transport in Smectic Ordered Ionic Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jin Hong; Han, Kee Sung; Lee, Je Seung; Lee, Albert S.; Park, Seo Kyung; Hong, Sung Yun; Lee, Jong-Chan; Mueller, Karl T.; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min

    2016-09-08

    We investigated a novel ionic mixture of an imidazolium-based room temperature IL containing ethylene oxide functionalized phosphite anion and a lithium salt that self-assembles into a smectic-ordered IL crystal. The two key features in this work are the unique origin of the smectic order of the ionic mixtures and the facilitated ion transport behavior in the smectic ordered IL crystal. In fact, the IL crystals are self-assembled through Coulombic interactions between ion species, not through the hydrophilic-phobic interactions between charged ion heads and hydrophobic long alkyl pendants or the steric interaction between mesogenic moieties. Furthermore, the smectic order in the IL crystal ionogel facilitates exceptional and remarkable ionic transport. Large ionic conductivity, viscoelastic robustness, and additional electrochemical stability of the IL crystal ionogels provide promising opportunities for future electrochemical applications.

  14. Facilitated diffusion in a crowded environment: from kinetics to stochastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meroz, Yasmine; Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2009-10-01

    Facilitated diffusion is a fundamental search process used to describe the problem of a searcher protein finding a specific target site over a very large DNA strand. In recent years macromolecular crowding has been recognized to affect this search process. In this paper, we bridge between two different modelling methodologies of facilitated diffusion: the physics-oriented kinetic approach, which yields the reaction rate of the search process, and the probability-oriented stochastic approach, which yields the probability distribution of the search duration. We translate the former approach to the latter, ascertaining that the two approaches yield coinciding results, both with and without macromolecular crowding. We further show that the stochastic approach markedly generalizes the kinetic approach by accommodating a vast array of search mechanisms, including mechanisms having no reaction rates, and thus being beyond the realm of the kinetic approach.

  15. Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A

    2000-01-01

    Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.

  16. Phytohormone pathways as targets of pathogens to facilitate infection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ka-Wai; Ma, Wenbo

    2016-08-01

    Plants are constantly threatened by potential pathogens. In order to optimize the output of defense against pathogens with distinct lifestyles, plants depend on hormonal networks to fine-tune specific responses and regulate growth-defense tradeoffs. To counteract, pathogens have evolved various strategies to disturb hormonal homeostasis and facilitate infection. Many pathogens synthesize plant hormones; more importantly, toxins and effectors are produced to manipulate hormonal crosstalk. Accumulating evidence has shown that pathogens exert extensive effects on plant hormone pathways not only to defeat immunity, but also modify habitat structure, optimize nutrient acquisition, and facilitate pathogen dissemination. In this review, we summarize mechanisms by which a wide array of pathogens gain benefits from manipulating plant hormone pathways.

  17. Facilitated diffusion of proteins through crumpled fractal DNA globules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrek, Jan; Grosberg, Alexander Y.

    2015-07-01

    We explore how the specific fractal globule conformation, found for the chromatin fiber of higher eukaryotes and topologically constrained dense polymers, affects the facilitated diffusion of proteins in this environment. Using scaling arguments and supporting Monte Carlo simulations, we relate DNA looping probability distribution, fractal dimension, and protein nonspecific affinity for the DNA to the effective diffusion parameters of the proteins. We explicitly consider correlations between subsequent readsorption events of the proteins, and we find that facilitated diffusion is faster for the crumpled globule conformation with high intersegmental surface dimension than in the case of dense fractal conformations with smooth surfaces. As a byproduct, we obtain an expression for the macroscopic conductivity of a hypothetic material consisting of conducting fractal nanowires immersed in a weakly conducting medium.

  18. Posterior Wall Gastric Leiomyoma: Endoscopic Tattooing Facilitates Laparoscopic Resection

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Dhiren; Zelen, Johnathan; Fogler, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the application of tattooing for the intraoperative localization of posterior wall gastric leiomyoma during laparoscopic resection. The preoperative injection of Indian ink in the tumor-bearing area of the posterior gastric wall eliminates the need to perform anterior wall gastrostomy or intraoperative upper endoscopic tumor localization. Methods: A patient with posterior wall gastric leiomyoma was marked with Indian ink during preoperative upper endoscopy. The dye was visualized intraoperatively facilitating wedge resection of the tumor-bearing area with the Endo GIA. Results: The patient had an uneventful surgery and recovery. Complete excision of the tumor was accomplished. Conclusion: The preoperative endoscopic marking of gastric lesions, facilitates the intraoperative localization and resection of these lesions. PMID:9876718

  19. Wet FGD system design to facilitate owner's operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmarajan, N.N.; England, W.E.; Predick, P.R.

    1983-06-01

    Wet FGD proposals were received in response to the specification we have described for Coleto Creek - Unit 2. A comprehensive economic evaluation of the wet and dry FGD proposals was completed. A dry FGD system was selected and a major factor was its ease of operation and maintenance. However, we believe that wet FGD systems will be selected for future coal-fired plants and that, if designed according to the criteria described herein, will facilitate operation and maintenance.

  20. Reduction of anoxia through myoglobin-facilitated diffusion of oxygen.

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, E P; Kolkka, R W

    1986-01-01

    At relatively low perfusion rates, anoxic regions may occur in tissue even though oxygen remains in the blood as it leaves the capillary at the venous end. In this paper a mathematical theory of facilitated diffusion is developed and used to determine the extent to which myoglobin increases the removal of oxygen from blood and aids in the reduction or elimination of regions of anoxia. PMID:3790691

  1. Microfinance as a method of facilitating research in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2010-04-22

    Microgrants are a novel concept where small grants are used to facilitate research. The concept might have a place in developing emergency medicine research, especially in countries where emergency medicine is not established or in new areas of research. Two examples of the beneficial effects of microgrants in emergency medicine research are described. Emergency medicine interest groups and foundations should consider setting up microgrant schemes.

  2. [Drug-facilitated crime and sexual abuse: a pediatric observation].

    PubMed

    Rey-Salmon, C; Pépin, G

    2007-11-01

    Drug-facilitated crime in sexual assault situations remains insufficiently recognized by physicians. In the possible context of an assault and in front of recent neuropsychicological disturbances in a child, such an issue has to be considered. The quality of sampling, the use of ultra-sensitive and specific toxicologic methods and a clinical-biological collaboration allow to recognize this form of delinquency whose consequences are both medical and legal.

  3. Customized Body Mapping to Facilitate the Ergonomic Design of Sportswear.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingliang; Li, Yi; Guo, Yueping; Yao, Lei; Pan, Zhigeng

    2016-01-01

    A successful high-performance sportswear design that considers human factors should result in a significant increase in thermal comfort and reduce energy loss. The authors describe a body-mapping approach that facilitates the effective ergonomic design of sportswear. Their general framework can be customized based on the functional requirements of various sports and sportswear, the desired combination and selection of mapping areas for the human body, and customized quantitative data distribution of target physiological indicators.

  4. Facilitation and Interference in Identification of Pictures and Words

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-05

    pictures and words . The long-term facilitation occurs when subjects are exposed to some representation of the item during a study episode, and then show...item (picture vs. word ) between study and test. The research carried out under the grant has exploited this similarity between explicit and implicit... Words (F49620-92-J-0119) Joan Gay Snodgrass New York University 6 Washington Place, Room 857 New York, NY 10003 5 October 1994 Final Report for Period 1

  5. Using Peripheral Processing and Spatial Memory to Facilitate Task Resumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Using Peripheral Processing and Spatial Memory to Facilitate Task Resumption Raj M. Ratwani1,2, Alyssa E. Andrews2, Malcolm McCurry1, J. Gregory...Trafton1,2, Matthew S. Peterson2 Naval Research Laboratory1 George Mason University2 Washington, D.C . Fairfax, VA...Participants. Thirty-three George Mason University undergraduate students participated for course credit. Materials. Thirty Microsoft Excel

  6. Toward Pride and Professionalism: Increasing Personal Responsibility. Facilitator Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-22

    hangovers, the shakes, the chills, and other symptoms such as restlessness , fatigue, boredom, and insomnia among others). The facilitator should ask...individually. Likewise, coffee and the decongestant, pseudoephedrine, cause restlessness separately, but the combined effect of both of them is a greater degree...of restlessness than could be anticipated by simply adding the effects of caffeine to pseudoephedrine. Similarly, the effects of either marijuana or

  7. Facilitating Decision Choices With Cascading Consequences in Interdependent Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    director of the Supply Chain Systems Transformation Directorate, championing and facilitating innovative uses of information technologies to improve and...streamline the supply chain process for the Department of Defense. As the focal point for supply chain systems, he was responsible for transformation...served as advisor to the deputy under secretary of defense for business transformation on supply chain matters and as the functional process proponent to

  8. Microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation facilitates regrowth of mouse soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshitaka; Fujiya, Hiroto; Goto, Ayumi; Nakamura, Ayane; Nishiura, Yuka; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Microcurrent electrical nerve stimulation (MENS) has been used to facilitate recovery from skeletal muscle injury. However, the effects of MENS on unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle remain unclear. Effects of MENS on the regrowing process of unloading-associated atrophied skeletal muscle were investigated. Male C57BL/6J mice (10-week old) were randomly assigned to untreated normal recovery (C) and MENS-treated (M) groups. Mice of both groups are subjected to continuous hindlimb suspension (HS) for 2 weeks followed by 7 days of ambulation recovery. Mice in M group were treated with MENS for 60 min 1, 3, and 5 days following HS, respectively, under anesthesia. The intensity, the frequency, and the pulse width of MENS were set at 10 μA, 0.3 Hz, and 250 msec, respectively. Soleus muscles were dissected before and immediately after, 1, 3 and 7 days after HS. Soleus muscle wet weight and protein content were decreased by HS. The regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle in M group was faster than that in C group. Decrease in the reloading-induced necrosis of atrophied soleus was facilitated by MENS. Significant increases in phosphorylated levels of p70 S6 kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) in M group were observed, compared with C group. These observations are consistent with that MENS facilitated regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle. MENS may be a potential extracellular stimulus to activate the intracellular signals involved in protein synthesis.

  9. Barriers to and factors facilitating empowerment in elderly with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Fotoukian, Zahra; Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Farahnaz; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empowerment of elderly people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can increase their quality of life and feeling of well-being. However, few researches focused on the obstacles and factors facilitating empowerment in elderly people with COPD; and an adequate determining of these factors need an in-depth understanding of the meaning of these factors which influences empowerment. The objective of this study was to explore the barriers to and factors facilitating empowerment in elderly people with COPD. Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative approach using content analysis. Twenty- four participants were selected based on purposeful sampling. Data were collected through conducting in-depth semistructured interviews and making filed notes. Data analysis was performed according to the proposed steps by Granhym & Lund man (2004). Results: The potential to empower the elderly with COPD was influenced by mediating factors; the nature of aging, the difficult nature of COPD, fear and hopelessness, the cultural values and beliefs, poor formal support systems and poor economic status were found to be the barriers; and incentive, trust to health care providers, the educable status of the elderly and increased experience were found to be facilitating factors. Conclusion: It seems that empowerment of the elderly with COPD was affected by many factors which mainly rooted in social factors, health care systems and personal resources. PMID:25695013

  10. Threat facilitates subsequent executive control during anxious mood.

    PubMed

    Birk, Jeffrey L; Dennis, Tracy A; Shin, Lisa M; Urry, Heather L

    2011-12-01

    Dual competition framework (DCF) posits that low-level threat may facilitate behavioral performance by influencing executive control functions. Anxiety is thought to strengthen this effect by enhancing threat's affective significance. To test these ideas directly, we examined the effects of low-level threat and experimentally induced anxiety on one executive control function, the efficiency of response inhibition. In Study 1, briefly presented stimuli that were mildly threatening (i.e., fearful faces) relative to nonthreatening (i.e., neutral faces) led to facilitated executive control efficiency during experimentally induced anxiety. No such effect was observed during an equally arousing, experimentally induced happy mood state. In Study 2, we assessed the effects of low-level threat, experimentally induced anxiety, and individual differences in trait anxiety on executive control efficiency. Consistent with Study 1, fearful relative to neutral faces led to facilitated executive control efficiency during experimentally induced anxiety. No such effect was observed during an experimentally induced neutral mood state. Moreover, individual differences in trait anxiety did not moderate the effects of threat and anxiety on executive control efficiency. The findings are partially consistent with the predictions of DCF in that low-level threat improved executive control, at least during a state of anxiety.

  11. Facilitating masked visual target identification with auditory oddball stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Mary Kim; Spence, Charles

    2012-08-01

    When identifying a rapidly masked visual target display in a stream of visual distractor displays, a high-frequency tone (presented in synchrony with the target display) in a stream of low-tone distractors results in better performance than when the same low tone accompanies each visual display (Ngo and Spence in Atten Percept Psychophys 72:1938-1947, 2010; Vroomen and de Gelder in J Exp Psychol Hum 26:1583-1590, 2000). In the present study, we tested three oddball conditions: a louder tone presented amongst quieter tones, a quieter tone presented amongst louder tones, and the absence of a tone, within an otherwise identical tone sequence. Across three experiments, all three oddball conditions resulted in the crossmodal facilitation of participants' visual target identification performance. These results therefore suggest that salient oddball stimuli in the form of deviating tones, when synchronized with the target, may be sufficient to capture participants' attention and facilitate visual target identification. The fact that the absence of a sound in an otherwise-regular sequence of tones also facilitated performance suggests that multisensory integration cannot provide an adequate account for the 'freezing' effect. Instead, an attentional capture account is proposed to account for the benefits of oddball cuing in Vroomen and de Gelder's task.

  12. Decision Facilitator for Launch Operations using Intelligent Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Launch operations require millions of micro-decisions which contribute to the macro decision of 'Go/No-Go' for a launch. Knowledge workers"(such as managers and technical professionals) need information in a timely precise manner as it can greatly affect mission success. The intelligent agent (web search agent) uses the words of a hypertext markup language document which is connected through the internet. The intelligent agent's actions are to determine if its goal of seeking a website containing a specified target (e.g., keyword or phrase), has been met. There are few parameters that should be defined for the keyword search like "Go" and "No-Go". Instead of visiting launch and range decision making servers individually, the decision facilitator constantly connects to all servers, accumulating decisions so the final decision can be decided in a timely manner. The facilitator agent uses the singleton design pattern, which ensures that only a single instance of the facilitator agent exists at one time. Negotiations could proceed between many agents resulting in a final decision. This paper describes details of intelligent agents and their interaction to derive an unified decision support system.

  13. Modular color evolution facilitated by a complex nanostructure in birds.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Chad M; Maia, Rafael; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2015-02-01

    The way in which a complex trait varies, and thus evolves, is critically affected by the independence, or modularity, of its subunits. How modular designs facilitate phenotypic diversification is well studied in nonornamental (e.g., cichlid jaws), but not ornamental traits. Diverse feather colors in birds are produced by light absorption by pigments and/or light scattering by nanostructures. Such structural colors are deterministically related to the nanostructures that produce them and are therefore excellent systems to study modularity and diversity of ornamental traits. Elucidating if and how these nanostructures facilitate color diversity relies on understanding how nanostructural traits covary, and how these traits map to color. Both of these remain unknown in an evolutionary context. Most dabbling ducks (Anatidae) have a conspicuous wing patch with iridescent color caused by a two-dimensional photonic crystal of small (100-200 nm) melanosomes. Here, we ask how this complex nanostructure affects modularity of color attributes. Using a combination of electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, and comparative methods, we show that nanostructural complexity causes functional decoupling and enables independent evolution of different color traits. These results demonstrate that color diversity is facilitated by how nanostructures function and may explain why some birds are more color-diverse than others.

  14. Predator facilitation or interference: a game of vipers and owls.

    PubMed

    Embar, Keren; Raveh, Ashael; Hoffmann, Ishai; Kotler, Burt P

    2014-04-01

    In predator-prey foraging games, the prey's reaction to one type of predator may either facilitate or hinder the success of another predator. We ask, do different predator species affect each other's patch selection? If the predators facilitate each other, they should prefer to hunt in the same patch; if they interfere, they should prefer to hunt alone. We performed an experiment in a large outdoor vivarium where we presented barn owls (Tyto alba) with a choice of hunting greater Egyptian gerbils (Gerbillus pyramidum) in patches with or without Saharan horned vipers (Cerastes cerastes). Gerbils foraged on feeding trays set under bushes or in the open. We monitored owl location, activity, and hunting attempts, viper activity and ambush site location, and the foraging behavior of the gerbils in bush and open microhabitats. Owls directed more attacks towards patches with vipers, and vipers were more active in the presence of owls. Owls and vipers facilitated each other's hunting through their combined effect on gerbil behavior, especially on full moon nights when vipers are more active. Owls forced gerbils into the bushes where vipers preferred to ambush, while viper presence chased gerbils into the open where they were exposed to owls. Owls and vipers took advantage of their indirect positive effect on each other. In the foraging game context, they improve each other's patch quality and hunting success.

  15. Examining social facilitation in vigilance: a hit and a miss.

    PubMed

    Claypoole, Victoria Lynne; Szalma, James L

    2017-04-03

    Vigilance is the ability of an observer to maintain attention for extended periods of time; however, performance tends to decline with time on watch, a pattern referred to as the vigilance decrement. Previous research has focused on factors that attenuate the decrement; however, one factor rarely studied is the effect of social facilitation. The purpose for the present investigation was to determine how different types of social presence affected the performance, workload and stress of vigilance. It was hypothesised that the presence of a supervisory figure would increase overall performance, but may occur at the cost of increased workload and stress. Results indicated that the per cent of false alarm and response times decreased in the presence of a supervisory figure. Using social facilitation in vigilance tasks may thus have positive, as well as, negative effects depending on the dependent measure of interest and the role of the observer. Practitioner Summary: Social facilitation has rarely been examined in the context of vigilance, even though it may improve performance. Vigilance task performance was examined under social presence. The results of the present study indicated that false alarms and response times decreased in the social presence of a supervisory figure, thus improving performance.

  16. Forensic toxicology in drug-facilitated sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The low rates of reporting, prosecution and conviction that characterize sexual assault, is likely even more evident in drug-facilitated cases. Typically, in these crimes, victims are incapacitated and left unable to resist sexual advances, unconscious, unable to fight off the abuser or to say "no" and unable to clearly remember the circumstances surrounding the events due to anterograde amnesia. The consequence is the delay in performing toxicological analysis aggravated by the reluctance of the victim to disclose the crime. Moreover since "date rape drugs" are often consumed with ethanol and exhibit similar toxicodynamic effects, the diagnosis is erroneously performed as being classical ethanol intoxication. Therefore, it is imperative to rapidly consider toxicological analysis in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. The major focus of this review is to harmonize practical approaches and guidelines to rapidly uncover drug-facilitated sexual assault, namely issues related to when to perform toxicological analysis, toxicological requests, samples to be collected, storage, preservation and transport precautions and xenobiotics or endobiotics to be analyzed.

  17. Supporting Online AP Students: The Rural Facilitator and Considerations for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Nicole; Degner, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Online courses supplemented by on-site facilitators help many rural students pursue advanced coursework, but research is warranted to better understand facilitator role and training needs. This study examined facilitation experiences, demographic characteristics, and professional development activities of rural on-site facilitators associated with…

  18. A novel cysteine-rich neurotrophic factor in Aplysia facilitates growth, MAPK activation, and long-term synaptic facilitation.

    PubMed

    Pu, Lu; Kopec, Ashley M; Boyle, Heather D; Carew, Thomas J

    2014-04-01

    Neurotrophins are critically involved in developmental processes such as neuronal cell survival, growth, and differentiation, as well as in adult synaptic plasticity contributing to learning and memory. Our previous studies examining neurotrophins and memory formation in Aplysia showed that a TrkB ligand is required for MAPK activation, long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF), and long-term memory (LTM) for sensitization. These studies indicate that neurotrophin-like molecules in Aplysia can act as key elements in a functionally conserved TrkB signaling pathway. Here we report that we have cloned and characterized a novel neurotrophic factor, Aplysia cysteine-rich neurotrophic factor (apCRNF), which shares classical structural and functional characteristics with mammalian neurotrophins. We show that apCRNF (1) is highly enriched in the CNS, (2) enhances neurite elongation and branching, (3) interacts with mammalian TrkB and p75(NTR), (4) is released from Aplysia CNS in an activity-dependent fashion, (5) facilitates MAPK activation in a tyrosine kinase dependent manner in response to sensitizing stimuli, and (6) facilitates the induction of LTF. These results show that apCRNF is a native neurotrophic factor in Aplysia that can engage the molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying memory formation.

  19. Pediatric obesity community programs: barriers & facilitators toward sustainability.

    PubMed

    Po'e, Eli K; Gesell, Sabina B; Lynne Caples, T; Escarfuller, Juan; Barkin, Shari L

    2010-08-01

    Our current generation of young people could become the first generation to live shorter lives than their parents. Families need resources in their community to address this issue. Identifying barriers and facilitators of community organizations to offer obesity-related services is a first step in understanding sustainable community programs. The objective of this study is to identify common barriers and facilitators in community organizational programs designed to prevent or reduce pediatric obesity. We conducted an exploratory qualitative research study based on grounded theory. Thirty-six community organizations were identified based on self-descriptions of goals involving pediatric obesity. Semi-structured, systematic, face-to-face interviews among program directors (n = 24) were recorded, transcribed, and coded for recurrent themes. Relevant themes were abstracted from interviews by a standardized iterative process by two independent reviewers between December 2007 and November 2008. Theme discordance was reconciled by a third reviewer. Seventy percent of organizations indicated that obesity prevention/treatment was their explicit goal with remaining groups indicating healthy lifestyles as a more general goal. Facilitators to provision of these programs included: programmatic enhancements such as improved curriculums (73%), community involvement such as volunteers (62.5%), and partnerships with other programs (54.2%). Barriers that threatened sustainability included lack of consistent funding (43.8%), lack of consistent participation from the target population (41.7%) and lack of support staff (20.8%). New approaches in fostering partnerships between organizations need to be developed. Building coalitions and engaging community members in developing community based programs may be a helpful strategy to strengthen community-based programs to address the pediatric obesity epidemic.

  20. A model to facilitate reflective thinking in clinical nursing education.

    PubMed

    Chabeli, M; Muller, M

    2004-11-01

    A qualitative, contextual, exploratory and descriptive design for theory generation was used to develop a model to facilitate reflective thinking in clinical nursing education (Mouton & Marais, 1990:43; Mouton, 1996: 103-109; Chinn & Kramer 1991:79-120). A model was developed within the existing frameworks of theory generation. Wilson (1963:23-39) and Gift (1997:75,76) provided a theoretical framework for a concept analysis of reflective thinking in phase one of the study. Further conceptual meaning was attained through a perceptual survey where twelve nurse educators participated in a focus group interview with regard to how reflective thinking can be facilitated in clinical nursing education. Classification of the main concepts and sub-concepts was made through a conceptualisation process within Dickoff, James and Wiedenbach's (1968:415-435) theoretical framework using the six elements of practice theory. Concluding relation statements were inferred through deductive analysis and synthesis after conceptualisation of each main concept. The relation statements provided the basis for model description (Chinn & Kramer, 1991:107-125). Definitions of the main concepts and sub-concepts were described using the basic rules by (Rossouw, 2001:10-11; Cohen & Copi, 1994:192-195). The adapted educational process from five learning theories provided a framework through which the procedure to facilitate reflective thinking in clinical nursing education was described. Lastly, the model was evaluated using the pre-determined criteria by Chinn and Kramer (1991:128-137) and refined by experts in qualitative research and theory generation. Guidelines were developed which do not form part of this article. Theoretical validity was ensured. Recommendations, limitations, challenging hypothesis and a conclusion were made.