Science.gov

Sample records for 56717-56766 facilitating shareholder

  1. 75 FR 64641 - Facilitating Shareholder Director Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 200, 232, 240, and 249 RIN 3235-AK27 Facilitating Shareholder Director Nominations... rules that the Commission adopted to facilitate the effective exercise of shareholders' traditional state law rights to nominate and elect directors to company boards of directors. We are publishing...

  2. 75 FR 56667 - Facilitating Shareholder Director Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... official business days between the hours of 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. A principal way that shareholders can hold....\\35\\ Finally, commenters worried about the impact of the proposed amendments on small businesses.\\36.... (``Best Buy''); The Boeing Company (``Boeing''); Business Roundtable (``BRT''); Robert N. Burt (``R....

  3. 17 CFR 240.14a-17 - Electronic shareholder forums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electronic shareholder forums... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14a-17 Electronic shareholder... establish, maintain, or operate an electronic shareholder forum to facilitate interaction among...

  4. Shareholding Networks in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souma, Wataru; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Aoyama, Hideaki

    2005-06-01

    The Japanese shareholding network existing at the end of March 2002 is studied empirically. The network is constructed from 2,303 listed companies and 53 non-listed financial institutions. We consider this network as a directed graph by drawing edges from shareholders to stock corporations. The lengths of the shareholder lists vary with the companies, and the most comprehensive lists contain the top 30 shareholders. Consequently, the distribution of incoming edges has an upper bound, while that of outgoing edges has no bound. The distribution of outgoing degrees is well explained by the power law function with an exponential tail. The exponent in the power law range is γ = 1.7. To understand these features from the viewpoint of a company's growth, we consider the correlations between the outgoing degree and the company's age, profit, and total assets.

  5. 76 FR 58100 - Facilitating Shareholder Director Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ..., published on September 16, 2010 (75 FR 56668), is September 20, 2011. Section 240.14a-11 was vacated by the... Federal Register (75 FR 64641). That announcement stated that a notice of the effective and compliance... published on September 16, 2010 (75 FR 56668) amending Title 17, Chapter II of the Code of...

  6. 12 CFR 552.6 - Shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 (17 CFR 240.14a-7) as may be duly requested in... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shareholders. 552.6 Section 552.6 Banks and..., ORGANIZATION, AND CONVERSION § 552.6 Shareholders. (a) Shareholder meetings. An annual meeting of...

  7. 26 CFR 1.854-2 - Notice to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to shareholders. 1.854-2 Section 1.854-2... shareholders. (a) General rule. Section 854(b)(2) provides that the amount that a shareholder may treat as a... the company in a written notice to its shareholders mailed not later than 45 days (30 days for...

  8. 12 CFR 7.2001 - Notice of shareholders' meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of shareholders' meetings. 7.2001... AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2001 Notice of shareholders' meetings. A national bank must mail shareholders notice of the time, place, and purpose of all shareholders' meetings at least 10...

  9. 17 CFR 240.14a-17 - Electronic shareholder forums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic shareholder forums... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14a-17 Electronic shareholder forums. (a) A shareholder, registrant, or third party acting on behalf of a shareholder or registrant...

  10. 10 ways to create shareholder value.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Alfred

    2006-09-01

    Executives have developed tunnel vision in their pursuit of shareholder value, focusing on short-term performance at the expense of investing in long-term growth. It's time to broaden that perspective and begin shaping business strategies in light of the competitive landscape, not the shareholder list. In this article, Alfred Rappaport offers ten basic principles to help executives create lasting shareholder value. For starters, companies should not manage earnings or provide earnings guidance; those that fail to embrace this first principle of shareholder value will almost certainly be unable to follow the rest. Additionally, leaders should make strategic decisions and acquisitions and carry assets that maximize expected value, even if near-term earnings are negatively affected as a result. During times when there are no credible value-creating opportunities to invest in the business, companies should avoid using excess cash to make investments that look good on the surface but might end up destroying value, such as ill-advised, overpriced acquisitions. It would be better to return the cash to shareholders in the form of dividends and buybacks. Rappaport also offers guidelines for establishing effective pay incentives at every level of management; emphasizes that senior executives need to lay their wealth on the line just as shareholders do; and urges companies to embrace full disclosure, an antidote to short-term earnings obsession that serves to lessen investor uncertainty, which could reduce the cost of capital and increase the share price. The author notes that a few types of companies--high-tech start-ups, for example, and severely capital-constrained organizations--cannot afford to ignore market pressures for short-term performance. Most companies with a sound, well-executed business model, however, could better realize their potential for creating shareholder value by adopting the ten principles.

  11. 26 CFR 1.815-2 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-2 Distributions to shareholders. (a) In... distribution shall be taken into account in determining life insurance company taxable income under section 802... determination of life insurance company taxable income), any distribution made to shareholders after December...

  12. 26 CFR 1.926(a)-1 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributions to shareholders. 1.926(a)-1... to shareholders. (a) Treatment of distributions. . For guidance, see § 1.926(a)-1T(a). (b) Order of distribution—(1) In general—(i) Distributions by a FSC received by a shareholder in a taxable year of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.853-3 - Notice to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice to shareholders. 1.853-3 Section 1.853-3... shareholders. (a) General rule. If a regulated investment company makes an election under section 853(a), in... furnish its shareholders with a written notice mailed not later than 60 days after the close of...

  14. 17 CFR 240.14a-8 - Shareholder proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder proposals. 240.14a... Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14a: Solicitation of Proxies § 240.14a-8 Shareholder proposals. This section addresses when a company must include a shareholder's proposal in its proxy statement and...

  15. 12 CFR 239.26 - Shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... company shall make a complete list of the stockholders of record entitled to vote at such meeting, or any.... This list of shareholders shall be kept on file at the home office of the subsidiary holding company... under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 (17 CFR 240.14a-7) as may be duly requested in...

  16. 12 CFR 239.26 - Shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... company shall make a complete list of the stockholders of record entitled to vote at such meeting, or any.... This list of shareholders shall be kept on file at the home office of the subsidiary holding company... under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 (17 CFR 240.14a-7) as may be duly requested in...

  17. 12 CFR 239.26 - Shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... company shall make a complete list of the stockholders of record entitled to vote at such meeting, or any.... This list of shareholders shall be kept on file at the home office of the subsidiary holding company... under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 (17 CFR 240.14a-7) as may be duly requested in...

  18. 78 FR 58449 - Disclosure to Shareholders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code of Federal Regulations, which is published #0;under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. #0; #0;The Code of... Disclosure to Shareholders CFR Correction In Title 12 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 600 to...

  19. The link between benchmarking and shareholder value.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J A

    1992-01-01

    Strategic performance can be linked to shareholder value by measuring the positive spread between a company's return on capital employed and the cost of capital. If managers see a significant performance gap in their spread, compared with that of a premier company, they should redefine their strategic goals.

  20. Visual analysis and exploration of complex corporate shareholder networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekušová, Tatiana; Kohlhammer, Jörn

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of large corporate shareholder network structures is an important task in corporate governance, in financing, and in financial investment domains. In a modern economy, large structures of cross-corporation, cross-border shareholder relationships exist, forming complex networks. These networks are often difficult to analyze with traditional approaches. An efficient visualization of the networks helps to reveal the interdependent shareholding formations and the controlling patterns. In this paper, we propose an effective visualization tool that supports the financial analyst in understanding complex shareholding networks. We develop an interactive visual analysis system by combining state-of-the-art visualization technologies with economic analysis methods. Our system is capable to reveal patterns in large corporate shareholder networks, allows the visual identification of the ultimate shareholders, and supports the visual analysis of integrated cash flow and control rights. We apply our system on an extensive real-world database of shareholder relationships, showing its usefulness for effective visual analysis.

  1. 25 CFR 111.4 - Election of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Election of shareholders. 111.4 Section 111.4 Indians... PAYMENTS § 111.4 Election of shareholders. An Indian holding equal rights in two or more tribes can share... election will be made by the parent or guardian....

  2. 26 CFR 1.815-3 - Shareholders surplus account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....815-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions to Shareholders § 1.815-3 Shareholders surplus account. (a) In general... insurance company taxable income (computed without regard to section 802(b)(3)), (ii) In the case of...

  3. 25 CFR 111.4 - Election of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election of shareholders. 111.4 Section 111.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ANNUITY AND OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.4 Election of shareholders. An Indian holding equal rights in two or more tribes can...

  4. 12 CFR 745.13 - Notification to members/shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification to members/shareholders. 745.13 Section 745.13 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Notification to members/shareholders. Each insured credit union shall provide notice to its members...

  5. Telling the Investment Story: A Narrative Analysis of Shareholder Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes shareholder reports of equity mutual funds whose total returns were high in absolute terms, but low in relative terms. Reveals that mixed-return shareholder reports use a nonlinear hyperstructure, dramatize ideas through contrasting narrators, embed a variety of subgenres, and complement verbal with visual discourse in order to make…

  6. 25 CFR 111.4 - Election of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election of shareholders. 111.4 Section 111.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ANNUITY AND OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.4 Election of shareholders. An Indian holding equal rights in two or more tribes can...

  7. 25 CFR 111.4 - Election of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Election of shareholders. 111.4 Section 111.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ANNUITY AND OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.4 Election of shareholders. An Indian holding equal rights in two or more tribes can...

  8. 25 CFR 111.4 - Election of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Election of shareholders. 111.4 Section 111.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES ANNUITY AND OTHER PER CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.4 Election of shareholders. An Indian holding equal rights in two or more tribes can...

  9. 26 CFR 1.552-5 - United States shareholder of excluded bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true United States shareholder of excluded bank. 1.552... States shareholder of excluded bank. A copy of the certification issued to an excluded bank under section... year of each United States shareholder of such foreign corporation, if he has been a shareholder...

  10. 12 CFR 620.11 - Content of quarterly report to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Content of quarterly report to shareholders... SHAREHOLDERS Quarterly Report § 620.11 Content of quarterly report to shareholders. (a) General. The... shareholders, except that the financial statements included in the quarterly report may be condensed into...

  11. 26 CFR 1.302-4 - Termination of shareholder's interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006. (Sec. 302(c)(2)(A)(iii) (68A Stat. 87; 26 U.S.C. 302 (c)(2)(A... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of shareholder's interest. 1.302-4... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Recipients § 1.302-4 Termination of shareholder's...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1366-1 - Shareholder's share of items of an S corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... principal purpose of selling or exchanging contributed property that in the hands of the shareholder or... availed of by any shareholder or group of shareholders for a principal purpose of selling or exchanging... thereunder. (f) Cross-reference. For rules relating to the consistent tax treatment of subchapter S...

  13. 26 CFR 1.926(a)-1T - Temporary regulations; distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. 1.926(a)-1T Section 1.926(a)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...(a)-1T Temporary regulations; distributions to shareholders. (a) Treatment of distributions. Any distribution by a FSC (or former FSC) to its shareholder with respect to its stock will be includible in...

  14. 26 CFR 1.964-3 - Records to be provided by United States shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... which § 1.952-3 does not apply, such amounts shall be determined under 26 CFR § 1.954-1(d)(3)(i) and (ii... shareholders. 1.964-3 Section 1.964-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... provided by United States shareholders. (a) Shareholder's responsibility for providing records....

  15. 26 CFR 1.852-7 - Additional information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders. 1.852-7 Section 1.852-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Trusts § 1.852-7 Additional information required in returns of shareholders. Any person who fails or....852-6 requires the company to demand from its shareholders shall submit as a part of his income...

  16. 17 CFR 270.30e-2 - Reports to shareholders of unit investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports to shareholders of... to shareholders of unit investment trusts. (a) At least semiannually every registered unit investment... transmit to each shareholder of record (including record holders of periodic payment plan certificates),...

  17. 26 CFR 1.164-7 - Taxes of shareholder paid by corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxes of shareholder paid by corporation. 1.164....164-7 Taxes of shareholder paid by corporation. Banks and other corporations paying taxes assessed against their shareholders on account of their ownership of the shares of stock issued by...

  18. 26 CFR 1.853-1 - Foreign tax credit allowed to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign tax credit allowed to shareholders. 1....853-1 Foreign tax credit allowed to shareholders. (a) In general. Under section 853, a regulated... convention to which the United States is a party. If an election is made, the shareholders of the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.857-9 - Information required in returns of shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information required in returns of shareholders... in returns of shareholders. (a) In general. Any person who fails or refuses to submit to a real... its shareholders of record shall submit at the time he files his income tax return for his...

  20. 26 CFR 1.401(e)-6 - Special rules for shareholder-employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules for shareholder-employees. 1.401(e... Special rules for shareholder-employees. (a) Limitation of contributions and benefit bases to first $100,000 of annual compensation in case of plans covering shareholder-employees. (1) Under section...

  1. 26 CFR 1.382-3 - Definitions and rules relating to a 5-percent shareholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholder. 1.382-3 Section 1.382-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... relating to a 5-percent shareholder. (a) Definitions—(1) Entity—(i) In general. An entity is any... old shareholders of L (a total of 60 percent of L stock), with each member purchasing 30 shares....

  2. 26 CFR 1.995-1 - Taxation of DISC income to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of DISC income to shareholders. 1.995... income to shareholders. (a) In general. (1) Under § 1.991-1(a), a corporation which is a DISC for a... transfers to avoid tax. (2) Under section 995(a), the shareholders of a DISC, or a former DISC, are...

  3. 26 CFR 1.852-4 - Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated... Investment Trusts § 1.852-4 Method of taxation of shareholders of regulated investment companies. (a... gains), a shareholder receiving dividends from a regulated investment company shall include...

  4. 17 CFR 240.14a-20 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder approval of... § 240.14a-20 Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients. If a solicitation is... shareholder vote to approve the compensation of executives, as disclosed pursuant to Item 402 of Regulation...

  5. 26 CFR 1.815-2 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) In general. Section 815 provides that every stock life insurance company subject to the tax... purposes. These special accounts are the shareholders surplus account (as defined in section 815(b) and § 1.815-3) and the policyholders surplus account (as defined in section 815(c) and § 1.815-4). To...

  6. 26 CFR 1.815-2 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) In general. Section 815 provides that every stock life insurance company subject to the tax... purposes. These special accounts are the shareholders surplus account (as defined in section 815(b) and § 1.815-3) and the policyholders surplus account (as defined in section 815(c) and § 1.815-4). To...

  7. 26 CFR 1.815-2 - Distributions to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) In general. Section 815 provides that every stock life insurance company subject to the tax... purposes. These special accounts are the shareholders surplus account (as defined in section 815(b) and § 1.815-3) and the policyholders surplus account (as defined in section 815(c) and § 1.815-4). To...

  8. Effects of resource acquisitions on electric-utility shareholders

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

    1994-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to see how shareholders fare when the utility acquires different kinds of resources. The resources considered are utility-built, -operated, and -owned power plants with different combinations of construction and operation costs; purchases of power; and DSM programs. We calculated the net present value of realized (cash) return on equity as the primary factor used to represent shareholder interests. We examined shareholder returns for these resources as functions of public utility commission regulation, taxes, and the utility`s operating environment. Our treatment of regulation considers the frequency and type (future vs historic test year) of rate cases, inclusion of construction work in progress in ratebase vs allowance for funds used during construction, ratebase vs expensing of DSM programs, book and tax depreciation schedules, possible disallowances of ``excess`` power-plant or DSM capital costs, and possible lack of adjustment for ``excess`` fuel or purchased power costs. The tax policies we studied include the existence and rates for property, sales, and income taxes and the existence and regulatory treatment of deferred taxes. The utility`s operating environment includes the overall inflation rate, load-growth rate, escalation in nonproduction expenses, and nongeneration construction (capital) requirements. Finally, given the increasingly competitive nature of electricity markets, we briefly considered alternatives to traditional cost-of-service regulation. We examined shareholder returns for the resources described above in an environment where the utility competes with other suppliers solely on the basis of electricity price.

  9. Annual Reports to Shareholders: Historical Collections in Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the scope and depth of the historic corporate annual report collections in twelve academic/research libraries in North America. For many decades, a few major academic business libraries have been collecting and preserving corporate Annual Reports (ARS), the reports sent to shareholders documenting the…

  10. Facilitating submetering implementation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    Residential submetering is the measurement and billing of electric use in individual apartments in master-metered buildings. In master-metered building situations, residents do not bear electricity costs in proportion to consumption levels. As a result, studies have confirmed that residents in master-metered buildings tend to consume more electricity than residents with individual apartment metering, and have established electrical submetering as an effective energy conservation measure. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA) has commissioned a project called Facilitating Submetering Implementation to identify and analyze barriers to the implementation of residential electrical submetering in New York and to formulate recommendations that would facilitate the removal of these barriers, streamlining the process. Experienced professionals in the technical, legal, regulatory, analytical, financial, and other aspects of submetering were retained to interview key interested parties and conduct public forums. This and other data were then analyzed to ascertain the barriers to submetering and develop recommendations designed to reduce or eliminate these barriers. The key barriers to submetering implementation were found to be the Public Service Commission (PSC) requirement for a vote of a majority of shareholders (for coops and condos) and the high initial cost that cannot easily be recouped by owners of both rental and shareholder-owned buildings. The key recommendations are to repeal the voting requirement, maintain the utility incentives, adopt a uniform dispute resolution mechanism, and increase awareness through an Ad-hoc Submetering Committee and supporting educational materials. Other funding sources not fully available can also be made available with regulatory agency support.

  11. On the topological properties of the cross-shareholding networks of listed companies in China: Taking shareholders’ cross-shareholding relationships into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Huang, Jiachen; Xu, Qun

    2014-07-01

    Shareholders are the owners of listed companies, and their relationships can directly affect the structure of the stock market. In this paper, we analyze the topological properties and evolution of the cross-shareholding networks of listed companies in the past 5 years in China from 2007 to 2011, an infrequently considered topic, by taking shareholders’ cross-shareholding relationships into account. This analysis arrives at a deeper insight into the inner characteristics of China’s stock market. We find that the cross-shareholding networks of listed companies with shareholders’ cross-shareholding relationships display statistical features that reveal the stock market’s complex relationships more precisely. In particular, the results show that when the shareholders’ cross-shareholding relationships are considered, first, the In-degree and Out-degree of the cross-shareholding networks follow power-law distribution and the R2 of the linear regression analysis of the cumulative degree distribution is relatively higher; second, the modularity of the communities is larger; finally, both the number of members of top-ranked communities and the number of communities that have a large number of members are larger than those of which only considering the relationships between shareholders and listed companies are taken into account. Such cross-shareholding networks analysis taking shareholders’ cross-shareholding relations into account would be a helpful tool for supervisory departments and for stock market researchers to grasp the inner cross-shareholding relationships of listed companies in China, and it will be also helpful for the further researches about the “agent problems” in the stock markets from a whole point of view.

  12. Who should set CEO pay? The press? Congress? Shareholders?

    PubMed

    Brownstein, A R; Panner, M J

    1992-01-01

    Populist fervor in an election year has transformed executive compensation from a business issue into a political one. Critics, led by Graef Crystal, author of In Search of Excess: The Overcompensation of American Executives, charge that CEOs are ripping off shareholders with their outrageous salaries while running U.S. corporations into the ground. Politicians claim overpaid CEOs are the root cause of the U.S. competitiveness problem. Add a recessionary business climate to the fact that some CEOs earn 130 times more than their lowest paid employees, and you have the makings of a populist rebellion. In a bid to appease voters, Congress is considering several bills that would limit the deductibility of "excessive executive salaries," the SEC has opened the issue to shareholder comment, and the Financial Accounting Standards Board is looking at new accounting standards for granting stock options to executives as part of company compensation schemes. Andrew R. Brownstein and Morris J. Panner say it's time to put the debate back where it belongs--in a business context. The real question is not are executives paid too much, but are shareholders getting their money's worth. Most U.S. corporations use stock compensation to link company long-term performance to executive salaries. And because of the staggering market performance of U.S. corporations in the 1980s, an overwhelming majority of CEOs are actually paid in line with their performance. Rather than cut executive pay, Brownstein and Panner suggest that corporations extend incentive-based compensation plans to all employees, thus narrowing the salary gap and establishing pay for performance at every level of the organization. PMID:10118002

  13. Who should set CEO pay? The press? Congress? Shareholders?

    PubMed

    Brownstein, A R; Panner, M J

    1992-01-01

    Populist fervor in an election year has transformed executive compensation from a business issue into a political one. Critics, led by Graef Crystal, author of In Search of Excess: The Overcompensation of American Executives, charge that CEOs are ripping off shareholders with their outrageous salaries while running U.S. corporations into the ground. Politicians claim overpaid CEOs are the root cause of the U.S. competitiveness problem. Add a recessionary business climate to the fact that some CEOs earn 130 times more than their lowest paid employees, and you have the makings of a populist rebellion. In a bid to appease voters, Congress is considering several bills that would limit the deductibility of "excessive executive salaries," the SEC has opened the issue to shareholder comment, and the Financial Accounting Standards Board is looking at new accounting standards for granting stock options to executives as part of company compensation schemes. Andrew R. Brownstein and Morris J. Panner say it's time to put the debate back where it belongs--in a business context. The real question is not are executives paid too much, but are shareholders getting their money's worth. Most U.S. corporations use stock compensation to link company long-term performance to executive salaries. And because of the staggering market performance of U.S. corporations in the 1980s, an overwhelming majority of CEOs are actually paid in line with their performance. Rather than cut executive pay, Brownstein and Panner suggest that corporations extend incentive-based compensation plans to all employees, thus narrowing the salary gap and establishing pay for performance at every level of the organization.

  14. 26 CFR 1.1254-4 - Special rules for S corporations and their shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recapture property and upon the disposition by a shareholder of stock of an S corporation that holds natural... shareholder upon a sale or exchange of S corporation stock—(1) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph... stock in the S corporation (determined without regard to section 1254), the gain is treated as...

  15. 17 CFR 274.128 - Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. 274.128 Section 274.128 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Forms for Reports § 274.128 Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report....

  16. 26 CFR 1.883-4 - Qualified shareholder stock ownership test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified shareholder stock ownership test. 1.883-4 Section 1.883-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.883-4 Qualified shareholder stock ownership test. (a) General rule....

  17. 17 CFR 270.30d-1 - Filing of copies of reports to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of copies of reports to shareholders. 270.30d-1 Section 270.30d-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... shareholders. A registered management investment company, other than a small business investment...

  18. 77 FR 60959 - Basis of Indebtedness of S Corporations to Their Shareholders; Hearing Cancellation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 39655) announced that a public hearing was scheduled for October 9, 2012, at 10 a.m. in the... Shareholders; Hearing Cancellation AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Cancellation of... S corporations to their shareholders. DATES: The public hearing originally scheduled for October...

  19. 26 CFR 1.857-6 - Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Method of taxation of shareholders of real...-6 Method of taxation of shareholders of real estate investment trusts. (a) Ordinary income. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section (relating to capital gains), a...

  20. 77 FR 39655 - Basis of Indebtedness of S Corporations to Their Shareholders; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ..., June 12, 2012 (77 FR 34884) relating to basis of indebtedness of S corporations to their shareholders... subject of FR. Doc. 2012-14188, is corrected as follows: 1. On page 34884, column 2, in the preamble... Shareholders; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to a notice...

  1. DSM shareholder incentives: Current designs and economic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Stoft, S.; Eto, J.; Kito, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report reviews recent DSM shareholder incentive designs and performance at 10 US utilities identifies opportunities for regulators to improve the design of DSM shareholder incentive mechanisms to increase the procurement of cost-effective DSM resources. We develop six recommendations: (1) apply shared-savings incentives to DSM resource programs; (2) use markup incentives for individual programs only when net benefits are difficult to measure, but are known to be positive; (3) set expected incentive payments based on covering a utility`s {open_quotes}hidden costs,{close_quotes} which include some transitional management and risk-adjusted opportunity costs; (4) use higher marginal incentives rates than are currently found in practice, but limit total incentive payments by adding a fixed charge; (5) mitigate risks to regulators and utilities by lowering marginal incentive rates at high and low performance levels; and (6) use an aggregate incentive mechanism for all DSM resource programs, with limited exceptions (e.g., information programs where markups are more appropriate).

  2. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  3. 12 CFR 215.9 - Disclosure of credit from member banks to executive officers and principal shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... executive officers and principal shareholders. 215.9 Section 215.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... SHAREHOLDERS OF MEMBER BANKS (REGULATION O) § 215.9 Disclosure of credit from member banks to executive officers and principal shareholders. (a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section, the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.955-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.955-1 Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of.... Pursuant to section 951(a)(1)(A)(ii) and the regulations thereunder, a United States shareholder of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1366-2 - Limitations on deduction of passthrough items of an S corporation to its shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an S corporation to its shareholders. 1.1366-2 Section 1.1366-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1366-2 Limitations on deduction of passthrough items of an S corporation to its shareholders. (a) In general—(1) Limitation on losses and deductions. The aggregate...

  6. 26 CFR 1.902-3 - Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a foreign corporation for foreign income taxes paid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... by the domestic shareholder prior to January 1, 1965, see § 1.902-5 as contained in the 26 CFR part 1... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a... from Sources Without the United States § 1.902-3 Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a...

  7. 26 CFR 1.956-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled...) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.956-1 Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled...) and the regulations thereunder, a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation...

  8. 26 CFR 1.593-10 - Certain distributions to shareholders by a domestic building and loan association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Certain distributions to shareholders by a..., Etc. § 1.593-10 Certain distributions to shareholders by a domestic building and loan association. (a... shareholder with respect to its stock and if the amount of such distribution is not allowable to...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6035-1 - Returns of officers, directors, and shareholders of foreign personal holding companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shareholders of foreign personal holding companies. 301.6035-1 Section 301.6035-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... shareholders of foreign personal holding companies. For provisions relating to the requirement of returns by officers, directors, and shareholders of foreign personal holding companies, see §§ 1.6035-1 to...

  10. Duties to stakeholders amidst pressures from shareholders: lessons from an advisory panel on transplant policy.

    PubMed

    Mongoven, Ann M

    2003-08-01

    The distinction between stakeholders and shareholders frequently employed in business ethics can illuminate challenges faced by a bioethics advisory panel. I use the distinction to reflect back on the work of an advisory panel on which I served, a panel on US transplant policy. The panel hearings were akin to a shareholders' meeting, with many stakeholders absent. In addition to 'hearing out' the shareholders who were present, the panel had duties to absent stakeholders to insure their interests were included in public discussion. While panel efforts to include stakeholder perspectives rightfully framed its report, such duties should have framed its operating procedures more robustly. The stakeholder/shareholder distinction also offers a critical prism on the actual evolution of organ allocation policy, which the panel failed to influence. Current policy embodies a compromise among shareholders that obscures major stakeholder interests. This results in under-attention to likely medical benefit of transplant, compared to other allocation criteria. Recognition of duties to stakeholders amidst pressures of shareholders complicates the notion of 'consensus' for an advisory panel. Consensus framed on terms defined only by shareholders, not stakeholders, may be an inadequate measure of public interest.

  11. Identification of shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects.

    PubMed

    Hatipkarasulu, Yilmaz; Gill, James H

    2004-04-01

    The increasing number of companies providing internet services and auction tools helped popularize the online reverse auction trend for purchasing commodities and services in the last decade. As a result, a number of owners, both public and private, accepted the online reverse auctions as the bidding technique for their construction projects. Owners, while trying to minimize their costs for construction projects, are also required to address their ethical responsibilities to the shareholders. In the case of online reverse auctions for construction projects, the ethical issues involved in the bidding technique directly reflects on the owner's ethical and social responsibilities to their shareholders. The goal of this paper is to identify the shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects by analyzing the ethical issues for the parties involved in the process. The identification of the ethical issues and responsibilities requires clear definition and understanding of professional ethics and the roles of the involved parties. In this paper, first, the concept of professional ethics and social responsibility is described in a general form. To illustrate the ethical issues and responsibilities, a sample case of bidding for a construction project using online reverse auction techniques is presented in which the shareholders were actively involved in questioning the ethical issues. The issues involved in the bidding process and their reflection on the shareholder responsibilities are described and analyzed for each stage of the process. A brief discussion of the overall process is also included to address the general ethical issues involved in online reverse auctions.

  12. Facilitating Facilitators: Enhancing PBL through a Structured Facilitator Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinitri, Francine D.; Wilhelm, Sheila M.; Crabtree, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing adoption of the problem-based learning (PBL) model, creative approaches to enhancing facilitator training and optimizing resources to maintain effective learning in small groups is essential. We describe a theoretical framework for the development of a PBL facilitator training program that uses the constructivist approach as the…

  13. To Sell or Not to Sell? Behavior of Shareholders During Price Collapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehner, Bertrand M.

    It is a common belief that the behavior of shareholders depends upon the direction of price fluctuations: if prices increase they buy, if prices decrease they sell. That belief, however, is more based on ``common sense'' than on facts. In this paper, we present evidence for a specific class of shareholders which shows that the actual behavior of shareholders can be markedly different. For instance, they may continue to buy despite a prolonged fall in prices or they may sell even though prices climb. A closer analysis shows that a substantial proportion of investors are more influenced by the ``general social climate'' than by actual price changes. The percentage of speculative investors who optimize their portfolio on a monthly basis can be estimated and turns out to be about 5 to 10%. The results presented in this paper can be of usefulness in order to test the assumptions or the results of market simulations and models.

  14. 17 CFR 240.14a-18 - Disclosure regarding nominating shareholders and nominees submitted for inclusion in a registrant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... nominating shareholders and nominees submitted for inclusion in a registrant's proxy materials pursuant to... nominees submitted for inclusion in a registrant's proxy materials pursuant to applicable state or foreign... governing documents addressing the inclusion of shareholder director nominees in the registrant's...

  15. 17 CFR 240.14a-18 - Disclosure regarding nominating shareholders and nominees submitted for inclusion in a registrant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... nominating shareholders and nominees submitted for inclusion in a registrant's proxy materials pursuant to... nominees submitted for inclusion in a registrant's proxy materials pursuant to applicable state or foreign... governing documents addressing the inclusion of shareholder director nominees in the registrant's...

  16. 17 CFR 240.14a-18 - Disclosure regarding nominating shareholders and nominees submitted for inclusion in a registrant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... nominating shareholders and nominees submitted for inclusion in a registrant's proxy materials pursuant to... nominees submitted for inclusion in a registrant's proxy materials pursuant to applicable state or foreign... governing documents addressing the inclusion of shareholder director nominees in the registrant's...

  17. 12 CFR 620.6 - Disclosures in the annual report to shareholders relating to directors and senior officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DISCLOSURE TO SHAREHOLDERS Annual Report to Shareholders § 620.6 Disclosures in...) and disclose that fact in a footnote to the table. (ii) Amounts shown as “deferred/perquisites... measurement of compensation will be determined, payment schedules, and any material amendments to the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.956-1T - Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of a controlled foreign corporation's increase in earnings invested in United States property (temporary). 1.956-1T... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.956-1T Shareholder's pro rata...

  19. 26 CFR 1.902-1 - Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a foreign corporation for foreign income taxes paid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section 904(d)(2)(E)(ii) and § 1.904-4(g)(2)(iii) (26 CFR revised as of April 1, 2006). The reduction in... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a... shareholder of a foreign corporation for foreign income taxes paid by the foreign corporation. (a)...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1366-4 - Special rules limiting the passthrough of certain items of an S corporation to its shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... certain items of an S corporation to its shareholders. 1.1366-4 Section 1.1366-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1366-4 Special rules limiting the passthrough of certain items of an S corporation to its shareholders. (a) Passthrough inapplicable to section 34 credit. Section 1.1366-1(a)...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1291-1 - Taxation of U.S. persons that are shareholders of PFICs that are not pedigreed QEFs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Taxation of U.S. persons that are shareholders... Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1291-1 Taxation of U.S. persons that are shareholders of PFICs that... year. (d) (e) Exempt organization as shareholder—(1) In general. If the shareholder of a PFIC is...

  2. 26 CFR 1.955A-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.955A-1 Shareholder's pro... section 951(a)(1)(A)(iii) and the regulations thereunder, a United States shareholder of such...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1082-5 - Basis of property acquired by shareholder upon tax-free distribution under section 1081(c) (1) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Basis of property acquired by shareholder upon... Exchanges in Obedience to S.e.c. Orders § 1.1082-5 Basis of property acquired by shareholder upon tax-free... shareholder in a corporation which is a registered holding company or a majority-owned subsidiary...

  4. 12 CFR 620.11 - Content of quarterly report to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shareholders, except that the financial statements included in the quarterly report may be condensed into major... be required to be shown by this subpart with respect to any item is not material, it need not be... material impact on the institution. Disclosures should encompass, for example, significant changes...

  5. 12 CFR 620.11 - Content of quarterly report to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... shareholders, except that the financial statements included in the quarterly report may be condensed into major... end of the most recent fiscal year that have a material impact on the institution. Disclosures should... shall be included. Furnish any material information necessary to make the information called for...

  6. 12 CFR 620.11 - Content of quarterly report to shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... shareholders, except that the financial statements included in the quarterly report may be condensed into major... be required to be shown by this subpart with respect to any item is not material, it need not be... material impact on the institution. Disclosures should encompass, for example, significant changes...

  7. 26 CFR 1.883-4T - Qualified shareholder stock ownership test (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (temporary). 1.883-4T Section 1.883-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... ownership test (temporary). (a) through (d)(4)(i)(B) For further guidance see § 1.883-4(a) through (d)(4)(i... qualified shareholders by country of residence or organization, whichever is applicable; and the...

  8. Executive compensation in excess of $1 million: shareholder approval and corporate waste.

    PubMed

    Kaderabek, L M; Quinlan, W J

    1995-01-01

    A careful decision making process is needed when considering whether to forgo the shareholder approval needed to permit compensation to be tax deductible or to deviate from an established plan. [It] should include adequate investigations of costs and benefits and should be thoroughly documented. PMID:10151121

  9. 17 CFR 249.331 - Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. 249.331 Section 249.331 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Under Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 § 249.331 Form N-CSR,...

  10. 17 CFR 274.128 - Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified... Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. This form shall be used by registered management...

  11. 78 FR 62418 - Application of the Segregation Rules to Small Shareholders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Federal Register (REG-149625-10, 2012-2 IRB 279;76 FR 72362-01) containing proposed regulations (proposed... planning. In addition, this anti-avoidance rule would not be violated in the common situation in which the... shareholder entity owns sufficient common stock at the outset of the example to be tracked as a first...

  12. 78 FR 79650 - Definitions and Reporting Requirements for Shareholders of Passive Foreign Investment Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ...In the Rules and Regulations section of this issue of the Federal Register, the IRS and the Department of the Treasury (Treasury Department) are issuing temporary regulations that provide guidance on determining the ownership of a passive foreign investment company (PFIC), the annual filing requirements for shareholders of PFICs, and an exclusion from certain filing requirement for......

  13. 17 CFR 274.128 - Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at at www... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified... Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. This form shall be used by registered management...

  14. 17 CFR 249.331 - Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Form N-CSR, certified shareholder report. 249.331 Section 249.331 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Required Under Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 § 249.331 Form N-CSR,...

  15. 26 CFR 1.951-1 - Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... corporation is a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957) for an uninterrupted... during such taxable year, and (2) Who owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)) stock in such... stock which such shareholder owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)) in such corporation if on...

  16. 26 CFR 1.951-1 - Amounts included in gross income of United States shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... corporation is a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957) for an uninterrupted... during such taxable year, and (2) Who owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)) stock in such... stock which such shareholder owns (within the meaning of section 958(a)) in such corporation if on...

  17. 26 CFR 1.883-4 - Qualified shareholder stock ownership test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... independent investigation to determine the identity of the 5-percent shareholder. However, if any class of... paragraphs (d)(4)(i)(C) through (E) of this section (as if the language applied “government” instead of... information described in paragraphs (d)(4)(i)(C) through (E) of this section (as if the language...

  18. 76 FR 78182 - Application of the Segregation Rules to Small Shareholders; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...-149625-10) that was published in the Federal Register on Wednesday, November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72362... of proposed rulemaking (REG- 149625-10), which was the subject of FR Doc. 2011-30290, is corrected as... Shareholders; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Correction to a notice...

  19. Identification of shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects.

    PubMed

    Hatipkarasulu, Yilmaz; Gill, James H

    2004-04-01

    The increasing number of companies providing internet services and auction tools helped popularize the online reverse auction trend for purchasing commodities and services in the last decade. As a result, a number of owners, both public and private, accepted the online reverse auctions as the bidding technique for their construction projects. Owners, while trying to minimize their costs for construction projects, are also required to address their ethical responsibilities to the shareholders. In the case of online reverse auctions for construction projects, the ethical issues involved in the bidding technique directly reflects on the owner's ethical and social responsibilities to their shareholders. The goal of this paper is to identify the shareholder ethics and responsibilities in online reverse auctions for construction projects by analyzing the ethical issues for the parties involved in the process. The identification of the ethical issues and responsibilities requires clear definition and understanding of professional ethics and the roles of the involved parties. In this paper, first, the concept of professional ethics and social responsibility is described in a general form. To illustrate the ethical issues and responsibilities, a sample case of bidding for a construction project using online reverse auction techniques is presented in which the shareholders were actively involved in questioning the ethical issues. The issues involved in the bidding process and their reflection on the shareholder responsibilities are described and analyzed for each stage of the process. A brief discussion of the overall process is also included to address the general ethical issues involved in online reverse auctions. PMID:15152854

  20. The shareholding similarity of the shareholders of the worldwide listed energy companies based on a two-mode primitive network and a one-mode derivative holding-based network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Yan, LiLi

    2014-12-01

    Two-mode and multi-mode networks represent new directions of simulating a complex network that can simulate the relationships among the entities more precisely. In this paper, we constructed two different levels of networks: one is the two-mode primitive networks of the energy listed companies and their shareholders on the basis of the two-mode method of complex theory, and the other is the derivative one-mode holding-based network based on the equivalence network theory. We calculated two different topological characteristics of the two networks, that is, the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network (9003 nodes) and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network (619,766 edges), and we analyzed the distribution features of both of the two topological characteristics. In this paper, we define both the weighted and un-weighted Shareholding Similarity Coefficient, and using the data of the worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders as empirical study subjects, we calculated and compared both the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies. The result of the analysis indicates that (1) both the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network follow a power-law distribution; (2) there are significant differences between the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies, and the weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is of greater regularity than the un-weighted one; (3) there are a vast majority of shareholders who hold stock in only one or a few of the listed energy companies; and (4) the shareholders hold stock in the same listed energy companies when the value of the un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is between 0.4 and 0.8. The study will be a helpful tool to analyze the relationships of the nodes of the one-mode network, which is constructed based

  1. Facilitating Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the three papers in this symposium, "Conflicts that Arise in Small Group Facilitation: A Descriptive Study of Accounts, Actions, Outcomes, and Assessments" (Judith A. Kolb, William J. Rothwell), contains self-report verbatim accounts contributed by facilitators and the results of a literature review on small group conflict. "A Test of…

  2. A Facilitation Performance Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Presents a guide, derived from the Situational Leadership model, which describes the process that should be used in facilitating a group discussion. The process includes preparation, assessment, diagnosis, prescription, development, reinforcement, and follow-up. Three figures depict the Situational Leadership model, the facilitation process, and…

  3. Network of listed companies based on common shareholders and the prediction of market volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Ren, Da; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Yongjie

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we build a network of listed companies in the Chinese stock market based on common shareholding data from 2003 to 2013. We analyze the evolution of topological characteristics of the network (e.g., average degree, diameter, average path length and clustering coefficient) with respect to the time sequence. Additionally, we consider the economic implications of topological characteristic changes on market volatility and use them to make future predictions. Our study finds that the network diameter significantly predicts volatility. After adding control variables used in traditional financial studies (volume, turnover and previous volatility), network topology still significantly influences volatility and improves the predictive ability of the model.

  4. 26 CFR 1.1298-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amount of gain to be recognized and taxed as an excess distribution is the amount of gain that the direct... regulations of a shareholder of the stock of the PFIC, the adjusted basis of the direct owner of the stock of... period. If a shareholder of a foreign corporation has made a deemed sale election, then, for purposes...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1298-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a former PFIC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... continues to be subject to taxation under section 1291 unless the shareholder makes a purging election under... paragraph (d) of this section. A deemed sale is treated as a disposition subject to taxation under section... (b) shall not be treated as stock in a PFIC and the shareholder shall not be subject to...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6035-3 - Returns of 50-percent U.S. shareholders of foreign personal holding companies for taxable years...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... enactment of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982) and 26 CFR 1.6035-2 (Revised as of April... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns of 50-percent U.S. shareholders of... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6035-3 Returns of 50-percent U.S. shareholders...

  7. Understanding Facilitation: Theory and Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Christine

    This book introduces newcomers to the concept of facilitation, and it presents a critical analysis of established and current theory on facilitation for existing practitioners. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) emergence of the field of facilitation; (2) development of facilitation in management; (3) development of facilitation in…

  8. Facilitative Strategies in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Thara M. A.; Haugabrook, Adrian K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes campus-based strategies to facilitate collaboration by examining the process of restructuring a division of student affairs as an educational partner with academic affairs. Describes three collaborative efforts at the University of Massachusetts Boston: the Beacon Leadership Project, the Diversity Research Initiative, and the Beacon…

  9. The Inclusion Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Schuh, Mary C.; Nisbet, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion facilitators are educators who do more than teach children with disabilities--they advocate for change in schools and communities, sparking a passion for inclusion in teachers, administrators, and families and giving them the practical guidance they need to make it work. This is an essential new role in today's schools, and this guide…

  10. Facilitating Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwebel, Milton

    1985-01-01

    Human cognition research is shifting away from the importance of IQ and is emphasizing the stimulation and acceleration of a child's mental development. The emerging field of instructional psychology is trying to facilitate cognitive development. Current experimental programs--a university-school project in Belgium and a family project in…

  11. Formation of Freirian Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Phyllis

    This paper is written for people who are already familiar with the philosophy and methodology of Paulo Freire's liberatory education and are interested in creating a formation program for adult education facilitators using his ideas. The author describes the paper as "a collection of thoughts, of things to consider," when organizing such a…

  12. Facilitating Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Mark H., Ed.; Rossman, Maxine E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This collection of articles on distance learning reflects the perspectives and concerns of the learner and the facilitator of learning in distance education setting. Eight chapters are included: (1) "The Evolution and Advantages of Distance Education" (John E. Cantelon) traces the history of distance education and demonstrates how it transcends…

  13. Facilitation of Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  14. Digging Deep for Meaning: A Critical Hermeneutic Analysis of CEO Letters to Shareholders in the Oil Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Anshuman; Mir, Raza

    2002-01-01

    Uses the methodology of critical hermeneutics to analyze Chief Executive Officers' letters to shareholders in the United States petroleum industry during the 1970s and 1980s. Suggests these letters were deployed to produce a certain attitude toward OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) among their readers that deflected attention of…

  15. 29 CFR 2509.08-2 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the guidance set forth in interpretive bulletin 94-2 (29 CFR 2509.94-2). (1) Proxy Voting The... shareholder rights and written statements of investment policy, including proxy voting policies or guidelines... written statements of investment policy, including proxy voting policies or guidelines. This...

  16. 12 CFR 7.2007 - Filling vacancies and increasing board of directors other than by shareholder action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filling vacancies and increasing board of... directors. If authorized by the bank's articles of association, between shareholder meetings a majority of the board of directors may increase the number of the bank's directors within the limits specified...

  17. 12 CFR 337.3 - Limits on extensions of credit to executive officers, directors, and principal shareholders of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... principal shareholders of insured nonmember banks. (a) With the exception of 12 CFR 215.5(b), 215.5(c)(3... A of Federal Reserve Board Regulation O (12 CFR part 215, subpart A) to the same extent and to the... Regulation O (12 CFR 215.2(f)). (c)(1) No insured nonmember bank may extend credit in an aggregate...

  18. 26 CFR 1.902-1 - Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a foreign corporation for foreign income taxes paid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Credit for domestic corporate shareholder of a...)(2)(iii) (26 CFR revised as of April 1, 2006). The reduction in foreign income taxes paid or accrued... earnings to Corporation M, which Corporation M receives on January 20, 1992. Corporation M uses a...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1291-0 - Treatment of shareholders of certain passive foreign investment companies; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... passive foreign investment companies; table of contents. This section contains a listing of the headings...) Passive foreign investment company (PFIC). (2) Types of PFICs. (i) Qualified electing fund (QEF). (ii... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment of shareholders of certain...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1291-0 - Treatment of shareholders of certain passive foreign investment companies; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... passive foreign investment companies; table of contents. This section contains a listing of the headings...) Passive foreign investment company (PFIC). (2) Types of PFICs. (i) Qualified electing fund (QEF). (ii... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Treatment of shareholders of certain...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1291-0 - Treatment of shareholders of certain passive foreign investment companies; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... passive foreign investment companies; table of contents. This section contains a listing of the headings...) Passive foreign investment company (PFIC). (2) Types of PFICs. (i) Qualified electing fund (QEF). (ii... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Treatment of shareholders of certain...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1291-0 - Treatment of shareholders of certain passive foreign investment companies; table of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passive foreign investment companies; table of contents. This section contains a listing of the headings...) Passive foreign investment company (PFIC). (2) Types of PFICs. (i) Qualified electing fund (QEF). (ii... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Treatment of shareholders of certain...

  3. 17 CFR 240.14a-21 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation, frequency of votes for approval of executive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of golden parachute compensation. 240.14a-21 Section 240.14a-21 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... executive compensation and shareholder approval of golden parachute compensation. (a) If a solicitation is... executive compensation. 2. If a registrant includes disclosure of golden parachute compensation...

  4. 17 CFR 240.14a-21 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation, frequency of votes for approval of executive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of golden parachute compensation. 240.14a-21 Section 240.14a-21 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... executive compensation and shareholder approval of golden parachute compensation. (a) If a solicitation is... executive compensation. 2. If a registrant includes disclosure of golden parachute compensation...

  5. 17 CFR 240.14a-21 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation, frequency of votes for approval of executive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of golden parachute compensation. 240.14a-21 Section 240.14a-21 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... executive compensation and shareholder approval of golden parachute compensation. (a) If a solicitation is... executive compensation. 2. If a registrant includes disclosure of golden parachute compensation...

  6. 17 CFR 240.14a-21 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation, frequency of votes for approval of executive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of golden parachute compensation. 240.14a-21 Section 240.14a-21 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... executive compensation and shareholder approval of golden parachute compensation. (a) If a solicitation is... executive compensation. 2. If a registrant includes disclosure of golden parachute compensation...

  7. 12 CFR 563.43 - Loans by savings associations to their executive officers, directors and principal shareholders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 215), in the same manner and to the same extent as if the association were a bank and a... subsidiary means a “subsidiary” that is controlled by the savings association within the meaning of 12 CFR... executive officers, directors and principal shareholders. 563.43 Section 563.43 Banks and Banking OFFICE...

  8. 12 CFR 7.2007 - Filling vacancies and increasing board of directors other than by shareholder action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filling vacancies and increasing board of directors other than by shareholder action. 7.2007 Section 7.2007 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2007...

  9. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators.

    PubMed

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, E

    2006-08-01

    Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The student-centred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators) development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4) universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators. PMID:17131610

  10. 26 CFR 1.1082-5 - Basis of property acquired by shareholder upon tax-free distribution under section 1081(c) (1) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exchanges in Obedience to S.e.c. Orders § 1.1082-5 Basis of property acquired by shareholder...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1082-5 - Basis of property acquired by shareholder upon tax-free distribution under section 1081(c) (1) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exchanges in Obedience to S.e.c. Orders § 1.1082-5 Basis of property acquired by shareholder...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1082-5 - Basis of property acquired by shareholder upon tax-free distribution under section 1081(c) (1) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exchanges in Obedience to S.e.c. Orders § 1.1082-5 Basis of property acquired by shareholder...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1082-5 - Basis of property acquired by shareholder upon tax-free distribution under section 1081(c) (1) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Exchanges in Obedience to S.e.c. Orders § 1.1082-5 Basis of property acquired by shareholder...

  14. Facilitating post traumatic growth

    PubMed Central

    Turner, de Sales; Cox, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Background Whilst negative responses to traumatic injury have been well documented in the literature, there is a small but growing body of work that identifies posttraumatic growth as a salient feature of this experience. We contribute to this discourse by reporting on the experiences of 13 individuals who were traumatically injured, had undergone extensive rehabilitation and were discharged from formal care. All participants were injured through involvement in a motor vehicle accident, with the exception of one, who was injured through falling off the roof of a house. Methods In this qualitative study, we used an audio-taped in-depth interview with each participant as the means of data collection. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically to determine the participants' unique perspectives on the experience of recovery from traumatic injury. In reporting the findings, all participants' were given a pseudonym to assure their anonymity. Results Most participants indicated that their involvement in a traumatic occurrence was a springboard for growth that enabled them to develop new perspectives on life and living. Conclusion There are a number of contributions that health providers may make to the recovery of individuals who have been traumatically injured to assist them to develop new views of vulnerability and strength, make changes in relationships, and facilitate philosophical, physical and spiritual growth. PMID:15248894

  15. Shareholder Value and the Performance of a Large Nursing Home Chain

    PubMed Central

    Kitchener, Martin; O'Meara, Janis; Brody, Ab; Lee, Hyang Yuol; Harrington, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze corporate governance arrangements and quality and financial performance outcomes among large multi-facility nursing home corporations (chains) that pursue stakeholder value (profit maximization) strategies. Study Design To establish a foundation of knowledge about the focal phenomenon and processes, we conducted an historical (1993–2005) case study of one of the largest chains (Sun Helathcare Inc.) that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data sources. Data Sources Two main sets of information were compared: (1) corporate sources including Sun's Security Exchange Commission (SEC) Form 10-K annual reports, industry financial reports, and the business press; and (2) external sources including, legal documents, press reports, and publicly available California facility cost reports and quality data. Principal Findings Shareholder value was pursued at Sun through three inter-linked strategies: (1) rapid growth through debt-financed mergers; (2) labor cost constraint through low nurse staffing levels; and (3) a model of corporate governance that views sanctions for fraud and poor quality as a cost of business. Conclusions Study findings and evidence from other large nursing home chains underscore calls from the Institute of Medicine and other bodies for extended oversight of the corporate governance and performance of large nursing home chains. PMID:18454781

  16. Shareholding relationships in the Euro Area banking market: A network perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the topological properties of the network of the Euro Area banking market network, with the primary aim of assessing the importance of a bank in the financial system with respect to ownership and control of other credit institutions. The network displays power law distributions in both binary and weighted degree metrics indicating a robust yet fragile structure and a direct link between an increase of control diversification and a rise in the market power. Therefore while in good time the network is seemingly robust, in bad times many banks can simultaneously go into distress. This behavior paves the way for Central bank's actions. In particular we investigate whether the Single Supervisory Mechanism introduced by the European Central Banks and based on banks' total asset is a good proxy to quantify their systemic importance. Results indicate that not all the financial institutions with high valued total assets are systemically important but only few of them. Moreover the network structure reveals that control is highly concentrated, with few important shareholders approximately controlling a separate subset of banks.

  17. The Essential Elements of Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Simon; Gass, Michael; Gillis, Lee

    Most organizations find it difficult to implement change, and only about 10 percent of learning from training and development experiences is actually applied in the workplace. This book advocates facilitation as a means of enhancing change and increasing productivity. Facilitation engages employees by enhancing the processes associated with their…

  18. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  19. Empirical Assessment of Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms Designs under Aggressive Savings Goals: Case Study of a Kansas"Super-Utility"

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2009-08-03

    Achieving significant reductions in retail electric sales is becoming a priority for policymakers in many states and is echoed at the federal level with the introduction of legislation to establish a national energy efficiency resource standard. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. In response to an information request from the Kansas Corporation Commission staff, we conducted a financial analysis to assess the utility business case in Kansas for pursuing more aggressive energy efficiency that complies with recent state legislation. Kansas' utilities are vertically integrated and don't face retail competition. With historically low retail rates and modest experience with energy efficiency, the achievement of rapid and substantial sales reductions from energy efficiency will require a viable utility business model. Using a conglomerate of the three largest utilities in Kansas, we quantitatively illustrate the tradeoff between ratepayer and shareholder interests when a 1percent reduction in incremental sales is achieved through energy efficiency both with and without the impact of future carbon regulation. We then assess if the utility can be compensated in a manner that produces a sufficient business case but leaves an adequate amount of net resource benefits for ratepayers at a cost that is not overly burdensome. Finally, we show how several common shareholder incentive mechanisms would be designed to achieve this balance.

  20. High School Facilitators and Inhibitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnagey, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Teachers in a small high school nominated students whose classroom behavior facilitates or inhibits (disrupts) the learning process. These two groups were compared on locus of control, Maslow motive hierarchies, attitudes toward crime prevention, and achievement. Results are discussed and suggestions for helping disruptive students are made. (SJL)

  1. Sign Facilitation in Word Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wauters, Loes N.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether use of sign language would facilitate reading word recognition by 16 deaf children (6- to 1 years-old) in the Netherlands. Results indicated that if words were learned through speech, accompanied by the relevant sign, accuracy of word recognition was greater than if words were learned solely through speech. (Contains…

  2. Producing Gestures Facilitates Route Learning

    PubMed Central

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  3. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  4. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  5. SUPERFUND GROUNDWATER ISSUE - FACILITATED TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a group of ground-water scientists representing EPA's Regional Superfund Offices, organized to exchange up to date information related to ground-water remediation at Superfund sites. Facilitated transport is an issue identified by the ...

  6. Facilitation of Mourning During Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliman, Gilbert; And Others

    This paper discusses case studies of children psychologically disturbed by the death of parents or siblings. Illustrations of mourning facilitation were mainly gathered from 16 orphaned children, ages 3-14. Some techniques used in helping children mourn include: discussing physical details of the illness, discussing previous deaths of animals and…

  7. Social Facilitation of Aiding Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Patricia; And Others

    Research on individual's response to emergency situations in the presence of others has produced conflicting results. The bystander effect is the label applied to inaction or the unlikelihood of assistance with others present. The social facilitation effect occurs when the presence of others energizes response; strong habit responses are…

  8. 26 CFR 1.1297-3 - Deemed sale or deemed dividend election by a U.S. person that is a shareholder of a section 1297...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distribution is the amount of gain that the direct owner of the stock of the PFIC would have realized on an... unless the qualified portion of the shareholder's holding period ends, as determined under section 1297(e... of the stock of the PFIC, the adjusted basis of the direct owner of the stock of the PFIC...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1291-1 - Taxation of U.S. persons that are shareholders of PFICs that are not pedigreed QEFs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Taxation of U.S. persons that are shareholders of PFICs that are not pedigreed QEFs. 1.1291-1 Section 1.1291-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... after April 1, 1992. (f)-(i) (j) Effective dates. This section applies for taxable years beginning on...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1291-1 - Taxation of U.S. persons that are shareholders of PFICs that are not pedigreed QEFs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Taxation of U.S. persons that are shareholders of PFICs that are not pedigreed QEFs. 1.1291-1 Section 1.1291-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... after April 1, 1992. (f)-(i) (j) Effective dates. This section applies for taxable years beginning on...

  11. 26 CFR 1.6035-1 - Returns of U.S. officers, directors and 10-percent shareholders of foreign personal holding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporated; (v) A description of each class of stock issued and outstanding by the corporation for the... U.S., who was a shareholder during the taxable year and the class and number of shares held by each... the class, number, and face value of the securities held by each, together with and explanation of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.6035-1 - Returns of U.S. officers, directors and 10-percent shareholders of foreign personal holding...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... incorporated; (v) A description of each class of stock issued and outstanding by the corporation for the... U.S., who was a shareholder during the taxable year and the class and number of shares held by each... the class, number, and face value of the securities held by each, together with and explanation of...

  13. Facilitating Facilitators to Facilitate, in Problem or Enquiry Based Learning Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) has been used in dental education over the past 20 years and uses a patient case scenario to stimulate learning in a small group setting, where a trained facilitator does not teach but guides the group to bring about deep contextualized learning, to be empathetic to each other and to encourage fair and equitable…

  14. Counterfactual Thinking Facilitates Behavioral Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Smallman, Rachel; Roese, Neal J.

    2009-01-01

    People often ponder what might have been, and these counterfactual inferences have been linked to behavior regulation. Counterfactuals may enhance performance by either a content-specific pathway (via shift in behavioral intentions) and/or a content-neutral pathway (via mindsets or motivation). Three experiments provided new specification of the content-specific pathway. A sequential priming paradigm revealed that counterfactual judgments facilitated RTs to complete behavioral intention judgments relative to control judgments and to a no-judgment baseline (Experiment 1). This facilitation effect was found only for intention judgments that matched the information content of the counterfactual (Experiment 2) and only for intention judgments as opposed to a different judgment that nevertheless focused on the same information content (Experiment 3). These findings clarify the content-specific pathway by which counterfactuals influence behavior. PMID:20161221

  15. How We Think and Talk about Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Fumitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, the notion of "facilitation" has been increasingly gaining attention and acceptance in Japan, especially in the context of education and training. Today, Japanese educators think and talk about facilitation, even if it is not yet clear what facilitation is. Interestingly enough, the term "facilitation" does not exist in…

  16. Stochastic facilitation in the brain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Lawrence M.; Greenwood, Priscilla E.

    2016-05-01

    We describe the context for three unsolved problems of noise in the brain as well as provide some new results relevant to one of them. The problems are: are neural oscillations better described as noisy limit cycles or as noise-driven quasicycles, does noise facilitate synchronization and information transmission in the brain, and do noise-driven spatial patterns (quasipatterns) coexist with noise-driven quasicycles in the brain? We provide a few new results indicating that, in models at least, spatial quasipatterns of quasicycles can occur, and resemble patterns observed in other areas, such as predator-prey systems and chemical reactions.

  17. Positive Emotion Facilitates Audiovisual Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Miho S.; Watanabe, Katsumi; Kitagawa, Norimichi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that positive emotions can facilitate integrative and associative information processing in cognitive functions. The present study examined whether emotions in observers can also enhance perceptual integrative processes. We tested 125 participants in total for revealing the effects of emotional states and traits in observers on the multisensory binding between auditory and visual signals. Participants in Experiment 1 observed two identical visual disks moving toward each other, coinciding, and moving away, presented with a brief sound. We found that for participants with lower depressive tendency, induced happy moods increased the width of the temporal binding window of the sound-induced bounce percept in the stream/bounce display, while no effect was found for the participants with higher depressive tendency. In contrast, no effect of mood was observed for a simple audiovisual simultaneity discrimination task in Experiment 2. These results provide the first empirical evidence of a dependency of multisensory binding upon emotional states and traits, revealing that positive emotions can facilitate the multisensory binding processes at a perceptual level. PMID:26834585

  18. Tobacco use prevention and health facilitator effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Young, R L; Elder, J P; Green, M; de Moor, C; Wildey, M B

    1988-11-01

    Tobacco prevention programs often use peers to teach refusal skills to other adolescents. College undergraduate health facilitators delivered a tobacco prevention intervention to sixth and seventh grade students in six schools. Outside observers evaluated facilitators in seven categories: being prepared, maintaining class control, keeping students' attention, encouraging participation, communication, relating to students, and working well in a team. Facilitators were rated highly in all categories. Higher rated health facilitators had more effect in reducing tobacco use than poorly rated facilitators. Facilitators who worked well in a team, related well to students, and were well-prepared were especially effective in positively influencing program outcomes.

  19. The Influence of Facilitator and Facilitation Characteristics on Participants' Ratings of Stepfamily Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Brian J.; Myler, Cory

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relative importance of facilitator and facilitation characteristics on participant ratings of a stepfamily education program. Data from 48 facilitators and 598 participants suggest that quality facilitation is more meaningful to participants than whether facilitators have comparable demographic characteristics or life experiences.…

  20. Guanidinium Pairing Facilitates Membrane Translocation.

    PubMed

    Allolio, Christoph; Baxova, Katarina; Vazdar, Mario; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-01-14

    Ab initio free energy calculations of guanidinium pairing in aqueous solution confirm the counterintuitive conjecture that the like-charge ion pair is thermodynamically stable. Transferring the guanidinium pair to the inside of a POPC lipid bilayer, like-charge ion pairing is found to occur also inside the membrane defect. It is found to contribute to the nonadditivity of ion transfer, thereby facilitating the presence of ions inside the bilayer. The effect is quantified by free energy decomposition and comparison with ammonium ions, which do not form a stable pair. The presence of two charges inside the center of the bilayer leads to the formation of a pore. Potential consequences for cell penetrating peptides and ion conduction are drawn.

  1. Evaluation of the Facilitated Communication Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Martin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Special Education and Student Services asked the Office of Shared Accountability to evaluate the "Facilitated Communication Pilot." In facilitated communication (FC), people with communication impairments express themselves by typing with the aid of a communication partner, called a facilitator, who provides physical (and…

  2. An experimental analysis of facilitated communication.

    PubMed Central

    Montee, B B; Miltenberger, R G; Wittrock, D; Watkins, N; Rheinberger, A; Stackhaus, J

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the authorship of messages produced through facilitated communication by 7 adults with moderate or severe mental retardation and their facilitators. The clients had been reported to be communicating fluently through facilitated communication. We controlled the facilitators' access to information to be communicated in two evaluation formats, naming pictures and describing activities. In both formats we conducted three conditions: (a) the facilitator and client had access to the same information, (b) the facilitator did not have access to the picture or activity, and (c) the facilitator was given false information about the picture or activity. The results showed that the clients typed the correct answer only when the facilitator had access to the same information, never typed the correct answer when the facilitator had no information or false information, and typed the picture or activity presented to the facilitator when it was different from the one experienced by the client. These results provide unequivocal evidence for facilitator control of typing during facilitated communication. PMID:7601804

  3. The Teacher and Town Planner as Facilitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of theories of facilitation in teaching focuses on citizen participation and the role of the facilitator in town planning. Highlights include hierarchies of learning; student-centered learning; facilitating community participation; information technology skills and interpersonal skills; and a rationale for participation. (LRW)

  4. Technologies and Techniques for Supporting Facilitated Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, demand for education of all kinds is increasing beyond the capacity to provide it. One approach that shows potential for addressing this demand is facilitated video. In facilitated video, an educator is recorded teaching, and that video is sent to a remote site where it is shown to students by a facilitator who creates interaction…

  5. An experimental assessment of facilitated communication.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, D L; Jacobson, J W; Paglieri, R A; Schwartz, A A

    1993-02-01

    This report presents a quantitative study of facilitated communication. Participants were 12 people living at an institutional autism program and 9 people who provided them with facilitated communication support. These subjects were the 12 most competent producers of facilitated communication in the program. They were shown pictures of familiar objects and asked to type the names of the objects under three conditions: (a) assisted typing with facilitators unaware of the content of the stimulus picture, (b) unassisted typing, and (c) a condition in which the participants and facilitators were each shown pictures at the same time. In this last condition the paired pictures were either the same or different, and the participant's typing was facilitated to label or describe the picture. These participants were unable to succeed in the tasks without facilitator assistance. On trials when the facilitators and participants had different pictures, the only "correct" labels were for pictures shown to the facilitators and not shown to the participants. This finding demonstrates that the facilitators were unknowingly determining what was typed.

  6. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or...

  7. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or...

  8. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or...

  9. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or...

  10. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or...

  11. Simple scale interpolator facilitates reading of graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, D. E., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Simple transparent overlay with interpolation scale facilitates accurate, rapid reading of graph coordinate points. This device can be used for enlarging drawings and locating points on perspective drawings.

  12. Using learning theory, interprofessional facilitation competencies, and behavioral indicators to evaluate facilitator training.

    PubMed

    LeGros, Theresa A; Amerongen, Helen M; Cooley, Janet H; Schloss, Ernest P

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing need for faculty and preceptors skilled in interprofessional facilitation (IPF), the relative novelty of the field poses a challenge to the development and evaluation of IPF programs. We use learning theory and IPF competencies with associated behavioral indicators to develop and evaluate six key messages in IPF training and experience. Our mixed methods approach included two phases: quantitative data collection with embedded qualitative data, followed by qualitative data collection in explanatory sequential fashion. This enabled triangulated analyses of both data types and of facilitation behaviors from facilitator and student perspectives. Results indicate the competency-based training was effective. Facilitators felt comfortable performing behaviors associated with IPF competencies; student observations of those behaviors supported facilitator self-reported performance. Overall, students perceived more facilitation opportunities than facilitators. Findings corroborate the importance of recruiting seasoned facilitators and establishing IPF guidelines that acknowledge variable team dynamics and help facilitators recognize teachable moments. PMID:26230378

  13. Using learning theory, interprofessional facilitation competencies, and behavioral indicators to evaluate facilitator training.

    PubMed

    LeGros, Theresa A; Amerongen, Helen M; Cooley, Janet H; Schloss, Ernest P

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing need for faculty and preceptors skilled in interprofessional facilitation (IPF), the relative novelty of the field poses a challenge to the development and evaluation of IPF programs. We use learning theory and IPF competencies with associated behavioral indicators to develop and evaluate six key messages in IPF training and experience. Our mixed methods approach included two phases: quantitative data collection with embedded qualitative data, followed by qualitative data collection in explanatory sequential fashion. This enabled triangulated analyses of both data types and of facilitation behaviors from facilitator and student perspectives. Results indicate the competency-based training was effective. Facilitators felt comfortable performing behaviors associated with IPF competencies; student observations of those behaviors supported facilitator self-reported performance. Overall, students perceived more facilitation opportunities than facilitators. Findings corroborate the importance of recruiting seasoned facilitators and establishing IPF guidelines that acknowledge variable team dynamics and help facilitators recognize teachable moments.

  14. "Stepping Up": A Focus on Facilitator Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostouros, Patricia; Warthe, D. Gaye; Carter-Snell, Catherine; Burnett, Che

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact on peer facilitators in "Stepping Up," a dating violence prevention program at a Canadian university. A focus group held eight months following the delivery of the program determined the personal impact of involvement in the program. Results indicate that peer facilitators experienced personal growth as…

  15. Peervention: Training Peer Facilitators for Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Robert D.; Folk, Betsy E.

    This book introduces students to the helping relationship and appropriate methods of responding to others through a variety of experiential training activities. The first chapter discusses the need for peer facilitators. The peer facilitator movement is traced to the 1970s, and the power of peer relationships is described. Four basic helping roles…

  16. Parent Involvement Facilitators: Unlocking Social Capital Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study provides an overview of a family outreach intervention that supports student retention in school through a school-home communication link. This intervention structure, which employs staff appropriately called parent involvement facilitators (PIFs), is one that school districts have employed to facilitate family engagement in…

  17. Facilitated Communication: The Clinical and Social Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Howard C., Ed.

    This text explains the phenomenon of facilitated communication (FC) from an empirical, data-based, and/or clinical perspective. It is not a how-to-facilitate text, but one that explores the clinical and sociological reality of FC. A common theme running through each of the papers in the book is the question of FC's legitimacy. The papers reveal…

  18. A Model of Small Group Facilitator Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Judith A.; Jin, Sungmi; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    This study used small group theory, quantitative and qualitative data collected from experienced practicing facilitators at three points of time, and a building block process of collection, analysis, further collection, and consolidation to develop a model of small group facilitator competencies. The proposed model has five components:…

  19. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  20. Escaping Homelessness: Anticipated and Perceived Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Allisha; Tweed, Roger

    2009-01-01

    One study with two distinct sections was conducted to identify factors facilitating escape from homelessness. In Section 1, 58 homeless individuals rated possible facilitators of escape (factors they believed would help them become more independent and self-sufficient). In Section 2, 80 participants who had already exited homelessness rated the…

  1. A Multitask Controlled Evaluation of Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Carol A.

    1994-01-01

    This study tested the validity of facilitated communication with 2 students (ages 10 and 12) with autism, using a picture identification task, video task, and object identification. Subjects were able to report information unknown to the facilitator in one out of four controlled sessions. Strong evidence for direct cuing between subject and…

  2. Facilitator's Manual: Summer Transitions. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuenzli, Linda A., Ed.

    A facilitator's manual for the Summer Transition Enrichment Program at Bowling Green State University is presented. The overall objectives of the program are: (1) to facilitate the transition of entering freshmen into the academic and cultural life of the university; and (2) to assist students in their personal growth and adjustment to the…

  3. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  4. Toward Facilitative Mentoring and Catalytic Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…

  5. Reconceptualizing the Pedagogical Value of Student Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Sustained discourse is critical to the learning potential of online courses. And, while research has surfaced many factors that mediate interaction, it further suggests that sustained interaction remains elusive. In this paper, I propose that student facilitation may have an impact on the quality of facilitators' interactions following a week of…

  6. A Dialogic Approach to Online Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Social construction of understanding has long been a significant underlying principle of learning and teaching, and while there are many models for the design of online activities to promote this, there are considerably fewer models for the facilitation of such dialogue. This paper examines some of these facilitation models from the point of view…

  7. Social Facilitation: A Test of Two Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryujin, Donald H.; And Others

    Social facilitation can be defined as the effect of an audience or coactors on performance. Research on social facilitation effects has produced some contradictory and confusing findings. Some studies have found that the presence of others enhances performance; other studies have found that the presence of an audience or coactors impairs…

  8. Facilitator Talk in EAP Reading Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Current sociocultural perspectives on language learning call on teachers to reinvent themselves in ways which facilitate student learning rather than transmit knowledge. For teachers, this means adopting new roles, and acquiring a new repertoire of teacher talk. This paper aims to further the work on facilitator talk begun by Clifton (2006) and…

  9. Interaction Patterns and Facilitation of Peer Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marvin E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Data show that giving information to members of a group is more important in determining the perception by others that the person is facilitating group performance. Asking for information and opinions is more important in actual facilitation of group learning. Social-emotional support becomes important after initial phases of group interaction.…

  10. Facilitated versus Non-Facilitated Online Case Discussions: Comparing Differences in Problem Space Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The facilitator plays a key role in guiding students' efforts during case discussions. However, few studies have compared differences in learning outcomes for students participating in facilitated versus non-facilitated discussions. In this research, we used "problem space coverage" as a learning measure to compare outcomes between…

  11. Facilitating LOS Debriefings: A Training Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonnell, Lori K.; Jobe, Kimberly K.; Dismukes, R. Key

    1997-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide to help airline instructors effectively facilitate debriefings of Line Oriented Simulations (LOS). It is based on a recently completed study of Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings at several U.S. airlines. This manual presents specific facilitation tools instructors can use to achieve debriefing objectives. The approach of the manual is to be flexible so it can be tailored to the individual needs of each airline. Part One clarifies the purpose and objectives of facilitation in the LOS setting. Part Two provides recommendations for clarifying roles and expectations and presents a model for organizing discussion. Part Tree suggests techniques for eliciting active crew participation and in-depth analysis and evaluation. Finally, in Part Four, these techniques are organized according to the facilitation model. Examples of how to effectively use the techniques are provided throughout, including strategies to try when the debriefing objectives are not being fully achieved.

  12. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  13. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS General § 1194.5 Equivalent facilitation. Nothing in this part is intended to prevent the use of designs or technologies as alternatives...

  14. Managing and facilitating innovation and nurse satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J

    2009-01-01

    Behaviors and actions that foster innovation are complementary to those associated with managing and facilitating nurse satisfaction. These include creating an organizational climate that encourages the generation, sharing, and implementation of new ideas; managing with the skills to hire and retain competent and creative individuals; and establishing the infrastructure and processes to recognize and embed best and promising practices into the organization. The ability to innovate and to manage and facilitate nurse satisfaction is a necessary competency for organizational success. PMID:19893447

  15. Categorical facilitation with equally discriminable colors.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of language on color perception. By categorical facilitation, we refer to an aspect of categorical perception, in which the linguistic distinction between categories affects color discrimination beyond the low-level, sensory sensitivity to color differences. According to this idea, discrimination performance for colors that cross a category border should be better than for colors that belong to the same category when controlling for low-level sensitivity. We controlled for sensitivity by using colors that were equally discriminable according to empirically measured discrimination thresholds. To test for categorical facilitation, we measured response times and error rates in a speeded discrimination task for suprathreshold stimuli. Robust categorical facilitation occurred for five out of six categories with a group of inexperienced observers, namely for pink, orange, yellow, green, and purple. Categorical facilitation was robust against individual variations of categories or the laterality of target presentation. However, contradictory effects occurred in the blue category, most probably reflecting the difficulty to control effects of sensory mechanisms at the green-blue boundary. Moreover, a group of observers who were highly familiar with the discrimination task did not show consistent categorical facilitation in the other five categories. This trained group had much faster response times than the inexperienced group without any speed-accuracy trade-off. Additional analyses suggest that categorical facilitation occurs when observers pay attention to the categorical distinction but not when they respond automatically based on sensory feed-forward information. PMID:26129860

  16. Physically facilitating drug-delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Devora, Jorge I; Ambure, Sunny; Shi, Zhi-Dong; Yuan, Yuyu; Sun, Wei; Xu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Facilitated/modulated drug-delivery systems have emerged as a possible solution for delivery of drugs of interest to pre-allocated sites at predetermined doses for predefined periods of time. Over the past decade, the use of different physical methods and mechanisms to mediate drug release and delivery has grown significantly. This emerging area of research has important implications for development of new therapeutic drugs for efficient treatments. This review aims to introduce and describe different modalities of physically facilitating drug-delivery systems that are currently in use for cancer and other diseases therapy. In particular, delivery methods based on ultrasound, electrical, magnetic and photo modulations are highlighted. Current uses and areas of improvement for these different physically facilitating drug-delivery systems are discussed. Furthermore, the main advantages and drawbacks of these technologies reviewed are compared. The review ends with a speculative viewpoint of how research is expected to evolve in the upcoming years. PMID:22485192

  17. Facilitation: An Essential Ingredient in Online Coursework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristvey, J.; Bogner, D.

    2003-12-01

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) partnered with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to offer the ESSEA Earth System Science Online Course for Middle School Teachers during the 2002-2003 school year. During the two semesters that the course was offered, we were able to retain 75% of our enrollees. We found that course facilitation was the key ingredient in retaining this large number of students-who are not only scattered across the U.S., but around the world-in a rigorous online course. In this poster session, we will share what we have learned about online facilitation as part of this course, and how this knowledge might translate into other online coursework. Online facilitation begins as soon as a student enrolls in the course. When a student registers online or at CSM, McREL receives notification and then sends course materials and e-mail and written confirmation to the enrollee within 24 hours. This sets the tone for the type of communications that students can expect during the 16-week course. McREL facilitators know how time consuming monitoring participant progress can be, but feel strongly about its importance when facilitating learners who are working in small groups and are completing independent research. Timely monitoring of discussion spaces and e-mail messages is essential to maintaining a high student-retention rate. Kearsley (2000) confirms this when he states that, "the most important role of the instructor in online classes is to ensure that there is a high degree of interactivity and participation." In the ESSEA courses, the isolation of students working independently on classroom applications and reflection is balanced with group construction of interactions and causal chains. Each step of the way facilitators use guided questioning in group discussion sessions and serve as a mentor when participants develop individualized classroom assignments, giving participants the opportunity to apply what they have learned in a

  18. The Resourceful Facilitator: Teacher Leaders Constructing Identities as Facilitators of Teacher Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of teacher peer groups is a prevalent strategy for school-based professional development and instructional improvement. Facilitation of such groups is an increasingly vital dimension of teacher leadership as a component of school improvement efforts. Drawing on a qualitative study of facilitation of teacher peer groups, the article…

  19. International Collaborative Learning--The Facilitation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, A. G.

    International collaborative learning is becoming more viable through a variety of Internet enabled software products. Group Support Systems appear to offer promise. But it is not well understood how to facilitate the teaching and learning process in electronic environments. If education is to involve an interactive process of collaborative inquiry…

  20. Grief Support Group Curriculum: Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Linda; Jimerson, Shane R.; Gaasch, Ann

    This handbook is designed for facilitators of grief support groups for mourning children. The first chapter discusses the history, philosophy, and format of a specific curriculum - the Mourning Child curriculum. This curriculum, originally written in 1986 and later expanded and revised, has been used with hundreds of children. Chapter two covers…

  1. Facilitating Learning Spaces in Forum Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…

  2. Retrieval during Learning Facilitates Subsequent Memory Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastotter, Bernhard; Schicker, Sabine; Niedernhuber, Julia; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2011-01-01

    In multiple-list learning, retrieval during learning has been suggested to improve recall of the single lists by enhancing list discrimination and, at test, reducing interference. Using electrophysiological, oscillatory measures of brain activity, we examined to what extent retrieval during learning facilitates list encoding. Subjects studied 5…

  3. Facilitating Engagement by Differentiating Independent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle J.; Clausen-Grace, Nicki

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide teachers with a rationale for engaging students in independent reading using a differentiated approach. By profiling types of readers, sharing observational tools, and offering teaching suggestions for each type of reader the authors give practical suggestions to facilitate reading engagement and make independent reading more…

  4. The Community Leisure Facilitator. Project REC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, M. Sherril; And Others

    Developed as part of a project to integrate youth with disabilities into regular recreational and leisure activities, this report focuses on the role of the community leisure facilitator (CLF), defined as a professional, friend, family member, or volunteer who assists individuals with disabilities to enjoy the same leisure pursuits as other…

  5. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PHP-c90

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…

  6. 31 CFR 538.206 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 538.206 Section 538.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  7. Facilitating Sustainable Professional Development through Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jodie; Back, Jenni

    2011-01-01

    Developing sustainable professional development which facilitates teachers of mathematics to develop effective mathematics pedagogy has been a key aim in recent years. This paper examines how lesson study can be used with networks of teachers as a vehicle to promote and sustain professional development. Drawing on findings from a year-long study…

  8. Does Teaching Creationism Facilitate Student Autonomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Fooce, C. David

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of evolution in US public schools continues to generate controversy. One argument for including creationism in science classrooms is based on the goal of facilitating student autonomy. Autonomy requires that students be exposed to significant alternatives, it is argued, and religious creation stories offer a significant alternative to…

  9. Facilitating Transfer through Student Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawer, Florence B.

    Drawing on findings of two Center for the Study of Community College (CSCC) projects, this paper reviews some of the services offered by community colleges to facilitate transfer to four-year institutions. Introductory material provides background on the low rates of student transfer and on the CSCC projects, which involve 6 large urban community…

  10. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  11. Perceived Benefits of Human Sexuality Peer Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.; Sherwood, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Peer education, facilitation, and counseling programs are commonly utilized in primary and secondary prevention programs within colleges and universities. In addition, peer-based human sexuality discussions have been used as an adjunct to traditional human sexuality pedagogic programs over the last 20 years. Whereas ample evidence suggests that…

  12. Supervisor Behaviours that Facilitate Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Sue; Di Milia, Lee; Cameron, Roslyn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the supervisor behaviours that employees found to be helpful and unhelpful in facilitating training transfer. The study aims to provide rich qualitative data from the employee's perspective. Design/methodology/approach: This study utilises a cross-sectional design. A case study and a qualitative…

  13. Utilizing the Internet to Facilitate Classroom Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan; Courts, Bari

    2010-01-01

    Traditional theories on classroom learning focus on fixed curriculum, static learning tools and believe learning is achieved through repetition and rote memorization. The instructor's role in a traditional learning environment focuses on providing direction to the student versus facilitating learning. As the technology age becomes more prevalent…

  14. How Academic Teachers Perceive and Facilitate Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity…

  15. Videoconferencing: A New Opportunity to Facilitate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Cheryl; Ming, Kavin

    2015-01-01

    The use of distance learning techniques as a means of delivering instruction in higher education classrooms has become increasingly popular with the growing diversity of today's college students. Videoconferencing has been used as a tool to facilitate the simultaneous communication of individuals across varying geographic regions through the use…

  16. Facilitating Team Learning through Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…

  17. Guide to Resources for ESL Literacy Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber-Katz, Elaine; Zettel, Kathryn

    This resource guide, for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy facilitators, reviews a variety of resources for ESL literacy. The guide contains three sections. The first section cites four books that provide a theoretical context for literacy work: "Ah-Hah! A New Approach to Popular Education" (Gatt-Fly); "Approaches and Methods in Language…

  18. Social Facilitation of Laughter in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Antony J.

    1973-01-01

    The present study is concerned primarily with demonstrating that laughter can be socially facilitated. It showed that children, presented aurally with laughter-provoking material, laugh more in the presence of a companion, whether or not the companion can hear the material. (Author/RK)

  19. Facilitating Learning Organizations. Making Learning Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsick, Victoria J.; Watkins, Karen E.

    This book offers advice to facilitators and change agents who wish to build systems-level learning to create knowledge that can be used to gain a competitive advantage. Chapter 1 describes forces driving companies to build, sustain, and effectively use systems-level learning and presents and links a working definition of the learning organization…

  20. Facilitating Teaching and Learning across STEM Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejiwale, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The reformation of the contents for instruction across STEM fields has changed the role of STEM educators from being a "dictator" in the classroom/laboratory to a facilitator of students' activities. More important, this new paradigm and professional orientation for STEM educators is no more limited to delivering instruction intuitively, but with…

  1. How Facilities Facilitate Education. Principal's Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Advice on making facilities facilitate education includes: an educational vision comes first, involve all stakeholders, working smarter requires a systems approach, systems-focused planning takes time, partnerships stretch limited resources, "beautiful" is not expensive, change is tough, building a community is as important as building a facility,…

  2. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  3. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  4. Career Planning for Minority Women. Facilitator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Stanlie M., Ed.

    This facilitator's manual consists of guidelines and materials for use in conducting a workshop dealing with career planning for minority women. Covered in the first half of the manual are the following aspects of implementing the workshop: background on the need for and development of the workshop, a workshop outline and time schedule, the…

  5. Management Basics for Minority Women. Facilitator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Stanlie M., Ed.

    This facilitator's manual consists of guidelines and materials for use in conducting a workshop dealing with three management basics for minority women--communication, decision making, and interpersonal skills. Covered in the first half of the manual are the following aspects of implementing the workshop: background on the need for and development…

  6. Dynamic Flexibility and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lew; Jones, David

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments are described which investigated whether results obtained in studies of static flexibility tranfer to dynamic flexibility. In both experiments, subjects were assigned to a group receiving proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training, ballistic stretching technique training or a control group. Results are presented and…

  7. Microcomputers as Social Facilitators in Integrated Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel-McGill, Phyllis; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study compared the effects of different play conditions (microcomputer, remote-control robot, or no toys) on the amount of time four dyads of handicapped/nonhandicapped children would interact during structured play. Results suggested that microcomputers may serve as social facilitators for children with significant social and language…

  8. Social Facilitation as Self-Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Charles F., Jr.

    Social facilitation as a self-presentational display, and social performance impairment attributable to perceived public failure, are examined in a study of context effects in verbal learning. Female undergraduates (N=72) served as subjects with one male who served as an "audience." Performance data indicate that, consistent with the present…

  9. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  10. The Facilitator. Technical Note No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barriga, Patricio; And Others

    This paper describes the concept, training, and experiences of community facilitators as change agents in a nonformal education project in rural Ecuador. Presently, the social, economic, and political context of the rural Ecuadorian consists of poverty, racial prejudice, economic exploitation, and psychological dependency. The project attempted to…

  11. Building Better Career Futures: Facilitator Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezanson, Lynne; Hopkins, Sareena

    This guide, designed to be used by facilitators of the Building Better Career Futures, a comprehensive career development program for young adults, is to be used in conjunction with the Backgrounder and the Portfolio Builder. It includes an introduction to the full program and lesson plans for all topics. Each lesson plan begins with a cover sheet…

  12. Facilitation and Practice in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by…

  13. Facilitating Reminiscence Groups: Perceptions of Group Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana; Salgado, Roy A.; Thornton, Mark D.; Miller, Jason L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a two-year qualitative investigation in which group leaders provided their perceptions of the process of facilitating reminiscence groups with elderly persons in a residential care facility. Group Culture emerged as the dominant construct. Findings from this study can serve guide leaders who are interested in…

  14. Memory facilitation educed by food intake.

    PubMed

    Oomura, Y; Sasaki, K; Li, A J

    1993-09-01

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) in rat CSF increased 1000 times in the 2-h period after food intake, or IP, or ICV glucose infusion. The ICV application of aFGF dose dependently depresses and anti-aFGF antibody facilitates food intake. aFGF is produced in the ependymal cells and released into the CSF in response to increased glucose in the CSF caused by food intake. Released aFGF diffused into the brain parenchyma and was taken up into neurons in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, etc. IP injection of glucose 2 h before a task that combined acquisition with passive avoidance significantly increased retention of avoidance by mice tested 24 h later. In a Morris water maze task, IP glucose injection 2 h before a first trial block reduced time to find and climb onto a platform hidden just below the water surface. The glucose facilitation of these affective and spatial memory were abolished by pretreatment with anti-aFGF antibody applied ICV. Continuous ICV infusion of aFGF into rats also significantly increased the reliability of passive avoidance for several days. After food intake, centrally released aFGF reaches the hippocampus and facilitates memory; peripherally released cholecystokinin reaches the endings of the afferent vagal nerves in the portal vein and changes their activity, which modulates hippocampal activity, to lead to memory facilitation. This, however, is blocked by vagotomy below the diaphragm. The results indicate the importance of food intake, not only to maintain homeostasis, but also to prepare a readiness state for memory facilitation. PMID:7692459

  15. Drug-facilitated sexual assault ('date rape').

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Milteer, R; LeBeau, M A

    2000-06-01

    In the past few years, drug-facilitated sexual assaults have received widespread media coverage. In addition to alcohol, the most frequently used date-rape drug, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), a fast-acting benzodiazepine, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its congeners are among the most popular drugs used for this purpose. The latter drug is easily procured at some gymnasiums, popular bars, discos, and rave clubs, as well as over the Internet. Perpetrators choose these drugs because they act rapidly, produce disinhibition and relaxation of voluntary muscles, and cause the victim to have lasting anterograde amnesia for events that occur under the influence of the drug. Alcoholic beverages potentiate the drug effects. We review several date-rape drugs, provide information on laboratory testing for them, and offer guidelines for preventing drug-facilitated sexual assault. PMID:10881768

  16. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    PubMed

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition.

  17. How academic teachers perceive and facilitate creativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjørner, Thomas; Busk Kofoed, Lise

    2013-10-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity and how do they facilitate it? Many of the answers point to the pedagogical approach used in problem-based learning, which are perceived as an important element for the creative process. In this paper we will also argue the importance of including the social context (both at a macro and at a micro level) in the definition and use of creativity in engineering education.

  18. Generic language facilitates children's cross-classification

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific language. Experiment 1 showed that generics facilitate 5-year-olds' and adults' cross-classification when expressed at an appropriate level of generalization (e.g., “foods,” “birthday party things”), whereas Experiment 2 showed that such effects disappeared when labels were at an inappropriate level of generalization (e.g., “pizzas,” “balloons”). Experiments 3 and 4 offered additional controls. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that language can guide and direct children's multiple categorizations. PMID:22888182

  19. Does supplementary reinforcement of stereotypy facilitate extinction?

    PubMed

    Dozier, Claudia L; Iwata, Brian A; Wilson, David M; Thomason-Sassi, Jessica L; Roscoe, Eileen M

    2013-01-01

    Results of several studies suggest that delivery of supplemental (social) reinforcement for stereotypy might facilitate its subsequent extinction. We examined this possibility with 9 subjects who engaged in stereotypy by including methodological refinements to ensure that (a) subjects' stereotypy was maintained in the absence of social consequences, (b) supplementary reinforcers were highly preferred and were shown to be reinforcers for some behavior, and (c) subjects were exposed to lengthy reinforcement and extinction conditions. In spite of these modifications, only 4 subjects' stereotypy increased when supplementary reinforcement was delivered contingent on stereotypy, and no subject's stereotypy decreased below initial baseline levels when social reinforcement was subsequently withheld. Decreases in stereotypy occurred with the implementation of noncontingent reinforcement. Thus, delivery of supplementary reinforcers either did not increase stereotypy or did not facilitate extinction of stereotypy maintained by automatic reinforcement. We discuss the practical and conceptual bases of these results with respect to our current understanding of function-based interventions.

  20. Facilitating emergent change in a healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    During my doctoral research, I identified new ways of thinking about complexity in organizations. This involved embracing the capacity of complex systems to find their own form of order and coherence, often referred to as self-organization, and then asking the question, "What can organizational leaders do to create the systems and structures that would facilitate emergent change?" Emergent change comes from within and through the active members of a system and not according to some external prompting or design. This results in the sort of change capacity that enables an organization to be agile and resilient through a high level of employee engagement. The question was answered by identifying and validating organizational-specific factors that facilitate emergent change.

  1. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  2. A facilitated mentoring process for engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, L.; Clark, M.

    1993-11-01

    Mentoring has been occurring in organizations for many, many years through a natural pairing process of people wanting to help one another. The numerous benefits of mentoring to both the protege and the mentor are widely known. In this paper we describe a Facilitated Mentoring Pilot Program for engineers, successfully completed in June, 1993. This career development tool can help make ``Every Engineer a Leader.``

  3. Conditions under which lorazepam can facilitate retrieval.

    PubMed

    File, S E; Fluck, E; Joyce, E M

    1999-08-01

    Memory is composed of three stages: acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval. By impairing acquisition processes, benzodiazepines cause anterograde amnesia while leaving intact information learned before the drug was taken. In some circumstances, retrieval of this information is even improved by benzodiazepines. It has been hypothesized that this phenomenon is not a true facilitation of retrieval processes, but is the result of reduced interference from items presented after drug administration and is thus a secondary consequence of drug-induced amnesia. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of 0.5, 1, and 2.5 mg of lorazepam on explicit episodic memory in healthy young volunteers. The 1-mg dose was found to significantly improve recall of items presented before drug administration without causing amnesia for items presented after drug administration, thus excluding an interference explanation. Experiment 2 investigated the conditions necessary to obtain facilitated retrieval with 1 mg of lorazepam. The results showed that facilitation was found only when two lists of semantically related material were presented, but that both of the lists could be presented before drug administration, thus excluding an effect of lorazepam on consolidation. Facilitation could be demonstrated in both direct (free recall) and indirect (backwards reading) retrieval tasks and when all of the material was presented after lorazepam administration. This improved retrieval could therefore be of clinical relevance, but any benefits would be reduced at higher doses that at the same time impair acquisition of new information. However, because 1 mg of lorazepam is an effective anxiolytic dose, these results suggest that it is possible to combine effective anxiety reduction with some benefits to memory.

  4. Cognitive Fatigue Facilitates Procedural Sequence Learning

    PubMed Central

    Borragán, Guillermo; Slama, Hichem; Destrebecqz, Arnaud; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced procedural learning has been evidenced in conditions where cognitive control is diminished, including hypnosis, disruption of prefrontal activity and non-optimal time of the day. Another condition depleting the availability of controlled resources is cognitive fatigue (CF). We tested the hypothesis that CF, eventually leading to diminished cognitive control, facilitates procedural sequence learning. In a two-day experiment, 23 young healthy adults were administered a serial reaction time task (SRTT) following the induction of high or low levels of CF, in a counterbalanced order. CF was induced using the Time load Dual-back (TloadDback) paradigm, a dual working memory task that allows tailoring cognitive load levels to the individual’s optimal performance capacity. In line with our hypothesis, reaction times (RT) in the SRTT were faster in the high- than in the low-level fatigue condition, and performance improvement was higher for the sequential than the motor components. Altogether, our results suggest a paradoxical, facilitating impact of CF on procedural motor sequence learning. We propose that facilitated learning in the high-level fatigue condition stems from a reduction in the cognitive resources devoted to cognitive control processes that normally oppose automatic procedural acquisition mechanisms. PMID:26973501

  5. Chimpanzee lip-smacking facilitates cooperative behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E.; Hartel, Jessica A.; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Signalling plays an important role in facilitating and maintaining affiliative or cooperative interactions in social animals. Social grooming in primates is an example of an interaction that requires coordination between partners but little is known about communicative behaviours facilitating this activity. In this study, we analysed the communication of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, as they entered and maintained a naturally occurring cooperative interaction: social grooming. We found that lip-smacking, a distinct multimodal oral gesture produced during grooming, coordinated this activity. Lip-smacking at the beginning of grooming bouts was significantly more often followed by longer and reciprocated bouts than silent grooming initiations. Lip-smacks were more likely to be produced when the risk of termination of the interaction by the recipient was high, for instance when grooming vulnerable body parts. Groomers were also more likely to produce lip-smacks during face-to-face grooming where the visual aspect of the signal could be perceived. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzee lip-smacks function to coordinate and prolong social grooming, suggesting that this oral signal is an example of a communicative behaviour facilitating cooperative behaviour in chimpanzees. PMID:26293777

  6. Selective Activation of Microglia Facilitates Synaptic Strength

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anna K.; Gruber-Schoffnegger, Doris; Drdla-Schutting, Ruth; Gerhold, Katharina J.; Malcangio, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is thought to be initiated by neurons only, with the prevailing view assigning glial cells mere specify supportive functions for synaptic transmission and plasticity. We now demonstrate that glial cells can control synaptic strength independent of neuronal activity. Here we show that selective activation of microglia in the rat is sufficient to rapidly facilitate synaptic strength between primary afferent C-fibers and lamina I neurons, the first synaptic relay in the nociceptive pathway. Specifically, the activation of the CX3CR1 receptor by fractalkine induces the release of interleukin-1β from microglia, which modulates NMDA signaling in postsynaptic neurons, leading to the release of an eicosanoid messenger, which ultimately enhances presynaptic neurotransmitter release. In contrast to the conventional view, this form of plasticity does not require enhanced neuronal activity to trigger the events leading to synaptic facilitation. Augmentation of synaptic strength in nociceptive pathways represents a cellular model of pain amplification. The present data thus suggest that, under chronic pain states, CX3CR1-mediated activation of microglia drives the facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, which contributes to pain hypersensitivity in chronic pain states. PMID:25788673

  7. Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Flynn, Shaun; Brockway, Emma; Kaugars, Katherine; Baldi, Rita; Ramikie, Teniel S; Cinar, Resat; Kunos, George; Patel, Sachin; Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologically elevating brain endocannabinoids (eCBs) share anxiolytic and fear extinction-facilitating properties with classical therapeutics, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. There are also known functional interactions between the eCB and serotonin systems and preliminary evidence that antidepressants cause alterations in brain eCBs. However, the potential role of eCBs in mediating the facilitatory effects of fluoxetine on fear extinction has not been established. Here, to test for a possible mechanistic contribution of eCBs to fluoxetine's proextinction effects, we integrated biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral techniques, using the extinction-impaired 129S1/Sv1mJ mouse strain. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced a significant and selective increase in levels of anandamide in the BLA, and an associated decrease in activity of the anandamide-catabolizing enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that fluoxetine-induced increases in anandamide were associated with the amplification of eCB-mediated tonic constraint of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission in the BLA. Behaviorally, chronic fluoxetine facilitated extinction retrieval in a manner that was prevented by systemic or BLA-specific blockade of CB1 receptors. In contrast to fluoxetine, citalopram treatment did not increase BLA eCBs or facilitate extinction. Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major pharmacotherapy for trauma- and stressor-related disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:26514583

  8. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO). However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM) tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and will be updated on regular

  9. Facilitation of glutamate receptors enhances memory.

    PubMed Central

    Staubli, U; Rogers, G; Lynch, G

    1994-01-01

    A benzamide drug that crosses the blood-brain barrier and facilitates DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated synaptic responses was tested for its effects on memory in three behavioral tasks. The compound reversibly increased the amplitude and prolonged the duration of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in hippocampal slices and produced comparable effects in the dentgate gyrus in situ after intraperitoneal injections. Rats injected with the drug 30 min prior to being given a suboptimal number of training trials in a two-odor discrimination task were more likely than controls to select the correct odor in a retention test carried out 96 hr later. Evidence for improved memory was also obtained in a water maze task in which rats were given only four trials to find a submerged platform in the presence of spatial cues; animals injected with the drug 30 min before the training session were significantly faster than vehicle-injected controls in returning to the platform location when tested 24 hr after training. Finally, the drug produced positive effects in a radial maze test of short-term memory. Well trained rats were allowed to retrieve rewards from four arms of an eight-arm maze and then tested for reentry errors 8 hr later. The number of such errors was substantially reduced on days in which the animals were injected with the drug before initial learning. These results indicate that a drug that facilitates glutamatergic transmission enhances the encoding of memory across tasks involving different sensory cues and performance requirements. This may reflect an action on the cellular mechanisms responsible for producing synaptic changes since facilitation of AMPA receptors promotes the induction of the long-term potentiation effect. PMID:8290599

  10. A new 'enterocompressor' to facilitate rectal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Barraza, R P

    1990-02-01

    A newly devised enterocompressor facilitates low rectal anastomosis in children with Hirschsprung's disease. This simple surgical instrument, composed of two semicylindrical valves, a hinge, and a regulating screw, maintains intestinal anastomoses properly placed and produces spur crushing. In addition, it is inexpensive and reusable. The enterocompressor, used in 33 primary and 15 secondary Duhamel operations, and applied to normalize intestinal transit in 10 colectomies, provided adequate anastomosis and prevented leakage of intestinal contents. This enterocompressor can be used safely in children as young as six months of age. PMID:2298104

  11. Reality based scenarios facilitate knowledge network development.

    PubMed

    Manning, J; Broughton, V; McConnell, E A

    1995-03-01

    The challenge in nursing education is to create a learning environment that enables students to learn new knowledge, access previously acquired information from a variety of disciplines, and apply this newly constructed knowledge to the complex and constantly changing world of practice. Faculty at the University of South Australia, School of Nursing, City Campus describe the use of reality based scenarios to acquire domain-specific knowledge and develop well connected associative knowledge networks, both of which facilitate theory based practice and the student's transition to the role of registered nurse.

  12. Facilitation and practice in verb acquisition.

    PubMed

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by intensive use and common word order errors--and this slows down learning during the early stages of acquiring a structure. The facilitation and practice hypotheses were tested on naturalistic production samples of six Hebrew-acquiring children ranging from ages 1;1 to 2;7 (average ages 1;6 to 2;4 months). Results show that most structures did in fact accelerate; the notion of 'practice' is supported by the inverse correlation found between number of verbs and number of errors in the earliest productions in a given structure; and the absence of acceleration in a minority of the structures is due to the fact that they involve relatively less practice. PMID:17017277

  13. Both predictability and familiarity facilitate contour integration.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Michaël; Demeyer, Maarten; Machilsen, Bart; Putzeys, Tom; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-05-30

    Research has shown that contour detection is impaired in the visual periphery for snake-shaped Gabor contours but not for circular and elliptical contours. This discrepancy in findings could be due to differences in intrinsic shape properties, including shape closure and curvature variation, as well as to differences in stimulus predictability and familiarity. In a detection task using only circular contours, the target shape is both more familiar and more predictable to the observer compared with a detection task in which a different snake-shaped contour is presented on each trial. In this study, we investigated the effects of stimulus familiarity and predictability on contour integration by manipulating and disentangling the familiarity and predictability of snakelike stimuli. We manipulated stimulus familiarity by extensively training observers with one particular snake shape. Predictability was varied by alternating trial blocks with only a single target shape and trial blocks with multiple target shapes. Our results show that both predictability and familiarity facilitated contour integration, which constitutes novel behavioral evidence for the adaptivity of the contour integration mechanism in humans. If familiarity or predictability facilitated contour integration in the periphery specifically, this could explain the discrepant findings obtained with snake contours as compared with circles or ellipses. However, we found that their facilitatory effects did not differ between central and peripheral vision and thus cannot explain that particular discrepancy in the literature.

  14. Pathways by which Abeta facilitates tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Blurton-Jones, Mathew; Laferla, Frank M

    2006-12-01

    Since the initial description one hundred years ago by Dr. Alois Alzheimer, the disorder that bears his name has been characterized by the occurrence of two brain lesions: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Yet the precise relationship between beta-amyloid (Abeta) and tau, the two proteins that accumulate within these lesions, has proven elusive. Today, a growing body of work supports the notion that Abeta may directly or indirectly interact with tau to accelerate NFT formation. Here we review recent evidence that Abeta can adversely affect distinct molecular and cellular pathways, thereby facilitating tau phosphorylation, aggregation, mis-localization, and accumulation. Studies are presented that support four putative mechanisms by which Abeta may facilitate the development of tau pathology. A great deal of work suggests that Abeta may drive tau pathology by activating specific kinases, providing a straightforward mechanism by which Abeta may enhance tau hyperphosphorylation and NFT formation. In the AD brain, Abeta also triggers a massive inflammatory response and pro-inflammatory cytokines can in turn indirectly modulate tau phosphorylation. Mounting evidence also suggests that Abeta may inhibit tau degradation via the proteasome. Lastly, Abeta and tau may indirectly interact at the level of axonal transport and evidence is presented for two possible scenarios by which axonal transport deficits may play a role. We propose that the four putative mechanisms described in this review likely mediate the interactions between Abeta and tau, thereby leading to the development of AD neurodegeneration.

  15. Shear stress facilitates tissue-engineered odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Honda, M J; Shinohara, Y; Sumita, Y; Tonomura, A; Kagami, H; Ueda, M

    2006-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the effect of shear stress on osteoblasts, but its effect on odontogenic cells has never been reported. In this study, we focused on the effect of shear stress on facilitating tissue-engineered odontogenesis by dissociated single cells. Cells were harvested from the porcine third molar tooth at the early stage of crown formation, and the isolated heterogeneous cells were seeded on a biodegradable polyglycolic acid fiber mesh. Then, cell-polymer constructs with and without exposure to shear stress were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. In in vitro studies, the expression of both epithelial and mesenchymal odontogenic-related mRNAs was significantly enhanced by shear stress for 2 h. At 12 h after exposure to shear stress, the expression of amelogenin, bone sialoprotein and vimentin protein was significantly enhanced compared with that of control. Moreover, after 7 days, alkaline phosphatase activity exhibited a significant increase without any significant effect on cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, enamel and dentin tissues formed after 15 weeks of in vivo implantation in constructs exposure to in vitro shear stress for 12 h. Such was not the case in controls. We concluded that shear stress facilitates odontogenic cell differentiation in vitro as well as the process of tooth tissue engineering in vivo.

  16. Best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Needham, Judith; McMurray, Anne; Shaban, Ramon Z

    2016-09-01

    Clinical facilitation is critical to successful student clinical experience. The research reported in this paper used an interpretive case study to explore perspectives of clinical facilitators on what constitutes best practice in clinical facilitation of undergraduate nursing students. Eleven clinical facilitators from South East Queensland, Australia, participated in focus groups, interviews and a concept mapping exercise to gather their perspectives on best practice. The data gathered information regarding their prior and current experiences as registered nurses and facilitators, considering reasons they became clinical facilitators, their educational background and self-perceived adequacy of their knowledge for clinical facilitation. Analysis was through constant comparison. Findings of the study provided in-depth insight into the role of clinical facilitators, with best practice conceptualised via three main themes; 'assessing', 'learning to facilitate' and 'facilitating effectively'. While they felt there was some autonomy in the role, the clinical facilitators sought a closer liaison with academic staff and feedback about their performance, in particular their assessment of the students. Key strategies identified for improving best practice included educational support for the clinical facilitators, networking, and mentoring from more experienced clinical facilitators. When implemented, these strategies will help develop the clinical facilitators' skills and ensure quality clinical experiences for undergraduate nursing students. PMID:27580169

  17. Transforming PICU Culture to Facilitate Early Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Ramona O.; Choong, Karen; Zebuhr, Carleen A.; Kudchadkar, Sapna R.

    2016-01-01

    Children who survive a critical illness are at risk of developing significant, long-lasting morbidities that may include neuromuscular weakness, cognitive impairments, and new mental health disorders. These morbidities, collectively known as post–intensive care syndrome (PICS), may lead to functional impairments, difficulty in school and social settings, and reduced quality of life. Interventions aimed at rehabilitation such as early mobilization, sedation minimization and prevention of ICU-acquired weakness, delirium, and posttraumatic stress disorder may lead to improved clinical outcomes and functional recovery in critically ill children. Acute rehabilitation is challenging to implement in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and a culture change is needed to effect widespread transformation in this setting. Our objectives in this article are to review the evidence on PICS in children and strategies for affecting culture change to facilitate early rehabilitation in the PICU. PMID:27134761

  18. Bacterial Nanowires Facilitate Extracellular Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorby, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, including Shewanella oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens, produce electrically conductive nanowires that facilitate electron transfer to solid phase iron oxides. Nanowires produced by S. oneidensis strain MR-1 are functionalized by decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA that are distributed along the length of the nanowires, as confirmed by immunolocalization experiments using peptide specific antibodies. Mutants lacking MtrC and OmcA produce nanowires that were poorly conductive, are unable to reduce solid phase iron oxides, and do not produce electric current in microbial fuel cells. Although less completely characterized, nanowires are also produced by organisms throughout a broad metabolic spectrum, from sulfate reducing bacteria to oxygenic, phototrophic cyanobacteria. Our research suggests that electrically conductive nanowires may be common throughout the microbial world and may serve as structures for efficient electron transfer and energy dissemination in complex communities such as microbial mats and biofilms.

  19. GLIAL ANKYRINS FACILITATE PARANODAL AXOGLIAL JUNCTION ASSEMBLY

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kae-Jiun; Zollinger, Daniel R.; Susuki, Keiichiro; Sherman, Diane L.; Makara, Michael A.; Brophy, Peter J.; Cooper, Edward C.; Bennett, Vann; Mohler, Peter J.; Rasband, Matthew N.

    2014-01-01

    Neuron-glia interactions establish functional membrane domains along myelinated axons. These include nodes of Ranvier, paranodal axoglial junctions, and juxtaparanodes. Paranodal junctions are the largest vertebrate junctional adhesion complex, are essential for rapid saltatory conduction, and contribute to assembly and maintenance of nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying paranodal junction assembly are poorly understood. Ankyrins are cytoskeletal scaffolds traditionally associated with Na+ channel clustering in neurons and important for membrane domain establishment and maintenance in many cell types. Here, we show that ankyrinB, expressed by Schwann cells, and ankyrinG, expressed by oligodendrocytes, are highly enriched at the glial side of paranodal junctions where they interact with the essential glial junctional component neurofascin 155. Conditional knockout of ankyrins in oligodendrocytes disrupts paranodal junction assembly and delays nerve conduction during early development in mice. Thus, glial ankyrins function as major scaffolds that facilitate early and efficient paranodal junction assembly in the developing central nervous system. PMID:25362471

  20. The helical structure of DNA facilitates binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Otto G.; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan

    2016-09-01

    The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction-diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general.

  1. RGB marking facilitates multicolor clonal cell tracking.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristoffer; Thomaschewski, Michael; Warlich, Michael; Volz, Tassilo; Cornils, Kerstin; Niebuhr, Birte; Täger, Maike; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Pollok, Jörg-Matthias; Stocking, Carol; Dandri, Maura; Benten, Daniel; Fehse, Boris

    2011-04-01

    We simultaneously transduced cells with three lentiviral gene ontology (LeGO) vectors encoding red, green or blue fluorescent proteins. Individual cells were thereby marked by different combinations of inserted vectors, resulting in the generation of numerous mixed colors, a principle we named red-green-blue (RGB) marking. We show that lentiviral vector-mediated RGB marking remained stable after cell division, thus facilitating the analysis of clonal cell fates in vitro and in vivo. Particularly, we provide evidence that RGB marking allows assessment of clonality after regeneration of injured livers by transplanted primary hepatocytes. We also used RGB vectors to mark hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that generated colored spleen colonies. Finally, based on limiting-dilution and serial transplantation assays with tumor cells, we found that clonal tumor cells retained their specific color-code over extensive periods of time. We conclude that RGB marking represents a useful tool for cell clonality studies in tissue regeneration and pathology. PMID:21441917

  2. Facilitating critical discourse through "meaningful disagreement" online.

    PubMed

    Dalley-Hewer, Jayne; Clouder, Deanne Lynn; Jackson, Ann; Goodman, Simon; Bluteau, Patricia; Davies, Bernadette

    2012-11-01

    This paper is concerned with identifying ways of facilitating "meaningful disagreement" amongst students in interprofessional online discussion forums. It builds on previous research that identified a trend toward polite agreement and only limited evidence of disagreement in this setting. Given the suggestion that disagreement indicates a deeper level of engagement in group discussion and therefore leads to deeper learning, our aim was to critique the pedagogical approach adopted by analyzing whether we were promoting a particular interprofessional discourse amongst students that favored agreement and therefore limited potential learning. Agreement in this context has been conceptualized as a form of online interprofessional "netiquette" existing amongst participants. Findings suggest that creating an online context for critical discourse is challenging; however, the careful construction of learning outcomes, trigger material/resources and learning activities, as well as attention to students' stage of study and life experience, can provoke the desired effects. PMID:22897367

  3. Component with inspection-facilitating features

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, John J; Zombo, Paul J

    2014-02-11

    A turbine airfoil can be formed with features to facilitate measurement of its wall thickness. An outer wall of the airfoil can include an outer surface and an inner surface. The outer surface of the airfoil can have an outer inspection target surface, and the inner surface of the airfoil can have an inner inspection target surface. The inner and outer target surfaces can define substantially flat regions in surfaces that are otherwise highly contoured. The inner and outer inspection target surfaces can be substantially aligned with each other. The inner and outer target surfaces can be substantially parallel to each other. As a result of these arrangements, a highly accurate measurement of wall thickness can be obtained. In one embodiment, the outer inspection target surface can be defined by an innermost surface of a groove formed in the outer surface of the outer wall of the airfoil.

  4. The helical structure of DNA facilitates binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Otto G.; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan

    2016-09-01

    The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction–diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general.

  5. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  6. Facilitating disaster preparedness through local radio broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Romo-Murphy, Eila; James, Ross; Adams, Mike

    2011-10-01

    The 2008 Disaster Mitigation Preparedness (DMP) study took place in Aceh province, Indonesia. It sought to help develop radio programmes and messages to increase resilience to disasters. The role of radio was evaluated during and after the 2004 Asian tsunami disaster. The study team interviewed 984 tsunami survivors from nine sub-districts of Banda Aceh, and local nongovernmental organisations convened eight focus groups around the area of Aceh Besar. Six key informant interviews were held with government disaster management agencies. The DMP survey is the first of its kind to interview a representative random sample of Banda Aceh residents. It reveals the importance of community and social networks, during disaster situations, when essential communications are down. A disaster warning information system based on a multi-media approach needs to be developed. The wider community should be involved in the planning, education and training of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar residents to facilitate appropriate personal and community survival strategies.

  7. Semantic facilitation in bilingual first language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Bilson, Samuel; Yoshida, Hanako; Tran, Crystal D; Woods, Elizabeth A; Hills, Thomas T

    2015-07-01

    Bilingual first language learners face unique challenges that may influence the rate and order of early word learning relative to monolinguals. A comparison of the productive vocabularies of 435 children between the ages of 6 months and 7 years-181 of which were bilingual English learners-found that monolinguals learned both English words and all-language concepts faster than bilinguals. However, bilinguals showed an enhancement of an effect previously found in monolinguals-the preference for learning words with more associative cues. Though both monolinguals and bilinguals were best fit by a similar model of word learning, semantic network structure and growth indicated that the two groups were learning English words in a different order. Further, in comparison with a model of two-monolinguals-in-one-mind, bilinguals overproduced translational equivalents. Our results support an emergent account of bilingual first language acquisition, where learning a word in one language facilitates its acquisition in a second language.

  8. Facilitative glucose transporters in livestock species.

    PubMed

    Hocquette, J F; Abe, H

    2000-01-01

    The study of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) requires carefully done immunological experiments and sensitive molecular biology approaches to identify the various mechanisms which control GLUT expression at the RNA and protein levels. The cloning of species-specific GLUT cDNAs showed that GLUT4 and GLUT1 diverge less among species than other GLUT isoforms. The key role of GLUT in glucose homeostasis has been demonstrated in livestock species. In vitro studies have suggested specific roles of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in avian cells. In vivo studies have demonstrated a regulation of GLUTs (especially of GLUT4) by nutritional and hormonal factors in pigs and cattle, in lactating cows and goats and throughout the foetal life in the placenta and tissues of lambs and calves. All these results suggest that any changes in GLUT expression and activity (such as GLUT4 in muscles) could modify nutrient partitioning and tissue metabolism, and hence, the qualities of animal products (milk, meat).

  9. Facilitating consumer access to health information.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.

  10. Facilitating scholarly writing in academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Pololi, Linda; Knight, Sharon; Dunn, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scholarly writing is a critical skill for faculty in academic medicine; however, few faculty receive instruction in the process. We describe the experience of 18 assistant professors who participated in a writing and faculty development program which consisted of 7 monthly 75-minute sessions embedded in a Collaborative Mentoring Program (CMP). Participants identified barriers to writing, developed personal writing strategies, had time to write, and completed monthly writing contracts. Participants provided written responses to open-ended questions about the learning experience, and at the end of the program, participants identified manuscripts submitted for publication, and completed an audiotaped interview. Analysis of qualitative data using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing/verification showed that this writing program facilitated the knowledge, skills, and support needed to foster writing productivity. All participants completed at least 1 scholarly manuscript by the end of the CMP. The impact on participants' future academic productivity requires long-term follow-up.

  11. Dissociative Tendencies and Facilitated Emotional Processing

    PubMed Central

    Oathes, Desmond J.; Ray, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Dissociation is a process linked to lapses of attention, history of abuse or trauma, compromised emotional memory, and a disintegrated sense of self. It is theorized that dissociation stems from avoiding emotional information, especially negative emotion, to protect a fragile psyche. The present study tested whether or not dissociaters do actually avoid processing emotion by asking groups scoring high or low on the Dissociative Experiences Scale to judge the affective valence of several types of emotional stimuli. Manipulations of valence, modality (pictures or words), task complexity, and personal relevance lead to results suggesting that dissociation is linked to facilitated rather than deficient emotional processing. Our results are consistent with a theory that sensitivity to emotional material may be a contributing factor in subsequent dissociation to avoid further elaboration of upsetting emotion in these individuals. The findings for dissociation further exemplify the influence of individual differences in the link between cognition and emotion. PMID:18837615

  12. Brief fear preexposure facilitates subsequent fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Satoshi; Sakaguchi, Tetsuya; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that occurs following an unexpected exposure to a severe psychological event. A history of a brief trauma is reported to affect a risk for future PTSD development; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which a previous trauma exposure drives the sensitivity to a late-coming trauma. Using a mouse PTSD model, we found that a prior foot shock enhances contextual fear conditioning. This shock-induced facilitation of fear conditioning (i.e., priming effect) persisted for 7 days and was prevented by MK801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. Other types of trauma, such as forced swimming or tail pinch, did not induce a priming effect on fear conditioning. Thus, a trauma is unlikely generalized to modify the sensitivity to other traumatic experiences. The behavioral procedure employed in this study may be a useful tool to elucidate the etiology of PTSD.

  13. Cognitive Facilitation Following Intentional Odor Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence that, in addition to incidental olfactory pollutants, intentional odor delivery can impact cognitive operations both positively and negatively. Evidence for cognitive facilitation/interference is reviewed alongside four potential explanations for odor-induced effects. It is concluded that the pharmacological properties of odors can induce changes in cognition. However, these effects can be accentuated/attenuated by the shift in mood following odor exposure, expectancy of cognitive effects, and cues to behavior via the contextual association with the odor. It is proposed that greater consideration is required in the intentional utilization of odors within both industrial and private locations, since differential effects are observed for odors with positive hedonic qualities. PMID:22163909

  14. NIRPS - Solutions Facilitator Team Overview and Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas M., III; Childress, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    National Institute for Rocket Propulsion Systems (NIRPS) purpose is to help preserve and align government and private rocket propulsion capabilities to meet present and future US commercial, civil, and defense needs, while providing authoritative insight and recommendations to National decisional authorities. Stewardship: Monitor and analyze the state of the industry in order to formulate and recommend National Policy options and strategies that promote a healthy industrial base and ensure best-value for the American taxpayer. Technology: Identify technology needs and recommend technology insertions by leading roadmap assessments and actively participating in program formulation activities. Solutions Facilitator/Provider: Maintain relationships and awareness across the Government, industry and academia, to align available capacity with emerging demand.

  15. Huntingtin facilitates polycomb repressive complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Ihn Sik; Woda, Juliana M.; Song, Ji-Joon; Lloret, Alejandro; Abeyrathne, Priyanka D.; Woo, Caroline J.; Gregory, Gillian; Lee, Jong-Min; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; Walz, Thomas; Kingston, Robert E.; Gusella, James F.; Conlon, Ronald A.; MacDonald, Marcy E.

    2010-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by expansion of the polymorphic polyglutamine segment in the huntingtin protein. Full-length huntingtin is thought to be a predominant HEAT repeat α-solenoid, implying a role as a facilitator of macromolecular complexes. Here we have investigated huntingtin's domain structure and potential intersection with epigenetic silencer polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), suggested by shared embryonic deficiency phenotypes. Analysis of a set of full-length recombinant huntingtins, with different polyglutamine regions, demonstrated dramatic conformational flexibility, with an accessible hinge separating two large α-helical domains. Moreover, embryos lacking huntingtin exhibited impaired PRC2 regulation of Hox gene expression, trophoblast giant cell differentiation, paternal X chromosome inactivation and histone H3K27 tri-methylation, while full-length endogenous nuclear huntingtin in wild-type embryoid bodies (EBs) was associated with PRC2 subunits and was detected with trimethylated histone H3K27 at Hoxb9. Supporting a direct stimulatory role, full-length recombinant huntingtin significantly increased the histone H3K27 tri-methylase activity of reconstituted PRC2 in vitro, and structure–function analysis demonstrated that the polyglutamine region augmented full-length huntingtin PRC2 stimulation, both in HdhQ111 EBs and in vitro, with reconstituted PRC2. Knowledge of full-length huntingtin's α-helical organization and role as a facilitator of the multi-subunit PRC2 complex provides a novel starting point for studying PRC2 regulation, implicates this chromatin repressive complex in a neurodegenerative disorder and sets the stage for further study of huntingtin's molecular function and the impact of its modulatory polyglutamine region. PMID:19933700

  16. Histamine facilitates consolidation of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Juliana Sartori; Da Silva, Weber Cláudio; Da Silveira, Clarice Kras Borges; Köhler, Cristiano André; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2011-10-01

    Non-reinforced retrieval induces memory extinction, a phenomenon characterized by a decrease in the intensity of the learned response. This attribute has been used to develop extinction-based therapies to treat anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders. Histamine modulates memory and anxiety but its role on fear extinction has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, using male Wistar rats, we determined the effect of the intra-hippocampal administration of different histaminergic agents on the extinction of step-down inhibitory avoidance (IA), a form of aversive learning. We found that intra-CA1 infusion of histamine immediately after non-reinforced retrieval facilitated consolidation of IA extinction in a dose-dependent manner. This facilitation was mimicked by the histamine N-methyltransferase inhibitor SKF91488 and the H2 receptor agonist dimaprit, reversed by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine, and unaffected by the H1 antagonist pyrilamine, the H3 antagonist thioperamide and the antagonist at the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) polyamine-binding site ifenprodil. Neither the H1 agonist 2-2-pyridylethylamine nor the NMDAR polyamine-binding site agonist spermidine affected the consolidation of extinction while the H3 receptor agonist imetit hampered it. Extinction induced the phosphorylation of ERK1 in dorsal CA1 while intra-CA1 infusion of the MEK inhibitor U0126 blocked extinction of the avoidance response. The extinction-induced phosphorylation of ERK1 was enhanced by histamine and dimaprit and blocked by ranitidine administered to dorsal CA1 after non-reinforced retrieval. Taken together, our data indicate that the hippocampal histaminergic system modulates the consolidation of fear extinction through a mechanism involving the H2-dependent activation of ERK signalling.

  17. Facilitation in Action: The Reflective Practice of Two Facilitators Using a Participation Training Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treff, Marjorie E.; Earnest, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of two graduate faculty members from Indiana University who facilitated two workshops sponsored by Ball State University at Highlander Research and Education Center, one in May of 2013, and another in May of 2014. We describe the history of Participation Training, the program we used to plan and conduct…

  18. Plastic preforms facilitate fabrication of welded cordwood electronic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    Molded plastic preform facilitates the fabrication of small lots of welded cordwood circuits. The preforms retain the components during welding and electrical checkout and facilitate encapsulation of the welded module when used with a conventional potting shell.

  19. The Role of the Facilitator on Total Quality Management Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakin, William L.

    1993-01-01

    As Total Quality Management teams work to improve organizational processes, several types of facilitators emerge: the director, the workhorse, and the cheerleader. Experience at the University of Kansas illustrates how different facilitator styles can affect team learning. (MSE)

  20. Oligonucleotide facilitators may inhibit or activate a hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Jankowsky, E; Schwenzer, B

    1996-01-01

    Facilitators are oligonucleotides capable of affecting hammerhead ribozyme activity by interacting with the substrate at the termini of the ribozyme. Facilitator effects were determined in vitro using a system consisting of a ribozyme with 7 nucleotides in every stem sequence and two substrates with inverted facilitator binding sequences. The effects of 9mer and 12mer RNA as well as DNA facilitators which bind either adjacent to the 3'- or 5'-end of the ribozyme were investigated. A kinetic model was developed which allows determination of the apparent dissociation constant of the ribozyme-substrate complex from single turnover reactions. We observed a decreased dissociation constant of the ribozyme-substrate complex due to facilitator addition corresponding to an additional stabilization energy of delta delta G=-1.7 kcal/mol with 3'-end facilitators. The cleavage rate constant was increased by 3'-end facilitators and decreased by 5'-end facilitators. Values for Km were slightly lowered by all facilitators and kcat was increased by 3'-end facilitators and decreased by 5'-end facilitators in our system. Generally the facilitator effects increased with the length of the facilitators and RNA provided greater effects than DNA of the same sequence. Results suggest facilitator influences on several steps of the hammerhead reaction, substrate association, cleavage and dissociation of products. Moreover, these effects are dependent in different manners on ribozyme and substrate concentration. This leads to the conclusion that there is a concentration dependence whether activation or inhibition is caused by facilitators. Conclusions are drawn with regard to the design of hammerhead ribozyme facilitator systems. PMID:8602353

  1. The Dynamics of Syntax Acquisition: Facilitation between Syntactic Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; Keren, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper sets out to show how facilitation between different clause structures operates over time in syntax acquisition. The phenomenon of facilitation within given structures has been widely documented, yet inter-structure facilitation has rarely been reported so far. Our findings are based on the naturalistic production corpora of six toddlers…

  2. A Gestalt Point of View on Facilitating Growth in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    If counselors are to be facilitators of client growth, it would seem essentail that they become familiar with the concept of growth and ways to facilitate it. The author defines growth from a gestalt therapy point of view and provides techniques and examples of ways to facilitate client growth. (Author)

  3. Assessing Facilitator Performance as an Influence on Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Scotty; May, David

    2011-01-01

    Growth in class size within the online environment has resulted in a facilitator model in which an instructor teaches the class with the assistance of facilitators who interact with students in smaller groups. This research sought to determine the effectiveness of a structured performance evaluation for facilitators and the correlation to student…

  4. Facilitating the Design of a Campus Leadership Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Renee A.; Johnson, John R.

    2008-01-01

    This essay describes how we facilitated the design of a campus leadership team. What is particularly interesting about this consultative project is that both authors participated--one as facilitator and the other as participant. The facilitation included a needs assessment prior to the event, the use of structured controversy techniques,…

  5. 31 CFR 537.418 - Facilitating new investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Facilitating new investment. 537.418... § 537.418 Facilitating new investment. Consistent with § 537.530, U.S. persons may approve, finance, facilitate, or guarantee new investment by foreign persons provided such new investment is not pursuant to...

  6. The facilitator: as teams battle to be effective.

    PubMed

    McChesney, H

    1995-05-01

    In this article, you will learn the role facilitators play in team operations, including several power and authority models that can be used. Various group dynamics that facilitators must deal with in team situations will be identified. A suggested facilitator training curriculum is also included.

  7. Free radical facilitated damage of ungual keratin.

    PubMed

    Khengar, Rajeshree H; Brown, Marc B; Turner, Rob B; Traynor, Matthew J; Holt, Katherine B; Jones, Stuart A

    2010-09-01

    Thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) are thought to disrupt alpha-keratin disulfide links in the nail. However, optimal clinical use of these agents to improve the treatment of nail disorders is currently hindered by a lack of fundamental data to support their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how the redox environment of ungual keratin, when manipulated by TA and urea H(2)O(2), influenced the properties of the nail barrier. Potentiometric and voltammetric measurements demonstrated that urea H(2)O(2) obeyed the Nernst equation for a proton coupled one-electron transfer redox process while TA underwent a series of redox reactions that was complicated by electrode adsorption and dimer formation. The functional studies demonstrated that nail permeability, measured through TBF penetration (38.51+/-10.94 microg/cm(2)/h) and nail swelling (244.10+/-14.99% weight increase), was greatest when relatively low concentrations of the thiolate ion were present in the applied solution. Limiting the thiolate ion to low levels in the solution retards thiolate dimerisation and generates thiyl free radicals. It appeared that this free radical generation was fundamental in facilitating the redox-mediated keratin disruption of the ungual membrane. PMID:20550963

  8. Protected areas facilitate species' range expansions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Chris D; Gillingham, Phillipa K; Bradbury, Richard B; Roy, David B; Anderson, Barbara J; Baxter, John M; Bourn, Nigel A D; Crick, Humphrey Q P; Findon, Richard A; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A; Holt, Alison R; Morecroft, Mike D; O'Hanlon, Nina J; Oliver, Tom H; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Procter, Deborah A; Thomas, Jeremy A; Walker, Kevin J; Walmsley, Clive A; Wilson, Robert J; Hill, Jane K

    2012-08-28

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  9. Spatiotopic updating facilitates perception immediately after saccades

    PubMed Central

    Fabius, Jasper H.; Fracasso, Alessio; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    As the neural representation of visual information is initially coded in retinotopic coordinates, eye movements (saccades) pose a major problem for visual stability. If no visual information were maintained across saccades, retinotopic representations would have to be rebuilt after each saccade. It is currently strongly debated what kind of information (if any at all) is accumulated across saccades, and when this information becomes available after a saccade. Here, we use a motion illusion to examine the accumulation of visual information across saccades. In this illusion, an annulus with a random texture slowly rotates, and is then replaced with a second texture (motion transient). With increasing rotation durations, observers consistently perceive the transient as large rotational jumps in the direction opposite to rotation direction (backward jumps). We first show that accumulated motion information is updated spatiotopically across saccades. Then, we show that this accumulated information is readily available after a saccade, immediately biasing postsaccadic perception. The current findings suggest that presaccadic information is used to facilitate postsaccadic perception and are in support of a forward model of transsaccadic perception, aiming at anticipating the consequences of eye movements and operating within the narrow perisaccadic time window. PMID:27686998

  10. Environmental stress, facilitation, competition, and coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Simon P; Marshall, Dustin J

    2013-12-01

    The major theories regarding the combined influence of the environment and species interactions on population and community dynamics appear to conflict. Stress/ disturbance gradient models of community organization, such as the stress gradient hypothesis, emphasize a diminished role for competition in harsh environments whereas modern coexistence theory does not. Confusion about the role of species interactions in harsh environments is perpetuated by a disconnect between population dynamics theory and data. We linked theory and data using response surface experiments done in the field to parameterize mathematical, population-dynamic competition models. We replicated our experiment across two environments that spanned a common and important environmental stress gradient for determining community structure in benthic marine systems. We generated quantitative estimates of the effects of environmental stress on population growth rates and the direction and strength of intra- and interspecific interactions within each environment. Our approach directly addressed a perpetual blind spot in this field by showing how the effects of competition can be intensified in stressful environments even though the apparent strength of competition remains unchanged. Furthermore, we showed how simultaneous, reciprocal competitive and facilitative effects can stabilize population dynamics in multispecies communities in stressful environments.

  11. Protein crystallization facilitated by molecularly imprinted polymers

    PubMed Central

    Saridakis, Emmanuel; Khurshid, Sahir; Govada, Lata; Phan, Quan; Hawkins, Daniel; Crichlow, Gregg V.; Lolis, Elias; Reddy, Subrayal M.; Chayen, Naomi E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a previously undescribed initiative and its application, namely the design of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for producing protein crystals that are essential for determining high-resolution 3D structures of proteins. MIPs, also referred to as “smart materials,” are made to contain cavities capable of rebinding protein; thus the fingerprint of the protein created on the polymer allows it to serve as an ideal template for crystal formation. We have shown that six different MIPs induced crystallization of nine proteins, yielding crystals in conditions that do not give crystals otherwise. The incorporation of MIPs in screening experiments gave rise to crystalline hits in 8–10% of the trials for three target proteins. These hits would have been missed using other known nucleants. MIPs also facilitated the formation of large single crystals at metastable conditions for seven proteins. Moreover, the presence of MIPs has led to faster formation of crystals in all cases where crystals would appear eventually and to major improvement in diffraction in some cases. The MIPs were effective for their cognate proteins and also for other proteins, with size compatibility being a likely criterion for efficacy. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements demonstrated specific affinity between the MIP cavities and a protein-functionalized AFM tip, corroborating our hypothesis that due to the recognition of proteins by the cavities, MIPs can act as nucleation-inducing substrates (nucleants) by harnessing the proteins themselves as templates. PMID:21690356

  12. Audiovisual integration facilitates unconscious visual scene processing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jye-Sheng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Meanings of masked complex scenes can be extracted without awareness; however, it remains unknown whether audiovisual integration occurs with an invisible complex visual scene. The authors examine whether a scenery soundtrack can facilitate unconscious processing of a subliminal visual scene. The continuous flash suppression paradigm was used to render a complex scene picture invisible, and the picture was paired with a semantically congruent or incongruent scenery soundtrack. Participants were asked to respond as quickly as possible if they detected any part of the scene. Release-from-suppression time was used as an index of unconscious processing of the complex scene, which was shorter in the audiovisual congruent condition than in the incongruent condition (Experiment 1). The possibility that participants adopted different detection criteria for the 2 conditions was excluded (Experiment 2). The audiovisual congruency effect did not occur for objects-only (Experiment 3) and background-only (Experiment 4) pictures, and it did not result from consciously mediated conceptual priming (Experiment 5). The congruency effect was replicated when catch trials without scene pictures were added to exclude participants with high false-alarm rates (Experiment 6). This is the first study demonstrating unconscious audiovisual integration with subliminal scene pictures, and it suggests expansions of scene-perception theories to include unconscious audiovisual integration.

  13. Batten disease: features to facilitate early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J; Holder, G E; Herbert, H; Adams, G G W

    2006-01-01

    Aims To ascertain the clinical and electrophysiological features in patients with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (jNCL/Batten disease) and to identify those features that facilitate early diagnosis. Methods Nine patients with jNCL were identified retrospectively and their case notes reviewed. All had undergone an extensive clinical examination, including electrophysiology. Blood and molecular genetic testing confirmed the diagnosis. Results Age at onset ranged from 4–8 years. At presentation, two of nine patients had normal fundi; only two of nine patients had a bull's eye maculopathy. The electroretinogram (ERG) findings in this series included undetectable rod specific ERGs, an electronegative maximal response, reduced and delayed cone flicker ERGs, reduction in the b:a ratio in the photopic single flash ERG, and an undetectable pattern ERG. Vacuolated lymphocytes on peripheral blood film testing were present in eight of nine patients. Five of eight patients were homozygous for the 1.02 kb deletion on the CLN3 gene on molecular genetic testing; two of eight patients were heterozygous for that deletion. Conclusion jNCL should be considered in children of 10 years and under presenting with visual loss and fundal changes ranging from normal through to pigmentary/atrophic changes or a bull's eye maculopathy. Electrophysiology may suggest jNCL. Although currently untreatable, early diagnosis is important to institute appropriate counselling and support. PMID:16754648

  14. Interspecific competition/facilitation among insect parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Competition for limited resources is a widespread ecological interaction in animals. In the case of insect parasitoids, species can compete for host resources both at the adult stage as well as at the larval stage. Interspecific competition can play a role in sizing and shaping community structures. In addition of being relevant for basic ecological studies, understanding how interspecific competition between parasitoids affects pest suppression is important for biological control. In this opinion paper we review recent advances in the field of interspecific competition among parasitoids in a biological control perspective. We first discuss adult competition, highlighting which factors are likely to play a role in the outcome of competition when adults interact either directly or indirectly. Then we focus on the interactions occurring between competing larvae that develop within the same host taking also into account the fitness consequences of competition for the larva surviving interspecific competition. We also explore the possibility of interspecific facilitation among parasitoids in those situations in which a given species may benefit from interspecific competition.

  15. Free radical facilitated damage of ungual keratin.

    PubMed

    Khengar, Rajeshree H; Brown, Marc B; Turner, Rob B; Traynor, Matthew J; Holt, Katherine B; Jones, Stuart A

    2010-09-01

    Thioglycolic acid (TA) and urea hydrogen peroxide (urea H(2)O(2)) are thought to disrupt alpha-keratin disulfide links in the nail. However, optimal clinical use of these agents to improve the treatment of nail disorders is currently hindered by a lack of fundamental data to support their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to investigate how the redox environment of ungual keratin, when manipulated by TA and urea H(2)O(2), influenced the properties of the nail barrier. Potentiometric and voltammetric measurements demonstrated that urea H(2)O(2) obeyed the Nernst equation for a proton coupled one-electron transfer redox process while TA underwent a series of redox reactions that was complicated by electrode adsorption and dimer formation. The functional studies demonstrated that nail permeability, measured through TBF penetration (38.51+/-10.94 microg/cm(2)/h) and nail swelling (244.10+/-14.99% weight increase), was greatest when relatively low concentrations of the thiolate ion were present in the applied solution. Limiting the thiolate ion to low levels in the solution retards thiolate dimerisation and generates thiyl free radicals. It appeared that this free radical generation was fundamental in facilitating the redox-mediated keratin disruption of the ungual membrane.

  16. Protected areas facilitate species’ range expansions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Chris D.; Gillingham, Phillipa K.; Bradbury, Richard B.; Roy, David B.; Anderson, Barbara J.; Baxter, John M.; Bourn, Nigel A. D.; Crick, Humphrey Q. P.; Findon, Richard A.; Fox, Richard; Hodgson, Jenny A.; Holt, Alison R.; Morecroft, Mike D.; O’Hanlon, Nina J.; Oliver, Tom H.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.; Procter, Deborah A.; Thomas, Jeremy A.; Walker, Kevin J.; Walmsley, Clive A.; Wilson, Robert J.; Hill, Jane K.

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of protected areas (PAs) for biodiversity have been questioned in the context of climate change because PAs are static, whereas the distributions of species are dynamic. Current PAs may, however, continue to be important if they provide suitable locations for species to colonize at their leading-edge range boundaries, thereby enabling spread into new regions. Here, we present an empirical assessment of the role of PAs as targets for colonization during recent range expansions. Records from intensive surveys revealed that seven bird and butterfly species have colonized PAs 4.2 (median) times more frequently than expected from the availability of PAs in the landscapes colonized. Records of an additional 256 invertebrate species with less-intensive surveys supported these findings and showed that 98% of species are disproportionately associated with PAs in newly colonized parts of their ranges. Although colonizing species favor PAs in general, species vary greatly in their reliance on PAs, reflecting differences in the dependence of individual species on particular habitats and other conditions that are available only in PAs. These findings highlight the importance of current PAs for facilitating range expansions and show that a small subset of the landscape receives a high proportion of colonizations by range-expanding species. PMID:22893689

  17. Oxytocin facilitates the sensation of social stress.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Monika; Scheele, Dirk; Weber, Kristina; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2014-09-01

    Essentially all social species experience social stress which can be a catalyst for detriments in mental and physical health. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to produce anxiolytic and antistress effects, thereby qualifying the OXT system as a promising drug target in the treatment of stress-related disorders. However, recently it has been shown that OXT can have anxiogenic effects as well. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan the brains of 60 healthy men while they were exposed to social stress after they received either intranasal OXT (24 IU) or placebo treatment. Although OXT administration did not alter salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate marker of stress axis activity, our participants initially reported an increment in perceived social stress. This behavioral effect was paralleled on the neural level by increased activity in the precuneus and cingulate cortex. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that OXT can induce a self-referential processing bias which facilitates the sensation of social stress in the absence of altered endocrine responses.

  18. An enhanced archive facilitating climate impacts analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, E.P.; Brekke, L.; Pruitt, T.; Thrasher, B.; Long, J.; Duffy, P.; Dettinger, M.; Cayan, D.; Arnold, J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the expansion of a publicly available archive of downscaled climate and hydrology projections for the United States. Those studying or planning to adapt to future climate impacts demand downscaled climate model output for local or regional use. The archive we describe attempts to fulfill this need by providing data in several formats, selectable to meet user needs. Our archive has served as a resource for climate impacts modelers, water managers, educators, and others. Over 1,400 individuals have transferred more than 50 TB of data from the archive. In response to user demands, the archive has expanded from monthly downscaled data to include daily data to facilitate investigations of phenomena sensitive to daily to monthly temperature and precipitation, including extremes in these quantities. New developments include downscaled output from the new Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model simulations at both the monthly and daily time scales, as well as simulations of surface hydrologi- cal variables. The web interface allows the extraction of individual projections or ensemble statistics for user-defined regions, promoting the rapid assessment of model consensus and uncertainty for future projections of precipitation, temperature, and hydrology. The archive is accessible online (http://gdo-dcp.ucllnl.org/downscaled_ cmip_projections).

  19. Anthocyanins facilitate tungsten accumulation in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, K.L.

    2002-11-01

    Accumulation of molybdenum in Brassica was recently found to be correlated with anthocyanin content, involving the formation of a blue complex. Here the role of anthocyanins in tungsten sequestration was investigated using three species of Brassica: B. rapa (cv. Fast plants), B. juncea (Indian mustard) and B. oleracea (red cabbage). Seedlings of B. rapa and B. juncea turned blue when supplied with colourless tungstate. The blue compound co-localized with anthocyanins in the peripheral cell layers, and the degree of blueness was correlated with anthocyanin content. The direct involvement of anthocyanins in the blue coloration was evident when purified anthocyanins showed a colour change from pink to blue in vitro upon addition of tungstate, over a wide pH range. Anthocyanin production was upregulated 3-fold by W in B. juncea, possibly reflecting a function for anthocyanins in W tolerance or sequestration. The presence of anthocyanins facilitated W accumulation in B. rapa: anthocyanin-containing seedlings accumulated 3-fold more W than an anthocyaninless mutant. There was no correlation between anthocyanin content and W tolerance under these conditions. The nature of the interaction between anthocyanins and tungstate was investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed no change in the local chemical environment of Wupon uptake of tungstate by the plant; HPLC analysis of purified anthocyanin with or without tungstate showed no peak shift after metal treatment.

  20. Facilitating nurturant fathering behavior in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Novak, J C

    1990-09-01

    Many of the roles required of the father of a NICU infant are new and unfamiliar, difficult to carry out, unrehearsed, and yet called for in an unexpected crisis. At a time when they too need nurturing, fathers of high-risk infants are expected to adapt readily and be models of self-control. It is apparent from this investigation that the primary nurse is in a strategic position to assist the new father in his acquaintance with and early adjustment to his infant. Although some of the fathers will become actively involved with their children, others prefer less involvement in infant care taking and display minimal nurturant behaviors. A nurse must be able to recognize these differences and support a father's (and mother's) choice. A couple's sociocultural ideology and perceptions of the father's role, as well as the family dynamics and values, need to be given primary consideration in planning nursing care. In order for the nurse to fulfill an important teaching role for the fathers (parents) of NICU infants, the nurse must meet the needs of each individual father in relation to the family system. This requires systematic and nonjudgmental assessment and caring facilitation of paternal role development and early father-infant and father-mother-infant interactions.

  1. Training facilitates object recognition in cubist paintings.

    PubMed

    Wiesmann, Martin; Ishai, Alumit

    2010-01-01

    To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in the paintings, their response latencies were significantly shorter, and they showed enhanced activation in the parahippocampal cortex, with a parametric increase in the amplitude of the fMRI signal as a function of the number of recognized objects. Moreover, trained subjects were slower to report not recognizing any familiar objects in the paintings and these longer response latencies were correlated with activation in a fronto-parietal network. These findings suggest that trained subjects adopted a visual search strategy and used contextual associations to perform the tasks. Our study supports the proactive brain framework, according to which the brain uses associations to generate predictions. PMID:20224810

  2. Contrast, induction, facilitation, suppression, and conservation1

    PubMed Central

    Allison, James

    1976-01-01

    Ten rats received all of their water in daily 1-hr sessions. Following a baseline phase in which lever and water spout were freely available throughout each session, subjects were trained to press the lever for water on mixed schedules composed of two alternating components. Each component gave access to water for a fixed cumulation of drinking time every time the rat cumulated a fixed amount of lever-pressing time. Changes in one component produced contrast and induction effects, both positive and negative, with respect to both lever pressing and drinking in the unchanged component. All schedules facilitated lever pressing relative to baseline. All schedules suppressed drinking relative to baseline, even though contingency sessions allowed ample time to perform the baseline amount of drinking. The entire pattern of results was predicted in quantitative detail by assuming that the total amount of a dimension apportioned to lever pressing and drinking is conserved between baseline and contingency sessions. Conservation theory was shown to predict several effects produced by simple fixed-ratio schedules, and was compared favorably with probability-differential (Premack, 1971) and response-deprivation (Timberlake and Allison, 1974) theory. PMID:16811902

  3. Sound symbolism facilitates early verb learning.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-10-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel sound-symbolic verbs whose sounds were judged to match certain actions better than others, as confirmed by adult Japanese- as well as English speakers, and by 2- and 3-year-old Japanese-speaking children. These sound-symbolic verbs, together with other novel non-sound-symbolic verbs, were used in a verb learning task with 3-year-old Japanese children. In line with the previous literature, 3-year-olds could not generalize the meaning of novel non-sound-symbolic verbs on the basis of the sameness of action. However, 3-year-olds could correctly generalize the meaning of novel sound-symbolic verbs. These results suggest that iconic scaffolding by means of sound symbolism plays an important role in early verb learning.

  4. A Traceability Framework to facilitate model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Hararuk, Sasha; Wang, Ying Ping

    2013-04-01

    Land models have been developed to account for more and more processes, making their complex structures difficult to be understood and evaluated. Here we introduced a framework to decompose a complex land model into traceable components based on their mutually independent properties of modeled biogeochemical processes. The framework traces modeled ecosystem carbon storage capacity (Xss) to (1) a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τ_E). The latter τE can be further traced to (2) baseline carbon residence times (τ_(E )^'), which are usually preset in a model according to vegetation characteristics and soil types, (3) environmental scalars (ξ) including temperature and water scalars, and (4) environmental forcings. We have applied the framework to the Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model to help understand differences in modeled carbon processes among biomes and as influenced by nitrogen processes. Our framework could be used to facilitate data-model comparisons and model intercomparisons via tracking a few traceable components for all terrestrial carbon cycle models.

  5. Repeated intravenous doxapram induces phrenic motor facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, MS; Lee, KZ; Gonzalez-Rothi, EJ; Fuller, DD

    2013-01-01

    Doxapram is a respiratory stimulant used to treat hypoventilation. Here we investigated whether doxapram could also trigger respiratory neuroplasticity. Specifically, we hypothesized that intermittent delivery of doxapram at low doses would lead to long-lasting increases (i.e., facilitation) of phrenic motor output in anesthetized, vagotomized, and mechanically-ventilated rats. Doxapram was delivered intravenously in a single bolus (2 or 6 mg/kg) or as a series of 3 injections (2 mg/kg) at 5 min intervals. Control groups received pH-matched saline injections (vehicle) or no treatment (anesthesia time control). Doxapram evoked an immediate increase in phrenic output in all groups, but a persistent increase in burst amplitude only occurred after repeated dosing with 2 mg/kg. At 60 min following the last injection, phrenic burst amplitude was 168±24% of baseline (%BL) in the group receiving 3 injections (P < 0.05 vs. controls), but was 103±8%BL and 112±4%BL in the groups receiving a single dose of 2 or 6 mg/kg, respectively. Following bilateral section of the carotid sinus nerves, the acute phrenic response to doxapram (2 mg/kg) was reduced by 68% suggesting that at low doses the drug was acting primarily via the carotid chemoreceptors. We conclude that intermittent application of doxapram can trigger phrenic neuroplasticity, and this approach might be of use in the context of respiratory rehabilitation following neurologic injury. PMID:24013015

  6. Oxytocin: the Great Facilitator of Life

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heon-Jin; Macbeth, Abbe H.; Pagani, Jerome; Young, W. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Oxytocin (Oxt) is a nonapeptide hormone best known for its role in lactation and parturition. Since 1906 when its uterine-contracting properties were described until 50 years later when its sequence was elucidated, research focused on its peripheral roles in reproduction. Only over the past several decades have researchers focused on what functions Oxt might have in the brain, the subject of this review. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei are the neurons of origin for the Oxt released from the posterior pituitary. Smaller cells in various parts of the brain, as well as release from magnocellular dendrites, provide the Oxt responsible for modulating various behaviors at its only identified receptor. Although Oxt is implicated in a variety of “non-social” behaviors, such as learning, anxiety, feeding and pain perception, it is Oxt’s roles in various social behaviors that have come to the fore recently. Oxt is important for social memory and attachment, sexual and maternal behavior, and aggression. Recent work implicates Oxt in human bonding and trust as well. Human disorders characterized by aberrant social interactions, such as autism and schizophrenia, may also involve Oxt expression. Many, if not most, of Oxt’s functions, from social interactions (affiliation, aggression) and sexual behavior to eventual parturition, lactation and maternal behavior, may be viewed as specifically facilitating PMID:19482229

  7. Open rhinoplasty concepts in facilitating tip reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Carminati, Marcello; Robotti, Enrico

    2014-06-01

    The nose is a frequent site for skin cancer, accounting for approximately 26% of basal cell carcinomas and approximately 13% of spinal cell carcinomas of the facial district. Also melanomas, mostly as lentigo maligna melanomas, are frequently located at the nasal pyramid. Although defects can be of varying size and depth, some even involving the whole trilaminar structure of the nose, most remain superficial and seldom reach and infiltrate the underlying framework. In contrast, they can be wide, thus requesting large flaps to resurface the defect. Although a technically well-planned and well-performed surgery can lead to excellent aesthetic results, scars from both donor and recipient sites can be noticeable. Since skin cancers generally affect older people, we often deal with aged noses. Such noses typically present some common features such as plunging tip, increased length, and a prominent hump due to several reasons, already well described in the literature. In this scenario, by reducing and addressing the framework, we can obtain a variable quota of downsizing of the original defect, thus requiring less skin for coverage, and thus reducing the size of needed flaps and consequent scars. This is greatly facilitated by the open rhinoplasty approach. Most of the maneuvers aimed at reducing the framework are indeed the same. PMID:24918706

  8. Environmental stress, facilitation, competition, and coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Simon P; Marshall, Dustin J

    2013-12-01

    The major theories regarding the combined influence of the environment and species interactions on population and community dynamics appear to conflict. Stress/ disturbance gradient models of community organization, such as the stress gradient hypothesis, emphasize a diminished role for competition in harsh environments whereas modern coexistence theory does not. Confusion about the role of species interactions in harsh environments is perpetuated by a disconnect between population dynamics theory and data. We linked theory and data using response surface experiments done in the field to parameterize mathematical, population-dynamic competition models. We replicated our experiment across two environments that spanned a common and important environmental stress gradient for determining community structure in benthic marine systems. We generated quantitative estimates of the effects of environmental stress on population growth rates and the direction and strength of intra- and interspecific interactions within each environment. Our approach directly addressed a perpetual blind spot in this field by showing how the effects of competition can be intensified in stressful environments even though the apparent strength of competition remains unchanged. Furthermore, we showed how simultaneous, reciprocal competitive and facilitative effects can stabilize population dynamics in multispecies communities in stressful environments. PMID:24597219

  9. Transducer model produces facilitation from opposite-sign flanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, J. A.; Watson, A. B.; Morgan, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Small spots, lines and Gabor patterns can be easier to detect when they are superimposed upon similar spots, lines and Gabor patterns. Traditionally, such facilitation has been understood to be a consequence of nonlinear contrast transduction. Facilitation has also been reported to arise from non-overlapping patterns with opposite sign. We point out that this result does not preclude the traditional explanation for superimposed targets. Moreover, we find that facilitation from opposite-sign flanks is weaker than facilitation from same-sign flanks. Simulations with a transducer model produce opposite-sign facilitation.

  10. Hippocratic obligation to shareholder profit? Medical treatment patents and the Australian High Court in Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd [2013] HCA 50.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The method of treatment of suffering in patients, including through surgery and the administration of therapeutic drugs, are essential features of medical professionalism. Few, if any practitioners committed to developing the core professional virtue of loyalty to relief of patient suffering through consistently implementing the basic principles of medical ethics, would consider that such beneficial methods of practice are, or should be, the subject of a patent--requiring the practitioner utilising them to pay a royalty or risk infringement proceedings. Indeed a formal opinion of the American Medical Association declares "the use of patents, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements, or other means to limit the availability of medical procedures places significant limitation on the dissemination of medical knowledge, and is therefore unethical". Yet this could be the direction in which Australian patent law is heading. The decision of the High Court of Australia in Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd [2013] HCA 50, upholding a patent over a method of using a known drug to prevent or treat psoriasis, may ultimately force practitioners to re-consider whether their basic ethical obligations to patients are secondary to a requirement to maximise profit for shareholders in companies holding medical patents. This column reviews this decision and its possible implications for health practitioners. It places it in context of other recent court decisions that have expanded the intrusion of corporate-owned intellectual property monopolies into Australian medical practices, and how legislative restrictions upon them in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) places practitioners and patients at risk of more costly, ineffective or restricted health care. This column concludes by cautioning that Australia's scope to address policy problems caused by this case may be limited should it sign up to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, particularly if that preferential trade

  11. Facilitating undergraduate nurses clinical practicum: the lived experience of clinical facilitators.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Cathy; Walker, Jane; Bourgeois, Sharon

    2006-07-01

    Clinical practicum experience for undergraduate nurses remains undisputed as an essential component of any program. Exposure to the reality of professional practice and its integration of explicit, with tacit knowledge, is invaluable in producing skilled clinicians. Currently there are many issues that have arisen regarding clinical practice education for undergraduate nurses in Australia including; ongoing financial support and resourcing of clinical placements. Developing an understanding of these issues is central to the provision of quality clinical education. The aim of this study is to reveal dimensions of the lived experience of being a clinical facilitator, a popular model of nursing clinical education, to come to an understanding of how facilitation actually takes place in the clinical environment. The Hermeneutic phenomenological approach used in this study has brought to light five essential themes that elucidate the phenomena of facilitation. Those themes have been identified as; knowing your own limitations, employing the notion of stepping in or stepping back, developing alliances, acknowledging the reciprocity of the learning experience, and identifying appropriate clinical buddies. The recommendations from this study will have an impact on current issues and will inturn, influence the quality of clinical education for all stakeholders.

  12. Groundwater seeps facilitate exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anthony; Tahani, Donald; Gardiner, Christopher; Bristow, Keith L; Greenhill, Andrew R; Warner, Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium which is the causative agent of melioidosis, a common cause of fatal bacterial pneumonia and sepsis in the tropics. The incidence of melioidosis is clustered spatially and temporally and is heavily linked to rainfall and extreme weather events. Clinical case clustering has recently been reported in Townsville, Australia, and has implicated Castle Hill, a granite monolith in the city center, as a potential reservoir of infection. Topsoil and water from seasonal groundwater seeps were collected around the base of Castle Hill and analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR targeting the type III secretion system genes for the presence of B. pseudomallei. The organism was identified in 65% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.5 to 80.4) of soil samples (n = 40) and 92.5% (95% CI, 83.9 to 100) of seasonal groundwater samples (n = 40). Further sampling of water collected from roads and gutters in nearby residential areas after an intense rainfall event found that 88.2% (95% CI, 72.9 to 100) of samples (n = 16) contained viable B. pseudomallei at concentrations up to 113 CFU/ml. Comparison of isolates using multilocus sequence typing demonstrated clinical matches and close associations between environmental isolates and isolates derived from clinical samples from patients in Townsville. This study demonstrated that waterborne B. pseudomallei from groundwater seeps around Castle Hill may facilitate exposure to B. pseudomallei and contribute to the clinical clustering at this site. Access to this type of information will advise the development and implementation of public health measures to reduce the incidence of melioidosis.

  13. Imperfect information facilitates the evolution of reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear

  14. Tonoplast Aquaporins Facilitate Lateral Root Emergence.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Beebo, Azeez; Swarup, Kamal; Voß, Ute; Bouhidel, Karim; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Schjoerring, Jan K; Bennett, Malcolm J; Chaumont, Francois

    2016-03-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the highly abundant tonoplast AQP isoforms AtTIP1;1, AtTIP1;2, and AtTIP2;1 facilitate the emergence of new lateral root primordia (LRPs). The number of lateral roots was strongly reduced in the triple tip mutant, whereas the single, double, and triple tip mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants could be fully rescued by expressing AtTIP2;1 under its native promoter. We conclude that TIP isoforms allow the spatial and temporal fine-tuning of cellular water transport, which is critically required during the highly regulated process of LRP morphogenesis and emergence.

  15. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura J; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J; Paller, Ken A

    2014-12-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. PMID:25447376

  16. Does polyploidy facilitate long-distance dispersal?

    PubMed Central

    Linder, H. Peter; Barker, Nigel P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The ability of plant lineages to reach all continents contributes substantially to their evolutionary success. This is exemplified by the Poaceae, one of the most successful angiosperm families, in which most higher taxa (tribes, subfamilies) have global distributions. Due to the old age of the ocean basins relative to the major angiosperm radiations, this is only possible by means of long-distance dispersal (LDD), yet the attributes of lineages with successful LDD remain obscure. Polyploid species are over-represented in invasive floras and in the previously glaciated Arctic regions, and often have wider ecological tolerances than diploids; thus polyploidy is a candidate attribute of successful LDD. Methods The link between polyploidy and LDD was explored in the globally distributed grass subfamily Danthonioideae. An almost completely sampled and well-resolved species-level phylogeny of the danthonioids was used, and the available cytological information was assembled. The cytological evolution in the clade was inferred using maximum likelihood (ML) as implemented in ChromEvol. The biogeographical evolution in the clade was reconstructed using ML and Bayesian approaches. Key Results Numerous increases in ploidy level are demonstrated. A Late Miocene–Pliocene cycle of polyploidy is associated with LDD, and in two cases (the Australian Rytidosperma and the American Danthonia) led to secondary polyploidy. While it is demonstrated that successful LDD is more likely in polyploid than in diploid lineages, a link between polyploidization events and LDD is not demonstrated. Conclusions The results suggest that polyploids are more successful at LDD than diploids, and that the frequent polyploidy in the grasses might have facilitated the extensive dispersal among continents in the family, thus contributing to their evolutionary success. PMID:24694830

  17. Sleep facilitates learning a new linguistic rule

    PubMed Central

    Batterink, Laura J.; Oudiette, Delphine; Reber, Paul J.; Paller, Ken A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural languages contain countless regularities. Extraction of these patterns is an essential component of language acquisition. Here we examined the hypothesis that memory processing during sleep contributes to this learning. We exposed participants to a hidden linguistic rule by presenting a large number of two-word phrases, each including a noun preceded by one of four novel words that functioned as an article (e.g., gi rhino). These novel words (ul, gi, ro and ne) were presented as obeying an explicit rule: two words signified that the noun referent was relatively near, and two that it was relatively far. Undisclosed to participants was the fact that the novel articles also predicted noun animacy, with two of the articles preceding animate referents and the other two preceding inanimate referents. Rule acquisition was tested implicitly using a task in which participants responded to each phrase according to whether the noun was animate or inanimate. Learning of the hidden rule was evident in slower responses to phrases that violated the rule. Responses were delayed regardless of whether rule-knowledge was consciously accessible. Brain potentials provided additional confirmation of implicit and explicit rule-knowledge. An afternoon nap was interposed between two 20-min learning sessions. Participants who obtained greater amounts of both slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep showed increased sensitivity to the hidden linguistic rule in the second session. We conclude that during sleep, reactivation of linguistic information linked with the rule was instrumental for stabilizing learning. The combination of slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep may synergistically facilitate the abstraction of complex patterns in linguistic input. PMID:25447376

  18. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    SciTech Connect

    A. Wolfsberg; P. Reimus

    2001-12-18

    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS M&O 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  19. Restoring Tropical Grassland Productivity with Facilitated Biofertilisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wendy; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    Grazing is the major economic activity in northern Australia's subtropical grasslands, savannah and shrublands that cover >1.9 million km2 however; there has been significant decline in soil fertility that has led to the need to consider ways to improve management. Terrestrial cyanobacteria primarily inhabit complex soil microbial communities that drive physical and biological processes in the topsoil. These microbes facilitate resilience to drought and maintain soil function. They transform their environment through the secretion of mucilaginous organic compounds that improve aggregate stability, porosity, rainfall infiltration rates and water storage, reduce evaporation and soil erosion and, improve seedling emergence. In the northern Australian savannah cyanobacterial communities dominate soil surfaces of the perennial tussock grasslands. The core focus of this research has been to better understand the function of cyanobacteria within the climate-soil-plant ecosystem. The recent discovery that cyanobacteria are programmed to detect and respond only to wet season rains, and remain inactive and unproductive during the dry season even if it rains, has rewritten our understanding of soil nutrient cycles in the northern Australian savannah. In this project we have established: 1. For the wet season trials (Dec 2009-May 2010) the mean values of cyanobacterial crust (0-1 cm depth; n=100) plant-available N fluctuated, yet significantly increased incrementally from Dec to Feb (2.74 ± 0.37SE-5.62 ± 0.82 mg NH4+ kg-1 soil; p = 0.003) and peaked from Mar-May (9.59 ± 1.5SE-16.04 ± 3.2SE mg NH4+ kg-1 soil; p = 0.127) that represented the concluding stages of the wet season. 2. Cyanobacterial rates of N-fixation (determined by Acetylene Reduction assays, n=6 per month), increased significantly from the commencement to the height of the wet season (13.2 ± 2.9SE-30.2 ± 1.9SE kg N ha-1; p = 0.001) and decreased towards the end of the wet season (10.4 ± 1.8SE kg N ha-1; p

  20. Flying blind: the experience of online interprofessional facilitation.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Elizabeth; Soren, Barbara; Telner, Deanna; MacNeill, Heather; Lowe, Mandy; Reeves, Scott

    2013-07-01

    The role of the facilitator is known to be important in fostering productive interprofessional education (IPE) in the face-to-face (F2F) environment. Online learning can help surmount some of the logistical challenges in IPE by bringing together diverse professionals in multiple geographical locations. Best practices in F2F IPE facilitation are beginning to emerge, but there is scant literature examining IPE facilitation online. What little research exists has focused on the asynchronous environment and suggests that the skill sets of online and F2F facilitators have considerable overlap, but there are further demands in the online setting. This qualitative study sought to examine online synchronous IPE facilitation through the self-reported experiences of seven trained facilitators during a 12-week online course. Data collected through focus groups and targeted interviews were analyzed by the research team using constant comparison techniques. Four major themes were revealed: technology as a dynamic force, reduction in non-verbal cues, evolution of the online IPE group process over time and the importance of co-facilitation. The foundations of IPE facilitation were seen to carry over to the online setting. This study has implications for the training of IPE facilitators and for the design of online IPE learning experiences. PMID:23002787

  1. Branch-specific heterosynaptic facilitation in Aplysia siphon sensory cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, G A; Kandel, E R

    1984-04-01

    Aplysia siphon sensory cells exhibit heterosynaptic facilitation of transmitter release during both sensitization and classical conditioning of the siphon withdrawal response. In the present study, we asked whether facilitation must invariably enhance transmission at all terminals of a neuron or whether facilitation can instead occur at one set of terminals without also occurring at other terminals of the same cell. To examine this question, we compared effects of local application of serotonin and of connective stimulation on transmission at central and peripheral branches of single sensory cells. We found that heterosynaptic facilitation can be branch-specific and can occur at either central or peripheral synapses independently. We also found that siphon sensory cells exhibit homosynaptic post-tetanic potentiation, allowing us to compare effects of hetero- and homosynaptic facilitation in the same cells. By contrast to heterosynaptic facilitation, homosynaptic facilitation occurs concomitantly at both central and peripheral synapses of siphon sensory cells. Thus, while both heterosynaptic and homosynaptic facilitation involve increases in transmitter release from sensory neuron terminals, heterosynaptic facilitation provides a greater specificity and flexibility in the modification of synaptic connections.

  2. Changes in nociceptive reflex facilitation during carrageenan-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Herrero, J F; Cervero, F

    1996-04-22

    Facilitation of neuronal responses induced by repetitive electrical stimulation of C-fibres (wind-up) is thought to be a substrate of hyperalgesia. There is little information on how these responses are in turn modified during hyperalgesia, and the extent to which hyperalgesic states also induce a facilitation of the neuronal responses mediated by A-fibres. The current study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of peripheral inflammation and stimulus presentation on the facilitation of nociceptive reflexes. Flexor reflexes, recorded as single motor units, were evoked in rats by cycles of low and high frequency electrical stimulation with pulse durations of 0.2, 0.5 and 2 ms. Responses were studied in control and inflammatory conditions, using the carrageenan-induced mono-arthritis model. The results show that the facilitation of late (C-fibre mediated) responses was proportional to the pulse duration of stimulation, as well as to the stimulation frequency. Facilitation was always higher when animals were subjected to inflammation. In inflammatory conditions, facilitation of reflexes was observed not only for late (C-fibre mediated) but also for early (A-fibre mediated) reflex responses. However, the facilitation of these early responses was not proportional to the intensity of stimulation. Thus, in arthritic animals, late (C-fibre mediated) flexion reflexes elicited from the skin, are facilitated and early (A-fibre mediated) reflexes are not only facilitated but, in addition, show a novel wind-up phenomenon.

  3. Hippocratic obligation to shareholder profit? Medical treatment patents and the Australian High Court in Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd [2013] HCA 50.

    PubMed

    Vines, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The method of treatment of suffering in patients, including through surgery and the administration of therapeutic drugs, are essential features of medical professionalism. Few, if any practitioners committed to developing the core professional virtue of loyalty to relief of patient suffering through consistently implementing the basic principles of medical ethics, would consider that such beneficial methods of practice are, or should be, the subject of a patent--requiring the practitioner utilising them to pay a royalty or risk infringement proceedings. Indeed a formal opinion of the American Medical Association declares "the use of patents, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements, or other means to limit the availability of medical procedures places significant limitation on the dissemination of medical knowledge, and is therefore unethical". Yet this could be the direction in which Australian patent law is heading. The decision of the High Court of Australia in Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd [2013] HCA 50, upholding a patent over a method of using a known drug to prevent or treat psoriasis, may ultimately force practitioners to re-consider whether their basic ethical obligations to patients are secondary to a requirement to maximise profit for shareholders in companies holding medical patents. This column reviews this decision and its possible implications for health practitioners. It places it in context of other recent court decisions that have expanded the intrusion of corporate-owned intellectual property monopolies into Australian medical practices, and how legislative restrictions upon them in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) places practitioners and patients at risk of more costly, ineffective or restricted health care. This column concludes by cautioning that Australia's scope to address policy problems caused by this case may be limited should it sign up to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, particularly if that preferential trade

  4. Facilitated transport of copper with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) at different pore water velocities (0.22-2.2 cm min–1), solution pH (6.2-9.0), and fraction of Fe oxide coating on grain surfaces (', 0-0.36). The facilitated tr...

  5. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault on Campus: Challenges and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Laura G.

    2002-01-01

    The use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) to facilitate sexual assault is increasing on campuses nationwide. This article provides college counselors with an overview of the use of GHB in campus sexual assault, outlines suggestions for crisis intervention, and discusses the challenges of counseling survivors of drug-facilitated sexual assault.…

  6. Barriers to and Facilitators of Health for Latina Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mount, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Latina undergraduate students' barriers and facilitators of health are examined: Barriers to psychological health--separating from family, pressure to succeed, and racism; Barriers to physical health--lacking health insurance, and discomfort using campus sports facilities; and Facilitators of psychological health--membership in Latina student…

  7. The Facilitator's Edge: Group Sessions for Edge-ucators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handcock, Helen

    The Facilitator's Edge is a workshop series based on the life/work messages of The Edge magazine. The workshops are deigned to help educators, youth workers, and their career practitioners facilitate conscious career building. This manual consists of five group sessions, each focusing on a different career-building theme. "Megatrends and Making it…

  8. Neurophysiological Facilitation of Eating Skills in Children with Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Richard; Orelove, Fred P.

    1984-01-01

    Effectiveness of neurophysiological facilitation procedures (exteroceptive and proprioceptive stimulation) was evaluated on lip closure, rotary chewing, and food spilling from the mouth of four severely disabled children (3-12 years old). Some improvements in eating skills were found in each student following facilitation procedures. (CL)

  9. L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behney, Jennifer N.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

  10. 50 CFR 600.752 - Use of conveners and facilitators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... issues of concern, and to ascertain whether the establishment of an FNP regarding such matter is feasible... an impartial, neutral facilitator for the negotiations of the FNP, subject to the approval of the FNP... section. If the FNP does not approve the nominee of the Council or NMFS for facilitator, the FNP...

  11. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  12. Self-Motivated Personal Career Planning Program. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Verne; Wallace, Melvin

    The guide presents a process of self-assessment and goal-setting involving employee planners and management facilitators. An overview and rationale of the program and instructions and procedures are discussed in Chapters 1 and 2. Chapter 3 deals with effective facilitator skills and procedural steps for self-assessment, comparison with others, and…

  13. Computation Of Facilitated Transport of O2 In Hemoglobin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Sanford

    1991-01-01

    Report describes computations of unsteady facilitated transport of oxygen through liquid membrane of hemoglobin. Used here, "facilitated transport" means diffusion of permeant through membrane in which that diffusion enhanced by reversible chemical reaction between permeant and membrane. In this case, reversible reactions between hemoglobin and oxygen.

  14. 50 CFR 300.118 - Facilitation of enforcement and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement and inspection. 300.118 Section 300.118 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.118 Facilitation of enforcement...

  15. The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 7 is required for synaptic facilitation.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Skyler L; Turecek, Josef; Belinsky, Justine E; Regehr, Wade G

    2016-01-01

    It has been known for more than 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement in which each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release considerably and can profoundly influence information transfer across synapses, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. One proposed mechanism is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release, and this sensor is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at several central synapses. In Syt7-knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and the presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type Syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated Syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of Syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation.

  16. The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 7 is required for synaptic facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Skyler L.; Turecek, Josef; Belinsky, Justine E.

    2015-01-01

    It has been known for over 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner1. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement where each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release2. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release manyfold and profoundly influence information transfer across synapses3, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. Among the proposed mechanisms is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release2,4 and is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed5,6. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at multiple central synapses. In syt7 knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation. PMID:26738595

  17. The New England School Effectiveness Project: A Facilitator's Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Exchange, Inc., Chelmsford, MA.

    The School Team Facilitator assists participating New England secondary schools in planning and implementing improvement efforts based on school effectiveness research. This publication, distributed at a team training conference, begins with the conference schedule, a list of facilitators, instructions on choosing a school team, and letters to…

  18. A Study of Self-Actualization and Facilitative Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-actualization measures and ability in facilitative communication of trainees from counseling, social work, and psychology programs to determine if differences existed between the three groups. Self-actualization indexes were significantly correlated with ability in facilitative communication. (RC)

  19. Orthographic Facilitation Effects on Spoken Word Production: Evidence from Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qingfang; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the time course of orthographic facilitation on picture naming in Chinese. We used a picture-word paradigm to investigate orthographic and phonological facilitation on monosyllabic spoken word production in native Mandarin speakers. Both the stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) and the picture-word…

  20. Using Text Mining to Characterize Online Discussion Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ming, Norma; Baumer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating class discussions effectively is a critical yet challenging component of instruction, particularly in online environments where student and faculty interaction is limited. Our goals in this research were to identify facilitation strategies that encourage productive discussion, and to explore text mining techniques that can help…

  1. Ten Great Tips for Facilitating Virtual Learning Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Margaret L.; Luetkehans, Lara

    This paper presents tips for educators to integrate and facilitate virtual learning teams within online courses. The techniques are grounded in current research and theoretical foundations of systems theory and group dynamics. Tips emphasize facilitation of virtual learning teams, assembled for the purpose of formal education and supported by…

  2. Student-Facilitators' Roles in Moderating Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qiyun

    2008-01-01

    Intellectual, social, managerial and technical are four commonly reported categories of facilitation in online discussions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these four broad categories of facilitation were equally applied in online discussions and which specific skills were perceived to be more important. In this study,…

  3. A STUDY OF SOCIAL FACILITATION DURING PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KRESS, GERARD C., JR.

    THIS STUDY INVESTIGATES THE POTENTIALLY FACILITATIVE AND INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF SOCIAL INTERACTION DURING PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES WERE (1) TO IDENTIFY THE PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF SOCIAL INTERACTION CRITICAL TO FACILITATING OR INHIBITING PROGRAMED LEARNING, AND (2) TO DETERMINE THE METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING WORK GROUPS THAT OPTIMIZES…

  4. Team Building. Baldor Electric Company. [Facilitator Guide and Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Louis Community Coll., MO. Workplace Literacy Services Center.

    This document contains the facilitator and participant guides for a course in team building that was developed by a community college for a St. Louis (Missouri) electric company. The facilitator's guide contains the transparency masters, outlines, learning activities, questionnaires, and other handouts required for two course sessions. The first…

  5. Exploring Dimensions of Critical Reflection in Activist-Facilitator Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how 14 diverse, Canadian activist-facilitators working in international development experience and understand "critical reflection" as a component of participatory methodologies in facilitation practices. The findings, based on my doctoral study, demonstrate that although critical reflection is often discussed as…

  6. Facilitating Action Research for Curriculum Development in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchell, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Examines the role of a facilitator in an action research project, and explores the dilemmas it presents. Focuses on development of a competence-based approach to the clinical education and assessment of student radiographers. Concludes that the facilitator must understand the nature of each dilemma and make a judgment regarding how to work with it…

  7. Applications of Motivational Interviewing in Career Counseling: Facilitating Career Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz, Kevin B.; Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Protean and Boundaryless career paradigms are calling for new ways to provide career counseling to clients. Career counselors need methods for facilitating client's career transition across all stages of career development. This facilitation requires career counselors to be armed with methods for promoting client's autonomy,…

  8. Facilitator control as automatic behavior: A verbal behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Genae A.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies of facilitated communication have demonstrated that the facilitators were controlling and directing the typing, although they appeared to be unaware of doing so. Such results shift the focus of analysis to the facilitator's behavior and raise questions regarding the controlling variables for that behavior. This paper analyzes facilitator behavior as an instance of automatic verbal behavior, from the perspective of Skinner's (1957) book Verbal Behavior. Verbal behavior is automatic when the speaker or writer is not stimulated by the behavior at the time of emission, the behavior is not edited, the products of behavior differ from what the person would produce normally, and the behavior is attributed to an outside source. All of these characteristics appear to be present in facilitator behavior. Other variables seem to account for the thematic content of the typed messages. These variables also are discussed. PMID:22477083

  9. Facilitating memory with hypnosis, focused meditation, and eye closure.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Graham F; Brunas-Wagstaff, Jo; Cole, Jon; Knapton, Luke; Winterbottom, James; Crean, Vicki; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline

    2004-10-01

    Three experiments examined some features of hypnotic induction that might be useful in the development of brief memory-facilitation procedures. The first involved a hypnosis procedure designed to facilitate face identification; the second employed a brief, focused-meditation (FM) procedure, with and without eye closure, designed to facilitate memory for an emotional event. The third experiment was a check for simple motivation and expectancy effects. Limited facilitation effects were found for hypnosis, but these were accompanied by increased confidence in incorrect responses. However, eye closure and FM were effective in facilitating free recall of an event without an increase in errors. FM reduced phonemic fluency, suggesting that the effectiveness of FM was not due to simple changes in expectancy or motivation.

  10. Evaluating facilitated communications of people with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Szempruch, J; Jacobson, J W

    1993-01-01

    A quasi-experimental message-passing procedure was used to assess the validity of the facilitated communication (FC) by people with autism and mental retardation or with mental retardation. The 23 participants were classified as having intellectual skills within the range of severe to profound mental retardation. Message-passing consisted of showing and verbally labeling a picture of a familiar object with the facilitator absent, and subsequent facilitation to generate a label or description of the object. Three-trial blocks were conducted with each participant on two different days. Blocks were conducted in the participants' normal FC setting, with their facilitators of choice, and no special apparatus was used. No participant was able to accurately label or describe the object shown to them with facilitation. Possible reasons for findings set forth by proponents of FC and findings from the emerging quantitative literature on FC are considered. PMID:8210603

  11. Shareholder Protection Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Capuano, Michael E. [D-MA-8

    2011-07-13

    08/22/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Reciprocal feeding facilitation between above- and below-ground herbivores

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Scott W.; Vanbergen, Adam J.; Hails, Rosemary S.; Jones, T. Hefin; Johnson, Scott N.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific interactions between insect herbivores predominantly involve asymmetric competition. By contrast, facilitation, whereby herbivory by one insect benefits another via induced plant susceptibility, is uncommon. Positive reciprocal interactions between insect herbivores are even rarer. Here, we reveal a novel case of reciprocal feeding facilitation between above-ground aphids (Amphorophora idaei) and root-feeding vine weevil larvae (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), attacking red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). Using two raspberry cultivars with varying resistance to these herbivores, we further demonstrate that feeding facilitation occurred regardless of host plant resistance. This positive reciprocal interaction operates via an, as yet, unreported mechanism. Specifically, the aphid induces compensatory growth, possibly as a prelude to greater resistance/tolerance, whereas the root herbivore causes the plant to abandon this strategy. Both herbivores may ultimately benefit from this facilitative interaction. PMID:23883576

  13. The Motivation-Facilitation Theory of Prenatal Care Access.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C; Roman, Marian W

    2013-01-01

    Despite the availability of services, accessing health care remains a problem in the United States and other developed countries. Prenatal care has the potential to improve perinatal outcomes and decrease health disparities, yet many women struggle with access to care. Current theories addressing access to prenatal care focus on barriers, although such knowledge is minimally useful for clinicians. We propose a middle-range theory, the motivation-facilitation theory of prenatal care access, which condenses the prenatal care access process into 2 interacting components: motivation and facilitation. Maternal motivation is the mother's desire to begin and maintain care. Facilitation represents the goal of the clinic to create easy, open access to person-centered beneficial care. This simple model directs the focus of research and change to the interface of the woman and the clinic and encourages practice-level interventions that facilitate women entering and maintaining prenatal care.

  14. Facilitating Vocational Development Among Disadvantaged Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdani, Asma

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the vocational development process of tenth-grade disadvantaged students can be facilitated through deliberate intervention in the form of supplementary learning experiences. (Author)

  15. Facilitation can increase the phylogenetic diversity of plant communities.

    PubMed

    Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Verdú, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    With the advent of molecular phylogenies the assessment of community assembly processes has become a central topic in community ecology. These processes have focused almost exclusively on habitat filtering and competitive exclusion. Recent evidence, however, indicates that facilitation has been important in preserving biodiversity over evolutionary time, with recent lineages conserving the regeneration niches of older, distant lineages. Here we test whether, if facilitation among distant-related species has preserved the regeneration niche of plant lineages, this has increased the phylogenetic diversity of communities. By analyzing a large worldwide database of species, we showed that the regeneration niches were strongly conserved across evolutionary history. Likewise, a phylogenetic supertree of all species of three communities driven by facilitation showed that nurse species facilitated distantly related species and increased phylogenetic diversity. PMID:17714492

  16. After the strike: using facilitation in a residency training program.

    PubMed

    Andres, D; Hamoline, D; Sanders, M; Anderson, J

    1998-03-10

    Methods of alternative dispute resolution, including facilitation, can be used to identify and resolve areas of conflict. Facilitation was used by the University of Saskatchewan's Department of Family Medicine (Saskatoon division) after the strike by residents in July and August 1995 so as to allow optimal use of the remaining educational time. Through facilitation, experiences of the strike and areas of potential conflict were explored. Participants had a broad range of responses to the strike. Specific coping strategies were developed to deal with identified concerns. Although outcomes were not measured formally, levels of trust improved and collegial relationships were restored. Because so many changes occur in health care and medical education, conflict inevitably arises. Facilitation offers one way of dealing with change constructively, thereby making possible the optimal use of educational time. PMID:9526479

  17. Biohydrogen facilitated denitrification at biocathode in bioelectrochemical system (BES).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Yan, Qun; Shen, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Reductive removal of nitrate in bioelectrochemical system (BES) at abiotic cathode, biocathode and biohydrogen facilitated biocathode were investigated. It was found that nitrate removal efficiency reached 95% and 59% at the biohydrogen facilitated biocathode and biocathode respectively, while which was only 13% at the abiotic cathode. Meanwhile, activity of nitrate reductase reached 0.701 g-N/Lh for the biohydrogen facilitated group, which was about 9.3 times of the biocathode group. Moreover, electrochemical performances as power density, ohmic resistance, and polarization resistance of the biohydrogen facilitated group reached 76.96 mW/m(3), 8.63 ohm and 383 ohm, respectively, which were better than two other groups. Finally, an obvious shift of bacterial community responsible for the enhanced nitrate reduction between the two biocathode groups was observed. Therefore, nitrate reduction in BES could be enhanced at the biocathode than that of the abiotic cathode, and then be further boosted with the combination of biohydrogen.

  18. Encountering Carl Rogers: His Views on Facilitating Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landreth, Garry L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents Carl Rogers' views on facilitating groups, as expressed in a telephone dialogue seminar with graduate students in counselor education at North Texas State University. Discusses extended group marathons, cocounseling, nonverbal group exercises and the future of group work. (JAC)

  19. Nurse-academics' scholarly productivity: perceived frames and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kay Kathryn L; Turnbull, Beverley J

    2004-10-01

    The reward system within Universities remains focused on research, with a benchmark of scholarly productivity, especially in relation to promotion. Despite their relative newness to the tertiary system, nurse academics are judged by the same standards as other disciplines. This study sought to examine factors that constrained and/or facilitated scholarly productivity. The study used a questionnaire survey technique to establish current productivity levels, and frame and facilitating factor theory and analysis to identify major constraints and facilitators. Findings from the study were that the unremitting nature of teaching, course coordination and university service workloads interact to the detriment of research and writing. Facilitating factors included a departmental culture that values and supports research, in conjunction with tangible support from University management. Mentorship was viewed as desirable, but often not available. An environment that more actively prioritises, fosters and supports academic scholarly productivity is needed.

  20. Getting the Words Out: Case Studies in Facilitated Communication Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Rosemary

    1992-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three individuals with severe communication impairments who had been judged to be intellectually impaired but revealed unexpected achievements after training in nonspeech communication. The communication training used facilitation to circumvent hand function impairments. (JDD)

  1. FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updates FDA Facilitates Research on Earlier Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... disease.” back to top New Paths for New Alzheimer’s Drugs FDA’s draft guidance aims to encourage research ...

  2. Bearing puller facilitates removal and replacement of bearing assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaus, R. B.

    1966-01-01

    Bearing puller removes ball bearing assemblies, which carry the rotor, from turbine type flowmeters. It matches the bearing configuration to facilitate removal of the bearing assemblies from the support members.

  3. Inflatable bladder to facilitate handling of heavy objects - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mc Goldrick, G. J.

    1969-01-01

    Inflatable bladder facilitates the removal of heavy, highly finished metal parts from tote boxes or shipping containers. The proposed concept permits removal without danger of damage to the parts or injury to handling personnel.

  4. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides through the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Zachara, John M.; McCarthy, John F.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2006-05-31

    This project seeks to improve the basic understanding of the role of colloids in facilitating the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. We focus on three major thrusts: (1) thermodynamic stability and mobility of colloids formed by reactions of sediments with highly alkaline tank waste solutions, (2) colloid-contaminant interactions, and (3) in-situ colloid mobilization and colloid facilitated contaminant transport occurring in both contaminated and uncontaminated Hanford sediments.

  5. Dynamical facilitation governs glassy dynamics in suspensions of colloidal ellipsoids

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Chandan K.; Hima Nagamanasa, K.; Ganapathy, Rajesh; Sood, A. K.; Gokhale, Shreyas

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in contemporary condensed matter physics is to ascertain whether the formation of glasses from liquids is fundamentally thermodynamic or dynamic in origin. Although the thermodynamic paradigm has dominated theoretical research for decades, the purely kinetic perspective of the dynamical facilitation (DF) theory has attained prominence in recent times. In particular, recent experiments and simulations have highlighted the importance of facilitation using simple model systems composed of spherical particles. However, an overwhelming majority of liquids possess anisotropy in particle shape and interactions, and it is therefore imperative to examine facilitation in complex glass formers. Here, we apply the DF theory to systems with orientational degrees of freedom as well as anisotropic attractive interactions. By analyzing data from experiments on colloidal ellipsoids, we show that facilitation plays a pivotal role in translational as well as orientational relaxation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the introduction of attractive interactions leads to spatial decoupling of translational and rotational facilitation, which subsequently results in the decoupling of dynamical heterogeneities. Most strikingly, the DF theory can predict the existence of reentrant glass transitions based on the statistics of localized dynamical events, called excitations, whose duration is substantially smaller than the structural relaxation time. Our findings pave the way for systematically testing the DF approach in complex glass formers and also establish the significance of facilitation in governing structural relaxation in supercooled liquids. PMID:25313030

  6. Facilitating classroom based interprofessional learning: a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of their role adequacy as facilitators.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture.

  7. Synchronized reproduction promotes species coexistence through reproductive facilitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yun; Hsu, Sze-Bi

    2011-04-01

    Theories for species coexistence often emphasize niche differentiation and temporal segregation of recruitment to avoid competition. Recent work on mutualism suggested that plant species sharing pollinators provide mutual facilitation when exhibit synchronized reproduction. The facilitation on reproduction may enhance species persistence and coexistence. Theoretical ecologists paid little attention to such indirect mutualistic systems by far. We propose a new model for a two-species system using difference equations. The model focuses on adult plants and assumes no resource competition between these well-established individuals. Our formulas include demographic parameters, such as mortality and recruitment rates, and functions of reproductive facilitation. Both recruitment and facilitation effects reach saturation levels when flower production is at high levels. We conduct mathematical analyses to assess conditions of coexistence. We establish demographical conditions permitting species coexistence. Our analyses suggest a "rescue" effect from a "superior" species to a "weaker" species under strong recruitment enhancement effect when the later is not self-sustainable. The facilitation on rare species may help to overcome Allee effect.

  8. Handwriting generates variable visual input to facilitate symbol learning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913

  9. Preceptor development in residency training through a faculty facilitator.

    PubMed

    Stuart, M R; Orzano, A J; Eidus, R

    1980-10-01

    To address the demand for training preceptors, a community hospital-based residency program is using a part-time preceptor in a consultative capacity as a faculty facilitator to model, assess skills, and generally improve the level of teaching. Direct observation of resident-patient interactions and subsequent preceptor critiques are followed by feedback to the preceptor on the cogency and effectiveness of comments made. Goals, objectives, and teaching style are jointly examined by the preceptor and faculty facilitator. Evaluation of videotaped resident-preceptor interactions before and after six months' experience with the faculty facilitator shows significant increases in preceptor skills. Greatest improvement is in comments related to resident's clinical assessments, the resident-patient relationship, and in the quality of the resident-preceptor interaction. Scores by the faculty facilitator are significantly lower but parallel those of an independent, blind evaluator. Preceptor, resident, and administration reactions to the project are all positive. This ongoing program assures the continued upgrading of preceptor skills and provides for faculty attrition. A faculty facilitator providing direct feedback in the clinical setting is a low-cost and viable alternative to workshops and conferences for training effective teachers of family medicine.

  10. Stochastic dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma with cooperation facilitators.

    PubMed

    Mobilia, Mauro

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the paradigmatic prisoner's dilemma game, we investigate the evolutionary dynamics of social dilemmas in the presence of "cooperation facilitators." In our model, cooperators and defectors interact as in the classical prisoner's dilemma, where selection favors defection. However, here the presence of a small number of cooperation facilitators enhances the fitness (reproductive potential) of cooperators, while it does not alter that of defectors. In a finite population of size N, the dynamics of the prisoner's dilemma with facilitators is characterized by the probability that cooperation takes over (fixation probability) by the mean times to reach the absorbing states. These quantities are computed exactly using Fokker-Planck equations. Our findings, corroborated by stochastic simulations, demonstrate that the influence of facilitators crucially depends on the difference between their density z and the game's cost-to-benefit ratio r. When z > r, the fixation of cooperators is likely in a large population and, under weak selection pressure, invasion and replacement of defection by cooperation is favored by selection if b(z - r)(1 - z) > N(-1), where 0facilitators but defection is the dominating strategy.

  11. If a Student Takes Control: Facilitator's Tasks and Responsibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väljataga, Terje

    This paper presents initial research results of an intervention into higher educational teaching and studying practices from facilitators‘ point of view. The intervention was implemented into an international Master’s level online course mediated by landscapes of social media tools and services. In this course more emphasis was put on a shift of control from a facilitator to a student or a group of students in the following aspects: setting up one’s study goals, choosing activities, selecting appropriate resources, including technology and defining one’s evaluation criteria. The initial analysis showed that the facilitators gained a lot in terms of understanding the benefits of exploiting social media tools and services for their teaching practices, perceiving a need of having a different role as well as the shortages and problems while being a facilitator in such a course.

  12. D-cycloserine facilitates context-specific fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Mark E; Vurbic, Drina; Woods, Amanda M

    2008-10-01

    D-cycloserine (DCS) may facilitate fear extinction learning, but the behavioral consequences and mechanisms behind this effect are not well understood at present. In this paper, we re-analyze data from previously reported null result experiments and find that rats showing above-median extinction learning during DCS treatment benefited from the drug, whereas rats showing below-median (and in this case little) extinction learning did not. Two additional experiments found that DCS facilitated extinction learning when specifically combined with a moderate, but not a small, number of extinction trials. DCS thus facilitates extinction learning only if the behavioral procedure first engages the extinction learning process. The benefits of the drug, however, were specific to the context in which extinction was learned--i.e., DCS did not prevent or influence the renewal of fear observed when the extinguished cue was tested in the original conditioning context.

  13. Facilitation techniques as predictors of crew participation in LOFT debriefings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonnell, L. K.

    1996-01-01

    Based on theories of adult learning and airline industry guidelines for Crew Resource Management (CRM), the stated objective during Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings is for instructor pilots (IP's) to facilitate crew self-analysis of performance. This study reviews 19 LOFT debriefings from two major U.S. airlines to examine the relationship between IP efforts at facilitation and associated characteristics of crew participation. A subjective rating scale called the Debriefing Assessment Battery was developed and utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of IP facilitation and the quality of crew participation. The results indicate that IP content, encouragement, and questioning techniques are highly and significantly correlated with, and can therefore predict, the degree and depth of crew participation.

  14. Facilitating an accelerated experience-based co-design project.

    PubMed

    Tollyfield, Ruth

    This article describes an accelerated experience-based co-design (AEBCD) quality improvement project that was undertaken in an adult critical care setting and the facilitation of that process. In doing so the aim is to encourage other clinical settings to engage with their patients, carers and staff alike and undertake their own quality improvement project. Patient, carer and staff experience and its place in the quality sphere is outlined and the importance of capturing patient, carer and staff feedback established. Experience-based co-design (EBCD) is described along with the recently tested accelerated version of the process. An overview of the project and outline of the organisational tasks and activities undertaken by the facilitator are given. The facilitation of the process and key outcomes are discussed and reflected on. Recommendations for future undertakings of the accelerated process are given and conclusions drawn.

  15. Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern and social facilitation.

    PubMed

    Gastorf, J W; Suls, J; Sanders, G S

    1980-05-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the task performance of Type A coronary-prone individuals relative to Type B's in three types of social situations: alone, with a similarly performing coactor, or with a better-performing coactor. The results indicate that Type A's performance on a simple task was facilitated by the presence of either a similar or superior coactor, whereas the presence of coactors impaired performance on a complex task. Type B's showed weak and nonsignificant facilitation effects that occurred only in the presence of similar coactors. The results are discussed in terms of the Type A's concern about evaluation, achievement, and social comparison, and Sanders and Baron's distraction-conflict theory of social facilitation. PMID:7381682

  16. Propriospinal bypass of the serotonergic system that can facilitate stepping.

    PubMed

    Gerasimenko, Yury; Musienko, Pavel; Bogacheva, Irina; Moshonkina, Tatiana; Savochin, Alexandr; Lavrov, Igor; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2009-04-29

    The neurotransmitter systems mediating spinal locomotion in response to epidural spinal cord stimulation (ES) have not been identified. Here, we examine the role of the serotonergic system in regulating locomotor behavior of decerebrated cats during ES at L4-L5. ES elicited coordinated, weight-bearing, hindlimb stepping with plantar foot placement on a moving treadmill belt. Ketanserin [a 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)(2/7) receptor antagonist] depressed this locomotor activity: only weak rhythmic movements without plantar foot placement and depressed EMG activity were observed. Cyproheptadine, a nonselective 5-HT blocker, prevented facilitation of stepping by epidural stimulation. These data demonstrate an important role of the serotonergic system in facilitating locomotion in the presence of epidural stimulation. In the presence of ketanserin, passive movements of one forelimb in a step-like manner immediately induced stepping of both hindlimbs with EMG patterns similar to those observed with ES without ketanserin. Thus, a non-5-HT-dependent spinal circuitry projecting from the cervical to the lumbar region of the spinal cord can facilitate stepping. The specific neurotransmitters responsible for this forelimb-facilitated stepping of the hindlimbs are unknown. These data suggest that a 5-HT(2/7) receptor-dependent pathway that processes hindlimb locomotor-like proprioception to facilitate hindlimb stepping can be complemented with proprioceptive afferents from the forelimbs via a non-5-HT(2/7) receptor neurotransmitter system. Thus, different neurotransmitter receptor systems can be used to mediate the same type of sensory event, i.e., locomotor-like proprioception to facilitate the same motor task, i.e., hindlimb stepping.

  17. Facilitating discussion among expectant fathers: is anyone interested?

    PubMed

    Friedewald, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Within childbirth education circles, catering effectively to the needs of expectant fathers who attend antenatal education programs has become an issue of concern. This article reviews the literature on all-male discussion groups for expectant fathers as a strategy to address identified deficits in relation to the inclusion of men within existing program structures. An exploration of the attributes considered appropriate for those who facilitate such groups is undertaken, and the article concludes with a report on the recruitment of male facilitators at a health service in New South Wales, Australia. PMID:18311334

  18. Business-IT Alignment in Trade Facilitation: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adaba, Godfried; Rusu, Lazar; El-Mekawy, Mohamed

    In the information age, no organization can thrive without harnessing the power of IT. The effective deployment of IT to achieve business goals and gain competitive advantage requires the alignment of business and IT strategies of organizations. Using the Strategic Alignment Maturity model, this paper evaluates strategic alignment maturity of Customs Excise Preventive service, a frontline public organization charged with trade facilitation in Ghana. Strategic alignment maturity is at level 3; which implies the existence of an established process to leverage IT for efficiency and effectiveness. Efforts are required to strengthen alignment and fully harness the potential of IT to facilitate trade in Ghana.

  19. Contextual repetition facilitates word learning via fast mapping.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Emma L; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-10-01

    The current study explores whether contextual repetition during fast mapping facilitates word learning. Three-year-old children completed fast mapping and test trials using a touchscreen computer. For half of the children, the non-targets (competitors) repeated across learning trials and for other children there was no repetition. All children received the same test trials. Children who experienced contextual repetition, that is, children for whom the competitors repeated during the initial fast mapping task, demonstrated word learning. These data demonstrate that children's word learning is facilitated by the presence of extraneous yet predictable information in the initial fast mapping task.

  20. Methodological Understandings from Elementary Science Lesson Study Facilitation and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotger, Sharon

    2015-06-01

    Teacher learning, as well as the development and testing of curriculum materials, are key for teaching lessons that bring the goals of the Next Generation Science Standards to life in classrooms. Lesson study is a process that links standards, teacher learning, curriculum materials, and instructional enactment together to facilitate student learning. This article has two goals: (1) describe the essential features of lesson study and, (2) discuss the challenges in facilitating and researching both teachers' and students' learning through this process. Lesson study's adoption is relatively new in the United States, thus it is important to develop shared understanding of its features and how to study its impact.

  1. Gun facilitates adhesive bonding of studs to surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, B. K.; Simpson, W. G.

    1969-01-01

    Gun facilitates adhesive bonding of thermoplastic-backed studs to smooth, hard surfaces. Such studs can be used for mounting loads where defacement with drilled holes cannot be tolerated. These studs can be easily removed by softening the plastic bonding with heat from the gun.

  2. Lights, Camera, Action: Facilitating PETE Students' Reflection through Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okseon; Ravizza, Dean; Lee, Myung-Ah

    2009-01-01

    Preparing teacher candidates to be reflective professionals is a critical component of physical education teacher education programs. Although many specific strategies have been developed to facilitate post-lesson reflection, strategies for reflecting on future work and professional life have not been widely explored. As a way to facilitate…

  3. Guide for Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) Group Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R., Ed.; Lilly, Mary, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota is a primary academic support program for historically difficult, introductory college courses that serve as gatekeepers to academic degree programs. This document is the training manual used for the new PAL facilitators that manage the small study groups. Based upon operating…

  4. Movement Instruction to Facilitate Beat Competency in Instrumental Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Colleen; Marshall, Herbert; Hartz, Barry

    2014-01-01

    This article offers instrumental directors at all levels some suggestions for the use of movement to facilitate "beat competency". We use the term beat competency to refer to a musician's ability to play with a consistent sense of pulse and balanced subdivision, as well as the eventual ability to bring that sense of pulse to reading…

  5. Project Facilitate: An Inservice Education Program for Educators and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Lou Anne; Wortham, Joycelyn Foy; Smith, Cynthia Ruth Blocker; Patterson, David

    1997-01-01

    Describes "Project Facilitate," an inservice education program that provides educators and parents with a comprehensive overview of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). The program involves the use of four self-instructional content manuals: AD/HD general knowledge base, legal issues and AD/HD, assessment of children with AD/HD, and…

  6. Examining and Facilitating Reflection to Improve Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Ann Shelby; Bruster, Benita; Peterson, Barbara; Shutt, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    "Examining and Facilitating Reflection to Improve Professional Practice" is specifically designed and organized to be used throughout a teacher-education program from an introductory foundations course, continuing through content-specific methods classes to graduate-level theory seminars, and, ultimately onto professional development workshops.…

  7. Expert Systems as a Mindtool To Facilitate Mental Model Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason-Mason, Susan Dale

    Expert systems are computer programs that are designed to advise or assist users by storing the knowledge of human experts and applying the computer's mathematical ability to search and sort this information. This study investigated the use of an expert system as a mindtool and whether or not creating a simple expert system would facilitate the…

  8. Collaboration around Facilitating Emergent Literacy: Role of Occupational Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Asha; Nichols, Joy D.

    2016-01-01

    The article uses a case study to illustrate transdisciplinary perspectives on facilitating emergent literacy skills of Elsa, a primary grade student with autism. The study demonstrates how a professional learning community implemented motor, sensory, and speech/language components to generate a classroom model supporting emergent literacy skills.…

  9. Transcription and the IELTS Speaking Test: Facilitating Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a transcription task cycle that was designed to facilitate the development of skills for the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) speaking test at a language school in Japan. The cycle involved practice test, transcription, student correction, teacher correction, and retrial of the original test and…

  10. Health facilitation in primary care seen from practice and education.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Karen; Gripton, Jane; Lutchmiah, John; Caan, Woody

    'Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century' (Department of Health, 2001a,b) aimed to introduce 'health facilitation' to improve the identification of health needs and access to appropriate care for people with learning disabilities. One London Borough took a leading role in implementing this new function, in the form of dedicated, full-time health facilitators. The authors examined the implementation and its impact, employing an innovative collaboration between professionals from practice, education and research. The clinical nurse involved was observed during her first year of health facilitation. The authors evaluated her impact on professionals, people with learning disabilities and the wider system of health. In some areas (for example, information technology) the health facilitator could make little progress in one year. However, she connected with a widening circle of local people and services, for example, in introducing health action plans for adults with a learning disability. Across the Borough some professionals became more aware of specific health issues in their local population. PMID:18073691

  11. Facilitative Orthographic Neighborhood Effects: The SERIOL Model Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Carol; Lavidor, Michal

    2005-01-01

    A large orthographic neighborhood (N) facilitates lexical decision for central and left visual field/right hemisphere (LVF/RH) presentation, but not for right visual field/left hemisphere (RVF/LH) presentation. Based on the SERIOL model of letter-position encoding, this asymmetric N effect is explained by differential activation patterns at the…

  12. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  13. A Method for Facilitating Abstract Thinking in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handelsman, Mitchell M.

    A technique to teach cognitive skills to directly facilitate abstract and rational thinking is described. Based on George Kelly's theory of personal constructs, his Role Construct Repertory Test has students construe similarities and differences among important course concepts rather than provide individual definitions or examples of those…

  14. Eating and Emotions in Obese Toddlers: Facilitating Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatoor, Irene

    2007-01-01

    Infants and young children have the ability to regulate their food intake according to their energy needs, and parents play an important role in facilitating their children's self-regulation. When overweight children learn to eat in accordance with feelings of hunger and fullness and learn to soothe themselves without eating, they will reduce…

  15. Facilitating Inclusion in Early Childhood Settings: Interdisciplinary Preservice Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Melody F.; Able-Boone, Harriet; West, Tracey A.

    2001-01-01

    An interdisciplinary practicum case study is presented to illustrate components of a specialized preservice preparation for graduate students (n=44) in audiology, early childhood special education, school psychology, and speech-language pathology, designed to assist them in becoming inclusion collaborators/facilitators. Students' perceptions of…

  16. Facilitating Expansive Learning in a Public Sector Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how learning opportunities can be organized to promote expansive learning in work practice. The discussion draws on results from a case study examining local development work and conditions that facilitate processes of expansive learning in a work team within a public sector organization in a Swedish…

  17. 50 CFR 300.221 - Facilitation of enforcement and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... authorized enforcement official of that member. (2) For the purpose of facilitating communication with the... branch or dropper lines and floats used to buoy the mainline must be stowed and not available for immediate use, and any power-operated mainline hauler on deck must be covered in such a manner that it...

  18. Facilitating Online Counseling: Perspectives from Counselors in Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberstroh, Shane; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta; Morgan-Fleming, Barbara; Gee, Robert

    2008-01-01

    To address the need for research regarding online counseling, the authors explore the experiences of 4 female and 2 male Caucasian counseling students who facilitated 5 chat-based online counseling sessions. Conducting semistructured interviews based in grounded theory methods, the authors discuss technological barriers, counseling without visual…

  19. The Fantastic Facilitator: Engaging Activities for Leading Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud

    This document is designed to help facilitators with the formation and development of effective teams of people who have no previous history as a team and no training in group processes. Part 1 provides a narrative explanation of the stages of group development (investing in membership, forming attachments to subgroups, confronting/debating issues,…

  20. Alignment tool facilitates pin placement on irregular horizontal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, J. V.

    1966-01-01

    Alignment tool facilitates spotting and cementing plastic pins on the true vertical to irregular concave and convex surfaces. The tool consists of a wood tripod with individually adjustable legs, a wood block with a hole for placing the pins and two spirit levels at a 90 degree angle for easy alignment.

  1. Using a Hybrid Approach to Facilitate Learning Introductory Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakiroglu, Unal

    2013-01-01

    In order to facilitate students' understanding in introductory programming courses, different types of teaching approaches were conducted. In this study, a hybrid approach including comment first coding (CFC), analogy and template approaches were used. The goal was to investigate the effect of such a hybrid approach on students' understanding in…

  2. The Role of Preoperative TIPSS to Facilitate Curative Gastric Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.A.; Vickers, J.; Callaway, M.P. Alderson, D.

    2003-08-15

    The use of TIPSS to facilitate radical curative upper gastrointestinal surgery has not been reported. We describe a case in which curative gastric resection was performed for carcinoma of the stomach after a preoperative TIPSS and embolization of a large gastric varix in a patient with portal hypertension.

  3. Facilitator's Manual: Summer Transitions. 2nd Edition, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Charlotte L., Ed.

    This teacher handbook provides guidelines and materials for graduate students who prepare entering freshmen at Bowling Green State University for the rigors of academic life. A series of exercises show summer instructors, called "facilitators," how to get students to: map their environment, use local resources, read and mark textbooks, study and…

  4. Language Development for English Language Learners. Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Mabel O.; Moughamian, Ani; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This Facilitator's Guide has been prepared for presenters of the "Language Development for English Language Learners" professional development module. It accompanies the 67-slide PowerPoint presentation with speaker's notes and contains materials to help prepare for a professional development session, including activity instructions, handouts,…

  5. Using Modeling Tasks to Facilitate the Development of Percentages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh; Peled, Irit

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the development of percentages knowledge by seventh graders given a sequence of activities starting with a realistic modeling task, in which students were expected to create a model that would facilitate the reinvention of percentages. In the first two activities, students constructed their own pricing model using fractions and…

  6. One-to-One Encounters: Facilitators, Participants, and Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I explore the claim that one-to-one encounters between community music facilitators and music participants can be described as friendships. By exploring the relational structure through the call and the welcome, I make some general comments on friendship before finally tackling the question lying at the heart of this article: How…

  7. The Role of Facilitators in Project Action Learning Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Rui; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chao, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai; Law, Mo Yin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the importance of a more proactive role of organizational learning (OL) facilitators, learning motivation reinforcer, through a two-part longitudinal study in a case company. The first part of this study aims to investigate and analyze some unexpected challenges in the project action learning-driven (PAL) OL…

  8. Facilitator's Guide to The Moral Imperative of School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The author provides staff developers and educational leaders with tools needed to facilitate a workshop or study group, designed around his book. It gives chapter-by chapter activities focused on moral purpose and why it plays such a critical role in changing the context of school leadership. This guide explores in depth: (1) "Changing the…

  9. Facilitating normative judgments of conditional probability: frequency or nested sets?

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Kimihiko

    2003-01-01

    Recent probability judgment research contrasts two opposing views. Some theorists have emphasized the role of frequency representations in facilitating probabilistic correctness; opponents have noted that visualizing the probabilistic structure of the task sufficiently facilitates normative reasoning. In the current experiment, the following conditional probability task, an isomorph of the "Problem of Three Prisoners" was tested. "A factory manufactures artificial gemstones. Each gemstone has a 1/3 chance of being blurred, a 1/3 chance of being cracked, and a 1/3 chance of being clear. An inspection machine removes all cracked gemstones, and retains all clear gemstones. However, the machine removes 1/2 of the blurred gemstones. What is the chance that a gemstone is blurred after the inspection?" A 2 x 2 design was administered. The first variable was the use of frequency instruction. The second manipulation was the use of a roulette-wheel diagram that illustrated a "nested-sets" relationship between the prior and the posterior probabilities. Results from two experiments showed that frequency alone had modest effects, while the nested-sets instruction achieved a superior facilitation of normative reasoning. The third experiment compared the roulette-wheel diagram to tree diagrams that also showed the nested-sets relationship. The roulette-wheel diagram outperformed the tree diagrams in facilitation of probabilistic reasoning. Implications for understanding the nature of intuitive probability judgments are discussed.

  10. Facilitating Designs: For Inquiry with the Four-Question Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2008-01-01

    Inquiry is a goal of science education reform. Middle school science teachers and their students can develop understanding of inquiry by using an experimental design format. Facilitating this format with the four-question strategy helps students to design their investigations. An example of varying concentrations of vinegar and water illustrates…

  11. The Hourglass Approach: A Conceptual Model for Group Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriner, Lon S.; Goulet, Everett F.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a model to clarify the facilitator's role in working with groups. The Hourglass Approach model incorporates Carkhuff's empathetic levels of communication and Schultz's theory of personality. It is designed to be a systematic and comprehensive method usable with a variety of counseling approaches in all types of groups. (JAC)

  12. Part-Set Cuing Facilitation for Spatial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sydni M.; Reysen, Matthew B.; Kelley, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Part-set cuing "inhibition" refers to the counterintuitive finding that hints--specifically, part of the set of to-be-remembered information--often impair memory performance in free recall tasks. Although inhibition is the most commonly reported result, part-set cuing "facilitation" has been shown with serial order tasks. The…

  13. The Facilitation of Curriculum Research Workshops in TAFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tony; Jones, Neil

    The processes entailed in facilitating or leading workshops or seminars for researching the curriculum in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) were examined by using a modified Delphi process, which was followed by a 2-day workshop. Participants in the study were all experienced curriculum development specialists with knowledge of one or more of…

  14. Facilitating Learning in Multidisciplinary Groups with Transactive CSCL Scripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noroozi, Omid; Teasley, Stephanie D.; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Weinberger, Armin; Mulder, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and transfer are essential for learning in groups, especially when group members have different disciplinary expertise and collaborate online. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environments have been designed to facilitate transactive knowledge sharing and transfer in collaborative problem-solving settings. This…

  15. Using Structured Reading Groups to Facilitate Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Cherry, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Two significant challenges in teaching college courses are getting students to complete the readings and, beyond that, having them engage in deep reading. We have developed a specific group work format within our courses to facilitate both deep reading and active discussion of course material. Early in the semester, students are assigned to their…

  16. 50 CFR 654.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 654.8 Section 654.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO General Measures §...

  17. 50 CFR 654.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 654.8 Section 654.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO General Measures §...

  18. Preparing Instructors for Synchronous E-Learning Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piskurich, George

    2004-01-01

    E-learning initiatives have become increasingly prevalent in the last few years as human performance technology practitioners look for ways to lower costs and increase learning effectiveness. For both fiscal and safety reasons, organizations are much less sanguine about flying both learners and facilitators to learning activities. A business…

  19. Inquiry-Based Learning with or without Facilitator Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerasinghe, Thushani Alwis; Ramberg, Robert; Hewagamage, Kamalanath Priyantha

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings of a study investigating how students, in four online courses, engaged in inquiry-based learning with and without support from a facilitator. The investigation was conducted by analyzing discussions of the online courses using the community of inquiry model. The results of the study imply that students in online…

  20. Facilitating Transdisciplinary Sustainable Development Research Teams through Online Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Ann; Newman, Lenore; Ling, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential of online communication technologies to facilitate university-led transdisciplinary sustainable development research and lower the ecological footprints of such research projects. A series of case studies is to be explored. Design/methodology/approach: A one year project is conducted…

  1. Introducing Action Learning in Local Government: A New Facilitator's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Kirsty

    2010-01-01

    This account of practice will explore how action learning has supported local authorities by providing an opportunity to share learning and experiences across organisational boundaries. It will look at the experiences of a new action learning facilitator working with local government scrutiny officers from different organisations.

  2. Facilitating Problem Framing in Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard

    2016-01-01

    While problem solving is a relatively well understood process, problem framing is less well understood, particularly with regard to supporting students to learn as they frame problems. Project-based learning classrooms are an ideal setting to investigate how teachers facilitate this process. Using participant observation, this study investigated…

  3. Facilitating Digital Video Production in the Language Arts Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to facilitate the development of feasible support for the process of integrating digital video making activities in the primary school language arts curriculum. The first study explored which teaching supports would be necessary to enable primary school children to create digital video as a means of fostering…

  4. 50 CFR 679.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 679.8 Section 679.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  5. Facilitating Disclosure of HIV-Positive Status to Family Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Charles H.

    1996-01-01

    Based on a review of an article and drawing on the experiences of five women, offers a model for facilitating disclosure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus status. Outlines a six-step process for understanding disclosure, which includes adjusting to the diagnosis, evaluating personal disclosure skills, and taking inventory. Lists implications for…

  6. The Facilitator's Role in Elementary Mathematics Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified qualities of influential facilitators of elementary mathematics professional development. Extensive research relating to elementary mathematics professional development has emerged over the past three decades. Embedded in this body of research are recommendations for effective practices in professional development and…

  7. The Development of Videodisc Based Environments to Facilitate Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Robert D.

    Formal educational environments often provide less support for learning than do the everyday environments available to young children. This paper considers the concept of idealized learning environments, defined as "Havens." Various components of Havens are discussed that may facilitate comprehension, especially in science instruction. These…

  8. Facilitating Successful Postsecondary Transitions for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Diana K.; Grapin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, school psychologists' role in facilitating the transition from high school to college for students with disabilities has become increasingly complex. Practitioners are faced with the difficult task of navigating the conspicuous disconnect between disability eligibility criteria at the secondary and postsecondary levels…

  9. Partners in School Innovation: An Unusual Approach to Change Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grose, Kim

    This paper describes the work of an unusual kind of change facilitator lacking formal authority or educational expertise. Founded in 1993, Partners in School Innovation is a nonprofit organization that supports whole-school change efforts in schools serving low-income communities across the San Francisco Bay Area. It commits to 3- or 5-year…

  10. Commonality Analysis: Partitioning Variance to Facilitate Better Understanding of Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    In early intervention, researchers often are interested in interpretation aids that can help determine the relative importance of variables when multiple regression models are used, and that facilitate deeper insight into prediction dynamics. Commonality analysis is one approach for helping researchers understand the contributions independent or…

  11. Facilitating Participation: Teacher Roles in a Multiuser Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a task-based language teaching course in Second Life. The data set consists of transcribed recordings and a teacher interview. Focusing on how the teacher facilitated student participation, this paper aims to explore the discourse functions in the teacher language output and then to address the teacher roles in three…

  12. Designing an Electronic Educational Game to Facilitate Immersion and Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yuxin; Williams, Doug; Prejean, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Advocates of electronic educational games often cite the work on motivation to support the use of games in education. However, motivation alone is inadequate to facilitate learning. Many of the educational games that focused their game design solely on the motivational effect failed to be either educational or entertaining. Theory and research is…

  13. Facilitating Chemistry Teachers' Understanding of Alternative Interpretations of Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2006-01-01

    Historians and philosophers of science have recognized the importance of controversies in the progress of science. The objective of this study was to facilitate in-service chemistry teachers' understanding of conceptual change based on alternative philosophical interpretations (controversies). Selected controversies formed part of the chemistry…

  14. 50 CFR 640.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 640.8 Section 640.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC...

  15. 50 CFR 640.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 640.8 Section 640.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC...

  16. 50 CFR 640.8 - Facilitation of enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Facilitation of enforcement. 640.8 Section 640.8 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC...

  17. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  18. Transpersonal Psychology: Facilitating Transformation in Outdoor Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael H.

    1989-01-01

    Explores how outdoor experiential education can facilitate personal growth and transformation by balancing adventure-based activities with inner-directed processes. Discusses transpersonal psychology and research on consciousness and brain functions relevant to the process of transformation. Describes a specific technique to access deeper levels…

  19. Facilitating Meaningful Discussion Groups in the Primary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lindsey; Ogden, Meridith; Kelly, Laura Beth

    2015-01-01

    This Teaching Tips describes a yearlong process of facilitating meaningful discussion groups about literature with first-grade students in an urban Title I school. At the beginning of the year, the teacher provided explicit instruction in speaking and listening skills to support students with the social skills needed for thoughtful discussion. She…

  20. Accessible Adventure: Leadership Techniques That Facilitate Full Participation by All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lais, Greg

    2001-01-01

    Suggestions for facilitating inclusion of people with mixed abilities in outdoor adventure programs focus on creating an atmosphere of trust, cooperation, and mutual respect through open lines of communication, patterns of inclusive decision making, valuing of efforts and nonphysical accomplishments, emphasis on group challenges and activities,…

  1. The Implications of Language for Facilitating Self-Actualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Charleen Katharine

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the implications of language within an educational context as a means of facilitating self-actualization. Three premises identified in a priori fashion were drawn from the literature in linguistics, psychology, and general semantics, creating a three-part language continuum--acquisition, development, and…

  2. Do Facilitated Online Dual Credit Classes Result in Deep Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark Education Partnership, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This study, with funding from the Jennings Foundation, sought to answer the following broad research question: Do facilitated online dual credit courses result in deep learning? The answer to this question is key to addressing barriers many students face in bridging from high school to college. This report includes a descriptive case study that…

  3. Essential Metalloelement Chelates Facilitate Repair of Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Soderberg, Lee S. F.; Chang, Louis W.; Walker, Richard B.

    2001-01-01

    Treatment with essential metalloelement (Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) chelates or combinations of them before and/or after radiation injury is a useful approach to overcoming radiation injury. No other agents are known to increase survival when they are used to treat after irradiation, in a radiorecovery treatment paradigm. These chelates may be useful in facilitating de novo syntheses of essential metalloelement-dependent enzymes required to repair radiation injury. Reports of radioprotection, which involves treatment before irradiation, with calcium-channel blockers, acyl Melatonin homologs, and substituted anilines, which may serve as chelating agents after biochemical modification in vivo, as well as Curcumin, which is a chelating agent, have been included in this review. These inclusions are intended to suggest additional approaches to combination treatments that may be useful in facilitating radiation recovery. These approaches to radioprotection and radiorecovery offer promise in facilitating recovery from radiation-induced injury experienced by patients undergoing radiotherapy for neoplastic disease and by individuals who experience environmental, occupational, or accidental exposure to ultraviolet, x-ray, or γ-ray radiation. Since there are no existing treatments of radiation-injury intended to facilitate tissue repair, studies of essential metalloelement chelates and combinations of them, as well as combinations of them with existing organic radioprotectants, seem worthwhile. PMID:18475999

  4. A Facilitation of Dyslexia through a Remediation of Shakespeare's Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Petronilla

    2016-01-01

    This article shares the author's research focusing on the facilitation of acting students with dyslexia in actor-training. For some individuals with dyslexia the translation of the written text into image-based symbols using technological modalities can play a crucial role to access and make concrete the meaning of the words; in this case…

  5. Methodological Understandings from Elementary Science Lesson Study Facilitation and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Teacher learning, as well as the development and testing of curriculum materials, are key for teaching lessons that bring the goals of the Next Generation Science Standards to life in classrooms. Lesson study is a process that links standards, teacher learning, curriculum materials, and instructional enactment together to facilitate student…

  6. Determining the Impact of Online Practicum Facilitation for Inservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a project-based graduate practicum experience that was facilitated online. The study investigated the effects of the online practicum experience by: (a) using quantitative data to assess the learning and professional growth of the practicum participants in comparison to a group of teachers that did not…

  7. Morphological Processing: A Comparison between Free and Bound Stem Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastizzo, Matthew J.; Feldman, Laurie B.

    2004-01-01

    Linguists distinguish between words formed from free stems (e.g., "actor": "act") and those formed from bound stems (e.g., "spectator": "spect"). In a forward masked priming task, we observed significant morphological facilitation for prime-target pairs that shared either a free (e.g., "deform"--"CONFORM") or a bound (e.g., "revive"--"SURVIVE")…

  8. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Students' Understanding of Electrochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    Constructs a teaching strategy to facilitate conceptual change in freshman students' understanding of electrochemistry. Provides students with the correct response along with alternative responses (teaching experiments), producing a conflicting situation that is conducive to an equilibration of their cognitive structures. Concludes that the…

  9. Facilitating normative judgments of conditional probability: frequency or nested sets?

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Kimihiko

    2003-01-01

    Recent probability judgment research contrasts two opposing views. Some theorists have emphasized the role of frequency representations in facilitating probabilistic correctness; opponents have noted that visualizing the probabilistic structure of the task sufficiently facilitates normative reasoning. In the current experiment, the following conditional probability task, an isomorph of the "Problem of Three Prisoners" was tested. "A factory manufactures artificial gemstones. Each gemstone has a 1/3 chance of being blurred, a 1/3 chance of being cracked, and a 1/3 chance of being clear. An inspection machine removes all cracked gemstones, and retains all clear gemstones. However, the machine removes 1/2 of the blurred gemstones. What is the chance that a gemstone is blurred after the inspection?" A 2 x 2 design was administered. The first variable was the use of frequency instruction. The second manipulation was the use of a roulette-wheel diagram that illustrated a "nested-sets" relationship between the prior and the posterior probabilities. Results from two experiments showed that frequency alone had modest effects, while the nested-sets instruction achieved a superior facilitation of normative reasoning. The third experiment compared the roulette-wheel diagram to tree diagrams that also showed the nested-sets relationship. The roulette-wheel diagram outperformed the tree diagrams in facilitation of probabilistic reasoning. Implications for understanding the nature of intuitive probability judgments are discussed. PMID:12693194

  10. Posting with Intentionality in Online Instruction: Supporting Instructors' Facilitation Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Judith; van Barneveld, Angela; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2016-01-01

    As higher education institutions move to incorporate more online learning into their long-term strategies, it is important for instructors to become adept at facilitating discussions in ways that engage learners, promote critical thinking, and support the development of a learning community. Through the strategic application of effective…

  11. Experimental protocols and preparations to study respiratory long term facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mateika, Jason H.; Sandhu, Kulraj S.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory long-term facilitation is a form of neuronal plasticity that is induced following exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Long-term facilitation is characterized by a progressive increase in respiratory motor output during normoxic periods that separate hypoxic episodes and by a sustained elevation in respiratory activity for up to 90 min after exposure to intermittent hypoxia. This phenomenon is associated with increases in phrenic, hypoglossal or carotid sinus nerve inspiratory-modulated discharge. The examination of long-term facilitation has been steadily ongoing for approximately 3 decades. During this period of time a variety of animal models (e.g. cats, rats and humans), experimental preparations and intermittent hypoxia protocols have been used to study long-term facilitation. This review is designed to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of the models, preparations and protocols that have been used to study LTF over the past 30 years. The review is divided into two primary sections. Initially, the models and protocols used to study LTF in animals other than humans will be discussed, followed by a section specifically focused on human studies. Each section will begin with a discussion of various factors that must be considered when selecting an experimental preparation and intermittent hypoxia protocol to examine LTF. Model and protocol design recommendations will follow, with the goal of presenting a prevailing model and protocol that will ultimately ensure standardized comparisons across studies. PMID:21292044

  12. Social facilitation of long-lasting memory retrieval in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chabaud, Marie-Ange; Isabel, Guillaume; Kaiser, Laure; Preat, Thomas

    2009-10-13

    Recent studies demonstrate that social interactions can have a profound influence on Drosophila melanogaster behavior and cuticular pheromone patterns. Olfactory memory performance has mostly been investigated in groups, and previous studies have reported that grouped flies do not interact with each other and behave in the same way as individual flies during short-term memory retrieval. However, the influence of social effects on the two known forms of Drosophila long-lasting associative memory, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-term memory (LTM), has never been reported. We show here that ARM is displayed by individual flies but is socially facilitated; flies trained for ARM interact within a group to improve their conditioned performance. In contrast, testing shows LTM improvement in individual flies rather than in a group. We show that the social facilitation of ARM during group testing is independent of the social context of training and does not involve nonspecific aggregation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that social interactions facilitate ARM retrieval. We also show that social interactions necessary for this facilitation are specifically generated by trained flies: when single flies trained for ARM are mixed with groups of naive flies, they display poor retrieval, whereas mixing with groups trained either for ARM or LTM enhances performance. PMID:19781943

  13. Social Facilitation: Effects of Audience and Manipulated Feedback on Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Christopher G.; And Others

    Quality of performance feedback provided an individual may have pronounced impact on his motivation level and be at least partly responsible for social facilitation results. Male students (N=118) performed a dart-throwing task in the presence or absence of a three-person evaluative audience. After each of seven trials they received consistently…

  14. A Social Facilitation Model of Black Faculty Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Richard R.

    Four hypotheses derived from the social facilitation model (Cottrell, 1972) were applied to black faculty productivity, using data from a survey of 386 black faculty in predominantly white universities in the Northeast. In this model, the presence of an audience or coactors is considered to be a source of arousal that can either enhance or impair…

  15. Facilitating Students' Critical Thinking in Online Discussion: An Instructor's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Hua

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported using the practical inquiry model as discourse guide to facilitate students' critical thinking in online discussion. It was found that almost all the postings of the students who had no knowledge of the inquiry model fell into exploration phase except three postings in triggering events phase and two in integration phase. In…

  16. Determiner Primes as Facilitators of Lexical Retrieval in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Emma; Varley, Rosemary; Herbert, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Gender priming studies have demonstrated facilitation of noun production following pre-activation of a target noun's grammatical gender. Findings provide support for models in which syntactic information relating to words is stored within the lexicon and activated during lexical retrieval. Priming effects are observed in the context of determiner…

  17. Facilitating Trust in Privacy-Preserving E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, M.; Greer, J.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores a new model for facilitating trust in online e-learning activities. We begin by protecting the privacy of learners through identity management (IM), where personal information can be protected through some degree of participant anonymity or pseudonymity. In order to expect learners to trust other pseudonymous participants,…

  18. Mind Maps as Facilitative Tools in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safar, Ammar H.; Jafer,Yaqoub J.; Alqadiri, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions, attitudes, and willingness of pre-service science teachers in the College of Education at Kuwait University about using concept/mind maps and its related application software as facilitative tools, for teaching and learning, in science education. The first level (i.e., reaction) of Kirkpatrick's/Phillips'…

  19. Process Memos: Facilitating Dialogues about Writing between Students and Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson; Cherry, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    We have created a new teaching tool--process memos--to improve student writing. Process memos are guided reflections submitted with scaffolded assignments that facilitate a written dialogue between students and instructors about the process of writing. Within these memos, students critically assess available teaching tools, discuss their writing…

  20. Experiences of Pioneers Facilitating Teacher Networks for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanraets, Irene; Hulsebosch, Joitske; de Laat, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an exploration into facilitation practices of teacher professional development networks. Stimulating networked learning amongst teachers is a powerful way of creating an informal practice-based learning space driven by teacher needs. As such, it presents an additional channel (besides more formal traditional professional…

  1. Do Noncontingent Interviewer Mm-hmms Facilitate Interviewee Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegman, Aron Wolfe

    1976-01-01

    Two studies investigated the hypothesis that noncontingent interviewer "mm-hmms" facilitate interviewee verbal productivity. Within- and between-subjects comparisons failed to support the hypothesis, although interviewees' ratings indicate that the mm-hmms were perceived as the social reinforcers they were intended to be. (Author)

  2. Perceived Fear Appeals and Examination Performance: Facilitating or Debilitating Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Symes, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether students' perception of classroom fear appeals concerning a forthcoming high-stakes examination are associated with facilitating or debilitating performance outcomes. Self-report data were collected for perceived fear appeals, test anxiety and achievement goals from a sample of 273 students in their final year of…

  3. Academic Professional Development Strategies to Facilitate Educational Changes in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez Alonso, Gloria Amparo

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative within-case study explored how planned educational change in universities can be facilitated through academic professional development strategies. Thus this study attempted to shed some light on the dynamics of educational planned change in universities and their implications for academic professional development of faculty. The…

  4. Sexuality and the Chemically Dependent Woman. A Group Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    This manual contains the first 2-hour session of a six-session sexuality guide designed for clinicians and facilitators working with chemically dependent women. The content of the manual is appropriate for inpatient programs, outpatient programs, and after-care groups. The manual begins with an introduction to women's sexuality in the 1980s and an…

  5. Teaching Strategies for Multilevel ESL Classes. Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Eve; Williams, Molly

    A guide for teacher strategies in multilevel English-as-a-Second Language classes, developed at Clackamas Community College, Oregon, is presented. It contains the following materials: time schedule for a one-day workshop; facilitator's annotated agenda; five transparencies, including teaching objectives and sample lesson plans; various handouts,…

  6. Using Signs to Facilitate Vocabulary in Children with Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Susan Hendler; Battaglia, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore recommended practices in choosing and using key word signs (i.e., simple single-word gestures for communication) to facilitate first spoken words in hearing children with language delays. Developmental, theoretical, and empirical supports for this practice are discussed. Practical recommendations for…

  7. Facilitating the Development of School-Based Learning Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiak, Chris; Bertram, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge base on leading and facilitating the growth of school improvement networks by describing the activities and challenges faced by network leaders. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 19 co-leaders from 12 networks were interviewed using a semi-structured schedule about the growth of their…

  8. Action Research Facilitated by University-School Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    While Action Research (AR) is promoted as a powerful route for teachers' professional development, different contextual challenges may arise during the process; teachers may be helped to overcome these challenges with the guidance of external facilitators. Drawing on data from interviews and the teachers' AR reports, this article explores how two…

  9. DigiMemo: Facilitating the Note Taking Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Serhat

    2009-01-01

    Everyone takes notes daily for various reasons. Note taking is very popular in school settings and generally recognized as an effective learning strategy. Further, note taking is a complex process because it requires understanding, selection of information and writing. Some new technological tools may facilitate the note taking process. Among such…

  10. Facilitating Employees' and Students' Process towards Nascent Entrepreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hietanen, Lenita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate a model for facilitating employees' and full-time, non-business students' entrepreneurial capabilities during their optional entrepreneurship studies at one Finnish Open University. Design/methodology/approach: The case study investigates the course in which transitions from employees or…

  11. Advance care planning: identifying system-specific barriers and facilitators

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, N.A.; Howlett, J.; Sharma, N.C.; Biondo, P.; Holroyd-Leduc, J.; Fassbender, K.; Simon, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advance care planning (acp) is an important process in health care today. How to prospectively identify potential local barriers and facilitators to uptake of acp across a complex, multi-sector, publicly funded health care system and how to develop specific mitigating strategies have not been well characterized. Methods We surveyed a convenience sample of clinical and administrative health care opinion leaders across the province of Alberta to characterize system-specific barriers and facilitators to uptake of acp. The survey was based on published literature about the barriers to and facilitators of acp and on the Michie Theoretical Domains Framework. Results Of 88 surveys, 51 (58%) were returned. The survey identified system-specific barriers that could challenge uptake of acp. The factors were categorized into four main domains. Three examples of individual system-specific barriers were “insufficient public engagement and misunderstanding,” “conflict among different provincial health service initiatives,” and “lack of infrastructure.” Local system-specific barriers and facilitators were subsequently explored through a semi-structured informal discussion group involving key informants. The group identified approaches to mitigate specific barriers. Conclusions Uptake of acp is a priority for many health care systems, but bringing about change in multi-sector health care systems is complex. Identifying system-specific barriers and facilitators to the uptake of innovation are important elements of successful knowledge translation. We developed and successfully used a simple and inexpensive process to identify local system-specific barriers and enablers to uptake of acp, and to identify specific mitigating strategies. PMID:26300673

  12. Aequorin response facilitation and intracellular calcium accumulation in molluscan neurones

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen J.; Zucker, Robert S.

    1980-01-01

    1. When molluscan neural somata are filled with the calcium-indicating photo-protein aequorin and subjected to a 1 Hz train of depolarizing pulses (0·3 sec duration to + 15 mV) under voltage clamp, the successive photo-emissions due to calcium influx facilitate. The origin of this phenomenon was investigated in identified neurones from the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. 2. Since outward currents inactivate cumulatively in successive pulses, the effective depolarization increases due to a series resistance error. Elimination of this error by electronic compensation or pharmacological block of outward current reduced aequorin response facilitation by only about 30%, on the average. 3. When voltage-dependent sodium and potassium currents are blocked in tetraethylammonium (TEA)-substituted zero-sodium sea water, the remaining inward calcium currents display no facilitation. On the contrary, a slow decline during a pulse and a slight progressive depression in successive pulses are observed. Barium-substitution for calcium in the same medium eliminates a small residual potassium current insensitive to external TEA. The remaining inward barium currents also display depression instead of facilitation. 4. A non-pharmacological separation of calcium current was accomplished by measuring tail currents at the potassium equilibrium potential following depolarizing pulses. Calcium tail currents activate rapidly and then decline gradually and incompletely as depolarizing pulse duration is lengthened. Tail currents also show no evidence of facilitation; there is instead a slight depression of currents after successive pulses. 5. Increments of optical absorbance in neurones filled with the calcium-sensitive dye arsenazo III show a depression rather than facilitation to successive depolarizations in a train. The time course of these absorbance signals is consistent with the time-dependent depression of calcium current. 6. Calibration of arsenazo III response amplitude

  13. Improving the teaching skills of residents as tutors/facilitators and addressing the shortage of faculty facilitators for PBL modules

    PubMed Central

    Jafri, Wasim; Mumtaz, Khalid; Burdick, William P; Morahan, Page S; Freeman, Rosslynne; Zehra, Tabassum

    2007-01-01

    Background Residents play an important role in teaching of medical undergraduate students. Despite their importance in teaching undergraduates they are not involved in any formal training in teaching and leadership skills. We aimed to compare the teaching skills of residents with faculty in facilitating small group Problem Based Learning (PBL) sessions. Methods This quasi experimental descriptive comparative research involved 5 postgraduate year 4 residents and five senior faculty members. The study was conducted with all phase III (Final year) students rotating in Gastroenterology. The residents and faculty members received brief training of one month in facilitation and core principles of adult education. Different aspects of teaching skills of residents and faculty were evaluated by students on a questionnaire (graded on Likert Scale from 1 to 10) assessing i) Knowledge Base-content Learning (KBL), ii) PBL, iii) Student Centered Learning (SCL) and iv) Group Skills (GS). Results There were 33 PBL teaching sessions in which 120 evaluation forms were filled; out of these 53% forms were filled for residents and 47% for faculty group. The faculty showed a statistically greater rating in "KBL" (faculty 8.37 Vs resident 7.94; p-value 0.02), "GS" (faculty 8.06 vs. residents 7.68; p-value 0.04). Differences in faculty and resident scores in "the PBL" and "SCL" were not significant. The overall score of faculty facilitators, however, was statistically significant for resident facilitators. (p = .05). Conclusion 1) Residents are an effective supplement to faculty members for PBL; 2) Additional facilitators for PBL sessions can be identified in an institution by involvement of residents in teacher training workshops. PMID:17919342

  14. Ancestral developmental potential facilitates parallel evolution in ants.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Rajendhran; San Mauro, Diego; Dijkstra, Michiel B; Huang, Ming H; Wheeler, Diana E; Hiou-Tim, Francois; Khila, Abderrahman; Cournoyea, Michael; Abouheif, Ehab

    2012-01-01

    Complex worker caste systems have contributed to the evolutionary success of advanced ant societies; however, little is known about the developmental processes underlying their origin and evolution. We combined hormonal manipulation, gene expression, and phylogenetic analyses with field observations to understand how novel worker subcastes evolve. We uncovered an ancestral developmental potential to produce a "supersoldier" subcaste that has been actualized at least two times independently in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole. This potential has been retained and can be environmentally induced throughout the genus. Therefore, the retention and induction of this potential have facilitated the parallel evolution of supersoldiers through a process known as genetic accommodation. The recurrent induction of ancestral developmental potential may facilitate the adaptive and parallel evolution of phenotypes.

  15. Facilitating learning in the community with lecturer-practitioner posts.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, B; Thomson, A M; Davies, S; Whittaker, K

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of the perspectives of their role of a group of community lecturer-practitioners and a community teacher, who referred to themselves as 'community facilitators'. A qualitative design was used and data were collected by semi-structured interviews. These were transcribed and content analysis was undertaken. All participants provided a liaison role between the college and the community practitioners, prepared students for their clinical experience and assisted in relating theory to practice. The participants described how they managed the role and how they supported each other. Developing small teams of facilitators may provide a bridge between teachers and practitioners and can serve as a basis for further study of the lecturer-practitioner role.

  16. Compassion fatigue resiliency training: the experience of facilitators.

    PubMed

    Potter, Patricia; Pion, Sarah; Gentry, J Eric

    2015-02-01

    This qualitative evaluation examined compassion fatigue facilitators' perceptions of the effects of a compassion fatigue resiliency training program in an urban medical center in the midwestern United States. Nine months after completing a compassion fatigue resiliency facilitator training program, 15 participants wrote short narratives describing how the program affected them. Participants described how the training program benefited them both personally and professionally. Two main themes were identified from the narrative analysis: self-improvement and application of resiliency. All of the participants described one or more self-improvements as a result of the program, particularly in regard to emotional health. All of the participants also described how they regularly applied one or more of the resiliency skills taught in the class to improve their ability to manage stress and prevent compassion fatigue. This program shows promise in ameliorating compassion fatigue and burnout in health care providers.

  17. Phytohormone pathways as targets of pathogens to facilitate infection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ka-Wai; Ma, Wenbo

    2016-08-01

    Plants are constantly threatened by potential pathogens. In order to optimize the output of defense against pathogens with distinct lifestyles, plants depend on hormonal networks to fine-tune specific responses and regulate growth-defense tradeoffs. To counteract, pathogens have evolved various strategies to disturb hormonal homeostasis and facilitate infection. Many pathogens synthesize plant hormones; more importantly, toxins and effectors are produced to manipulate hormonal crosstalk. Accumulating evidence has shown that pathogens exert extensive effects on plant hormone pathways not only to defeat immunity, but also modify habitat structure, optimize nutrient acquisition, and facilitate pathogen dissemination. In this review, we summarize mechanisms by which a wide array of pathogens gain benefits from manipulating plant hormone pathways.

  18. Facilitating HIV Disclosure Across Diverse Settings: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Baijal, Parijat; Pegurri, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    HIV status disclosure is central to debates about HIV because of its potential for HIV prevention and its links to privacy and confidentiality as human-rights issues. Our review of the HIV-disclosure literature found that few people keep their status completely secret; disclosure tends to be iterative and to be higher in high-income countries; gender shapes disclosure motivations and reactions; involuntary disclosure and low levels of partner disclosure highlight the difficulties faced by health workers; the meaning and process of disclosure differ across settings; stigmatization increases fears of disclosure; and the ethical dilemmas resulting from competing values concerning confidentiality influence the extent to which disclosure can be facilitated. Our results suggest that structural changes, including making more services available, could facilitate HIV disclosure as much as individual approaches and counseling do. PMID:21493947

  19. Facilitated diffusion of proteins through crumpled fractal DNA globules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smrek, Jan; Grosberg, Alexander Y.

    2015-07-01

    We explore how the specific fractal globule conformation, found for the chromatin fiber of higher eukaryotes and topologically constrained dense polymers, affects the facilitated diffusion of proteins in this environment. Using scaling arguments and supporting Monte Carlo simulations, we relate DNA looping probability distribution, fractal dimension, and protein nonspecific affinity for the DNA to the effective diffusion parameters of the proteins. We explicitly consider correlations between subsequent readsorption events of the proteins, and we find that facilitated diffusion is faster for the crumpled globule conformation with high intersegmental surface dimension than in the case of dense fractal conformations with smooth surfaces. As a byproduct, we obtain an expression for the macroscopic conductivity of a hypothetic material consisting of conducting fractal nanowires immersed in a weakly conducting medium.

  20. Exogenous attention facilitates location transfer of perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Ian; Szpiro, Sarit; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual skills can be improved through practice on a perceptual task, even in adulthood. Visual perceptual learning is known to be mostly specific to the trained retinal location, which is considered as evidence of neural plasticity in retinotopic early visual cortex. Recent findings demonstrate that transfer of learning to untrained locations can occur under some specific training procedures. Here, we evaluated whether exogenous attention facilitates transfer of perceptual learning to untrained locations, both adjacent to the trained locations (Experiment 1) and distant from them (Experiment 2). The results reveal that attention facilitates transfer of perceptual learning to untrained locations in both experiments, and that this transfer occurs both within and across visual hemifields. These findings show that training with exogenous attention is a powerful regime that is able to overcome the major limitation of location specificity. PMID:26426818

  1. Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A

    2000-01-01

    Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.

  2. Gut microbes of mammalian herbivores facilitate intake of plant toxins.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kevin D; Weiss, Robert B; Cox, James; Dale, Colin; Dearing, M Denise

    2014-10-01

    The foraging ecology of mammalian herbivores is strongly shaped by plant secondary compounds (PSCs) that defend plants against herbivory. Conventional wisdom holds that gut microbes facilitate the ingestion of toxic plants; however, this notion lacks empirical evidence. We investigated the gut microbiota of desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida), some populations of which specialise on highly toxic creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). Here, we demonstrate that gut microbes are crucial in allowing herbivores to consume toxic plants. Creosote toxins altered the population structure of the gut microbiome to facilitate an increase in abundance of genes that metabolise toxic compounds. In addition, woodrats were unable to consume creosote toxins after the microbiota was disrupted with antibiotics. Last, ingestion of toxins by naïve hosts was increased through microbial transplants from experienced donors. These results demonstrate that microbes can enhance the ability of hosts to consume PSCs and therefore expand the dietary niche breadth of mammalian herbivores.

  3. Lateral facilitation--no effect on the target noise level.

    PubMed

    Katkov, Mikhail; Sagi, Dov

    2010-11-23

    The detection threshold of a centrally placed Gabor target is reduced in the presence of aligned high-contrast Gabor patches that are optimally spaced from the target (Polat & Sagi, 1993). Here we determined whether threshold reduction is due to signal enhancement or to decreased signal response variability (internal noise), using a recently developed analysis for a Signal Detection Theory (SDT)-based contrast-identification paradigm (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2007a). We found that flankers did not affect internal noise, but instead caused increased target response when collinear with it, in agreement with the lateral facilitation effect. Based on these results, we concluded that lateral facilitation can be explained by signal enhancement only, and that uncertainty-based models do not provide a satisfactory description of the data.

  4. Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A

    2000-01-01

    Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. PMID:10641365

  5. Facilitative governance: transforming global health through complexity theory.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2012-01-01

    Any initiative to coordinate actions, plans, or initiatives to improve the interaction between global health stakeholders finds itself feeding into a vastly complex global system. By utilising complexity theory as part of a new scientific paradigm, complex adaptive behaviour can emerge to create coherence. A suggested global health convention facilitating incremental regime development could be a way to create good governance processes. Minimum specifications could provide wide space for innovation and encourage shared action. Such specifications would be both a product of, and a facilitator for, future generative relationships. The potential empowerment of individuals as a result of this has the potential to transform global health by creating an arena for continual cooperation, interaction and mutual dependence among global stakeholders. PMID:22248181

  6. Exogenous attention facilitates location transfer of perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Ian; Szpiro, Sarit; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual skills can be improved through practice on a perceptual task, even in adulthood. Visual perceptual learning is known to be mostly specific to the trained retinal location, which is considered as evidence of neural plasticity in retinotopic early visual cortex. Recent findings demonstrate that transfer of learning to untrained locations can occur under some specific training procedures. Here, we evaluated whether exogenous attention facilitates transfer of perceptual learning to untrained locations, both adjacent to the trained locations (Experiment 1) and distant from them (Experiment 2). The results reveal that attention facilitates transfer of perceptual learning to untrained locations in both experiments, and that this transfer occurs both within and across visual hemifields. These findings show that training with exogenous attention is a powerful regime that is able to overcome the major limitation of location specificity.

  7. Social facilitation of eclosion in the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Lamon, B; Topoff, H

    1985-09-01

    In colonies of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, eclosion is facilitated by adult workers which strip away and consume the pupal cuticle. This stage-specific social interaction involves chemical stimuli which are present at the onset of eclosion, concurrent with the initiation of gross movements and separation of the pupal cuticle. Fire ant workers retrieved inanimate objects treated with an extract of eclosing pupae and placed them in the colony brood chamber with the appropriate age group where they were tended by several workers. The facilitation of eclosion by adult colony members appears to be an obligatory process in the development of this species; pupae denied the aid of adult workers during eclosion are unable to remove the pupal cuticle and rapidly succumb. PMID:4065426

  8. Facilitation at single synapses probed with optical quantal analysis.

    PubMed

    Oertner, Thomas G; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Nimchinsky, Esther A; Svoboda, Karel

    2002-07-01

    Many synapses can change their strength rapidly in a use-dependent manner, but the mechanisms of such short-term plasticity remain unknown. To understand these mechanisms, measurements of neurotransmitter release at single synapses are required. We probed transmitter release by imaging transient increases in [Ca(2+)] mediated by synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in individual dendritic spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat brain slices, enabling quantal analysis at single synapses. We found that changes in release probability, produced by paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) or by manipulation of presynaptic adenosine receptors, were associated with changes in glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft, indicating that single synapses can release a variable amount of glutamate per action potential. The relationship between release probability and response size is consistent with a binomial model of vesicle release with several (>5) independent release sites per active zone, suggesting that multivesicular release contributes to facilitation at these synapses.

  9. Facilitated diffusion of proteins through crumpled fractal DNA globules.

    PubMed

    Smrek, Jan; Grosberg, Alexander Y

    2015-07-01

    We explore how the specific fractal globule conformation, found for the chromatin fiber of higher eukaryotes and topologically constrained dense polymers, affects the facilitated diffusion of proteins in this environment. Using scaling arguments and supporting Monte Carlo simulations, we relate DNA looping probability distribution, fractal dimension, and protein nonspecific affinity for the DNA to the effective diffusion parameters of the proteins. We explicitly consider correlations between subsequent readsorption events of the proteins, and we find that facilitated diffusion is faster for the crumpled globule conformation with high intersegmental surface dimension than in the case of dense fractal conformations with smooth surfaces. As a byproduct, we obtain an expression for the macroscopic conductivity of a hypothetic material consisting of conducting fractal nanowires immersed in a weakly conducting medium.

  10. Facilitative governance: transforming global health through complexity theory.

    PubMed

    Haffeld, Just

    2012-01-01

    Any initiative to coordinate actions, plans, or initiatives to improve the interaction between global health stakeholders finds itself feeding into a vastly complex global system. By utilising complexity theory as part of a new scientific paradigm, complex adaptive behaviour can emerge to create coherence. A suggested global health convention facilitating incremental regime development could be a way to create good governance processes. Minimum specifications could provide wide space for innovation and encourage shared action. Such specifications would be both a product of, and a facilitator for, future generative relationships. The potential empowerment of individuals as a result of this has the potential to transform global health by creating an arena for continual cooperation, interaction and mutual dependence among global stakeholders.

  11. Language learners restructure their input to facilitate efficient communication.

    PubMed

    Fedzechkina, Maryia; Jaeger, T Florian; Newport, Elissa L

    2012-10-30

    Languages of the world display many structural similarities. We test the hypothesis that some of these structural properties may arise from biases operating during language acquisition that shape languages over time. Specifically, we investigate whether language learners are biased toward linguistic systems that strike an efficient balance between robust information transfer, on the one hand, and effort or resource demands, on the other hand, thereby increasing the communicative utility of the acquired language. In two experiments, we expose learners to miniature artificial languages designed in such a way that they do not use their formal devices (case marking) efficiently to facilitate robust information transfer. We find that learners restructure such languages in ways that facilitate efficient information transfer compared with the input language. These systematic changes introduced by the learners follow typologically frequent patterns, supporting the hypothesis that some of the structural similarities found in natural languages are shaped by biases toward communicatively efficient linguistic systems.

  12. Phosphoproteomic Analyses Reveal Signaling Pathways That Facilitate Lytic Gammaherpesvirus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, James A.; Chavan, Shweta S.; Sifford, Jeffrey M.; MacLeod, Veronica; Voth, Daniel E.; Edmondson, Ricky D.; Forrest, J. Craig

    2013-01-01

    Lytic gammaherpesvirus (GHV) replication facilitates the establishment of lifelong latent infection, which places the infected host at risk for numerous cancers. As obligate intracellular parasites, GHVs must control and usurp cellular signaling pathways in order to successfully replicate, disseminate to stable latency reservoirs in the host, and prevent immune-mediated clearance. To facilitate a systems-level understanding of phosphorylation-dependent signaling events directed by GHVs during lytic replication, we utilized label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to interrogate the lytic replication cycle of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV68). Compared to controls, MHV68 infection regulated by 2-fold or greater ca. 86% of identified phosphopeptides – a regulatory scale not previously observed in phosphoproteomic evaluations of discrete signal-inducing stimuli. Network analyses demonstrated that the infection-associated induction or repression of specific cellular proteins globally altered the flow of information through the host phosphoprotein network, yielding major changes to functional protein clusters and ontologically associated proteins. A series of orthogonal bioinformatics analyses revealed that MAPK and CDK-related signaling events were overrepresented in the infection-associated phosphoproteome and identified 155 host proteins, such as the transcription factor c-Jun, as putative downstream targets. Importantly, functional tests of bioinformatics-based predictions confirmed ERK1/2 and CDK1/2 as kinases that facilitate MHV68 replication and also demonstrated the importance of c-Jun. Finally, a transposon-mutant virus screen identified the MHV68 cyclin D ortholog as a viral protein that contributes to the prominent MAPK/CDK signature of the infection-associated phosphoproteome. Together, these analyses enhance an understanding of how GHVs reorganize and usurp intracellular signaling networks to facilitate infection and replication. PMID:24068923

  13. Participant-Centric Initiatives: Tools to Facilitate Engagement In Research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicholas; Bragg, Caleb; Hartzler, Andrea; Edwards, Kelly

    2012-12-01

    Clinical genomic research faces increasing challenges in establishing participant privacy and consent processes that facilitate meaningful choice and communication capacity for longitudinal and secondary research uses. There are an evolving range of participant-centric initiatives that combine web-based informatics tools with new models of engagement and research collaboration. These emerging initiatives may become valuable approaches to support large-scale and longitudinal research studies. We highlight and discuss four types of emerging initiatives for engaging and sustaining participation in research.

  14. Striatal serotonin depletion facilitates rat egocentric learning via dopamine modulation.

    PubMed

    Anguiano-Rodríguez, Patricia B; Gaytán-Tocavén, Lorena; Olvera-Cortés, María Esther

    2007-02-01

    Egocentric spatial learning has been defined as the ability to navigate in an environment using only proprioceptive information, thereby performing a motor response based on one's own movement. This form of learning has been associated with the neural memory system, including the striatum body. Cerebral serotonin depletion induces better performance, both in tasks with strong egocentric components and in egocentric navigation in the Morris' maze. Based on this, we propose that the striatal serotonergic depletion must facilitate egocentric learning. Fifteen female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 250-350 g and maintained under standard conditions were chronically implanted with infusion cannulas for bilateral application of drugs into the striatum. The animals were evaluated for egocentric navigation using the Morris' maze, under different conditions: saline solution infusion, serotonin depletion by infusion of 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine (25 microg of free base solved in 2.5 microl of ascorbic acid 1% in saline solution), infusion of mixed dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptor antagonists (0.5 microl/min during 5 min of mixed spiperone 20 microM and SCH23390 10 microM), or serotonin depletion and dopamine blockade simultaneously. Striatal serotonin depletion facilitated egocentric learning, which was demonstrated as shorter escape latencies and the display of a defined sequence of movements for reaching the platform. The facilitation was not observed under condition of simultaneous dopamine blockade. Striatal serotonin depletion produced a dopamine-dependent facilitation of egocentric learning. A role for serotonin in the inhibition of striatal-mediated learning strategies is proposed. PMID:17126827

  15. Phosphoproteomic analyses reveal signaling pathways that facilitate lytic gammaherpesvirus replication.

    PubMed

    Stahl, James A; Chavan, Shweta S; Sifford, Jeffrey M; MacLeod, Veronica; Voth, Daniel E; Edmondson, Ricky D; Forrest, J Craig

    2013-09-01

    Lytic gammaherpesvirus (GHV) replication facilitates the establishment of lifelong latent infection, which places the infected host at risk for numerous cancers. As obligate intracellular parasites, GHVs must control and usurp cellular signaling pathways in order to successfully replicate, disseminate to stable latency reservoirs in the host, and prevent immune-mediated clearance. To facilitate a systems-level understanding of phosphorylation-dependent signaling events directed by GHVs during lytic replication, we utilized label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to interrogate the lytic replication cycle of murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV68). Compared to controls, MHV68 infection regulated by 2-fold or greater ca. 86% of identified phosphopeptides - a regulatory scale not previously observed in phosphoproteomic evaluations of discrete signal-inducing stimuli. Network analyses demonstrated that the infection-associated induction or repression of specific cellular proteins globally altered the flow of information through the host phosphoprotein network, yielding major changes to functional protein clusters and ontologically associated proteins. A series of orthogonal bioinformatics analyses revealed that MAPK and CDK-related signaling events were overrepresented in the infection-associated phosphoproteome and identified 155 host proteins, such as the transcription factor c-Jun, as putative downstream targets. Importantly, functional tests of bioinformatics-based predictions confirmed ERK1/2 and CDK1/2 as kinases that facilitate MHV68 replication and also demonstrated the importance of c-Jun. Finally, a transposon-mutant virus screen identified the MHV68 cyclin D ortholog as a viral protein that contributes to the prominent MAPK/CDK signature of the infection-associated phosphoproteome. Together, these analyses enhance an understanding of how GHVs reorganize and usurp intracellular signaling networks to facilitate infection and replication.

  16. Invasional meltdown: invader-invader mutualism facilitates a secondary invasion.

    PubMed

    Green, Peter T; O'Dowd, Dennis J; Abbott, Kirsti L; Jeffery, Mick; Retallick, Kent; Mac Nally, Ralph

    2011-09-01

    In multiply invaded ecosystems, introduced species should interact with each other as well as with native species. Invader-invader interactions may affect the success of further invaders by altering attributes of recipient communities and propagule pressure. The invasional meltdown hypothesis (IMH) posits that positive interactions among invaders initiate positive population-level feedback that intensifies impacts and promotes secondary invasions. IMH remains controversial: few studies show feedback between invaders that amplifies their effects, and none yet demonstrate facilitation of entry and spread of secondary invaders. Our results show that supercolonies of an alien ant, promoted by mutualism with introduced honeydew-secreting scale insects, permitted invasion by an exotic land snail on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Modeling of land snail spread over 750 sites across 135 km2 over seven years showed that the probability of land snail invasion was facilitated 253-fold in ant supercolonies but impeded in intact forest where predaceous native land crabs remained abundant. Land snail occurrence at neighboring sites, a measure of propagule pressure, also promoted land snail spread. Site comparisons and experiments revealed that ant supercolonies, by killing land crabs but not land snails, disrupted biotic resistance and provided enemy-free space. Predation pressure on land snails was lower (28.6%), survival 115 times longer, and abundance 20-fold greater in supercolonies than in intact forest. Whole-ecosystem suppression of supercolonies reversed the probability of land snail invasion by allowing recolonization of land crabs; land snails were much less likely (0.79%) to invade sites where supercolonies were suppressed than where they remained intact. Our results provide strong empirical evidence for IMH by demonstrating that mutualism between invaders reconfigures key interactions in the recipient community. This facilitates entry of secondary invaders and

  17. Facilitators and barriers to implementing clinical care pathways

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The promotion of care pathways in the recent Governmental health policy reports of Lord Darzi is likely to increase efforts to promote the use of care pathways in the NHS. Evidence on the process of pathway implementation, however, is sparse and variations in how organisations go about the implementation process are likely to be large. This paper summarises what is known about factors which help or hinder clinicians in adopting and putting care pathways into practice, and which consequently promote or hinder the implementation of scientific evidence in clinical practice. Discussion Care pathways can provide patients with clear expectations of their care, provide a means of measuring patient's progress, promote teamwork on a multi-disciplinary team, facilitate the use of guidelines, and may act as a basis for a payment system. In order to achieve adequate implementation, however, facilitators and barriers must be considered, planned for, and incorporated directly into the pathway with full engagement among clinical and management staff. Barriers and/or facilitators may be present at each stage of development, implementation and evaluation; and, barriers at any stage can impede successful implementation. Important considerations to be made are ensuring the inclusion of all types of staff, plans for evaluating and incorporating continuous improvements, allowing for organisational adaptations and promoting the use of multifaceted interventions. Summary Although there is a dearth of information regarding the successful implementation of care pathways, evidence is available which may be applied when implementing a care pathway. Multifaceted interventions which incorporate all staff and facilitate organisational adaptations must be seriously considered and incorporated alongside care pathways in a continuous manner. In order to better understand the mechanism upon which care pathways are effective, however, more research specifically addressing conditions under

  18. Facilitating transdisciplinary teamwork in dietetics education: a case study approach.

    PubMed

    Smith, A Russell; Christie, Catherine

    2004-06-01

    Teamwork, emphasized by the transdisciplinary approach, has been strongly linked to the development of a culture of patient safety. However, the vast majority of health care education is one-dimensional, ie, focused on one discipline, taught by practitioners of the same discipline, with students of the same discipline. In an effort to address this one-dimensional view of health care education, a case-study assignment was developed to facilitate professional interaction between graduate physical therapy and graduate nutrition students. The objectives were threefold: (a). to increase student understanding of the role of another discipline, (b). to increase student ability to obtain and analyze information from a consultant relative to a patient case, and (c). to increase student communication skills across disciplines. For the assignment, physical therapy students were assigned one case scenario and one nutrition student to interview individually. The nutrition students acted as consultants in a clinical setting. The interactive assignment was considered an effective learning tool for facilitating interprofessional learning by the faculty based on student comments reporting increased understanding of the role of the other discipline, increased communication skills, and an understanding of the barriers to transdisciplinary interaction. Future studies, both quantitative and qualitative, may further identify effects of instructional activities designed to facilitate transdisciplinary health care.

  19. Colloid-facilitated transport of lead in natural discrete fractures.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiang-Yu; Weisbrod, Noam

    2009-01-01

    Colloid-facilitated transport of lead (Pb) was explored in a natural chalk fracture with an average equivalent hydraulic aperture of 139 microm. Tracer solution was prepared by adding montmorillonite (100 mg L(-1)) and/or humic acid (HA) (10 mg L(-1)) to modified artificial rainwater containing dissolved Pb (21.4 mg Pb L(-1)), naturally precipitated PbCO(3) particles (16.4 mg Pb L(-1)) and LiBr (39.0 mg L(-1)). We found that Pb is only mobile when associated with colloids. PbCO(3) particles were not mobile in the fracture. The addition of HA to the montmorillonite suspension increased the suspension's mobility and therefore promoted the colloid-facilitated transport of Pb. The increases in pH and sodium absorption ratio induced by the chalk-tracer solution interactions appeared to increase the dispersion and mobilization of colloids entering the fracture. The dominant colloid-facilitated transport of Pb reported in this study has significant implications for risk assessment of Pb mobility in fractured rocks. PMID:19395135

  20. Stabilization of memory States by stochastic facilitating synapses.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul

    2013-12-06

    Bistability within a small neural circuit can arise through an appropriate strength of excitatory recurrent feedback. The stability of a state of neural activity, measured by the mean dwelling time before a noise-induced transition to another state, depends on the neural firing-rate curves, the net strength of excitatory feedback, the statistics of spike times, and increases exponentially with the number of equivalent neurons in the circuit. Here, we show that such stability is greatly enhanced by synaptic facilitation and reduced by synaptic depression. We take into account the alteration in times of synaptic vesicle release, by calculating distributions of inter-release intervals of a synapse, which differ from the distribution of its incoming interspike intervals when the synapse is dynamic. In particular, release intervals produced by a Poisson spike train have a coefficient of variation greater than one when synapses are probabilistic and facilitating, whereas the coefficient of variation is less than one when synapses are depressing. However, in spite of the increased variability in postsynaptic input produced by facilitating synapses, their dominant effect is reduced synaptic efficacy at low input rates compared to high rates, which increases the curvature of neural input-output functions, leading to wider regions of bistability in parameter space and enhanced lifetimes of memory states. Our results are based on analytic methods with approximate formulae and bolstered by simulations of both Poisson processes and of circuits of noisy spiking model neurons.