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Sample records for 58-year-old female presented

  1. Inflammatory vitiligo versus hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in a 58-year-old Indian female.

    PubMed

    Soro, Luis A; Gust, Anthony J; Purcell, Stephen M

    2013-10-01

    Vitiligo, particularly the rarer inflammatory variant, may be difficult to distinguish from hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (MF) clinically. Complicating the distinction is that when biopsies are taken from the periphery of early vitiliginous lesions or from lesions with an inflammatory border (inflammatory vitiligo), a dermal lymphocytic infiltrate, exocytosis, interface dermatitis, and mild spongiosis may be seen, all resembling the findings seen in hypopigmented MF. We present a case demonstrating the difficulty in differentiating between these two diseases and examine some characteristic clinical and histopathological features of each. Often, a conclusive diagnosis cannot be made, necessitating close follow-up of the patient and monitoring for progression of their disease over time. PMID:24350017

  2. Inflammatory vitiligo versus hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in a 58-year-old Indian female

    PubMed Central

    Soro, Luis A.; Gust, Anthony J.; Purcell, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Vitiligo, particularly the rarer inflammatory variant, may be difficult to distinguish from hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (MF) clinically. Complicating the distinction is that when biopsies are taken from the periphery of early vitiliginous lesions or from lesions with an inflammatory border (inflammatory vitiligo), a dermal lymphocytic infiltrate, exocytosis, interface dermatitis, and mild spongiosis may be seen, all resembling the findings seen in hypopigmented MF. We present a case demonstrating the difficulty in differentiating between these two diseases and examine some characteristic clinical and histopathological features of each. Often, a conclusive diagnosis cannot be made, necessitating close follow-up of the patient and monitoring for progression of their disease over time. PMID:24350017

  3. Spontaneous Subdural Empyema Following a High-Parasitemia Falciparum Infection in a 58-Year-Old Female From a Malaria-Endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Pallangyo, Pedro; Lyimo, Frederick; Nicholaus, Paulina; Kain, Ulimbakisya; Janabi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a significant public health problem of the tropical world. Falciparum malaria is most prevalent in the sub-Saharan African region, which harbors about 90% of all malaria cases and fatalities globally. Infection by the falciparum species often manifests with a spectrum of multi-organ complications (eg, cerebral malaria), some of which are life-threatening. Spontaneous subdural empyema is a very rare complication of cerebral malaria that portends a very poor prognosis unless diagnosed and treated promptly. We report a case of spontaneous subdural empyema in a 58-year-old woman from Tanzania who presented with high-grade fever, decreased urine output, and altered sensorium.

  4. Localized lipomatosis of the perineum in a 58-year-old male patient – case report

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlovu, Mathias; Amr, Amro; Schoeller, Thomas; Werdin, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lipomatosis of the perineum is an extremely rare condition. We report a localized hypertrophy of adipose tissue of the perineum in a 58-year-old man. The cause of enlargement could not be revealed. Nonetheless, preoperative workup and exclusion of possible malign tumors is essential.

  5. The GNAQ in the haystack: intramedullary meningeal melanocytoma of intermediate grade at T9-10 in a 58-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Michael; Koelsche, Christian; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel; Mai, Sabine; Lohr, Frank; Reuss, David; Wenz, Frederik; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Giordano, Frank A

    2016-07-01

    Meningeal melanocytomas are rare tumors. They are derived from leptomeningeal melanocytes and predominantly occur along the spine and the posterior fossa. Here, the authors report a case of intramedullary melanocytoma of intermediate grade in a 58-year-old female patient who was initially misdiagnosed with malignant melanoma until mutational analyses of a panel of genes associated with melanotic tumors led to reclassification. PMID:26544768

  6. Cytomorphology of lung metastasis of pure choriocarcinoma of testis in a 58-year-old male.

    PubMed

    Puri, Shailja; Sood, Shivani; Mohindroo, Shobha; Kaushal, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Choriocarcinoma is malignancy arising from the trophoblastic tissue. Pure choriocarcinoma is rare in testis. Choriocarcinoma of testis is more commonly associated with other germ cell tumors. The usual age of presentation is 2nd-3rd decade. Distant metastasis is known to occur in choriocarcinoma. We present a rare case of testicular pure choriocarcinoma in a male patient. The patient was treated with orchidectomy, lymphadenectomy, and chemotherapy. Three months later the patient presented with hemoptysis and a lung mass. The aspiration cytology of the lung mass revealed metastatic deposits of syncytiotrophoblastic and cytiotrophoblastic cells. We are reporting this case due to its rarity, rare age of presentation, and characteristic cytology at metastatic focus. PMID:26881635

  7. The influence of maternal self-objectification, materialism and parenting style on potentially sexualized 'grown up' behaviours and appearance concerns in 5-8year old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    There is widespread concern about young girls displaying 'grown up' or sexualized behaviours, as well as experiencing body image and appearance concerns that were previously thought to only impact much older girls. The present study examined the influence of three maternal attributes, self-objectification, materialism and parenting style, on sexualized behaviours and appearance concerns in young girls. A sample of 252 Australian mothers of 5-8year old girls reported on the behaviours and appearance concerns observed in their daughters and also completed measures of their own self-objectification, materialism and parenting style. It was found that a significant proportion of young girls were engaging with 'teen' culture, using beauty products and expressing some degree of appearance concern. Maternal self-objectification was related to daughters' engagement in teen culture, use of beauty products and appearance concern. Maternal materialism was related to girls' engagement in teen culture and appearance concern, while an authoritative parenting style was negatively related to girls' use of beauty products. The findings suggest that maternal self-objectification and materialism play a role in the body image and appearance concerns of young girls, and in so doing, identify these maternal attributes as novel potential targets for intervention. PMID:27203569

  8. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Elizabeth; Curry, Emily J; Whitlock, Kaitlyn

    2015-07-01

    After the passage of Title IX in 1972, female sports participation skyrocketed. In 1992, the female athlete triad was first defined; diagnosis required the presence of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. However, many athletes remained undiagnosed because they did not meet all three of these criteria. In 2007, the definition was modified to a spectrum disorder involving low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. With the new definition, all three components need not be present for a diagnosis of female athlete triad. Studies using the 1992 definition of the disorder demonstrated a prevalence of 1% to 4% in athletes. However, in certain sports, many female athletes may meet at least one of these criteria. The actual prevalence of athletes who fall under the "umbrella" diagnosis of the female athlete triad remains unknown. PMID:26111876

  9. Pyloric Stenosis - Do Males and Females Present Differently?

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Nuala; Walls, Andrew; Milliken, Irene; McCullagh, Majella

    2011-01-01

    Aims In infants with pyloric stenosis we explored (a) if males develop symptoms and present to hospital earlier than females and (b) does any delay in presentation influence the severity of metabolic derangement. Method A retrospective casenote review of 99 infants who underwent pyloromyotomy (with confirmation of pyloric stenosis) over a two year period (Jan 2006-Dec 2007) in our hospital. The data collected included: sex, age at onset of symptoms, age at presentation to hospital and initial blood results. Results The group comprised 84 males and 15 females. Symptoms developed at 26 (0-70) days in males and 35 (0-77) in females. (Mann-Whitney U=428, p=0.04 two tailed). Males presented to hospital at 34 (13-91) days, females at 45 (13-98) days (Mann-Whitney U=391, p=0.01 two tailed). The differences between males and females for (1) age at onset of symptoms and (2) age at presentation to hospital became more significant when weighted averages were calculated using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). The lower weighted averages for male infants can be seen in the final table. Increasing duration of symptoms showed a positive correlation with fall in Chloride level. (Spearman’s rho: rs= -0.2, p=0.049 two tailed). There was a positive correlation between duration of symptoms and bicarbonate level but this was not significant. (rs=0.06, p>0.05 two tailed). There was a positive correlation between duration of symptoms and pH, but this was not significant (rs=0.12, p>0.05 two tailed). Conclusion In our hospital, females with pyloric stenosis develop symptoms and present significantly later than males. This should be considered when assessing a female with vomiting outside the usual 20-40 day range. PMID:23526330

  10. Voices from the Present: Tracking the Female Administrative Aspirant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edson, Sakre K.

    1987-01-01

    Strategies that allow female managers to have occupational success must be investigated. Career women in educational administration were tracked for ten years to ascertain their organizational situation, career path, attitudes, and goals. Although women have made minimal gains, they are optimistic and will continue to test traditional occupational…

  11. Thyroglossal Duct Remnant with Follicular Hyperplasia Presenting After Total Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Ryan E.; Ahmad, Hassan; Hildrew, Douglas M.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Aslam, Rizwan; Sholl, Andrew; Kandil, Emad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The thyroglossal duct fails to involute in up to 7% of adults, creating a thyroglossal duct remnant (TGDR) attached to the hyoid bone. Thyroid malignancies have been reported in approximately 1% of TGDRs. In previous reports of TGDR carcinoma, patients had radiographic evidence of a TGDR at initial clinical presentation. Alternatively, hypertrophy of a TGDR is well described in patients with hypothyroidism because of the growth of functional ectopic thyroid tissue. We present the case of a patient who had no radiographic evidence of a TGDR prior to thyroidectomy but presented 14 months after surgery with a recurrent cervical mass. Case Report: A 58-year-old female underwent total thyroidectomy for micropapillary thyroid cancer. Fourteen months later, she presented with an enlarging cervical mass. She underwent a Sistrunk procedure, and surgical pathology revealed a TGDR with compensatory glandular hypertrophy. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a TGDR follicular adenoma initially appearing as a result of compensatory thyroid glandular hypertrophy following total thyroidectomy for a micropapillary thyroid carcinoma. Our case presented a novel clinical dilemma regarding the best management for a patient with a new TGDR along with a recent history of micropapillary thyroid cancer. PMID:27303226

  12. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as acute lupus pneumonitis in a young female

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, B; Chatterjee, A; Maiti, A; Debnath, NB

    2015-01-01

    Acute lupus pneumonitis is a rare initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We report a 19-year-old female presenting with fever and recurrent hemoptysis with radiological evidence of parenchymal lung involvement with mild pleural effusion. Subsequent development of malar and discoid rash with anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA positivity clinched the diagnosis. Her clinical signs and symptoms resolved with a course of intravenous pulse methyl-prednisolone along with radiological resolution. PMID:25766350

  13. Unusual Presentation of Anterior Knee Pain in Elite Female Athletes: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinning; Williams, Phillip; Curry, Emily J.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2016-01-01

    Two elite female athletes presented with anterior knee pain with range of motion and reproducible tenderness to palpation. Diagnostic arthroscopy was performed in both cases resulting in excision of a nodular pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in the first patient and scar tissue in the second patient. Correct diagnosis of anterior knee pain in the elite female athlete can present a challenge to clinicians. Although patellofe-moral pain is the most common diagnosis, other uncommon causes include PVNS and residual scar formation in patients with a history of surgery or trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images are helpful in confirming the diagnosis, however, in a subset of patients, the physician must rely on clinical suspicion and physical exam to make the proper diagnosis. Given the possibility of a false negative MRI images, patients with persistent anterior knee pain with a history of knee surgeries and focal tenderness reproducible on physical exam may benefit from a diagnostic arthroscopy. PMID:27114812

  14. Unusual Presentation of Anterior Knee Pain in Elite Female Athletes: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinning; Williams, Phillip; Curry, Emily J; Hannafin, Jo A

    2016-03-21

    Two elite female athletes presented with anterior knee pain with range of motion and reproducible tenderness to palpation. Diagnostic arthroscopy was performed in both cases resulting in excision of a nodular pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) in the first patient and scar tissue in the second patient. Correct diagnosis of anterior knee pain in the elite female athlete can present a challenge to clinicians. Although patellofe-moral pain is the most common diagnosis, other uncommon causes include PVNS and residual scar formation in patients with a history of surgery or trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images are helpful in confirming the diagnosis, however, in a subset of patients, the physician must rely on clinical suspicion and physical exam to make the proper diagnosis. Given the possibility of a false negative MRI images, patients with persistent anterior knee pain with a history of knee surgeries and focal tenderness reproducible on physical exam may benefit from a diagnostic arthroscopy. PMID:27114812

  15. Male crickets adjust their aggressive behavior when a female is present.

    PubMed

    Montroy, Kaitlyn; Loranger, Michelle J; Bertram, Susan M

    2016-03-01

    Communication in nature often occurs within a broad social network, as signals can be perceived by other individuals beyond the primary intended receiver. Because signals often contain information about the signaller's quality, receivers other than the primary intended receiver may use this information in future interactions with the signaller. As a result, individuals who adjust their behavior depending on who is present may experience a selective advantage. The social environment can therefore have an important influence on the evolution of communication signals. We examined how the presence of a female audience influenced male aggressive behavior and post-contest victory displays in the Jamaican field cricket, Gryllus assimilis. We found a significant effect of female audience on aggressive interactions. When there was a female audience present, males were more likely to initiate and escalate fights, but they spent less time producing victory displays, compared to when there was no audience present. Our experiment suggests that the social environment is important in shaping the behavior of individuals during aggressive interactions. PMID:26707007

  16. Culture and self-presentation as predictors of shyness among Japanese and American female college students.

    PubMed

    Jackson, T; Flaherty, S R; Kosuth, R

    2000-04-01

    Self-presentation theories of shyness have been supported in North American samples but have not been evaluated cross-culturally. This study examined the relative influence of cultural and psychological variables on self-reported shyness among Japanese and American college students. 35 female Japanese-born and 47 United States-born Euro-American female students completed the Shyness Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Interpersonal Competence Questionnaire, Sensitivity to Rejection Scale, and Individualism-Collectivism Scale, and a demographic data sheet. After statistically controlling for Individualism-Collectivism, psychological measures, especially perceived interpersonal competence and sensitivity to rejection, combined for Adjusted R2 = .32 in shyness. Findings suggest that similar factors are central to experiences of shyness for both samples. Researchers should assess the stability of such findings in larger, heterogeneous samples and evaluate whether treatment strategies that reduce expectations of rejection and increase perceived interpersonal competence have comparable efficacy in reducing shyness across cultures. PMID:10833742

  17. Atypical fibroxanthoma in a young female misdiagnosed clinically as a malignant melanoma--An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Pujani, Mukta; Hassan, Mohammad Jaseem; Jetley, Sujata

    2015-01-01

    Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is an uncommon spindle cell tumor with intermediate or borderline malignant potential. Clinically, it may be misdiagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or malignant melanoma. Solar irradiation has been implicated in its pathogenesis. The diagnosis of AFX rests on a combination of histopathological features and a negative immunohistochemical profile. AFX is a rare tumor usually found in sun exposed skin of head and neck region in elderly Caucasian men. Rarely, it has a second peak in young adults, where it is found in trunk and extremities. The present case is reported as AFX is quite unusual in a young female with a nodule in the leg which was clinically diagnosed as a malignant melanoma. Only a few cases of AFX have been reported in young women. This case highlights the fact that accurate diagnosis of atypical fibroxanthoma is very crucial so as to avoid overenthusiastic and overzealous treatment as required for a malignant tumor. PMID:26881598

  18. Strategic reactions to infants: female self-presentation in a romantic context.

    PubMed

    Dosmukhambetova, Dina; Manstead, Antony S R

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that humans engage in various self-presentational behaviours in the context of mate attraction. We build and expand on these efforts by showing that female facial behaviour also responds to the manipulation of romantic motivation in ways congruent with the logic of evolutionary theory. Given that childbearing is an important goal of human courtship, we hypothesized that during the initial stages of romantic encounters one way that women can advertize their quality is through their emotional reactions to children. Two studies were conducted to determine whether women would self-present in the context of romance by augmenting positive reactions (e.g., smiling more) or by attenuating negative reactions (e.g., frowning less). In both studies participants were undergraduate psychology students. Study 1 was an online study; it examined reported facial expressions towards and cognitive evaluations of infants. Study 2 was a laboratory study in which participants' spontaneous facial behavior was videotaped while they watched a video of infants (vs. a neutral film). In both studies we found support only for the hypothesis that, when in a romantic context, women attenuate negative reactions. Such attenuation was found for facial expressions, but not for cognitive or affective evaluations of infants. PMID:23563095

  19. Presentation of case: Bladder cancer in an 18 year old female patient

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Lisa; Anwar, Adeel; Kommu, Sashi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bladder cancers are not very common in the young population below 20 years of age, especially in those who have not been exposed to chemotherapy, bladder augmentation surgery and other known risk factors. By highlighting this case we hope to raise awareness in the medical community, that the symptom of visible haematuria can potentially be due to a bladder malignancy and therefore this should be thoroughly investigated. Presentation of case An 18-year-old female presented with intermittent macroscopic haematuria and non-specific abdominal pain. Physical examination and routine blood tests were normal. An ultrasound scan initially showed a bladder wall lesion, which a flexible cystoscopy confirmed. Histology revealed grade 2 papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder with no invasion into the lamina propria (G2pTa TCCB). Discussion We recognise through our literature review that paediatric bladder cancers are not commonly reported in the UK. In our paper we highlight the relevant major studies that have been carried out world-wide, the reported incidence so far and gaps in the evidence base. Conclusion Despite the dearth of data about paediatric bladder malignancies there is enough case-based evidence, from world-wide sources, to support that bladder cancer must be suspected in the event of macroscopic haematuria. Ultrasound and cystoscopy are the standard diagnostic tools for bladder tumours. Endoscopic resection of the tumour followed up by interval ultrasound scans and flexible cystoscopy checks remain the mainstay of treatment hitherto. PMID:25574770

  20. Severe dyspnea as atypical presenting symptom of Madelung's disease

    PubMed Central

    Milisavljevic, D; Zivic, M; Radovanović, Z; Stankovic, P

    2010-01-01

    Madelung's disease (benign symmetrical lipomatosis) is a rare disease of unknown etiology manifesting as symmetric abnormal deposits of adipose tissue in the head, neck and upper trunk. We report a case of a 58-year-old man with a long lasting Madelungs disease in whom progressive fatty tissue accumulation caused a severe inspiratory dyspnea as atypical presenting symptom. The etiopathogenetic, clinico-diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this rare disease are discussed. Due to its progressive but not so easily predictable enlarging behavior Madelung's disease has not only aesthetic but also functional and sometimes life threatening consequences which need to be treated. PMID:20596272

  1. Novel GLA Deletion in a Cypriot Female Presenting with Cornea Verticillata

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Theodoros; Mavrikiou, Gavriella; Alexandrou, Angelos; Spanou-Aristidou, Elena; Savva, Isavella; Christodoulides, Theodoros; Krasia, Maria; Christophidou-Anastasiadou, Violetta; Sismani, Carolina; Drousiotou, Anthi; Tanteles, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of the hydrolytic enzyme α-galactosidase A (α-Gal-A). It is characterized by progressive lysosomal accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and multisystem pathology, affecting the skin, nervous and cerebrovascular systems, kidneys, and heart. Heterozygous females typically exhibit milder symptoms and a later age of onset than males. Rarely, they may be relatively asymptomatic throughout a normal life span or may have symptoms as severe as those observed in males with the classic phenotype. We report on a 17-year-old female in whom cornea verticillata was found during a routine ophthalmological examination but with no other clinical symptoms. Leucocyte α-galactosidase activity was within the overlap range between Fabry heterozygotes and normal controls. Sanger sequencing of the GLA gene failed to reveal any pathogenic variants. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis revealed a deletion of exon 7. Using a long-range PCR walking approach, we managed to identify the deletion breakpoints. The deletion spans 1182 bp, with its 5′ end located within exon 6 of the GLA gene and its 3′ end located 612 bp downstream of exon 7. This finding represents a novel deletion identified in the first reported Cypriot female carrier of Fabry disease. PMID:27123349

  2. Diagnosis and staging of female genital tract melanocytic lesions using pump-probe microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Selim, Maria A.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-02-01

    Melanoma of the vulva is the second most common type of malignancy afflicting that organ. This disease caries poor prognosis, and shows tendencies to recur locally and develop distant metastases through hematogenous dissemination. Further, there exists significant clinical overlap between early-stage melanomas and melanotic macules, benign lesions that are believed to develop in about 10% of the general female population. In this work we apply a novel nonlinear optical method, pump-probe microscopy, to quantitatively analyze female genitalia tract melanocytic lesions. Pump-probe microscopy provides chemical information of endogenous pigments by probing their electronic excited state dynamics, with subcellular resolution. Using unstained biopsy sections from 31 patients, we find significant differences between melanin type and structure in tissue regions with invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic proliferations (e.g., nevi, melanocytic macules). The molecular images of non-malignant lesion have a well-organized structure, with relatively homogenous pigment chemistry, most often consistent with that of eumelanin with large aggregate size or void of metals, such as iron. On the other hand, pigment type and structure observed in melanomas in-situ and invasive melanomas is typically much more heterogeneous, with larger contributions from pheomelanin, melanins with larger metal content, and/or melanins with smaller aggregate size. Of most significance, clear differences can be observed between melanocytic macules and vulvar melanoma in-situ, which, as discussed above, can be difficult to clinically distinguish. This initial study demonstrates pump-probe microscopy's potential as an adjuvant diagnostic tool by revealing systematic chemical and morphological differences in melanin pigmentation among invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic lesions.

  3. Psychiatric presentation of voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    PARTHASARATHI, U. D.; HARROWER, T.; TEMPEST, M.; HODGES, J. R.; WALSH, C.; McKENNA, P. J.; FLETCHER, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody encephalopathy, a rare cause of limbic encephalopathy, typically presents with memory impairment and seizures. Psychiatric symptoms have not been emphasised in the literature. Here we describe a 58-year-old man who presented with panic attacks and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and, later on, developed delusions and hallucinations and then confusion.He was found to have antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels.Treatment with immuno-modulatory therapy resulted in almost complete recovery. PMID:16880491

  4. Renal Cell Carcinoma Presenting as Right Atrial Tumor with Successful Removal Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Joy G.; Rhodes, Donald B.; Skow, James R.

    1975-01-01

    A 58-year-old male presented with signs and symptoms of right sided heart failure. Diagnostic evaluation revealed a right renal cell carcinoma with extension into the vena cava and right atrium. Surgical management included radical right nephrectomy with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, inferior vena caval resection, and removal of the intra-atrial tumor thrombus using a cardiopulmonary bypass. Two years after surgery the patient is alive and well with no evidence of recurrent disease. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2a.Fig. 2b.Fig. 3. PMID:1130867

  5. Scrub Typhus Presenting with Bilateral Lateral Rectus Palsy in A Female

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jaya; Barman, Bhupen; Mondal, Sumantro; Sivam, Rondeep Kumar Nath

    2016-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease is endemic in several parts of India usually presenting with acute symptoms. Fever, maculopapular rash, eschar, history of tick exposure and supportive diagnostic tests usually leads to diagnosis. Scrub typhus should be included in the differential diagnosis in occasions when a patient presents with fever with or without eschar and isolated cranial nerve palsy. Here we are reporting a case of Scrub typhus who presented with fever and altered sensorium of short duration, eschar formation and bilateral lateral rectus palsy. Patient was treated with doxycycline with complete reversal of neurodeficit. PMID:27190871

  6. Scrub Typhus Presenting with Bilateral Lateral Rectus Palsy in A Female.

    PubMed

    Ete, Tony; Mishra, Jaya; Barman, Bhupen; Mondal, Sumantro; Sivam, Rondeep Kumar Nath

    2016-04-01

    Scrub typhus, a rickettsial disease is endemic in several parts of India usually presenting with acute symptoms. Fever, maculopapular rash, eschar, history of tick exposure and supportive diagnostic tests usually leads to diagnosis. Scrub typhus should be included in the differential diagnosis in occasions when a patient presents with fever with or without eschar and isolated cranial nerve palsy. Here we are reporting a case of Scrub typhus who presented with fever and altered sensorium of short duration, eschar formation and bilateral lateral rectus palsy. Patient was treated with doxycycline with complete reversal of neurodeficit. PMID:27190871

  7. Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Merlin; AlGherbawe, Mushtak

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 58-year-old immunocompetent man presenting with fever, cough, anorexia, weight loss, and cervical lymphadenopathy. Blood investigations revealed severe neutropenia with monocytosis. Chest imaging showed bilateral reticular infiltrates with mediastinal widening. Bronchoalveolar lavage culture and molecular test were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treatment with isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol was started. Although pulmonary tuberculosis could explain this clinical presentation we suspected associated blood dyscrasias in view of significant monocytosis and mild splenomegaly. Bone marrow aspiration revealed acute myeloid leukemia. Thereafter the patient received induction chemotherapy and continued antituberculous treatment. After first induction of chemotherapy patient was in remission and successfully completed 6 months antituberculosis therapy without any complications. To our knowledge there has been no such case reported from the State of Qatar to date. PMID:24987539

  8. Ascension Patterns and Experiences of Past and Present Female Trustee Board Chairpersons at Independent Colleges and Universities in a Southern State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricks Scott, Heather Inez

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ascension patterns and experiences of past and present female board of trustee chairpersons at independent institutions in a southeastern state. Although females continue to account for more of the college student population and obtain more degrees than males, females are severely underrepresented in…

  9. Serotonin syndrome presenting as pulmonary edema

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nilima Deepak; Jain, Ajay B.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from excessive central and peripheral serotonergic activity. Clinically, it is a triad of mental-status changes, neuromuscular abnormalities, and autonomic disturbances. It can be caused by intentional self-poisoning, overdose, or inadvertent drug interactions. We report the case of a 58-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obsessive compulsive disorder who developed pulmonary edema as a possible complication of SS. SS was caused by a combination of three specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline), linezolid, and fentanyl. The hospital course was further complicated by difficult weaning from the ventilator. SS was identified and successfully treated with cyproheptadine and lorazepam. The case highlights the importance of effective consultation-liaison and prompt recognition of SS as the presentation may be complex in the presence of co-morbid medical illness. PMID:26997733

  10. Serotonin syndrome presenting as pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nilima Deepak; Jain, Ajay B

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a potentially life-threatening condition resulting from excessive central and peripheral serotonergic activity. Clinically, it is a triad of mental-status changes, neuromuscular abnormalities, and autonomic disturbances. It can be caused by intentional self-poisoning, overdose, or inadvertent drug interactions. We report the case of a 58-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obsessive compulsive disorder who developed pulmonary edema as a possible complication of SS. SS was caused by a combination of three specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline), linezolid, and fentanyl. The hospital course was further complicated by difficult weaning from the ventilator. SS was identified and successfully treated with cyproheptadine and lorazepam. The case highlights the importance of effective consultation-liaison and prompt recognition of SS as the presentation may be complex in the presence of co-morbid medical illness. PMID:26997733

  11. Pyogenic liver abscess presenting as a ''warm'' lesion in Ga-67 scintigram. A potential pitfall in interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Purcell, M.; DeLand, F.H.

    1984-03-01

    In the Ga-67 scintigram, most pyogenic liver abscesses appear to be areas of high radiotracer concentration; rarely photon-deficient lesions may also occur. We present a 58-year-old man with sepsis and hepatic abscess, demonstrated by a Tc-99m BIDA study and a computerized tomogram of the body, showing homogenous radiogallium uptake throughout the liver in the Ga-67 images. To avoid missing such a ''warm'' lesion, it is emphasized that abdominal Ga-67 scintigrams for localization of a focal inflammatory lesion should be done along with Tc-99m sulfur colloid or Tc-99m BIDA scintigraphy.

  12. Examining "fat talk" experimentally in a female dyad: how are women influenced by another woman's body presentation style?

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katheryn L; Martz, Denise M; Curtin, Lisa A; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-06-01

    Fat talk, the verbal dissatisfaction that women express about their bodies, was studied in a female dyad whereby participants interacted with a female confederate who either self-derogated, self-accepted, or self-aggrandized. A 2 (participant body esteem: high vs. low) x3 (confederate style of body image presentation) design was used. Results revealed that participants' public disclosure of their body image varied according to confederate's style. Consistent with a reciprocity effect, participants disclosed the lowest public body image ratings in the self-derogate condition, with moderate ratings in the self-accept condition, and highest ratings in the self-aggrandize condition. Moreover, participants with low compared to high body esteem stated lower public body image. Participants' judgments of the confederates' likeability did not vary as a function of the confederate's body presentational style. Findings support the recursive nature of the social psychology of body image such that personal body image dissatisfaction is partially influenced by fat talk social norms. PMID:18089261

  13. A Rare Cause of Acute Kidney Injury in a Female Patient with Breast Cancer Presenting as Renal Colic.

    PubMed

    Jurubita, Roxana; Obrisca, Bogdan; Ismail, Gener

    2016-01-01

    Renal infarction is a rare cause of acute kidney injury which could lead to permanent loss of renal function. A prompt diagnosis is necessary in order to achieve a successful revascularization of the occluded artery. Given the rarity of the disease and the paucity of the reported cases in the previous literature a high index of suspicion must be maintained not only in the classical cardiac sources of systemic emboli (atrial fibrillation, dilated cardiomyopathy, or endocarditis), but also in the situations when a hypercoagulable state is presumed. The unspecific presenting symptoms often mask the true etiology of the patient's complaints. We present here a rare case of renal infarction that occurred in the setting of a hypercoagulable state, in a female patient with a history of breast cancer and documented hepatic metastases. PMID:27293927

  14. A Rare Cause of Acute Kidney Injury in a Female Patient with Breast Cancer Presenting as Renal Colic

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Renal infarction is a rare cause of acute kidney injury which could lead to permanent loss of renal function. A prompt diagnosis is necessary in order to achieve a successful revascularization of the occluded artery. Given the rarity of the disease and the paucity of the reported cases in the previous literature a high index of suspicion must be maintained not only in the classical cardiac sources of systemic emboli (atrial fibrillation, dilated cardiomyopathy, or endocarditis), but also in the situations when a hypercoagulable state is presumed. The unspecific presenting symptoms often mask the true etiology of the patient's complaints. We present here a rare case of renal infarction that occurred in the setting of a hypercoagulable state, in a female patient with a history of breast cancer and documented hepatic metastases. PMID:27293927

  15. The Female Advantage in Object Location Memory is Robust to Verbalizability and Mode of Presentation of Test Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejbak, Lisa; Vrbancic, Mirna; Crossley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study extends Duff and Hampson's [Duff, S., & Hampson, E. (2001). A sex difference on a novel spatial working memory task in humans. "Brain and Cognition, 47," 470-493] finding of a sex-related difference in favor of females for an object location memory task. Twenty female and 20 male undergraduate students performed both manual and…

  16. Spondylitic psoriatic arthritis presenting as acute urinary retention

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Tom Edward Ngo; Que, Mary Lareine V; Tee, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis is a seronegative arthropathy occurring in the presence of psoriasis. In majority of cases, typical psoriatic skin lesions precede joint disease, making diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis without typical skin lesions, a diagnostic challenge. Nail lesions are commonly seen in patients affected by this condition, making it a useful clue in the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. This is a case of a 58-year-old Filipino woman presenting with sudden acute urinary retention and weakness of both lower extremities accompanied with active polyarthritis. Onycholytic nail changes initially thought to be a fungal nail infection led to the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis involving the spine. The patient was eventually treated with methotrexate and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs leading to full resolution of symptoms. The patient is currently ambulatory and on regular follow-up. This case report highlights the importance of clinical and physical findings particularly the nails that would lead to a diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis. PMID:24789155

  17. Male and Female Subpopulations of Salix viminalis Present High Genetic Diversity and High Long-Term Migration Rates between Them.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Feifei; Mao, Jinmei; Liu, Junxiang; Peng, Xiangyong; Han, Lei; Sun, Zhenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Dioecy distributed in 157 flowering plant families and 959 flowering plant genera. Morphological and physiological differences between male and female plants have been studied extensively, but studies of sex-specific genetic diversity are relatively scarce in dioecious plants. In this study, 20 SSR loci were employed to examine the genetic variance of male subpopulations and female subpopulations in Salix viminalis. The results showed that all of the markers were polymorphic (Na = 14.15, He = 0.7566) and workable to reveal the genetic diversity of S. viminalis. No statistically significant difference was detected between male and female subpopulations, but the average genetic diversity of male subpopulations (Na = 7.12, He = 0.7071) and female subpopulations (Na = 7.31, He = 0.7226) were high. Under unfavorable environments (West Liao basin), the genetic diversity between male and female subpopulations was still not significantly different, but the genetic diversity of sexual subpopulations were lower. The differentiation of the ten subpopulations in S. viminalis was moderate (FST = 0.0858), which was conformed by AMOVA that most of genetic variance (94%) existed within subpopulations. Pairwise FST indicated no differentiation between sexual subpopulations, which was accompanied by high long-term migrate between them (M = 0.73~1.26). However, little recent migration was found between sexual subpopulations. Therefore, artificial crossing or/and transplantation by cutting propagation should be carried out so as to increase the migration during the process of ex situ conservation. PMID:27047511

  18. Male and Female Subpopulations of Salix viminalis Present High Genetic Diversity and High Long-Term Migration Rates between Them

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Feifei; Mao, Jinmei; Liu, Junxiang; Peng, Xiangyong; Han, Lei; Sun, Zhenyuan

    2016-01-01

    Dioecy distributed in 157 flowering plant families and 959 flowering plant genera. Morphological and physiological differences between male and female plants have been studied extensively, but studies of sex-specific genetic diversity are relatively scarce in dioecious plants. In this study, 20 SSR loci were employed to examine the genetic variance of male subpopulations and female subpopulations in Salix viminalis. The results showed that all of the markers were polymorphic (Na = 14.15, He = 0.7566) and workable to reveal the genetic diversity of S. viminalis. No statistically significant difference was detected between male and female subpopulations, but the average genetic diversity of male subpopulations (Na = 7.12, He = 0.7071) and female subpopulations (Na = 7.31, He = 0.7226) were high. Under unfavorable environments (West Liao basin), the genetic diversity between male and female subpopulations was still not significantly different, but the genetic diversity of sexual subpopulations were lower. The differentiation of the ten subpopulations in S. viminalis was moderate (FST = 0.0858), which was conformed by AMOVA that most of genetic variance (94%) existed within subpopulations. Pairwise FST indicated no differentiation between sexual subpopulations, which was accompanied by high long-term migrate between them (M = 0.73~1.26). However, little recent migration was found between sexual subpopulations. Therefore, artificial crossing or/and transplantation by cutting propagation should be carried out so as to increase the migration during the process of ex situ conservation. PMID:27047511

  19. Unusual presentation of squamous cell carcinoma in young female patient: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasbir; Singh, Anantpreet; Chopra, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common “malignant neoplasm” of epithelial origin usually affecting individuals over 50 years of age. It is rare in patients aged <40 years old. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma involving anterior mandibular alveolar region in a 17-year-old female patient, with no history of deleterious habits. This report focuses on etiological factors, diagnosis and prognosis related to the case. PMID:27194884

  20. Unusual presentation of squamous cell carcinoma in young female patient: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasbir; Singh, Anantpreet; Chopra, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common "malignant neoplasm" of epithelial origin usually affecting individuals over 50 years of age. It is rare in patients aged <40 years old. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma involving anterior mandibular alveolar region in a 17-year-old female patient, with no history of deleterious habits. This report focuses on etiological factors, diagnosis and prognosis related to the case. PMID:27194884

  1. Finding the Two-Way Street: Women from Mother-Present/Father-Absent Homes and Their Ability to Make Close Female Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marote, Melissa A.

    2011-01-01

    This heuristic study involving seven coresearchers, which included the author, explores the experiences of women from mother-present/father-absent homes and their ability to form and maintain close female friendships. The heuristic research model was chosen to provide the opportunity to conduct research in a very personalized, collaborative way…

  2. A clinical update on female androgen insufficiency--testosterone testing and treatment in women presenting with low sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Burger, Henry G; Papalia, Mary-Anne

    2006-05-01

    The diagnosis of female androgen deficiency syndrome is suggested by complaints of a diminished sense of well being, persistent unexplained fatigue and decreased sexual desire, sexual receptivity and pleasure in a woman who is oestrogen-replete and in whom no other significant contributing factors can be identified. The diagnosis is supported by the finding of low circulating concentrations of free testosterone. Barriers to its recognition include the non-specificity of the symptoms and methodological problems due to insensitive testosterone assays. Barriers to its treatment include the unavailability of satisfactory forms of testosterone for administration to women and lack of data regarding long-term safety. Although several conditions lead to clear-cut androgen deficiency, such as hypopituitarism, adrenal and ovarian insufficiency, glucocorticoid therapy and use of oral contraceptives and oral oestrogens, it is important for clinicians to recognise that in normal women, androgen levels decline by 50% from the early 20s to the mid 40s, and hence age-related androgen insufficiency may occur in women in their late 30s and 40s, as well as postmenopausally. Satisfactory measurements of free testosterone requires a sensitive and reliable assay for total testosterone, and quantitation of sex hormone binding globulin, from which free testosterone is readily calculated. Adverse effects of testosterone treatment are few if replacement is monitored to achieve physiological circulating testosterone concentrations. Currently, available methods include testosterone implants and testosterone creams, and transdermal patches and sprays are in development. PMID:16800391

  3. Initial presentation of CNS-restricted acute lymphoblastic B cell leukaemia as peripheral polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Piovezani Ramos, Guilherme; Villasboas Bisneto, Jose C; Chen, Dong; Pardanani, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with a 1-month course of progressive lower and upper extremity weakness in addition to binocular diplopia. Diagnostic lumbar puncture revealed atypical lymphoid cells with 28% blasts. Immunophenotype was consistent with B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL). Further work up showed no systemic involvement but extensive thoracolumbar-sacral leptomeningeal disease. The patient was treated with several courses of intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy followed by craniospinal irradiation for consolidation. There was initial steady improvement in neurological symptoms and leptomeningeal disease, the latter being ascertained through radiological studies and cerebrospinal fluid examination. After 10 months of response, the patient relapsed with central nervous system (CNS) and systemic disease. B-ALL is a rare precursor lymphoid neoplasm that generally presents with systemic disease. While CNS involvement is not uncommon, isolated involvement of this compartment without systemic disease is exceedingly rare. PMID:27095809

  4. Transient ischemic attack presenting in an elderly patient with transient ophthalmic manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sparshi; Saxena, Tishu; Singh, Sweta; Singh, Nidhi

    2016-01-01

    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a transient neurological deficit of cerebrovascular origin without infarction which may last only for a short period and can have varying presentations. We report a case of 58-year-old male with presenting features of sudden onset transient vertical diplopia and transient rotatory nystagmus which self-resolved within 12 h. Patient had no history of any systemic illness. On investigating, hematological investigations and neuroimaging could not explain these sudden and transient findings. A TIA could possibly explain these sudden and transient ocular findings in our patient. This case report aims to highlight the importance of TIA for ophthalmologists. We must not ignore these findings as these could be warning signs of an impending stroke which may or may not be detected on neuroimaging. Thus, early recognition, primary prevention strategies, and timely intervention are needed. PMID:27433041

  5. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue. PMID:11369952

  6. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presenting as upper limb weakness in a 35 year old female: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdson, Leif A.

    2011-01-01

    Chiropractors regularly assess and provide treatment for a variety of neuromuscular complaints. Many of these respond well to conservative care however some represent conditions that must be referred for further evaluation. This article chronicles the management of a patient who presented with upper limb weakness and was subsequently diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Chiropractors should be informed of the nature and presentation of this disease to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:21886282

  7. Clinical presentation and chiropractic treatment of Tietze syndrome: A 34-year-old female with left-sided chest pain

    PubMed Central

    Gijsbers, Eefje; Knaap, Simone F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe the clinical presentation and chiropractic management of Tietze syndrome. Clinical Features A 34-year-old woman presented with unexplained left-sided chest pain. Electrocardiogram and radiographs were taken at a medical emergency department to rule out cardiovascular and pulmonary causes, and pain medication did not relieve her pain. Physical examination showed tenderness on palpation and swelling of the second and third chondrosternal joints, as well as thoracic joint dysfunction. Heart and lung pathology was ruled out, and chondrosternal joint swelling was present, Tietze syndrome was diagnosed. Intervention and Outcome A treatment plan aimed at restoring normal thoracic and rib joint movement and decreasing inflammation of the chondrosternal joints resulted in lower pain levels. Treatment consisted of diversified high-velocity, low-amplitude chiropractic manipulation; activator technique; and cryotherapy. Conclusion Chiropractic management of Tietze syndrome was successful in reducing pain levels in this patient's case. PMID:22027210

  8. Effects of lactoferrin, a protein present in the female reproductive tract, on parameters of human sperm capacitation and gamete interaction.

    PubMed

    Zumoffen, C M; Massa, E; Caille, A M; Munuce, M J; Ghersevich, S A

    2015-11-01

    In a recent study, lactoferrin (LF) was detected in human oviductal secretion. The protein was able to bind to oocytes and sperm, and modulated gamete interaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of LF on parameters related to human sperm capacitation and sperm-zona pellucida interaction. Semen samples were obtained from healthy normozoospermic donors (n = 7). Human follicular fluids and oocytes were collected from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Motile sperm obtained by swim-up were incubated for 6 or 22 h under capacitating conditions with LF (0-100 μg/mL). After incubations, viability, motility, presence of α-d-mannose receptors (using a fluorescent probe on mannose coupled to bovine serum albumin), spontaneous and induced acrosome reaction (assessed with Pisum sativum agglutinin conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate), and tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins were evaluated. Sperm-zona pellucida interaction in the presence of LF was investigated using the hemizone assay. The presence of LF did not affect sperm viability or motility, but caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in sperm α-d-mannose-binding sites, and the effect was already significant with the lowest concentration of the protein used after 22 h incubation. Dose-dependent significant increases in both induced acrosome reaction and tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins were observed in the presence of LF. The present data indicate that LF modulates parameters of sperm function. The inhibition of gamete interaction by LF could be partially explained by the decrease in sperm d-mannose-binding sites. The presence of the LF promoted sperm capacitation in vitro. PMID:26445132

  9. Vulnerable but aloof versus naughty and nice: contrasting the presentation of male and female nude models in Viva and Playboy.

    PubMed

    Beggan, James K; Vencill, Jennifer A; Garos, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    The current research examined contested meanings of nudity by comparing images of nude men and women that appeared in Viva, a 1970s women's magazine founded with the intention of foregrounding male nudity, to corresponding issues of Playboy. A major difference was obtained between male models and Playboy Playmates regarding direction of gaze and nudity. Although gaze aversion is often interpreted as a sign of submission and direct gaze is seen as a dominance cue, men in Viva displayed a high level of gaze aversion and women in Playboy often gazed directly at the camera, especially when their pubic area was exposed. Additional content analysis examined the personality characteristics attributed to male models in Viva and Playmates in Playboy in their biographical sketches. In Viva, men were presented as possessing "bad boy" traits that may have been intended to compensate for the loss of power associated with male nudity. Playmates could be viewed as being naughty (by virtue of posing nude) and nice in the characterization of their personalities. PMID:23829482

  10. Gitelman’s syndrome complicated by mild renal insufficiency and high anion gap acidosis; a rare presentation in a young female

    PubMed Central

    Hassan Jafry, Nazrul; Ahmed, Ejaz; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gitelman’s syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder that is characterized by episodic clinical manifestations and persistent biochemical abnormalities. The disorder manifests in adolescent or adult age and is characterized by transient episodes of muscle weakness and tetany. Its diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and skillful interpretation of laboratory investigations. Case Presentation: We herein present a case of a 20-year-old female patient who presented with generalized muscle weakness and mild renal insufficiency. Laboratory investigations revealed mild azotemia, high anion gap acidosis, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria. She recovered her renal functions and muscle power with appropriate management and is doing well seven months after her first presentation to our hospital. Conclusions: This case highlights the need to create high index of suspicion among the general practitioners about this syndrome and an early referral of such patients to nephrologists for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:25964887

  11. Synovial chondromatosis presenting as an epidural mass

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Ratnesh Nandan; Grigorov, Marat; Pieper, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Synovial chondromatosis is an uncommon disorder characterized by the formation of multiple cartilaginous nodules in the synovium of the facet joint. It most commonly affects large joints such as hip or shoulder. Commonly seen features are bony erosion and calcifications. Synovial chondromatosis is rare in the spine and there are few previous reports of extension into the spinal canal. Case Description: A 58-year-old man presented with a 2 year history of progressive numbness in the right upper extremity without objective weakness. A several month course of conservative management, including physical therapy, failed to alleviate symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine demonstrated the erosion of the right facet C5–C6 joint with listhesis and foraminal enlargement secondary to a lesion. Treatment was offered to the patient in the form of surgical resection. The lesion was removed in piecemeal fashion using curettes and Cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator. Histological examination demonstrated atypical well-differentiated cartilaginous proliferation. Conclusion: This patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and experienced complete resolution of right upper extremity sensory symptoms. Synovial chondromatosis may compromise cervical spinal cord and nerve roots if it extends into the spinal canal. Although it remains rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis for upper extremity radiculopathy and myelopathy. Surgical resection is a viable treatment option for symptomatic patients with this pathology. In some cases, adequate resection may necessitate stabilization with instrumentation. PMID:26425399

  12. Runx1 Regulates Myeloid Precursor Differentiation Into Osteoclasts Without Affecting Differentiation Into Antigen Presenting or Phagocytic Cells in Both Males and Females.

    PubMed

    Paglia, David N; Yang, Xiaochuan; Kalinowski, Judith; Jastrzebski, Sandra; Drissi, Hicham; Lorenzo, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1), a master regulator of hematopoiesis, is expressed in preosteoclasts. Previously we evaluated the bone phenotype of CD11b-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice and demonstrated enhanced osteoclasts and decreased bone mass in males. However, an assessment of the effects of Runx1 deletion in female osteoclast precursors was impossible with this model. Moreover, the role of Runx1 in myeloid cell differentiation into other lineages is unknown. Therefore, we generated LysM-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice, which delete Runx1 equally (∼80% deletion) in myeloid precursor cells from both sexes and examined the capacity of these cells to differentiate into osteoclasts and phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells. Both female and male LysM-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice had decreased trabecular bone mass (72% decrease in bone volume fraction) and increased osteoclast number (2-3 times) (P < .05) without alteration of osteoblast histomorphometric indices. We also demonstrated that loss of Runx1 in pluripotential myeloid precursors with LysM-Cre did not alter the number of myeloid precursor cells in bone marrow or their ability to differentiate into phagocytizing or antigen-presenting cells. This study demonstrates that abrogation of Runx1 in multipotential myeloid precursor cells significantly and specifically enhanced the ability of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand to stimulate osteoclast formation and fusion in female and male mice without affecting other myeloid cell fates. In turn, increased osteoclast activity in LysM-Cre Runx1(fl/fl) mice likely contributed to a decrease in bone mass. These dramatic effects were not due to increased osteoclast precursors in the deleted mutants and argue that inhibition of Runx1 in multipotential myeloid precursor cells is important for osteoclast formation and function. PMID:27267711

  13. Effect of oestradiol and pathogen-associated molecular patterns on class II-mediated antigen presentation and immunomodulatory molecule expression in the mouse female reproductive tract

    PubMed Central

    Ochiel, Daniel O; Rossoll, Richard M; Schaefer, Todd M; Wira, Charles R

    2012-01-01

    Cells of the female reproductive tract (FRT) can present antigen to naive and memory T cells. However, the effects of oestrogen, known to modulate immune responses, on antigen presentation in the FRT remain undefined. In the present study, DO11.10 T-cell antigen receptor transgenic mice specific for the class II MHC-restricted ovalbumin (OVA) 323–339 peptide were used to study the effects of oestradiol and pathogen-associated molecular patterns on antigen presentation in the FRT. We report here that oestradiol inhibited antigen presentation of OVA by uterine epithelial cells, uterine stromal cells and vaginal cells to OVA-specific memory T cells. When ovariectomized animals were treated with oestradiol for 1 or 3 days, antigen presentation was decreased by 20–80%. In contrast, incubation with PAMP increased antigen presentation by epithelial cells (Pam3Cys), stromal cells (peptidoglycan, Pam3Cys) and vaginal cells (Pam3Cys). In contrast, CpG inhibited both stromal and vaginal cell antigen presentation. Analysis of mRNA expression by reverse transcription PCR indicated that oestradiol inhibited CD40, CD80 and class II in the uterus and CD40, CD86 and class II in the vagina. Expression in isolated uterine and vaginal cells paralleled that seen in whole tissues. In contrast, oestradiol increased polymeric immunoglobulin receptor mRNA expression in the uterus and decreased it in the vagina. These results indicate that antigen-presenting cells in the uterus and vagina are responsive to oestradiol, which inhibits antigen presentation and co-stimulatory molecule expression. Further, these findings suggest that antigen-presenting cells in the uterus and vagina respond to selected Toll-like receptor agonists with altered antigen presentation. PMID:22043860

  14. Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors and their transcribed genes (mRNA) are present in the lower urinary tract of intact male and female dogs.

    PubMed

    Ponglowhapan, S; Church, D B; Scaramuzzi, R J; Khalid, M

    2007-01-15

    In dogs, one of the side effects of neutering is the development of urinary incontinence. The relationship between neutering and urinary incontinence caused by acquired urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) has been reported. Recently, GnRH analogue treatment that suppresses elevated plasma gonadotrophin concentrations post-spaying has been successfully used in incontinent bitches. These data and the fact that non-gonadal tissues may contain receptors for LH (LHR) and FSH (FSHR) suggest that there might be a functional relationship between gonadotrophins and the lower urinary tract in dogs. This study aimed to investigate the presence of LHR and FSHR in the lower urinary tract of intact male and female dogs. Four regions of the lower urinary tract, i.e. (i) body of the bladder, (ii) neck of the bladder, (iii) proximal urethra and (iv) distal urethra were collected from 10 healthy dogs (5 males and 5 anoestrous females). In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were performed to characterise the presence of receptor mRNA and receptor protein. Staining was rated semi-quantitatively, incorporating both the distribution and intensity of specific staining. The distribution of receptor expression in different tissue layers (epithelium, subepithelial stroma and muscle) in each region was statistically analyzed. Luteinizing hormone receptor and FSHR mRNA and protein were present in all four regions and in three tissue layers of males and females. Irrespective of region and layer, female dogs expressed significantly higher expression for LHR mRNA (P<0.001), LHR protein (P<0.05) and FSHR protein (P<0.001). The expression of LHR and FSHR mRNA and protein was not uniform and depended on region, tissue layer and gender. The expression of LHR mRNA was higher in the bladder, compared to the urethra (P<0.05). The FSHR mRNA significantly increased from the bladder to the urethra. Protein expression for LHR and FSHR was highest in the proximal urethra (P<0.05). The

  15. Unusual late presentation of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease in an adult female with a somatic mosaic for a novel mutation in CYBB.

    PubMed

    Wolach, Baruch; Scharf, Yitshak; Gavrieli, Ronit; de Boer, Martin; Roos, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Most patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have mutations in the X-linked CYBB gene that encodes gp91phox, a component of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. The resulting X-linked form of CGD is usually manifested in boys. Rarely, X-CGD is encountered in female carriers with extreme expression of the mutated gene. Here, we report on a woman with a novel mutation in CYBB (CCG[90-92]-->GGT), predicting Tyr30Arg31-->stop, Val in gp91phox, who presented with clinical symptoms at the age of 66. The mutation was present in heterozygous form in genomic DNA from her leukocytes but was fully expressed in mRNA from these cells, indicating that in her leukocytes the X chromosome carrying the nonmutated CYBB allele had been inactivated. Indeed, only 0.4% to 2% of her neutrophils showed NADPH oxidase activity. This extreme skewing of her X-chromosome inactivation was not found in her cheek mucosal cells and is thus not due to a general defect in gene methylation on one X chromosome. Moreover, the CYBB mutation was not present in the DNA from her cheek cells and was barely detectable in the DNA from her memory T lymphocytes. Thus, this patient shows a somatic mosaic for the CYBB mutation, which probably originated during her lifetime in her bone marrow. PMID:15308575

  16. Acute proximal deep vein thrombosis: presentation in a chiropractic office

    PubMed Central

    Kopansky-Giles, Deborah R; Grod, Jaroslaw P; Crowther, Edward R

    1995-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can be difficult to make on the basis of clinical findings alone. Since it may be encountered by all clinicians, chiropractors must be aware of the often confusing clinical picture with which it may present. In its early stages patients may present with posterior thigh, calf and groin pain, symptoms that may mimic other types of biomechanical disorders. Because 50% of patients with DVT may develop life threatening thromboembolism, early detection and appropriate referral is crucial. To highlight the clinical presentation of DVT and the phenomenon of “silent embolism” the case of a 58-year-old male presenting to a chiropractic office for assessment and treatment of low back and leg pain is presented. The prevalence, etiology and risk factors associated with its onset are reviewed. Physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging and treatment are discussed. Considerations in the chiropractic management of the post-thrombolytic patient are highlighted. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2

  17. First reported case of Lorazepam-assisted interview in a young Indian female presenting with dissociative identity disorder and improvement in symptoms after the interview.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Raheel; Shoib, Sheikh; Arif, Tasleem; Shah, Tabindah; Mushtaq, Sahil

    2014-01-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is one of the most fascinating disorders in psychiatry. The arduous search to reveal the obscurity of this disorder has led to colossal research in this area over the years. Although drug-assisted interviews are not widely used, they may be beneficial for some patients that do not respond to conventional treatments such as supportive psychotherapy or psychopharmacotherapy. Drug-assisted interviews facilitate recall of memories in promoting integration of dissociative information. We report a case of a 16-year-old female with dissociative identity disorder (DID) that was treated with lorazepam-assisted interview and there was rapid improvement in symptoms after the interview. PMID:25161793

  18. Fixed drug eruptions with intraoral presentation

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rahul; Bihari, Manorama; Bhuvan, Jyoti; Saad, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Fixed-drug eruption (FDE) is an unusual and rare adverse drug reaction. This type of reaction is actually a delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction that occurs as lesions recurring at the same skin site due to repeated intake of an offending drug. Here is a case report of a 58-year-old male patient who developed intraoral FDEs after ingestion of the first dose of ornidazole. PMID:26097341

  19. A unique nuclear receptor direct repeat 17 (DR17) is present within the upstream region of Schistosoma mansoni female-specific p14 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Fantappie, Marcelo Rosado Furtado, Daniel Rodrigues; Rumjanek, Franklin David; LoVerde, Philip T.

    2008-07-11

    The eggs produced by sexually mature female Schistosma mansoni are responsible for the pathogenesis of the disease. The eggshell precursor gene p14 is expressed only in the vitelline cells of sexually mature female worms in response to a yet unidentified male stimulus. Herein, we report the identification of a novel nuclear receptor response element in the upstream region of the p14 gene. This element contains the canonical hexameric DNA core motif, 5'-PuGGTCA, composed of an atypically spaced direct repeat (DR17). Schistosome nuclear receptors SmRXR1 and SmNR1 specifically bound to the p14-DR17 element as a heterodimer. SmRXR1, but not SmNR1, bound to the motif as a monomer. Introduction of mutations in the TCA core sequence completely abolished the binding by SmRXR1/SmNR1 heterodimer. This finding supports our hypothesis that the expression of Schistosoma mansonip14 gene is regulated through the nuclear receptor signaling pathway.

  20. Strongyloidiasis in the immunocompetent: an overlooked infection.

    PubMed

    Tachamo, Niranjan; Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj; Karmacharya, Paras

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Most cases are asymptomatic; however, symptomatic patients may present with a wide range of non-specific cutaneous, pulmonary, or gastrointestinal symptoms posing a diagnostic dilemma and delay in diagnosis. We report a case of a 58-year-old female who presented with months of generalized pruritus and abdominal discomfort along with persistent eosinophilia due to strongyloidiasis, which completely resolved with treatment. PMID:27609726

  1. Role of virtual and flexible bronchoscopy in the management of a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration presented as nonresolving pneumonia in an adult female

    PubMed Central

    Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N

    2016-01-01

    It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult.

  2. Role of virtual and flexible bronchoscopy in the management of a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration presented as nonresolving pneumonia in an adult female.

    PubMed

    Kshatriya, Ravish Manmohan; Khara, Nimit V; Paliwal, Rajiv P; Patel, Sateesh N

    2016-01-01

    It is not so common to aspirate foreign body in normal adults without any predisposing factors as compared to children and those with the altered neurological state. Endobronchial foreign bodies are one of the causes of obstructive pneumonia and difficult to diagnose as signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. However, once they are diagnosed, they can generally be removed, leading to rapid and drastic resolution of symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the gold standard in the identification and localization of an airway foreign body and also for better management of the ailment. However with the help of virtual bronchoscopy one can decide the location of the foreign body before any invasive intervention and being noninvasive it can be performed in follow-up easily to check the patency of airways. It is not possible to detect the exact size of foreign body with the virtual bronchoscopy. In this article, we report a case of unnoticed foreign body aspiration in a 49-year-old female patient who was initially treated for pneumonia. However, due to nonresolution of opacity contrast enhanced computed tomography thorax with virtual and flexible bronchoscopy were performed, which revealed a foreign body in the right lower lobe bronchus that was removed with biopsy forceps in piecemeal. In her follow-up visit, she underwent virtual broncoscopy that revealed clear airways. Thus, detailed history and high index of suspicion is required for nonresolving pneumonias that may occur due to unnoticed foreign body/ies in an adult. PMID:27578936

  3. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  4. Haemoptysis in a female with diabetes mellitus: a unique presentation of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary tuberculosis, and Klebsiella peumoniae co-infection.

    PubMed

    Ekwueme, Chinonso; Otu, Akaninyene Asuquo; Chinenye, Sunny; Unachukwu, Chioma; Oputa, Reginald N; Korubo, Ibitrokoemi; Enang, Ofem E

    2016-04-01

    While chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), and Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia co-infection is rare, we present a 50-year-old woman with uncontrolled diabetes who presented with these three diseases. There is considerable overlap in symptoms of PTB and CPA. Treatment with antifungals, anti-tuberculosis therapy, and antibiotics is beneficial. PMID:27099746

  5. Unusual Presentation of Necrotic Erythema Nodosum Leprosum on Scalp: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Barman, K D; Madan, A; Garg, V K; Goel, K; Khurana, N

    2015-01-01

    Lepra reactions are acute episodes occurring during the disease process of leprosy and are of 2 types: type 1 or reversal reaction and type 2 reaction or erythema odosumleprosum (ENL). In the episodes of lepra reaction several parts are affected including face and extremities like oral cavity. In the present case report we reported a rare case of lepromatous leprosy with necrotic ENL involving scalp apart from the usual sites. A 58 year old married male presented to us with complaints of spontaneous onset, recurrent eruption of multiple reddish raised painful lesions. Biopsy from the infiltrated skin over the back showed atrophic epidermis, free Grenz zone, diffuse and periadnexal macrophage granulomas with predominant mononuclear infiltrate, appandageal atrophy, fibrosis around the neural structures and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Fites stain showed strong positivity for M. leprae. His routine blood investigations showed anemia (Hb = 7.8 gm%), neutrophil leukocytosis (TLC = 17,600, DLC = P66L28M4E2) and raised ESR (80 mm in the first hour). These bullous and necrotic lesions in leprosy may be a manifestation of severe type II reactions in patients with very high bacillary load. PMID:26591847

  6. Krukenberg tumour arising from adenocarcinoma of the gastro-oesophageal junction in a 28-year-old female presenting as lower abdominal swelling mimicking an inguinal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Hosam E; Elmetwally, Ashraf S; Salu, Iliya; Borgstein, Rudi; Oluwajobi, Olu

    2011-01-01

    Krukenberg tumours arising from gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas prior to the fourth decade are extremely rare. The authors present the case of a 28-year-old patient who was then 4 years of age, residing close to the Chernobyl nuclear reactor at the time of the nuclear disaster in 1986, and was found to have late-stage Krukenberg tumours from a gastro-oesophageal primary. Her presentation with right groin pain initially raised a suspicion of an occult groin hernia. Clinicians are reminded to delve deeply into the social history in their enquiries with Eastern European patients who present with unusual clinical features and were in utero, young and living in proximity to the nuclear fallout zone at the time of the incident. PMID:22700347

  7. Foreign Accent Syndrome, a Rare Presentation of Schizophrenia in a 34-Year-Old African American Female: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Asogwa, Kenneth; Nisenoff, Carolina; Okudo, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS) is a rare phenomenon where speech is characterized by a new accent to the patient's native language. More than 100 cases with the syndrome have been published, the majority of which were associated with observed insults of the speech center. Some other cases have been described without identifiable organic brain injury, especially in patients with psychiatric illness. This paper presents a patient with schizophrenia and FAS, without any evidence of organic brain injury. FAS recurred during psychotic exacerbation and did not reverse before transfer to a long-term psychiatric facility. The case is discussed in the context of a brief review of the syndrome. PMID:26925283

  8. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752

  9. Female condoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  10. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  11. Postadolescent acne in females.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, R; Shakery, K

    2014-01-01

    Acne in the adult female often presents as a chronic condition that can have a considerable negative psychological, social and emotional impact on the affected individual. Estimated prevalence rates of adult female acne vary widely according to study type. Case reports and clinical examinations estimate the prevalence of clinical acne at 10-12%, while survey estimates of physiological disease states are as high as 54%. Two subtypes of adult female acne may be defined according to time of onset: 'persistent' and 'late-onset', accounting for approximately 80 and 20% of cases, respectively. Postadolescent acne is generally mild-to-moderate in severity and presents with more inflammatory lesions and fewer comedones compared to adolescent acne. Furthermore, the impact of acne on the quality of life is often greater in adult females than in younger individuals. Despite these important differences, the key principles of acne treatment in the adult female do not differ significantly from those of other age groups. However, specific characteristics relating to the adult female should be considered when selecting a treatment regimen. PMID:24280643

  12. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  13. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  14. Understanding the female offender.

    PubMed

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, Elizabeth Cauffman explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female offender. Cauffman begins by reviewing historical trends in arrest rates, processing, and juvenile justice system experiences of female offenders. She also describes the adult outcomes commonly observed for female offenders and points out that the long-term consequences of offending for females are often more pronounced than those for males, with effects that extend to the next generation. She also considers common patterns of offending in girls, as well as factors that may increase or decrease the likelihood of offending. She then reviews what is known about effective treatment strategies for female offenders. Female delinquents have a high frequency of mental health problems, suggesting that effective prevention efforts should target the mental health needs of at-risk females before they lead to chronic behavior problems. Once girls with mental health problems come into the juvenile justice system, says Cauffman, diverting them to community-based treatment programs would not only improve their individual outcomes, but allow the juvenile justice system to focus on cases that present the greatest risk to public safety. Evidence is emerging that gender-specific treatment methods can be effective for female offenders, especially when treatment targets multiple aspects of offenders' lives, including family and peer environments. But it is also becoming clear that female offenders are not a homogeneous group and that treatment ultimately should be tailored to suit individual needs defined more specifically than by gender alone. Despite myriad differences between male and female offending, many of the primary causes of

  15. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  16. Spilled Gallstone: Late Presentation.

    PubMed

    Ibrarullah, Mohammad; Modi, M S

    2015-12-01

    Spilled gallstone, in a female patient, presented with an abscess 2 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Computerized tomography scan of the abscess cavity containing the spilled stone that clinched the diagnosis has been presented. PMID:26730104

  17. Female circumcision: obstetric issues.

    PubMed

    Baker, C A; Gilson, G J; Vill, M D; Curet, L B

    1993-12-01

    Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western obstetrician-gynecologists. We present a case illustrative of the unique management problems posed by these patients during labor. A method of releasing the anterior vulvar scar tissue to allow vaginal delivery is described. Sensitivity and a nonjudgmental approach as to what is culturally appropriate care for these women are of paramount importance. PMID:8267074

  18. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  19. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  20. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  1. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  2. The Female Athlete Triad

    PubMed Central

    Nazem, Taraneh Gharib; Ackerman, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The female athlete triad (the triad) is an interrelationship of menstrual dysfunction, low energy availability (with or without an eating disorder), and decreased bone mineral density; it is relatively common among young women participating in sports. Diagnosis and treatment of this potentially serious condition is complicated and often requires an interdisciplinary team. Evidence Acquisition: Articles from 1981 to present found on PubMed were selected for review of major components of the female athlete triad as well as strategies for diagnosis and treatment of the conditions. Results: The main goal in treatment of young female athletes with the triad is a natural return of menses as well as enhancement of bone mineral density. While no specific drug intervention has been shown to consistently improve bone mineral density in this patient population, maximizing energy availability and optimizing vitamin D and calcium intake are recommended. Conclusions: Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach involving health care professionals as well as coaches and family members. Prevention of this condition is important to minimize complications of the female athlete triad. PMID:23016101

  3. Female suicide bombers and burdensomeness.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2010-02-01

    Brief case descriptions from journalists are presented to illustrate the role of traumatic experiences, the sense of being a burden to their families, and shame and humiliation in female suicide bombers. PMID:20402439

  4. “Ruptured” malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ditsatham, Chagkrit; Somwangprasert, Areewan; Watcharachan, Kirati; Wongmaneerung, Phanchaporn

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor or cystosarcoma phyllodes is a rare disease and is usually seen in middle-aged patients. Ruptured phyllodes tumor is a very rare condition. Our study reports patient presentation, diagnosis method, and treatment of an unusual case. A 58-year-old premenopausal female was diagnosed with a phyllodes tumor and presented with a rapidly growing mass for 2 months that ruptured 1 month later. She underwent simple mastectomy at the left side of her breast and received adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was found 4 months after operation. PMID:26952179

  5. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  6. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  7. [An uncommon reason for facial hypoesthesia].

    PubMed

    Stienen, M N; Seule, M A; Weber, J; Gautschi, O P

    2011-05-25

    A 58-year-old female admitted herself to the emergency department with progressive left-sided facial hypoesthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 20 mm-sized aneurysm of the left vertebral artery leading to compression of the trigeminal nerve. An endovascular occlusion with a combined coiling and flow-diverter was performed. The left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) arised from the aneurysmal sac. Despite an extensive infarction of the left PICA-territory, the patient convalesced well and presented completely independent and without symptoms at the 4-week follow-up. PMID:21614764

  8. Utility of bone scintigraphy in diagnosis of post- traumatic osteitis pubis

    PubMed Central

    Kalawat, Tek Chand; Narayan, Ravishwar; Ravi, Parthasarathi; Lakshmi, Amancharla Yadagiri

    2013-01-01

    Minor musculoskeletal injuries usually heal within few weeks with conservative treatment, but in pelvic injuries, symptoms may persist for long duration and patient need medical attention to get relief from disturbing pain symptoms. We present a case of post-trauma osteitis pubis in a 58-year-old female, who reported with lower abdominal and left side hip joint pain since 2 months, after an episode of trivial trauma to her pelvis. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy was performed, which confirmed the site of injury in symphysis pubis and left hip joint, by increased radiotracer localization at both of these symptomatic sites. PMID:24163517

  9. Utility of bone scintigraphy in diagnosis of post- traumatic osteitis pubis.

    PubMed

    Kalawat, Tek Chand; Narayan, Ravishwar; Ravi, Parthasarathi; Lakshmi, Amancharla Yadagiri

    2013-04-01

    Minor musculoskeletal injuries usually heal within few weeks with conservative treatment, but in pelvic injuries, symptoms may persist for long duration and patient need medical attention to get relief from disturbing pain symptoms. We present a case of post-trauma osteitis pubis in a 58-year-old female, who reported with lower abdominal and left side hip joint pain since 2 months, after an episode of trivial trauma to her pelvis. Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy was performed, which confirmed the site of injury in symphysis pubis and left hip joint, by increased radiotracer localization at both of these symptomatic sites. PMID:24163517

  10. Reversible Corneal Toxicity of Retained Intracameral Perfluoro-n-octane

    PubMed Central

    Alharbi, Saad S.; Asiri, Mohammed S.

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old female presented with intracameral retained perfluoro-n-octane (PFO) following previous retinal reattachment surgery. After 4 years of follow-up without related sequelae, the patient complained of a gradual decrease in vision secondary to corneal edema with whitish corneal precipitate inferiorly corresponding to the area of retained PFO. Three weeks after anterior chamber washout, corneal edema resolved and the patient obtained 20/40 visual acuity. Even though PFO considered to have a relatively good safety profile, early anterior chamber washout may prevent corneal toxicity and avoid later persistent corneal decompensation. PMID:27555718

  11. Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair in a Patient with Mobile Aortic Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Lohrmann, Graham M.; Peters, Ferande

    2014-01-01

    A 58-year-old female presented with acute arterial insufficiency to her left leg. Following cardiovascular evaluation using multimodality imaging, it was discovered that she had mobile thoracic thrombi overlying a normal descending thoracic aorta which had also caused a splenic infarction. This patient was treated with unfractionated heparin for three days and underwent subsequent thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) uneventfully with no subsequent complications at one-year followup. This case highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in treating patients with this uncommon challenging clinical scenario. PMID:24716094

  12. Reversible Corneal Toxicity of Retained Intracameral Perfluoro-n-octane.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Saad S; Asiri, Mohammed S

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old female presented with intracameral retained perfluoro-n-octane (PFO) following previous retinal reattachment surgery. After 4 years of follow-up without related sequelae, the patient complained of a gradual decrease in vision secondary to corneal edema with whitish corneal precipitate inferiorly corresponding to the area of retained PFO. Three weeks after anterior chamber washout, corneal edema resolved and the patient obtained 20/40 visual acuity. Even though PFO considered to have a relatively good safety profile, early anterior chamber washout may prevent corneal toxicity and avoid later persistent corneal decompensation. PMID:27555718

  13. Thymic carcinoma presenting as atypical chest pain.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sadiq; Connelly, Tara; Keita, Luther; Blazkova, Sylvie; Veerasingam, Dave

    2015-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with a 2-month history of atypical chest pain was referred to the chest pain clinic by the general practitioner. Exercise stress test was positive and subsequent coronary angiogram revealed significant triple vessel disease with left ventricular impairment requiring a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The patient had a chest X-ray as part of the preoperative work up. Chest X-ray revealed a large anterior mediastinal mass. Subsequent thorax CT revealed a 7.2 cm anterior mediastinal mass. CT-guided biopsy of the mass revealed the diagnosis of a poorly differentiated thymic basaloid carcinoma. The patient was successfully treated with concomitant surgery involving complete resection of the mass and a CABG procedure. PMID:26607199

  14. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  15. Female aggression and the maintenance of monogamy: female behaviour predicts male mating status in European starlings

    PubMed Central

    Sandell, M. I.

    1998-01-01

    Any reduction in the fitness of a breeding female induced by the settlement of additional females with her mate creates a conflict between the sexes over mating system. In birds, females are often aggressive towards other females but few studies have been able to quantify the importance of female-female aggression for the maintenance of monogamy. This study of the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris, quantifies male and female behaviour towards a potential prospecting female, presented in a cage during the pre-laying period, and relates it to the subsequent mating status of the male. A solitary breeding male was given the opportunity to attract an additional mate, which almost half of the males did. No biometric characters of the male or female were related to the subsequent mating status. Males demonstrated mate-attraction behaviour towards the caged female but the behaviour of the male did not predict the likelihood to attract an additional female. However, the proportion of time that the female spent near the potential settler was related to mating status, indicating that females that reacted more strongly towards a potential female competitor maintained their monogamous status. These results suggest that female behaviour may play an important role in shaping the mating system of facultatively polygynous species.

  16. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  17. An uncommon presentation of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare and potentially fatal disease if not readily diagnosed. Cerebral involvement is extremely rare and clinical presentation as hemorrhagic stroke is even rarer. Case presentation A 58-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our medical unit because of a computed tomography-diagnosed hemorrhagic stroke with right-sided hemiparesis and fever. A chest computed tomography scan also revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary infiltrates; coronary artery, and carotid and left vertebral artery calcifications were also observed. Empiric antimicrobial therapy with cephalosporins was promptly undertaken; low-molecular-weight heparin was introduced as prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism. Over the following days, magnetic resonance imaging scans showed a regression of the hemorrhagic framework, also revealing hypoxic areas consistent with acute ischemic lesions. With a computed tomography scan showing a worsening of his pulmonary framework, antimicrobial therapy was modified and corticosteroids were introduced. A new blood cell count revealed further increased leukocytosis (17.49×103μL), characterized by a surprising rise of eosinophilic cells (32.8%). Angiography of the coronary arteries found diffuse dilatations with severe signs of endothelial damage. Such an unexpected framework induced a strong suspicion that the stroke was the expression of a systemic vasculitis, which had triggered his cerebral, coronary, and pulmonary frameworks. The search for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody was positive for perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis was diagnosed. Explaining to the patient the rarity of his disease, and what the most typical presentations of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis were, he revealed that before admission he had had scalp injuries, in the nuchal region, and had taken corticosteroids as self-medication, with subsequent

  18. Female Bladder Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Daniel S; Nitti, Victor W

    2016-04-01

    The non-specific symptoms the patients express upon the presentation of female bladder outlet obstruction make it a challenge to diagnose. There are subtle differences between the obstructed patient and those whose bladders are underactive and/or fail to mount a detrusor contraction. These disparities can be extracted through a thorough history and examination. At times, the clinician may utilize nomograms, non-invasive uroflow, and urodynamics with the addition of fluoroscopy to establish the diagnosis of obstruction. Management of the obstruction depends on the nature of the condition, whether functional or anatomical. The increase in the number of sling procedures performed to treat stress urinary incontinence has resulted in a rise in the number of iatrogenic obstructions. The temporal relationship between surgery and obstruction is the key to identifying the problem. PMID:26902625

  19. The Female Gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  20. The female gametophyte.

    PubMed

    Drews, Gary N; Koltunow, Anna M G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  1. Enticing Mature Females into College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loseth, Lexie; Moreau, Linda

    Following a review of the literature on mature female students, this paper examines enrollment trends in a selection of colleges in Alberta (Canada) and presents the findings of a survey of returning women students at Red Deer College. The literature review highlights factors related to the personal and professional development of women graduates…

  2. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  3. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  4. Female competition in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Pusey, Anne E.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  5. Female Athlete Triad

    MedlinePlus

    ... periods Learn more about healthy eating habits and healthy lifestyle choices Other Organizations Female Athlete Triad Coalition Questions to Ask Your Doctor ... female athlete triad? How do I strike a balance between my desire to be healthy and my desire to win? Could there be ...

  6. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  7. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  8. Presentation Timer

    2010-06-23

    Abstract Conferences and Meetings feature many presentations on a tight schedule. The Session Timer system provides an electronic display for showing the remaining time in a presentation. It provides continuous feedback so the speaker can judge the pace throughout a presentation. The timer automates the job so the session chairman does not have to awkwardly interrupt the speaker.

  9. Determinants of female dispersal in Thomas langurs.

    PubMed

    Sterck, E H

    1997-01-01

    Female dispersal occurs in a number of primate species. It may be related to: avoidance of inbreeding, reduction in food competition, reduction of predation risk, or avoidance of infanticide in combination with mate choice. Female dispersal was studied for a 5-year period in a wild population of Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi) that lived in one-male multi-female groups. Juvenile and adult individuals of both sexes were seen to disperse. Females appeared to transfer unhindered between groups, mostly from a larger group to a recently formed smaller one. They transferred without their infants and when not pregnant, and seemed to transfer preferentially during periods when extra-group males were harassing their group. During these inter-group encounters extra-group males seemed to try to commit infanticide. Thus, the timing of female transfer was probably closely linked to infanticide avoidance. Moreover, females seemed to transfer when the resident male of their group was no longer a good protector. The observations in the present study suggest that females transferred to reduce the risk of infanticide. Female dispersal may have another ultimate advantage as well, namely inbreeding avoidance. Due to the dispersal of both females and males the social organization of Thomas langurs was rather fluid. New groups were formed when females joined a male; male takeovers were not observed. Bisexual groups had only a limited life span, because all adult females of a bisexual group could emigrate. This pattern of unhindered female dispersal affects male reproductive strategies, and in particular it might lead to infanticidal behavior during inter-group encounters. PMID:9209584

  10. Metastatic Osteosarcoma to the Breast Presenting as a Densely Calcified Mass on Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyeon; Woo, Ha Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma most commonly metastasizes to the lung or the skeleton, and metastatic osteosarcoma to the breast is very rare, with only a few cases reported. Due to its rarity, little has been reported about its imaging features. In this report, we represent a 58-year-old woman with metastatic osteosarcoma to the right breast from a tibial osteosarcoma. The imaging features of the metastatic osteosarcoma to the breast by using dedicated breast imaging modalities are described. Although rare, metastatic osteosarcoma to the breast should be considered when dense calcified masses with suspicious features are seen on breast imaging in patients with a history of osteosarcoma. PMID:27064762

  11. Metastatic Osteosarcoma to the Breast Presenting as a Densely Calcified Mass on Mammography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonghyeon; Woo, Ha Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Osteosarcoma most commonly metastasizes to the lung or the skeleton, and metastatic osteosarcoma to the breast is very rare, with only a few cases reported. Due to its rarity, little has been reported about its imaging features. In this report, we represent a 58-year-old woman with metastatic osteosarcoma to the right breast from a tibial osteosarcoma. The imaging features of the metastatic osteosarcoma to the breast by using dedicated breast imaging modalities are described. Although rare, metastatic osteosarcoma to the breast should be considered when dense calcified masses with suspicious features are seen on breast imaging in patients with a history of osteosarcoma. PMID:27064762

  12. Seminal vesicle metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma: An unusual and challenging presentation.

    PubMed

    Foahom Kamwa, Alain D; Mateus, Christine; Thanigasalam, Ruban; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Duchatelle, Véronique; Triller, Marie; Robert, Caroline; Baumert, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a tumour, which usually involves skin melanocytes. Involvement of the male genitourinary (GU) system by melanoma is an uncommon and challenging diagnosis. We report the first case of seminal vesicle metastasis from a primary cutaneous melanoma in a 58-year-old man, with hemospermia as the only clinical sign. This case highlights the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, as a more sensitive assessment to early detect metastatic melanoma in the GU system. The patient underwent a robot-assisted laparoscopic bilateral seminal vesiculectomy, which had good functional and oncological results and is still in complete remission at the 1-year follow-up. PMID:26085885

  13. Seminal vesicle metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma: An unusual and challenging presentation

    PubMed Central

    Foahom Kamwa, Alain D.; Mateus, Christine; Thanigasalam, Ruban; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Duchatelle, Véronique; Triller, Marie; Robert, Caroline; Baumert, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a tumour, which usually involves skin melanocytes. Involvement of the male genitourinary (GU) system by melanoma is an uncommon and challenging diagnosis. We report the first case of seminal vesicle metastasis from a primary cutaneous melanoma in a 58-year-old man, with hemospermia as the only clinical sign. This case highlights the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, as a more sensitive assessment to early detect metastatic melanoma in the GU system. The patient underwent a robot-assisted laparoscopic bilateral seminal vesiculectomy, which had good functional and oncological results and is still in complete remission at the 1-year follow-up. PMID:26085885

  14. The Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  15. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be fertilized by sperm, provide a favorable environment for the developing fetus , move the fetus to the outside at the end of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The ...

  16. [Comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Honsberg, L

    1989-03-01

    The author explores to what extent the first gender-identical love between mother and daughter shapes female self representation and becomes influential for later homosexual relations among women. Literary examples and case vignettes illustrate the connection. PMID:2652196

  17. Female pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Hair loss in female pattern baldness is permanent, if not treated. In most cases, hair loss ... expensive. However, the results are often excellent and permanent. OTHER SOLUTIONS Hair weaving, hairpieces, or a change ...

  18. Female Pattern Alopecia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cyproterone acetate (not available in the US). Finasteride, also an oral medication, is approved for male ... show no effect for female pattern hair loss. Finasteride, spironolactone, and cyproterone should not be used in ...

  19. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S. G.; McCann, R. S.; Kaiser, M. K.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew on flight vehicles, surface landers and habitats, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Designers of displays and controls for exploration missions must be prepared to select the text formats, label styles, alarms, electronic procedure designs, and cursor control devices that provide for optimal crew performance on exploration tasks. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP are: 1) Controls, 2) Displays, 3) Procedures, and 4) EVA Operations.

  20. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  1. Delivery presentations

    MedlinePlus

    ... brow first position. Most of the time, the force of contractions causes the baby to be in face-first position. It is also detected when labor does not progress. In some of these presentations, ...

  2. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  3. Generalized Tetanus Initially Presenting with Dysmasesis

    PubMed Central

    Zunga, Parvaiz M; Farooq, Omar; Dar, Ishrat H; Rashid, Samia; Yaseen, Ummer

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old male farmer, with no significant history of any chronic morbidity, was admitted via the Emergency Department of SMHS Hospital, Srinagar, with a history of an injury to the hand 20 days earlier followed by a three-day history of dysmasesis (difficulty chewing), progressing to trismus and generalized stiffness interfering with his daily activities. The patient was clinically managed as tetanus on grounds of high clinical suspicion. The patient was treated for a week and discharged without any sequelae to follow-up in the Neurology Outpatient Department of the SMHS Hospital and is currently doing well. After a week of successful management, we received the blood and wound culture reports of the patient that had been sent at the time of his admission to the hospital, which overwhelmingly tested positive for Clostridium tetani. Tetanus is a disease to be suspected post-trauma in patients, especially in developing countries like India. Despite active and passive immunization, it continues to be a significant public health problem in developing countries and should be readily suspected and treated. Although prevention is important for tetanus, the outcomes can be improved by early clinical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27433422

  4. Female physicist doctoral experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-06-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.

  5. Promoting the female condom.

    PubMed

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  6. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  7. [Scientific presentation].

    PubMed

    Kraft, Giuliano

    2002-01-01

    To give a correct and effective scientific presentation, is an arduous task that asks for close examination of basic techniques of communication. This article proposes indications and suggestions to help public speakers to be communicators, to use visual aids and it explains how to capture the audience attention. PMID:12599721

  8. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad. PMID:25365814

  9. Female athlete triad update.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance. PMID:17241915

  10. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  11. Overview Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview presentation of the 2000 NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) Review and Planning Meeting. Topics include: 1) a background of the program; 2) 1999 Industry Feedback; 3) FY00 Status, including resource distribution and major accomplishments; 4) FY01 Major Milestones; and 5) Future direction for the program. Specifically, simulation environment/production software and NPSS CORBA Security Development are discussed.

  12. Dressed to Present: Ratings of Classroom Presentations Vary with Attire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Kempen, Laura; Klemm, Kayla; Senn, Rebecca; Wysocki, Rosie

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of formality of dress on ratings of classroom presentations. Participants (N = 65, 66% women) from a Midwestern university in the United States rated three female students giving a presentation designed for a health psychology class in one of four outfits: casual, party, business casual, or business formal.…

  13. Women showing off: notes on female exhibitionism.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Rosemary H

    2008-03-01

    The limitations of the phallocentric cast of earlier psychoanalytic formulations of "female exhibitionism" linger into the present. In part this connects to certain historical expectations for women's social behavior, and to the vicissitudes of Freud's insufficient knowledge of women in his libidinal psychosexual phasing used as a basis for analytic understanding. The contemporary fade of libido theory contributes to the neglect of such topics as they relate to the biological body. Yet ease and conflict regarding conscious and unconscious female body image representations related to that stepchild of theory-pregnancy and childbirth in particular-play a major role in female body display. Recognition of such body fantasies and female body meanings from early childhood into maturity tends to be marginalized within all of the psychoanalytic theories current today. The focus here on female exhibitionism suggests a normative spectrum for pleasurably active sex seeking and pleasurable procreative desire and fantasy that is present in a female's use of her body and which (of course, but secondarily) can become caught up in conflict. Two cases accenting analyses of female "showing off" behavior are included. PMID:18430704

  14. Young Female Sex Offenders: Assessment and Treatment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Jennifer; McRoy, Ruth; Matthews, Bobbie M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the literature on female sex offenders and presents the results of a nationwide survey of mental health providers on approaches to diagnosing prior sexual abuse history and/or perpetration among juvenile females. Key findings include the lack of research, tools, and literature on young female sex offenders and perceived differences between…

  15. Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel.

    PubMed

    Cropp, Gabrielle; Armstrong, Jane

    2016-07-01

    Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take. PMID:27388382

  16. The Female Athlete Triad: Disordered Eating, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Dawnella M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Female Athlete Triad, an interrelated combination of disorders that can occur in girls and women who are physically active. Presents nine resources for the Female Athlete Triad. Concludes that as more young females become physically active, school personnel need to be aware of the importance of promoting healthy eating and training…

  17. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    Thein, L A; Thein, J M

    1996-02-01

    Since the passage of Title IX in 1972, women's participation in physical activity and sports has increased significantly. A concurrent expansion in the body of knowledge regarding women and sports has occurred. Questions regarding menstrual dysfunction and exercise continue, while new questions about menstrual dysfunction and its effect on bone mineral density have arisen. Physical and physiological differences between men and women not only guide treatment, but help fuel policy decisions regarding competition between males and females. It is essential for the physical therapist to remain current on issues related to women and sports in order to better advise and treat the female athlete. PMID:8808516

  18. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments. PMID:24017982

  19. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health. PMID:22741207

  20. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  1. Female Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  2. Understanding the Female Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…

  3. The Female Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudron, Shari

    1999-01-01

    Offers advice from the upper echelon of females in the training profession: (1) learn the business; (2) get line experience; (3) stop thinking like a trainer; (4) educate executives; (5) partner with the powerful; (6) exceed expectations; (7) develop coping strategies; (8) be realistic; (9) align values; and (10) organize. (JOW)

  4. Male moths bearing transplanted female antennae express characteristically female behaviour and central neural activity.

    PubMed

    Kalberer, N M; Reisenman, C E; Hildebrand, J G

    2010-04-01

    The primary olfactory centres of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta, the antennal lobes, contain a small number of sexually dimorphic glomeruli: the male-specific macroglomerular complex and the large female glomeruli. These glomeruli play important roles in sex-specific behaviours, such as the location of conspecific females and the selection of appropriate host plants for oviposition. The development of sexually dimorphic glomeruli depends strictly on the ingrowth of sex-specific olfactory receptor cell afferents. In the present study we tested the role of female-specific olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) in mediating female-specific host plant approach behaviour and in determining the response of downstream antennal lobe neurons. We generated male gynandromorphs by excising one imaginal disc from a male larva and replacing it with the antennal imaginal disc from a female donor. Most male gynandromorphs had an apparently normal female antenna and a feminised antennal lobe. These gynandromorphs were tested for flight responses in a wind tunnel towards tomato plants, a preferred host plant for oviposition in M. sexta. Male gynandromorphs landed on host plants as often as normal females, demonstrating that the presence of the induced female-specific glomeruli was necessary and sufficient to produce female-like, odour-oriented behaviour, i.e. orientation towards host plants. We also characterised the physiological and morphological properties of antennal lobe neurons of male gynandromorphs. We found that projection neurons with arborisations in the induced female-specific glomeruli showed physiological responses akin to those of female-specific projection neurons in normal females. These results therefore indicate that ORCs confer specific odour tuning to their glomerular targets and, furthermore, instruct odour-specific behaviour. PMID:20348339

  5. Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2013-01-01

    During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism. PMID:24356181

  6. Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus

    SciTech Connect

    Tardif, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

  7. Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F; Clarke, Dave E; Lomax, Terri C

    2008-08-01

    Blanchard's (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616-623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234 transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online or a paper questionnaire. The results showed that, overall, transsexuals tended to place more importance on partner's physical attractiveness and reported higher scores on Blanchard's Core Autogynephilia Scale than biological females. In addition, transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored significantly higher on Attraction to Feminine Males, Core Autogynephilia, Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy, Fetishism, Preference for Younger Partners, Interest in Uncommitted Sex, Importance of Partner Physical Attractiveness, and Attraction to Transgender Fiction than other transsexuals and biological females. In accordance with Blanchard's theory, autogynephilia measures were positively correlated to Sexual Attraction to Females among transsexuals. In contrast to Blanchard's theory, however, those transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored higher on average on Sexual Attraction to Males than those classified as non-autogynephilic, and no transsexuals classified as autogynephilic reported asexuality. PMID:18299976

  8. Female exhibitionism: identification, competition and camaraderie.

    PubMed

    Holtzman, Deanna; Kulish, Nancy

    2012-04-01

    The ancient figure of Baubo plays a pivotal role in the Greek myth of Demeter and Persephone with an exhibitionistic act that brings Demeter out of her depression. The Baubo episode raises questions about the meaning of female exhibitionism, suggesting divergences from earlier psychoanalytic conceptualizations as either a perversion or a compensation for the lack of a penis. In line with contemporary thinking about primary femininity, such as that of Balsam or Elise, the authors propose a more inclusive understanding of female exhibitionism, which would encompass pleasure in the female body and its sexual and reproductive functions. They argue that female exhibitionism can reflect triangular or "oedipal" scenarios and the need to attract the male, identification with the mother, competition or camaraderie with other women, a sense of power in the female body and its capacities, as well as homoerotic impulses. The authors posit a dual early desire and identification with the mother that underlie and characterize female sexual development. The authors present clinical data from adolescent and adult cases of female exhibitionism which illustrate these Baubo-like aspects and discuss the technical issues that are involved in such cases. PMID:22471632

  9. Moi bans female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Nakalema, R

    1990-06-01

    A recent survey by the Inter-African Committee for Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children found that 75-85 million women in Africa have undergone some form of female genital mutilation (FGM). FGM has long been practiced in Kenya. The ethnic groups which practice it, including the Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Maasai, and people of Somali origin, have a death rate of 170/1000 of their female populations. Approximately half of these deaths are the result of FGM, a practice which also contributes to the poor health of mutilated women. The adverse health consequences of FGM have led Kenya's President Daniel arap Moi to ban the practice in his country. In announcing the ban, President Moi advised Kenyans to discontinue cultural practices and customs which have no place in modern society and which will otherwise retard development. A number of prominent Kenyans have come forth in support of Moi's move. PMID:12293761

  10. Females that experience threat are better teachers

    PubMed Central

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat. PMID:24806422

  11. Females that experience threat are better teachers.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Sonia; Evans, Christine; Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

    2014-05-01

    Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) females use an incubation call to teach their embryos a vocal password to solicit parental feeding care after hatching. We previously showed that high call rate by the female was correlated with high call similarity in fairy-wren chicks, but not in cuckoo chicks, and that parent birds more often fed chicks with high call similarity. Hosts should be selected to increase their defence behaviour when the risk of brood parasitism is highest, such as when cuckoos are present in the area. Therefore, we experimentally test whether hosts increase call rate to embryos in the presence of a singing Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites basalis). Female fairy-wrens increased incubation call rate when we experimentally broadcast cuckoo song near the nest. Embryos had higher call similarity when females had higher incubation call rate. We interpret the findings of increased call rate as increased teaching effort in response to a signal of threat. PMID:24806422

  12. Pleural effusion presenting as mediastinal widening

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Prasanta R.; Garg, Kranti; Prashanth, Chikkahonnaiah; Lahoria, Rupali

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of middle-aged female presenting with mediastinal widening on chest radiograph owing to pleural effusion. The pleural effusion presenting as mediastinal widening on chest radiograph is rarely reported. PMID:24339499

  13. Female Athletes Facing Discrimination: Curriculum Regarding Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Regina

    There continues to be oppression among female athletes, even after the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Female athletes in secondary schools deal with low self-esteem, eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia, and depression. Female athletes struggle with societal pressures to maintain a model-like figure, while trying to train and perform for…

  14. Effect of Female Labor Force Participation on Female Suicide Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Explores the impact of female participation in the labor force (FPLF) on female suicide attitudes using a national sample of 5,559 women. Significant bivariate relationship is indicated, though when controls are added for covariates, FPLF is not related to female suicide attitudes. Relates findings to the role conflict and role expansionist theory…

  15. Male mate choice selects for female coloration in a fish

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Trond; Forsgren, Elisabet

    2001-01-01

    Although sexual selection theory has proved successful in explaining a wide array of male ornaments, the function of ornaments occurring in females is largely unknown. Traditionally, female ornaments have been considered nonfunctional, being merely a genetically correlated response to selection for male ornamentation. However, this hypothesis is only relevant to species in which the ornament is basically the same in the two sexes. Alternatively, female ornaments may be influenced by selection acting directly on the females, either through female–female competition or male choice. We tested the latter hypothesis in mate-choice experiments with two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens). In this small marine fish, females have bright yellow-orange bellies during the breeding season, a conspicuous trait that is not present in males. We conducted two aquarium experiments to test whether males preferred to mate with more colorful females. In the first experiment, males had a choice between two females that varied in natural coloration (and belly roundness). In the second experiment, we manipulated belly coloration and kept roundness constant. Males spent more time with colorful than with drab females in both experiments and also performed far more courtship displays toward colorful females. Our study provides experimental evidence that males prefer ornamented females in a fish that is not sex-role reversed, supporting the hypothesis that female ornamentation is sexually selected. PMID:11606720

  16. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the ...

  17. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the normal ...

  18. Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000134.htm Urinary incontinence surgery - female - discharge To use the sharing features ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al; Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  19. [Facial femalization in transgenders].

    PubMed

    Yahalom, R; Blinder, D; Nadel, S

    2015-07-01

    Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder in which there is a strong desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex. In male-to-female transsexuals with strong masculine facial features, facial feminization surgery is performed as part of the gender reassignment. A strong association between femininity and attractiveness has been attributed to the upper third of the face and the interplay of the glabellar prominence of the forehead. Studies have shown that a certain lower jaw shape is characteristic of males with special attention to the strong square mandibular angle and chin and also suggest that the attractive female jaw is smaller with a more round shape mandibular angles and a pointy chin. Other studies have shown that feminization of the forehead through cranioplasty have the most significant impact in determining the gender of a patient. Facial feminization surgeries are procedures aimed to change the features of the male face to that of a female face. These include contouring of the forehead, brow lift, mandible angle reduction, genioplasty, rhinoplasty and a variety of soft tissue adjustments. In our maxillofacial surgery department at the Sheba Medical Center we perform forehead reshaping combining with brow lift and at the same surgery, mandibular and chin reshaping to match the remodeled upper third of the face. The forehead reshaping is done by cranioplasty with additional reduction of the glabella area by burring of the frontal bone. After reducing the frontal bossing around the superior orbital rims we manage the soft tissue to achieve the brow lift. The mandibular reshaping, is performed by intraoral approach and include contouring of the angles by osteotomy for a more round shape (rather than the manly square shape angles), as well as reshaping of the bone in the chin area in order to make it more pointy, by removing the lateral parts of the chin and in some cases performing also genioplasty reduction by AP osteotomy. PMID

  20. Photoperiod and reproduction in female deer mice

    SciTech Connect

    Whitsett, J.M.; Miller, L.L.

    1982-03-01

    Female deer mice were exposed to a short day photoperiod beginning during 1 of 3 stages of life. In the first experiment, exposure to SD during adulthood resulted in a minimal disruption of reproductive condition; many females bore 2 litters after the onset of this treatment. In the second experiment, females reared on SD from weaning matured normally, as measured by vaginal introitus; however, vaginal closure occurred in approximately one-half of these females by 9 weeks of age. In the third experiment, females were born of mothers housed on either an SD or a long day photoperiod, and were continued on the maternal photoperiod until 6 weeks of postnatal age. The SD photoperiod markedly inhibited reproductive maturation as measured by vaginal patency, ovarian weight, and uterine weight. A comparison of reproductive organ weights and vaginal condition provided evidence for the validity of the latter measure as an index of reproductive state. As assayed by the present testing procedure, the sensitivity of the reproductive system to photoperiod decreases as a function of age in female deer mice.

  1. Sleep apnoea is a common occurrence in females.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Karl A; Sahlin, Carin; Stenlund, Hans; Lindberg, Eva

    2013-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is primarily regarded as a male disorder, presenting with snoring, daytime sleepiness and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the frequency of sleep apnoea among females in the general population. We investigated 400 females from a population-based random sample of 10,000 females aged 20-70 yrs. They answered a questionnaire and performed overnight polysomnography. OSA (apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥5) was found in 50% (95% CI 45-55%) of females aged 20-70 yrs. Sleep apnoea was related to age, obesity and hypertension, but not to daytime sleepiness. Severe sleep apnoea (AHI ≥30) was present in 14% (95% CI 8.1-21%) of females aged 55-70 yrs and in 31% (95% CI 12-50%) of obese females with a body mass index of ≥30 kg·m(-2) aged 55-70 yrs. Sleep apnoea with daytime sleepiness and sleep apnoea with hypertension were observed as two different phenotypes of OSA. OSA occurs in 50% of females aged 20-70 yrs. 20% of females have moderate and 6% severe sleep apnoea. Sleep apnoea in females is related to age, obesity and hypertension, but not to daytime sleepiness. When searching for sleep apnoea in females, females with hypertension or obesity should be investigated. PMID:22903961

  2. Professional Female Athletes. Financial Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Annie

    1987-01-01

    Female professional athletes are earning more than ever before and projections suggest opportunities will continue to increase. Salary differentials between male and female tennis and golf professionals are made. Product endorsement income is discussed. Steps coaches, parents, counselors, and colleges should take in guiding females toward…

  3. Hiring and Recruiting Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime; Bers, Trudy

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…

  4. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  5. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  6. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  7. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  8. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    PubMed

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  9. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Shende, Ruchira P; Sampat, Bhavin K; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Kulkarni, Satish

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of 58 year old female diagnosed with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) with recurrence of PAP after 5 repeated whole lung lavage, responding to subcutaneous injections of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor therapy (GM-CSF). Thus indicating that GM-CSF therapy is a promising alternative in those requiring repeated whole lung lavage PMID:24475687

  10. Idiopathic Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Bulent; Kazancioglu, Rumeyza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS) is rarely seen, and presents with recurrent episodes of hypotension, shock, hemoconcentration, and hypoproteinemia. The main pathology is the dysfunction of the vascular endothelium, and it is characterized by an increase of capillary permeability that is accompanied by the loss of intravascular fluid and protein. Case Presentation We present a 58-year-old female who presented with peripheral edema, leg pain, and syncope at the emergency department. Interestingly demyemilising neuropathy, which is a rare finding, ensued on day 4. She is still being treated using intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Conclusions The early signs and symptoms of ISCLS may be subtle; therefore the diagnosis can easily be missed and prompt treatment of the syndrome may be postponed. Thus, the clinician must consider ISCLS in differential diagnosis in cases of hypotension, hemoconcentration, and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:27195144

  11. Scent marking as resource defense by female Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Mertl-Millhollen, Anne S

    2006-06-01

    Because ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are a female-dominant, female-philopatric species in which the females provide the majority of parental care and troop defense, resource defense is a possible function of female lemur scent marking. To test this hypothesis, I conducted three studies. First, I presented captive, individually housed females with a series of samples of female scent, each from a different female, to determine whether they would respond to those samples and discriminate between them. Second, I reanalyzed data from a focal animal study of four females in two adjacent troops in Berenty Reserve, Madagascar, to determine female marking rates before, during, and after the mating season, and to clarify the relationship among positions of feeding, intertroop defense, and scent marking. The third study was based on ad libitum observations of the sniffing and marking behavior of a troop in Berenty Reserve during a year when they traveled far out of their home range. The females in study 1 investigated female scent samples but provided no evidence that they discriminated between them. In study 2 the wild females marked throughout the study and did not limit their marking to the mating season. They deposited significantly more of their marks in a zone of confrontation with adjacent troops, where they also did the majority of their feeding, and they increased their rate of marking during agonistic intertroop confrontations. The females determined the positions of their scent marks and deposited the first mark in the majority of countermarking sequences. When the females traveled out of their defended range in study 3, they significantly decreased their rate of marking and increased their rate of sniffing spots but not marking them. All evidence gathered so far supports the hypothesis that one function of female ring-tailed lemur scent marking is to provide intergroup information that is then used to reinforce the border of the defended resource. PMID

  12. Is synaesthesia a dominantly female trait?

    PubMed Central

    Simner, Julia; Carmichael, Duncan A.

    2015-01-01

    Synaesthesia is a familial condition that gives rise to unusual secondary percepts. We present a large-scale prevalence study which informs our ideas on whether the condition is more prevalent in men or women. A number of studies over the last 20 years have suggested the condition is found more commonly in women, with up to six times more female synaesthetes than male. Other studies attributed this female bias to merely a recruitment confound: women synaesthetes may be more likely to self-refer for study. We offer two pieces of evidence that there is no extreme female bias in synaesthesia: first we re-analyse previous reports of very large female biases to show again that they likely arose from self-referral or other methodological issues. Second, we present the largest published prevalence study to date on grapheme→colour synaesthesia in which our prevalence (1.39% of the population) replicates our earlier estimates (and in which we demonstrate no strong female bias even with sufficient power to detect such a difference. PMID:25732702

  13. Is synaesthesia a dominantly female trait?

    PubMed

    Simner, Julia; Carmichael, Duncan A

    2015-01-01

    Synaesthesia is a familial condition that gives rise to unusual secondary percepts. We present a large-scale prevalence study which informs our ideas on whether the condition is more prevalent in men or women. A number of studies over the last 20 years have suggested the condition is found more commonly in women, with up to six times more female synaesthetes than male. Other studies attributed this female bias to merely a recruitment confound: women synaesthetes may be more likely to self-refer for study. We offer two pieces of evidence that there is no extreme female bias in synaesthesia: first we re-analyse previous reports of very large female biases to show again that they likely arose from self-referral or other methodological issues. Second, we present the largest published prevalence study to date on grapheme→colour synaesthesia in which our prevalence (1.39% of the population) replicates our earlier estimates (and in which we demonstrate no strong female bias even with sufficient power to detect such a difference. PMID:25732702

  14. Reproductive competition promotes the evolution of female weaponry

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nicola L.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary sexual traits in females are a relatively rare phenomenon. Empirical studies have focused on the role of male mate choice in their evolution; however, recently it has been suggested that secondary sexual traits in females are more likely to be under selection via reproductive competition. We investigated female competition and the influence of female phenotype on fitness in Onthophagus sagittarius, a species of dung beetle that exhibits female-specific horns. We compared reproductive fitness when females were breeding in competition versus breeding alone and found that competition for breeding resources reduced fitness for all females, but that smaller individuals suffered a greater fitness reduction than larger individuals. When females were matched for body size, those with the longest horns gained higher reproductive fitness. The fitness function was positive and linear, favouring increased horn expression. Thus, we present evidence that female body size and horn size in O. sagittarius are under directional selection via competition for reproductive resources. Our study is a rare example of female contest competition selecting for female weaponry. PMID:20200030

  15. Slowly Growing Nodule on the Trunk: Cutaneous Granular Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz, Özge; Erkin, Gül; Bilezikçi, Banu; Adanalı, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a rare benign neoplasm of the skin that accounts for 0.5% of all soft-tissue tumors. The tumor mostly presents with a symptomatic slowly growing solitary nodule and overlying normal skin; therefore, it is not always considered in the differential diagnosis. Here, we report a 58-year-old female patient who presented with a 4-year history of a slowly growing mass, with a dimension of 5 × 4 cm on her left waist, diagnosed as a GCT at the histopathological examination. The neoplastic cells had centrally located nuclei and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and stained positively for S100, neuron-specific enolase, and CD68 antibodies. Fifteen months after surgery, the patient still showed no signs of local recurrence or metastases. Although a large diameter is a feature of malignant GCT, our case with cutaneous GCT was localized on the trunk and did not present malignant features clinically and histopathologically.

  16. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  17. Female Traditional Principals and Co-Principals: Experiences of Role Conflict and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Ellen Wexler; Kelber, Sheryl Talcott

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a secondary analysis of survey data focusing on role conflict and job satisfaction of 102 female principals. Data were collected from 51 female traditional principals and 51 female co-principals. By examining the traditional and co-principal leadership models as experienced by female principals, this paper addresses the impact…

  18. Female reproductive cycles of wild female felids.

    PubMed

    Brown, Janine L

    2011-04-01

    Many felid species are endangered because of destructive human activities. As a result, zoos are being tasked with sustaining genetically healthy populations in case of catastrophic extinctions. Unfortunately, with the exception of a few species, most felids do not reproduce well in captivity. The ability to track reproductive activity via hormones is key to developing successful ex situ breeding programs. Through the development of noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring techniques, a high degree of variability in estrous cycle characteristics has been found to exist across the taxon, including the type of ovulation. For example, although all felids have induced ovulations, the occurrence of spontaneous ovulations varies across species, and even between individuals within a species. Clouded leopards, fishing cats and margays frequently have spontaneous ovulations, whereas these are rarely observed in the cheetah, tigrina and ocelot. There are marked species differences in the impact of season on reproductive function, with some being exquisitely sensitive to photoperiod (e.g., Pallas' cat), some moderately affected (tiger, clouded leopard, snow leopard), and others that are not influenced at all (e.g., ocelot, tigrina, margay, lion, leopard, fishing cat). One of the greatest challenges remaining is overcoming the problems associated with highly variable ovarian responses to ovulation induction therapies used with assisted reproductive procedures, like artificial insemination (AI). Success is relatively high in the cheetah and ocelot, but few pregnancies have resulted after AI in clouded leopard, fishing cat and tiger. Current knowledge of the reproductive physiology of nondomestic felids, including aspects of the anatomy, behavior and ovarian cycles will be presented, and how the rapidly growing endocrine database is aiding ex situ management efforts. PMID:20888156

  19. Female Friendship in Literature: Bonding and Betrayal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Libby

    This document presents the findings of research concerning female friendship as literature portrays it. Literal sisterhood is not the focus of the report, nor is cross gender friendship. The examination rejects the suggestion that homosexuality is at the root of same sex friendship. The document touches on the enmities that may arise between…

  20. The Female Experience of Sibling Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavan, Margaret M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Calls occurrence of sibling incest underrecognized. Presents four cases of females who experienced sibling incest to illustrate problem areas, including issues of enforced secrecy, interpersonal power differentials, influences on sexual development, individual after effects, disturbances in family dynamics, and gender-based differences in…

  1. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  2. The Legal Issues of Female Inmates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Katherine; And Others

    This report summarizes the results of a 1-year exploratory research project addressing the central question of why women prisoners are less litigious than men. Chapters 1 and 2 present the major research questions, i.e., the legal concerns of women prisoners, resources available to female inmates, and factors related to the availability and use of…

  3. Cystosarcoma phylloides in an adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Senocak, M E; Göğüş, S; Hiçsönmez, A; Büyükpamukçu, N

    1989-08-01

    Cystosarcoma phylloides is an exceedingly rare breast lesion in adolescent females. The tumour contains both stromal and epithelial elements. Benign, malignant and intermediate forms have been described. Complete simple excision is adequate for therapy in all variants. An additional case treated by wide local excision is presented and treatment is discussed. PMID:2552699

  4. Cystosarcoma phylloides in the adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Stromberg, B V; Golladay, E S

    1978-08-01

    Two cases of cystosarcoma phylloides in the adolescent female are presented and the literature reviewed. This lesion is usually benign. Even when malignant, simple excision has been curative in 2 or 3 cases. Therapy recommended is local excision with a small margin of normal tissue. PMID:210269

  5. [Female sexuality in middle and advanced adulthood].

    PubMed

    von Sydow, K

    1992-01-01

    A study of female sexuality based on 91 interviews with women aged 50 to 91 years (birth-cohorts: 1895 to 1936) is presented. 53% of the interview-partners in this study are sexually active (intercourse: 34%; masturbation: 30%; lesbian sexuality: 1%). 65% report sexual interest. During the past year 58% of the women experienced sexual dreams, 43% sexual fantasies. 26% of the interview-partners had never experienced orgasm. Several age- and cohort-differences are reported. Quotations illustrate the variability of female sexual experiences. PMID:1609538

  6. Placentophagia in Weanling Female Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Kaitlyn M.; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Placentophagia is common in parturient mammals and offers physiological and behavioral advantages for mothers. In natural environments, weanlings are often present during the birth of younger siblings, but it is unknown if weanling rats are placentophagic or prefer placenta over other substances. To examine this, primiparous rats were remated during the postpartum estrus and weanling females remained in the nest during their mother’s next parturition. Continuous observation revealed that 58% of weanlings were placentophagic. To determine if this placentophagia occurs away from parturient mothers, weanling females still living in their natal nest were offered placenta, liver, or cake frosting in a novel chamber. They ingested more placenta and liver than frosting. Thus, many weanling female laboratory rats are placentophagic during birth of younger siblings but do not selectively prefer placenta when tested outside their natal nest. Consequences of placentophagia by weanlings are unknown, but it may promote their alloparenting or postpartum mothering. PMID:24604548

  7. Noninvasive diagnosis and management of spontaneous intracranial hypotension in patients with marfan syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Luigi; Graffeo, Christopher S.; Behrooz, Navid; Tyagi, Vineet; Wilson, Taylor; Penaranda, Saul; Zagzag, David; Rifkin, Daniel B; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Fatterpekar, Girish; Placantonakis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an uncommon clinical entity. Heritable connective tissue disorders (HCTD), such as Marfan syndrome, are frequently implicated as an underlying cause, due to dural structural weaknesses that predispose patients to spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Due to the high prevalence of multi-system disease in HCTD, diagnosis and treatment are often complicated. Case Description: We present a 58-year-old female with Marfan syndrome on anticoagulation for a mechanical aortic valve replacement who came to medical attention with severe, acute-onset headache following a straining episode. Noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) myelography confirmed thoracic CSF extravasations and multiple lumbar diverticula. The patient was treated conservatively and her symptoms resolved. Conclusion: We discuss the common presentation, diagnostic tools, and treatment options for spontaneous CSF leaks in patients with Marfan syndrome or related HCTD with an emphasis on noninvasive modalities and a review of the major radiographic criteria used to diagnose dural abnormalities, such as dural ectasia. PMID:24575323

  8. Female orgasmic disorder.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Clifton, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, as a persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a 'normal' sexual excitement phase. FOD is a common problem affecting sexual function in a substantial proportion of women. Studies suggest that it is prevalent in 11-41% of women worldwide and can have a tremendous impact on the individual's quality of life, relational satisfaction and general well-being. The etiology of FOD tends to be multifactorial as it relates to genetics, medical conditions, medications, alcohol and drug use, other sexual dysfunctions, mental illness, life stressors, communication deficits and relationship issues. It is critical that sexual functioning in patients is assessed frequently through interview and/or validated questionnaires to aid in treatment strategy and/or referral. Currently, there are no approved medications to treat FOD. However, there are medications and psychological treatments that have shown promise in either treating FOD or thwarting the side effects of medications that can cause FOD. This chapter discusses the epidemiology and etiology of FOD and provides a comprehensive critical review of the literature on assessment and treatment of FOD. PMID:22005203

  9. Speech Rate in Males, Females, and Male-to-Female Transsexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; De Maesschalck, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    For clinicians treating transsexual clients it is important to address primarily those characteristics whose modification is most relevant to the creation of the desired gender presentation. The present study investigated the extent to which a modification of speech rate is warranted in male-to-female transsexuals. Comparison of speech rate…

  10. Skin spiradenocarcinoma - case presentation.

    PubMed

    Rebegea, Laura Florentina; Firescu, Dorel; Dumitru, Mihaela; Pătraşcu, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Malignant eccrine spiradenoma is an extremely rare skin tumor of sweat gland origin. The available literature data indicates that spiradenocarcinoma nearly uniformly arises from a benign preexisting spiradenoma. Etiology is unknown but previous trauma is believed being an implicated factor. The article presents the clinical observation of a 34-year-old female patient, diagnosed with cutaneous spiradenocarcinoma of the left thigh, treated multidisciplinary: surgery and chemoradiotherapy. The presentation includes clinical, histopathological and therapeutic diagnosis aspects, arisen difficulties of histological diagnosis and literature data regarding treatment options for this type of tumor. In this case, surgery followed by second surgery intervention was performed due to the continuing development of local disease. After surgery, the patient performed external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to tumoral bed (total dose of 50 Gy) and inguinal lymph nodes (total dose of 50 Gy), followed by six cycles of chemotherapy (CMT) (Carboplatin + Paclitaxel) with complete response. At the moment, the patient shows no evidence of recurrence or metastatic disease during the follow-up. PMID:27151731

  11. Perceived current and ideal body size in female undergraduates.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, Lillian P; Best, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors are pervasive problems in Western society, particularly for females. The female "thin-ideal" is a potent contributor to the growing discontent with the female body and research has shown that even females who are normal or underweight, perceive themselves as overweight. The goal of the current study was to examine correlates of body image satisfaction and the perception of the female body. One hundred and sixty six female undergraduates (Mean Age=21.40 years) completed self-report measures pertaining to disordered eating (EAT-26) and body dissatisfaction (BIQ and ABS). Body image perception and satisfaction were measured using ratings of female bodies on a weight perception scale (PFRS). Overall, disordered eating was related to a lower ideal body size and greater body dissatisfaction. In support of previous research, the most common ideal female body had a BMI categorized as underweight. Although females in the current sample reported an ideal that was smaller than their current size, participants underestimated their current body size, which, given the amount of dieting and weight pressure in present Western society, seems counterintuitive. It is possible that thin ideal portrayed in the media is increasingly different from and at odds with the average female body. PMID:25955887

  12. Mating patterns of female Leon Springs pupfish Cyprinodon bovinus.

    PubMed

    Leiser, J K; Gagliardi-Seeley, J L; Wisenden, B D; Itzkowitz, M

    2015-09-01

    In a field study of Leon Springs pupfish Cyprinodon bovinus, two questions about female promiscuity were investigated. First, were females selective in the males with whom they spawned or were they unselective, spawning randomly among males? Second, how promiscuous were the females, i.e. with how many males did they spawn? If simply spawning with many males maximized a female's reproductive success, then females might be expected to spawn randomly with as many males as possible. Alternatively, if females were selective but engaged in multiple mating, they would limit their spawning to preferred males. In the only wild population of this endangered fish, breeding males defend closely associated territories in the shallow margins of a single desert pool. No territories were observed elsewhere in the pool. Therefore, all territorial males were present simultaneously and females could survey all of them, depositing any number of eggs with one, a few or many males. Rather than spawning randomly, females surveyed many males first, visited relatively few males and ultimately spawned with a small fraction of those available males. With increasing numbers of spawns, however, females increased the number of different mates with whom they spawned. Thus, females showed a bet-hedging tactic of having a narrow mate preference while also laying eggs in the territories of other males, possibly to reduce egg predation and to avoid inbreeding. PMID:26289774

  13. Unusual presentation of a simple renal cyst

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Veena; Alam, Kiran; Varshney, Manoranjan; Khan, Roobina; Gaur, Kavita; Harris, S Hasan

    2011-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 23-year-old woman who presented with a lump in her right abdomen which was 7 cm in diameter. Ultrasonography showed a unilocular cyst, which was diagnosed as a simple renal cyst. This case is presented for its rare occurrence in young females and unusual clinical presentation as a huge abdominal mass. PMID:22715271

  14. Solitary Fibrous Tumor in a Female Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Hiba J; Menon, Sharifa

    2016-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the bladder are extremely rare especially in the females. This is the third case of SFT in a female urinary bladder. We are presenting a case of 36-years-old female who underwent a procedure for what thought to be cervical myoma. Cystectomy and bilateral ureteral re-implantation were performed. Mass showed to be solitary fibrous tumor of the urinary bladder. These tumors are rarely occur in extrapleural spaces. Only few cases had been reported in the urinary bladder including 2 in the female and 10 in the male bladder. PMID:27335777

  15. The female athlete triad: a case series and narrative overview

    PubMed Central

    Laframboise, Michelle A.; Borody, Cameron; Stern, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To illustrate the varying presentations of the female athlete triad and to inform the practitioner of the potential sequelae of this common condition. Clinical Features: Four patients presented with a variety of signs and symptoms of the female athlete triad including low caloric intake, osteoporosis, amenorrhea and/or endothelial dysfunction. Intervention and Outcome: A conservative treatment approach was utilized in each case including education on the female athlete triad, education on increased caloric intake and a referral to the family physician. Conclusion: Health care practitioners should be aware of the different clinical presentations of the female athlete triad. A narrative review of the literature is provided to educate practitioners on the components of the female athlete triad, proper diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:24302779

  16. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Verma, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients. PMID:23974580

  17. Female urinary incontinence rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, P

    2004-08-01

    Pelvic floor rehabilitation (PFR) is an important and recommended strategy for the treatment of many urogynecological disorders including urinary incontinence (UI). The recognised pioneer of PFR is the American gynecologist Arnold Kegel who, over 50 years ago, proposed pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) to prevent and/or treat female UI. Kegel's techniques were successfully used by others too, but as the years passed these techniques sank into unjustified oblivion. In the 1980s in Europe the medical world's interest in PFME techniques gained ground, contemporaneously with functional electrical stimulation (FES) and biofeedback (BFB). As a general rule, the least invasive and least dangerous procedure for the patient should be the first choice, and behavioural and rehabilitative techniques should be considered as the first line of therapy for UI. The behavioural approaches in women with UI and without cognitive deficits are tailored to the patient's underlying problem, such as bladder training or retraining (BR) for urge UI. BR has many variations but generally consists of education, scheduled voiding, and positive reinforcements. The rehabilitative approaches comprise BFB, FES, PFME, and vaginal cones (VC). BFB allows the subject to modify the unconscious physiological events, while FES is aimed at strengthening perineal awareness, increasing the tone and trophism of the pelvic floor, and inhibiting detrusor overactivity. PFME play an extremely important role in the conservative treatment of UI and overactive bladder, and many studies have demonstrated their effectiveness. Many authors have used the different methods for PFR in a heterogeneous manner: the best results were obtained when protocols requiring the contemporary use of 2 or more techniques were followed. PMID:15377984

  18. Dating Violence: Counseling Adolescent Females from an Existential Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klem, John; Owens, Andrea; Ross, Angela; Edwards, Lawanda; Cobia, Debra C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present an existential framework for conceptualizing and intervening with adolescent females who are in violent relationships. Interventions involve addressing the adolescent female's anxiety associated with I. D. Yalom's (1980) constructs of meaning, death, isolation, and freedom. The goal of therapy is to assist the abused adolescent…

  19. Preferences of Male and Female Students for TSA Competitive Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.; Haynie, W. J., III

    2010-01-01

    Arguably a major issue facing technology education (TE) since its inception has been its failure to attract and keep female students. This article explains one primary reason female students may be avoiding TE courses, presents a research-tested set of tools that TE teachers can use to help fix the problem, and offers a new realizable pathway…

  20. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  1. The Plight of Job Placement for Female College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Naiyong

    1992-01-01

    Presents interviews with a female college graduate and a male factory director concerning women graduates' opportunities in China's labor force. Suggests that Chinese managers fear that women will abandon job obligations in favor of family concerns. Lists four reasons that the factory director gave for failing to hire female workers. (SG)

  2. Male-Female Wage Differentials in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiker, B. F.; Crouch, Henry L.

    The primary objective of this paper is to describe a method of estimating female-male wage ratios. The estimating technique presented is two stage least squares (2SLS), in which equations are estimated for both men and women. After specifying and estimating the wage equations, the male-female wage differential is calculated that would remain if…

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Adolescent Females with Voice Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharias, Stephanie R. C.; Kelchner, Lisa N.; Creaghead, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' attitudes toward, and perceptions of personality traits of, female adolescents who presented with voice disorders. Method: For this comparative study consisting of a 25-item web-based semantic differential survey, teachers rated voice recordings of 4 female adolescents (considered…

  4. Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Ethel

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

  5. Female Dropouts: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Janice; Roach, Virginia

    Early socialization, cognitive differences, treatment by teachers, and curricular choices have a negative effect on both the self-esteem and academic achievement of young females. Program designers and policymakers should incorporate the following approaches into female dropout prevention programs: (1) academic encouragement; (2) counseling to…

  6. Sudanese female doctors in paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Abdelraheem, Mohamed B.; Abdullah, Mohamed A.

    2012-01-01

    Though the number of female medical graduates has increased throughout the world, their postgraduate professional achievements are said to be suboptimal. Our aim is to look into the achievements of Sudanese female pediatricians and compare them with their male counterparts. A cross sectional study was undertaken using a questionnaire involving pediatricians working in the universities and Ministry of Health, Sudan. Ninety five (65.1%) out of 146 pediatricians responded; 73 (76.8%) were females and 22 (23.2%) were males. Thirty (41%) Of the females were in the academic career. Only 2 (8.3%) out of 24 assistant professors were promoted to associate professors and non of the four associate professors managed to become a professor compared to 68% and 25% among males, respectively. Twenty three (76.6%) of females compared to 31% of males had no publications. Nineteen out of 21 females (90.4%) who have been offered training opportunities abroad declined the offer for family reasons. Fifty four (93%) female pediatricians declined to work outside the capital state. No nursery facilities were available at work place. The main reasons for inadequate achievements included family issues, cultural obstacles, lack of mentorships and unsatisfying work environment and facilities. Suggestions were put forward to improve on these problems. Though female doctors are the majority of undergraduate and graduate students in Sudan, their professional and academic achievements after specialization are not optimal mainly for socio-cultural reasons and these need to be addressed.

  7. Parental Psychopathology and Female Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor

    Although research has provided evidence to document a relation between parental psychopathology and female delinquency, the dimensions of that relationship are unclear. Adjudicated delinquent females (N=48) completed a general social history interview and three psychological instruments. Probation records were used to analyze subjects' delinquent…

  8. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  9. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  10. Subordinates' Reactions to Female Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Donelson R.; Forsyth, Nancy M.

    Although recent reviews of the effectiveness of male versus female leaders reveal little evidence of male superiority, evaluative and perceptual biases (beliefs about what constitutes good leadership, and stereotyped beliefs about men and women) among group members persist. To examine attributional biases against female leaders, 85 college…

  11. [Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of larynx as an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Tiken, Elif Eda; Çolpan Öksüz, Didem; Batur, Şebnem; Uzel, Esengül Koçak; Öz, Büge; Öz, Ferhan; Uzel, Ömer; Turkan, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma occurs in the sun-exposed areas of the skin and lip. It is rarely observed in the respiratory and digestive tract and may present more aggressively. The incidence of distant metastases of squamous cell head and neck cancers is low and the lungs are the most common metastatic sites. Metastasis to the soft tissue, skin, and adrenal glands from the laryngeal region is very uncommon. In this article, we report a 58-year-old female case who underwent postoperative radiation therapy with the diagnosis of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and developed metastasis to the soft tissue and adrenal gland at the early period. PMID:27107606

  12. Unilateral Glaucoma Associated with Conjunctival Angioma and Choroidal Thickening without Facial Angioma.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Osamah J; Chang, Luke Y; Arora, Karun S; Jampel, Henry D; Quigley, Harry A

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a suspected Sturge-Weber syndrome variant diagnosed at the age of 58 with the help of enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography (EDI-SDOCT). A 58-year-old female with unilateral glaucoma was suspected to have choroidal vascular lesion, conjunctival angioma, and no facial port-wine stain who presented to the clinic with bleb dysesthesia many years after trabeculectomy. EDI-SDOCT was performed and revealed markedly increased choroidal thickness in the affected eye. EDI-SDOCT may be helpful in diagnosing Sturge-Weber variants without facial involvement and may aid in the investigation of the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:27555719

  13. The horses are the first thought but one must not forget the zebras even if they are rare: Stiff person syndrome associated with malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Irfan; Ucar, Mehmet; Kalender, Mehmet Emin; Alkan, Samet

    2014-01-01

    Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare condition that causes rigidity in the muscles of the body and extremities, difficulty in walking, episodic spasms and progressive disability. SPS is generally seen together with autoimmune disorders such as diabetes mellitus, thyroiditis, vitiligo and pernicious anaemia. Rarely, it may develop as a paraneoplastic condition. SPS cases associated with breast cancer, small cell lung carcinoma, thymoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and colorectal cancer have been reported in the literature. We present a case of a 58-year-old female patient who had malignant mesothelioma-associated SPS. Patients who have muscle spasms and difficulty in movement of joints should be evaluated for SPS before diagnosis of Parkinson's or other neurological disorders, and possible underlying malignancies should be excluded. PMID:24711475

  14. Non Functional Unilateral Adrenal Myelolipoma, A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Athanikar, Vidisha S.; Dinesh, U S; Nanjappa, Bhuvnesh; Patil, Preetam B.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipoma is characterized by presence within the adrenal gland of mature adipose tissue and active bone marrow elements. Owing to their non functional nature most cases are incidental, either at autopsy or through computer tomography scan. Occasionally the lesions attain a large size to become clinically apparent. We present a case of a 58-year-old female with mass per abdomen. Preoperative computer tomography scan of abdomen, hormonal and urine analysis showed features of non functional adrenal myelolipoma. Gross specimen consists of unilateral ovoid mass, external surface having capsule with adherent fat and areas of congestion. Microscopic examination showed well encapsulated tumour tissue composed of mature adipose tissue with major blood forming elements like myeloid, erythroid and megakaryocytic series. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of right sided adrenalectomy specimen. PMID:26266130

  15. Single lung transplantation in a patient with retrospective positive cross-match

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowska, Maria; Dec, Paweł; Wasilewski, Piotr; Kubisa, Anna; Pieróg, Jarosław; Wójcik, Norbert; Czarnecka, Michalina; Kubisa, Bartosz; Grodzki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a method useful in such non-malignant end-stage parenchymal and vascular diseases as: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, or primary pulmonary hypertension. The main aim of this procedure is to extend the patient's lifespan and quality of life. However, the availability of the operation is limited by organ access. In this paper we present the case of a 58-year-old female in the fourth stage of COPD, who was classified to have a single lung transplantation. Because of some technical problems it was decided to transplant a left donor lung in the right recipient lung locus. Positive cross match was demonstrated retrospectively, and we applied five courses of plasmapheresis. Human immunoglobulin and rituximab treatment were performed to decrease the impact of lymphocytotoxic antibodies. The patient survived 498 days after transplantation, 271 in the hospital. PMID:26855654

  16. Pulsed Radiofrequency Neuromodulation Treatment on the Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve for the Treatment of Meralgia Paresthetica

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyuk Jai; Choi, Seok Keun; Lim, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    We describe a rare case of pulsed radiofrequency treatment for pain relief associated with meralgia paresthetica. A 58-year-old female presented with pain in the left anterior lateral thigh. An imaging study revealed no acute lesions compared with a previous imaging study, and diagnosis of meralgia paresthetica was made. She received temporary pain relief with lateral femoral cutaneous nerve blocks twice. We performed pulsed radiofrequency treatment, and the pain declined to 25% of the maximal pain intensity. At 4 months after the procedure, the pain intensity did not aggravate without medication. Pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation treatment on the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve may offer an effective, low risk treatment in patients with meralgia paresthetica who are refractory to conservative medical treatment. PMID:22053239

  17. Pseudo-ischaemic ECG in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis surviving for a decade

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Shi-Wei; Wang, Zheng; Wei, Guang-Ru; Zhou, Yu-Jie

    2012-01-01

    A 58-year-old female with no history of heart disease was admitted to our hospital for abnormal ECG mimicking myocardial ischaemia. The ECG revealed persistent T-wave inversion in almost all leads, especially in precordial leads V2–V6. The patient had no complaints of chest pain, chest distress, short of breath or other atypical myocardial ischaemia symptoms. She had a history of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with a disease course more than 20 years. Examinations help rule out other diseases causing persistent T-wave inversion. Importantly, cardiac catheterisation showed nearly normal coronary arteries that could rule out myocardial ischaemia. Accordingly, the authors presumed that the pseudo-ischaemic ECG was associated with ALS in this patient. The findings of the present case provide new evidence that autonomic nervous system may involve in the pathophysiological progress of ALS. PMID:22665549

  18. Unilateral Glaucoma Associated with Conjunctival Angioma and Choroidal Thickening without Facial Angioma

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Osamah J.; Chang, Luke Y.; Arora, Karun S.; Jampel, Henry D.; Quigley, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a suspected Sturge–Weber syndrome variant diagnosed at the age of 58 with the help of enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain ocular coherence tomography (EDI-SDOCT). A 58-year-old female with unilateral glaucoma was suspected to have choroidal vascular lesion, conjunctival angioma, and no facial port-wine stain who presented to the clinic with bleb dysesthesia many years after trabeculectomy. EDI-SDOCT was performed and revealed markedly increased choroidal thickness in the affected eye. EDI-SDOCT may be helpful in diagnosing Sturge–Weber variants without facial involvement and may aid in the investigation of the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:27555719

  19. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    PubMed

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power. PMID:22391051

  20. Applied physiology of female soccer: an update.

    PubMed

    Datson, Naomi; Hulton, Andrew; Andersson, Helena; Lewis, Tracy; Weston, Matthew; Drust, Barry; Gregson, Warren

    2014-09-01

    The popularity and professionalism of female soccer has increased markedly in recent years, with elite players now employed on either a professional or semi-professional basis. The previous review of the physiological demands of female soccer was undertaken two decades ago when the sport was in its relative infancy. Increased research coupled with greater training and competition demands warrants an updated review to consider the effect on physical performance and injury patterns. The physical demands of match-play along with the influence of factors such as the standard of competition, playing position and fatigue have been explored. Total distance covered for elite female players is approximately 10 km, with 1.7 km completed at high speed (>15 kmh(-1)) [corrected].Elite players complete 28% more high-speed running and 24 % more sprinting than moderate-level players. Decrements in high-speed running distance have been reported between and within halves, which may indicate an inability to maintain high-intensity activity. Although the physical capacity of female players is the most thoroughly researched area, comparisons are difficult due to differing protocols. Elite players exhibit maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values of 49.4-57.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Yo Yo Intermittent Endurance test level 2 (YYIE2) scores of 1,774 ± 532 m [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and 20 m sprint times of 3.17 ± 0.03 s (mean ± SD). Reasons for the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females (2-6 times greater than males) are discussed, with anatomical, biomechanical loading and neuromuscular activation differences being cited in the literature. This review presents an in-depth contemporary examination of the applied physiology of the female soccer player. PMID:24803162

  1. Desire and the female analyst.

    PubMed

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference. PMID:8666556

  2. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-19

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  3. Dhat syndrome in a female- a case report.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Avasthi, A; Pravin, D

    2001-10-01

    Dhat syndrome is a commonly diagnosed disorder in Indian male patients. Patients present with various physical and mental symptoms which are attributed to the passage of "Dhat"(commonly semen) in urine. A case of an adult female is described who presented with complaints of aches and pains, headaches and poor concentration which she attributed to "wetness" experienced per vaginum during sexual intercourse. Arguments are presented for the existence of "Female Dhat Syndrome" PMID:21407885

  4. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce. PMID:23857065

  5. The genetic architecture of a female sexual ornament.

    PubMed

    Wright, Dominic; Kerje, Susanne; Brändström, Helena; Schütz, Karin; Kindmark, Andreas; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of sexual ornaments, and particularly that of female sexual ornaments, is an enduring challenge in evolutionary biology. Key to this challenge are establishing the relationship between ornament expression and female reproductive investment, and determining the genetic basis underpinning such relationship. Advances in genomics provide unprecedented opportunities to study the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments in model species. Here, we present a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of a female sexual ornament, the comb of the fowl, Gallus gallus, using a large-scale intercross between red junglefowl and a domestic line, selected for egg production. First, we demonstrate that female somatic investment in comb reflects female reproductive investment. Despite a trade-off between reproductive and skeletal investment mediated by the mobilization of skeletal minerals for egg production, females with proportionally large combs also had relatively high skeletal investment. Second, we identify a major QTL for bisexual expression of comb mass and several QTL specific to female comb mass. Importantly, QTL for comb mass were nonrandomly clustered with QTL for female reproductive and skeletal investment on chromosomes one and three. Together, these results shed light onto the physiological and genetic architecture of a female ornament. PMID:18053076

  6. Estradiol promotes the rewarding effects of nicotine in female rats.

    PubMed

    Flores, Rodolfo J; Pipkin, Joseph A; Uribe, Kevin P; Perez, Adriana; O'Dell, Laura E

    2016-07-01

    It is presently unclear whether ovarian hormones, such as estradiol (E2), promote the rewarding effects of nicotine in females. Thus, we compared extended access to nicotine intravenous self-administration (IVSA) in intact male, intact female, and OVX female rats (Study 1) as well as OVX females that received vehicle or E2 supplementation (Study 2). The E2 supplementation procedure involved a 4-day injection regimen involving 2 days of vehicle and 2 days of E2 administration. Two doses of E2 (25 or 250μg) were assessed in separate groups of OVX females in order to examine the dose-dependent effects of this hormone on the rewarding effects of nicotine. The rats were given 23-hour access to nicotine IVSA using an escalating dose regimen (0.015, 0.03, and 0.06mg/kg/0.1mL). Each dose was self-administered for 4 days with 3 intervening days of nicotine abstinence. The results revealed that intact females displayed higher levels of nicotine intake as compared to males. Also, intact females displayed higher levels of nicotine intake versus OVX females. Lastly, our results revealed that OVX rats that received E2 supplementation displayed a dose-dependent increase in nicotine intake as compared to OVX rats that received vehicle. Together, our results suggest that the rewarding effects of nicotine are enhanced in female rats via the presence of the ovarian hormone, E2. PMID:27059334

  7. The female runner: gender specifics.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. PMID:20610034

  8. The female of Lepidostoma lescheni (Trichoptera: Lepidostomatidae), with new distributional records for the species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulton, S.R., II; Robison, Henry W.; Crump, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    The female of Lepidostoma lescheni is described and illustrated for the first time and a female allotype specimen designated. Several new collection records are presented to help clarify its distribution and endemism in the Interior Highlands of North America.

  9. Female Studies: No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sheila

    This document presents an anthology of syllabi of courses taught or proposed during 1969-70 in the field of Womens Studies. The courses originated in a variety of manners. In some colleges, students pressed for courses based on the insights and challenges of women's liberation material. In other institutions, faculty offered interdisciplinary…

  10. Fertility following reversal of female sterilization.

    PubMed

    Rachagan, S P; Jaafar, Y

    1993-06-01

    This retrospective study presents data from 26 women who underwent a reversal of female sterilization. The intrauterine pregnancy rate and ectopic pregnancy rate were 38.5% and 7.7% respectively. The most successful site of tubal anastomosis was isthmic-isthmic anastomosis. The importance of proper patient selection and factors that affect the success rate in attempted reversals are emphasised. The importance of microsurgical approach is highlighted. PMID:8350801

  11. Characteristics of female perpetrators and victims of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sarah F; Travea, Laura; Fremouw, William J

    2002-10-01

    Although many researchers have explored the topic of dating violence, limited attention has been paid to female perpetrators. Very little research has examined variables that facilitate aggression for females in dating relationships. In an effort to investigate distinct types of violent behavior, the present study separated females who experience dating violence into three categories (bi-directional aggression, perpetrator-only, and victim-only) and compared them with a control group not previously exposed to interpersonal violence. The purpose of this study was to examine variables that discriminate violent females from non-violent females. Variables that were hypothesized to be associated with aggressive behavior and investigated in the current study were interparental aggression, self-esteem, love attitudes, and alcohol use. Three hundred female college students responded to multiple self-report questionnaires examining psychological correlates of dating violence. Females in the bi-directional aggression group were more likely to have witnessed their father abuse their mother and scored significantly lower on a measure of self-esteem than non-violent controls. Females in the control group demonstrated higher scores on a measure of mature and selfless love style than did the victim or perpetrator-only participants. There were no significant group differences regarding general alcohol consumption. Implications for prevention and intervention are presented and discussed. PMID:12477100

  12. Female condom becomes available nationwide.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Between May 1993 and August 1994, only family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics had the female condom available. The manufacturer is using a print and educational campaign to market the female condom. The print campaigns provide a toll-free number for consumers and health care providers. The educational component consists of community outreach programs for public health, family planning clinics, and university health centers. The single-use soft polyurethane sheath has a flexible ring at the closed end, which is used to insert the condom and holds it over the cervix. A flexible ring is at the outer end; it holds the condom over the labia. The female condom is prelubricated and comes with a bottle of lubricant. Adding extra lubricant on the penis or the inside of the condom can prevent invagination of the outer ring, the penis entering the vagina instead of the condom, or the condom riding the penis. The 1-year failure rate is 25% for average use and 5.1% for perfect use. Correct and consistent use determines the female condom's ability to protect against STDs and HIV. The female condom helps women protect themselves against pregnancy and STDs/HIV when their male partner refuses to use a latex condom. Since it is visible outside the vagina, some women might still find it difficult to negotiate its use. Drawbacks of the female condom are that it is cumbersome and challenges our traditional gender roles and ideas about sexuality. Education addressing how women feel about themselves, their sexuality, and their relationships is needed to increase female condom use and acceptance. Some couples prefer the female condom over the male condom because it is roomier and because the polyurethane creates a better sensation than latex. PMID:12288570

  13. The functionality of female reciprocal calls in the Iberian midwife toad (Alytes cisternasii): female-female acoustic competition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Jaime

    2002-11-01

    Female midwife toads (genus Alytes) emit highly variable reciprocal calls of unclear function prior to and during courtship. In some species, female-female competition, expressed as physical fighting, has been reported. Males of Majorcan midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) show phonotactic response to female calls, and females of Iberian midwife toads (Alytes cisternasii) respond differently according to the male call characteristics. In this study, I test the hypothesis of female-female acoustic competition as an additional function of female reciprocal calls. Playback tests indicate that female calls are not clearly involved in female acoustic competition in the Iberian midwife toad, therefore female calls could be directed at males rather than towards competitive females.

  14. Prediction of Maximum Aerobic Power in Untrained Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgener, Forrest A.

    1978-01-01

    The author presents an equation for predicting maximum aerobic power in untrained females from values of percent body fat, weight, and submaximal values of heart rate, respiratory quotient, and expired gas. (MJB)

  15. NEONATAL CHIORDECONE EXPOSURE ALTERS BEHAVIORAL SEX DIFFERENTIATION IN FEMALE HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study was designed in order to determine if exposure to the weakly estrogenic pesticide Chlordecone during a critical period of behavioral sex differentiation of the brain could masculinize and defeminize the behavior of female hamsters.

  16. The violent female perpetrator and her victim.

    PubMed

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Viemerö, Vappu; Eronen, Markku

    2003-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between violent female offenders and their victims as well as the putative differences in the motives and specific psychological factors among three groups of female offenders: women who have victimised someone closely related to them, those who have victimised an acquaintance and lastly women who have victimised a stranger. More than half (N=61) of all violent female offenders hospitalised or incarcerated in Finland during the year of study were interviewed and assessed by Structured Clinical Interview II for DSM-IV (SCID-II) and Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). In 34% of the cases the victims were persons close to the offender, in 41% the victims were acquaintances and in 25% strangers. The victims in homicide offences were more often both male and closer to the perpetrator than in assault offences. Although motives were related to interpersonal problems, self-defence and long-term physical or psychological abuse were reported by only a few women, even for the small proportion of women whose victims were intimate partners. The most frequent reason for offences stemmed from confrontational situations in connection with alcohol use. Women who victimised acquaintances and strangers were also more likely to have a history of criminality and substance abuse than women who victimised those in close personal relationships. The latter were also more likely to have an antisocial personality disorder (PD) and psychopathic characteristics. There were, however, no significant differences found between those who had experienced physical or psychological abuse in childhood or adulthood and those who had no adverse experiences. These findings suggest that the violent behaviour by females leads more often to the death of the victim, when the victim is closely related to the perpetrator. The commonly-held view that violent female offending occurs primarily as a consequence of precipitation by the victim was

  17. Genetic benefits enhance the reproductive success of polyandrous females.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, S D; Zeh, J A; Zeh, D W

    1999-08-31

    Although it is generally accepted that females can gain material benefits by mating with more than one male, the proposal that polyandry provides genetic benefits remains controversial, largely because direct experimental support is lacking. Here, we report the results of a study testing for genetic benefits to polyandry in the pseudoscorpion Cordylochernes scorpioides. In an experiment that controlled for male mating experience and the number of spermatophores accepted by a female, twice-mated females received either one sperm-packet from each of two different males (the "DM" treatment) or two sperm-packets from a single male (the same male or "SM" treatment). Over their lifetime, DM females gave birth to 32% more offspring than did SM females, primarily because of a significantly reduced rate of spontaneous abortion. This result could not be attributed to male infertility nor to lack of sexual receptivity in males paired with previous mates. Spermatophore and sperm numbers did not differ between males presented with a previous mate and males paired with a new female. Because SM and DM females received the same quantity of ejaculate, it was possible to eliminate material benefits as a contributor to the enhanced reproductive success of DM females. The reduction in embryo failure rate achieved by DM females is most consistent with the genetic incompatibility avoidance hypothesis, i.e., that polyandry enables females to exploit postcopulatory mechanisms for reducing the risk and/or cost of fertilization by genetically incompatible sperm. This study, which rigorously controlled for material benefits and excluded inbreeding effects, demonstrates that polyandry provides genetic benefits that significantly enhance female lifetime reproductive success. PMID:10468592

  18. Genetic benefits enhance the reproductive success of polyandrous females

    PubMed Central

    Newcomer, Scott D.; Zeh, Jeanne A.; Zeh, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that females can gain material benefits by mating with more than one male, the proposal that polyandry provides genetic benefits remains controversial, largely because direct experimental support is lacking. Here, we report the results of a study testing for genetic benefits to polyandry in the pseudoscorpion Cordylochernes scorpioides. In an experiment that controlled for male mating experience and the number of spermatophores accepted by a female, twice-mated females received either one sperm-packet from each of two different males (the “DM” treatment) or two sperm-packets from a single male (the same male or “SM” treatment). Over their lifetime, DM females gave birth to 32% more offspring than did SM females, primarily because of a significantly reduced rate of spontaneous abortion. This result could not be attributed to male infertility nor to lack of sexual receptivity in males paired with previous mates. Spermatophore and sperm numbers did not differ between males presented with a previous mate and males paired with a new female. Because SM and DM females received the same quantity of ejaculate, it was possible to eliminate material benefits as a contributor to the enhanced reproductive success of DM females. The reduction in embryo failure rate achieved by DM females is most consistent with the genetic incompatibility avoidance hypothesis, i.e., that polyandry enables females to exploit postcopulatory mechanisms for reducing the risk and/or cost of fertilization by genetically incompatible sperm. This study, which rigorously controlled for material benefits and excluded inbreeding effects, demonstrates that polyandry provides genetic benefits that significantly enhance female lifetime reproductive success. PMID:10468592

  19. The female mid-life sex change applicant: a comparison with younger female transsexuals and older male sex change applicants.

    PubMed

    Roback, H B; Lothstein, L M

    1986-10-01

    This paper reports on a survey approach to the study of the aging (40 years of age and older) female requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A profile of 13 cases presenting at a cross-section of gender identity clinics in North America is presented. The mid-life SRS applicant is also compared on selected characteristics with a younger female transsexual group and with the aging male sex change applicant. Findings suggest that the mid-life female SRS applicant is closely akin to the aging, conflicted homosexual, whereas the mid-life male SRS applicant appears more closely associated with the aging transvestite. PMID:3789904

  20. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware." PMID:23118235

  1. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    PubMed

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654

  2. Ovarian fluid of receptive females enhances sperm velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Clelia; Andreatta, Gabriele; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    The females of several internal fertilizers are able to store sperm for a long time, reducing the risk of sperm limitation. However, it also means that males can attempt to mate outside females' receptive period, potentially increasing the level of sperm competition and exacerbating sexual conflict over mating. The guppy ( Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish, is a model system of such competition and conflict. Female guppies accept courtship and mate consensually only during receptive periods of the ovarian cycle but receive approximately one (mostly forced) mating attempt per minute both during and outside their sexually receptive phase. In addition, females can store viable sperm for months. We expected that guppy females would disfavour sperm received during their unreceptive period, possibly by modulating the quality and/or quantity of the components present in the ovarian fluid (OF) over the breeding cycle. Ovarian fluid has been shown to affect sperm velocity, a determinant of sperm competition success in this and other fishes. We found that in vitro sperm velocity is slower in OF collected from unreceptive females than in OF from receptive females. Visual stimulation with a potential partner prior to collection did not significantly affect in vitro sperm velocity. These results suggest that sperm received by unreceptive females may be disfavoured as sperm velocity likely affects the migration process and the number of sperm that reach storage sites.

  3. Ovarian fluid of receptive females enhances sperm velocity.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Andreatta, Gabriele; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    The females of several internal fertilizers are able to store sperm for a long time, reducing the risk of sperm limitation. However, it also means that males can attempt to mate outside females' receptive period, potentially increasing the level of sperm competition and exacerbating sexual conflict over mating. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish, is a model system of such competition and conflict. Female guppies accept courtship and mate consensually only during receptive periods of the ovarian cycle but receive approximately one (mostly forced) mating attempt per minute both during and outside their sexually receptive phase. In addition, females can store viable sperm for months. We expected that guppy females would disfavour sperm received during their unreceptive period, possibly by modulating the quality and/or quantity of the components present in the ovarian fluid (OF) over the breeding cycle. Ovarian fluid has been shown to affect sperm velocity, a determinant of sperm competition success in this and other fishes. We found that in vitro sperm velocity is slower in OF collected from unreceptive females than in OF from receptive females. Visual stimulation with a potential partner prior to collection did not significantly affect in vitro sperm velocity. These results suggest that sperm received by unreceptive females may be disfavoured as sperm velocity likely affects the migration process and the number of sperm that reach storage sites. PMID:22430815

  4. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499

  5. Testosterone and muscle hypertrophy in female rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, F. E.; Max, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of chronic treatment with testosterone propionate (TP) on compensatory muscle hypertropy in female rats are examined. The 48 female rats were placed in one of four test groups: (1) no overload (synergist removal), no TP, (2) overload, no TP, (3) no overload + TP, and (4) overload + TP. The technique used to administer the TP is described. The preparation of the plantaris muscle, the analysis of pyruvate oxidation and the determination of malate and lactate dehydrogenases and the noncollogen protein are explained. The results which reveal the effect of overload and TP on body weight, noncollogen protein concentration, lactate and malate dehydrogenase activities, and pyruvate oxidation are presented and discussed. It is concluded that in terms of body weight, protein content, pyruvate, glycolysis, and oxidative metabolisms chronic TP treatments do not change compensatory muscle hypertropy.

  6. Role of vitamin D in female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Shahrokhi, Seyedeh Zahra; Ghaffari, Firouzeh; Kazerouni, Faranak

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that belongs to the family of steroid hormones. The biological actions of vitamin D are exerted through a soluble protein, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is a transcription factor located in the nuclei of target cells that mediates the genomic action of the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3). This transcription factor is distributed in various tissues, including the reproductive system. The presence of VDR in female reproductive tissue suggests that vitamin D is involved in female reproduction. The present article reviews the impact of vitamin D on anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), as an ovarian reserve marker, and ovarian steroidogenesis. This article also discusses the impact of vitamin D as a factor that influences infertility and the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF), insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenism, endometriosis and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PMID:26747961

  7. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity. PMID:20695404

  8. Normothermic thyroid storm: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Anas Ahmad; Sada, Kabiru; Yusuf, Bashir O.; Aliyu, Idris

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare life-threatening emergency due to thyrotoxicosis. A 30-year-old female presented with restlessness, tachycardia and vomiting but with normothermia which is an unusual presentation. There is the need for clinicians to be aware of atypical clinical features that can make the diagnosis of thyroid storm difficult. PMID:27540465

  9. Normothermic thyroid storm: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Anas Ahmad; Sada, Kabiru; Yusuf, Bashir O; Aliyu, Idris

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid storm is a rare life-threatening emergency due to thyrotoxicosis. A 30-year-old female presented with restlessness, tachycardia and vomiting but with normothermia which is an unusual presentation. There is the need for clinicians to be aware of atypical clinical features that can make the diagnosis of thyroid storm difficult. PMID:27540465

  10. Normal pressure hydrocephalus presenting as delusional disorder

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shruti; Bhatia, Manjeet Singh; Gautam, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is caused by aqueductal stenosis resulting in syndrome of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence. Late onset psychosis should be evaluated thoroughly to rule out any organic cause. We present the case of a female patient presenting with delusions, gait disturbances, urinary incontinence in her 50s. PMID:26257493

  11. Meningitis, clinical presentation of tetanus.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko, Anna; Zajkowska, Agata; Tumiel, Ewa; Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Czupryna, Piotr; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Rutkowski, Ryszard; Zdrodowska, Agnieszka; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Tetanus is an acute disease caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Tetanus immunization has been available since the late 1930s but sporadic cases still occur, usually in incompletely vaccinated or unvaccinated individuals. Case Report. An elderly previously vaccinated female contracted tetanus following foot injury. Clinically she presented with meningitis causing diagnostic and therapeutic delays. Why Should Physician Be Aware of This? Even in developed countries the differential diagnosis of meningitis, especially in the elderly, should include tetanus. Treatment in intensive care unit is required. General population might benefit from vaccine boosters and education on this potentially fatal disease. PMID:25789186

  12. Cystosarcoma phylloides in the adolescent female.

    PubMed

    Mollitt, D L; Golladay, E S; Gloster, E S; Jimenez, J F

    1987-10-01

    Between 1979 and 1985, five adolescent females have undergone excision of cystosarcoma phylloides. Mean age at presentation was 15 years with a range of 13 to 18 years. Clinical characteristics unique to this diagnosis included a recent history of rapid growth and the large size of the breast mass (mean diameter 7 cm) at initial presentation. Each patient underwent "cosmetic" excisional biopsy utilizing either a circumareolar or inframammary approach. In four patients, the neoplasm was benign with no postoperative recurrence (mean follow-up 33.8 months). The remaining lesion was malignant (liposarcoma) and subsequent simple mastectomy was performed. There was no evidence of disease at 35 months. PMID:2824740

  13. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  14. Female circumcision: Limiting the harm

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the strength of evidence that links many health hazards to female genital cutting. Material and methods: Literature search in Medline/Pubmed and Google scholar. Results: Female genital cutting is still practiced secretly in both underdeveloped and developed countries due to prevailing strong traditional beliefs. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that genital cutting is a harmful procedure if performed by experienced personnel in a suitable theatre with facilities for pain control and anesthesia. Cutting, however, is advised not to go beyond type I. Conclusion: Law makers around the globe are invited to review the legal situation in relation to female genital cutting. Proper counseling of parents about possible risks is a must in order to make informed decision about circumcising their daughters. The procedure should be offered to parents who insist on it; otherwise, they will do it illegally, exposing their daughters to possible complications. PMID:24627762

  15. Case report: Atrial fibrillation following exposure to ambient air pollution particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    CONTEXT: Exposure to air pollution can result in the onset of atrial fibrillation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 58 year old woman who volunteered to participate in a controlled exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Twenty minutes into the exposure, there...

  16. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values. PMID:12158005

  17. Are Males Always Better than Females in Mental Rotation? Exploring a Gender Belief Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica

    2009-01-01

    Males outperform females in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) for biological, strategic and cultural reasons. The present research tested a motivational explanation with the hypothesis that females could do better when induced to have positive beliefs and expectations. All-female and all-male samples were divided into six groups, each having listened…

  18. In Defense of the Body: The Effect of Mortality Salience on Female Body Objectification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, Shelly; Routledge, Clay; Cook, Alison; Andersen, Christie; Arndt, Jamie

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has illustrated the negative psychological consequences of female body objectification. The present study explores how female body objectification may serve as a defense against unconscious existential fears. Drawing from terror management theory, an experiment was designed to test the potential functionality of female body…

  19. Autism in Two Females with Duplications Involving Xp11.22-p11.23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edens, Anna C.; Lyons, Michael J.; Duron, Reyna M.; DuPont, Barbara R.; Holden, Kenton R.

    2011-01-01

    We present two phenotypically similar females with Xp duplication who have autism and epilepsy. Case 1 is a 14-year-old Honduran female with autism and medically refractory complex partial, secondarily generalized epilepsy. Case 2 is a 3-year-old Austrian female with autism and medically refractory complex partial epilepsy. Both patients also…

  20. Role of Distance Education in the Expansion of Female Education Higher Level in Pakistan: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Sufiana K.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper investigated the role of distance education in the expansion of educational facilities for females at higher levels of education in Pakistan. The findings of the study report that distance education is playing a vital role in the expansion of female education at higher level as such females who, due to some personal or social…

  1. Predicting Female Depression across Puberty: A Two-Nation Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, George C.; Olsson, Craig; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W.; Carlin, John B.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    The connection between pubertal stage and the development and depressive symptoms among females is investigated. Findings reveal that advancing pubertal stage presents greater risks for the beginning and persistence of depressive symptoms among females. The impacts of social adversity on the persistence of symptoms for female depression.

  2. Can two and a half centuries of female husbands inform (trans)gender history?

    PubMed

    Clayton, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses female husbands as they have been depicted in written narratives from Henry Fielding's use in 1746 up until present day debates. Questions of the cultural issues of gender, transgenderism, and the social construction of lesbianism are considered in the context of female masculinity, of which female husbands are one example. PMID:20661795

  3. Female physicists in Ugandan universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'ujanga, Florence M.; Ssentongo, Grace Spencer; Ayugi, Gertrude; Akoba, Rashida; Saphina, Biira

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, only one public university in Uganda had a department of physics. Several women graduated from this department, but not many showed much interest in pursuing higher degrees in physics. Currently, there are five public universities in Uganda with departments of physics, and there has been an increase in the number of female graduates in physics. At the same time, the number of women pursuing higher degrees in physics has increased, and the universities have registered an increase in female physics lecturers.

  4. Sporotrichosis presenting as pyoderma gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Liao, W Q; Zang, Y L; Shao, J Z

    1991-12-01

    A 56-year-old female with an eight-year history of corticosteroid therapy for rheumatoid arthritis presented with large, deep, painful ulcers on the left buttock and thigh. The lesions appeared typical of pyoderma gangrenosum. Nine separate cultures of the exudate grew Sporothrix schenckii. During the course of iodide therapy, the patient expired due to Escherichia coli pneumonia. This is the third case report of sporotrichosis presenting as pyoderma gangrenosum and the first report from China. Sporotrichosis presenting as pyoderma gangrenosum is a special form of this disease. It develops quickly and must be treated promptly. Only two cases have been reported in the world literature. This is the first case reported from China. PMID:1795732

  5. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kercmar, Jasmina; Tobet, Stuart A.; Majdic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty), followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients (LQs) and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female “attractiveness” was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for 1 month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period. PMID:25324747

  6. Protogyny in a tropical damselfish: females queue for future benefit

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Membership of the group is a balance between the benefits associated with group living and the cost of socially constrained growth and breeding opportunities, but the costs and benefits are seldom examined. The goal of the present study was to explore the trade-offs associated with group living for a sex-changing, potentially protogynous coral reef fish, the Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Extensive sampling showed that the species exhibits resource defence polygyny, where dominant males guard a nest site that is visited by females. P. amboinensis have a longevity of about 6.5 years on the northern Great Barrier Reef. While the species can change sex consistent with being a protogynous hermaphrodite, it is unclear the extent to which the species uses this capability. Social groups are comprised of one reproductive male, 1–7 females and a number of juveniles. Females live in a linear dominance hierarchy, with the male being more aggressive to the beta-female than the alpha-female, who exhibits lower levels of ovarian cortisol. Surveys and a tagging study indicated that groups were stable for at least three months. A passive integrated transponder tag study showed that males spawn with females from their own group, but also females from neighbouring groups. In situ behavioural observations found that alpha-females have priority of access to the nest site that the male guarded, and access to higher quality foraging areas. Male removal studies suggest that the alpha-females can change sex to take over from the male when the position becomes available. Examination of otolith microstructure showed that those individuals which change sex to males have different embryonic characteristics at hatching, suggesting that success may involve a component that is parentally endowed. The relative importance of parental effects and social organisation in affecting the importance of female queuing is yet to be studied, but will likely depend on the strength of social

  7. Protogyny in a tropical damselfish: females queue for future benefit.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Mark I

    2016-01-01

    Membership of the group is a balance between the benefits associated with group living and the cost of socially constrained growth and breeding opportunities, but the costs and benefits are seldom examined. The goal of the present study was to explore the trade-offs associated with group living for a sex-changing, potentially protogynous coral reef fish, the Ambon damselfish, Pomacentrus amboinensis. Extensive sampling showed that the species exhibits resource defence polygyny, where dominant males guard a nest site that is visited by females. P. amboinensis have a longevity of about 6.5 years on the northern Great Barrier Reef. While the species can change sex consistent with being a protogynous hermaphrodite, it is unclear the extent to which the species uses this capability. Social groups are comprised of one reproductive male, 1-7 females and a number of juveniles. Females live in a linear dominance hierarchy, with the male being more aggressive to the beta-female than the alpha-female, who exhibits lower levels of ovarian cortisol. Surveys and a tagging study indicated that groups were stable for at least three months. A passive integrated transponder tag study showed that males spawn with females from their own group, but also females from neighbouring groups. In situ behavioural observations found that alpha-females have priority of access to the nest site that the male guarded, and access to higher quality foraging areas. Male removal studies suggest that the alpha-females can change sex to take over from the male when the position becomes available. Examination of otolith microstructure showed that those individuals which change sex to males have different embryonic characteristics at hatching, suggesting that success may involve a component that is parentally endowed. The relative importance of parental effects and social organisation in affecting the importance of female queuing is yet to be studied, but will likely depend on the strength of social

  8. Reduced negative affect response in female psychopaths

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Angrilli, Alessandro; Calogero, Antonio; Harper, Jeremy; Olson, Lacy A.; Bernat, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate the differences between high and low psychopathic persons in brain activity during emotional facial expression processing are rare and commonly focus on males. The current study assessed whether previously reported behavioral differences would be reflected in differential brain activity in a sample of female offenders. The participants included 23 female forensic inpatients with high and low scores on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). ERPs were recorded during presentation of emotional facial expressions (i.e., fear, angry, and happy). Results revealed no differences in N170, P3 and late positive potential components between groups, but a significant difference in N2 only for angry and fear facial expressions, with high psychopathic participants showing lower reactivity. This N2 effect was found to be related to Factor 2 but not Factor 1 of the PCL-R. In time frequency analysis, theta activity underlying N2 best reflected these differences. Findings in this female sample are consistent with a cortical deficit in processing facial expression of negative emotions in psychopathic men. In addition, differences in processing seem to appear relatively early. PMID:23896396

  9. Conditional monogyny: female quality predicts male faithfulness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Male monogyny in the absence of paternal investment is arguably one of the most puzzling mating systems. Recent evidence suggests that males of monogynous species adjust their life-history and their mating decision to shifting spatial and temporal selection regimes. In the cannibalistic wasp spider Argiope bruennichi males can be either monogynous or mate with a maximum of two females. We studied factors underlying male mating decisions in a natural population over a whole mating season. We documented all matings and categorized the males into single-mated and double-mated monogynous as well as bigynous males. Results We found that all categories were continuously present with relatively stable frequencies despite changes in the operational sex ratio. Males were more likely monogynous when copulating with relatively heavy and old females and otherwise bigynous. Conclusion Our results imply that males make conditional mating decisions based on the quality of the first female they encounter but do not adjust their mating tactic to the local selection regime. PMID:22533854

  10. Female song is widespread and ancestral in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Odom, Karan J; Hall, Michelle L; Riebel, Katharina; Omland, Kevin E; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-01-01

    Bird song has historically been considered an almost exclusively male trait, an observation fundamental to the formulation of Darwin's theory of sexual selection. Like other male ornaments, song is used by male songbirds to attract females and compete with rivals. Thus, bird song has become a textbook example of the power of sexual selection to lead to extreme neurological and behavioural sex differences. Here we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of female song across songbirds showing that female song is present in 71% of surveyed species including 32 families, and that females sang in the common ancestor of modern songbirds. Our results reverse classical assumptions about the evolution of song and sex differences in birds. The challenge now is to identify whether sexual selection alone or broader processes, such as social or natural selection, best explain the evolution of elaborate traits in both sexes. PMID:24594930

  11. The International Student: Female Circumcision Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengston, Barbara; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Describes the process and practice of female circumcision, the impact it may have on circumcised female international college students, and some counseling strategies for the college counselor who works with this population. Explains variety of reasons for performing female circumcision, different types of female circumcisions, and psychological…

  12. Understanding the Burden of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Ariane K.; Daniels, Selena R.; Yeomans, Karen; Burk, Caroline T.; Callender, Valerie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Typically regarded as an adolescent condition, acne among adult females is also prevalent. Limited data are available on the clinical characteristics and burden of adult female acne. The study objective was to describe clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of acne in adult women. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Data were collected from a diverse sample of United States females. Participants: Women ages 25 to 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions, coping behaviors, psychosocial impact of acne (health-related quality of life using acne-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and psychological status using Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/productivity. Results: A total of 208 women completed the survey (mean age 35±6 years), comprising White/Caucasian (51.4%), Black/African American (24.5%), Hispanic/Latino (11.1%), Asian (7.7%), and Other (5.3%). Facial acne presented most prominently on cheeks, chin, and forehead and was characterized by erythema, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Average age of adult onset was 25±6 years, and one-third (33.7%) were diagnosed with acne as an adult. The majority (80.3%) had 25 to 49 visible facial lesions. Acne was perceived as troublesome and impacted self-confidence. Makeup was frequently used to conceal acne. Facial acne negatively affected health-related quality of life, was associated with mild/moderate symptoms of depression and/or anxiety, and impacted ability to concentrate on work or school. Conclusion: Results highlight the multifaceted impact of acne and provide evidence that adult female acne is under-recognized and burdensome. PMID:24578779

  13. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related. PMID:26232264

  14. Polycythemia vera presenting as acute myocardial infarction: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bahbahani, Hussain; Aljenaee, Khaled; Bella, Abdelhaleem

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is usually seen in the setting of atherosclerosis and its associated risk factors. Myocardial infarction in the young poses a particular challenge, as the disease is less likely, due to atherosclerosis. We report the case of a 37-year-old female patient who presented with ST segment elevation anterolateral AMI. The only abnormality on routine blood investigation was raised hemoglobin and hematocrit. After further testing, she was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria with polycythemia vera. This case illustrates the importance of recognizing polycythemia vera as an important cause of thrombosis, which can present initially as AMI, and to emphasize the early recognition of the disease in order to initiate appropriate management strategies. PMID:25544823

  15. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  16. Female Studies: The Elective Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemer, Linda

    1975-01-01

    Ten elective courses are outlined with objectives, implementation suggestions, and evaluation devices to raise the consciousness of both males and females in secondary schools. Courses include sex education, women in American history, child studies, women in other societies, economics, law, marriage and alternative life styles, and child rearing.…

  17. Determinants of Aged Female Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…

  18. WISH Inspires Future Female Explorers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Some of the next generation’s future female explorers and problem solvers got a real-world look at what it takes to be a scientist or engineer. Through the Women in STEM High School Aerospace Sch...

  19. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860

  20. Personality Variables in Female Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Lee

    Most of the debate among the behavioral sciences about the interaction between choice of sexual object and personality characteristics has dealt with male homosexuality. To explore the personality variables of female homosexuals, 46 heterosexual and 46 homosexual women took the California Psychological Inventory. Comparison of the results…

  1. Television and the Female Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life: Recycling…

  2. Masculine Female Adolescents at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2003-01-01

    The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…

  3. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  4. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  5. Hypnotherapy and Female Sexual Inadequacy

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Daniel

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741

  6. Erotized Transference in the Male Patient–Female Therapist Dyad

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Martha B.

    2001-01-01

    Little has been published regarding male patients' erotic transferences to female therapists. It has been suggested that male patients do not develop full erotic transferences and rarely experience erotized transferences. The author presents a case report documenting erotization in a male patient–female therapist dyad and reviews current theories on the etiology, therapeutic significance, and treatment strategies indicated for such a transference. PMID:11121005

  7. Circadian Regulation of Kisspeptin in Female Reproductive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Female reproductive functioning requires the precise temporal organization of numerous neuroendocrine events by a master circadian brain clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Across species, including humans, disruptions to circadian timing result in pronounced deficits in ovulation and fecundity. The present chapter provides an overview of the circadian control of female reproduction, underscoring the significance of kisspeptin as a key locus of integration for circadian and steroidal signaling necessary for the initiation of ovulation. PMID:23550016

  8. Restenosis After Balloon Angioplasty for Cerebral Vasospasm

    SciTech Connect

    Sedat, J. Chau, Y.; Popolo, M.; Gindre, S.; Rami, L.; Orban, J. C.

    2009-03-15

    Transluminal balloon dilatation for symptomatic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage is effective, and clinical studies have shown that it achieves long-lasting dilatation of spastic cerebral arteries. Delayed arterial renarrowing has not been reported. Here we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented asymptomatic and permanent restenosis after angioplasty for cerebral vasospasm.

  9. Mycobacterium arupense flexor tenosynovitis: case report and review of antimicrobial susceptibility profiles for 40 clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Beam, Elena; Vasoo, Shawn; Simner, Patricia J; Rizzo, Marco; Mason, Erin L; Walker, Randall C; Deml, Sharon M; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J; Wengenack, Nancy L; Sia, Irene G

    2014-07-01

    We describe a case of chronic tenosynovitis in the hand of a 58-year-old cattle farmer. Surgical biopsy specimens grew Mycobacterium arupense. The patient responded to surgery and antimicrobial therapy based on in vitro susceptibility testing. The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the isolate from this patient and 39 additional clinical isolates are presented. PMID:24789193

  10. Porocarcinoma with perineural invasion

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Ciara A.; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Buchen, Daniel; Heller, Patricia; Elston, Dirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Herein we present the case of a 58 year old woman with porocarcinoma of the left forehead with perineural invasion, diagnosed after recurrence of previously excised benign poroma. This case serves as a reminder of the potential of malignant degeneration within long-standing benign adnexal tumors as well as the spectrum of histological features that may be seen in porocarcinoma. PMID:25821737

  11. [Acute pericarditis and tamponade: An unusual revelation of a visceral tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Thabouillot, O; Bouvier, F; Lupu, J; Charbonnel, A; Dumitrescu, N; Stefuriac, M; Godreuil, C; Ficko, C; Andriamanantena, D; Flateau, C; Rapp, C; Roche, N C

    2015-11-01

    Tuberculosis is a common pulmonary disease, which is still endemic in disadvantaged communities. Pericarditis is a rare but very lethal visceral localization. The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man, without neither medical history nor social risk, who presented a cardiac tamponade as the first and atypic manifestation of a visceral tuberculosis. PMID:26602745

  12. Sherlock Holmes in the ER (the case of red and the head).

    PubMed

    Bendo, Edlira; Gilbert, Molly; Chavis, Pamela; Mistr, Susannah

    2009-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman presented with a problem with her peripheral vision. Computed tomography scan showed an occipital hemorrhagic stroke. She subsequently suffered gastrointestinal bleeding and at surgery biopsy of a portion of the middle colic artery aneurysm revealed changes consistent with polyarteritis nodosa. PMID:19171214

  13. Nicole: Suicide and Terminal Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Judith M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents case summary of 58-year-old woman, terminally ill with cancer, who is contemplating suicide. Includes comments from Kjell Rudestam from the Fielding Institute and from Margaret Battin from the University of Utah who debate appropriate responses to people who contemplate suicide because of terminal illness. (NB)

  14. Bladder leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jun; Lai, Hai-ping; Lin, Shao-kun; Zhang, Qing-quan; Shao, Chu-xiao; Jin, Lie; Lei, Wen-hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Leiomyoma of the bladder is a rare tumor arising from the submucosa. Most patients with bladder leiomyoma may present with urinary frequency or obstructive urinary symptoms. However, there are a few cases of bladder leiomyoma coexisting with uterine leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia. We herein report an unusual case of coexisting bladder leiomyoma and uterine leiomyoma presenting as dyspareunia. Case presentation: A 44-year-old Asian female presented to urologist and complained that she had experienced dyspareunia over the preceding several months. A pelvic ultrasonography revealed a mass lesion located in the trigone of urinary bladder. The mass lesion was confirmed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). The CT scan also revealed a lobulated and enlarged uterus consistent with uterine leiomyoma. Then, the biopsies were then taken with a transurethral resection (TUR) loop and these biopsies showed a benign proliferation of smooth muscle in a connective tissue stroma suggestive of bladder leiomyoma. An open local excision of bladder leiomyoma and hysteromyomectomy were performed successfully. Histological examination confirmed bladder leiomyoma coexisting with uterine leiomyoma. Conclusion: This case highlights a rare presentation of bladder leiomyoma, dyspareunia, as the chief symptom in a patient who had coexisting uterine leiomyoma. Bladder leiomyomas coexisting with uterine leiomyomas are rare and can present with a wide spectrum of complaints including without symptoms, irritative symptoms, obstructive symptoms, or even dyspareunia. PMID:27428187

  15. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented. PMID:27274899

  16. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-06-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented. PMID:27274899

  17. [DNA adducts in human female genital organs].

    PubMed

    Postawski, Krzysztof; Przadka-Rabaniuk, Dorota; Monist, Marta; Baranowski, Włodzimierz

    2007-12-01

    DNA adducts, one of genetic damages markers, precede and finally can lead to oncogenic mutations. They appear in genome as a result of DNA bases damages caused by various and numerous environmental factors eg. ultraviolet light, ionic radiation, toxins and also endogenic substances, for example estrogens. It is believed that the creation of DNA adducts is a necessary but insufficient process for the neoplastic transformation of the cell. The following review presents concise knowledge about the DNA adducts creation and their sequels served in healthy and cancerous tissues of the female genital organs, on the base of the available data. PMID:18411923

  18. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids. PMID:26616467

  19. Disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Rimtepathip, Parin P; Erickson, Alex; Katner, Harold; Bakri, Younes

    2016-01-01

    A 39-year-old female patient was presented with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed extensive granulomas throughout the abdomen. Disseminated TB was suspected, but the biopsies were negative. Due to a high degree of suspicion, a urine antigen test was performed and was strongly positive for histoplasmosis. PMID:26783441

  20. Making your presentation fun: creative presentation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    KEENEN,MARTHA JANE

    2000-05-18

    What possesses someone to volunteer and go through hoops and red tape to make a presentation at a conference? For that matter, why does anyone ever present anything to anyone? Actually, presentations are a fact of life and there are many reasons for doing a presentation and doing it well. New and existing staff need training and orientation to the way things are done here. Handing all of them a manual and hoping they read it is pretty much a waste of paper. On the other hand, an effective, entertaining and upbeat presentation on the relevant topics is more likely to stick with those people. They will even have a name and face to remember and seek out when they have an issue on or with that topic. This can be a very effective beginning for networking with new peers. The presenter is seen as knowledgeable, as a source of information on company topics and possibly evaluated as a potential mentor or future manager. Project staff and/or peers benefit from clear, concise, presentations of topical knowledge. This is one way that a group working on various aspects of the same project or program can stay in touch and in step with each other. Most importantly, presentations may be the best or only door into the minds (and budgets) of management and customers. These presentations are a wonderful opportunity to address legal and compliance issues, budget, staffing, and services. Here is a chance, maybe the only one, to demonstrate and explain the wonderfulness of a program and the benefit they get by using the services offered most effectively. An interactive presentation on legal and compliance issues can be an effective tool in helping customers and/or management make good risk management decisions.

  1. Social representations of female orgasm.

    PubMed

    Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health. PMID:19129342

  2. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  3. Recidivism among female child molesters.

    PubMed

    Bader, Shannon M; Welsh, Robert; Scalora, Mario J

    2010-01-01

    During recent years, research about female sexual offender recidivism rates using official criminal justice records has increased. Although informative, rearrest or conviction rates may be insufficient for this population. This study examines two potential outcome measures for accurately studying recidivism among 57 female sexual offenders; a criminal recidivism measure based on formal legal charges and a reported recidivism measure based on child welfare reports. Based on the criminal recidivism outcome measure, 10(17.5%) women were charged for a subsequent sexual crime. The broader reported recidivism measure identified six additional women with subsequent contact with police or child welfare agencies for sexually inappropriate behaviors. There were no significant differences found between the 41 nonrecidivists and the 16 recidivists. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:20565006

  4. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  5. Female drug use: some observations.

    PubMed

    Suffet, F; Brotman, R

    1976-01-01

    This paper, based on a review of recent social science drug research, summarizes the main findings on female drug use and speculates on its future direction. The findings include the following: women are usually initiated into illicit drug use by men; rates of illicit drug use are lower among females than males (which may reflect the greater personal freedom traditionally granted to males), although the difference narrows among younger persons and among those who subscribe to more liberal values and life styles; women are more likely than men to use psychotherapeutic drugs (which may reflect strains resulting from their unequal status vis-à-vis men); and female opiate addicts, although they tend to hold conventional values, are often involved in such deviant activity as prostitution. To the extent that women gain social equality with men and subscribe to greater personal lifestyle freedom, they may be expected to show a higher rate of illicit drug use, particularly of a recreational kind. On the other hand, the rate of psychotherapeutic drug use may decrease, although if the tensions of the workplace eventually substitute for the tensions of status inequality, the resultant changes in rates and patterns of substance use are problematic. PMID:767261

  6. [Clinical comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Zeul, M

    1993-02-01

    In psychoanalytic theory, homosexual women are regarded as being possessed by violent hatred of the mother. They are held to identify with the male or the phallic and to display an absence of "normal" femaleness. Their attendant immaturity makes them incapable of love. The author takes issue with the assumption that normality is synonymous with mature, reciprocal heterosexuality. With reference to a case study of a homosexual woman, she traces the structure of a lesbian love relationship. The patient is the involuntary witness of sexual intercourse between the parents. The mixture of alarm and excitement which this arouses sparks off female desires that revive early libidinous experiences with the mother. The girl desires her mother, without however identifying with the father. In her later relationships with women she does not relate to her partners as a disguised man but as a woman. Identification with the father serves as a defence against the desire for-and the fear of-identification at a female level. PMID:8441814

  7. Female Reproductive System and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    The female reproductive system plays a major role in regulating the acquisition and loss of bone by the skeleton from menarche through senescence. Onset of gonadal sex steroid secretion at puberty is the major factor responsible for skeletal longitudinal and radial growth, as well as significant gain in bone density, until peak bone density is achieved in third decade of life. Gonadal sex steroids then help maintain peak bone density until menopause, including during the transient changes in skeletal mineral content associated with pregnancy and lactation. At menopause, decreased gonadal sex steroid production normally leads to rapid bone loss. The most rapid bone loss associated with decreased estrogen levels occurs in the first 8–10 years after menopause, with slower age-related bone loss occurring during later life. Age-related bone loss in women after the early menopausal phase of bone loss is caused by ongoing gonadal sex steroid deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other factors also contribute to age-related bone loss, including intrinsic defects in osteoblast function, impairment of the GH/IGF axis, reduced peak bone mass, age-associated sarcopenia, and various sporadic secondary causes. Further understanding of the relative contributions of the female reproductive system and each of the other factors to development and maintenance of the female skeleton, bone loss, and fracture risk will lead to improved approaches for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:20637179

  8. Circular protecting female students, 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    In 1988 the Ministry of Education of Benin issued a Circular designed to protect female students from sexual advances from male students and teachers. Teachers who are suspected of having sexual relations with a student are to receive a note in their file or can be suspended for a month. Teachers who have raped a student or are responsible for a student's pregnancy are to be suspended for three months if the student was not in their class, and six months if she was. Teachers who have incited their sexual partner to have an abortion are subject to demotion. Teachers who are repeat offenders or whose actions have led to an abortion resulting in death are to be fired. Students who have made a female student pregnant are to be suspended from school until delivery of the child and then are to be enrolled in a different school. The directors of schools are asked to put an end to the provocative clothes, make-up, and hairstyles of female students. PMID:12289212

  9. Cell Death and Reproductive Regression in Female Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Galanti, Sarah E.; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Pearce, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The vitellarium is a highly proliferative organ, producing cells which are incorporated along with a fertilized ovum into the schistosome egg. Vitellarial growth fails to occur in virgin female schistosomes in single sex (female-only) infections, and involution of this tissue, which is accompanied by physical shrinkage of the entire worm, occurs when mature females sexually regress upon removal from their male partners. We have found that upon removal from their hosts into tissue culture, female parasites regress whether they are mated or not, but that cessation of egg production and a decline in expression of the vitelline gene p14 is delayed by mating. We used BrdU labeling to investigate whether there was a loss of proliferation in the vittelarium that might account for regression and found that the proliferation rate declined equally in paired and singled females once placed into culture. However, TUNEL staining and Caspase 3 activity measurements indicate that the loss of vitrellarial cellularity associated with regression is associated with profound apoptotic vitelline cell death, which is not apparent in the vitellaria of paired females immediately ex vivo, and which develops in vitro regardless of whether males are present or not. Furthermore, primordial vitellaria in virgin females have a high frequency of apoptotic cells but are characterized by a proliferation rate that is indistinguishable from that in fully developed vitellaria in mature paired females. Taken together, our data suggest that the vitelline proliferation rate is independent of pairing status. In contrast, the survival of vitelline cells, and therefore the development of the vitellarium, is highly male-dependent. Both processes are negatively affected by removal from the host regardless of whether male worms are present or not, and are unsustainable using standard tissue culture approaches. PMID:22363825

  10. Effects of playing a violent video game as male versus female avatar on subsequent aggression in male and female players.

    PubMed

    Yang, Grace S; Huesmann, L Rowell; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that violent video games can increase aggression in players immediately after they play. The present research examines the effects of one subtle cue within violent video games that might moderate these effects-whether the avatar is male or female. One common stereotype is that males are more aggressive than females. Thus, playing a violent video game as a male avatar, compared to a female avatar, should be more likely to prime aggressive thoughts and inclinations in players and lead to more aggressive behavior afterwards. Male and female university students (N = 242) were randomly assigned to play a violent video game as a male or female avatar. After gameplay, participants gave an ostensible partner who hated spicy food hot sauce to eat. The amount of hot sauce given was used to measure aggression. Consistent with priming theory, results showed that both male and female participants who played a violent game as a male avatar behaved more aggressively afterwards than those who played as female avatar. The priming effects of the male avatar were somewhat stronger for male participants than for female participants, suggesting that male participants identified more with the male avatar than did the female participants. These results are particularly noteworthy because they are consistent with another recent experiment showing that playing a violent game as an avatar with a different stereotypically aggressive attribute (black skin color) stimulates more aggression than playing as an avatar without the stereotypically aggressive attribute (Yang et al., 2014, Social Psychological and Personality Science). PMID:25043905

  11. Male Age Affects Female Mate Preference, Quantity of Accessory Gland Proteins, and Sperm Traits and Female Fitness in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Abolhasan; Krishna, Mysore Siddaiah; Santhosh, Hassan T

    2015-01-01

    For species in which mating is resource-independent and offspring do not receive parental care, theoretical models of age-based female mate preference predict that females should prefer to mate with older males as they have demonstrated ability to survive. Thus, females should obtain a fitness benefit from mating with older males. However, male aging is often associated with reductions in quantity of sperm. The adaptive significance of age-based mate choice is therefore unclear. Various hypotheses have made conflicting predictions concerning this issue, because published studies have not investigated the effect of age on accessory gland proteins and sperm traits. D. melanogaster exhibits resource-independent mating, and offspring do not receive parental care, making this an appropriate model for studying age-based mate choice. In the present study, we found that D. melanogaster females of all ages preferred to mate with the younger of two competing males. Young males performed significantly greater courtship attempts and females showed least rejection for the same than middle-aged and old males. Young males had small accessory glands that contained very few main cells that were larger than average. Nevertheless, compared with middle-aged or old males, the young males transferred greater quantities of accessory gland proteins and sperm to mated females. As a result, females that mated with young male produced more eggs and progeny than those that mated with older males. Furthermore, mating with young male reduced female's lifespan. These studies indicate that quantity of accessory gland proteins and sperm traits decreased with male age and females obtain direct fitness benefit from mating with preferred young males. PMID:25660692

  12. Visual discrimination of male and female faces by infant rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Paukner, Annika; Huntsberry, Mary E; Suomi, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that human infants process female faces differently from male faces. To test whether a similar preference for female faces exists in other primates, we presented nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques with photographs of macaque faces and human faces. At <1 month old, infant macaques preferentially oriented towards female macaque faces when faces were presented upright. No preference for female human faces was found. At 9 months old, infants failed to show a visual preference for female macaque faces or female human faces, although they showed significantly more lipsmacking responses at female human faces. Compared to human infants, macaques appear to have stronger predispositions early in life but this preference may nonetheless be amendable to experience. Understanding how innate predispositions and the social rearing environment shape infants' understanding of faces remain important issues to be explored in order to understand facial processing abilities in humans and other primates. PMID:19937740

  13. Typicality ratings of male and female voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spisak, Brian; Mullennix, John; Moro, Kelly; Will, Jessica; Farnsworth, Lynn

    2002-05-01

    Researchers have suggested that human voices are represented in memory in terms of prototypes [e.g., Kreiman and Papcun (1991); Papcun et al. (1989)]. Others have suggested that speech utterances are stored in memory via detailed exemplar-based representations [e.g., Lachs et al. (2000)]. The goal of the present study was to provide the first step toward assessing the viability of a prototype view of voice. Ten hVd utterances were recorded from each of 20 male and 20 female speakers. The utterances were blocked by speaker gender and presented to male and female listeners who rated each stimulus on a 1-7 typicality scale from ``least typical voice'' to ``most typical voice.'' There were significant effects of the type of vowel and speaker voice on the ratings, as well as interactions of vowel type with gender of subject and speaker voice. The results are discussed in terms of the strength of evidence for a graded category structure of voice categories that would be consistent with a prototype perspective of long-term memory representations of voice.

  14. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Oliver M; Wagner, William E

    2013-04-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  15. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  16. A shortage of males causes female reproductive failure in yellow ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, Nina; Tchabovsky, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    Sexual conflict theory suggests that female breeding success is strongly influenced by individual life history and environmental conditions and is much less affected by mate availability. Female mating failure due to a shortage of males remains poorly studied and understood. We present data on the effects of male availability on female breeding success in a wild colony of yellow ground squirrels (Spermophilus fulvus). A female's probability of breeding increased with the local density of males and was higher with higher male-biased operational sex ratio (OSR) but was independent of local female density, female age, and body condition, which are factors commonly assumed to influence female reproduction. The positive effect of male availability (as measured by OSR) on female breeding success was consistent across the years, and we conclude that male limitation contributes to female mating failure. This pattern, which is not commonly recorded in species with conventional sex roles, can be explained by a combination of sociodemographic and life history traits (sex differences in age of maturation, female-skewed adult sex ratio and seasonally varying OSR, solitary living at low population density, and low mobility of females combined with mate-searching tactics of males) that are not confined to S. fulvus. Our findings indicate that the role of female mating failure (due to a shortage of males) in shaping mammalian life history may be underestimated. PMID:26601284

  17. Aging changes in the female reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/004016.htm Aging changes in the female reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the female reproductive system result mainly from changing hormone levels . One clear ...

  18. Bilateral ureteric obstruction: an unusual complication of male-to-female gender reassignment surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rezwan, Nivin; Basit, Anas Abdel; Andrews, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Gender reassignment surgery is a form of treatment for gender dysphoria. It can be male-to-female or female-to-male. We present a patient who underwent male to female reassignment and had a vaginal reconstruction. She presented almost a year later with acute kidney injury and bilateral ureteric obstruction, subsequently ending up with nephrectomy for a non-functioning kidney. PMID:24813202

  19. Carcinoma Tongue--Clinicopathological Presentation.

    PubMed

    Majumder, K R; Karmakar, R; Alam, M M; Rahman, T

    2015-10-01

    This prospective study was done to observe the diversity of clinical presentation of carcinoma of tongue and to study the pathological variety of carcinoma of tongue and was conducted in the Department of General Surgery and Otolaryngology and Head Neck Surgery in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka Medical College Hospital on 50 patients from January 2011 to July 2013. In this series highest number of patients were middle aged (36%). Male female ratio was 2:1. Average socioeconomic conditions of the patient were poor (68%). Betel nut and leaves chewing (88%) and smoking (56%) habits were commonly practiced for more than 10 years among the patients. Depending on site of involvement, variation in presenting symptoms has been observed. Oral tongue carcinoma mostly was presented with tongue lesion, pain and dysphagia where as the carcinoma of base of tongue commonly was presented with dysphagia, lump in neck. Lateral border of tongue (60%) was seen commonly involved. Ulcerative lesion (56%) predominantly was found in tongue lesion. Eighty percent (80%) of cases had no palpable Lymph node. Only few patients were found with Lymph node metastasis and most of them had carcinoma in base of the tongue (75%). Most of the carcinoma was well differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma of tongue in our study commonly found in middle aged male patients. Variation of symptoms has depended on anatomical site involved. Most of the carcinoma was well differentiated Squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinoma other than squamous cell was not found. PMID:26620021

  20. Network connections, dyadic bonds and fitness in wild female baboons

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Joan B.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    In many social mammals, females who form close, differentiated bonds with others experience greater offspring survival and longevity. We still know little, however, about how females' relationships are structured within the social group, or whether connections beyond the level of the dyad have any adaptive value. Here, we apply social network analysis to wild baboons in order to evaluate the comparative benefits of dyadic bonds against several network measures. Results suggest that females with strong dyadic bonds also showed high eigenvector centrality, a measure of the extent to which an individual's partners are connected to others in the network. Eigenvector centrality was a better predictor of offspring survival than dyadic bond strength. Previous results have shown that female baboons derive significant fitness benefits from forming close, stable bonds with several other females. Results presented here suggest that these benefits may be further augmented if a female's social partners are themselves well connected to others within the group rather than being restricted to a smaller clique. PMID:27493779

  1. Network connections, dyadic bonds and fitness in wild female baboons.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Dorothy L; Silk, Joan B; Seyfarth, Robert M

    2016-07-01

    In many social mammals, females who form close, differentiated bonds with others experience greater offspring survival and longevity. We still know little, however, about how females' relationships are structured within the social group, or whether connections beyond the level of the dyad have any adaptive value. Here, we apply social network analysis to wild baboons in order to evaluate the comparative benefits of dyadic bonds against several network measures. Results suggest that females with strong dyadic bonds also showed high eigenvector centrality, a measure of the extent to which an individual's partners are connected to others in the network. Eigenvector centrality was a better predictor of offspring survival than dyadic bond strength. Previous results have shown that female baboons derive significant fitness benefits from forming close, stable bonds with several other females. Results presented here suggest that these benefits may be further augmented if a female's social partners are themselves well connected to others within the group rather than being restricted to a smaller clique. PMID:27493779

  2. Social buffering ameliorates conditioned fear responses in female rats.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akiko; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    The stress experienced by an animal is ameliorated when the animal is exposed to distressing stimuli along with a conspecific animal(s). This is known as social buffering. Previously, we found that the presence of an unfamiliar male rat induced social buffering and ameliorated conditioned fear responses of a male rat subjected to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). However, because our knowledge of social buffering is highly biased towards findings in male subjects, analyses using female subjects are crucial for comprehensively understanding the social buffering phenomenon. In the present studies, we assessed social buffering of conditioned fear responses in female rats. We found that the estrus cycle did not affect the intensity of the rats' fear responses to the CS or their degree of vigilance due to the presence of a conspecific animal. Based on these findings, we then assessed whether social buffering ameliorated conditioned fear responses in female rats without taking into account their estrus cycles. When fear conditioned female rats were exposed to the CS without the presence of a conspecific, they exhibited behavioral responses, including freezing, and elevated corticosterone levels. By contrast, the presence of an unfamiliar female rat suppressed these responses. Based on these findings, we conclude that social buffering can ameliorate conditioned fear responses in female rats. PMID:27060333

  3. Recommendations for Healthy Nutrition in Female Endurance Runners: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement. The minimal energy requirement has been set to 45 kcal/kg fat free mass/day plus the amount of energy needed for physical activity. The usual recommended amount of 1.2–1.4 g protein/kg/day has recently been questioned by new findings suggesting that 1.6 g/kg/day would be more appropriate for female athletes. Although a bit less sensitive to carbohydrate loading than their male counterparts, female athletes can benefit from this nutritional strategy before a race if the amount of carbohydrates reaches 8 g/kg/day and if their daily total energy intake is sufficient. A poor iron status is a common issue in female endurance runners but iron-enriched food as well as iron supplementation may help to counterbalance this poor status. Finally, they should also be aware that they may be at risk for low calcium and vitamin D levels. PMID:26075206

  4. Recommendations for Healthy Nutrition in Female Endurance Runners: An Update.

    PubMed

    Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement. The minimal energy requirement has been set to 45 kcal/kg fat free mass/day plus the amount of energy needed for physical activity. The usual recommended amount of 1.2-1.4 g protein/kg/day has recently been questioned by new findings suggesting that 1.6 g/kg/day would be more appropriate for female athletes. Although a bit less sensitive to carbohydrate loading than their male counterparts, female athletes can benefit from this nutritional strategy before a race if the amount of carbohydrates reaches 8 g/kg/day and if their daily total energy intake is sufficient. A poor iron status is a common issue in female endurance runners but iron-enriched food as well as iron supplementation may help to counterbalance this poor status. Finally, they should also be aware that they may be at risk for low calcium and vitamin D levels. PMID:26075206

  5. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed. PMID:23835896

  6. Female mate preferences for male body size and shape promote sexual isolation in threespine sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Head, Megan L; Kozak, Genevieve M; Boughman, Janette W

    2013-01-01

    Female mate preferences for ecologically relevant traits may enhance natural selection, leading to rapid divergence. They may also forge a link between mate choice within species and sexual isolation between species. Here, we examine female mate preference for two ecologically important traits: body size and body shape. We measured female preferences within and between species of benthic, limnetic, and anadromous threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus species complex). We found that mate preferences differed between species and between contexts (i.e., within vs. between species). Within species, anadromous females preferred males that were deep bodied for their size, benthic females preferred larger males (as measured by centroid size), and limnetic females preferred males that were more limnetic shaped. In heterospecific mating trials between benthics and limnetics, limnetic females continued to prefer males that were more limnetic like in shape when presented with benthic males. Benthic females showed no preferences for size when presented with limnetic males. These results show that females use ecologically relevant traits to select mates in all three species and that female preference has diverged between species. These results suggest that sexual selection may act in concert with natural selection on stickleback size and shape. Further, our results suggest that female preferences may track adaptation to local environments and contribute to sexual isolation between benthic and limnetic sticklebacks. PMID:23919161

  7. The female/male ratio of anthropometric dimensions.

    PubMed

    al-Haboubi, M H

    1998-12-01

    A great many anthropometric studies contain the data of either males or females. Instead of presenting single-sex data, this study presents a method of using the female/male (F/M) ratio to estimate the dimensions of unknown body parts. Several studies that include the data for both sexes are used to develop the ratio. Statistical analysis is performed, including fitting to normal distribution. Stature, sitting shoulder height, shoulder breadth, and hip breadth are used in the study. The result of the analysis reveals the importance of using a different F/M ratio for each body part instead of adopting a single value for estimation. PMID:11579703

  8. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  9. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  10. Female Representation by Type of Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Last month we saw that females make up about 47% of all high school physics students in the United States. This number has changed little since 1997. This month, we take a closer look at female representation by type of class. We last collected class-specific data in 1993; that year, 43% of all high school physics students were female. However,…

  11. Recognition Memory for Male and Female Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarmey, A. Daniel

    Sex differences in memory for human faces is reviewed. It is found that research evidence to date is not conclusive, but where differences exist they favor female superiority over males in facial memory. In particular, evidence is cited to suggest that females are reliably superior to males in their recognition memory for other females. This is…

  12. Perceived Parental Acceptance and Female Juvenile Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroupa, Steven E.

    1988-01-01

    Studied adolescent females at a state training school and at a high school, measuring perceived parental acceptance. Demonstrated that incarcerated females viewed their mothers and fathers more negatively than did nonincarcerated females. Indicated more ambivalent results in the mother-daughter than the father-daughter relationship. Discusses…

  13. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5330 Female condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and...

  15. Seeking and Selecting Hispanic Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Flora Ida

    Among the 1,000 females who lead school districts in the United States, some 25 to 30 are Hispanic. Ways in which Hispanic females are sought and selected for the superintendency of a district are explored in this paper. The report is based on an analysis of 12 Hispanic female superintendents and how they were hired. Two of the women in the sample…

  16. Sex therapy for female sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction About 45% of women suffer from some form of sexual dysfunction. Despite its high prevalence, there are few studies that have systematically evaluated sex therapy in comparison with other interventions. Objective Review randomized clinical trials that present psychotherapeutic interventions for female sexual dysfunctions. Method Through a search in three databases (Medline, Web of Science and PsycInfo), 1419 references were found. After an analysis of the abstracts, twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and composed this review. Results Sex therapy, as proposed by Masters and Johnson and Heiman and LoPiccolo, is still the most commonly used form of therapy for sexual dysfunctions; although it has shown results, the results do not consistently support that this is the best alternative in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. Conclusion There is a lack of systematic study of many female sexual dysfunctions. Orgasmic disorder and sexual pain (vaginismus and dyspaurenia) are the most extensively studied disorders and those in which sex therapy seems to have better outcomes. PMID:24066697

  17. Easily forgotten: elderly female prisoners.

    PubMed

    Handtke, Violet; Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2015-01-01

    Women form a growing minority within the worldwide prison population and have special needs and distinct characteristics. Within this group exists a smaller sub-group: elderly female prisoners (EFPs) who require tailored social and health interventions that address their unique needs. Data collected from two prisons in Switzerland housing women prisoners were studied. Overall 26 medical records were analyzed, 13 from EFPs (50+ years) and for comparison 13 from young female prisoners (YFPs, 49 years and younger). Additionally, five semi-structured interviews were conducted with EFPs. Using the layer model of vulnerability, three layers of vulnerability were identified: the "prisoner" layer; followed by the layer of "woman"; both of which are encompassed by the layer of "old age." The analysis of these layers resulted in three main areas where EFPs are particularly vulnerable: their status of "double-minority," health and health-care access, and their social relations. Prison administration and policy-makers need to be more sensitive to gender and age related issues in order to remedy these vulnerabilities. PMID:25661851

  18. Types of female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    The two major types of female genital mutilation include clitoridectomy and excision with infibulation. Clitoridectomy involves removal of the clitoris, part of all of the labia minora, and, often, all external soft genital tissue. Excision with infibulation involves all of this as well as removing the sides of the labia majora, abrading the sides of the vulva, and joining the bleeding sides of the vulva with thorns or a paste. A small opening is all that is allowed to remain for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. In Western Africa, infibulation is accomplished by tying the legs of the affected girls together in a crossed position immediate after the operation. These girls are immobilized for several weeks until the wound has closed. Infibulation is sometimes referred to a "pharaonic" because it occurred in ancient Egypt. Infibulated women must be cut open to allow sexual intercourse or child birth. Women are traditionally reinfibulated after child birth and then reopened when the child is weaned. Female genital mutilation is performed in septic conditions using the same tool on a group of girls. Fatalities are blamed on evil spirits or are said to occur because the victim was not a virgin. PMID:12233709

  19. Teaching Presentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William H.; Thompson, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Effective teaching of presentation skills focuses on the most important element of the presentation--the message itself. Some instructors place the heaviest emphasis on the messenger (the presenter) and focus their presentation feedback on all the presenter is doing wrong--saying "um," gesturing awkwardly, and so forth. When students receive this…

  20. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Female Athletes: Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, Mary Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To present epidemiologic studies on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched from 1978 to 1998 with the terms “anterior cruciate ligament” and “female athlete” among others. Additional sources were knowledge base and oral, didactic, and video presentations. Data Synthesis: Epidemiologic studies have focused on level of participation, specific sports, sex differences and contributing factors, injury mechanism, prevention programs, and outcomes studies. Female athletes have a significantly increased risk of noncontact ACL injuries over male athletes in soccer and basketball. Conclusions/Recommendations: I believe that appropriate intervention programs can reduce these alarming rates of ACL injuries. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3. PMID:16558558

  1. Dengue infection presenting as acute hypokalemic quadriparesis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N; Garg, A; Chhabra, P

    2014-01-01

    Dengue infection is one of the most common viral hemorrhagic fevers seen in the tropical countries, including India. Its presentation varies from an acute self-resolving febrile illness to life-threatening hemorrhagic shock and multiorgan dysfunction leading to death. Neurological presentations are uncommon and limited to case reports only. Most common neurological manifestations being encephalitis, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, transverse myelitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.Hypokalemic quadriparesis as a presenting feature of dengue is extremely rare. Here, we report this case of a 33-year-old female, who presented with hypokalemic quadriparesis and was subsequently diagnosed as dengue infection. PMID:25121379

  2. Empowerment of Female Students for Participation in the Representative Councils in Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Al-Jufout; Ziad, Abu-Hamatteh; Lama, Al-Qaisy

    2008-01-01

    The current article presents an analytical study of female students' participation in the representative councils in various Jordanian Universities. The data-base applied in the present investigation has indicated a clear weak representation of female students in general. The possible reasons, behind this weakness, have been tracked using a…

  3. A shortage of males causes female reproductive failure in yellow ground squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Vasilieva, Nina; Tchabovsky, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Sexual conflict theory suggests that female breeding success is strongly influenced by individual life history and environmental conditions and is much less affected by mate availability. Female mating failure due to a shortage of males remains poorly studied and understood. We present data on the effects of male availability on female breeding success in a wild colony of yellow ground squirrels (Spermophilus fulvus). A female’s probability of breeding increased with the local density of males and was higher with higher male-biased operational sex ratio (OSR) but was independent of local female density, female age, and body condition, which are factors commonly assumed to influence female reproduction. The positive effect of male availability (as measured by OSR) on female breeding success was consistent across the years, and we conclude that male limitation contributes to female mating failure. This pattern, which is not commonly recorded in species with conventional sex roles, can be explained by a combination of sociodemographic and life history traits (sex differences in age of maturation, female-skewed adult sex ratio and seasonally varying OSR, solitary living at low population density, and low mobility of females combined with mate-searching tactics of males) that are not confined to S. fulvus. Our findings indicate that the role of female mating failure (due to a shortage of males) in shaping mammalian life history may be underestimated. PMID:26601284

  4. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view. PMID:26267767

  5. [Benign neoplasms of female urethra].

    PubMed

    Usunova, I; Vladimirov, V

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice neoplasms of female urethra are found usually in adult women. They can also be found in adolescent girls and as rare congenital abnormality. Those conditions are most frequently detected during gynecological or urological examination. Symptoms are few. Lesions are situated at the outer orifice of urethra at the broad basis. Authors have diagnosed and treated 331 patients between 26 and 87 years. Electro coagulation has been performed in 185 patients. Surgical excision has been performed in 41 patients. Excision with following electrocoagulation has been performed in 18 patients. Conservative treatment has been performed in 87 patients. Histological sample analysis has provided diagnosis of urethral polyp, caruncle and mucosal prolaps. Second electrocoagulation after surgical excision has been performed in 5 patients. Collaboration between urologists and gynecologists is essential for early diagnosis, prophylaxis and successful treatment of above mentioned diseases. PMID:19496462

  6. [Psoriasis in a female chimpanzee].

    PubMed

    Biella, U; Haustein, U F; Seifert, S; Adler, J; Schüppel, K F; Eulenberger, K

    1991-05-01

    Psoriasis, a widespread genodermatosis in Homo sapiens, also appears in primates. We report on a female chimpanzee in Leipzig Zoo. After years of captivity the animal developed erythematosquamous, highly hyperkeratotic, lesions, some confluent, on the knees, elbows, back of the hands and feet and on the forearms and the seat, which showed histologically characteristic features of psoriasis. It may be that both previous infections and psychic stress resulting from social isolation had caused eruption of the disease. In the literature single cases of psoriasiform dermatoses have also been described in other species of monkeys and even in a springer spaniel. Nonetheless, the search for an animal model of psoriasis vulgaris is still going on. PMID:1874622

  7. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Hulkko, A.; Jormakka, E.

    1981-01-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. Images p229-a p229-b p229-c PMID:6797496

  8. Exertion injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Hulkko, A; Jormakka, E

    1981-12-01

    Because sports injuries in men form most of the available statistics, the reportage of injuries in female athletes is sparse. We describe exertion injuries and disorders in 281 women athletes, all of which hampered athletic training or performances. Sixty per cent of the injuries occurred to girls ages between 12-19 years, and about forty-eight per cent were track and field athletes. The most common sites of injury were the ankle, foot, heel and leg. Osteochondritic disorders were the most typical injuries in the series, and the chronic medical tibial syndrome was the injury that needed surgical treatment most frequently. Overuse injuries seem to differ very little from each other in the events included in this survey. PMID:6797496

  9. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice. PMID:27287358

  10. Female breast cancer mortality rates in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nurhan; Toprak, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the mortality trends of female breast cancer in Turkey between the years 1987-2008. The rates per 100,000 age-standardized to the European standard population were assessed and time trends presented using joinpoint regression analysis. Average annual percent change (AAPC), anual percent change (APC) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Nearly 23,000 breast cancer deaths occurred in Turkey during the period 1987-2008, with the average annual age-standardized mortality rate (ASR) being 11.9 per 100,000 women. In the last five years, significant increases were observed in all age groups, but there was no significant change over the age of 65. In this period, the biggest significant increase was in the 45-54 age group (AAPC=4.3, 95%CI=2.6 to 6.0). PMID:25292030

  11. Female fertility preservation: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Mary E; Confino, Rafael; Steinberg, Marissa

    2016-08-01

    For patients with cancer, preserving the ability to start a family at a time of their choosing is especially important and may influence decisions pertaining to cancer treatment. For other women who have delayed childbearing for personal or professional reasons, fertility preservation offers the possibility of having a biological child regardless of age. Though these women may be interested in or benefit from fertility preservation, fertility preservation services remain underutilized. While embryo and oocyte cryopreservation remain the standard strategies for female fertility preservation recommended by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology, other strategies (e.g. pharmacological protection of the ovaries and ovarian tissue cryopreservation) are the subject of increasing research. This review will present new data that have become available over the past few years pertaining to all available methods of fertility preservation. PMID:26847846

  12. Voriconazole-Induced Periostitis Mimicking Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Annie; Rondelli, Damiano; Patel, Pritesh

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole is an established first-line agent for treatment of invasive fungal infections in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). It is associated with the uncommon complication of periostitis. We report this complication in a 58-year-old female undergoing HSCT. She was treated with corticosteroids with minimal improvement. The symptoms related to periostitis can mimic chronic graft-versus-host disease in patients undergoing HSCT and clinicians should differentiate this from other diagnoses and promptly discontinue therapy. PMID:27403356

  13. Female Face Preference in 4-month-olds: The Importance of Hairline

    PubMed Central

    de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Uttley, Lesley; Quinn, Paul C.; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    At 3 to 4 months of age, infants respond to gender information in human faces. Specifically, young infants display a visual preference toward female over male faces. In three experiments, using a visual preference task, we investigated the role of hairline information in this bias. In Experiment 1, we presented male and female composite faces with similar hairstyles to 4-month-olds and observed a preference for female faces. In Experiment 2, the faces were presented, but in this instance, without hairline cues, and the preference was eliminated. In Experiment 3, using the same cropping to eliminate hairline cues, but with feminized female faces and masculinized male faces, infants’ preference toward female faces was still not in evidence. The findings show that hairline information is important in young infants’ preferential orientation toward female faces. PMID:25243612

  14. Female face preference in 4-month-olds: the importance of hairline.

    PubMed

    Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Uttley, Lesley; Quinn, Paul C; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    At 3-4 months of age, infants respond to gender information in human faces. Specifically, young infants display a visual preference toward female over male faces. In three experiments, using a visual preference task, we investigated the role of hairline information in this bias. In Experiment 1, we presented male and female composite faces with similar hairstyles to 4-month-olds and observed a preference for female faces. In Experiment 2, the faces were presented, but in this instance, without hairline cues, and the preference was eliminated. In Experiment 3, using the same cropping to eliminate hairline cues, but with feminized female faces and masculinized male faces, infants' preference toward female faces was still not in evidence. The findings show that hairline information is important in young infants' preferential orientation toward female faces. PMID:25243612

  15. EFFECTS OF ORAL EXPOSURE TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE ON FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the present study, the distribution, metabolism and reproductive toxicity of trichloroethylene (TCE) administered by the oral route to female rats were examined. The distribution study with 14C-TCE indicated that relatively high levels of radioactivity accumulated in the ovary...

  16. EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION [TO FEMALE GERM CELLS: BIOLOGY AND GENETIC RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an editorial introduction to the special issue of utation Research, titled, emale Germ Cells: Biology and Genetic isk, which is an attempt to present a collection of papers that emphasize the distinct properties of female germ cells and their characteristic response to mu...

  17. Examining Female Life Events: Implications for Counselors and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwiebert, Valerie; Alston, Anne; Bradford, Caroline; Sealander, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study examining the impact of female life events (menarche, "the sex talk", and loss of virginity) on women. Fifty-one women from 2 universities responded to a questionnaire containing quantitative and qualitative items. Discussion and implications for counseling girls and women are presented. (Contains 2…

  18. Male and Female in Pre-School and Junior School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1975

    Presented are the results of a survey of the ways in which male and female are represented to young children and the relative space given to boys' or girls' activities in early childhood institutions. The questions were of two kinds: (1) those which simply asked for the number of representations, objects, etc., and (2) those which asked the rater…

  19. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  20. Psychosexual Background of Female Adolescents Seeking Contraceptive Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, Paul A.

    In order to better meet the needs of female adolescents coming to a Planned Parenthood League Teen Center for prescription contraceptives, a study was undertaken to understand their psychosexual history. The study focused on the past and present sexual and contraceptive behavior of 532 new clients under the age of 18. The data were collected…

  1. Meningocele in a Congolese Female with Beckwith-Wiedemann Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Mbuyi-Musanzayi, Sébastien; Lubala Kasole, Toni; Lumaka, Aimé; Kayembe Kitenge, Tony; Kabamba Ngombe, Leon; Kalenga Muenze, Prosper; Lukusa Tshilobo, Prosper; Tshilombo Katombe, François; Banza Lubaba Nkulu, Célestin; Devriendt, Koenraad

    2014-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by an overgrowth, macroglossia, exomphalos, and predisposition to embryonal tumors. Central nervous abnormalities associated with BWS are rare. We describe a one-day-old Congolese female who presented meningocele associated with BWS phenotype. PMID:25610673

  2. Eosinophilic cystitis in a female German wire-haired pointer

    PubMed Central

    Evason, Michelle D.; Carr, Anthony P.

    2007-01-01

    A 7-month-old, intact female, German wire-haired pointer presented with a 3-week history of stranguria, pollakiuria, and dysuria that was nonresponsive to antibiotics. Two prior episodes of dysuria-stranguria appeared to respond to antibiotic therapy. Bladder wall biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis and the dog responded well to medical management. PMID:17542370

  3. The Frequency and Portrayal of Black Females in Fashion Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Kelly S.; Jackson, Linda A.

    Black females are infrequently represented in advertisements in leading fashion magazines and, when they are featured, their presentation may be designed to distance them from the product they advertise. All advertisements in the January and July issues of "Cosmopolitan,""Glamour," and "Vogue" magazines between 1986 and 1988 were examined for the…

  4. From Client to Pimp: Male Violence against Female Sex Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…

  5. Body Image in Female Professional and Amateur Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollatou, Elisana; Bakali, Nikoleta; Theodorakis, Yannis; Goudas, Marios

    2010-01-01

    Body image is considered to be an obscure, mental representation of body shape, size and form which is influenced by a variety of factors that operate over varying time spans. Research has shown that professional female dancers may face preoccupations with their body image and weight. The present study aimed to investigate how body image was…

  6. Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…

  7. Securing Paternity by Mutilating Female Genitalia in Spiders.

    PubMed

    Mouginot, Pierick; Prügel, Josepha; Thom, Ulrike; Steinhoff, Philip O M; Kupryjanowicz, Janusz; Uhl, Gabriele

    2015-11-16

    Competition between males and their sperm over access to females and their eggs has resulted in manifold ways by which males try to secure paternity, ranging from physically guarding the female after mating to reducing her receptivity or her attractiveness to subsequent males by transferring manipulative substances or by mechanically sealing the female reproductive tract with a copulatory plug. Copulations may also result in internal damage of the female genitalia; however, this is not considered as a direct adaptation against sperm competition but as a collateral effect. Here, we present a drastic and direct mechanism for securing paternity: the removal of coupling structures on female genitalia by males. In the orb-weaving spider Larinia jeskovi males remove the scapus, a crucial coupling device on the female external genital region. Reconstruction of the coupling mechanism using micro-CT-scanned mating pairs revealed that several sclerites of the male genitalia interact to break off the scapus. Once it is removed, remating cannot occur due to mechanical coupling difficulties. In the field, male-inflicted genital damage is very prevalent since all female L. jeskovi were found to be mutilated at the end of the mating season. External genital mutilation is an overlooked but widely spread phenomenon since 80 additional spider species were found for which male genital manipulation can be suspected. Interlocking genitalia provide an evolutionary platform for the rapid evolution of this highly effective mechanism to secure paternity, and we suspect that other animal groups with interlocking genital structures might reveal similarly drastic male adaptations. PMID:26549254

  8. Planning a Public Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Karl F.

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of factors to consider in planning a successful public presentation highlights multimedia presentations; verbal skills; proper use of visual materials; an explanation of vision measurements; lettering size and style; screen size; level of illumination; and machine handling. (LRW)

  9. The Art of Presenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukey-Coutsocostas, Kathryn; Tanner-Bogia, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Provides suggestions for helping nonnative English speakers in planning and delivering an effective presentation. Topics covered include the following: fears, choosing a topic, planning, title/summary/abstract, equipment, delivery, and evaluation of the present. (Author/VWL)

  10. The Influence of an After School Single Gender Literacy Community on the Early-Adolescent Female's Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Brown, Jibby L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the research of the 20th and 21st centuries, the ability to sustain voice in our adolescent females continues to present a concern. This qualitative study in educational and literacy research uncovers an educational framework that can strengthen the voice of adolescent females by using non-traditional methods and female preferred learning…

  11. Erotic transference in the male adolescent-female analyst dyad.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Gabbard, G O

    1995-01-01

    Erotic transference involving female analysts and adult male patients has received increased attention in the past ten years. Absent from the literature, however, are any clinical reports concerning erotic transferences of adolescent male patients with female therapists. This paper presents a fragment of a treatment involving an adolescent male patient who developed an erotic transference. The vicissitudes of the transference, as well as his relationship to his mother and father, are discussed from the perspective of developmental conflicts and tasks of adolescence. The countertransference dimensions of this particular gender constellation are also examined from the standpoint of intrapsychic and cultural factors. PMID:7480402

  12. Emotion facilitation and passive avoidance learning in psychopathic female offenders

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    Research on psychopathy among incarcerated, Caucasian males has consistently demonstrated deficits in emotion processing and response inhibition. Using the PCL-R to classify participants as psychopathic or non-psychopathic, this study examined the performance of incarcerated, Caucasian females on two laboratory tasks: A lexical decision task used to assess emotion processing and a passive avoidance task used to assess response inhibition. Contrary to prediction, deficits in performance typically exhibited by psychopathic males were not exhibited by psychopathic females in this sample. Implications of these findings are discussed and an interpretation of the results in the context of the Response Modulation Hypothesis is presented. PMID:21686054

  13. Presenting Food Science Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carl K.

    2016-01-01

    While the need to present food science information effectively is viewed as a critical competency for food scientists by the Institute of Food Technologists, most food scientists may not receive adequate training in this area. Effective presentations combine both scientific content and delivery mechanisms that demonstrate presenter enthusiasm for…

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. This presentation was presented in a Wind Powering America webinar on August 15, 2012 and is now available through the Wind Powering America website.

  15. Make Your Presentation Powerful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2015-01-01

    "I was planning on doing a lot of work today during your presentation, but I couldn't get anything done. I just had to pay attention!" The author received this unexpected feedback from a teacher at the end of a presentation he gave, and although he considered it a compliment, it made him reflect on the dire state of presentations in…

  16. Female and Male Moths Display Different Reproductive Behavior when Facing New versus Previous Mates

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qin; Xu, Jin; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient) and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study. PMID:25290195

  17. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ying; Yu, Jin-Feng; Lu, Qin; Xu, Jin; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient) and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study. PMID:25290195

  18. Uterine cancer presenting as obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Valdano; Rocha, Eserval; Fortini, Giovana; Pascoal, Zeida; Netto, Renata; Rengel, Lenira; Birolini, Claudio; Utiyama, Edivaldo Massazo

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice as an initial manifestation of uterine cancer is extremely rare. We present a case of a 72-year-old female who presented with obstructive jaundice, supposedly for pancreatic cancer. After detailed diagnostic investigation, the cause of the jaundice was attributed to a metastatic compression of the common bile duct, from the primary neoplasm of the uterus. This case highlights the importance of including uterine cancer in the differential diagnosis of woman presenting with obstructive jaundice, even though it is very rare. PMID:27462179

  19. Uterine cancer presenting as obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Valdano; Rocha, Eserval; Fortini, Giovana; Pascoal, Zeida; Netto, Renata; Rengel, Lenira; Birolini, Claudio; Utiyama, Edivaldo Massazo

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice as an initial manifestation of uterine cancer is extremely rare. We present a case of a 72-year-old female who presented with obstructive jaundice, supposedly for pancreatic cancer. After detailed diagnostic investigation, the cause of the jaundice was attributed to a metastatic compression of the common bile duct, from the primary neoplasm of the uterus. This case highlights the importance of including uterine cancer in the differential diagnosis of woman presenting with obstructive jaundice, even though it is very rare. PMID:27462179

  20. Chronic diseases in captive geriatric female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Lee, D Rick; Lammey, Michael L

    2012-04-01

    The current aging population of captive chimpanzees is expected to develop age-related diseases and present new challenges to providing their veterinary care. Spontaneous heart disease and sudden cardiac death are the main causes of death in chimpanzees (especially of male animals), but little is known about the relative frequency of other chronic diseases. Furthermore, female chimpanzees appear to outlive the males and scant literature addresses clinical conditions that affect female chimpanzees. Here we characterize the types and prevalence of chronic disease seen in geriatric (older than 35 y) female chimpanzees in the colony at Alamogordo Primate Facility. Of the 16 female chimpanzees that fit the age category, 87.5% had some form of chronic age-related disease. Cardiovascular-related disease was the most common (81.25%) followed by metabolic syndrome (43.75%) and renal disease (31.25%). These data show the incidence of disease in geriatric female chimpanzees and predict likely medical management challenges associated with maintaining an aging chimpanzee population. PMID:22546920

  1. Analyzing Clinical Presentation, Service Utilization, and Clinical Outcome of Female Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Heather C.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers examining clinically-relevant trends for sexual minority women have found evidence of psychological distress and greater utilization of mental health services compared to heterosexually-identified women. However, the results of many research studies with this population have methodological limitations surrounding recruitment of…

  2. SPECIAL PROBLEMS PRESENTED BY SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF OFFENDERS, MINORITY GROUPS, FEMALES, LOW-INCOME GROUPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CUNNINGHAM, GLORIA

    THE IDEA OF A "BORN CRIMINAL" OR A CLASS OF CRIMINALS IS ERRONEOUS. SOME CITIZENS MAINTAIN THIS ATTITUDE AND THEREFORE LACK COMMUNITY CONCERN OR INVOLVEMENT, THEREBY REDUCING THE NUMBER OF RESOURCES AND COOPERATING COMMUNITY UNITS THAT A PROBATION OFFICER CAN DRAW ON. ANOTHER PROBLEM WITH RESOURCES IS THAT, EVEN WHERE THEY DO EXIST, THEY ARE OFTEN…

  3. African American female with renal failure presenting with skin lesions: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Nejla; Markova, Tsveti

    2009-01-01

    Calciphylaxis is a lethal disorder seen in patients with end-stage renal disease and is characterized by painful necrotic skin lesions. The pathophysiology is still unknown. Elevated calcium, phosphorous and parathormone appear to play a role in causing small and medium sized vasculopathy. Diagnosis is delayed, prognosis is poor and mortality remains high. In this article we describe the case of calciphylaxis in a patient with chronic renal failure and multiple medical comorbidities, and discuss diagnostic management, prognosis and treatment options. PMID:19830094

  4. Female alternative reproductive behaviors: the effect of female group size on mate assessment and copying.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Bernard J; Flaxman, Samuel M; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2008-08-01

    Extensive theoretical and empirical research has focused on male alternative reproductive tactics. In comparison, female alternative tactics have attracted little attention, and further theoretical and empirical research are needed. Using a game theoretical model, we examine female choice alternatives (1) by considering assessment errors in a novel and more realistic manner than done previously, and (2) for the first time, by highlighting the formation of groups of females as an important consequence of copying behavior. We consider two alternatives: direct assessment of male quality by females and female copying of the choice of other females. Assessment and copying are predicted to coexist under a wide variety of circumstances and copying is favored when females make assessment errors, when high-quality males are either common or very rare, and when female fitness declines with the number of other females choosing the same male. We also find that the frequency of copying at equilibrium is predicted to decrease when the presence of other females mating with the same male has a positive effect on female fitness (e.g. through increased male parental effort, decreased predation risk or cooperation among females). Female alternative choice tactics also influence the potential for sexual selection. In our model, when the frequency of copying females is low, the potential for sexual selection can be higher than in the absence of female copying. However, contrary to previous theory, we find that as copying females become more common than assessing females, the potential for sexual selection will be low as more females copy the mate choice of other copiers without assessment. PMID:18511084

  5. Belarusian female physicists: Statistics and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotova, Julia; Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya

    2013-03-01

    The experience for women in physics remains challenging in Belarus. The proportion of female physics master's degree recipients is approximately 30%, while the percentage of female physics PhD recipients is 50%. Still, only a few female physicists occupy top positions in research laboratories, institutes, or universities. The basic problem for career-oriented female physicists in Belarus is public opinion, which cultivates a passive and dependent life philosophy for women. The Belarusian Women in Physics group was formed in 2003 as part of the Belarusian Physical Society.

  6. Drug consumption among sexual offenders against females.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2008-02-01

    This article aims to evaluate the role of drug consumption among sexual offenders against females. Three groups of participants (N = 133) comprising sexual offenders against girls, pubertal females, and women were examined with reference to history of drug and/or alcohol use, impulsivity level, sexual addiction, and recidivism risk. Sexual offenders against women were found to have significantly more difficulties with drug use, higher impulsivity level, and to be younger than the sexual offenders against girls and pubertal females. The combination of drug consumption and higher level of impulsivity may contribute to sexual aggression against adult females. PMID:17615431

  7. Muscle tension dysphonia in Vietnamese female teachers.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duong Duy; Kenny, Dianna T; Tran, Ninh Duy; Livesey, Jonathan R

    2009-03-01

    There has been no published research on muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) in speakers who use a tonal language. Using a sample of 47 Northern Vietnamese female primary school teachers with MTD, we aimed to discover whether professional voice users of tonal languages presented with the same symptoms of MTD as speakers of nontonal languages and whether they presented with additional symptoms as a result of speaking a tonal language. The vocal characteristics were assessed by use of a questionnaire and expert perceptual evaluation. Laryngeal features were assessed by photolaryngoscopy. The results showed that MTD was associated with a larger number of vocal symptoms than previously reported. However, the participants did not have the same vocal symptoms reported in English speakers, for example, hard glottal attack, pitch breaks, unusual speech rate, and glottal fry. Factor analysis of the vocal symptoms revealed three factors: "vocal fatigue/hyperfunction," "physical discomfort," and "voice quality," all of which demonstrated high reliability. The major laryngeal characteristic was a glottal gap. The glottal shapes observed included: 44.7% had an incomplete closure, 29.8% a posterior gap, 12.8% an hourglass-shaped gap, 8.5% a spindle-shaped gap, and 4.3% had complete glottal closure. The findings implied a potential contribution of linguistic-specific factors and teaching-related factors to the presentation of this voice disorder in this group of teachers. PMID:18207359

  8. Controversial issues: female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Richards, D

    2000-01-01

    As immigrant women from African countries enter the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Western Europe, western health care providers are beginning to see patients affected by the cultural practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Unfamiliar with the practice, either medically or culturally, these providers are turning to medical librarians for information. Complicating the issue are the strong negative feelings most western health care workers have about FGM, which appears to them to be both barbaric and cruel. These feelings may conflict strongly with those of their immigrant patients, who regard the practice as normal and desirable. Both medical and cultural information are needed for the professional to provide treatment of medical conditions, while also establishing a good relationship with the FGM affected patient. This article identifies and describes the most important refereed journal article databases, available now over the Internet, providing both medical and cultural information on FGM, and the most useful Web sites for health professionals, librarians, and interested laypersons who need information about this difficult multicultural issue. PMID:11299679

  9. Eating disorders throughout female adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dominé, F; Dadoumont, C; Bourguignon, J-P

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are conditions which are becoming more and more widespread among adolescents and they often lead them to seek the opinion of a professional health caregiver, including gynecologists and pediatricians. EDs, and particularly anorexia nervosa (AN), are usually classified as psychological or psychiatric disorders, but they may have major somatic implications and complications as osteoporosis, nutritional deficiencies, cerebral atrophy, cardiac and metabolic disorders. A key issue in the management is prevention or reduction of both the serious somatic consequences and the important mental health consequences (e.g. depression, psychosocial withdrawal, phobia and suicide), integrating different perspectives (psychological or psychiatric - individual and familial -, genetic, nutritional, pediatric, gynecological). Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of EDs though they may also involve younger children. In this case, the consequences on the development (height, weight, puberty) can also be significant. In this review, we will focus on eating disorders in adolescent girls with an emphasis on AN. We describe variations in ED characteristics and their management depending on age at occurrence. A possible ED should be considered by pediatricians consulted about delayed female growth and puberty as well as gynecologists in patients with primary or secondary amenorrhea or infertility. PMID:22846535

  10. Visual reinforcement in the female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Elcoro, Mirari; Silva, Stephanie P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2008-07-01

    Operant conditioning with Betta splendens (Bettas) has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female Bettas have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male Bettas. Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female Bettas to examine the generality of a widely reported finding with males: mirror-image reinforcement. Swimming through a ring was reinforced by a 10-s mirror presentation. As with males, ring swimming was acquired and maintained when mirror presentations were immediate (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and delayed (Experiment 4). The failure of conventional extinction (Experiments 1 and 2) and response-independent mirror presentations (Experiment 3) to maintain responding confirmed the reinforcing properties of mirror presentation. These results extend previous findings of mirror images as reinforcers in males of the same species and illustrate a complementarity between behavioral ecology and the experimental analysis of behavior. PMID:18683612

  11. Vocal Parameters of Elderly Female Choir Singers

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Fernanda Salvatico de; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to increased life expectancy among the population, studying the vocal parameters of the elderly is key to promoting vocal health in old age. Objective This study aims to analyze the profile of the extension of speech of elderly female choristers, according to age group. Method The study counted on the participation of 25 elderly female choristers from the Choir of Messianic Church of São Paulo, with ages varying between 63 and 82 years, and an average of 71 years (standard deviation of 5.22). The elders were divided into two groups: G1 aged 63 to 71 years and G2 aged 72 to 82. We asked that each participant count from 20 to 30 in weak, medium, strong, and very strong intensities. Their speech was registered by the software Vocalgrama that allows the evaluation of the profile of speech range. We then submitted the parameters of frequency and intensity to descriptive analysis, both in minimum and maximum levels, and range of spoken voice. Results The average of minimum and maximum frequencies were respectively 134.82–349.96 Hz for G1 and 137.28–348.59 Hz for G2; the average for minimum and maximum intensities were respectively 40.28–95.50 dB for G1 and 40.63–94.35 dB for G2; the vocal range used in speech was 215.14 Hz for G1 and 211.30 Hz for G2. Conclusion The minimum and maximum frequencies, maximum intensity, and vocal range presented differences in favor of the younger elder group. PMID:26722341

  12. Presentation of celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Norelle Rizkalla; Fasano, Alessio; Green, Peter H R

    2012-10-01

    The mode of presentation of patients with celiac disease has changed dramatically over the recent decades, with diarrheal or classic presentations becoming less common. This trend is most markedly seen in children, whose main presentations include recurrent abdominal pain, growth issues, and screening groups at risk. Among adults, presentations include diarrhea, anemia, osteoporosis, and recognition at endoscopy performed for gastroesophageal reflux disease, as well as screening. The groups most commonly screened include family members of patients with celiac disease, Down syndrome, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23083982

  13. Presentation skills for nurses.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Mark

    2015-02-20

    This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters. PMID:25690236

  14. Human female orgasm as evolved signal: a test of two hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, Ryan M; Bailey, Drew H

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a study designed to empirically test predictions derived from two hypotheses regarding human female orgasm behavior as an evolved communicative trait or signal. One hypothesis tested was the female fidelity hypothesis, which posits that human female orgasm signals a woman's sexual satisfaction and therefore her likelihood of future fidelity to a partner. The other was sire choice hypothesis, which posits that women's orgasm behavior signals increased chances of fertilization. To test the two hypotheses of human female orgasm, we administered a questionnaire to 138 females and 121 males who reported that they were currently in a romantic relationship. Key predictions of the female fidelity hypothesis were not supported. In particular, orgasm was not associated with female sexual fidelity nor was orgasm associated with male perceptions of partner sexual fidelity. However, faked orgasm was associated with female sexual infidelity and lower male relationship satisfaction. Overall, results were in greater support of the sire choice signaling hypothesis than the female fidelity hypothesis. Results also suggest that male satisfaction with, investment in, and sexual fidelity to a mate are benefits that favored the selection of orgasmic signaling in ancestral females. PMID:23857519

  15. President Reagan Presents Medals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan presents astronaut John Young with the Congressional Space Medal of Honor as well as NASA's Distinguished Service Medal. Astronaut Robert C. Crippen also received the Distinguished Service Medal and Dr. Alan Lovelace was presented with the President's Citizens Medal. From left to right: President Ronald Reagan Astronaut, John Young Astronaut, Robert Crippen Dr. Alan Lovelace Vice President George Bush

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.; Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in an Union of Concerned Scientists webinar on June 12, 2012.

  17. Teaching the Virtual Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flatley, Marie E.

    2007-01-01

    Today, the virtual presentation is catching on rapidly in small, medium, and large businesses alike. A virtual presentation is one delivered live from a desktop or laptop computer to an audience anywhere in the world where there is Internet access. These new Web-based technologies are easy to use and inexpensive, making them readily accessible for…

  18. Display and Presentation Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midgley, Thomas Keith

    The use of display and presentation boards as tools to help teachers/trainers convey messages more clearly is briefly discussed, and 24 different types of display and presentation boards are described and illustrated; i.e., chalk, paste-up, hook-n-loop, electric, flannel, scroll, communication planning, acetate pocket, slot, pin-tack, preview,…

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a Power Systems Engineering Research Center webinar on September 4, 2012.

  20. Amyloidosis presenting as priapism.

    PubMed

    Lapan, D I; Graham, A R; Bangert, J L; Boyer, J T; Conner, W T

    1980-02-01

    A sixty-five-year-old white man presented with sudden onset of painful, priapism. Review of pathologic specimens at the time of surgical decompression revealed massive amyloid infiltration. Purpura, organ enlargement, gastrointestinal bleeding, and congestive heart failure developed subsequently. Postmortem examination revealed widespread amyloidosis. To our knowledge this is the first report of amyloidosis presenting with priapism. PMID:7355542

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented in a webinar given by the California Energy Commission.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It is being presented at the Utility Variable-Generation Integration Group Fall Technical Workshop on October 24, 2012.

  3. Conditioning of sexual proceptivity in female quail: Measures of conditioned place preference

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Germán; Domjan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The present experiments were conducted to explore the nature of conditioned sexual proceptivity in female quail. Females exposed to males subsequently approached the area where the males were previously housed (Experiment 1). This increased preference for the male’s area reflected an increase in female sexual proceptivity and not an increase in non-directed locomotor activity (Experiment 2). These findings provide the first evidence that female quail show conditioned responses that may be considered to be proceptive responses toward male conspecifics. The proceptive responses are expressed as tonic changes in preference for areas where males have been observed in the past rather than as specific phasic conditioned responses. PMID:21664442

  4. Clinical characteristics and treatment response to SSRI in a female pedophile.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eva W C; Choy, Alberto L

    2002-04-01

    Although much investigation has been done with male sex offenders, there have been few studies on female sex offenders. Female sex offenders have been reported as having a high incidence of psychiatric disorders, but female paraphilics were rarely described. The literature on the treatment of female sex offenders is also limited and treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) has not been reported. This paper presents the case of a woman with DSM-IV pedophilia. Her clinical characteristics, her offense history, and her positive response to treatment with sertraline (a SSRI) are described. This case adds to the limited literature on female pedophiles and suggests that SSRIs may be an effective treatment for paraphilic disorders in female sex offenders. PMID:11974646

  5. Early social enrichment affects responsiveness to different social cues in female mice.

    PubMed

    Gracceva, Giulia; Venerosi, Aldina; Santucci, Daniela; Calamandrei, Gemma; Ricceri, Laura

    2009-01-23

    Communal nesting (CN), an early social enrichment procedure in which multiple females rear the offspring in a single nest, increases maternal care levels received by offspring and interaction with peers. It has been shown that male mice reared under CN conditions show increased social competence and propensity to social interactions at adulthood. In the present study we investigated long-term behavioural effects of CN on female offspring. Mouse pups were reared under two different experimental conditions: standard nesting (SN, where single mother rears her pups) and CN (three females rearing their pups in a single nest). At adulthood CN and SN virgin females underwent three different behavioural tests: (i) maternal induction following presentation of foster pups; (ii) social recognition test in which ultrasound vocalizations (USVs) and social investigation behaviour emitted by a resident female in the presence of a female partner were recorded; (iii) zero-maze to analyze anxiety profiles. CN females showed (i) decreased licking response in the maternal induction test accompanied by an increased sniffing response; (ii) decreased of social interest towards a novel partner (during the Retest Different phase), and decreased USV emission rate in the social recognition test; CN and SN females did not differ in the emotional responses measured in the zero-maze apparatus. As a whole these data suggest that CN rearing render female mice less reactive to social novelty. PMID:18940203

  6. Forging a Research Pathway: Perspectives of Two Post-Tenure Female Faculty Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laureen J.; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an auto-ethnographic exploration of two post-tenure female faculty member's experiences developing their programs of research. Self-reflection was used to explore the factors that have helped or hindered the development of their research program, and the continued challenges they faced as female faculty. Composite themes were…

  7. Anxiety and Antisocial Behavior: The Moderating Role of Perceptions of Social Prominence among Incarcerated Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Goldweber, Aska; Meyer, Kristen; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines how perceptions of social prominence and attitudes toward antisocial behavior among peers moderate the association between anxiety and antisocial behavior among incarcerated females. Latent profile analysis identified two classes of females distinguished by their perceptions and attitudes. Individuals in both classes…

  8. Challenging Gender Stereotypes through Literature: Picture Books with Strong Female Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chick, Kay A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of using picture books to encourage development of gender role equity. Provides guidelines for selection of children's literature with capable female characters. Includes examples from recently published picture books. Presents discussion questions that teachers might use to help students focus on female character…

  9. Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among Female High School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamani, Mahmmood Reza; Karimi, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the relationship between spiritual intelligence and job satisfaction among female high school teachers in Isfahan. It was a descriptive-correlation research. Population included all female high school teachers of Isfahan (2015) in academic year 2013-2014. Sample size calculated was 320 teachers by Krejcie and…

  10. Cultural Barriers to Help-Seeking among Taiwanese Female Victims of Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative analysis regarding the help-seeking behaviors of female dating-violence victims from a cultural perspective. A semistructured, in-depth interview was used to collect data from 10 female victims (aged 20-28). Findings indicate that Taiwanese dating-violence victims tend to seek informal help rather than formal…

  11. Incorporating Gender Specific Approaches for Incarcerated Female Adolescents: Multilevel Risk Model for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Chiquitia L.; Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Parker, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The rise in female delinquency has resulted in large numbers of girls being incarcerated in Youth Development Centers (YDC). However, there are few gender specific treatment programs for incarcerated female adolescent offenders, particularly for those with a history of substance dependency. In this article, we present a Multi-level Risk Model…

  12. Social Dating Goals in Female College Students: Failure to Replicate in a Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports a failure to replicate aspects of the Social Dating Goals Scale (SDGS; Sanderson & Cantor, 1995) with an ethnically diverse group of female college students. The SDGS was developed and validated with predominantly White samples. In the present study, a diverse sample of 82 Asian, Black, Hispanic and White female college…

  13. The Modification of Female Leadership Behavior in the Presence of Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.

    Following the reasoning of "expectation states theory", the present study was designed to answer three questions: (1) Is the task orientation of males and females different when they work on a task together? (2) Is the task orientation of males and females working on a task, separately, different? and, (3) If there are differences, will status…

  14. Joblessness among Women: A Portrait of Female Unemployment. A First Friday Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Full Employment Action Council, Washington, DC.

    This report presents a portrait of female unemployment from a national perspective. Summary findings indicate that nearly 8 million American women either do not have jobs or work part-time because they cannot find full-time employment. Unemployment is particularly high among Black women (15%); Hispanic women (11%), and female heads of households…

  15. Female Genital Cutting: Applying the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model To Understand the Incentives for the Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Leila

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the practice of female circumcision and the significance of considering social, cultural, economic, and educational opportunities available to females in developing countries when creating intervention programs to help end this practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a tool that can assess various elements present in a girls' life that…

  16. Career Paths of Female Elementary Assistant Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Hope C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the worklife experiences and personal issues of female elementary assistant principals and examine the influence of these factors on their intent to remain in their position or leave. The worklife experiences and perceptions of female elementary assistant principals were categorized as institutional or…

  17. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  18. Female mate choice in a neotropical frog.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M J

    1980-07-25

    Female Physalaemus pustulosus choose their mates and are more likely to choose larger males. There is a significant negative correlation between the size of the male and the fundamental frequency of one of the components of its advertisement call. Playback experiments demonstrate that females are capable of choosing larger males by distinguishing among differences in spectral components of the advertisement call. PMID:17831371

  19. The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

  20. Impact of Nutrition Education on Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Sharon B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that evaluated the effectiveness of a nutrition education program on the knowledge, attitudes, and nutrient intake of female college athletes (n=28) and female nonathletes (n=32). Survey data and food diaries indicated that, though the program improved subjects' knowledge and attitudes, there was no significant impact on dietary…

  1. Barriers to Professional Advancement among Female Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Virginia E.

    It appears that there is nothing inherently associated with femaleness which should preclude the ascendence of women into management positions. However, barriers do exist and they stem from such factors as societal sex-role stereotypes, attitudes toward women in management, attitudes toward female competence, and the prevalence of the male…

  2. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  3. Behind & Beyond the Walls: The Incarcerated Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, H. C.

    The purpose of this book is to provide the female inmate with a self-help guidebook that she can identify with and utilize in surviving the correctional experience. The publication contains 30 essays, poems, observations, diary excerpts, and drawings reflecting the life of female prison inmates at the Eddie Warrior Correctional Center in Oklahoma.…

  4. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  5. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  6. Burnout among Female Teachers in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Ahour, Touran

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to survey the burnout level of female teachers in Malaysia and determine the likely factors that are associated with this phenomenon. The subjects of the study were 437 female teachers from primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. A demographic questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding the individual…

  7. Troubling Success: Interviews with Black Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nivischi N.; Beverly, Monifa Green; Alexander-Snow, Mia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the complexity of success for Black female faculty members based on six Black women at a public research oriented university in the Southeast. All women shared the challenges they experience as Black female faculty members. Findings indicate that while these women seemingly have attained professional success, they are leery of…

  8. The Female Offender: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Davis M., Comp.; Kravitz, Marjorie, Comp.

    Three themes run through this collection of citations which represent a small fraction of literature on the adult female offender. One is the ideology, implications, and impact of criminological theory to the study of female crime and criminality. A second theme treats the legal and procedural mechanics of justice administration. The final theme…

  9. The Benefits of Mentoring for Female Lawyers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Jean E.

    2001-01-01

    A study of 512 Canadian lawyers included 231 women (66% had mentors). Mentors influenced women's success in terms of earnings, promotions, procedural justice, social integration, and career satisfaction. Females with male mentors earned significantly more; females with male mentors had more satisfaction, less work-nonwork conflict, and more…

  10. Strong Female Characters in Recent Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Pat; Inkster, Christine; Kazemek, Frank; Williams, Sandra; Raschke, Sylvia; Stevens, Della

    1999-01-01

    Shares the authors' criteria for evaluating female characters as positive role models in children's literature. Explores the criteria by examining "The Ballad of Lucy Wipple" (Karen Cushman). Discusses other recently published picture books and novels which feature strong females in history, in contemporary times, and in fantasy. (SR)

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Female Patients.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lucinda A; Umar, Sarah B; Baffy, Noemi; Heitkemper, Margaret M

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is probably the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder and is characterized by abdominal pain along with altered bowel function. It is a disorder of female predominance. This article focuses on how being female influences the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment of this common disorder and discusses the evidence and important controversies related to these areas. PMID:27261893

  12. Biomass Program Overview Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    This presentation is an interactive walk through of the Program's vision of advancing the biofuels and bioproducts industry and highlights the research and development activities that will help achieve it.

  13. Practically Perfect Presentations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    Offers nine practical suggestions for instructional presentations: build a sense of partnership, ask rhetorical questions, be spontaneous, use a conversational tone, control tone of voice, involve listener through gesture, be creative, be relevant, and achieve clarity. (JOW)

  14. Solar Data Hub (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Orwig, K.

    2011-04-01

    As power grid integration of renewables becomes ever more important and detailed, the need for a centralized place for solar-related resource data is needed. This presentation describes such a place and website.

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  16. 2005 ACERC conference presentations

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    The presentations are available on the internet for free download. Subjects included NOx and particulate emissions, gasification, and current ACERC and ICES research. The poster papers are also available.

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  18. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-11-01

    This presentation summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050.

  20. Electrochemistry, past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, J.T. ); Orna, M.V. )

    1989-01-01

    This book is on electrochemistry. The authors discuss its history, development, and present status. Topics covered in this book are: foundations of electrochemistry, organic and biological electrochemistry, electroanalytical chemistry, and industrial electrochemistry.

  1. Challenges and Needs Faced by Female Combat Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski-Jaime, Elvia R.; Whitehead, Markus; Kellman-Fritz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings of a study conducted to identify stressors that may contribute to mental health issues of military female veterans. Female members in the U.S. Armed Forces currently occupy more non-traditional roles; therefore deployment to combat zones, commonly reserved for males, is being taken on by females. While at the present time females serving in the military are not allowed to serve in combat occupations, the reality is that many are being placed in combat roles or environments. Consequently, many are now confronted with stressors related to combat and multiple deployments. This study was based on a descriptive, non-probability, snowball design. In cases where participants displayed a reluctance to share some information in front of counterparts who may have been at a higher or lower rank level; subsequent semi-structured, one-to-one interviews were conducted. The latter approach proved more effective in gathering important information, such as issues of military sexual trauma (MST) and issues of intimacy upon re-entering the home environment. This study was conducted before January 2013, when Defense Secretary Leon Panetta announced the lift of the ban on women serving in combat. Therefore, future studies will need to be conducted to discern how these stressors will affect them in their new role as active combatants. PMID:26618055

  2. Cardiac lymphangioma presenting as intrapericardial cystic mass

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Nazir A.; Naikoo, Bashir A.; Khan, Naseer A.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic lymphangioma usually confined to head and neck is a well-recognized tumor that occurs during childhood. However, a cardiac lymphangioma is exceptionally uncommon and a particularly rare form of disease. We report a case of cystic lymphangioma arising from the right ventricular wall, and presenting as pericardial mass in a young female, who presented with a history of exercise intolerance in the form of breathlessness on exertion and palpitations. The management of such a case was a difficult task; however, she underwent near total resection of the mass, and is doing well for the last 2 years. PMID:26739981

  3. SLE presenting as multiple hemorrhagic complications.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, M C; Alungal, J; Hashim, S; Ali, M M; Musambil, M

    2015-09-01

    A 24 year old female with hereditary spastic paraplegia presented with intermittent headache for one year. She also had lower abdominal pain and vomiting for two months. She was pale, had icterus and mild splenomegaly. On diagnostic evaluation she was found to have hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and bilateral adrenal, subdural, soft tissue (scalp and orbit) hemorrhages due to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) antibodies were negative. Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage without associated APS is a rare phenomenon in SLE. We describe a case of SLE presenting with sequence of rare hemorrhagic complications in concert. PMID:25716420

  4. Blade Testing Trends (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, M.

    2014-08-01

    As an invited guest speaker, Michael Desmond presented on NREL's NWTC structural testing methods and capabilities at the 2014 Sandia Blade Workshop held on August 26-28, 2014 in Albuquerque, NM. Although dynamometer and field testing capabilities were mentioned, the presentation focused primarily on wind turbine blade testing, including descriptions and capabilities for accredited certification testing, historical methodology and technology deployment, and current research and development activities.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M. M.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented to the 2012 Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners, during their June, 2012, meeting. The Western Conference of Public Service Commissioners is a regional association within the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC).

  6. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  7. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  8. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  9. Late injury of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, P.W.; Russell, A.; Bruner, D.

    1995-03-30

    The purpose of this article is to review the late effects of cancer therapy on the female reproductive tract. The anatomic sites detailed are the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The available pathophysiology is discussed. Clinical syndromes are presented. Tolerance doses of irradiation for late effects are rarely presented in the literature and are reviewed where available. Management strategies for surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic late effects are discussed. Endpoints for evaluation of therapeutic late effects have been formulated utilizing the symptons, objective, management, and analytic (SOMA) format. Late effects on the female reproductive tract from cancer therapy should be recognized and managed appropriately. A grading system for these effects is presented. Endpoints for late effects and tolls for the evaluation need to be further developed. 61 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Risk Factors for the Female Athlete Triad among Female Collegiate and Noncollegiate Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.; Gabriel, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    The female athlete triad, defined by eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and osteoporosis, has been increasing among female athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine eating disorders, performance-related injuries, menstrual dysfunction, exercise time, calcium intake, and orientation to exercise among undergraduate female collegiate…

  11. Acoustic mate copying: female cowbirds attend to other females' vocalizations to modify their song preferences.

    PubMed

    Freed-Brown, Grace; White, David J

    2009-09-22

    We conducted a tutoring experiment to determine whether female brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) would attend to vocalizations of other females and use those cues to influence their own preferences for male courtship songs. We collected recordings of male songs that were unfamiliar to the subject females and paired half of the songs with female chatter vocalizations-vocalizations that females give in response to songs sung by males that are courting the females effectively. Thus, chatter immediately following a song provided a cue indicating that the song was sung by a male who was of high-enough quality to court a female successfully. Using a cross-over design, we tutored two groups of females with song-chatter pairings prior to the breeding season. In the breeding season, we placed the tutored females into sound-attenuating chambers and played them the same songs without the chatter. Females produced significantly more copulation solicitation displays in response to the songs that they had heard paired with chatter than to songs that had not been paired with chatter. This experiment is the first demonstration that females can modify their song preferences by attending to the vocal behaviour of other females. PMID:19535371

  12. Do gravid female Anolis nebulosus thermoregulate differently than males and non-gravid females?

    PubMed

    Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Ramírez-Silva, Juan Pablo

    2015-08-01

    In lizards, the role of gravid oviparous females in controlling the temperature experienced by developing embryos prior to oviposition has been rarely examined. In particular, relatively little is known about the effect of gravidity on the thermal ecology of female Anolis lizards. Here we examine the thermal ecology of Anolis nebulosus from Nayarit, Mexico, with a particular goal of comparing the thermal ecology of gravid females to that of non-gravid females and males. The thermal efficiency (E) of gravid female A. nebulosus (E=0.782) was higher than in males (E=0.464), and to a lesser extent, non-gravid females (E=0.637), despite no significant differences observed in body, air, operative, or set point temperatures among males, gravid females, and non-gravid females. Gravid females had smaller differences between body temperatures and set point temperatures (db), but did not differ in the difference between operative temperature and set point temperature (de). Gravid females used sun-shade and shaded microhabitats proportionately more than males and non-gravid females, and rarely used sunny microhabitats. Our results suggest that gravid A. nebulosus are using a different and more efficient thermoregulatory strategy than other adults in the population. Such efficient thermoregulation is possibly related to females attempting to provide a thermal environment that is conducive to the development of embryos in eggs prior to oviposition. PMID:26267502

  13. Female mate preference and sexual conflict: females prefer males that have had fewer consorts.

    PubMed

    Harris, W Edwin; Moore, Patricia J

    2005-05-01

    Different aspects of male quality as a mate can vary independently. When this is the case, females may need to use multiple cues to accurately assess overall mate quality. We examined the pattern of mating preference in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. Sexual conflict occurs in this species because male manipulation of female mating receptivity can result in reduced female fitness. We predicted that since females cannot remate within a single reproductive bout because of male manipulation, females should assess male mating history to avoid mating with males with low fertility caused by sperm exhaustion. In a mate-preference experiment, we found that females discriminated against males who had mated multiple times. Females also discriminated against males who had consorted with several females but had been prevented from mating with those females. Thus, females appeared to be able to detect cues on males that were derived from previous mates and to use this information to avoid mating with sperm-exhausted males. We suggest that females may commonly use multiple cues to assess different aspects of mate quality, especially when male quality changes over time. This is an under-studied phenomenon that could help explain individual variation in female mating preferences. PMID:15795863

  14. Forced swim test: What about females?

    PubMed

    Kokras, Nikolaos; Antoniou, Katerina; Mikail, Hudu G; Kafetzopoulos, Vasilios; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta; Dalla, Christina

    2015-12-01

    In preclinical studies screening for novel antidepressants, male and female animals should be used. However, in a widely used antidepressant test, the forced swim test (FST), sex differences between males and females are not consistent. These discrepancies may discourage the inclusion of females in FST studies. In order to overcome this problem and provide a detailed insight regarding the use of female animals in the FST, we designed the following experiment and we performed a thorough analysis of the relevant literature. Male and female Wistar adult rats were subjected to the FST and sertraline was used as an antidepressant in two doses (10 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg, 3 injections in 24 h). Rodents were subjected in the two FST sessions during all possible combinations of the estrous cycle stages. We found that females exhibited higher levels of immobility than males and this sex difference was alleviated following antidepressant treatment. Sertraline at both doses enhanced swimming in both sexes, but females appeared more responsive to lower sertraline doses regarding immobility levels. Surprisingly, the high sertraline dose enhanced climbing particularly in proestrous and diestrous. Marked sex differences were also observed in the frequency of head swinging, with females exhibiting lower counts than males. Conclusively, when screening for new antidepressants, it is recommended to use standard FST procedures and if possible to include females in all phases of the cycle. Using only one dose of an investigational drug in females in certain phases of the cycle could result to false negative results. PMID:25839894

  15. Female teneral mating in a monandrous species

    PubMed Central

    Monceau, Karine; van Baaren, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Schultesia nitor is a gregarious species living in Cacicus and Psarocolius ssp. pouch-like nests. Due to gregariousness, opportunities for multiple copulations in both sexes are not supposed to be restricted. Females produce only one brood during their life and die within a few days following the birth of their nymphs, but this unique brood could be the result of either single or multiple mating events (i.e., monandry vs. polyandry). In this study, we first determined the age of sexual receptivity of both males and females. Larval development in this species is shorter in males than in females and thus, this species is protandric. Males were not able to copulate the day after emergence. Contrary to males, teneral females (i.e., females achieving their imaginal molt but not yet fully sclerotised and colored) were attractive and were able to mate with males. In the second experiment, we tested the existence of multiple matings in both sexes. Our results showed that females were monandrous whereas males were polygynous. Since we had observed that females were monoandrous, we expected them to be choosy and we determined their ability to discriminate between virgin and nonvirgin males. When given the choice, females preferred virgin males and overall, they were more successful at mating than experienced ones. Our results suggest that monandry may be primarily driven by the female’s short life-span fecundity. The occurrence of teneral mating in this species calls into question the existence of a male strategy for monopolizing females, and as well as the implication of female choice. Although further work is required, this species provides an interesting model for understanding sexual conflicts. PMID:22957151

  16. Dermatofibroma: Atypical Presentations.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Mousumi Roy; Besra, Mrinal; Dutta, Somasree; Sarkar, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibroma is a common benign fibrohistiocytic tumor and its diagnosis is easy when it presents classical clinicopathological features. However, a dermatofibroma may show a wide variety of clinicopathological variants and, therefore, the diagnosis may be difficult. The typical dermatofibroma generally occurs as a single or multiple firm reddish-brown nodules. We report here two atypical presentations of dermatofibroma - Atrophic dermatofibroma and keloidal presentation of dermatofibroma. Clinical dermal atrophy is a common phenomenon in dermatofibromas as demonstrated by the dimpling on lateral pressure. However, this feature is exaggerated in the atrophic variant of dermatofibroma. Atrophic dermatofibroma is defined by dermal atrophy of more than 50% of the lesion apart from the usual features of common dermatofibroma. The keloidal variant of dermatofibroma should not be overlooked as a simple keloid. The findings of keloidal change in dermatofibromas may support that trauma is a possible cause of dermatofibroma. PMID:26955137

  17. Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, Doc

    2001-05-01

    'Back to the Future'! Who achieved What, When, Why and How is presented. A chronological Review from Galileo's fundamental concepts to today. An analysis of the validity of said concepts. Especially a critical analysis of Einstein's opinion that the velocity of c is the 'ultimate' Universal velocity. --- The Author presents ``21st C TMP''; per the PhD company's analysis of our dynamic Universe. Namely, X' = X - vt/[square root 1 - (v squared/C squared)]. Capital C equal to or GREATER than c, Einstein's 'ultimate' velocity. --- And " MAPHICS ", (TM); MA from MAthematics; and PHICS from PHysICS. " MAPHICS " the ``Omega Science'' that combines the Philosophy of Mathematics with the Philososphy of Physics into ONE Philosophy. `` MAPHICS '' (TM) is presented and explained. Its claimed speed and power of infinite resolution is demonstrated.

  18. Dermatofibroma: Atypical Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Mousumi Roy; Besra, Mrinal; Dutta, Somasree; Sarkar, Somnath

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibroma is a common benign fibrohistiocytic tumor and its diagnosis is easy when it presents classical clinicopathological features. However, a dermatofibroma may show a wide variety of clinicopathological variants and, therefore, the diagnosis may be difficult. The typical dermatofibroma generally occurs as a single or multiple firm reddish-brown nodules. We report here two atypical presentations of dermatofibroma - Atrophic dermatofibroma and keloidal presentation of dermatofibroma. Clinical dermal atrophy is a common phenomenon in dermatofibromas as demonstrated by the dimpling on lateral pressure. However, this feature is exaggerated in the atrophic variant of dermatofibroma. Atrophic dermatofibroma is defined by dermal atrophy of more than 50% of the lesion apart from the usual features of common dermatofibroma. The keloidal variant of dermatofibroma should not be overlooked as a simple keloid. The findings of keloidal change in dermatofibromas may support that trauma is a possible cause of dermatofibroma. PMID:26955137

  19. Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.

    PubMed

    Khanna, R; Price, J

    1994-06-01

    India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children

  20. 2014 female athlete triad coalition consensus statement on treatment and return to play of the female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Joy, Elizabeth; De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon; Barrack, Michelle; Burke, Louise; Drinkwater, Barbara; Lebrun, Connie; Loucks, Anne B; Mountjoy, Margo; Nichols, Jeanne; Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot

    2014-01-01

    The female athlete triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women and involves three components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction, and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three triad components, and early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious end points that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This consensus statement presents a set of recommendations developed following the first (San Francisco, CA) and second (Indianapolis, IN) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. This consensus statement was intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers, and other health care providers for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of the female athlete triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision making regarding sport participation, clearance, and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team, and implementation of treatment contracts. PMID:25014387

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    DeMeo, E.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at Wind Powering America States Summit. The Summit, which follows the American Wind Energy Association's (AWEA's) annual WINDPOWER Conference and Exhibition, provides state Wind Working Groups, state energy officials, U.S. Energy Department and national laboratory representatives, and professional and institutional partners an opportunity to review successes, opportunities, and challenges for wind energy and plan future collaboration.

  3. OHVIRA syndrome: rare cause of chronic vaginal discharge in an unmarried female.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Aruna; Raghunandan, Chitra; Yadav, Reena; Tomer, Shaili; Anand, Rama

    2011-09-01

    Chronic vaginal discharge in adolescent and young females, not responding to antibiotics, can pose a diagnostic dilemma for many gynecologists and general practitioners. Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA syndrome) is a rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of a 22-year-old unmarried female with this syndrome presenting with chronic purulent vaginal discharge. The uniqueness about the case is its much delayed presentation. PMID:20726998

  4. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  5. First Class of Female Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    From left to right are Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher, and Sally K. Ride. NASA selected all six women as their first female astronaut candidates in January 1978, allowing them to enroll in a training program that they completed in August 1979. Shannon W. Lucid was born on January 14, 1943 in Shanghai, China but considers Bethany, Oklahoma to be her hometown. She spent many years at the University of Oklahoma, receiving a Bachelor in chemistry in 1963, a Master in biochemistry in 1970, and a Doctorate in biochemistry in 1973. Dr. Lucid flew on the STS-51G Discovery, STS-34 Atlantis, STS-43 Atlantis, and STS-58 Columbia shuttle missions, setting the record for female astronauts by logging 838 hours and 54 minutes in space. She also currently holds the United States single mission space flight endurance record for her 188 days on the Russian Space Station Mir. From February 2002 to September 2003, she served as chief scientist at NASA Headquarters before returning to JSC to help with the Return to Flight program after the STS-107 accident. Born November 8, 1947, in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Margaret Rhea Seddon received a Doctorate of Medicine in 1973 from the University of Tennessee. She flew on space missions STS-51 Discovery, STS-40 Columbia, and STS-58 Columbia for a total of over 722 hours in space. Dr. Seddon retired from NASA in November 1997, taking on a position as the Assistant Chief Medical Officer of the Vanderbilt Medical Group in Nashville, Tennessee. Kathryn Sullivan was born October 3, 1951 in Patterson, New Jersey but considers Woodland Hills, California to be her hometown. She received a Bachelor in Earth Sciences from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1973 and a Doctorate in Geology from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1978. She flew on space missions STS-41G, STS-31, and STS-45 and logged a total of 532 hours in space. Dr. Sullivan left NASA in August 1992 to

  6. Producing a Multimedia Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobberstein, Kathleen; Drzick, Kathleen

    Based on the poem "1960s: Decade of Muffled Drums," this guidebook suggests how multimedia presentations enhance and illustrate literary selections. The booklet is intended both for teachers planning a media course and for teachers who are interested in including multimedia with other teaching approaches. Among the media which can be used are tape…

  7. Interactive Presentation of Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdin, Martin; Turcáni, Milan; Vrábel, Marek

    2009-01-01

    In the paper we discus about design of universal environment for solution of creating effective multimedia applications with accent on the implementation of interactive elements with the possibility of using the adaptive systems (AS). We also discuss about possibilities of offline presentation of this interactive multimedia adaptive animations…

  8. Rachael Humberg Exit Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humberg, Rachael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the experiences of a college student during a summer internship. The student involved in many projects, such as Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), Acoustic Equipment Testing, Acoustic Test planing for the X-48B and Ikhana.

  9. Managing Presentation Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Jackie L.; LeMay, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    All business communication professors struggle with anxiety-ridden students when discussing public speaking. To alleviate students' fears of speaking in public a process was designed to allow business communication students to acknowledge, address, and annul their presentation fears. A six-year comparative study using qualitative methods and…

  10. Sarcoidosis presenting with chylothorax.

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, P. R.; Whyte, M. K.; Sabroe, I.; Hughes, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    A patient in whom chylothorax was the presenting feature of sarcoidosis is reported. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy was shown by computed tomographic scanning. Obstruction of the thoracic duct by enlarged lymph nodes or fibrosis is the probable cause of chylothorax in this case. The association of chylothorax and sarcoidosis is extremely rare. Images PMID:8553312

  11. Sexual signalling by females: do unmated females increase their signalling effort?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W

    2015-06-01

    Theory predicts that females should invest least in mate searching when young, but increase their effort with age if they remain unmated. Few studies have examined variation in female sexual signalling. Female Dawson's burrowing bees (Amegilla dawsoni) search for males by signalling their receptivity on emergence, but many leave the emergence site unmated and must attract males at feeding sites. Female bees prevented from mating on emergence had more extreme versions of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that make them attractive to males, lending empirical evidence of adaptive shifts in female mating effort. PMID:26109613

  12. Complex Chemosensory Control of Female Reproductive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Eleanor J.; Shah, Nirao M.

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse. PMID:24587340

  13. Adaptive size modification by dominant female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew F; Carlson, Anne A; McIlrath, Grant M; Jordan, Neil R; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2004-07-01

    In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition of alpha status is associated with a significant increase in body size through an elongation of the lumbar vertebrae. Here we provide evidence of morphological modification among breeding females of a cooperative carnivore, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), and demonstrate that this modification is likely to be adaptive. The same female meerkats were significantly larger when they were dominant than when they were subordinate. This increased body size was not explained by differences in age, foraging efficiency, or investment in offspring care, but may have arisen, in part, through increased levels of hormone that govern bone growth. Increases in body size are likely to result in fitness benefits, for large females delivered larger litters and had heavier offspring, both of which are known to correlate positively with measures of breeding success in meerkats. Our results suggest that the acquisition of alpha status in female meerkats is associated with an adaptive increase in body size and hence that morphological modification of female vertebrates may be more widespread than has been previously supposed. PMID:15341161

  14. Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Eleanor J; Shah, Nirao M

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse. PMID:24587340

  15. Different endurance characteristics of female and male german soccer players.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, C; Hoppe, M W; Freiwald, J

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess gender differences regarding lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance in female and male soccer players as well as to investigate the relationships between both endurance characteristics in both genders. Fourteen female (1(st) division) and thirteen male (4(th) division) soccer players completed an incremental test (IT) to determine running velocities at 2 and 4 mmol · l(-1) blood lactate (v2 and v4) and maximum velocity (vmax) as well as an interval shuttle run test (ISRT) to determine running distance. Based on v2 and v4 and their percentages in relation to vmax, three intensity zones were calculated: a low lactate zone (v4). Female soccer players have a lower v4 (8.2%), vmax (11.3%) and ISRT distance (31.6%). No gender difference was found in v2. In contrast to males, ISRT distance correlates with vmax as well as with v2 and v4 in female soccer players. The intensity zones v4 differ between genders. The present study revealed that gender differences increase when the running performance is intermittent including change of directions. In both genders, different relationships between lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance exist. During incremental testing, the running performances of female and male players reflect different distributions of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The revealed gender differences should be considered for soccer endurance training. PMID:25177102

  16. DIFFERENT ENDURANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE AND MALE GERMAN SOCCER PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, M.W.; Freiwald, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess gender differences regarding lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance in female and male soccer players as well as to investigate the relationships between both endurance characteristics in both genders. Fourteen female (1st division) and thirteen male (4th division) soccer players completed an incremental test (IT) to determine running velocities at 2 and 4 mmol · l−1 blood lactate (v2 and v4) and maximum velocity (vmax) as well as an interval shuttle run test (ISRT) to determine running distance. Based on v2 and v4 and their percentages in relation to vmax, three intensity zones were calculated: a low lactate zone (v4). Female soccer players have a lower v4 (8.2%), vmax (11.3%) and ISRT distance (31.6%). No gender difference was found in v2. In contrast to males, ISRT distance correlates with vmax as well as with v2 and v4 in female soccer players. The intensity zones v4 differ between genders. The present study revealed that gender differences increase when the running performance is intermittent including change of directions. In both genders, different relationships between lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance exist. During incremental testing, the running performances of female and male players reflect different distributions of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The revealed gender differences should be considered for soccer endurance training. PMID:25177102

  17. Collier Trophy Presentation 1929

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This photograph is a copy of President Herbert Hoover presenting the Collier Trophy to Joseph Ames, chairman of the NACA in 1929. Three years later, as part of his plan to increase efficiency in government, Hoover would sign an executive order to abolish the NACA. Photograph published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 130).

  18. Lacaziosis - unusual clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Pétra Pereira de; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Westphal, Danielle Cristine

    2015-01-01

    Lacaziosis or Jorge Lobo's disease is a fungal, granulomatous, chronic infectious disease caused by Lacazia loboi, which usually affects the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is characterized by slow evolution and a variety of cutaneous manifestations with the most common clinical expression being nodular keloid lesions that predominate in exposed areas. We report the case of a patient who had an unusual clinical presentation, with a single-plated lesion on the back. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Lacaziosis. PMID:25831004

  19. Pachygyria Presented as Mania

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Seshadri Sekhar; Talapatra, Devlina; Acharya, Rudra; Sarkhel, Sujit

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric manifestation of pachygyria, a neuronal migration disorder is rare in literature; rarer if it is bipolar disorder specifically. Here, we report a case of mania and seizure who subsequently diagnosed as pachygyria. Proper literature about pathophysiology is discussed and recently discovered putative genetic role in bipolar disorder explained. This case also emphasis the importance of detailed history taking and imaging investigation even in a pure psychiatric presentation. PMID:26702182

  20. Female feeding regime and polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider, Pisaura mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Pavol; Maxwell, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    We examined the influence of female feeding regime on polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider (Pisaura mirabilis). In this species, the nuptial gift, a dead prey item wrapped in the male’s silk, is physically separate from the ejaculate. We manipulated female feeding regime (starved or fed) and the presence or absence of a gift with three successive males to test direct-benefits hypotheses (nuptial gift or sperm supply) for the expression of polyandry. The presence of a gift was necessary for copulation, as no male without a gift successfully copulated. Female mating behavior most strongly supports polyandry due to the accumulation of gifted food items (“nuptial gift” direct-benefits hypothesis). Starved females that were presented with a gift accepted significantly more gifts and inseminations than fed females. Most starved females (74%) copulated two or more times, as opposed to only 3% of the fed females. Nearly all of the females that accepted a gift subsequently copulated. The nuptial gift item seems to function as male mating effort and females appear to receive multiple matings as part of a feeding strategy.

  1. Unusual presentation of phaeochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Hope, D C D; Palan, J M

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman, with a background of heart, lung and renal transplantation secondary to cystic fibrosis and type 1 diabetes, presented with tachycardia, hyperglycaemia, nausea and vomiting. She was initially managed for diabetic ketoacidosis with severe dehydration. However, persistent episodic hypertension and tachycardia led the investigating team to identify significantly raised urinary metanephrines and a left-sided adrenal mass; Iodine-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine single photon emission computer tomography scan (MIBG SPECT/CT) showed avid uptake of tracer, confirming a left-sided phaeochromocytoma. She was started on medical management and is awaiting an elective laparoscopic procedure. This case describes the presentation of a unilateral phaeochromocytoma as ketoacidosis in a patient with type 1 diabetes with no other apparent precipitant. This highlights the metabolic counter-regulatory effect of excess catecholamines in addition to the inotropic/chronotropic effects that are associated with this adrenal tumour. Recognition of atypical signs and symptoms may point towards an atypical precipitant of diabetic ketoacidosis-a medical emergency presenting to front-line clinicians. PMID:27166010

  2. Prematurity: present and future

    PubMed Central

    Tsimis, M. E.; Al-Hamayel, N. Abu; Germaine, H.; Burd, I.

    2014-01-01

    The study of preterm labor and prematurity, as with any medical science, has undergone a major transformation in its approach from an inevitable part of obstetrics with few answers to one in which science has led to knowledge and clinical intervention. Despite these advancements, understanding of preterm labor and prevention of prematurity is still limited. In the current review, we begin the discussion with fetal viability, first from a historical perspective and then from the understanding of this issue from a prospective of various professional organizations. We then present the scope of the problem of preterm birth from various countries including the discrepancy between the US and Europe. We continue with updates on extreme prematurity and outcomes with two longitudinal studies from the past 2 years. We further review available interventions for prematurity and discuss the use of antenatal corticosteroids. First, we examine their use in the context of professional recommendations and then examine the trajectory of their continued use in the late preterm period. We focus on a European-based trial with preliminary results and an ongoing American counterpart. The current knowledge of molecular mechanisms behind preterm labor is presented with a focus on the multiple etiologies of preterm labor, both known and presumed, with updates in the basic science realm. Furthermore, up-to-date studies on prediction of preterm birth and prematurity-related morbidity are presented. PMID:25300768

  3. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    PubMed

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. PMID:27041639

  4. Why Are There So Few Female Physicists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Laura Ann

    2006-03-01

    It is 1962 and an adolescent female is trying to decide what classes to take; the principal asserts, "a girl has no need for physics."2 School counselors or administrators may no longer make statements like this; however, the perception that shaped the principal's comment may be part of hidden and subtle discriminatory attitudes still active in today's schools. The point of this paper is to reveal and assess current attitudes toward female participation in physics education and suggest practices to ensure a fair environment for both males and females.

  5. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed. PMID:21570034

  6. Sevoflurane-induced pica in female rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Emiri; Sugimoto, Toru; Sagakami, Takuya; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    We examined the effects of volatile anesthetics on pica, which can be used to assess nausea and vomiting in rats. We found that inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane significantly induced pica in female but not male rats. Among the female rats, young rats (8 weeks old) were more susceptible to its induction than adult rats (20 weeks old) with ovariectomy or sham-surgery. Anti-emetic drugs that are used to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) inhibited the pica. These results suggest that sevoflurane-induced pica in young female rats has the potential to be an animal model of PONV in humans. PMID:27156008

  7. PULMONARY FUNCTION STUDIES IN FEMALE SINGERS OF KOLKATA, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindita Singha; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2015-12-01

    Singing performance is based on the efficiency of the respiratory system. The present study was aimed to evaluate the results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in female singers of Kolkata, India and to compare the data with their sedentary counterparts from India and abroad. The study was also aimed to propose prediction norms for PFTs in both the groups. Fifty-six female singers and fifty-two female non-singers (control group) with similar socioeconomic backgrounds were randomly sampled from the Rabindrabharati University, Kolkata. Pulmonary function tests were conducted by an Expirograph and the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured by Wright's peak flow meter. PFTs were significantly higher in singers than in their control group. The correlation matrix depicted a significant relationship of physical parameters (age, body height and body weight) with vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratoty volume in 1 second (FEV1) and PEFR in both groups. Regression equations were computed to predict PFTs from physical parameters and duration of invovlement in singing training. The results indicated that female singers of Kolkata had higher lung capacity than their non-singer counterparts probably because of their regular practice and training of singing that required imperative effort of the respiratory system. PMID:27501539

  8. X-chromosome inactivation in female patients with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, L; Benistan, K; Toussaint, A; Dubourg, O; Hagege, A A; Eladari, D; Jabbour, F; Beldjord, C; De Mazancourt, P; Germain, D P

    2016-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked genetic disorder caused by the deficient activity of lysosomal α-galactosidase (α-Gal). While males are usually severely affected, clinical presentation in female patients may be more variable ranging from asymptomatic to, occasionally, as severely affected as male patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in females with FD, its concordance between tissues, and its contribution to the phenotype. Fifty-six females with FD were enrolled. Clinical and biological work-up included two global scores [Mainz Severity Score Index (MSSI) and DS3], cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, measured glomerular filtration rate, and measurement of α-Gal activity. XCI was analyzed in four tissues using DNA methylation studies. Skewed XCI was found in 29% of the study population. A correlation was found in XCI patterns between blood and the other analyzed tissues although some punctual variability was detected. Significant differences in residual α-Gal levels, severity scores, progression of cardiomyopathy and deterioration of kidney function, depending on the direction and degree of skewing of XCI were evidenced. XCI significantly impacts the phenotype and natural history of FD in females. PMID:25974833

  9. MECP2 duplication: possible cause of severe phenotype in females.

    PubMed

    Scott Schwoerer, Jessica; Laffin, Jennifer; Haun, Joanne; Raca, Gordana; Friez, Michael J; Giampietro, Philip F

    2014-04-01

    MECP2 duplication syndrome, originally described in 2005, is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder comprising infantile hypotonia, severe to profound intellectual disability, autism or autistic-like features, spasticity, along with a variety of additional features that are not always clinically apparent. The syndrome is due to a duplication (or triplication) of the gene methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2). To date, the disorder has been described almost exclusively in males. Female carriers of the duplication are thought to have no or mild phenotypic features. Recently, a phenotype for females began emerging. We describe a family with ∼290 kb duplication of Xq28 region that includes the MECP2 gene where the proposita and affected family members are female. Twin sisters, presumed identical, presented early with developmental delay, and seizures. Evaluation of the proposita at 25 years of age included microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) which revealed the MECP2 gene duplication. The same duplication was found in the proposita's sister, who is more severely affected, and the proband's mother who has mild intellectual disability and depression. X-chromosome inactivation studies showed significant skewing in the mother, but was uninformative in the twin sisters. We propose that the MECP2 duplication caused for the phenotype of the proband and her sister. These findings support evidence for varied severity in some females with MECP2 duplications. PMID:24458799

  10. Is male rhesus macaque red color ornamentation attractive to females?

    PubMed Central

    Dubuc, Constance; Allen, William L.; Maestripieri, Dario; Higham, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Male sexually-selected traits can evolve through different mechanisms: conspicuous and colorful ornaments usually evolve through inter-sexual selection, while weapons usually evolve through intra-sexual selection. Male ornaments are rare among mammals in comparison to birds, leading to the notion that female mate choice generally plays little role in trait evolution in this taxon. Supporting this view, when ornaments are present in mammals they typically indicate social status and are products of male-male competition. This general mammalian pattern, however, may not apply to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Males of this species display conspicuous skin coloration, but this expression is not correlated to dominance rank, and is therefore unlikely to have evolved due to male-male competition. Here, we investigate whether male color expression influences female proceptivity towards males in the Cayo Santiago free-ranging rhesus macaque population. We collected face images of 24 adult males varying in dominance rank and age at the peak of the mating season, and modeled these to rhesus macaque visual perception. We also recorded female socio-sexual behaviors towards these males. Results show that dark red males received more sexual solicitations, by more females, than pale pink ones. Together with previous results, our study suggests that male color ornaments are more likely to be a product of inter- rather than intra-sexual selection. This may especially be the case in rhesus macaques due to the particular characteristics of male-male competition in this species. PMID:25246728

  11. Impaired development of female mouse offspring maternally exposed to simazine.

    PubMed

    Park, Seeun; Kim, Sarang; Jin, Hong; Lee, Kangseok; Bae, Jeehyeon

    2014-11-01

    Simazine is a suspected endocrine disruptor and the second most commonly detected pesticide in surface and groundwater worldwide. We evaluated the toxicity of simazine in female mouse offspring with in utero and lactational exposure to the agent. Pregnant mice were exposed to environmentally relevant doses (from 5 to 500μg/kg) of simazine via oral administration, and their female offspring were then analyzed. The female offspring showed shortened anogenital distance and decreased whole body, ovarian, and uterine weights. Their ovaries showed increased apoptotic granulosa cells. In addition, expression of critical genes involved in regulation of cellular apoptosis and proliferation was significantly downregulated in the ovaries of simazine-exposed mice. Moreover, in vitro exposure of human granulosa cell-derived KGN cells to simazine (0.003-1nM) resulted in decreased viability and proliferation. Thus, the present study demonstrates that maternal exposure to low doses of simazine impairs normal development of female offspring via disturbance of cellular apoptosis and proliferation. PMID:25461544

  12. Dynamics of sex ratio and female unmatedness under haplodiploidy

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Haplodiploid sex determination allows unmated females to produce sons. Consequently, a scarcity of males may lead to a significant proportion of females remaining unmated, which may in turn give rise to a surfeit of males in the following generation. Stable oscillation of the sex ratio has been predicted by classic models, and it remains a puzzle as to why this is not observed in natural populations. Here, I investigate the dynamics of sex allocation over ecological and evolutionary timescales to assess the potential for sustained oscillation. I find that, whilst stable oscillation of the sex ratio is possible, the scope for such dynamical behavior is reduced if sex allocation strategies are evolutionary labile, especially if mated females may facultatively adjust their sex allocation according to the present availability of mating partners. My model, taken together with empirical estimates of female unmatedness in haplodiploid taxa, suggests that sustained oscillation of the sex ratio is implausible in natural populations. However, this phenomenon may be relevant to artificially introduced biological control agents. PMID:24967080

  13. Manifestations of immune tolerance in the human female reproductive tract

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Gary F.; Schust, Danny J.

    2012-01-01

    Like other mucosal surfaces (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract), the human female reproductive tract acts as an initial barrier to foreign antigens. In this role, the epithelial surface and subepithelial immune cells must balance protection against pathogenic insults against harmful inflammatory reactions and acceptance of particular foreign antigens. Two common examples of these acceptable foreign antigens are the fetal allograft and human semen/sperm. Both are purposely deposited into the female genital tract and appropriate immunologic response to these non-self antigens is essential to the survival of the species. In light of the weight of this task, it is not surprising that multiple, redundant and overlapping mechanisms are involved. For instance, cells at the immunologic interface between self (female reproductive tract epithelium) and non-self (placental trophoblast cells or human sperm) express glycosylation patterns that mimic those on many metastatic cancer cells and successful pathogens. The cytokine/chemokine milieu at this interface is altered through endocrine and immunologic mechanisms to favor tolerance of non-self. The “foreign” cells themselves also play an integral role in their own immunologic acceptance, since sperm and placental trophoblast cells are unusual and unique in their antigen presenting molecule expression patterns. Here, we will discuss these and other mechanisms that allow the human female reproductive tract to perform this delicate and indispensible balancing act. PMID:23407606

  14. A displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with female athlete triad: A case report.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Arai, Yuji; Hara, Kunio; Tsuzihara, Takashi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a case of a displaced stress fracture of the femoral neck in an adolescent female distance runner with amenorrhea. Both reduction and internal fixation were performed early after the injury. At 24 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy showed no positive signs of femoral head necrosis and bone union was confirmed on plain X-ray. A medical examination for the presence of the signs of the female athlete triad by checking weight, calorie intake and menstrual cycles is most important to prevent such stress fractures. Athletes as well as their coaches or parents therefore need to understand female athlete triad. PMID:20205723

  15. Choroidoretinal granuloma in a young female patient

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Horace F; Gatzioufas, Zisis; Mangioris, Georgios; Panos, Georgios D

    2014-01-01

    A 16-year-old Brazilian female patient presented with blurring of vision in the right eye. Corrected visual acuity was OD 2/20, OS 20/20. Afferent pupillary defect was absent and anterior segment examination revealed anterior uveitis. Fundus examination showed light vitritis and a raised grey–white granuloma located at posterior pole with focal serous retinal detachment on optical coherence. Indocyacnine green angiography disclosed a complete mask effect in granuloma's area. Differential diagnoses were infectious (bacterial, viral, fungal and parasites) diseases, systemic inflammatory diseases, tumours. Blood serologies (HIV, toxoplasma, Borrelia, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), rubeola) showed positive results for IgM and IgG for toxoplasma, and anterior chamber tap (PCR for toxoplasma, CMV, HSV, VZV) revealed toxoplasma DNA. Anti-toxoplasma therapy, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and calcium folinate, was administered immediately. On follow-up granuloma regression was observed, with complete visual restoration. This case demonstrates a clinically challenging posterior pole granuloma. PMID:24744062

  16. Choroidoretinal granuloma in a young female patient.

    PubMed

    Massa, Horace F; Gatzioufas, Zisis; Mangioris, Georgios; Panos, Georgios D

    2014-01-01

    A 16-year-old Brazilian female patient presented with blurring of vision in the right eye. Corrected visual acuity was OD 2/20, OS 20/20. Afferent pupillary defect was absent and anterior segment examination revealed anterior uveitis. Fundus examination showed light vitritis and a raised grey-white granuloma located at posterior pole with focal serous retinal detachment on optical coherence. Indocyacnine green angiography disclosed a complete mask effect in granuloma's area. Differential diagnoses were infectious (bacterial, viral, fungal and parasites) diseases, systemic inflammatory diseases, tumours. Blood serologies (HIV, toxoplasma, Borrelia, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), rubeola) showed positive results for IgM and IgG for toxoplasma, and anterior chamber tap (PCR for toxoplasma, CMV, HSV, VZV) revealed toxoplasma DNA. Anti-toxoplasma therapy, pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and calcium folinate, was administered immediately. On follow-up granuloma regression was observed, with complete visual restoration. This case demonstrates a clinically challenging posterior pole granuloma. PMID:24744062

  17. Energy Week presentations

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Topics covered include: energy security; clean energy and low carbon; energy for growth and poverty reduction in Africa; financing of energy efficiency; SMEs for decentralised energy service provision; potential for biofuels in developing countries; clean energy and sustainable development; clean energy finance and private equity funds; power generation and low carbon technologies; beyond traditional finance; rehabilitation and emission control in thermal power plants; and carbon finance. The presentations are mainly in ppt (Power Point) or pdf (Acrobat) format. Some videos of the conference are also available on the website.

  18. Sarcoidosis Presenting Addison's Disease.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kentaro; Kagami, Shin-Ichiro; Kawashima, Hirotoshi; Kashiwakuma, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yoshio; Iwamoto, Itsuo

    2016-01-01

    We herein describe a second Japanese case of sarcoidosis presenting Addison's disease. A 52-year-old man was diagnosed with sarcoidosis based on clinical and laboratory findings, including bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and elevated levels of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme and lysozyme, as well as the presence of noncaseating epithelioid granulomas. The patient also exhibited general fatigue, pigmentation, weight loss, hypotension and hyponatremia, suggestive of chronic adrenocortical insufficiency. An endocrine examination confirmed primary adrenocortical insufficiency. This case suggests the direct involvement of sarcoid granuloma in the adrenal glands. PMID:27150885

  19. OASIS-CC presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Operations and Science Instrument Support (OASIS) project is a long-term effort to help produce operations capabilities that can support space science missions of the next century. Portions of the OASIS concept in software have been implemented under the general name OASIS-R/T. OASIS-CC is the OASIS Command and Control, for monitoring and controlling science instruments and spacecraft during test, integration, launch and on-orbit operations. Viewgraphs are presented on the OASIS-CC functionality description, OASIS-CC support, and OASIS-CC as a tool.

  20. Choriocarcinoma presenting with thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Sotello, David; Test, Victor J.; Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 26-year-old man with metastatic choriocarcinoma who presented with hyperthyroidism associated with elevated β-human chorionic gonadotropin (B-HCG) and respiratory failure secondary to diffuse lung metastasis. After the first cycle of chemotherapy, the concentration of B-HCG dramatically decreased and the patient became euthyroid, allowing us to discontinue antithyroid medications. The patient's hyperthyroidism was caused by stimulation of the thyroid gland by high B-HCG levels, as shown by the marked improvement of the patient's thyroid function panel after chemotherapy. PMID:26722165