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Sample records for 5a ns5a protein

  1. Classical swine fever virus NS5B protein suppresses the inhibitory effect of NS5A on viral translation by binding to NS5A.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chun; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Jing; Xiao, Jun; Chen, Yan; Jia, Lin; Zhi, Yimiao; Li, Guangyuan; Xiao, Ming

    2012-05-01

    In order to investigate molecular mechanisms of internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation in classical swine fever virus (CSFV), an important pathogen of pigs, the expression level of NS3 was evaluated in the context of genomic RNAs and reporter RNA fragments. All data showed that the NS5A protein has an inhibitory effect on IRES-mediated translation and that NS5B proteins suppress the inhibitory effect of NS5A on viral translation, but CSFV NS5B GDD mutants do not. Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay and immunoprecipitation analysis, associated with deletion and alanine-scanning mutations, were performed. Results showed that NS5B interacts with NS5A and that the region aa 390-414, located in the C-terminal half of NS5A, is important for binding of NS5B to NS5A. Furthermore, amino acids K399, T401, E406 and L413 in the region were found to be essential for NS5A-NS5B interaction, virus rescue and infection. The above-mentioned region and four amino acids were observed to overlap with the site responsible for inhibition of IRES-mediated translation by the NS5A protein. We also found that aa 63-72, aa 637-653 and the GDD motif of NS5B were necessary for the interaction between NS5A and NS5B. These findings suggest that the repression activity of the NS5B protein toward the role of NS5A in translation might be achieved by NS5A-NS5B interaction, for which aa 390-414 of NS5A and aa 63-72, aa 637-653 and the GDD motif of NS5B are indispensable. This is important for understanding the role of NS5A-NS5B interaction in the virus life cycle. PMID:22258858

  2. The NS5A protein of hepatitis C virus is a zinc metalloprotein.

    PubMed

    Tellinghuisen, Timothy L; Marcotrigiano, Joseph; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Rice, Charles M

    2004-11-19

    The NS5A protein of hepatitis C virus is believed to be an integral part of the viral replicase. Despite extensive investigation, the role of this protein remains elusive. Only limited biochemical characterization of NS5A has been performed, with most research to date involving the myriad of host proteins and signaling cascades that interact with NS5A. The need for better characterization of NS5A is paramount for elucidating the role of this protein in the virus life cycle. Examination of NS5A using bioinformatics tools suggested the protein consisted of three domains and contained an unconventional zinc binding motif within the N-terminal domain. We have developed a method to produce NS5A and performed limited proteolysis to confirm the domain organization model. The zinc content of purified NS5A and the N-terminal domain of NS5A was determined, and each of these proteins was found to coordinate one zinc atom per protein. The predicted zinc binding motif consists of four cysteine residues, conserved among the Hepacivirus and Pestivirus genera, fitting the formula of CX17CXCX20C. Mutation of any of the four cysteine components of this motif reduced NS5A zinc coordination and led to a lethal phenotype for HCV RNA replication, whereas mutation of other potential metal coordination residues in the N-terminal domain of NS5A, but outside the zinc binding motif, had little effect on zinc binding and, aside from one exception, were tolerated for replication. Collectively, these results indicate that NS5A is a zinc metalloprotein and that zinc coordination is likely required for NS5A function in the hepatitis C replicase.

  3. Dynamic Imaging of the Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Protein during a Productive Infection

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Nicholas S.; Fiches, Guillaume N.; Aloia, Amanda L.; Helbig, Karla J.; McCartney, Erin M.; McErlean, Christopher S. P.; Li, Kui; Aggarwal, Anupriya; Turville, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A is essential for viral genome replication within cytoplasmic replication complexes and virus assembly at the lipid droplet (LD) surface, although its definitive functions are poorly understood. We developed approaches to investigate NS5A dynamics during a productive infection. We report here that NS5A motility and efficient HCV RNA replication require the microtubule network and the cytoplasmic motor dynein and demonstrate that both motile and relatively static NS5A-positive foci are enriched with host factors VAP-A and Rab5A. Pulse-chase imaging revealed that newly synthesized NS5A foci are small and distinct from aged foci, while further studies using a unique dual fluorescently tagged infectious HCV chimera showed a relatively stable association of NS5A foci with core-capped LDs. These results reveal new details about the dynamics and maturation of NS5A and the nature of potential sites of convergence of HCV replication and assembly pathways. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of serious liver disease worldwide. An improved understanding of the HCV replication cycle will enable development of novel and improved antiviral strategies. Here we have developed complementary fluorescent labeling and imaging approaches to investigate the localization, traffic and interactions of the HCV NS5A protein in living, virus-producing cells. These studies reveal new details as to the traffic, composition and biogenesis of NS5A foci and the nature of their association with putative sites of virus assembly. PMID:24429364

  4. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein modulates template selection by the RNA polymerase in in vitro system.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander V; Tunitskaya, Vera L; Ivanova, Olga N; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Makarov, Alexander A; Kukhanova, Marina K; Kochetkov, Sergey N

    2009-01-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A phosphoprotein is a component of virus replicase. Here we demonstrate that in vitro unphosphorylated NS5A protein inhibits HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity in polyA-oligoU system but has little effect on synthesis of viral RNA. The phosphorylated casein kinase (CK) II NS5A protein causes the opposite effect on RdRp in each of these systems. The phosphorylation of NS5A protein with CKII does not affect its affinity to the HCV RdRp and RNA. The NS5A phosphorylation with CKI does not change the RdRp activity. Herein we report evidence that the NS5A prevents template binding to the RdRp.

  5. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein cooperates with phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα to induce mitochondrial fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Gavin Ka Yu; Zhou, Fan; Yu, Mei Kuen; Zhang, Leiliang; Wang, Tuanlao; Liang, Yongheng; Chen, Yangchao; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Yu, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has long been observed to take advantage of the host mitochondria to support viral replication and assembly. The HCV core protein has been implicated to fragment host mitochondria. In this report, we have discovered that the non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) plays an instructive role in attaching ER with mitochondria, causing mitochondrial fragmentation. Dynamin-related protein 1(Drp1), a host protein essential to mitochondrial membrane fission, does not play a role in NS5A-induced mitochondrial fragmentation. Instead, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα (PI4KA), which has been demonstrated to bind to NS5A and is required to support HCV life cycle, is required for NS5A to induce mitochondrial fragmentation. Both NS5A and core are required by HCV to fragment the mitochondria, as inhibiting either of their respective downstream proteins, PI4KA or Drp1, resulted in lengthening of mitochondria tubules in HCVcc-infected cells. By fragmenting the mitochondria, NS5A renders the cells more resistant to mitochondria mediated apoptosis. This finding indicates previously-ignored contribution of NS5A in HCV-induced mitochondria dysfunction. PMID:27010100

  6. Crystal Structure of a Novel Dimeric Form of NS5A Domain I Protein from Hepatitis C Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Robert A.; Brodsky, Oleg; Hickey, Michael J.; Wells, Peter A.; Cronin, Ciarán N.; Pfizer

    2009-07-10

    A new protein expression vector design utilizing an N-terminal six-histidine tag and tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site upstream of the hepatitis C virus NS5A sequence has resulted in a more straightforward purification method and improved yields of purified NS5A domain I protein. High-resolution diffracting crystals of NS5A domain I (amino acids 33 to 202) [NS5A(33-202)] were obtained by using detergent additive crystallization screens, leading to the structure of a homodimer which is organized differently from that published previously (T. L. Tellinghuisen, J. Marcotrigiano, and C. M. Rice, Nature 435:374-379, 2005) yet is consistent with a membrane association model for NS5A. The monomer-monomer interface of NS5A(33-202) features an extensive buried surface area involving the most-highly conserved face of each monomer. The two alternate structural forms of domain I now available may be indicative of the multiple roles emerging for NS5A in viral RNA replication and viral particle assembly.

  7. Genetic diversity of NS5A protein from hepatitis C virus genotype 3a and its relationship to therapy response

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The quasispecies nature of HCV may have important implications for viral persistence, pathogenicity and resistance to antiviral agents. The variability of one of the viral proteins, NS5A, is believed to be related to the response to IFN therapy, the standard treatment for infection. In this study we analyzed the quasispecies composition of NS5A protein in patients infected with HCV genotype 3a, before IFN therapy. Methods Viral RNA was isolated from samples of 12 patients: four sustained virological responders (SVR), four non-responders (NR), and four end-of-treatment responders (ETR). cDNA was synthesized, the NS5A region was amplified and the fragments obtained were cloned. Fifteen clones from each patient were sequenced with eight primers, generating 179 contigs. Results Higher values for substitution (either synonymous or non-synonymous) and for distance were found in the SVR group. However, the NR group showed relatively more non-synonymous mutations than the other groups, owing to the higher values of dN/dS in complete NS5A and most specific regions. Overall, NS5A protein is undergoing purifying selection, since all dN/dS ratios values are below 0.5. Conclusions Our study provides an overview of the genetic variability of complete NS5A protein in HCV genotype 3a. PMID:20178583

  8. Interferon-inducible protein SCOTIN interferes with HCV replication through the autolysosomal degradation of NS5A

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nari; Kim, Min-Jung; Sung, Pil Soo; Bae, Yong Chul; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) utilizes autophagy to promote its propagation. Here we show the autophagy-mediated suppression of HCV replication via the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein SCOTIN. SCOTIN overexpression inhibits HCV replication and infectious virion production in cells infected with cell culture-derived HCV. HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein, which is a critical factor for HCV RNA replication, interacts with the IFN-β-inducible protein SCOTIN, which transports NS5A to autophagosomes for degradation. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of SCOTIN on HCV replication is impaired in both ATG7-silenced cells and cells treated with autophagy or lysosomal inhibitors. SCOTIN does not affect the overall flow of autophagy; however, it is a substrate for autophagic degradation. The physical association between the transmembrane/proline-rich domain (TMPRD) of SCOTIN and Domain-II of NS5A is essential for autophagosomal trafficking and NS5A degradation. Altogether, our findings suggest that IFN-β-induced SCOTIN recruits the HCV NS5A protein to autophagosomes for degradation, thereby restricting HCV replication. PMID:26868272

  9. FKBP8 interact with classical swine fever virus NS5A protein and promote virus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Helin; Zhang, Chengcheng; Cui, Hongjie; Guo, Kangkang; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Tianyue; Liang, Wulong; Lv, Qizhuang; Zhang, Yanming

    2016-02-01

    The non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is proven to be involved in viral replication and can also modulate cellular signaling and host cellular responses via to its ability to interact with various cellular proteins. FKBP8 is also reported to promote virus replication. Here, we show that NS5A specifically interacts with FKBP8 through coimmunoprecipitation and GST-pulldown studies. Additionally, confocal microscopy study showed that NS5A and FKBP8 colocalized in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of FKBP8 via the eukaryotic expression plasmid pDsRED N1 significantly promoted viral RNA synthesis. The cells knockdown of FKBP8 by lentivirus-mediated shRNA markedly decreased the virus replication when infected with CSFV. These data suggest that FKBP8 plays a critical role in the viral life cycle, particularly during the virus RNA replication period. The investigation of FKBP8 protein functions may be beneficial for developing new strategies to treat CSFV infection. PMID:26748656

  10. A novel hepacivirus with an unusually long and intrinsically disordered NS5A protein in a wild Old World primate.

    PubMed

    Lauck, Michael; Sibley, Samuel D; Lara, James; Purdy, Michael A; Khudyakov, Yury; Hyeroba, David; Tumukunde, Alex; Weny, Geoffrey; Switzer, William M; Chapman, Colin A; Hughes, Austin L; Friedrich, Thomas C; O'Connor, David H; Goldberg, Tony L

    2013-08-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B; family Flaviviridae, genus Hepacivirus) has been studied in New World primates as a model for human hepatitis C virus infection, but the distribution of GBV-B and its relatives in nature has remained obscure. Here, we report the discovery of a novel and highly divergent GBV-B-like virus in an Old World monkey, the black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), in Uganda. The new virus, guereza hepacivirus (GHV), clusters phylogenetically with GBV-B and recently described hepaciviruses infecting African bats and North American rodents, and it shows evidence of ancient recombination with these other hepaciviruses. Direct sequencing of reverse-transcribed RNA from blood plasma from three of nine colobus monkeys yielded near-complete GHV genomes, comprising two distinct viral variants. The viruses contain an exceptionally long nonstructural 5A (NS5A) gene, approximately half of which codes for a protein with no discernible homology to known proteins. Computational structure-based analyses indicate that the amino terminus of the GHV NS5A protein may serve a zinc-binding function, similar to the NS5A of other viruses within the family Flaviviridae. However, the 521-amino-acid carboxy terminus is intrinsically disordered, reflecting an unusual degree of structural plasticity and polyfunctionality. These findings shed new light on the natural history and evolution of the hepaciviruses and on the extent of structural variation within the Flaviviridae.

  11. Synergistic Activity of Combined NS5A Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Nower, Peter T.; Gao, Min; Fridell, Robert; Wang, Chunfu; Hewawasam, Piyasena; Lopez, Omar; Tu, Yong; Meanwell, Nicholas A.; Belema, Makonen; Roberts, Susan B.; Cockett, Mark; Sun, Jin-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Daclatasvir (DCV) is a first-in-class hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 5A replication complex inhibitor (NS5A RCI) that is clinically effective in interferon-free combinations with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) targeting alternate HCV proteins. Recently, we reported NS5A RCI combinations that enhance HCV inhibitory potential in vitro, defining a new class of HCV inhibitors termed NS5A synergists (J. Sun, D. R. O’Boyle II, R. A. Fridell, D. R. Langley, C. Wang, S. Roberts, P. Nower, B. M. Johnson F. Moulin, M. J. Nophsker, Y. Wang, M. Liu, K. Rigat, Y. Tu, P. Hewawasam, J. Kadow, N. A. Meanwell, M. Cockett, J. A. Lemm, M. Kramer, M. Belema, and M. Gao, Nature 527:245–248, 2015, doi:10.1038/nature15711). To extend the characterization of NS5A synergists, we tested new combinations of DCV and NS5A synergists against genotype (gt) 1 to 6 replicons and gt 1a, 2a, and 3a viruses. The kinetics of inhibition in HCV-infected cells treated with DCV, an NS5A synergist (NS5A-Syn), or a combination of DCV and NS5A-Syn were distinctive. Similar to activity observed clinically, DCV caused a multilog drop in HCV, followed by rebound due to the emergence of resistance. DCV–NS5A-Syn combinations were highly efficient at clearing cells of viruses, in line with the trend seen in replicon studies. The retreatment of resistant viruses that emerged using DCV monotherapy with DCV–NS5A-Syn resulted in a multilog drop and rebound in HCV similar to the initial decline and rebound observed with DCV alone on wild-type (WT) virus. A triple combination of DCV, NS5A-Syn, and a DAA targeting the NS3 or NS5B protein cleared the cells of viruses that are highly resistant to DCV. Our data support the observation that the cooperative interaction of DCV and NS5A-Syn potentiates both the genotype coverage and resistance barrier of DCV, offering an additional DAA option for combination therapy and tools for explorations of NS5A function. PMID:26711745

  12. ADP-ribosylation Factor-related Protein 1 Interacts with NS5A and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Propagation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun-Sook; Ngo, Huong T T; Lee, Jihye; Son, Kidong; Park, Eun-Mee; Hwang, Soon B

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is tightly coupled to the lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have previously screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet (LD) formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. In this study, we selected and characterized the gene encoding ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1). ARFRP1 is essential for LD growth and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ARFRP1 significantly inhibited HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon cells and HCVcc-infected cells. ARFRP1 interacted with NS5A and NS5A partially colocalized with LD. Silencing of ARFRP1 abrogated HCV-induced LD growth and viral protein expressions. Moreover, ARFRP1 recruited synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) to sites in close proximity to LDs in HCV-infected cells. Silencing of ARFRP1 ablated relocalization of SNAP23 to LD. These data indicate that HCV regulates ARFRP1 for LD growth to facilitate viral propagation and thus ARFRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral therapy. PMID:27550144

  13. ADP-ribosylation Factor-related Protein 1 Interacts with NS5A and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun-Sook; Ngo, Huong T. T.; Lee, Jihye; Son, Kidong; Park, Eun-Mee; Hwang, Soon B.

    2016-01-01

    The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is tightly coupled to the lipid metabolism of host cells. In order to identify host factors involved in HCV propagation, we have previously screened a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library targeting host genes that control lipid metabolism and lipid droplet (LD) formation using cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. In this study, we selected and characterized the gene encoding ADP-ribosylation factor-related protein 1 (ARFRP1). ARFRP1 is essential for LD growth and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ARFRP1 significantly inhibited HCV replication in both subgenomic replicon cells and HCVcc-infected cells. ARFRP1 interacted with NS5A and NS5A partially colocalized with LD. Silencing of ARFRP1 abrogated HCV-induced LD growth and viral protein expressions. Moreover, ARFRP1 recruited synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP23) to sites in close proximity to LDs in HCV-infected cells. Silencing of ARFRP1 ablated relocalization of SNAP23 to LD. These data indicate that HCV regulates ARFRP1 for LD growth to facilitate viral propagation and thus ARFRP1 may be a potential target for antiviral therapy. PMID:27550144

  14. eEF1A Interacts with the NS5A Protein and Inhibits the Growth of Classical Swine Fever Virus.

    PubMed

    Li, Su; Feng, Shuo; Wang, Jing-Han; He, Wen-Rui; Qin, Hua-Yang; Dong, Hong; Li, Lian-Feng; Yu, Shao-Xiong; Li, Yongfeng; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2015-08-01

    The NS5A protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is involved in the RNA synthesis and viral replication. However, the NS5A-interacting cellular proteins engaged in the CSFV replication are poorly defined. Using yeast two-hybrid screen, the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) was identified to be an NS5A-binding partner. The NS5A-eEF1A interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown and laser confocal microscopy assays. The domain I of eEF1A was shown to be critical for the NS5A-eEF1A interaction. Overexpression of eEF1A suppressed the CSFV growth markedly, and conversely, knockdown of eEF1A enhanced the CSFV replication significantly. Furthermore, eEF1A, as well as NS5A, was found to reduce the translation efficiency of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of CSFV in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by luciferase reporter assay. Streptavidin pulldown assay revealed that eEF1A could bind to the CSFV IRES. Collectively, our results suggest that eEF1A interacts with NS5A and negatively regulates the growth of CSFV. PMID:26266418

  15. A Proline-Tryptophan Turn in the Intrinsically Disordered Domain 2 of NS5A Protein Is Essential for Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Dujardin, Marie; Madan, Vanesa; Montserret, Roland; Ahuja, Puneet; Huvent, Isabelle; Launay, Helene; Leroy, Arnaud; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Penin, François; Lippens, Guy; Hanoulle, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) and its interaction with the human chaperone cyclophilin A are both targets for highly potent and promising antiviral drugs that are in the late stages of clinical development. Despite its high interest in regards to the development of drugs to counteract the worldwide HCV burden, NS5A is still an enigmatic multifunctional protein poorly characterized at the molecular level. NS5A is required for HCV RNA replication and is involved in viral particle formation and regulation of host pathways. Thus far, no enzymatic activity or precise molecular function has been ascribed to NS5A that is composed of a highly structured domain 1 (D1), as well as two intrinsically disordered domains 2 (D2) and 3 (D3), representing half of the protein. Here, we identify a short structural motif in the disordered NS5A-D2 and report its NMR structure. We show that this structural motif, a minimal Pro314–Trp316 turn, is essential for HCV RNA replication, and its disruption alters the subcellular distribution of NS5A. We demonstrate that this Pro-Trp turn is required for proper interaction with the host cyclophilin A and influences its peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity on residue Pro314 of NS5A-D2. This work provides a molecular basis for further understanding of the function of the intrinsically disordered domain 2 of HCV NS5A protein. In addition, our work highlights how very small structural motifs present in intrinsically disordered proteins can exert a specific function. PMID:26085105

  16. The NS5A-binding heat shock proteins HSC70 and HSP70 play distinct roles in the hepatitis C viral life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; Ganapathy, Ekambaram; Ahmadieh, Yasaman; Wheatley, Nicole; Sundberg, Christopher; Jung, Chun-Ling; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Dasgupta, Asim; French, Samuel W.

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified HSP70 and HSC70 in complex with NS5A in a proteomic screen. Here, coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed NS5A/HSC70 complex formation during infection, and immunofluorescence studies showed NS5A and HSC70 to colocalize. Unlike HSP70, HSC70 knockdown did not decrease viral protein levels. Rather, intracellular infectious virion assembly was significantly impaired by HSC70 knockdown. We also discovered that both HSC70 nucleotide binding and substrate binding domains directly bind NS5A whereas only the HSP70 nucleotide binding domain does. Knockdown of both HSC70 and HSP70 demonstrated an additive reduction in virus production. This data suggests that HSC70 and HSP70 play discrete roles in the viral life cycle. Investigation of these different functions may facilitate developing of novel strategies that target host proteins to treat HCV infection. PMID:24725938

  17. A novel immuno-competitive capture mass spectrometry strategy for protein-protein interaction profiling reveals that LATS kinases regulate HCV replication through NS5A phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Meistermann, Hélène; Gao, Junjun; Golling, Sabrina; Lamerz, Jens; Le Pogam, Sophie; Tzouros, Manuel; Sankabathula, Sailaja; Gruenbaum, Lore; Nájera, Isabel; Langen, Hanno; Klumpp, Klaus; Augustin, Angélique

    2014-11-01

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is essential to fully characterize the biological function of a protein and improve our understanding of diseases. Affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry (AP-MS) using selective antibodies against a target protein has been commonly applied to study protein complexes. However, one major limitation is a lack of specificity as a substantial part of the proposed binders is due to nonspecific interactions. Here, we describe an innovative immuno-competitive capture mass spectrometry (ICC-MS) method to allow systematic investigation of protein-protein interactions. ICC-MS markedly increases the specificity of classical immunoprecipitation (IP) by introducing a competition step between free and capturing antibody prior to IP. Instead of comparing only one experimental sample with a control, the methodology generates a 12-concentration antibody competition profile. Label-free quantitation followed by a robust statistical analysis of the data is then used to extract the cellular interactome of a protein of interest and to filter out background proteins. We applied this new approach to specifically map the interactome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) in a cellular HCV replication system and uncovered eight new NS5A-interacting protein candidates along with two previously validated binding partners. Follow-up biological validation experiments revealed that large tumor suppressor homolog 1 and 2 (LATS1 and LATS2, respectively), two closely related human protein kinases, are novel host kinases responsible for NS5A phosphorylation at a highly conserved position required for optimal HCV genome replication. These results are the first illustration of the value of ICC-MS for the analysis of endogenous protein complexes to identify biologically relevant protein-protein interactions with high specificity.

  18. Hepatitis C virus core, NS3, NS4B and NS5A are the major immunogenic proteins in humoral immunity in chronic HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Sillanpää, Maarit; Melén, Krister; Porkka, Päivi; Fagerlund, Riku; Nevalainen, Kaisu; Lappalainen, Maija; Julkunen, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Background The viral genome of hepatitis C virus constitutes a 9.6-kb single-stranded positive-sense RNA which encodes altogether 11 viral proteins. In order to study the humoral immune responses against different HCV proteins in patients suffering from chronic HCV infection, we produced three structural (core, E1 and E2) and six nonstructural proteins (NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B) in Sf9 insect cells by using the baculovirus expression system. Results The recombinant HCV core, E1, E2, NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B proteins were purified and used in Western blot analysis to determine antibody responses against individual HCV protein in 68 HCV RNA and antibody positive human sera that were obtained from patients suffering from genotype 1, 2, 3 or 4 infection. These sera were also analysed with INNO-LIA Score test for HCV antibodies against core, NS3, NS4AB and NS5A, and the results were similar to the ones obtained by Western blot method. Based on our Western blot analyses we found that the major immunogenic HCV antigens were the core, NS4B, NS3 and NS5A proteins which were recognized in 97%, 86%, 68% and 53% of patient sera, respectively. There were no major genotype specific differences in antibody responses to individual HCV proteins. A common feature within the studied sera was that all except two sera recognized the core protein in high titers, whereas none of the sera recognized NS2 protein and only three sera (from genotype 3) recognised NS5B. Conclusion The data shows significant variation in the specificity in humoral immunity in chronic HCV patients. PMID:19549310

  19. TRIM14 inhibits hepatitis C virus infection by SPRY domain-dependent targeted degradation of the viral NS5A protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Yongzhi; Li, Chunfeng; Wu, Yaoxing; Guo, Lei; Peng, Changwei; Huang, Yueping; Cheng, Genhong; Qin, F Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Tripartite motif 14 (TRIM14) was reported to function as a mitochondrial signaling adaptor in mediating innate immune responses. However, the involvement of TRIM14 in host defense against viral infection and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that enforced expression of TRIM14 could potently inhibit the infection and replication of HCV in hepatocytes, whereas TRIM14 knockout cells became more susceptible to HCV infection. Interestingly, further experiments revealed that such anti-HCV activity was independent of activating the NF-κB or interferon pathways but required the C-terminal SPRY domain of no signaling capacity. In searching for mechanisms how TRIM14 exerts its antiviral function we found that TRIM14 interacted with HCV encoded non-structural protein NS5A and could strongly induce its degradation dependent on the NS5A1 subdomain. Interestingly extensive domain mapping analyses revealed that NS5A degradation was mediated by the highly conserved SPRY domain of TRIM14, which might involve the K48 ubiquitination pathway. Collectively, our work uncovered a new mechanism responsible for host defense against HCV infection, and could potentially aid the development of novel anti-HCV therapeutics. PMID:27578425

  20. TRIM14 inhibits hepatitis C virus infection by SPRY domain-dependent targeted degradation of the viral NS5A protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Yongzhi; Li, Chunfeng; Wu, Yaoxing; Guo, Lei; Peng, Changwei; Huang, Yueping; Cheng, Genhong; Qin, F. Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Tripartite motif 14 (TRIM14) was reported to function as a mitochondrial signaling adaptor in mediating innate immune responses. However, the involvement of TRIM14 in host defense against viral infection and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that enforced expression of TRIM14 could potently inhibit the infection and replication of HCV in hepatocytes, whereas TRIM14 knockout cells became more susceptible to HCV infection. Interestingly, further experiments revealed that such anti-HCV activity was independent of activating the NF-κB or interferon pathways but required the C-terminal SPRY domain of no signaling capacity. In searching for mechanisms how TRIM14 exerts its antiviral function we found that TRIM14 interacted with HCV encoded non-structural protein NS5A and could strongly induce its degradation dependent on the NS5A1 subdomain. Interestingly extensive domain mapping analyses revealed that NS5A degradation was mediated by the highly conserved SPRY domain of TRIM14, which might involve the K48 ubiquitination pathway. Collectively, our work uncovered a new mechanism responsible for host defense against HCV infection, and could potentially aid the development of novel anti-HCV therapeutics. PMID:27578425

  1. Daclatasvir inhibits hepatitis C virus NS5A motility and hyper-accumulation of phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Chukkapalli, Vineela; Berger, Kristi L.; Kelly, Sean M.; Thomas, Meryl; Deiters, Alexander; Randall, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Combinations of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) against the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have the potential to revolutionize the HCV therapeutic regime. An integral component of DAA combination therapies are HCV NS5A inhibitors. It has previously been proposed that NS5A DAAs inhibit two functions of NS5A: RNA replication and virion assembly. In this study, we characterize the impact of a prototype NS5A DAA, daclatasvir (DCV), on HCV replication compartment formation. DCV impaired HCV replicase localization and NS5A motility. In order to characterize the mechanism behind altered HCV replicase localization, we examined the impact of DCV on the interaction of NS5A with its essential cellular cofactor, phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase III α (PI4KA). We observed that DCV does not inhibit PI4KA directly, nor does it impair early events of the NS5A-PI4KA interaction that can occur when NS5A is expressed alone. NS5A functions that are unaffected by DCV include PI4KA binding, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation, and a basal accumulation of the PI4KA product, PI4P. However, DCV impairs late steps in PI4KA activation that requires NS5A expressed in the context of the HCV polyprotein. These NS5A functions include hyper-stimulation of PI4P levels and appropriate replication compartment formation. The data are most consistent with a model wherein DCV inhibits conformational changes in the NS5A protein or protein complex formations that occur in the context of HCV polyprotein expression and stimulate PI4P hyper-accumulation and replication compartment formation. PMID:25546252

  2. A Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Phosphorylation Site That Regulates RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    LeMay, K. L.; Treadaway, J.; Angulo, I.

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus NS5A protein is essential for RNA replication and virion assembly. NS5A is phosphorylated on multiple residues during infections, but these sites remain uncharacterized. Here we identify serine 222 of genotype 2a NS5A as a phosphorylation site that functions as a negative regulator of RNA replication. This site is a component of the hyperphosphorylated form of NS5A, which is in good agreement with previous observations that hyperphosphorylation negatively affects replication. PMID:23115292

  3. A unique phosphorylation-dependent eIF4E assembly on 40S ribosomes co-ordinated by hepatitis C virus protein NS5A that activates internal ribosome entry site translation.

    PubMed

    Panda, Swarupa; Vedagiri, Dhiviya; Viveka, Thangaraj Soundara; Harshan, Krishnan Harinivas

    2014-09-01

    We previously reported that the HCV (hepatitis C virus) protein NS5A up-regulated mRNA cap binding eIF4F (eukaryotic initiation factor 4F) complex assembly through mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin)-4EBP1 (eIF4E-binding protein 1) pathway and that NS5A (non-structural protein 5A) physically interacted with translation apparatus. In the present study, we demonstrate that NS5A co-ordinates a unique assembly of the cap binding protein eIF4E and 40S ribosome to form a complex that we call ENR (eIF4E-NS5A-ribosome). Recruitment of NS5A and eIF4E to 40S ribosome was confirmed by polysome fractionation, subcellular fractionation and high-salt-wash immunoprecipitation. These observations were also confirmed in HCV-infected cells, validating its biological significance. eIF4E phosphorylation was critical for ENR assembly. 80S ribosome dissociation and RNase integrity assays revealed that, once associated, the ENR complex is stable and RNA interaction is dispensable. Both the N- and C-terminal regions of NS5A domain 1 were indispensable for this assembly and for the NS5A-induced HCV IRES (internal ribosome entry site) activation. The present study demonstrates that NS5A initially associates with phosphorylated eIF4E of eIF4F complex and subsequently recruits it to 40S ribosomes. This is the first time the interaction of viral protein with both eIF4E and ribosomes has been reported. We propose that this assembly would determine the outcome of HCV infection and pathogenesis through regulation of viral and host translation.

  4. Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibits Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 to Block Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Amako, Yutaka; Igloi, Zsofia; Mankouri, Jamel; Kazlauskas, Arunas; Saksela, Kalle; Dallas, Mark; Peers, Chris; Harris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in the activation of numerous stress responses including oxidative stress, with the potential to induce an apoptotic state. Previously we have shown that HCV attenuates the stress-induced, p38MAPK-mediated up-regulation of the K+ channel Kv2.1, to maintain the survival of infected cells in the face of cellular stress. We demonstrated that this effect was mediated by HCV non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein, which impaired p38MAPK activity through a polyproline motif-dependent interaction, resulting in reduction of phosphorylation activation of Kv2.1. In this study, we investigated the host cell proteins targeted by NS5A to mediate Kv2.1 inhibition. We screened a phage-display library expressing the entire complement of human SH3 domains for novel NS5A-host cell interactions. This analysis identified mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) as a putative NS5A interacting partner. MLK3 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is a member of the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) family and activates p38MAPK. An NS5A-MLK3 interaction was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. We further demonstrate a novel role of MLK3 in the modulation of Kv2.1 activity, whereby MLK3 overexpression leads to the up-regulation of channel activity. Accordingly, coexpression of NS5A suppressed this stimulation. Additionally we demonstrate that overexpression of MLK3 induced apoptosis, which was also counteracted by NS5A. We conclude that NS5A targets MLK3 with multiple downstream consequences for both apoptosis and K+ homeostasis. PMID:23857585

  5. Direct Binding of Ledipasvir to HCV NS5A: Mechanism of Resistance to an HCV Antiviral Agent

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyock Joo; Xing, Weimei; Chan, Katie; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Brendza, Katherine M.; Kirschberg, Thorsten; Kato, Darryl; Link, John O.; Cheng, Guofeng; Liu, Xiaohong; Sakowicz, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Ledipasvir, a direct acting antiviral agent (DAA) targeting the Hepatitis C Virus NS5A protein, exhibits picomolar activity in replicon cells. While its mechanism of action is unclear, mutations that confer resistance to ledipasvir in HCV replicon cells are located in NS5A, suggesting that NS5A is the direct target of ledipasvir. To date co-precipitation and cross-linking experiments in replicon or NS5A transfected cells have not conclusively shown a direct, specific interaction between NS5A and ledipasvir. Using recombinant, full length NS5A, we show that ledipasvir binds directly, with high affinity and specificity, to NS5A. Ledipasvir binding to recombinant NS5A is saturable with a dissociation constant in the low nanomolar range. A mutant form of NS5A (Y93H) that confers resistance to ledipasvir shows diminished binding to ledipasvir. The current study shows that ledipasvir inhibits NS5A through direct binding and that resistance to ledipasvir is the result of a reduction in binding affinity to NS5A mutants. PMID:25856426

  6. Fast Hepatitis C Virus RNA Elimination and NS5A Redistribution by NS5A Inhibitors Studied by a Multiplex Assay Approach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dandan; Ji, Juan; Ndongwe, Tanya P.; Michailidis, Eleftherios; Rice, Charles M.; Ralston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    While earlier therapeutic strategies for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection relied exclusively on interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), four direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have now been approved, aiming for an interferon-free strategy with a short treatment duration and fewer side effects. To facilitate studies on the mechanism of action (MOA) and efficacy of DAAs, we established a multiplex assay approach, which employs flow cytometry, a Gaussia luciferase reporter system, Western blot analysis, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), a limited dilution assay (50% tissue culture infectious dose [TCID50]), and an image profiling assay that follows the NS5A redistribution in response to drug treatment. We used this approach to compare the relative potency of various DAAs and the kinetics of their antiviral effects as a potential preclinical measure of their potential clinical utility. We evaluated the NS5A inhibitors ledipasvir (LDV) and daclatasvir (DCV), the NS3/4A inhibitor danoprevir (DNV), and the NS5B inhibitor sofosbuvir (SOF). In terms of kinetics, our data demonstrate that the NS5A inhibitor LDV, followed closely by DCV, has the fastest effect on suppression of viral proteins and RNA and on redistribution of NS5A. In terms of MOA, LDV has a more pronounced effect than DCV on the viral replication, assembly, and infectivity of released virus. Our approach can be used to facilitate the study of the biological processes involved in HCV replication and help identify optimal drug combinations. PMID:25845863

  7. Fast hepatitis C virus RNA elimination and NS5A redistribution by NS5A inhibitors studied by a multiplex assay approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dandan; Ji, Juan; Ndongwe, Tanya P; Michailidis, Eleftherios; Rice, Charles M; Ralston, Robert; Sarafianos, Stefan G

    2015-01-01

    While earlier therapeutic strategies for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection relied exclusively on interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), four direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have now been approved, aiming for an interferon-free strategy with a short treatment duration and fewer side effects. To facilitate studies on the mechanism of action (MOA) and efficacy of DAAs, we established a multiplex assay approach, which employs flow cytometry, a Gaussia luciferase reporter system, Western blot analysis, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), a limited dilution assay (50% tissue culture infectious dose [TCID50]), and an image profiling assay that follows the NS5A redistribution in response to drug treatment. We used this approach to compare the relative potency of various DAAs and the kinetics of their antiviral effects as a potential preclinical measure of their potential clinical utility. We evaluated the NS5A inhibitors ledipasvir (LDV) and daclatasvir (DCV), the NS3/4A inhibitor danoprevir (DNV), and the NS5B inhibitor sofosbuvir (SOF). In terms of kinetics, our data demonstrate that the NS5A inhibitor LDV, followed closely by DCV, has the fastest effect on suppression of viral proteins and RNA and on redistribution of NS5A. In terms of MOA, LDV has a more pronounced effect than DCV on the viral replication, assembly, and infectivity of released virus. Our approach can be used to facilitate the study of the biological processes involved in HCV replication and help identify optimal drug combinations. PMID:25845863

  8. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Intracellular Assay for the Conformation of Hepatitis C Virus Drug Target NS5A

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Ansari, Israrul H.; Mehle, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and assembly and is a critical drug target. Biochemical data suggest large parts of NS5A are unfolded as an isolated protein, but little is known about its folded state in the cell. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to probe whether or not different regions of NS5A are in close proximity within the cell. Twenty-three separate reporter constructs were created by inserting one or more fluorophores into different positions throughout the three domains of NS5A. FRET efficiency was maximal when donor and acceptor fluorophores were positioned next to each other but also could be observed when the two fluorophores flanked NS5A domain 1 or domain 3. Informatic and biochemical analysis suggests that large portions of the carboxy terminus of NS5A are in an unfolded and disordered state. Quercetin, a natural product known to disrupt NS5A function in cells, specifically disrupted a conformationally specific domain 3 FRET signal. Intermolecular FRET indicated that the NS5A amino termini, but not other regions, are in close proximity in multimeric complexes. Overall, this assay provides a new window on the intracellular conformation(s) of NS5A and how the conformation changes in response to cellular and viral components of the replication and assembly complex as well as antiviral drugs. PMID:22623794

  9. Cyclosporine Inhibits a Direct Interaction between Cyclophilins and Hepatitis C NS5A

    PubMed Central

    Striker, Rob

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a leading indication for liver transplantation. HCV infection reoccurs almost universally post transplant, decreasing both graft longevity and patient survival. The immunosuppressant, cyclosporine A (CsA) has potent anti-HCV activity towards both HCV replicons and the genotype 2a cell culture infectious virus. Previously, we isolated mutations in the 1bN replicon with less sensitivity to CsA that mapped to both NS5A and NS5B regions of the virus. Mutations in NS5A alone conferred decreased CsA susceptibility regardless of NS5B mutations. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the mechanisms by which NS5A mutations contribute to CsA resistance and if they are strain dependent. Using in vitro mutagenesis, the amino acid position 321 mutation of NS5A was restored to the wild-type tyrosine residue conferring partial CsA susceptibility on the mutant replicon. The 321 mutation also alters CsA susceptibility of the JFH cell culture virus. Additionally, we demonstrated a novel CsA-sensitive interaction between NS5A and both cyclophilin A and B. Both the mutant NS5A and wild type NS5A bind cyclophilin in vitro. The NS5A: cyclophilin interaction requires both the NS5A region identified by the resistance mutants and cyclophilin catalytic residues. In cell culture, NS5A from CsA resistant mutant has an enhanced interaction with cyclophilin B. Additionally; NS5B facilitates a stronger binding of mutant NS5A to endogenous cyclophilin B than wild-type in cell culture. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, this data suggests direct interactions between cyclophilins and NS5A are critical to understand for optimal use of cyclophilin inhibitors in anti-HCV therapy. PMID:20352119

  10. Progress on New Hepatitis C Virus Targets: NS2 and NS5A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotrigiano, Joseph

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major global health problem, affecting about 170 million people worldwide. Chronic infection can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The replication machine of HCV is a multi-subunit membrane associated complex, consisting of nonstructural proteins (NS2-5B), which replicate the viral RNA genome. The structures of NS5A and NS2 were recently determined. NS5A is an essential replicase component that also modulates numerous cellular processes ranging from innate immunity to cell growth and survival. The structure reveals a novel protein fold, a new zinc coordination motif, a disulfide bond and a dimer interface. Analysis of molecular surfaces suggests the location of the membrane interaction surface of NS5A, as well as hypothetical protein and RNA binding sites. NS2 is one of two virally encoded proteases that are required for processing the viral polyprotein into the mature nonstructural proteins. NS2 is a dimeric cysteine protease with two composite active sites. For each active site, the catalytic histidine and glutamate residues are contributed by one monomer and the nucleophilic cysteine by the other. The C-terminal residues remain coordinated in the two active sites, predicting an inactive post-cleavage form. The structure also reveals possible sites of membrane interaction, a rare cis-proline residue, and highly conserved dimer contacts. The novel features of both structures have changed the current view of HCV polyprotein replication and present new opportunities for antiviral drug design.

  11. HCV RNA traffic and association with NS5A in living cells.

    PubMed

    Fiches, Guillaume N; Eyre, Nicholas S; Aloia, Amanda L; Van Der Hoek, Kylie; Betz-Stablein, Brigit; Luciani, Fabio; Chopra, Abha; Beard, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA localisation are poorly understood. To address this we engineered HCV genomes harbouring MS2 bacteriophage RNA stem-loops within the 3'-untranslated region to allow tracking of HCV RNA via specific interaction with a MS2-Coat-mCherry fusion protein. Despite the impact of these insertions on viral fitness, live imaging revealed that replication of tagged-HCV genomes induced specific redistribution of the mCherry-tagged-MS2-Coat protein to motile and static foci. Further analysis showed that HCV RNA was associated with NS5A in both static and motile structures while a subset of motile NS5A structures was devoid of HCV RNA. Further investigation of viral RNA traffic with respect to lipid droplets (LDs) revealed HCV RNA-positive structures in close association with LDs. These studies provide new insights into the dynamics of HCV RNA traffic with NS5A and LDs and provide a platform for future investigations of HCV replication and assembly. PMID:26999027

  12. Dengue virus RNA polymerase NS5: a potential therapeutic target?

    PubMed

    Rawlinson, Stephen M; Pryor, Melinda J; Wright, Peter J; Jans, David A

    2006-12-01

    Dengue fever (DF)/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is the most common arthropod-borne viral infection, where it is now estimated that 2.5-3 billion people world-wide are at risk of infection. Currently there is no available treatment, in the form of vaccine or drug, making eradication of the mosquito vector the only viable control measure, which has proved costly and of limited success. There are a number of different vaccines undergoing testing, but whilst a dengue vaccine is clearly desirable, there are several issues which make live-attenuated vaccines problematic. These include the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and the possibility of recombination of attenuated vaccine strains with wild-type flavivirus members reverting vaccines to a virulent form. Until we gain a better understanding of these issues and their associated risks, the safety of any live dengue vaccine cannot be assured. It therefore may be safer and more feasible for therapeutic-based approaches to be developed as an alternative to live vaccines. As our understanding of dengue molecular biology expands, new potential targets for drugs are emerging. One of the most promising is the dengue non-structural protein 5 (NS5), the largest and most highly conserved of the dengue proteins. This review examines the unique properties of NS5, including its functions, interactions, subcellular localisation and regulation, and looks at ways in which some of these may be exploited in our quest for effective drugs.

  13. Discovery of ravidasvir (PPI-668) as a potent pan-genotypic HCV NS5A inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Min; Peng, Eric; Huang, Ningwu; Huang, Qi; Huq, Anja; Lau, Meiyen; Colonno, Richard; Li, Leping

    2016-09-15

    This Letter describes the synthesis, representative structure activity relationship (SAR), activity and PK profiles of a series of functionalized benzimidazole-naphthylene-imidazole derivatives as HCV NS5A inhibitors. This effort successfully led to the discovery of ravidasvir (PPI-668), which has been well tolerated and shown high sustained viral response rates as a key component in all-oral combination regimens in multiple human clinical trials.

  14. Discovery of ravidasvir (PPI-668) as a potent pan-genotypic HCV NS5A inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Min; Peng, Eric; Huang, Ningwu; Huang, Qi; Huq, Anja; Lau, Meiyen; Colonno, Richard; Li, Leping

    2016-09-15

    This Letter describes the synthesis, representative structure activity relationship (SAR), activity and PK profiles of a series of functionalized benzimidazole-naphthylene-imidazole derivatives as HCV NS5A inhibitors. This effort successfully led to the discovery of ravidasvir (PPI-668), which has been well tolerated and shown high sustained viral response rates as a key component in all-oral combination regimens in multiple human clinical trials. PMID:27506559

  15. The Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Stimulates NS5B During In Vitro RNA Synthesis in a Template Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Elizabeth M; Kane, Caroline M

    2009-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B protein contains the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity that catalyzes the synthesis of the viral genome with other host and viral factors. NS5A is an HCV-encoded protein previously shown to localize to the replisome and be necessary for viral replication. However, its role in replication has not been defined. Using an in vitro biochemical assay, we detected a stimulatory effect of NS5A on the NS5B replication reaction with minimal natural templates. NS5A stimulates replication by NS5B on two templates derived from the 3’ end of the RNA genome (4 fold ± 1.3 fold). A pre-incubation step with the two proteins prior to the replication reaction and substoichiometric levels of NS5A are required for detecting stimulation. With a template derived from the 3’end complementary to the RNA genome (the negative strand) no stimulation was observed. Furthermore, with a synthetic template that allows studying different phases of replication, NS5A stimulates NS5B during elongation. These findings suggest that NS5A stimulates NS5B during synthesis of the complementary (i.e., negative) strand of the RNA genome. PMID:19590581

  16. Discovery of Thienoimidazole-Based HCV NS5A Genotype 1a and 1b Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Simon; Xu, Jinwang; Reddy, T Jagadeeswar; Morris, Mark; Cottrell, Kevin M; Cadilhac, Caroline; Henderson, James A; Nicolas, Oliver; Bilimoria, Darius; Denis, Francois; Mani, Nagraj; Ewing, Nigel; Shawgo, Rebecca; L'Heureux, Lucille; Selliah, Subajini; Chan, Laval; Chauret, Nathalie; Berlioz-Seux, Francoise; Namchuk, Mark N; Grillot, Anne-Laure; Bennani, Youssef L; Das, Sanjoy K; Maxwell, John P

    2014-03-13

    The discovery of potent thienoimidazole-based HCV NS5A inhibitors is herein reported. A novel method to access the thienoimidazole [5,5]-bicyclic system is disclosed. This method gave access to a common key intermediate (6) that was engaged in Suzuki or Sonogashira reactions with coupling partners bearing different linkers. A detailed study of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the linkers revealed that aromatic linkers with linear topologies are required to achieve high potency for both 1a and 1b HCV genotypes. Compound 20, with a para-phenyl linker, was identified as a potential lead displaying potencies of 17 and 8 pM against genotype 1a and 1b replicons, respectively. PMID:24900811

  17. Intrinsically unstructured domain 3 of hepatitis C Virus NS5A forms a "fuzzy complex" with VAPB-MSP domain which carries ALS-causing mutations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Garvita; Qin, Haina; Song, Jianxing

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects nearly 200 million people worldwide and is a leading factor for serious chronic liver diseases. For replicating HCV genome, the membrane-associated replication machinery needs to be formed by both HCV non-structural proteins including NS5A and human host factors. Recently NS5A has been identified to bind ER-anchored human VAP proteins and consequently this interaction may serve as a novel target for design of anti-HCV drugs. So far no biophysical characterization of this interaction has been reported. Here, we dissected the 243-residue VAPB into 4 and 447-residue NS5A into 10 fragments, followed by CD and NMR characterization of their structural properties. Subsequently, binding interactions between these fragments have been extensively assessed by NMR HSQC titration which is very powerful in detecting even very weak binding. The studies lead to three important findings: 1). a "fuzzy complex" is formed between the intrinsically-unstructured third domain (D3) of NS5A and the well-structured MSP domain of VAPB, with an average dissociation constant (Kd) of ~5 µM. 2). The binding-important residues on both NS5A-D3 and VAPB-MSP have been successfully mapped out, which provided experimental constraints for constructing the complex structure. In the complex, unstructured D3 binds to three surface pockets on one side of the MSP structure. Interestingly, two ALS-causing mutations T46I and P56S are also located on the D3-MSP interface. Moreover, NS5A-D3, FFAT-containing proteins and EphA4 appear to have overlapped binding interfaces on the MSP domain. 3). NS5A-D3 has been experimentally confirmed to competes with EphA4 in binding to the MSP domain, and T46I mutation of MSP dramatically abolishes its binding ability to D3. Our study not only provides essential foundation for further deciphering structure and function of the HCV replication machinery, but may also shed light on rationalizing a recent observation that a chronic HCV patient

  18. Amino Acid Polymorphisms Within the Entire HCV NS5A Region in Estonian Chronic HCV 1b Patients With Different Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Tallo, Tatjana; Brjalin, Vadim; Reshetnjak, Irina; Salupere, Riina; Priimagi, Ljudmilla; Katargina, Olga; Smirnova, Maria; Jansons, Juris; Tefanova, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Background A substantial proportion of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-1b infected patients do not response to pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin (PegIFNα/RBV) combination therapy that was partially associated with mutations in the non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein. Objectives Analysis of NS5A polymorphisms in HCV genotype 1b pre-treatment serum samples from Estonian patients and their effect on the treatment response. Patients and Methods Twenty-nine complete NS5A sequences obtained from patients with chronic HCV-1b infection who had received combined therapy with PegIFNα-2a/RBV were analyzed and compared with the prototype strain HCV-J. Twelve patients achieved a sustained virological response (SVR), 15 were non-SVR and 2 patients stopped treatment because of side effects. Results No significant difference in total number of amino acid mutations was observed between isolates from SVR and non-SVR patients in any known regions of the NS5A protein. However, specific amino acid substitutions at positions 1989 and 2283 correlated significantly with SVR, mutations at positions 1979, 2107, 2171 and 2382 were associated with non-response to treatment and amino acid substitution at position 2319 was observed in relapsers. At phylogenetic analysis, NS5A nucleotide sequences have been subdivided into four groups characterized by the different treatment response. Twenty-four novel nucleotide polymorphisms and 11 novel amino acid polymorphisms were identified based on the phylogenetic tree topology. Conclusions Specific amino acid substitutions correlating with the treatment response were found. Polymorphisms revealed by phylogenetic analysis may define the signature patterns for treatment susceptible and treatment resistant strains prevalent in Estonia. PMID:24358043

  19. How hepatitis C virus counteracts the interferon response: the jury is still out on NS5A.

    PubMed

    Tan, S L; Katze, M G

    2001-05-25

    Interferons (IFNs) induce an antiviral state in the cell through complex and indirect mechanisms, which culminate in a direct inhibition of viral replication and stimulation of the host adaptive responses. Viruses often counteract with elaborate strategies to interfere with the induction as well as action of IFN effector molecules. This evolutionary battle between viruses and IFN components is a subject of intense research aimed at understanding the immunopathogenesis of viruses and the molecular basis of IFN signaling and action. In the case with hepatitis C virus (HCV), this may have profound implications for the therapeutic use of recombinant IFN in treating chronic hepatitis C. Depending on the subtype of HCV, current IFN-based treatment regimens are effective for only a small subset of chronic hepatitis C patients. Thus, one of the Holy Grails in HCV research is to understand the mechanisms by which the virus may evade IFN antiviral surveillance and establish persistent infection, which may eventually provide insights into new avenues for better antiviral therapy. Despite the lack of an efficient tissue culture system and an appropriate animal model for HCV infection, several mechanisms have been proposed based on clinical studies and in vitro experiments. This minireview focuses on the HCV NS5A nonstructural protein, which is implicated in playing a role in HCV tolerance to IFN treatment, possibly in part through its ability to inhibit the cellular IFN-induced PKR protein kinase.

  20. Association of hepatitis C virus replication complexes with microtubules and actin filaments is dependent on the interaction of NS3 and NS5A.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chao-Kuen; Jeng, King-Song; Machida, Keigo; Lai, Michael M C

    2008-09-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication complex (RC), which is composed of viral nonstructural (NS) proteins and host cellular proteins, replicates the viral RNA genome in association with intracellular membranes. Two viral NS proteins, NS3 and NS5A, are essential elements of the RC. Here, by using immunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays, we demonstrated that NS3 and NS5A interact with tubulin and actin. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy revealed that HCV RCs were aligned along microtubules and actin filaments in both HCV replicon cells and HCV-infected cells. In addition, the movement of RCs was inhibited when microtubules or actin filaments were depolymerized by colchicine and cytochalasin B, respectively. Based on our observations, we propose that microtubules and actin filaments provide the tracks for the movement of HCV RCs to other regions in the cell, and the molecular interactions between RCs and microtubules, or RCs and actin filaments, are mediated by NS3 and NS5A. PMID:18562541

  1. Susceptibilities of Genotype 1a, 1b, and 3 Hepatitis C Virus Variants to the NS5A Inhibitor Elbasvir

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Stephanie; McMonagle, Patricia; Yeh, Wendy W.; Ludmerer, Steven W.; Jumes, Patricia A.; Marshall, William L.; Kong, Stephanie; Ingravallo, Paul; Black, Stuart; Pak, Irene; DiNubile, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Elbasvir is an investigational NS5A inhibitor with in vitro activity against multiple HCV genotypes. Antiviral activity of elbasvir was measured in replicons derived from wild-type or resistant variants of genotypes 1a, 1b, and 3. The barrier to resistance was assessed by the number of resistant colonies selected by exposure to various elbasvir concentrations. In a phase 1b dose-escalating study, virologic responses were determined in 48 noncirrhotic adult men with chronic genotype 1 or 3 infections randomized to placebo or elbasvir from 5 to 50 mg (genotype 1) or 10 to 100 mg (genotype 3) once daily for 5 days. The NS5A gene was sequenced from plasma specimens obtained before, during, and after treatment. Elbasvir suppressed the emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Variants selected by exposure to high elbasvir concentrations typically encoded multiple amino acid substitutions (most commonly involving loci 30, 31, and 93), conferring high-level elbasvir resistance. In the monotherapy study, patients with genotype 1b had greater reductions in HCV RNA levels than patients with genotype 1a at all elbasvir doses; responses in patients with genotype 3 were generally less pronounced than for genotype 1, particularly at lower elbasvir doses. M28T, Q30R, L31V, and Y93H in genotype 1a, L31V and Y93H in genotype 1b, and A30K, L31F, and Y93H in genotype 3 were the predominant RAVs selected by elbasvir monotherapy. Virologic findings in patients were consistent with the preclinical observations. NS5A-RAVs emerged most often at amino acid positions 28, 30, 31, and 93 in both the laboratory and clinical trial. (The MK-8742 P002 trial has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01532973.) PMID:26303801

  2. The crystal structure of NS5A domain 1 from genotype 1a reveals new clues to the mechanism of action for dimeric HCV inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sebastian M; Langley, David R; Garnett, James A; Angell, Richard; Hedgethorne, Katy; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Matthews, Steve J

    2014-01-01

    New direct acting antivirals (DAAs) such as daclatasvir (DCV; BMS-790052), which target NS5A function with picomolar potency, are showing promise in clinical trials. The exact nature of how these compounds have an inhibitory effect on HCV is unknown; however, major resistance mutations appear in the N-terminal region of NS5A that include the amphipathic helix and domain 1. The dimeric symmetry of these compounds suggests that they act on a dimer of NS5A, which is also consistent with the presence of dimers in crystals of NS5A domain 1 from genotype 1b. Genotype 1a HCV is less potently affected by these compounds and resistance mutations have a greater effect than in the 1b genotypes. We have obtained crystals of domain 1 of the important 1a NS5A homologue and intriguingly, our X-ray crystal structure reveals two new dimeric forms of this domain. Furthermore, the high solvent content (75%) makes it ideal for ligand-soaking. Daclatasvir (DCV) shows twofold symmetry suggesting NS5A dimers may be of physiological importance and serve as potential binding sites for DCV. These dimers also allow for new conformations of a NS5A expansive network which could explain its operation on the membranous web. Additionally, sulfates bound in the crystal structure may provide evidence for the previously proposed RNA binding groove, or explain regulation of NS5A domain 2 and 3 function and phosphorylation, by domain 1. PMID:24639329

  3. Cell-death-inducing DFFA-like Effector B Contributes to the Assembly of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Particles and Interacts with HCV NS5A

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hua; Yao, Wenxia; Li, Leike; Li, Xinlei; Hu, Longbo; Mai, Runming; Peng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uses components of the very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) pathway for assembly/release. We previously reported that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) participates in HCV assembly/release through downstream factors those participate in VLDL assembly/secretion. Cell-death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB) is an important regulator of the VLDL pathway. CIDEB is required for entry of HCV particles from cell culture (HCVcc), but the effects of CIDEB on the post-entry steps of the HCV lifecycle are unclear. In the present study, we determined that CIDEB is required for HCV assembly in addition to HCVcc entry. Furthermore, CIDEB interacts with the HCV NS5A protein, and the N terminus of CIDEB and the domain I of NS5A are involved in this interaction. Moreover, CIDEB silencing impairs the association of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) with HCV particles. Interestingly, CIDEB is also required for the post-entry stages of the dengue virus (DENV) life cycle. Collectively, these results indicate that CIDEB is a new host factor that is involved in HCV assembly, presumably by interacting with viral protein, providing new insight into the exploitation of the VLDL regulator CIDEB by HCV. PMID:27282740

  4. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Resistance Profile Characterization of the Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor Ledipasvir

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yang; Doehle, Brian; Peng, Betty; Corsa, Amoreena; Lee, Yu-Jen; Gong, Ruoyu; Yu, Mei; Han, Bin; Xu, Simin; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Perron, Michel; Xu, Yili; Mo, Hongmei; Pagratis, Nikos; Link, John O.; Delaney, William

    2016-01-01

    Ledipasvir (LDV; GS-5885), a component of Harvoni (a fixed-dose combination of LDV with sofosbuvir [SOF]), is approved to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here, we report key preclinical antiviral properties of LDV, including in vitro potency, in vitro resistance profile, and activity in combination with other anti-HCV agents. LDV has picomolar antiviral activity against genotype 1a and genotype 1b replicons with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 0.031 nM and 0.004 nM, respectively. LDV is also active against HCV genotypes 4a, 4d, 5a, and 6a with EC50 values of 0.11 to 1.1 nM. LDV has relatively less in vitro antiviral activity against genotypes 2a, 2b, 3a, and 6e, with EC50 values of 16 to 530 nM. In vitro resistance selection with LDV identified the single Y93H and Q30E resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in the NS5A gene; these RAVs were also observed in patients after a 3-day monotherapy treatment. In vitro antiviral combination studies indicate that LDV has additive to moderately synergistic antiviral activity when combined with other classes of HCV direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, including NS3/4A protease inhibitors and the nucleotide NS5B polymerase inhibitor SOF. Furthermore, LDV is active against known NS3 protease and NS5B polymerase inhibitor RAVs with EC50 values equivalent to those for the wild type. PMID:26824950

  5. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Resistance Profile Characterization of the Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor Ledipasvir.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guofeng; Tian, Yang; Doehle, Brian; Peng, Betty; Corsa, Amoreena; Lee, Yu-Jen; Gong, Ruoyu; Yu, Mei; Han, Bin; Xu, Simin; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Perron, Michel; Xu, Yili; Mo, Hongmei; Pagratis, Nikos; Link, John O; Delaney, William

    2016-01-11

    Ledipasvir (LDV; GS-5885), a component of Harvoni (a fixed-dose combination of LDV with sofosbuvir [SOF]), is approved to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here, we report key preclinical antiviral properties of LDV, including in vitro potency, in vitro resistance profile, and activity in combination with other anti-HCV agents. LDV has picomolar antiviral activity against genotype 1a and genotype 1b replicons with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 0.031 nM and 0.004 nM, respectively. LDV is also active against HCV genotypes 4a, 4d, 5a, and 6a with EC50 values of 0.11 to 1.1 nM. LDV has relatively less in vitro antiviral activity against genotypes 2a, 2b, 3a, and 6e, with EC50 values of 16 to 530 nM. In vitro resistance selection with LDV identified the single Y93H and Q30E resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in the NS5A gene; these RAVs were also observed in patients after a 3-day monotherapy treatment. In vitro antiviral combination studies indicate that LDV has additive to moderately synergistic antiviral activity when combined with other classes of HCV direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents, including NS3/4A protease inhibitors and the nucleotide NS5B polymerase inhibitor SOF. Furthermore, LDV is active against known NS3 protease and NS5B polymerase inhibitor RAVs with EC50 values equivalent to those for the wild type.

  6. Resistance-Associated NS5A Variants of Hepatitis C Virus Are Susceptible to Interferon-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Jun; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Higuchi, Mayu; Takada, Hitomi; Nakakuki, Natsuko; Itakura, Yoshie; Tamaki, Nobuharu; Yasui, Yutaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Tsuchiya, Kaoru; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yuka; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The presence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) attenuates the efficacy of direct acting antivirals (DAAs). The objective of this study was to characterize the susceptibility of RAVs to interferon-based therapy. Methods Direct and deep sequencing were performed to detect Y93H RAV in the NS5A region. Twenty nine genotype 1b patients with detectable RAV at baseline were treated by a combination of simeprevir, pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The longitudinal changes in the proportion of Y93H RAV during therapy and at breakthrough or relapse were determined. Results By direct sequencing, Y93H RAV became undetectable or decreased in proportion at an early time point during therapy (within 7 days) in 57% of patients with both the Y93H variant and wild type virus at baseline when HCV RNA was still detectable. By deep sequencing, the proportion of Y93H RAV against Y93 wild type was 52.7% (5.8%– 97.4%) at baseline which significantly decreased to 29.7% (0.16%- 98.3%) within 7 days of initiation of treatment (p = 0.023). The proportion of Y93H RAV was reduced in 21 of 29 cases (72.4%) and a marked reduction of more than 10% was observed in 14 cases (48.7%). HCV RNA reduction was significantly greater for Y93H RAV (-3.65±1.3 logIU/mL/day) than the Y93 wild type (-3.35±1.0 logIU/mL/day) (p<0.001). Conclusion Y93H RAV is more susceptible to interferon-based therapy than the Y93 wild type. PMID:26368554

  7. Effects of Resistance-Associated NS5A Mutations in Hepatitis C Virus on Viral Production and Susceptibility to Antiviral Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, Sayuri; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Matsuda, Mami; Yamada, Norie; Sugiyama, Ryuichi; Masaki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Kato, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Mamoru; Wakita, Takaji; Kato, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) have potent anti-HCV effects but may provoke resistance-associated variants (RAVs). In this study, we assessed the characteristics of these RAVs and explored efficacious anti-HCV reagents using recombinant HCV with NS5A from a genotype 1b strain. We replaced the NS5A of JFH1 with that of Con1 (JFH1/5ACon1) and introduced known NS5A inhibitor resistance mutations (L31M, L31V, L31I and Y93H) individually or in combination. Susceptibilities against anti-HCV reagents were also investigated. RAVs with Y93H exhibited high extracellular core antigen levels and infectivity titers. Variants with any single mutation showed mild to moderate resistance against NS5A inhibitors, whereas variants with double mutations at both L31 and Y93 showed severe resistance. The variants with mutations exhibited similar levels of susceptibility to interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-λ1, IFN-λ3 and Ribavirin. Variants with the Y93H mutation were more sensitive to protease inhibitors compared with JFH1/5ACon1. In conclusion, the in vitro analysis indicated that the Y93H mutation enhanced infectious virus production, suggesting advantages in the propagation of RAVs with this mutation. However, these RAVs were susceptible to protease inhibitors. Thus, a therapeutic regimen that includes these reagents is a promising means to eradicate these RAVs. PMID:27703205

  8. Discovery of thienoimidazole-based HCV NS5A inhibitors. Part 1: C2-symmetric inhibitors with diyne and biphenyl linkers.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Simon; Bilimoria, Darius; Cadilhac, Caroline; Cottrell, Kevin M; Denis, Francois; Dietrich, Evelyne; Ewing, Nigel; Henderson, James A; L'Heureux, Lucille; Mani, Nagraj; Morris, Mark; Nicolas, Olivier; Reddy, T Jagadeeswar; Selliah, Subajini; Shawgo, Rebecca S; Xu, Jinwang; Chauret, Nathalie; Berlioz-Seux, Francoise; Chan, Laval C; Das, Sanjoy K; Grillot, Anne-Laure; Bennani, Youssef L; Maxwell, John P

    2015-02-15

    The discovery of C2-symmetric bis-thienoimidazoles HCV NS5A inhibitors is herein reported. Two straightforward approaches to access the requisite diyne and biphenyl linker moieties are described. This study revealed the paramount importance of the aromatic character of the linker to achieve high genotype 1a potency. PMID:25595681

  9. Discovery of thienoimidazole-based HCV NS5A inhibitors. Part 2: non-symmetric inhibitors with potent activity against genotype 1a and 1b.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Simon; Bilimoria, Darius; Cadilhac, Caroline; Cottrell, Kevin M; Denis, Francois; Dietrich, Evelyne; Ewing, Nigel; Henderson, James A; L'Heureux, Lucille; Mani, Nagraj; Morris, Mark; Nicolas, Olivier; Reddy, T Jagadeeswar; Selliah, Subajini; Shawgo, Rebecca S; Xu, Jinwang; Chauret, Nathalie; Berlioz-Seux, Francoise; Chan, Laval C; Das, Sanjoy K; Grillot, Anne-Laure; Bennani, Youssef L; Maxwell, John P

    2015-02-15

    The discovery of non-symmetric thienoimidazole-containing HCV NS5A inhibitors is described. The inhibitors herein reported display high potencies against both genotype 1a and 1b. In this follow-up manuscript, we discuss the importance of the linker aromaticity to achieve high potency, particularly against genotype 1a. PMID:25597006

  10. In vitro and in vivo antiviral activity and resistance profile of ombitasvir, an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS5A.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Preethi; Beyer, Jill; Mistry, Neeta; Koev, Gennadiy; Reisch, Thomas; DeGoey, David; Kati, Warren; Campbell, Andrew; Williams, Laura; Xie, Wangang; Setze, Carolyn; Molla, Akhteruzzaman; Collins, Christine; Pilot-Matias, Tami

    2015-02-01

    Ombitasvir (ABT-267) is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor with picomolar potency, pan-genotypic activity, and 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 0.82 to 19.3 pM against HCV genotypes 1 to 5 and 366 pM against genotype 6a. Ombitasvir retained these levels of potency against a panel of 69 genotype 1 to 6 chimeric replicons containing the NS5A gene derived from HCV-infected patients, despite the existence of natural sequence diversity within NS5A. In vitro resistance selection identified variants that conferred resistance to ombitasvir in the HCV NS5A gene at amino acid positions 28, 30, 31, 58, and 93 in genotypes 1 to 6. Ombitasvir was evaluated in vivo in a 3-day monotherapy study in 12 HCV genotype 1-infected patients at 5, 25, 50, or 200 mg dosed once daily. All patients in the study were HCV genotype 1a infected and were without preexisting resistant variants at baseline as determined by clonal sequencing. Decreases in HCV RNA up to 3.1 log10 IU/ml were observed. Resistance-associated variants at position 28, 30, or 93 in NS5A were detected in patient samples 48 hours after the first dose. Clonal sequencing analysis indicated that wild-type virus was largely suppressed by ombitasvir during 3-day monotherapy, and at doses higher than 5 mg, resistant variant M28V was also suppressed. Ombitasvir was well tolerated at all doses, and there were no serious or severe adverse events. These data support clinical development of ombitasvir in combination with inhibitors targeting HCV NS3/4A protease (ABT-450 with ritonavir) and HCV NS5B polymerase (ABT-333, dasabuvir) for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. (Study M12-116 is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01181427.). PMID:25451055

  11. Seed Sequence-Matched Controls Reveal Limitations of Small Interfering RNA Knockdown in Functional and Structural Studies of Hepatitis C Virus NS5A-MOBKL1B Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyo-Young; Gu, Meigang; Buehler, Eugen; MacDonald, Margaret R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a widespread human pathogen causing liver cirrhosis and cancer. Similar to the case for other viruses, HCV depends on host and viral factors to complete its life cycle. We used proteomic and yeast two-hybrid approaches to elucidate host factors involved in HCV nonstructural protein NS5A function and found that MOBKL1B interacts with NS5A. Initial experiments with small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown suggesting a role in HCV replication led us to examine the interaction using biochemical and structural approaches. As revealed by a cocrystal structure of a core MOBKL1B-NS5A peptide complex at 1.95 Å, NS5A binds to a hydrophobic patch on the MOBKL1B surface. Biosensor binding assays identified a highly conserved, 18-amino-acid binding site in domain II of NS5A, which encompasses residues implicated in cyclophilin A (CypA)-dependent HCV RNA replication. However, a CypA-independent HCV variant had reduced replication in MOBKL1B knockdown cells, even though its NS5A does not interact with MOBKL1B. These discordant results prompted more extensive studies of MOBKL1B gene knockdowns, which included additional siRNAs and specifically matched seed sequence siRNA controls. We found that reduced virus replication after treating cells with MOBKL1B siRNA was actually due to off-target inhibition, which indicated that the initial finding of virus replication dependence on the MOBKL1B-NS5A interaction was incorrect. Ultimately, using several approaches, we found no relationship of the MOBKL1B-NS5A interaction to virus replication. These findings collectively serve as a reminder to investigators and scientific reviewers of the pervasive impact of siRNA off-target effects on interpretation of biological data. IMPORTANCE Our study illustrates an underappreciated shortcoming of siRNA gene knockdown technology. We initially identified a cellular protein, MOBKL1B, as a binding partner with the NS5A protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV). MOBKL1B si

  12. Analysis of sequences of hepatitis C virus NS5A genotype 1 in HIV-coinfected patients with a null response to nitazoxanide or peg-interferon plus ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Sede, M; Laufer, N; Ojeda, D; Gun, A; Cahn, P; Quarleri, J

    2013-09-01

    Even though new drugs have been approved for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the risk of drug-drug interactions and concern about overlapping toxicities has hindered the development of studies in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. Traditional treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (peg-IFN + RBV) is very expensive and has a low rate of sustained virological response in coinfected patients, especially if they are infected with HCV genotype 1. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a drug that is being evaluated for the treatment of chronic HCV infection, both in HCV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Understanding the NTZ resistance mechanism could allow the development of resistance to be minimized and would expand the treatment options, mainly in special populations such as HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Similarly to IFN, NTZ increases the activity of the cellular protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA (PKR), a key kinase in the innate antiviral response. In order to elucidate whether sequence heterogeneity in the PKR-binding domain of HCV NS5A genotype 1 could influence the antiviral activity of either NTZ monotherapy or peg-IFN + RBV, baseline and end-of-therapy plasma samples from two groups of eleven non-responder HIV/HCV-coinfected patients that had received NTZ or peg-IFN + RBV were studied. Most of the HCV NS5A sequences examined at the end of therapy did not change from the baseline, even after 30 days course of antiviral therapy. An extensive comparison of HCV NS5A genotype 1 and 4 sequences from the database with reported IFN therapy outcome was performed in order to infer their phylogenetic relationships. The HCV genotype 1 NS5A nucleotide sequences from therapy-non-responder patients were intermingled amongst those from the database, irrespective of their IFN-therapy outcome. When comparing NS5A-PKRBD amino acid sequences, significant differences were observed in genotype 4, but not in genotype 1 (p < 0.0001 and p

  13. Effect of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Core and NS5A Mutations on Response to Peginterferon Plus Ribavirin Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Shingo; Imazeki, Fumio; Arai, Makoto; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Kanda, Tatsuo; Shirasawa, Hiroshi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b core- and NS5A-region mutations are associated with response to peginterferon α-2b plus ribavirin combination therapy. A total of 103 patients with high HCV genotype 1b viral loads (≥ 100 KIU/mL) were treated with the combination therapy. Pretreatment mutations in the core region and interferon sensitivity determining region (ISDR) in the NS5A region were analyzed. In univariate analysis, arginine and leucine at positions 70 and 91 in the core region, defined as double wild (DW)-type, were associated with early virologic response (p = 0.002), sustained virologic response (SVR) (p = 0.004), and non-response (p = 0.005). Non-threonine at position 110 was associated with SVR (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed the following pretreatment predictors of SVR: hemoglobin level ≥ 14 g/dL (odds ratio (OR) 6.2, p = 0.04); platelet count ≥ 14 × 10⁴/mm³ (OR 5.2, p = 0.04); aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio < 0.9 (OR 6.17, p = 0.009); DW-type (OR 6.8, p = 0.02); non-threonine at position 110 (OR 14.5, p = 0.03); and ≥ 2 mutations in the ISDR (OR 12.3, p = 0.02). Patients with non-DW-type, non-threonine at position 110, and < 2 ISDR mutations showed significantly lower SVR rates than others (11/45 (24.4%) vs. 27/37 (73.0%), respectively; p < 0.001). SVR can be predicted through core and NS5A region mutations and host factors like hemoglobin, platelet count, and AST/ALT ratio in HCV genotype 1b-infected patients treated with peginterferon and ribavirin combination therapy. PMID:26370958

  14. Preclinical characterization of GSK2336805, a novel inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication that selects for resistance in NS5A.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jill; Crosby, Renae; Wang, Amy; Woldu, Ermias; Vamathevan, Jessica; Voitenleitner, Christian; You, Shihyun; Remlinger, Katja; Duan, Maoshang; Kazmierski, Wieslaw; Hamatake, Robert

    2014-01-01

    GSK2336805 is an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) with picomolar activity on the standard genotype 1a, 1b, and 2a subgenomic replicons and exhibits a modest serum shift. GSK2336805 was not active on 22 RNA and DNA viruses that were profiled. We have identified changes in the N-terminal region of NS5A that cause a decrease in the activity of GSK2336805. These mutations in the genotype 1b replicon showed modest shifts in compound activity (<13-fold), while mutations identified in the genotype 1a replicon had a more dramatic impact on potency. GSK2336805 retained activity on chimeric replicons containing NS5A patient sequences from genotype 1 and patient and consensus sequences for genotypes 4 and 5 and part of genotype 6. Combination and cross-resistance studies demonstrated that GSK2336805 could be used as a component of a multidrug HCV regimen either with the current standard of care or in combination with compounds with different mechanisms of action that are still progressing through clinical development.

  15. Combination treatment with hepatitis C virus protease and NS5A inhibitors is effective against recombinant genotype 1a, 2a, and 3a viruses.

    PubMed

    Gottwein, Judith M; Jensen, Sanne B; Li, Yi-Ping; Ghanem, Lubna; Scheel, Troels K H; Serre, Stéphanie B N; Mikkelsen, Lotte; Bukh, Jens

    2013-03-01

    With the development of directly acting antivirals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy entered a new era. However, rapid selection of resistance mutations necessitates combination therapy. To study combination therapy in infectious culture systems, we aimed at developing HCV semi-full-length (semi-FL) recombinants relying only on the JFH1 NS3 helicase, NS5B, and the 3' untranslated region. With identified adaptive mutations, semi-FL recombinants of genotypes(isolates) 1a(TN) and 3a(S52) produced supernatant infectivity titers of ~4 log(10) focus-forming units/ml in Huh7.5 cells. Genotype 1a(TN) adaptive mutations allowed generation of 1a(H77) semi-FL virus. Concentration-response profiles revealed the higher efficacy of the NS3 protease inhibitor asunaprevir (BMS-650032) and the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir (BMS-790052) against 1a(TN and H77) than 3a(S52) viruses. Asunaprevir had intermediate efficacy against previously developed 2a recombinants J6/JFH1 and J6cc. Daclatasvir had intermediate efficacy against J6/JFH1, while low sensitivity was confirmed against J6cc. Using a cross-titration scheme, infected cultures were treated until viral escape or on-treatment virologic suppression occurred. Compared to single-drug treatment, combination treatment with relatively low concentrations of asunaprevir and daclatasvir suppressed infection with all five recombinants. Escaped viruses primarily had substitutions at amino acids in the NS3 protease and NS5A domain I reported to be genotype 1 resistance mutations. Inhibitors showed synergism at drug concentrations reported in vivo. In summary, semi-FL HCV recombinants, including the most advanced reported genotype 3a infectious culture system, permitted genotype-specific analysis of combination treatment in the context of the complete viral life cycle. Despite differential sensitivity to lead compound NS3 protease and NS5A inhibitors, genotype 1a, 2a, and 3a viruses were suppressed by combination treatment with relatively low

  16. Discovery of ledipasvir (GS-5885): a potent, once-daily oral NS5A inhibitor for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Link, John O; Taylor, James G; Xu, Lianhong; Mitchell, Michael; Guo, Hongyan; Liu, Hongtao; Kato, Darryl; Kirschberg, Thorsten; Sun, Jianyu; Squires, Neil; Parrish, Jay; Keller, Terry; Yang, Zheng-Yu; Yang, Chris; Matles, Mike; Wang, Yujin; Wang, Kelly; Cheng, Guofeng; Tian, Yang; Mogalian, Erik; Mondou, Elsa; Cornpropst, Melanie; Perry, Jason; Desai, Manoj C

    2014-03-13

    A new class of highly potent NS5A inhibitors with an unsymmetric benzimidazole-difluorofluorene-imidazole core and distal [2.2.1]azabicyclic ring system was discovered. Optimization of antiviral potency and pharmacokinetics led to the identification of 39 (ledipasvir, GS-5885). Compound 39 (GT1a replicon EC50 = 31 pM) has an extended plasma half-life of 37-45 h in healthy volunteers and produces a rapid >3 log viral load reduction in monotherapy at oral doses of 3 mg or greater with once-daily dosing in genotype 1a HCV-infected patients. 39 has been shown to be safe and efficacious, with SVR12 rates up to 100% when used in combination with direct-acting antivirals having complementary mechanisms.

  17. Rapid, Sensitive, and Accurate Evaluation of Drug Resistant Mutant (NS5A-Y93H) Strain Frequency in Genotype 1b HCV by Invader Assay.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Satoshi; Ochi, Hidenori; Murakami, Eisuke; Uchida, Takuro; Kan, Hiromi; Akamatsu, Sakura; Hayes, C Nelson; Abe, Hiromi; Miki, Daiki; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Aikata, Hiroshi; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2015-01-01

    Daclatasvir and asunaprevir dual oral therapy is expected to achieve high sustained virological response (SVR) rates in patients with HCV genotype 1b infection. However, presence of the NS5A-Y93H substitution at baseline has been shown to be an independent predictor of treatment failure for this regimen. By using the Invader assay, we developed a system to rapidly and accurately detect the presence of mutant strains and evaluate the proportion of patients harboring a pre-treatment Y93H mutation. This assay system, consisting of nested PCR followed by Invader reaction with well-designed primers and probes, attained a high overall assay success rate of 98.9% among a total of 702 Japanese HCV genotype 1b patients. Even in serum samples with low HCV titers, more than half of the samples could be successfully assayed. Our assay system showed a better lower detection limit of Y93H proportion than using direct sequencing, and Y93H frequencies obtained by this method correlated well with those of deep-sequencing analysis (r = 0.85, P <0.001). The proportion of the patients with the mutant strain estimated by this assay was 23.6% (164/694). Interestingly, patients with the Y93H mutant strain showed significantly lower ALT levels (p=8.8 x 10-4), higher serum HCV RNA levels (p=4.3 x 10-7), and lower HCC risk (p=6.9 x 10-3) than those with the wild type strain. Because the method is both sensitive and rapid, the NS5A-Y93H mutant strain detection system established in this study may provide important pre-treatment information valuable not only for treatment decisions but also for prediction of disease progression in HCV genotype 1b patients. PMID:26083687

  18. A retrospective case-control study of hepatitis C virus infection and oral lichen planus in Japan: association study with mutations in the core and NS5A region of hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Japanese patients with oral lichen planus and identify the impact of amino acid (aa) substitutions in the HCV core region and IFN-sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) of nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) associated with lichen planus. Methods In this retrospective study, 59 patients (group 1-A) with oral lichen planus among 226 consecutive patients who visited our hospital and 85 individuals (group 1-B, controls) with normal oral mucosa were investigated for the presence of liver disease and HCV infection. Risk factors for the presence of oral lichen planus were assessed by logistic regression analysis. We compared aa substitutions in the HCV core region (70 and/or 91) and ISDR of NS5A of 12 patients with oral lichen planus (group 2-A) and 7 patients who did not have oral lichen planus (group 2-B) among patients (high viral loads, genotype 1b) who received interferon (IFN) therapy in group1-A. Results The prevalence of anti-HCV and HCV RNA was 67.80% (40/59) and 59.32% (35/59), respectively, in group 1-A and 31.76% (27/85) and 16.47% (14/85), respectively, in group 1-B. The prevalence of anti-HCV (P < 0.0001) and HCV RNA (P < 0.0001) in group 1-A was significantly higher than those in group 1-B. According to multivariate analysis, three factors - positivity for HCV RNA, low albumin level (< 4.0 g/dL), and history of smoking - were associated with the development of oral lichen planus. The adjusted odds ratios for these three factors were 6.58, 3.53 and 2.58, respectively, and each was statistically significant. No significant differences in viral factors, such as aa substitutions in the core region and ISDR of NS5A, were detected between the two groups (groups 2-A and -B). Conclusion We observed a high prevalence of HCV infection in patients with oral lichen planus. Longstanding HCV infection, hypoalbuminemia, and smoking were significant risk factors for the

  19. Genetic variability in the 5' UTR and NS5A regions of hepatitis C virus RNA isolated from non-responding and responding patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Flávio M G; Sonoda, Ivan V; Rodrigues, Nilton B; Teixeira, Rosangela; Redondo, Rodrigo A F; Oliveira, Guilherme C

    2008-09-01

    Sequence variation among different hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates has adaptive significance and reflects the modes and intensities of selection mechanisms operating on the virus. In this work, we sought to investigate using classical population genetics parameters, the genetic variability of HCV genotype 1 using the 5' UTR and NS5A regions from treatment non-responding and responding groups of patients. Both regions showed low genetic variability and the 5' UTR showed neutral deviation. No differences were observed in the nonsynonymous/synonymous nucleotide substitution ratio among groups for NS5A. The analysis of molecular variance test of the 5' UTR region showed an 11.94% variation among groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed no correlation between sequence variations and therapeutic responses.

  20. Frequency of Natural Resistance within NS5a Replication Complex Domain in Hepatitis C Genotypes 1a, 1b: Possible Implication of Subtype-Specific Resistance Selection in Multiple Direct Acting Antivirals Drugs Combination Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bagaglio, Sabrina; Andolina, Andrea; Merli, Marco; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Morsica, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Different HCV subtypes may naturally harbor different resistance selection to anti-NS5a inhibitors. 2761 sequences retrieved from the Los Alamos HCV database were analyzed in the NS5a domain 1, the target of NS5a inhibitors. The NS5a resistance-associated polymorphisms (RAPs) were more frequently detected in HCV G1b compared to G1a. The prevalence of polymorphisms associated with cross-resistance to compounds in clinical use (daclatasvir, DCV, ledipasvir, LDV, ombitasvir, and OMV) or scheduled to come into clinical use in the near future (IDX719, elbasvir, and ELV) was higher in G1b compared to G1a (37/1552 (2.4%) in 1b sequences and 15/1209 (1.2%) in 1a isolates, p = 0.040). Interestingly, on the basis of the genotype-specific resistance pattern, 95 (6.1%) G1b sequences had L31M RAP to DCV/IDX719, while 6 sequences of G1a (0.5%) harbored L31M RAP, conferring resistance to DCV/LDV/IDX719/ELV (p < 0.0001). Finally, 28 (2.3%) G1a and none of G1b isolates harbored M28V RAP to OMV (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the pattern of subtype-specific resistance selection in the naturally occurring strains may guide the treatment option in association with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) targeting different regions, particularly in patients that are difficult to cure, such as those with advanced liver disease or individuals who have failed previous DAAs. PMID:27023593

  1. Evaluation of Resistance-Associated Substitutions in NS5A Using Direct Sequence and Cycleave Method and Treatment Outcome with Daclatasvir and Asunaprevir for Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kunihide; Morita, Masaru; Morita, Yasuyo; Sugiyama, Gen; Fukushima, Hirofumi; Yano, Yoichi; Noguchi, Kazunori; Nakamura, Hiroki; Hisatomi, Junjiro; Kumemura, Hiroto; Shirachi, Miki; Iwane, Shinji; Okada, Michiaki; Honma, Yuichi; Arinaga-Hino, Teruko; Miyajima, Ichiro; Ogata, Kei; Kuwahara, Reiichiro; Amano, Keisuke; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Kuromatsu, Ryoko; Torimura, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of daclatasvir plus asunaprevir therapy in patients infected with hepatitis C virus and determine its relevance to resistant variants. Methods A total of 629 consecutive patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 were assessed. Daclatasvir (60 mg/day) plus asunaprevir (200 mg/day) was given for 24 weeks. The virological responses and resistance-associated substitutions of hepatitis C virus mutants were examined by the direct sequence and cycleave methods were evaluated. Results Overall, 89.4% (555/621) of patients exhibited a sustained virological response (SVR). The SVR rates in the patients with wild type, mixed, and mutant type Y93 by direct sequencing were 92.5% (520/562), 70.3% (26/37), and 42.9% (9/21), respectively. The SVR rates in the patients with 100%, 90%, 80%-30%, and 20%-0% Y93 wild by the cycleave method were 93.4% (456/488), 88.2%(30/34), 56.0%(14/25), and 36.8%(7/19), respectively. In contrast, the SVR rates for the wild type and mixed/mutant type L31 by direct sequencing were 90.2% (534/592) and 72.4% (21/29), respectively. In the multivariate analyses, the wild type Y93, no history of simeprevir therapy, the wild type L31, and low HCV RNA level were independent factors of SVR. Conclusion NS5A resistance-associated substitutions, especially Y93H, were major factors predicting the SVR. Although direct sequencing can predict the SVR rate, the cycleave method is considered to be more useful for predicting the SVR when used in combination. PMID:27684567

  2. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein-5A activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c through transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Qiao, Ling; Zhou, Yan; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Liu, Qiang

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} A chimeric subgenomic HCV replicon expresses HCV-3a NS5A in an HCV-1b backbone. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A increases mature SREBP-1c protein level. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription. {yields} Domain II of HCV-3a NS5A is more effective in SREBP-1c promoter activation. {yields} Transcription factor Sp1 is required for SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A. -- Abstract: Steatosis is an important clinical manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The molecular mechanisms of HCV-associated steatosis are not well understood. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a key transcription factor which activates the transcription of lipogenic genes. Here we showed that the nuclear, mature SREBP-1c level increases in the nucleus of replicon cells expressing HCV-3a nonstructural protein-5A (NS5A). We further showed that HCV-3a NS5A up-regulates SREBP-1c transcription. Additional analysis showed that transcriptional factor Sp1 is involved in SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A because inhibition of Sp1 activity by mithramycin A or a dominant-negative Sp1 construct abrogated SREBP-1c promoter activation by HCV-3a NS5A. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated enhanced binding of Sp1 on the SREBP-1c promoter in HCV-3a NS5A replicon cells. These results showed that HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription through Sp1. Taken together, our results suggest that HCV-3a NS5A is a contributing factor for steatosis caused by HCV-3a infection.

  3. A Cell-Permeable Hairpin Peptide Inhibits Hepatitis C Viral Nonstructural Protein 5A Mediated Translation and Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Ruchala, Piotr; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Maloney, Eden M.; Miao, Edna; Dasgupta, Asim; French, Samuel W.

    2012-01-01

    NS5A is a key regulator of hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle including RNA replication, assembly, and translation. We and others have shown NS5A to augment HCV IRES-mediated translation. Further, Quercetin treatment and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 knockdown inhibit NS5A-driven augmentation of IRES-mediated translation and infectious virus production. We have also co-immunoprecipitated HSP70 with NS5A and demonstrated cellular colocalization leading to the hypothesis that the NS5A/HSP70 complex formation is important for IRES-mediated translation. Here, we have identified the NS5A region responsible for complex formation through in vitro deletion analyses. Deletion of NS5A domains II and III failed to reduce HSP70 binding, whereas domain I deletion eliminated complex formation. NS5A domain I alone also bound HSP70. Deletion mapping of domain I identified the C-terminal 34 amino acids (C34) to be the interaction site. Further, addition of C34 to domains II and III restored complex formation. C34 expression significantly reduced intracellular viral protein levels, in contrast to same size control peptides from other NS5A domains. C34 also competitively inhibited NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation, while controls did not. Triple-alanine scan mutagenesis identified an exposed beta-sheet hairpin in C34 to be primarily responsible for NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation. Moreover, treatment with a 10 amino acid peptide derivative of C34 suppressed NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation and significantly inhibited intracellular viral protein synthesis, with no associated cytotoxicity. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that the NS5A/HSP70 complex augments viral IRES-mediated translation, identify a sequence-specific hairpin element in NS5A responsible for complex formation, and demonstrate the functional significance of C34 hairpin-mediated NS5A/HSP70 interaction. Identification of this element may allow for further interrogation of NS5A

  4. Coordination of Hepatitis C Virus Assembly by Distinct Regulatory Regions in Nonstructural Protein 5A

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, Margarita; Long, Gang; Madan, Vanesa; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein (NS)5A is a RNA-binding protein composed of a N-terminal membrane anchor, a structured domain I (DI) and two intrinsically disordered domains (DII and DIII) interacting with viral and cellular proteins. While DI and DII are essential for RNA replication, DIII is required for assembly. How these processes are orchestrated by NS5A is poorly understood. In this study, we identified a highly conserved basic cluster (BC) at the N-terminus of DIII that is critical for particle assembly. We generated BC mutants and compared them with mutants that are blocked at different stages of the assembly process: a NS5A serine cluster (SC) mutant blocked in NS5A-core interaction and a mutant lacking the envelope glycoproteins (ΔE1E2). We found that BC mutations did not affect core-NS5A interaction, but strongly impaired core–RNA association as well as virus particle envelopment. Moreover, BC mutations impaired RNA-NS5A interaction arguing that the BC might be required for loading of core protein with viral RNA. Interestingly, RNA-core interaction was also reduced with the ΔE1E2 mutant, suggesting that nucleocapsid formation and envelopment are coupled. These findings argue for two NS5A DIII determinants regulating assembly at distinct, but closely linked steps: (i) SC-dependent recruitment of replication complexes to core protein and (ii) BC-dependent RNA genome delivery to core protein, triggering encapsidation that is tightly coupled to particle envelopment. These results provide a striking example how a single viral protein exerts multiple functions to coordinate the steps from RNA replication to the assembly of infectious virus particles. PMID:26727512

  5. Nonstructural 5A Protein of Hepatitis C Virus Regulates Soluble Resistance-Related Calcium-Binding Protein Activity for Viral Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Giao V. Q.; Luong, Trang T. D.; Park, Eun-Mee; Kim, Jong-Wook; Choi, Jae-Woong; Park, Chorong; Lim, Yun-Sook

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease and is highly dependent on cellular proteins for virus propagation. To identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we recently performed protein microarray assays using the HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein as a probe. Of 90 cellular protein candidates, we selected the soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin) for further characterization. Sorcin is a calcium-binding protein and is highly expressed in certain cancer cells. We verified that NS5A interacted with sorcin through domain I of NS5A, and phosphorylation of the threonine residue 155 of sorcin played a crucial role in protein interaction. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of sorcin impaired HCV propagation. Silencing of sorcin expression resulted in a decrease of HCV assembly without affecting HCV RNA and protein levels. We further demonstrated that polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1)-mediated phosphorylation of sorcin was increased by NS5A. We showed that both phosphorylation and calcium-binding activity of sorcin were required for HCV propagation. These data indicate that HCV modulates sorcin activity via NS5A protein for its own propagation. IMPORTANCE Sorcin is a calcium-binding protein and regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis. HCV NS5A interacts with sorcin, and phosphorylation of sorcin is required for protein interaction. Gene silencing of sorcin impaired HCV propagation at the assembly step of the HCV life cycle. Sorcin is phosphorylated by PLK1 via protein interaction. We showed that sorcin interacted with both NS5A and PLK1, and PLK1-mediated phosphorylation of sorcin was increased by NS5A. Moreover, calcium-binding activity of sorcin played a crucial role in HCV propagation. These data provide evidence that HCV regulates host calcium metabolism for virus propagation, and thus manipulation of sorcin activity may represent a novel therapeutic target for HCV. PMID:26719254

  6. Conserved Determinants for Membrane Association of Nonstructural Protein 5A from Hepatitis C Virus and Related Viruses▿

    PubMed Central

    Brass, Volker; Pal, Zsuzsanna; Sapay, Nicolas; Deléage, Gilbert; Blum, Hubert E.; Penin, François; Moradpour, Darius

    2007-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is a membrane-associated essential component of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication complex. An N-terminal amphipathic alpha helix mediates in-plane membrane association of HCV NS5A and at the same time is likely involved in specific protein-protein interactions required for the assembly of a functional replication complex. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants for membrane association of NS5A from the related GB viruses and pestiviruses. Although primary amino acid sequences differed considerably, putative membrane anchor domains with amphipathic features were predicted in the N-terminal domains of NS5A proteins from these viruses. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, as well as membrane flotation analyses, demonstrated that NS5As from GB virus B (GBV-B), GBV-C, and bovine viral diarrhea virus, the prototype pestivirus, display membrane association characteristics very similar to those of HCV NS5A. The N-terminal 27 to 33 amino acid residues of these NS5A proteins were sufficient for membrane association. Circular dichroism analyses confirmed the capacity of these segments to fold into alpha helices upon association with lipid-like molecules. Despite structural conservation, only very limited exchanges with sequences from related viruses were tolerated in the context of functional HCV RNA replication, suggesting virus-specific interactions of these segments. In conclusion, membrane association of NS5A by an N-terminal amphipathic alpha helix is a feature shared by HCV and related members of the family Flaviviridae. This observation points to conserved roles of the N-terminal amphipathic alpha helices of NS5A in replication complex formation. PMID:17192310

  7. Pim Kinase Interacts with Nonstructural 5A Protein and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chorong; Min, Saehong; Park, Eun-Mee; Lim, Yun-Sook; Kang, Sangmin; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on host cellular proteins for virus propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assay using the HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein as a probe. Of ∼9,000 human cellular proteins immobilized in a microarray, approximately 90 cellular proteins were identified as NS5A interactors. Of these candidates, Pim1, a member of serine/threonine kinase family composed of three different isoforms (Pim1, Pim2, and Pim3), was selected for further study. Pim kinases share a consensus sequence which overlaps with kinase activity. Pim kinase activity has been implicated in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we verified the physical interaction between NS5A and Pim1 by both in vitro pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation assays. Pim1 interacted with NS5A through amino acid residues 141 to 180 of Pim1. We demonstrated that protein stability of Pim1 was increased by NS5A protein and this increase was mediated by protein interplay. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of Pim kinase abrogated HCV propagation. By employing HCV pseudoparticle entry and single-cycle HCV infection assays, we further demonstrated that Pim kinase was involved in HCV entry at a postbinding step. These data suggest that Pim kinase may represent a new host factor for HCV entry. IMPORTANCE Pim1 is an oncogenic serine/threonine kinase. HCV NS5A protein physically interacts with Pim1 and contributes to Pim1 protein stability. Since Pim1 protein expression level is upregulated in many cancers, NS5A-mediated protein stability may be associated with HCV pathogenesis. Either gene silencing or chemical inhibition of Pim kinase abrogated HCV propagation in HCV-infected cells. We further showed that Pim kinase was specifically required at an early entry step of the HCV life cycle. Thus, we have identified Pim kinase not only as an HCV cell

  8. Polymeric hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5A nanocapsules induce intrahepatic antigen-specific immune responses.

    PubMed

    Fichter, Michael; Piradashvili, Keti; Pietrzak-Nguyen, Anette; Pretsch, Leah; Kuhn, Gabor; Strand, Susanne; Knuf, Markus; Zepp, Fred; Wurm, Frederik R; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Gehring, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    Targeting antigen combined with adjuvants to hepatic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is essential for the induction of intrahepatic T cellular immunity controlling and resolving viral infections of the liver. Intravenous injection of antigen-loaded nanoparticles is a promising approach for the delivery of antigens to liver APCs. Accordingly, polymeric nanocapsules (NCs) synthesized exclusively of hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) and the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) adsorbed to the nanocapsule surface were developed. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the in vitro and in vivo behavior of MPLA-functionalized NS5A-NCs regarding the interaction with liver dendritic cells (DCs) and the potential to induce intrahepatic immune responses in a mouse model. Maturation of DCs was significantly increased by application of NS5A+MPLA-NCs compared to non-functionalized NS5A-NCs promoting a vigorous expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and a strong secretion of the Th1-related cytokine IL-12. NS5A-NCs were preferentially deposited in DCs and Kupffer cells residing in the liver after intravenous administration. Immunization with NS5A-NCs induced intrahepatic antigen-specific CD4(+) T cellular immune responses determined by the secretion of IFNγ and IL-2. Furthermore, supplementation with MPLA induced significant levels of NS5A-specific antibodies. The application of polymeric nanocapsules synthesized exclusively out of antigen avoids the risk of unintended side effects caused by additional carrier substances. Functionalization with adjuvants like MPLA and the efficient targeting to liver-resident APCs inherits the potential for application of antigen nanocapsules in further vaccination approaches against pathogens affecting the liver. PMID:27614817

  9. Screening of cellular proteins that interact with the classical swine fever virus non-structural protein 5A by yeast two-hybrid analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengcheng; He, Lei; Kang, Kai; Chen, Heng; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Yanming

    2014-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the pathogen of classical swine fever (CSF), causes severe hemorrhagic fever and vascular necrosis in domestic pigs and wild boar. A large number of evidence has proven that non-structural 5A (NS5A) is not only a very important part of viral replication complex, but also can regulate host cell's function; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the current study, aiming to find more clues in understanding the molecular mechanisms of CSFV NS5A's function, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system was adopted to screen for CSFV NS5A interactive proteins in the cDNA library of the swine umbilical vein endothelial cell (SUVEC). Alignment with the NCBI database revealed 16 interactive proteins: DDX5, PSMC3, NAV1, PHF5A, GNB2L1, CSDE1, HSPA8, BRMS1, PPP2R3C, AIP, TMED10, POLR1C, TMEM70, METAP2, CHORDC1 and COPS6. These proteins are mostly related to gene transcription, protein folding, protein degradation and metabolism. The interactions detected by the Y2H system should be considered as preliminary results. Since identifying novel pathways and host targets, which play essential roles during infection, may provide potential targets for therapeutic development. The finding of proteins obtained from the SUVEC cDNA library that interact with the CSFV NS5A protein provide valuable information for better understanding the interactions between this viral protein and the host target proteins.

  10. Increased Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK) Gene Expression and Steatosis During Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Subgenome Replication: Role of Nonstructural Component-5A (NS5A) and CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein ß (C/EBPß)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection greatly increases the risk for type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, the pathogenic mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we report gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) transcription and associated tra...

  11. Functional differences in hepatitis C virus nonstructural (NS) 3/4A- and 5A-specific T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Holmström, Fredrik; Chen, Margaret; Balasiddaiah, Anangi; Sällberg, Matti; Ahlén, Gustaf; Frelin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus nonstructural (NS) 3/4A and NS5A proteins are major targets for the new direct-acting antiviral compounds. Both viral proteins have been suggested as modulators of the response to the host cell. We have shown that NS3/4A- and NS5A-specific T cell receptors confer different effector functions, and that killing of NS3/4A-expressing hepatocytes is highly dependent on IFN-γ. We here characterize the functional differences in the T cell responses to NS3/4A and NS5A. NS3/4A- and NS5A-specific T cells could be induced at various frequencies in wild-type-, NS3/4A-, and NS5A-transgenic mice. Priming of NS5A-specific T cells required a high DNA dose, and was unlike NS3/4A dependent on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, but less influenced by CD25+/GITR+ regulatory T cells. The presence of IL-12 greatly improved specific CD8+ T cell priming by NS3/4A but not by NS5A, suggesting a less dependence of IFN-γ for NS5A. This notion was supported by the observation that NS5A-specific T cells could eliminate NS5A-expressing hepatocytes also in the absence of IFN-γ-receptor-2. This supports that NS3/4A- and NS5A-specific T cells become activated and eliminate antigen expressing, or infected hepatocytes, by distinct mechanisms, and that NS5A-specific T cells show an overall less dependence of IFN-γ. PMID:27141891

  12. Dissimilar expression of multidrug resistance mdr1 and bcrp by the replication of hepatitis C virus: role of the nonstructural 5A protein.

    PubMed

    W Rivero, C; Rosso, N; Gentile, E; Cuestas, M; Tiribelli, C; Oubiña, J R; Mathet, V L

    2013-04-01

    Multidrug resistance associated with the overexpression of ATP-dependent binding cassette (ABC) proteins is widely accepted as an important cause of treatment failure in patients with neoplastic or infectious diseases. Some of them play also a pivotal role in detoxification processes. Herein, we investigated the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein on the expression and functional activity of two ABC transport proteins: MDR1 and BCRP. RT-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was carried out for mdr1 and bcrp mRNAs in both Huh7 cells expressing NS5A and Huh7.5 cells containing either full-length- or subgenomic-HCV replicon systems. The functional activity of these pumps was studied by performing a dye efflux assay with DiOC2 and Rhodamine 123. A dose-dependent down-regulation of mdr1 expression was documented in Huh7 cells expressing the NS5A protein, as well as in both replicon systems. In contrast, a significant increase of bcrp expression in both systems was recorded, which were in full agreement with the dye efflux assay results. These results warrant further in vivo studies in HCV patients with cholestasis and/or patients that are refractive to the pharmacotherapy due to the activity of these pumps. PMID:23490381

  13. [Involvement of nonstructural protein 5A and lipids on production of hepatitis C virus particles].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tetsuro; Masaki, Takahiro; Aizaki, Hideki

    2008-12-01

    A robust system for production of recombinant infectious hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been established in 2005 and classical virological techniques are now able to be applied to the HCV research, especially regarding molecular mechanisms on virion assembly and maturation. We recently demonstrated that the C-terminal serine cluster of NS5A is a determinant of NS5A interaction with Core and the subcellular localization of NSSA. Mutation of this cluster blocks the NS5A-Core interaction, resulting in perturbation of association between Core and HCV RNA. It is thus tempting to consider that NS5A plays a key role in transporting the viral genome RNA synthesized by the replication complex to the surface of lipid droplets (LDs) or LD-associated membranes, where Core localizes, leading to facilitation of nucleocapsid formation. We also demonstrated an important role of cholesterol and sphingolipid in HCV infection and virion maturation. Specifically, mature HCV particles are rich in cholesterol. Depletion of cholesterol from HCV or hydrolysis of virion-associated sphingomyelin results in a loss of infectivity, and the addition of exogenous cholesterol restores infectivity. In addition, cholesterol and sphingolipid on the HCV membrane play a key role in virus internalization. Finally, inhibitors of the sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway efficiently block virion production. PMID:19374198

  14. Expanding the proteome of an RNA virus by phosphorylation of an intrinsically disordered viral protein.

    PubMed

    Cordek, Daniel G; Croom-Perez, Tayler J; Hwang, Jungwook; Hargittai, Michele R S; Subba-Reddy, Chennareddy V; Han, Qingxia; Lodeiro, Maria Fernanda; Ning, Gang; McCrory, Thomas S; Arnold, Jamie J; Koc, Hasan; Lindenbach, Brett D; Showalter, Scott A; Cameron, Craig E

    2014-08-29

    The human proteome contains myriad intrinsically disordered proteins. Within intrinsically disordered proteins, polyproline-II motifs are often located near sites of phosphorylation. We have used an unconventional experimental paradigm to discover that phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) occurs in the intrinsically disordered domain of hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) on Thr-2332 near one of its polyproline-II motifs. Phosphorylation shifts the conformational ensemble of the NS5A intrinsically disordered domain to a state that permits detection of the polyproline motif by using (15)N-, (13)C-based multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. PKA-dependent proline resonances were lost in the presence of the Src homology 3 domain of c-Src, consistent with formation of a complex. Changing Thr-2332 to alanine in hepatitis C virus genotype 1b reduced the steady-state level of RNA by 10-fold; this change was lethal for genotype 2a. The lethal phenotype could be rescued by changing Thr-2332 to glutamic acid, a phosphomimetic substitution. Immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy showed that the inability to produce Thr(P)-2332-NS5A caused loss of integrity of the virus-induced membranous web/replication organelle. An even more extreme phenotype was observed in the presence of small molecule inhibitors of PKA. We conclude that the PKA-phosphorylated form of NS5A exhibits unique structure and function relative to the unphosphorylated protein. We suggest that post-translational modification of viral proteins containing intrinsic disorder may be a general mechanism to expand the viral proteome without a corresponding expansion of the genome. PMID:25031324

  15. Genetic interactions of yeast eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) reveal connections to poly(A)-binding protein and protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Sandro R; Casolari, Jason M; Oliveira, Carla C; Silver, Pamela A; McBride, Anne E

    2002-01-01

    The highly conserved eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A has been proposed to have various roles in the cell, from translation to mRNA decay to nuclear protein export. To further our understanding of this essential protein, three temperature-sensitive alleles of the yeast TIF51A gene have been characterized. Two mutant eIF5A proteins contain mutations in a proline residue at the junction between the two eIF5A domains and the third, strongest allele encodes a protein with a single mutation in each domain, both of which are required for the growth defect. The stronger tif51A alleles cause defects in degradation of short-lived mRNAs, supporting a role for this protein in mRNA decay. A multicopy suppressor screen revealed six genes, the overexpression of which allows growth of a tif51A-1 strain at high temperature; these genes include PAB1, PKC1, and PKC1 regulators WSC1, WSC2, and WSC3. Further results suggest that eIF5A may also be involved in ribosomal synthesis and the WSC/PKC1 signaling pathway for cell wall integrity or related processes. PMID:11861547

  16. Purification and characterization of Ras related protein, Rab5a from Tinospora cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Amir, Mohd; Wahiduzzaman; Dar, Mohammad Aasif; Haque, Md Anzarul; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    Ras related protein (Rab5a) is one of the most important member of the Rab family which regulates the early endosome fusion in endocytosis, and it also helps in the regulation of the budding process. Here, for the first time we report a simple and reproducible method for the purification of the Rab5a from a medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia. We have used weak cation-exchange (CM-Sepharose-FF) followed by gel-filtration chromatography. A purified protein of 22-kDa was observed on SDS-PAGE which was identified as Rab5a using MALDI-TOF/MS. Our purification procedure is fast and simple with high yield. The purified protein was characterized using circular dichroism for the measurement of secondary structure followed by GdmCl- and urea-induced denaturation to calculate the values of Gibbs free energy change (ΔGD), ΔGD°, midpoint of the denaturation Cm, i.e. molar GdmCl [GdmCl] and molar urea [Urea] concentration at which ΔGD=0; and m, the slope (=∂ΔGD/∂[d]) values. Furthermore, thermodynamic properties of Rab5a were also measured by differential scanning calorimeter. Here, using isothermal calorimeteric measurements we further showed that Rab5a binds with the GTP. This is a first report on the purification and biophysical characterization of Rab5a protein from T. cordifolia. PMID:26517959

  17. Deoxyhypusine Modification of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 5A (eIF5A) Is Essential for Trypanosoma brucei Growth and for Expression of Polyprolyl-containing Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Suong; Leija, Chrisopher; Kinch, Lisa; Regmi, Sandesh; Li, Qiong; Grishin, Nick V; Phillips, Margaret A

    2015-08-01

    The eukaryotic protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. Polyamine biosynthesis is essential in T. brucei, and the polyamine spermidine is required for synthesis of a novel cofactor called trypanothione and for deoxyhypusine modification of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). eIF5A promotes translation of proteins containing polyprolyl tracts in mammals and yeast. To evaluate the function of eIF5A in T. brucei, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down eIF5A levels and found that it is essential for T. brucei growth. The RNAi-induced growth defect was complemented by expression of wild-type human eIF5A but not by a Lys-50 mutant that blocks modification by deoxyhypusine. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 15% of the T. brucei proteome contains 3 or more consecutive prolines and that actin-related proteins and cysteine proteases were highly enriched in the group. Steady-state protein levels of representative proteins containing 9 consecutive prolines that are involved in actin assembly (formin and CAP/Srv2p) were significantly reduced by knockdown of eIF5A. Several T. brucei polyprolyl proteins are involved in flagellar assembly. Knockdown of TbeIF5A led to abnormal cell morphologies and detached flagella, suggesting that eIF5A is important for translation of proteins needed for these processes. Potential specialized functions for eIF5A in T. brucei in translation of variable surface glycoproteins were also uncovered. Inhibitors of deoxyhypusination would be expected to cause a pleomorphic effect on multiple cell processes, suggesting that deoxyhypusine/hypusine biosynthesis could be a promising drug target in not just T. brucei but in other eukaryotic pathogens.

  18. Deoxyhypusine Modification of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 5A (eIF5A) Is Essential for Trypanosoma brucei Growth and for Expression of Polyprolyl-containing Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Suong; Leija, Chrisopher; Kinch, Lisa; Regmi, Sandesh; Li, Qiong; Grishin, Nick V.; Phillips, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. Polyamine biosynthesis is essential in T. brucei, and the polyamine spermidine is required for synthesis of a novel cofactor called trypanothione and for deoxyhypusine modification of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). eIF5A promotes translation of proteins containing polyprolyl tracts in mammals and yeast. To evaluate the function of eIF5A in T. brucei, we used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down eIF5A levels and found that it is essential for T. brucei growth. The RNAi-induced growth defect was complemented by expression of wild-type human eIF5A but not by a Lys-50 mutant that blocks modification by deoxyhypusine. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 15% of the T. brucei proteome contains 3 or more consecutive prolines and that actin-related proteins and cysteine proteases were highly enriched in the group. Steady-state protein levels of representative proteins containing 9 consecutive prolines that are involved in actin assembly (formin and CAP/Srv2p) were significantly reduced by knockdown of eIF5A. Several T. brucei polyprolyl proteins are involved in flagellar assembly. Knockdown of TbeIF5A led to abnormal cell morphologies and detached flagella, suggesting that eIF5A is important for translation of proteins needed for these processes. Potential specialized functions for eIF5A in T. brucei in translation of variable surface glycoproteins were also uncovered. Inhibitors of deoxyhypusination would be expected to cause a pleomorphic effect on multiple cell processes, suggesting that deoxyhypusine/hypusine biosynthesis could be a promising drug target in not just T. brucei but in other eukaryotic pathogens. PMID:26082486

  19. Wnt5a Is Associated with Cigarette Smoke-Related Lung Carcinogenesis via Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jae Sook; Ju, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Park, Kyong Hwa; Lee, Jong Won; Koh, In Song; Kim, Yeul Hong

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a is overexpressed during the progression of human non-small cell lung cancer. However, the roles of Wnt5a during smoking-related lung carcinogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the associations between Wnt5a and the early development of cigarette smoke related lung cancer using human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells (NHBE, BEAS-2B, 1799, 1198 and 1170I) at different malignant stages established by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). Abnormal up-regulation of Wnt5a mRNA and proteins was detected in CSC-exposed transformed 1198 and tumorigenic 1170I cells as compared with other non-CSC exposed HBE cells. Tumor tissues obtained from smokers showed higher Wnt5a expressions than matched normal tissues. In non-CSC exposed 1799 cells, treatment of recombinant Wnt5a caused the activations of PKC and Akt, and the blockage of Wnt5a and PKC significantly decreased the viabilities of CSC-transformed 1198 cells expressing high levels of Wnt5a. This reduced cell survival rate was associated with increased apoptosis via the down-regulation of Bcl2 and the induction of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase. Moreover, CSC-treated 1799 cells showed induction of Wnt5a expression and enhanced colony-forming capacity. The CSC-induced colony forming efficiency was suppressed by the co-incubation with a PKC inhibitor. In conclusion, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induces Wnt5a-coupled PKC activity during lung carcinogenesis, which causes Akt activity and anti-apoptosis in lung cancer. Therefore, current study provides novel clues for the crucial role of Wnt5a in the smoking-related lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23349696

  20. Hepatitis C virus infection protein network

    PubMed Central

    de Chassey, B; Navratil, V; Tafforeau, L; Hiet, M S; Aublin-Gex, A; Agaugué, S; Meiffren, G; Pradezynski, F; Faria, B F; Chantier, T; Le Breton, M; Pellet, J; Davoust, N; Mangeot, P E; Chaboud, A; Penin, F; Jacob, Y; Vidalain, P O; Vidal, M; André, P; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Lotteau, V

    2008-01-01

    A proteome-wide mapping of interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human proteins was performed to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular infection. A total of 314 protein–protein interactions between HCV and human proteins was identified by yeast two-hybrid and 170 by literature mining. Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HCV are enriched in highly central and interconnected proteins. A global analysis on the basis of functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HCV. A network of proteins associated with frequent clinical disorders of chronically infected patients was constructed by connecting the insulin, Jak/STAT and TGFβ pathways with cellular proteins targeted by HCV. CORE protein appeared as a major perturbator of this network. Focal adhesion was identified as a new function affected by HCV, mainly by NS3 and NS5A proteins. PMID:18985028

  1. Quorum-sensing-directed protein expression in Serratia proteamaculans B5a.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Allan B; Riedel, Kathrin; Eberl, Leo; Flodgaard, Lars R; Molin, Søren; Gram, Lone; Givskov, Michael

    2003-02-01

    N-Acyl-L-homoserine-lactone-producing Serratia species are frequently encountered in spoiling foods of vegetable and protein origin. The role of quorum sensing in the food spoiling properties of these bacteria is currently being investigated. A set of luxR luxI homologous genes encoding a putative quorum sensor was identified in the N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL)-producing Serratia proteamaculans strain B5a. The 3-oxo-C6-HSL synthase SprI showed 79 % similarity with EsaI from Pantoea stewartii and the putative regulatory protein SprR was 86 % similar to the SpnR of Serratia marcescens. Proteome analysis suggested that the presence of at least 39 intracellular proteins was affected by the 3-oxo-C6-HSL-based quorum sensing system. The lipB-encoded secretion system was identified as one target gene of the quorum sensing system. LipB was required for the production of extracellular lipolytic and proteolytic activities, thus rendering the production of food-deterioration-relevant exoenzymes indirectly under the control of quorum sensing. Strain B5a caused quorum-sensing-controlled spoilage of milk. Furthermore, chitinolytic activity was controlled by quorum sensing. This control appeared to be direct and not mediated via LipB. The data presented here demonstrate that quorum-sensing-controlled exoenzymic activities affect food quality.

  2. Cysteine residues of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein are not essential for virus viability.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lichang; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Runxia; Li, Yanhua; Gao, Fei; Wang, Xiaomin; Fan, Hongjie; Yuan, Shishan; Wei, Zuzhang; Tong, Guangzhi

    2015-02-01

    ORF5a protein was recently identified as a novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The ORF5a protein possesses two cysteines at positions 29 and 30 that are highly conserved among type 2 PRRSV. In this study, the significance of the ORF5a protein cysteine residues on virus replication was determined based on a type 2 PRRSV cDNA clone (pAJXM). Each cysteine was substituted by serine or glycine and the mutations were introduced into pAJXM. We found that the replacement of cysteine to glycine at position 30 was lethal for virus viability, but all serine mutant clones produced infectious progeny viruses. This data indicated that cysteine residues in the ORF5a protein were not essential for replication of type 2 PRRSV. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay were used to study ORF5a protein interacted with other enveloped proteins. These results showed that ORF5a protein interacted non-covalently with itself and interacted with GP4 and 2b protein. The replacement of cysteine to glycine at position 30 affected the ORF5a protein interacted non-covalently with itself, which may account for the lethal phenotype of mutants carrying substitution of cysteine to glycine at position 30.

  3. The N-terminal region of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A signals to nuclear localization of the protein

    SciTech Connect

    Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T.; Gomes, Marcelo D.; Oliveira, Eduardo B.; Costa-Neto, Claudio M.

    2007-10-19

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a ubiquitous protein of eukaryotic and archaeal organisms which undergoes hypusination, a unique post-translational modification. We have generated a polyclonal antibody against murine eIF5A, which in immunocytochemical assays in B16-F10 cells revealed that the endogenous protein is preferentially localized to the nuclear region. We therefore analyzed possible structural features present in eIF5A proteins that could be responsible for that characteristic. Multiple sequence alignment analysis of eIF5A proteins from different eukaryotic and archaeal organisms showed that the former sequences have an extended N-terminal segment. We have then performed in silico prediction analyses and constructed different truncated forms of murine eIF5A to verify any possible role that the N-terminal extension might have in determining the subcellular localization of the eIF5A in eukaryotic organisms. Our results indicate that the N-terminal extension of the eukaryotic eIF5A contributes in signaling this protein to nuclear localization, despite of bearing no structural similarity with classical nuclear localization signals.

  4. Purifying selection in Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ORF5a protein influences variation in envelope glycoprotein 5 glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Sally R.; Abrahante, Juan E.; Johnson, Craig R.; Murtaugh, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus ORF5a protein is encoded in an alternate open reading frame upstream of the major envelope glycoprotein (GP5) in subgenomic mRNA5. Bioinformatic analysis of 3,466 Type 2 PRRSV sequences showed that the two proteins have co-evolved through a fine balance of purifying codon usage to maintain a conserved RQ-rich motif in ORF5a protein, while eliciting a variable N-linked glycosylation motif in the alternative GP5 reading frame. Conservation of the ORF5a protein RQ-motif also explains an anomalous uracil desert in GP5 hypervariable glycosylation region. The N-terminus of the mature GP5 protein was confirmed to start with amino acid 32, the hypervariable region of the ectodomain. Since GP5 glycosylation variability is assumed to result from immunological selection against neutralizing antibodies, these findings show that an alternative possibility unrelated to immunological selection not only exists, but provides a foundation for investigating previously unsuspected aspects of PRRSV biology. Understanding functional consequences of subtle nucleotide sequence modifications in the region responsible for critical function in ORF5a protein and GP5 glycosylation is essential for rational design of new vaccines against PRRS. PMID:24084290

  5. Wnt5a signaling is a substantial constituent in bone morphogenetic protein-2-mediated osteoblastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, Eiji; Ebe, Yukari; Kanaya, Sousuke; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a is identified in osteoblasts in tibial growth plate and bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteoblastic differentiation is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a/Ror2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling is important for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wnt5a/Ror2 operates independently of BMP-Smad pathway. -- Abstract: Wnts are secreted glycoproteins that mediate developmental and post-developmental physiology by regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through {beta}-catenin-dependent canonical and {beta}-catenin-independent noncanonical pathway. It has been reported that Wnt5a activates noncanonical Wnt signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (Ror2). Although it appears that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling supports normal bone physiology, the biological significance of noncanonical Wnts in osteogenesis is essentially unknown. In this study, we identified expression of Wnt5a in osteoblasts in the ossification zone of the tibial growth plate as well as bone marrow of the rat tibia as assessed by immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that osteoblastic differentiation mediated by BMP-2 is associated with increased expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 using cultured pre-osteoblasts, MC3T3-E1 cells. Silencing gene expression of Wnt5a and Ror2 in MC3T3-E1 cells results in suppression of BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation, suggesting that Wnt5a and Ror2 signaling are of substantial importance for BMP-2-mediated osteoblastic differentiation. BMP-2 stimulation induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 in a similar fashion in both siWnt5a-treated cells and control cells, suggesting that Wnt5a was dispensable for the phosphorylation of Smads by BMP-2. Taken together, our results suggest that Wnt5a/Ror2 signaling appears to be involved in BMP-2-mediated osteoblast differentiation in a Smad independent

  6. Gemin5: A Multitasking RNA-Binding Protein Involved in Translation Control.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, David; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Martinez-Salas, Encarna

    2015-01-01

    Gemin5 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) that was first identified as a peripheral component of the survival of motor neurons (SMN) complex. This predominantly cytoplasmic protein recognises the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) through its WD repeat domains, allowing assembly of the SMN complex into small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Additionally, the amino-terminal end of the protein has been reported to possess cap-binding capacity and to interact with the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Gemin5 was also shown to downregulate translation, to be a substrate of the picornavirus L protease and to interact with viral internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements via a bipartite non-canonical RNA-binding site located at its carboxy-terminal end. These features link Gemin5 with translation control events. Thus, beyond its role in snRNPs biogenesis, Gemin5 appears to be a multitasking protein cooperating in various RNA-guided processes. In this review, we will summarise current knowledge of Gemin5 functions. We will discuss the involvement of the protein on translation control and propose a model to explain how the proteolysis fragments of this RBP in picornavirus-infected cells could modulate protein synthesis.

  7. Gemin5: A Multitasking RNA-Binding Protein Involved in Translation Control

    PubMed Central

    Piñeiro, David; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Martinez-Salas, Encarna

    2015-01-01

    Gemin5 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) that was first identified as a peripheral component of the survival of motor neurons (SMN) complex. This predominantly cytoplasmic protein recognises the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) through its WD repeat domains, allowing assembly of the SMN complex into small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Additionally, the amino-terminal end of the protein has been reported to possess cap-binding capacity and to interact with the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Gemin5 was also shown to downregulate translation, to be a substrate of the picornavirus L protease and to interact with viral internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements via a bipartite non-canonical RNA-binding site located at its carboxy-terminal end. These features link Gemin5 with translation control events. Thus, beyond its role in snRNPs biogenesis, Gemin5 appears to be a multitasking protein cooperating in various RNA-guided processes. In this review, we will summarise current knowledge of Gemin5 functions. We will discuss the involvement of the protein on translation control and propose a model to explain how the proteolysis fragments of this RBP in picornavirus-infected cells could modulate protein synthesis. PMID:25898402

  8. Gemin5: A Multitasking RNA-Binding Protein Involved in Translation Control.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, David; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Martinez-Salas, Encarna

    2015-01-01

    Gemin5 is a RNA-binding protein (RBP) that was first identified as a peripheral component of the survival of motor neurons (SMN) complex. This predominantly cytoplasmic protein recognises the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) through its WD repeat domains, allowing assembly of the SMN complex into small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Additionally, the amino-terminal end of the protein has been reported to possess cap-binding capacity and to interact with the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Gemin5 was also shown to downregulate translation, to be a substrate of the picornavirus L protease and to interact with viral internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements via a bipartite non-canonical RNA-binding site located at its carboxy-terminal end. These features link Gemin5 with translation control events. Thus, beyond its role in snRNPs biogenesis, Gemin5 appears to be a multitasking protein cooperating in various RNA-guided processes. In this review, we will summarise current knowledge of Gemin5 functions. We will discuss the involvement of the protein on translation control and propose a model to explain how the proteolysis fragments of this RBP in picornavirus-infected cells could modulate protein synthesis. PMID:25898402

  9. Unique Regulation of Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL) by Perilipin 5, a Lipid Droplet-associated Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Bell, Ming; Sreenevasan, Urmilla; Hu, Hong; Liu, Jun; Dalen, Knut; Londos, Constantine; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Rizzo, Mark A.; Coleman, Rosalind; Gong, Dawei; Brasaemle, Dawn; Sztalryd, Carole

    2011-01-01

    Lipolysis is a critical metabolic pathway contributing to energy homeostasis through degradation of triacylglycerides stored in lipid droplets (LDs), releasing fatty acids. Neutral lipid lipases act at the oil/water interface. In mammalian cells, LD surfaces are coated with one or more members of the perilipin protein family, which serve important functions in regulating lipolysis. We investigated mechanisms by which three perilipin proteins control lipolysis by adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL), a key lipase in adipocytes and non-adipose cells. Using a cell culture model, we examined interactions of ATGL and its co-lipase CGI-58 with perilipin 1 (perilipin A), perilipin 2 (adipose differentiation-related protein), and perilipin 5 (LSDP5) using multiple techniques as follows: anisotropy Forster resonance energy transfer, co-immunoprecipitation, [32P]orthophosphate radiolabeling, and measurement of lipolysis. The results show that ATGL interacts with CGI-58 and perilipin 5; the latter is selectively expressed in oxidative tissues. Both proteins independently recruited ATGL to the LD surface, but with opposite effects; interaction of ATGL with CGI-58 increased lipolysis, whereas interaction of ATGL with perilipin 5 decreased lipolysis. In contrast, neither perilipin 1 nor 2 interacted directly with ATGL. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) increased [32P]orthophosphate incorporation into perilipin 5 by 2-fold, whereas neither ATGL nor CGI-58 was labeled under the incubation conditions. Cells expressing both ectopic perilipin 5 and ATGL showed a 3-fold increase in lipolysis following activation of PKA. Our studies establish perilipin 5 as a novel ATGL partner and provide evidence that the protein composition of perilipins at the LD surface regulates lipolytic activity of ATGL. PMID:21393244

  10. Association of filamin A and vimentin with hepatitis C virus proteins in infected human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Ahrens, W A; Phatak, S U; Hwang, S; Schrum, L W; Bonkovsky, H L

    2011-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and remains a major therapeutic challenge. A variety of host proteins interact with HCV proteins. The definitive role of cytoskeletal (CS) proteins in HCV infection remains to be determined. In this study, our aim was to determine the expression profile of differentially regulated and expressed selected CS proteins and their association with HCV proteins in infected hepatocytes as possible therapeutic targets. Using proteomics, qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence techniques, we revealed that filamin A (fila) and vimentin (vim) were prominently increased proteins in HCV-expressing human hepatoma cells compared with parental cells and in liver biopsies from patients with CHC vs controls. HCV nonstructural (NS) 3 and NS5A proteins were associated with fila, while core protein partially with fila and vim. Immunoprecipitation showed interactions among fila and NS3 and NS5A proteins. Cells treated with interferon-α showed a dose- and time-dependent decrease in CS and HCV proteins. NS proteins clustered at the perinuclear region following cytochalasin b treatment, whereas disperse cytoplasmic and perinuclear distribution was observed in the no-treatment group. This study demonstrates and signifies that changes occur in the expression of CS proteins in HCV-infected hepatocytes and, for the first time, shows the up-regulation and interaction of fila with HCV proteins. Association between CS and HCV proteins may have implications in future design of CS protein-targeted therapy for the treatment for HCV infection.

  11. GPRC5A suppresses protein synthesis at the endoplasmic reticulum to prevent radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Farris, Alton B.; Xu, Kaiming; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Duong, Duc M.; Yi, Hong; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Sun, Shi-Yong; Wang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    GPRC5A functions as a lung tumour suppressor to prevent spontaneous and environmentally induced lung carcinogenesis; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we reveal that GPRC5A at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane suppresses synthesis of the secreted or membrane-bound proteins including a number of oncogenes, the most important one being Egfr. The ER-located GPRC5A disturbs the assembly of the eIF4F-mediated translation initiation complex on the mRNA cap through directly binding to the eIF4F complex with its two middle extracellular loops. Particularly, suppression of EGFR by GPRC5A contributes significantly to preventing ionizing radiation (IR)-induced lung tumorigenesis. Thus, GPRC5A deletion enhances IR-promoted EGFR expression through an increased translation rate, thereby significantly increasing lung tumour incidence in Gprc5a−/− mice. Our findings indicate that under-expressed GPRC5A during lung tumorigenesis enhances any transcriptional stimulation through an active translational status, which can be used to control oncogene expression and potentially the resulting related disease. PMID:27273304

  12. Aquaporin-5: A Marker Protein for Proliferation and Migration of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Jun; Park, Ji-Young; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) is a family of transmembrane proteins for water transport. Recent studies revealed that AQPs are likely to play a role in tumor progression and invasion. We aimed to examine the potential role of AQP5 in the progression of human breast cancer cells. Expression of AQP5 mRNA and protein was seen in human breast cancer cell line (both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) by RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis. Immunoperoxidase labeling of AQP5 was observed at ductal epithelial cells of human breast tissues. In benign tumor, AQP5 labeling was mainly seen at the apical domains of ductal epithelial cells. In contrast, in invasive ductal carcinoma, prominent AQP5 labeling was associated with cancer cells, whereas some ducts were unlabeled and apical polarity of AQP5 in ducts was lost. Cell proliferation (BrdU incorporation assay) and migration of MCF7 cells were significantly attenuated by lentivirus-mediated AQP5-shRNA transduction. Hyperosmotic stress induced by sorbitol treatment (100 mM, 24 h) reduced AQP5 expression in MCF7 cells, which was also associated with a significant reduction in cell proliferation and migration. Taken together, prominent AQP5 expression in breast cancer cells with the loss of polarity of ductal epithelial cells was seen during the progression of breast carcinoma. shRNA- or hyperosmotic stress-induced reduction in AQP5 expression of MCF7 cells was associated with significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, AQP5 overexpression is likely to play a role in cell growth and metastasis of human breast cancer and could be a novel target for anti-breast cancer treatment. PMID:22145049

  13. iHADAMAC: A complementary tool for sequential resonance assignment of globular and highly disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Sophie; Plevin, Michael J.; Willbold, Dieter; Brutscher, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    An experiment, iHADAMAC, is presented that yields information on the amino-acid type of individual residues in a protein by editing the 1H- 15N correlations into seven different 2D spectra, each corresponding to a different class of amino-acid types. Amino-acid type discrimination is realized via a Hadamard encoding scheme based on four different spin manipulations as recently introduced in the context of the sequential HADAMAC experiment. Both sequential and intra-residue HADAMAC experiments yield highly complementary information that greatly facilitate resonance assignment of proteins with high frequency degeneracy, as demonstrated here for a 188-residue intrinsically disordered protein fragment of the hepatitis C virus protein NS5A.

  14. Global quantitative proteomics reveal up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response proteins upon depletion of eIF5A in HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ajeet; Mandal, Swati; Park, Myung Hee

    2016-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation factor, eIF5A, is a translation factor essential for protein synthesis, cell growth and animal development. By use of a adenoviral eIF5A shRNA, we have achieved an effective depletion of eIF5A in HeLa cells and undertook in vivo comprehensive proteomic analyses to examine the effects of eIF5A depletion on the total proteome and to identify cellular pathways influenced by eIF5A. The proteome of HeLa cells transduced with eIF5A shRNA was compared with that of scramble shRNA-transduced counterpart by the iTRAQ method. We identified 972 proteins consistently detected in three iTRAQ experiments and 104 proteins with significantly altered levels (protein ratio ≥1.5 or ≤0.66, p-value ≤0.05) at 72 h and/or 96 h of Ad-eIF5A-shRNA transduction. The altered expression levels of key pathway proteins were validated by western blotting. Integration of functional ontology with expression data of the 104 proteins revealed specific biological processes that are prominently up- or down-regulated. Heatmap analysis and Cytoscape visualization of biological networks identified protein folding as the major cellular process affected by depletion of eIF5A. Our unbiased, quantitative, proteomic data demonstrate that the depletion of eIF5A leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress, an unfolded protein response and up-regulation of chaperone expression in HeLa cells. PMID:27180817

  15. Novel reciprocal regulation of cAMP signaling and apoptosis by orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPRC5A gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Minoru; Zang, Liqing; Oka, Takehiko; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Shimada, Yasuhito; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio . E-mail: tanaka@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp

    2006-12-08

    GPRC5A is a member of G-protein-coupled receptors, which was originally identified as an all-trans-retinoic acid-induced gene. Although recent studies reported that this gene was highly expressed in the cancer cell lines and that GPRC5A might positively regulate cell proliferation, its mechanism remains unknown. We investigated the upstream and downstream signaling of GPRC5A and its biological function, and found that cAMP signaling is the novel GPRC5A induction pathway. When GPRC5A gene was overexpressed, intracellular cAMP concentration was decreased, and Gs{alpha} gene expression was downregulated. On the other hand, RNA interference of GPRC5A increased mRNA levels of Gs{alpha} and intracellular cAMP, reduced cell number, and induced apoptosis. Conversely, cell number was increased by GPRC5A overexpression. We first report the novel negative feedback model of cAMP signaling through GPRC5A gene expression. This evidence explains one of the mechanisms of the GPRC5A-regulated cell growth in some cancer cell lines.

  16. Cofactor Regulation of C5a Chemotactic Activity in Physiological Fluids. Requirement for the Vitamin D Binding Protein, Thrombospondin-1 and its Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Glenda; Zhang, Jianhua; Habiel, David M.; Ge, Lingyin; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Kew, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Factors in physiological fluids that regulate the chemotactic activity of complement activation peptides C5a and C5a des Arg are not well understood. The vitamin D binding protein (DBP) has been shown to significantly enhance chemotaxis to C5a/C5a des Arg. More recently, platelet-derived thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) has been shown to facilitate the augmentation of C5a-induced chemotaxis by DBP. The objective of this study was to better characterize these chemotactic cofactors and investigate the role that cell surface TSP-1 receptors CD36 and CD47 may play in this process. The chemotactic activity in C-activated normal serum, citrated plasma, DBP-depleted serum or C5 depleted serum was determined for both normal human neutrophils and U937 cell line transfected with the C5a receptor (U937-C5aR). In addition, levels of C5a des Arg, DBP and TSP-1 in these fluids were measured by RIA or ELISA. Results show that there is a clear hierarchy with C5a being the essential primary signal (DBP or TSP-1 will not function in the absence of C5a), DBP the necessary cofactor and TSP-1 a dependent tertiary factor, since it cannot function to enhance chemotaxis to C5a without DBP. Measurement of the C5a-induced intracellular calcium flux confirmed the same hierarchy observed with chemotaxis. Moreover, analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) demonstrated that C5a-dependent chemotactic activity is significantly decreased after anti-DBP treatment. Finally, results show that TSP-1 utilizes cell surface receptors CD36 and CD47 to augment chemotaxis, but DBP does not bind to TSP-1, CD36 or CD47. The results clearly demonstrate that C5a/C5a des Arg needs both DBP and TSP-1 for maximal chemotactic activity and suggest that the regulation of C5a chemotactic activity in physiological fluids is more complex than previously thought. PMID:22014686

  17. Motor protein KIFC5A interacts with Nubp1 and Nubp2, and is implicated in the regulation of centrosome duplication.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Andri; Lederer, Carsten W; Surrey, Thomas; Vernos, Isabelle; Santama, Niovi

    2006-05-15

    Inhibition of motor protein activity has been linked with defects in the formation of poles in the spindle of dividing cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the functional relationship between motor activity and centrosome dynamics have remained uncharacterised. Here, we characterise KIFC5A, a mouse kinesin-like protein that is highly expressed in dividing cells and tissues, and is subject to developmental and cell-type-specific regulation. KIFC5A is a minus-end-directed, microtubule-dependent motor that produces velocities of up to 1.26 microm minute(-1) in gliding assays and possesses microtubule bundling activity. It is nuclear in interphase, localises to the centre of the two microtubule asters at the beginning of mitosis, and to spindle microtubules in later mitotic phases. Overexpression of KIFC5A in mouse cells causes the formation of aberrant, non-separated microtubule asters and mitotic arrest in a prometaphase-like state. KIFC5A knockdown partly rescues the phenotype caused by inhibition of plus-end-directed motor Eg5 by monastrol on the mitotic spindle, indicating that it is involved in the balance of forces determining bipolar spindle assembly and integrity. Silencing of KIFC5A also results in centrosome amplification detectable throughout the cell cycle. Supernumerary centrosomes arise primarily as a result of reduplication and partly as a result of cytokinesis defects. They contain duplicated centrioles and have the ability to organise microtubule asters, resulting in the formation of multipolar spindles. We show that KIFC5A interacts with nucleotide-binding proteins 1 and 2 (Nubp1 and Nubp2), which have extensive sequence similarity to prokaryotic division-site-determining protein MinD. Nubp1 and Nubp2 also interact with each other. Knockdown of Nubp1 or double knockdown of Nubp1 and Nubp2 (Nubp1&Nubp2) both phenocopy the KIFC5A silencing effect. These results implicate KIFC5A and the Nubp proteins in a common regulatory pathway

  18. CCp5A Protein from Toxoplasma gondii as a Serological Marker of Oocyst-driven Infections in Humans and Domestic Animals

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silas S.; Gebrim, Luiz C.; Carvalho, Fernando R.; Barros, Heber S.; Barros, Patrício C.; Pajuaba, Ana C. A. M.; Messina, Valeria; Possenti, Alessia; Cherchi, Simona; Reiche, Edna M. V.; Navarro, Italmar T.; Garcia, João L.; Pozio, Edoardo; Mineo, Tiago W. P.; Spano, Furio; Mineo, José R.

    2015-01-01

    Considering that the current immunoassays are not able to distinguish the infective forms that cause Toxoplasma gondii infection, the present study was carried out to evaluate the reactivity of two recombinant proteins (CCp5A and OWP1) from oocyst/sporozoite, in order to differentiate infections occurring by ingestion of oocysts or tissue cysts. The reactivity of the recombinant proteins was assessed against panels of serum samples from animals (chickens, pigs, and mice) that were naturally or experimentally infected by different infective stages of the parasite. Also, we tested sera from humans who have been infected by oocysts during a well-characterized toxoplasmosis outbreak, as well as sera from pregnant women tested IgM+/IgG+ for T. gondii, which source of infection was unknown. Only the sporozoite-specific CCp5A protein was able to differentiate the parasite stage that infected chickens, pigs and mice, with specific reactivity for oocyst-infected animals. Furthermore, the CCp5A showed preferential reactivity for recent infection by oocyst/sporozoite in pigs and mice. In humans, CCp5A showed higher reactivity with serum samples from the outbreak, compared with serum from pregnant women. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the usefulness of the CCp5A protein as a new tool to identify the parasite stage of T. gondii infection, allowing its application for diagnosis and epidemiological investigations in animals and humans. The identification of parasite infective stage can help to design effective strategies to minimize severe complications in immunocompromised people and, particularly, in pregnant women to prevent congenital infection. PMID:26635770

  19. Guanylate-Binding Protein 1, an Interferon-Induced GTPase, Exerts an Antiviral Activity against Classical Swine Fever Virus Depending on Its GTPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lian-Feng; Yu, Jiahui; Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Su; Zhang, Lingkai; Xia, Shui-Li; Yang, Qian; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Shaoxiong; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan; Zhu, Yan; Munir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many viruses trigger the type I interferon (IFN) pathway upon infection, resulting in the transcription of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which define the antiviral state of the host. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious viral disease endangering the pig industry in many countries. However, anti-CSFV ISGs are poorly documented. Here we screened 20 ISGs that are commonly induced by type I IFNs against CSFV in lentivirus-delivered cell lines, resulting in the identification of guanylate-binding protein 1 (GBP1) as a potent anti-CSFV ISG. We observed that overexpression of GBP1, an IFN-induced GTPase, remarkably suppressed CSFV replication, whereas knockdown of endogenous GBP1 expression by small interfering RNAs significantly promoted CSFV growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GBP1 acted mainly on the early phase of CSFV replication and inhibited the translation efficiency of the internal ribosome entry site of CSFV. In addition, we found that GBP1 was upregulated at the transcriptional level in CSFV-infected PK-15 cells and in various organs of CSFV-infected pigs. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays revealed that GBP1 interacted with the NS5A protein of CSFV, and this interaction was mapped in the N-terminal globular GTPase domain of GBP1. Interestingly, the K51 of GBP1, which is crucial for its GTPase activity, was essential for the inhibition of CSFV replication. We showed further that the NS5A-GBP1 interaction inhibited GTPase activity, which was critical for its antiviral effect. Taking our findings together, GBP1 is an anti-CSFV ISG whose action depends on its GTPase activity. IMPORTANCE Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important viral disease affecting the pig industry in many countries. To date, only a few host restriction factors against CSFV

  20. Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication Depends on Specific Cis- and Trans-Acting Activities of Viral Nonstructural Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kazakov, Teymur; Yang, Feng; Ramanathan, Harish N.; Kohlway, Andrew; Diamond, Michael S.; Lindenbach, Brett D.

    2015-01-01

    Many positive-strand RNA viruses encode genes that can function in trans, whereas other genes are required in cis for genome replication. The mechanisms underlying trans- and cis-preferences are not fully understood. Here, we evaluate this concept for hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important cause of chronic liver disease and member of the Flaviviridae family. HCV encodes five nonstructural (NS) genes that are required for RNA replication. To date, only two of these genes, NS4B and NS5A, have been trans-complemented, leading to suggestions that other replicase genes work only in cis. We describe a new quantitative system to measure the cis- and trans-requirements for HCV NS gene function in RNA replication and identify several lethal mutations in the NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B genes that can be complemented in trans, alone or in combination, by expressing the NS3–5B polyprotein from a synthetic mRNA. Although NS5B RNA binding and polymerase activities can be supplied in trans, NS5B protein expression was required in cis, indicating that NS5B has a cis-acting role in replicase assembly distinct from its known enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the RNA binding and NTPase activities of the NS3 helicase domain were required in cis, suggesting that these activities play an essential role in RNA template selection. A comprehensive complementation group analysis revealed functional linkages between NS3-4A and NS4B and between NS5B and the upstream NS3–5A genes. Finally, NS5B polymerase activity segregated with a daclatasvir-sensitive NS5A activity, which could explain the synergy of this antiviral compound with nucleoside analogs in patients. Together, these studies define several new aspects of HCV replicase structure-function, help to explain the potency of HCV-specific combination therapies, and provide an experimental framework for the study of cis- and trans-acting activities in positive-strand RNA virus replication more generally. PMID:25875808

  1. Establishment and evaluation of a new highly metastatic tumor cell line 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen expressing both luciferase and green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Hitomi; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Sugyo, Aya; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Masamoto, Kazuto; Tomita, Yutaka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Imamura, Takeshi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Although advances in diagnostic imaging for early detection, surgical techniques and chemotherapy have improved overall survival, the prognosis of patients with metastatic breast cancer remains poor. Understanding cancer cell dynamics in the metastatic process is important to develop new therapeutic strategies. Experimental animal models and imaging would be powerful tools for understanding of the molecular events of multistep process of metastasis. In the present study, to develop a new cancer cell line that is applicable to bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging, we transfected the expression vector of a green fluorescent protein ZsGreen1 into a metastatic cell line 5a-D-Luc, which is a subclone of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line expressing luciferase, and established a new tumor cell line 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen expressing both luciferase and ZsGreen1. The 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells proliferate more rapidly and have a more invasive phenotype compared with 5a-D-Luc cells following intracardiac injection. Metastasis sites were easily detected in the whole body by bioluminescence imaging and in excised tissues by ex vivo fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence of 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells was not lost after formalin fixation and decalcification. It enabled us to easily evaluate tumor spread and localization at the cellular level in microscopic analysis. The strong fluorescence of 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells allowed for real-time imaging of circulating tumor cells in cerebral blood vessels of live animals immediately after intracardiac injection of cells using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. These findings suggest that the 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells would be a useful tool for research on mechanisms of metastatic process in animal models. PMID:26691676

  2. Establishment and evaluation of a new highly metastatic tumor cell line 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen expressing both luciferase and green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Hitomi; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Sugyo, Aya; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Masamoto, Kazuto; Tomita, Yutaka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Imamura, Takeshi; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Although advances in diagnostic imaging for early detection, surgical techniques and chemotherapy have improved overall survival, the prognosis of patients with metastatic breast cancer remains poor. Understanding cancer cell dynamics in the metastatic process is important to develop new therapeutic strategies. Experimental animal models and imaging would be powerful tools for understanding of the molecular events of multistep process of metastasis. In the present study, to develop a new cancer cell line that is applicable to bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging, we transfected the expression vector of a green fluorescent protein ZsGreen1 into a metastatic cell line 5a-D-Luc, which is a subclone of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line expressing luciferase, and established a new tumor cell line 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen expressing both luciferase and ZsGreen1. The 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells proliferate more rapidly and have a more invasive phenotype compared with 5a-D-Luc cells following intracardiac injection. Metastasis sites were easily detected in the whole body by bioluminescence imaging and in excised tissues by ex vivo fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence of 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells was not lost after formalin fixation and decalcification. It enabled us to easily evaluate tumor spread and localization at the cellular level in microscopic analysis. The strong fluorescence of 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells allowed for real-time imaging of circulating tumor cells in cerebral blood vessels of live animals immediately after intracardiac injection of cells using two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. These findings suggest that the 5a-D-Luc-ZsGreen cells would be a useful tool for research on mechanisms of metastatic process in animal models.

  3. Spontaneous abortion is associated with elevated systemic C5a and reduced mRNA of complement inhibitory proteins in placenta.

    PubMed

    Banadakoppa, M; Chauhan, M S; Havemann, D; Balakrishnan, M; Dominic, J S; Yallampalli, C

    2014-09-01

    Spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy due to unknown reasons is a common problem. The excess complement activation and consequent placental inflammation and anti-angiogenic milieu is emerging as an important associated factor in many pregnancy-related complications. In the present study we sought to examine the expression of complement inhibitory proteins at the feto-maternal interface and levels of complement split products in the circulation to understand their role in spontaneous abortion. Consenting pregnant women who either underwent elective abortion due to non-clinical reasons (n = 13) or suffered miscarriage (n = 14) were recruited for the study. Systemic levels of complement factors C3a and C5a were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Plasma C5 and C3 protein levels were examined by Western blot. Expressions of complement regulatory proteins such as CD46 and CD55 in the decidua were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot. The median of plasma C3a level was 82·83 ng/ml and 66·17 ng/ml in elective and spontaneous abortion patients, respectively. Medians of plasma C5a levels in elective and spontaneous abortion patients were 0·96 ng/ml and 1·14 ng/ml, respectively. Only plasma C5a levels but not C3a levels showed significant elevation in spontaneous abortion patients compared to elective abortion patients. Further, there was a threefold decrease in the mRNA expressions of complement inhibitory proteins CD46 and CD55 in the decidua obtained from spontaneous abortion patients compared to that of elective abortion patients. These data suggested that dysregulated complement cascade may be associated with spontaneous abortion.

  4. Neutrophil Recruitment to the Lung in both C5a and CXCL1-Induced Alveolitis is Impaired in Vitamin D Binding Protein Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Glenda; Habiel, David M.; Ge, Lingyin; Ramadass, Mahalakshmi; Cooke, Nancy E.; Kew, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of how neutrophils respond to chemotactic signals in a complex inflammatory environment is not completely understood. Moreover, even less is known about factors in physiological fluids that regulate the activity of chemoattractants. The vitamin D binding protein (DBP) has been shown to significantly enhance chemotaxis to complement activation peptide C5a using purified proteins in vitro, and by ex vivo depletion of DBP in physiological fluids, but this function has not been determined in vivo. DBP null (-/-) mice were used to investigate how a systemic absence of this plasma protein affects leukocyte recruitment in alveolitis models of lung inflammation. DBP-/- mice had significantly reduced (~50%) neutrophil recruitment to the lungs compared to their wild-type DBP+/+ counterparts in three different alveolitis models, two acute and one chronic. The histology of DBP-/- mouse lungs also showed significantly less injury than wild-type animals. The chemotactic cofactor function of DBP appears to be selective for neutrophil recruitment, but in contrast to previous in vitro results, in vivo DBP can enhance the activity of other chemoattractants including CXCL1. The reduced neutrophil response in DBP-/- mice could be rescued to wild-type levels by administering exogenous DBP. Finally, in inflammatory fluids DBP binds to G-actin released from damaged cells and this complex may be the active chemotactic cofactor. Results show for the first time that DBP is a significant chemotactic cofactor in vivo and not specific for C5a, suggesting that this ubiquitous plasma protein may have a more significant role in neutrophil recruitment than previously recognized. PMID:23752613

  5. Effect of Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein-2 (WISP-2/CCN5), a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, on adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Inadera, Hidekuni Shimomura, Akiko; Tachibana, Shinjiro

    2009-02-20

    Wnt signaling negatively regulates adipocyte differentiation, and ectopic expression of Wnt-1 in 3T3-L1 cells induces several downstream molecules of Wnt signaling, including Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein (WISP)-2. In this study, we examined the role of WISP-2 in the process of adipocyte differentiation using an in vitro cell culture system. In the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, WISP-2 expression was observed in growing cells and declined thereafter. In the mitotic clonal expansion phase of adipocyte differentiation, WISP-2 expression was transiently down-regulated concurrently with up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein {delta} expression. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells in the differentiation medium with lithium, an activator of Wnt signaling, inhibited the differentiation process with concomitant induction of WISP-2. Treatment of differentiated cells with lithium induced de-differentiation as evidenced by profound reduction of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor {gamma} expression and concomitant induction of WISP-2. However, de-differentiation of differentiated cells induced by tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} did not induce WISP-2 expression. To directly examine the effect of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were infected with a retrovirus carrying WISP-2. Although forced expression of WISP-2 inhibited preadipocyte proliferation, it had no effect on adipocyte differentiation. Thus, although WISP-2 is a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, the role of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation may be marginal, at least in this in vitro culture model.

  6. Effect of Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein-2 (WISP-2/CCN5), a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, on adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Inadera, Hidekuni; Shimomura, Akiko; Tachibana, Shinjiro

    2009-02-20

    Wnt signaling negatively regulates adipocyte differentiation, and ectopic expression of Wnt-1 in 3T3-L1 cells induces several downstream molecules of Wnt signaling, including Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein (WISP)-2. In this study, we examined the role of WISP-2 in the process of adipocyte differentiation using an in vitro cell culture system. In the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, WISP-2 expression was observed in growing cells and declined thereafter. In the mitotic clonal expansion phase of adipocyte differentiation, WISP-2 expression was transiently down-regulated concurrently with up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta expression. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells in the differentiation medium with lithium, an activator of Wnt signaling, inhibited the differentiation process with concomitant induction of WISP-2. Treatment of differentiated cells with lithium induced de-differentiation as evidenced by profound reduction of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor gamma expression and concomitant induction of WISP-2. However, de-differentiation of differentiated cells induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha did not induce WISP-2 expression. To directly examine the effect of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were infected with a retrovirus carrying WISP-2. Although forced expression of WISP-2 inhibited preadipocyte proliferation, it had no effect on adipocyte differentiation. Thus, although WISP-2 is a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, the role of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation may be marginal, at least in this in vitro culture model.

  7. Hepatitis C Virus Protein Interaction Network Analysis Based on Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuewen; Niu, Jun; Wang, Dong; Li, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have validated the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An increasing number of studies show that protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between HCV proteins and host proteins play a vital role in infection and mediate HCC progression. In this work, we collected all published interaction between HCV and human proteins, which include 455 unique human proteins participating in 524 HCV-human interactions. Then, we construct the HCV-human and HCV-HCC protein interaction networks, which display the biological knowledge regarding the mechanism of HCV pathogenesis, particularly with respect to pathogenesis of HCC. Through in-depth analysis of the HCV-HCC interaction network, we found that interactors are enriched in the JAK/STAT, p53, MAPK, TNF, Wnt, and cell cycle pathways. Using a random walk with restart algorithm, we predicted the importance of each protein in the HCV-HCC network and found that AKT1 may play a key role in the HCC progression. Moreover, we found that NS5A promotes HCC cells proliferation and metastasis by activating AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway. This work provides a basis for a detailed map tracking new cellular interactions of HCV and identifying potential targets for HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. PMID:27115606

  8. Hepatitis C Virus Protein Interaction Network Analysis Based on Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuewen; Niu, Jun; Wang, Dong; Li, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have validated the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An increasing number of studies show that protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between HCV proteins and host proteins play a vital role in infection and mediate HCC progression. In this work, we collected all published interaction between HCV and human proteins, which include 455 unique human proteins participating in 524 HCV-human interactions. Then, we construct the HCV-human and HCV-HCC protein interaction networks, which display the biological knowledge regarding the mechanism of HCV pathogenesis, particularly with respect to pathogenesis of HCC. Through in-depth analysis of the HCV-HCC interaction network, we found that interactors are enriched in the JAK/STAT, p53, MAPK, TNF, Wnt, and cell cycle pathways. Using a random walk with restart algorithm, we predicted the importance of each protein in the HCV-HCC network and found that AKT1 may play a key role in the HCC progression. Moreover, we found that NS5A promotes HCC cells proliferation and metastasis by activating AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway. This work provides a basis for a detailed map tracking new cellular interactions of HCV and identifying potential targets for HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. PMID:27115606

  9. PIL5, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH protein, regulates gibberellin responsiveness by binding directly to the GAI and RGA promoters in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eunkyoo; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Hu, Jianhong; Yusuke, Jikumaru; Jung, Byunghyuck; Paik, Inyup; Lee, Hee-Seung; Sun, Tai-ping; Kamiya, Yuji; Choi, Giltsu

    2007-04-01

    Previous work showed that PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3-LIKE5 (PIL5), a light-labile basic helix-loop-helix protein, inhibits seed germination by repressing GIBBERELLIN 3beta-HYDROXYLASE1 (GA3ox1) and GA3ox2 and activating a gibberellic acid (GA) catabolic gene (GA2ox2). However, we show persistent light-dependent and PIL5-inhibited germination behavior in the absence of both de novo GA biosynthesis and deactivation by GA2ox2, suggesting that PIL5 regulates not only GA metabolism but also GA responsiveness. PIL5 increases the expression of two GA repressor (DELLA) genes, GA-INSENSITIVE (GAI) and REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 (RGA/RGA1), in darkness. The hypersensitivity of gai-t6 rga-28 to red light and the suppression of germination defects of a rga-28 PIL5 overexpression line show the significant role of this transcriptional regulation in seed germination. PIL5 also increases abscisic acid (ABA) levels by activating ABA biosynthetic genes and repressing an ABA catabolic gene. PIL5 binds directly to GAI and RGA promoters but not to GA and ABA metabolic gene promoters. Together, our results show that light signals perceived by phytochromes cause a reduction in the PIL5 protein level, which in turn regulates the transcription of two DELLA genes directly and that of GA and ABA metabolic genes indirectly.

  10. A Critical Role of Lyst-Interacting Protein5, a Positive Regulator of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis, in Plant Responses to Heat and Salt Stresses1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Jie; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are unique endosomes containing vesicles in the lumen and play critical roles in many cellular processes. We have recently shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Lyst-Interacting Protein5 (LIP5), a positive regulator of the Suppressor of K+ Transport Growth Defect1 (SKD1) AAA ATPase in MVB biogenesis, is a critical target of the mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 and plays an important role in the plant immune system. In this study, we report that the LIP5-regulated MVB pathway also plays a critical role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Disruption of LIP5 causes compromised tolerance to both heat and salt stresses. The critical role of LIP5 in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses is dependent on its ability to interact with Suppressor of K+ Transport Growth Defect1. When compared with wild-type plants, lip5 mutants accumulate increased levels of ubiquitinated protein aggregates and NaCl under heat and salt stresses, respectively. Further analysis using fluorescent dye and MVB markers reveals that abiotic stress increases the formation of endocytic vesicles and MVBs in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. LIP5 is also required for the salt-induced increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in signaling of salt stress responses. Basal levels of LIP5 phosphorylation by MPKs and the stability of LIP5 are elevated by salt stress, and mutation of MPK phosphorylation sites in LIP5 reduces the stability and compromises the ability to complement the lip5 salt-sensitive mutant phenotype. These results collectively indicate that the MVB pathway is positively regulated by pathogen/stress-responsive MPK3/6 through LIP5 phosphorylation and plays a critical role in broad plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:26229051

  11. A Critical Role of Lyst-Interacting Protein5, a Positive Regulator of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis, in Plant Responses to Heat and Salt Stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Jie; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-09-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) are unique endosomes containing vesicles in the lumen and play critical roles in many cellular processes. We have recently shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Lyst-Interacting Protein5 (LIP5), a positive regulator of the Suppressor of K(+) Transport Growth Defect1 (SKD1) AAA ATPase in MVB biogenesis, is a critical target of the mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 and plays an important role in the plant immune system. In this study, we report that the LIP5-regulated MVB pathway also plays a critical role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Disruption of LIP5 causes compromised tolerance to both heat and salt stresses. The critical role of LIP5 in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses is dependent on its ability to interact with Suppressor of K(+) Transport Growth Defect1. When compared with wild-type plants, lip5 mutants accumulate increased levels of ubiquitinated protein aggregates and NaCl under heat and salt stresses, respectively. Further analysis using fluorescent dye and MVB markers reveals that abiotic stress increases the formation of endocytic vesicles and MVBs in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. LIP5 is also required for the salt-induced increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in signaling of salt stress responses. Basal levels of LIP5 phosphorylation by MPKs and the stability of LIP5 are elevated by salt stress, and mutation of MPK phosphorylation sites in LIP5 reduces the stability and compromises the ability to complement the lip5 salt-sensitive mutant phenotype. These results collectively indicate that the MVB pathway is positively regulated by pathogen/stress-responsive MPK3/6 through LIP5 phosphorylation and plays a critical role in broad plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  12. Suppressor of Ty homolog-5, a novel tumor-specific human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-binding protein and activator in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yong; He, Chao; Hu, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter promotes differential hTERT gene expression in tumor cells and normal cells. However, information on the mechanisms underlying the differential hTERT transcription and induction of telomerase activity in tumor cells is limited. In the present study, suppressor of Ty homolog-5 (SPT5), a protein encoded by the SUPT5H gene, was identified as a novel tumor-specific hTERT promoter-binding protein and activator in colon cancer cells. We verified the tumor-specific binding activity of SPT5 to the hTERT promoter in vitro and in vivo and detected high expression levels of SUPT5H in colorectal cancer cell lines and primary human colorectal cancer tissues. SUPT5H was more highly expressed in colorectal cancer cases with distant metastasis than in cases without distant metastasis. Inhibition of endogenous SUPT5H expression by SUPT5H gene-specific short hairpin RNAs effectively attenuated hTERT promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression, whereas no detectable effects on CMV promoter-driven GFP expression in the same cells were observed. In addition, inhibition of SUPT5H expression not only effectively repressed telomerase activity, accelerated telomere shortening, and promoted cell senescence in colon cancer cells, but also suppressed cancer cell growth and migration. Our results demonstrated that SPT5 contributes to the up-regulation of hTERT expression and tumor development, and SUPT5H may potentially be used as a novel tumor biomarker and/or cancer therapeutic target. PMID:26418880

  13. Modulation of Hepatitis C Virus Genome Replication by Glycosphingolipids and Four-Phosphate Adaptor Protein 2

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Irfan; Katikaneni, Divya S.; Han, Qingxia; Sanchez-Felipe, Lorena; Hanada, Kentaro; Ambrose, Rebecca L.; Mackenzie, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembles its replication complex on cytosolic membrane vesicles often clustered in a membranous web (MW). During infection, HCV NS5A protein activates PI4KIIIα enzyme, causing massive production and redistribution of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) lipid to the replication complex. However, the role of PI4P in the HCV life cycle is not well understood. We postulated that PI4P recruits host effectors to modulate HCV genome replication or virus particle production. To test this hypothesis, we generated cell lines for doxycycline-inducible expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the PI4P effector, four-phosphate adaptor protein 2 (FAPP2). FAPP2 depletion attenuated HCV infectivity and impeded HCV RNA synthesis. Indeed, FAPP2 has two functional lipid-binding domains specific for PI4P and glycosphingolipids. While expression of the PI4P-binding mutant protein was expected to inhibit HCV replication, a marked drop in replication efficiency was observed unexpectedly with the glycosphingolipid-binding mutant protein. These data suggest that both domains are crucial for the role of FAPP2 in HCV genome replication. We also found that HCV significantly increases the level of some glycosphingolipids, whereas adding these lipids to FAPP2-depleted cells partially rescued replication, further arguing for the importance of glycosphingolipids in HCV RNA synthesis. Interestingly, FAPP2 is redistributed to the replication complex (RC) characterized by HCV NS5A, NS4B, or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) foci. Additionally, FAPP2 depletion disrupts the RC and alters the colocalization of HCV replicase proteins. Altogether, our study implies that HCV coopts FAPP2 for virus genome replication via PI4P binding and glycosphingolipid transport to the HCV RC. IMPORTANCE Like most viruses with a positive-sense RNA genome, HCV replicates its RNA on remodeled host membranes composed of lipids hijacked from various internal membrane compartments

  14. CDC2L5, a Cdk-like kinase with RS domain, interacts with the ASF/SF2-associated protein p32 and affects splicing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Even, Yasmine; Durieux, Sandrine; Escande, Marie-Line; Lozano, Jean Claude; Peaucellier, Gérard; Weil, Dominique; Genevière, Anne-Marie

    2006-10-15

    The human CDC2L5 gene encodes a protein of unknown physiological function. This protein is closely related to the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdks) family and contains an arginine/serine-rich (RS) domain. The Cdks were first identified as crucial regulators of cell-cycle progression, more recently they were found to be involved in transcription and mRNA processing. RS domains are mainly present in proteins regulating pre-mRNA splicing, suggesting CDC2L5 having a possible role in this process. In this study, we demonstrate that CDC2L5 is located in the nucleoplasm, at a higher concentration in speckles, the storage sites for splicing factors. Furthermore, this localization is dependent on the presence of the N-terminal sequence including the RS domain. Then, we report that CDC2L5 directly interacts with the ASF/SF2-associated protein p32, a protein involved in splicing regulation. Overexpression of CDC2L5 constructs disturbs constitutive splicing and switches alternative splice site selection in vivo. These results argue in favor of a functional role of the CDC2L5 kinase in splicing regulation.

  15. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for detecting β'-component (Onk k 5), a major IgE-binding protein in salmon roe.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Oda, Hiroshi; Seiki, Kohsuke; Saeki, Hiroki

    2015-08-15

    A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system has been established for selective detection of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) yolk protein (SYP). Rabbit and rat polyclonal Immunoglobulin G antibodies to β'-component (the major allergic protein in fish roe; anti-β) were applied for designing the ELISA system. The sandwich ELISA using rabbit anti-β for the capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase-labeled F(ab')2 fragment of rat anti-β for the detection antibody obtained high sensitivity and narrow specificity for SYP. Protein extraction using sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2-mercaptoethanol ensured strict specificity of the ELISA, and components of three popular processed foods had no effect on the ELISA response. The limits of determination and quantification of SYP were estimated to be 0.78 μg/g and 2.60 μg/g of food sample, respectively. In conclusion, the developed ELISA system has a probability to be applied for the detection of contaminated chum salmon roe in processed food.

  16. PIL5, a Phytochrome-Interacting Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein, Is a Key Negative Regulator of Seed Germination in Arabidopsis thalianaW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eunkyoo; Kim, Jonghyun; Park, Eunae; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kang, Changwon; Choi, Giltsu

    2004-01-01

    The first decision made by an angiosperm seed, whether to germinate or not, is based on integration of various environmental signals such as water and light. The phytochromes (Phys) act as red and far-red light (Pfr) photoreceptors to mediate light signaling through yet uncharacterized pathways. We report here that the PIF3-like 5 (PIL5) protein, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a key negative regulator of phytochrome-mediated seed germination. PIL5 preferentially interacts with the Pfr forms of Phytochrome A (PhyA) and Phytochrome B (PhyB). Analyses of a pil5 mutant in conjunction with phyA and phyB mutants, a pif3 pil5 double mutant, and PIL5 overexpression lines indicate that PIL5 is a negative factor in Phy-mediated promotion of seed germination, inhibition of hypocotyl negative gravitropism, and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Our data identify PIL5 as the first Phy-interacting protein that regulates seed germination. PMID:15486102

  17. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H.; Gutiérrez, Andrés H.; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H.; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available Taenia solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to E. granulosus Ag5 protein. The Taenia solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis. PMID:21893105

  18. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available T. solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to Echinococcus granulosus Ag5 protein. The T. solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis.

  19. BcMF5, a pollen coat protein gene (PCP), from Brassica rapa. ssp. chinensis, involved in the transcription of different lengths of 3'-UTRs of PCPs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Cao, Jiashu; Huang, Li; Xiang, Xun; Yu, Xiaolin

    2008-09-01

    Two transcript-derived fragments (GenBank accession number DN237907.1 and DN237908.1) with high homology accumulated in the wild-type flower buds of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis Makino) are isolated and investigated. By rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), the full length cDNA of the two fragments were obtained. The alignment of their cDNA sequence showed that they are identical except for differences in a few nucleotides and should belong to the same gene, namely, B rassica rapa M ale F ertile 5 (BcMF5). The BcMF5 gene consists of 252 bp encoding a protein of 83 amino acids and is interrupted by an intron of 256 bp. Sequence blast analysis revealed that BcMF5 is a member of the pollen coat protein (PCP) gene family and shared a high homology to SLR-BP. In the process of 3'RACE, eight different lengths of 3'-UTR sequence are found from the wild type of the mmc mutant. Southern blot analysis showed that BcMF5 could be a single-copy gene in the Chinese cabbage genome, implying that eight different lengths of 3'-UTR sequences might come from the same gene and could be a result of multiple sites polyadenylation of 3'-UTRs of BcMF5. Based on sequence analysis, southern hybridization combined with RT-PCR, and northern hybridization, it was discovered that 3'-UTRs of BcMF5 contained some functional elements and their temporal and spatial expression patterns were different, but all strongly expressed in the stage IV and stage V flower buds of wild type. This indicate that different lengths of 3'-UTR may be involved in a regulation mechanism during the transcription of BcMF5.

  20. Yeast sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage requires Cdc48 and Dsc5, a ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing subunit of the Golgi Dsc E3 ligase.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Emerson V; Lloyd, S Julie-Ann; Burg, John S; Nwosu, Christine C; Lintner, Robert E; Daza, Riza; Russ, Carsten; Ponchner, Karen; Nusbaum, Chad; Espenshade, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sre1 is a membrane-bound transcription factor that controls adaptation to hypoxia. Like its mammalian homolog, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP), Sre1 activation requires release from the membrane. However, in fission yeast, this release occurs through a strikingly different mechanism that requires the Golgi Dsc E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and the proteasome. The mechanistic details of Sre1 cleavage, including the link between the Dsc E3 ligase complex and proteasome, are not well understood. Here, we present results of a genetic selection designed to identify additional components required for Sre1 cleavage. From the selection, we identified two new components of the fission yeast SREBP pathway: Dsc5 and Cdc48. The AAA (ATPase associated with diverse cellular activities) ATPase Cdc48 and Dsc5, a ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing protein, interact with known Dsc complex components and are required for SREBP cleavage. These findings provide a mechanistic link between the Dsc E3 ligase complex and the proteasome in SREBP cleavage and add to a growing list of similarities between the Dsc E3 ligase and membrane E3 ligases involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation.

  1. Nuclear localization of dengue virus nonstructural protein 5 through its importin alpha/beta-recognized nuclear localization sequences is integral to viral infection.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Melinda J; Rawlinson, Stephen M; Butcher, Rebecca E; Barton, Chenoa L; Waterhouse, Tracey A; Vasudevan, Subhash G; Bardin, Phillip G; Wright, Peter J; Jans, David A; Davidson, Andrew D

    2007-07-01

    Dengue virus nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) is a large multifunctional protein with a central role in viral replication. We previously identified two nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) within the central region of dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) NS5 ('aNLS' and 'bNLS') that are recognized by the importin alpha/beta and importin beta1 nuclear transporters, respectively. Here, we demonstrate the importance of the kinetics of NS5 nuclear localization to virus production for the first time and show that the aNLS is responsible. Site-specific mutations in the bipartite-type aNLS or bNLS region were introduced into a reporter plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein fused to the N-terminus of DENV-2 NS5, as well as into DENV-2 genomic length complementary DNA. Mutation of basic residues in the highly conserved region of the bNLS did not affect nuclear import of NS5. In contrast, mutations in either basic cluster of the aNLS decreased NS5 nuclear accumulation and reduced virus production, with the greatest reduction observed for mutation of the second cluster (K(387)K(388)K(389)); mutagenesis of both clusters abolished NS5 nuclear import and DENV-2 virus production completely. The latter appeared to relate to the impaired ability of virus lacking nuclear-localizing NS5, as compared with wild-type virus expressing nuclear-localizing NS5, to reduce interleukin-8 production as part of the antiviral response. The results overall indicate that NS5 nuclear localization through the aNLS is integral to viral infection, with significant implications for other flaviviruses of medical importance, such as yellow fever and West Nile viruses.

  2. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  3. Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  4. Comparison of protein patterns of xrs-5, a radiosensitive Chinese hamster ovary cell line, and CHO-K1, its radioresistant parent, using two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, J.M. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    X-ray sensitive strains of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines have been used to analyze radiation repair mechanisms. One cell line, xrs-5, has been shown to be very sensitive to ionizing radiation and radical forming chemical mutagens. This sensitivity is thought to be a result a mutation in the DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanism, and its characterization has been a goal of several repair mechanism studies. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have detected a protein (MW approximately 55KD) in the DNA/Nuclear Matrix (nucleoid) cell fraction of CHO-Kl cells that is absent in the nucleoid fraction of xrs-5. This protein is present, however, in both CHO-Kl and xrs-5 whole cell protein maps. To determine whether the 55KD protein is responsible for the radiosensitive and defective DSB repair phenotype of xrs-5 cells, studies are now underway to analyze revertants of xrs-5 that are proficient in DSB repair. Furthermore, an effort to sequence the protein in question is planned. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, Fred E.; Gooding, Karen M.

    Because of the complexity of cellular material and body fluids, it is seldom possible to analyze a natural product directly. Qualitative and quantitative analyses must often be preceded by some purification step that separates the molecular species being examined from interfering materials. In the case of proteins, column liquid chromatography has been used extensively for these fractionations. With the advent of gel permeation, cation exchange, anion exchange, hydrophobic, and affinity chromatography, it became possible to resolve proteins through their fundamental properties of size, charge, hydrophobicity, and biological affinity. The chromatographic separations used in the early isolation and characterization of many proteins later became analytical tools in their routine analysis. Unfortunately, these inherently simple and versatile column chromatographic techniques introduced in the 50s and 60s have a severe limitation in routine analysis-separation time. It is common to encounter 1-24 h separation times with the classical gel-type supports.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Noncytopathic Pestivirus Mutants Reveals a Role for Nonstructural Protein NS4B in Viral Cytopathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Lin; McMullan, Laura K.; Rice, Charles M.

    2001-01-01

    Isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), the prototype pestivirus, are divided into cytopathic (cp) and noncytopathic (ncp) biotypes according to their effect on cultured cells. The cp viruses also differ from ncp viruses by the production of viral nonstructural protein NS3. However, the mechanism by which cp viruses induce cytopathic effect in cell culture remains unknown. Here we used a genetic approach to isolate ncp variants that arose from a cp virus at low frequency. A bicistronic BVDV (cp strain NADL) was created that expressed puromycin acetyltransferase as a dominant selectable marker. This bicistronic virus exhibited slightly slower growth kinetics and smaller plaques than NADL but remained cp. A number of independent ncp variants were isolated by puromycin selection. Remarkably, these ncp variants produced NS3 and viral RNA at levels comparable to those of the cp parent. Sequence analyses uncovered no change in NS3, but for all ncp variants a Y2441C substitution at residue 15 of NS4B was found. Introduction of the Y2441C substitution into the NADL or bicistronic cp viruses reconstituted the ncp phenotype. Y2441 is highly conserved among pestiviruses and is located in a region of NS4B predicted to be on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Other engineered substitutions for Y2441 also affected viral cytopathogenicity and viability, with Y2441V being cp, Y2441A being ncp, and Y2441D rendering the virus unable to replicate. The ncp substitutions for Y2441 resulted in slightly increased levels of NS2-3 relative to NS3. We also showed that NS3, NS4B, and NS5A could be chemically cross-linked in NADL-infected cells, indicating that they are associated as components of a multiprotein complex. Although the mechanism remains to be elucidated, these results demonstrate that mutations in NS4B can attenuate BVDV cytopathogenicity despite NS3 production. PMID:11602707

  7. NnHSP17.5, a cytosolic class II small heat shock protein gene from Nelumbo nucifera, contributes to seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Huhui; Chu, Pu; Li, Yin; Tan, Bin; Ding, Yu; Tsang, Edward W T; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang; Huang, Shangzhi

    2012-02-01

    In plants, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are unusually abundant and diverse proteins involved in various abiotic stresses, but their functions in seed vigor remain to be fully explored. In this study, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a sHSP gene, NnHSP17.5, from sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicate that NnHSP17.5 is a cytosolic class II sHSP, which was further supported by the cytosolic localization of the NnHSP17.5-YFP fusion protein. NnHSP17.5 was specifically expressed in seeds under normal conditions, and was strongly up-regulated in germinating seeds upon heat and oxidative stresses. Transgenic Arabidopsis seeds ectopically expressing NnHSP17.5 displayed enhanced seed germination vigor and exhibited increased superoxide dismutase activity after accelerated aging treatment. In addition, improved basal thermotolerance was also observed in the transgenic seedlings. Taken together, this work highlights the importance of a plant cytosolic class II sHSP both in seed germination vigor and seedling thermotolerance.

  8. Human Choline Kinase-α Promotes Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication through Modulation of Membranous Viral Replication Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mun-Teng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection reorganizes cellular membranes to create an active viral replication site named the membranous web (MW). The role that human choline kinase-α (hCKα) plays in HCV replication remains elusive. Here, we first showed that hCKα activity, not the CDP-choline pathway, promoted viral RNA replication. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation of HCV-infected cells revealed that a small fraction of hCKα colocalized with the viral replication complex (RC) on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that HCV infection increased hCKα localization to the ER. In the pTM-NS3-NS5B model, NS3-NS5B expression increased the localization of the wild-type, not the inactive D288A mutant, hCKα on the ER, and hCKα activity was required for effective trafficking of hCKα and NS5A to the ER. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that hCKα was recruited onto the viral RC presumably through its binding to NS5A domain 1 (D1). hCKα silencing or treatment with CK37, an hCKα activity inhibitor, abolished HCV-induced MW formation. In addition, hCKα depletion hindered NS5A localization on the ER, interfered with NS5A and NS5B colocalization, and mitigated NS5A-NS5B interactions but had no apparent effect on NS5A-NS4B and NS4B-NS5B interactions. Nevertheless, hCKα activity was not essential for the binding of NS5A to hCKα or NS5B. These findings demonstrate that hCKα forms a complex with NS5A and that hCKα activity enhances the targeting of the complex to the ER, where hCKα protein, not activity, mediates NS5A binding to NS5B, thereby promoting functional membranous viral RC assembly and viral RNA replication. IMPORTANCE HCV infection reorganizes the cellular membrane to create an active viral replication site named the membranous web (MW). Here, we report that human choline kinase-α (hCKα) acts as an essential host factor for HCV RNA replication. A fraction of hCKα colocalizes with the viral replication complex (RC) on the endoplasmic reticulum

  9. Structure based design of novel 6,5 heterobicyclic mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors leading to the discovery of imidazo[1,5-a] pyrazine G-479.

    PubMed

    Robarge, Kirk D; Lee, Wendy; Eigenbrot, Charles; Ultsch, Mark; Wiesmann, Christian; Heald, Robert; Price, Steve; Hewitt, Joanne; Jackson, Philip; Savy, Pascal; Burton, Brenda; Choo, Edna F; Pang, Jodie; Boggs, Jason; Yang, April; Yang, Xioaye; Baumgardner, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Use of the tools of SBDD including crystallography led to the discovery of novel and potent 6,5 heterobicyclic MEKi's [J. Med. Chem.2012, 55, 4594]. The core change from a 5,6 heterobicycle to a 6,5 heterobicycle was driven by the desire for increased structural diversity and aided by the co-crystal structure of G-925 [J. Med. Chem.2012, 55, 4594]. The key design feature was the shift of the attachment of the five-membered heterocyclic ring towards the B ring while maintaining the key hydroxamate and anilino pharamcophoric elements in a remarkably similar position as in G-925. From modelling, changing the connection point of the five membered ring heterocycle placed the H-bond accepting nitrogen within a good distance and angle to the Ser212 [J. Med. Chem.2012, 55, 4594]. The resulting novel 6,5 benzoisothiazole MEKi G-155 exhibited improved potency versus aza-benzofurans G-925 and G-963 but was a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450's 2C9 and 2C19. Lowering the logD by switching to the more polar imidazo[1,5-a] pyridine core significantly diminished 2C9/2C19 inhibition while retaining potency. The imidazo[1,5-a] pyridine G-868 exhibited increased potency versus the starting point for this work (aza-benzofuran G-925) leading to deprioritization of the azabenzofurans. The 6,5-imidazo[1,5-a] pyridine scaffold was further diversified by incorporating a nitrogen at the 7 position to give the imidazo[1,5-a] pyrazine scaffold. The introduction of the C7 nitrogen was driven by the desire to improve metabolic stability by blocking metabolism at the C7 and C8 positions (particularly the HLM stability). It was found that improving on G-868 (later renamed GDC-0623) required combining C7 nitrogen with a diol hydroxamate to give G-479. G-479 with polarity distributed throughout the molecule was improved over G-868 in many aspects.

  10. In planta differential targeting analysis of Thermotoga maritima Cel5A and CBM6-engineered Cel5A for autohydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Shobana Arumugam; Wi, Seung Gon; Kim, Yeon Ok; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2011-08-01

    The heterologous expression of glycosyl hydrolases in bioenergy crops can improve the lignocellulosic conversion process for ethanol production. We attempted to obtain high-level expression of an intact Thermotoga maritima endoglucanase, Cel5A, and CBM6-engineered Cel5A in transgenic tobacco plants for the mass production and autohydrolysis of endoglucanase. Cel5A expression was targeted to different subcellular compartments, namely, the cytosol, apoplast, and chloroplast, using the native form of the pathogenesis-related protein 1a (PR1a) and Rubisco activase (RA) transit peptides. Cel5A transgenic tobacco plants with the chloroplast transit peptide showed the highest average endoglucanase activity and protein accumulation up to 4.5% total soluble protein. Cel5A-CBM6 was targeted to the chloroplast and accumulated up to 5.2% total soluble protein. In terms of the direct conversion of plant tissue into free sugar, the Cel5A-CBM6 transgenic plant was 33% more efficient than the Cel5A transgenic plant. The protein stability of Cel5A and Cel5A-CBM6 in lyophilized leaf material is an additional advantage in the bioconversion process.

  11. Atrial Fibrillation and SCN5A Variants

    PubMed Central

    Savio-Galimberti, Eleonora; Darbar, Dawood

    2014-01-01

    Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is clinically and genetically a highly heterogeneous disease, recent studies suggest that the arrhythmia may arise because of interactions between genetic and acquired risk factors – the so called “double-hit” hypothesis. Genome-wide association studies have identified common AF susceptibility loci, and linkage analysis and candidate gene approaches have identified mutations in genes that encode for cardiac ion channels and signaling proteins; however, most of the heritability of AF still remains unexplained. The voltage-dependent cardiac sodium channel, encoded by SCN5A, conducts the main cardiac inward sodium current (INa) and is responsible for the upstroke of the atrial action potential. Mutations in SCN5A, which encodes the α-subunit of the NaV1.5 channel, have been linked with increased susceptibility to not only AF but also ventricular arrhythmias (long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome), progressive cardiac conduction disease, and overlap syndromes with mixed arrhythmia phenotypes. Over the last decade, functional characterization of SCN5A mutations by expressing the channel in heterologous expression systems and applying cellular electrophysiological techniques has not only advanced our understanding of molecular mechanisms of AF but also potentially identified a mechanism-based approach to treating this common and morbid condition. PMID:25484998

  12. Effective suppression of C5a-induced proinflammatory response using anti-human C5a repebody.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Da-Eun; Choi, Jung-Min; Yang, Chul-Su; Lee, Joong-Jae; Heu, Woosung; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2016-09-01

    The strongest anaphylatoxin, C5a, plays a critical role in the proinflammatory responses, causing the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory diseases including sepsis, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. Inhibitors of C5a thus have great potential as therapeutics for various inflammatory disorders. Herein, we present the development of a high-affinity repebody against human C5a (hC5a), which effectively suppresses the proinflammatory response. A repebody scaffold composed of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) modules was previously developed as an alternative protein scaffold. A repebody specifically binding to hC5a was selected through a phage display, and its affinity was increased up to 5 nM using modular engineering. The repebody was shown to effectively inhibit the production of C5a-induced proinflammatory cytokines by human monocytes. To obtain insight into a mode of action by the repebody, we determined its crystal structure in complex with hC5a. A structural analysis revealed that the repebody binds to the D1 and D3 regions of hC5a, overlapping several epitope residues with the hC5a receptor (hC5aR). It is thus likely that the repebody suppresses the hC5a-mediated immune response in monocytes by blocking the binding of hC5a to its receptor. The anti-hC5a repebody can be developed as a potential therapeutic for C5a-involved inflammatory diseases. PMID:27416759

  13. Live Imaging of Xwnt5A-ROR2 Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Rahm, Karolin; Klessing, Tina; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Wedlich, Doris; Gradl, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Secreted molecules of the Wnt family regulate key decisions in embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis by activating a complex network of Wnt signaling pathways. Although the different branches of Wnt signaling have been studied for more than 25 years, fluorophore tagged constructs for live cell imaging of Wnt molecules activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway have become available only recently. We have generated a fluorophore tagged Wnt construct of the Xenopus Wnt5a protein (Xwnt5A) with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), Xwnt5A-EGFP. This construct activates non-canonical Wnt pathways in an endocytosis dependent manner and is capable of compensating for the loss of endogenous Xwnt5A in Xenopus embryos. Strikingly, non-canonical Wnt pathway activation was restricted to short-range signaling while an inhibitory effect was observed in transwell cell cultures taken as long-range signaling model sytem. We used our Xwnt5A-EGFP construct to analyze in vivo binding of Wnt5A to its co-receptor ROR2 on the microscopic and on the molecular level. On the microscopic level, Xwnt5A-EGFP clusters in the membrane and recruits ROR2-mCherry to these clusters. Applying dual-colour dual-focus line-scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy on dorsal marginal zone explants, we identified membrane tethered Xwnt5A-EGFP molecules binding to ROR2-mCherry molecules. Our data favour a model, in which membrane-tethered Wnt-5A recruits ROR2 to form large ligand/receptor clusters and signals in an endocytosis-dependent manner. PMID:25313906

  14. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act....

  15. 42 CFR 5a.2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 5a.2 Section 5a.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN... Public Health Service Act....

  16. Streptococcal C5a peptidase is a highly specific endopeptidase.

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, P P; Prahbu, U; Dale, J B; Wexler, D E; Handley, J

    1992-01-01

    Compositional analysis of streptococcal C5a peptidase (SCPA) cleavage products from a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 20 C-terminal residues of C5a demonstrated that the target cleavage site is His-Lys rather than Lys-Asp, as previously suggested. A C5a peptide analog with Lys replaced by Gln was also subject to cleavage by SCPA. This confirmed that His-Lys rather than Lys-Asp is the scissile bond. Cleavage at histidine is unusual but is the same as that suggested for a peptidase produced by group B streptococci. Native C5 protein was also resistant to SCPA, suggesting that the His-Lys bond is inaccessible prior to proteolytic cleavage by C5 convertase. These experiments showed that the streptococcal C5a peptidase is highly specific for C5a and suggest that its function is not merely to process protein for metabolic consumption but to act primarily to eliminate this chemotactic signal from inflammatory foci. Images PMID:1452354

  17. The effect of hypusine modification on the intracellular localization of eIF5A

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Bum; Park, Jong Hwan; Kaevel, Joern; Sramkova, Monika; Weigert, Roberto; Park, Myung Hee

    2009-06-12

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a highly conserved protein essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation and is the only protein containing hypusine, [N{sup {epsilon}}-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. eIF5A is activated by the post-translational synthesis of hypusine. eIF5A also undergoes an acetylation at specific Lys residue(s). In this study, we have investigated the effect of hypusine modification and acetylation on the subcellular localization of eIF5A. Immunocytochemical analyses showed differences in the distribution of non-hypusinated eIF5A precursor and the hypusine-containing mature eIF5A. While the precursor is found in both cytoplasm and nucleus, the hypusinated eIF5A is primarily localized in cytoplasm. eIF5A mutant proteins, defective in hypusine modification (K50A, K50R) were localized in a similar manner to the eIF5A precursor, whereas hypusine-modified mutant proteins (K47A, K47R, K68A) were localized mainly in the cytoplasm. These findings provide strong evidence that the hypusine modification of eIF5A dictates its localization in the cytoplasmic compartment where it is required for protein synthesis.

  18. Wnt5a Signaling in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asem, Marwa S.; Buechler, Steven; Wates, Rebecca Burkhalter; Miller, Daniel L.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Wnt5a is involved in activating several non-canonical WNT signaling pathways, through binding to different members of the Frizzled- and Ror-family receptors. Wnt5a signaling is critical for regulating normal developmental processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, adhesion and polarity. However, the aberrant activation or inhibition of Wnt5a signaling is emerging as an important event in cancer progression, exerting both oncogenic and tumor suppressive effects. Recent studies show the involvement of Wnt5a in regulating cancer cell invasion, metastasis, metabolism and inflammation. In this article, we review findings regarding the molecular mechanisms and roles of Wnt5a signaling in various cancer types, and highlight Wnt5a in ovarian cancer. PMID:27571105

  19. Wnt5a Signaling in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Asem, Marwa S; Buechler, Steven; Wates, Rebecca Burkhalter; Miller, Daniel L; Stack, M Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Wnt5a is involved in activating several non-canonical WNT signaling pathways, through binding to different members of the Frizzled- and Ror-family receptors. Wnt5a signaling is critical for regulating normal developmental processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, adhesion and polarity. However, the aberrant activation or inhibition of Wnt5a signaling is emerging as an important event in cancer progression, exerting both oncogenic and tumor suppressive effects. Recent studies show the involvement of Wnt5a in regulating cancer cell invasion, metastasis, metabolism and inflammation. In this article, we review findings regarding the molecular mechanisms and roles of Wnt5a signaling in various cancer types, and highlight Wnt5a in ovarian cancer. PMID:27571105

  20. Wnt5a is essential for intestinal elongation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes, Sara; Yamaguchi, Terry P.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Summary Morphogenesis of the mammalian small intestine entails extensive elongation and folding of the primitive gut into a tightly coiled digestive tube. Surprisingly, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate the morphological aspects of small intestine formation. Here, we demonstrate that Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt family of secreted proteins, is essential for the development and elongation of the small intestine from the midgut region. We found that the small intestine in mice lacking Wnt5a was dramatically shortened and duplicated, forming a bifurcated lumen instead of a single tube. In addition, cell proliferation was reduced and re-intercalation of post-mitotic cells into the elongating gut tube epithelium was disrupted. Thus, our study demonstrates that Wnt5a functions as a critical regulator of midgut formation and morphogenesis in mammals. PMID:19100728

  1. A structural study of Hypocrea jecorina Cel5A.

    PubMed

    Lee, Toni M; Farrow, Mary F; Arnold, Frances H; Mayo, Stephen L

    2011-11-01

    Interest in generating lignocellulosic biofuels through enzymatic hydrolysis continues to rise as nonrenewable fossil fuels are depleted. The high cost of producing cellulases, hydrolytic enzymes that cleave cellulose into fermentable sugars, currently hinders economically viable biofuel production. Here, we report the crystal structure of a prevalent endoglucanase in the biofuels industry, Cel5A from the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina. The structure reveals a general fold resembling that of the closest homolog with a high-resolution structure, Cel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus. Consistent with previously described endoglucanase structures, the H. jecorina Cel5A active site contains a primarily hydrophobic substrate binding groove and a series of hydrogen bond networks surrounding two catalytic glutamates. The reported structure, however, demonstrates stark differences between side-chain identity, loop regions, and the number of disulfides. Such structural information may aid efforts to improve the stability of this protein for industrial use while maintaining enzymatic activity through revealing nonessential and immutable regions.

  2. A structural study of Hypocrea jecorina Cel5A

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Toni M; Farrow, Mary F; Arnold, Frances H; Mayo, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Interest in generating lignocellulosic biofuels through enzymatic hydrolysis continues to rise as nonrenewable fossil fuels are depleted. The high cost of producing cellulases, hydrolytic enzymes that cleave cellulose into fermentable sugars, currently hinders economically viable biofuel production. Here, we report the crystal structure of a prevalent endoglucanase in the biofuels industry, Cel5A from the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina. The structure reveals a general fold resembling that of the closest homolog with a high-resolution structure, Cel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus. Consistent with previously described endoglucanase structures, the H. jecorina Cel5A active site contains a primarily hydrophobic substrate binding groove and a series of hydrogen bond networks surrounding two catalytic glutamates. The reported structure, however, demonstrates stark differences between side-chain identity, loop regions, and the number of disulfides. Such structural information may aid efforts to improve the stability of this protein for industrial use while maintaining enzymatic activity through revealing nonessential and immutable regions. PMID:21898652

  3. A structural study of Hypocrea jecorina Cel5A.

    PubMed

    Lee, Toni M; Farrow, Mary F; Arnold, Frances H; Mayo, Stephen L

    2011-11-01

    Interest in generating lignocellulosic biofuels through enzymatic hydrolysis continues to rise as nonrenewable fossil fuels are depleted. The high cost of producing cellulases, hydrolytic enzymes that cleave cellulose into fermentable sugars, currently hinders economically viable biofuel production. Here, we report the crystal structure of a prevalent endoglucanase in the biofuels industry, Cel5A from the filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina. The structure reveals a general fold resembling that of the closest homolog with a high-resolution structure, Cel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus. Consistent with previously described endoglucanase structures, the H. jecorina Cel5A active site contains a primarily hydrophobic substrate binding groove and a series of hydrogen bond networks surrounding two catalytic glutamates. The reported structure, however, demonstrates stark differences between side-chain identity, loop regions, and the number of disulfides. Such structural information may aid efforts to improve the stability of this protein for industrial use while maintaining enzymatic activity through revealing nonessential and immutable regions. PMID:21898652

  4. New insights for C5a and C5a receptors in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chunguang; Gao, Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    The complement system plays a central role in inflammation and immunity. Among the complement activation products, C5a is one of the most potent inflammatory peptides with a broad spectrum of functions. There is strong evidence for complement activation including elevated plasma level of C5a in humans and animals with sepsis. C5a exerts its effects through the C5a receptors. Of the two receptors that bind C5a, the C5aR (CD88) is known to mediate signaling activity, whereas the function of another C5a binding receptor, C5L2, remains largely unknown. Here, we review the critical role of C5a in sepsis and summarize evidence indicating that both C5aR and C5L2 act as regulating receptors for C5a during sepsis. PMID:23233853

  5. Leishmania donovani eukaryotic initiation factor 5A: molecular characterization, localization and homology modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sushma; Raju, K; Jatekar, Deepika; Dinesh, Neeradi; Paul, M Stanley; Sobhia, M E

    2014-08-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a small acidic protein highly conserved from archaea to mammals. eIF5A is the only protein which undergoes a unique lysine residue modification to hypusine. Hypusinylation is important for the function of eIF5A which is reported to be essential for cell viability. eIF5A promotes formation of the first peptide bond at the onset of protein synthesis. However, its function in Leishmania donovani is unclear. The present study focuses on the characterization and localization of L. donovani eIF5A protein. The eIF5A gene contains an ORF of 501×bp encoding 166 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point of 17.8 kDa and 4.83 respectively. A phylogenetic tree analysis revealed its close proximity to trypanosomes however it is distantly located from Trichomonas vaginalis and Plasmodium falciparum. The L. donovani eIF5A was expressed as a 6× His tagged protein whose identity was confirmed by western blot and MALDI. Biophysical investigation by CD revealed the predominant presence of 49% β sheet structure which correlated well with secondary structure prediction. To gain insight into the role of eIF5A in L. donovani, we investigated the subcellular distribution of eIF5A. A GFP-fusion of L. donovani eIF5A was found to be localized in cytoplasm as confirmed by subcellular fractionation. Our studies indicated that eIF5A is primarily localized to cytoplasm and is undetectable in nuclear fraction. The homology model of eIF5A of L. donovani was built and the resulting model showed acceptable Ramachandran statistics. The model is reliable and can be used to study eIF5A binding with its effector molecules.

  6. The Novel Receptor C5aR2 Is Required for C5a-Mediated Human Mast Cell Adhesion, Migration, and Proinflammatory Mediator Production.

    PubMed

    Pundir, Priyanka; MacDonald, Clayton A; Kulka, Marianna

    2015-09-15

    C5a generated during complement activation possesses proinflammatory and immunoregulatory properties critical for the development and modulation of allergic immune responses. In immune cells, C5a mediates its effects through binding to two G protein-coupled receptors, C5aR1 and C5aR2. Mast cells are key effectors in allergic reactions, and decades of research have suggested that the majority of C5a effects on mast cells are mediated through C5aR1, whereas the expression and function of C5aR2 have not been explored. We demonstrated that the human mast cell line Laboratory of Allergic Diseases 2 (LAD2) expresses surface C5aR2 but not C5aR1, whereas CD34(+) cell-derived primary mast cells do not express surface C5aR1 or C5aR2. Stem cell factor and IL-4 upregulated C5aR2 expression on LAD2 cells. Furthermore, C5a caused internalization of LAD2 cell-surface C5aR2. We therefore used LAD2 cells as a model to study C5a/C5aR2-induced biological responses and signaling in human mast cells. We found that whereas C5a was unable to induce degranulation, it stimulated GM-CSF, TNF, CXCL10, and CCL2 production. C5a caused ERK phosphorylation, a signaling molecule important in cytokine and chemokine generation. In addition, C5a stimulated adhesion and chemotaxis of mast cells. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K, and small interfering RNA against β-arrestin-2 blocked C5a-induced adhesion. Silencing of C5aR2 using lentiviral short hairpin RNA rendered the cells unresponsive to C5a-induced adhesion, chemotaxis, and mediator release, as well as ERK phosphorylation. Overall, this study reveals a novel role for C5aR2 in C5a-mediated activation of mast cells and demonstrates that C5aR2 ligation initiates a β-arrestin-2-, PI3K-, and ERK-dependent signaling pathway in these cells.

  7. Molecular modeling of the human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) based on spectroscopic and computational analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Costa-Neto, Claudio M. . E-mail: claudio@fmrp.usp.br; Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T.; Ruller, Roberto; Oliveira, Eduardo B.; Miranda, Antonio; Oliveira, Laerte; Ward, Richard J.

    2006-09-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a protein ubiquitously present in archaea and eukarya, which undergoes a unique two-step post-translational modification called hypusination. Several studies have shown that hypusination is essential for a variety of functional roles for eIF5A, including cell proliferation and synthesis of proteins involved in cell cycle control. Up to now neither a totally selective inhibitor of hypusination nor an inhibitor capable of directly binding to eIF5A has been reported in the literature. The discovery of such an inhibitor might be achieved by computer-aided drug design based on the 3D structure of the human eIF5A. In this study, we present a molecular model for the human eIF5A protein based on the crystal structure of the eIF5A from Leishmania brasiliensis, and compare the modeled conformation of the loop bearing the hypusination site with circular dichroism data obtained with a synthetic peptide of this loop. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid variability between different human eIF5A isoforms revealed peculiar structural characteristics that are of functional relevance.

  8. Zeolite 5A Catalyzed Etherification of Diphenylmethanol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.; Lightbody, Owen C.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment for the synthetic undergraduate laboratory is described in which zeolite 5A catalyzes the room temperature dehydration of diphenylmethanol, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOH, producing 1,1,1',1'-tetraphenyldimethyl ether, (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]CHOCH(C[subscript 6]H[subscript 5])[subscript 2]. The…

  9. 5 A, version modifée

    PubMed Central

    Vallis, Michael; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Sharma, Arya M.; Freedhoff, Yoni

    2013-01-01

    Objectif Adapter le modèle 5 A pour offrir aux professionnels des soins primaires un cadre de counseling sur l'obésité. Sources des données Une recension systématique des ouvrages spécialisés a été effectuée dans MEDLINE à l'aide des expressions de recherche 5 A's (49 articles recensés, tous pertinents) et 5 A's et primary care (8 articles recensés, tous redondants). On a aussi fait une recherche dans les sites web du National Institute of Health et de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé. Message principal L'approche 5 A (autorisation, analyse, avis, accord et aide ou ask, assess, advise, agree et assist en anglais), élaborée pour la cessation du tabagisme, peut être adaptée au counseling sur l'obésité. Demander l'autorisation de discuter du poids; ne pas porter de jugement et explorer la volonté du patient de changer. Analyser l'indice de masse corporelle, la circonférence de la taille et le stade de l'obésité; explorer les déclencheurs et les complications de l'excès de poids. Donner son avis sur les risques de l'obésité pour la santé, les bienfaits d'une modeste perte de poids, la nécessité d'une stratégie à long terme et les options de traitements. Se mettre d'accord sur des attentes, des objectifs et des changements comportementaux réalistes pour perdre du poids et sur les détails précis du plan de traitement. Assister dans l'identifcation et l'atténuation des obstacles; offrir des ressources, aider à trouver et à consulter les services appropriés et organiser un suivi périodique. Conclusion Les 5 A représentent une stratégie d'intervention comportementale fondée sur des données probantes qui a le potentiel d'améliorer le taux de réussite de la gestion du poids en soins primaires.

  10. A hypusine-eIF5A-PEAK1 switch regulates the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Ken; Wright, Tracy; Strnadel, Jan; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Metildi, Cristina; Lowy, Andrew M.; Bouvet, Michael; Kelber, Jonathan A.; Klemke, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of protein synthesis is a hallmark of cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastatic progression. eIF5A1, and its highly related isoform eIF5A2, are translation initiation factors that have been implicated in a range of human malignancies, but how they control cancer development and disease progression is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated how eIF5A proteins regulate pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) pathogenesis. eIF5A proteins are the only known proteins regulated by a distinct posttranslational modification termed hypusination, which is catalyzed by two enzymes, deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). The highly selective nature of the hypusine modification and its amenability to pharmacological inhibition make eIF5A proteins attractive therapeutic targets. We found that the expression and hypusination of eIF5A proteins are upregulated in human PDAC tissues and in premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) tissues isolated from Pdx-1-Cre: LSL-KRASG12D mice. Knockdown of eIF5A proteins in PDAC cells inhibited their growth in vitro and orthotopic tumor growth in vivo, whereas amplification of eIF5A proteins increased PDAC cell growth and tumor formation in mice. Small molecule inhibitors of DHPS and DOHH both suppressed eIF5A hypusination, preventing PDAC cell growth. Interestingly, we found that eIF5A proteins regulate PDAC cell growth by modulating the expression of PEAK1, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase essential for PDAC cell growth and therapy resistance. Our findings suggest that eIF5A proteins utilize PEAK1 as a downstream effector to drive PDAC pathogenesis, and that pharmacological inhibition of the eIF5A-hypusine-PEAK1 axis may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to combat this deadly disease. PMID:25261239

  11. Calcium and cargoes as regulators of myosin 5a activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, James R. Thirumurugan, Kavitha; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hammer, John A.; Knight, Peter J.

    2008-04-25

    Myosin 5a is a two-headed actin-dependent motor that transports various cargoes in cells. Its enzymology and mechanochemistry have been extensively studied in vitro. It is a processive motor that takes multiple 36 nm steps on actin. The enzymatic activity of myosin 5 is regulated by an intramolecular folding mechanism whereby its lever arms fold back against the coiled-coil tail such that the motor domains directly bind the globular tail domains. We show that the structure seen in individual folded molecules is consistent with electron density map of two-dimensional crystals of the molecule. In this compact state, the actin-activated MgATPase activity of the molecule is markedly inhibited and the molecule cannot move processively on surface bound actin filaments. The actin-activated MgATPase activity of myosin 5a is activated by increasing the calcium concentration or by binding of a cargo-receptor molecule, melanophilin, in vitro. However, calcium binding to the calmodulin light chains results in dissociation of some of the calmodulin which disrupts the ability of myosin 5a to move on actin filaments in vitro. Thus we propose that the physiologically relevant activation pathway in vivo involves binding of cargo-receptor proteins.

  12. STAT5A/B Gene Locus Undergoes Amplification during Human Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Bassem R.; Gu, Lei; Mirtti, Tuomas; Dagvadorj, Ayush; Vogiatzi, Paraskevi; Hoang, David T.; Bajaj, Renu; Leiby, Benjamin; Ellsworth, Elyse; Blackmon, Shauna; Ruiz, Christian; Curtis, Mark; Fortina, Paolo; Ertel, Adam; Liu, Chengbao; Rui, Hallgeir; Visakorpi, Tapio; Bubendorf, Lukas; Lallas, Costas D.; Trabulsi, Edouard J.; McCue, Peter; Gomella, Leonard; Nevalainen, Marja T.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to castrate-resistant (CR) and metastatic disease are poorly understood. Our previous mechanistic work shows that inhibition of transcription factor Stat5 by multiple alternative methods induces extensive rapid apoptotic death of Stat5-positive PCa cells in vitro and inhibits PCa xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, STAT5A/B induces invasive behavior of PCa cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting involvement of STAT5A/B in PCa progression. Nuclear STAT5A/B protein levels are increased in high-grade PCas, CR PCas, and distant metastases, and high nuclear STAT5A/B expression predicts early disease recurrence and PCa-specific death in clinical PCas. Based on these findings, STAT5A/B represents a therapeutic target protein for advanced PCa. The mechanisms underlying increased Stat5 protein levels in PCa are unclear. Herein, we demonstrate amplification at the STAT5A/B gene locus in a significant fraction of clinical PCa specimens. STAT5A/B gene amplification was more frequently found in PCas of high histologic grades and in CR distant metastases. Quantitative in situ analysis revealed that STAT5A/B gene amplification was associated with increased STAT5A/B protein expression in PCa. Functional studies showed that increased STAT5A/B copy numbers conferred growth advantage in PCa cells in vitro and as xenograft tumors in vivo. The work presented herein provides the first evidence of somatic STAT5A/B gene amplification in clinical PCas. PMID:23660011

  13. STAT5A/B gene locus undergoes amplification during human prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Bassem R; Gu, Lei; Mirtti, Tuomas; Dagvadorj, Ayush; Vogiatzi, Paraskevi; Hoang, David T; Bajaj, Renu; Leiby, Benjamin; Ellsworth, Elyse; Blackmon, Shauna; Ruiz, Christian; Curtis, Mark; Fortina, Paolo; Ertel, Adam; Liu, Chengbao; Rui, Hallgeir; Visakorpi, Tapio; Bubendorf, Lukas; Lallas, Costas D; Trabulsi, Edouard J; McCue, Peter; Gomella, Leonard; Nevalainen, Marja T

    2013-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to castrate-resistant (CR) and metastatic disease are poorly understood. Our previous mechanistic work shows that inhibition of transcription factor Stat5 by multiple alternative methods induces extensive rapid apoptotic death of Stat5-positive PCa cells in vitro and inhibits PCa xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, STAT5A/B induces invasive behavior of PCa cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting involvement of STAT5A/B in PCa progression. Nuclear STAT5A/B protein levels are increased in high-grade PCas, CR PCas, and distant metastases, and high nuclear STAT5A/B expression predicts early disease recurrence and PCa-specific death in clinical PCas. Based on these findings, STAT5A/B represents a therapeutic target protein for advanced PCa. The mechanisms underlying increased Stat5 protein levels in PCa are unclear. Herein, we demonstrate amplification at the STAT5A/B gene locus in a significant fraction of clinical PCa specimens. STAT5A/B gene amplification was more frequently found in PCas of high histologic grades and in CR distant metastases. Quantitative in situ analysis revealed that STAT5A/B gene amplification was associated with increased STAT5A/B protein expression in PCa. Functional studies showed that increased STAT5A/B copy numbers conferred growth advantage in PCa cells in vitro and as xenograft tumors in vivo. The work presented herein provides the first evidence of somatic STAT5A/B gene amplification in clinical PCas.

  14. FRS 1000, an extract of red onion peel, strongly inhibits phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE 5A).

    PubMed

    Lines, T C; Ono, M

    2006-03-01

    As part of our ongoing search for flavonoids that are bioactive in humans, it was determined that FRS 1000, a beverage containing flavonoids extracted from onion peel, showed unexpected improvement of male sexual function. An in vitro enzyme assay clearly showed that FRS 1000 has a strong phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE 5A) inhibitory activity, which is considered to be important for treatment of erectile dysfunction. Detailed assays of each major ingredient indicated that the antioxidative flavonoid quercetin was responsible for the activity. Results also suggested that PDE 5A inhibition is not directly related to the free radical scavenging activity of flavonoids. PMID:16492525

  15. Wnt5a: A Player in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis and other Inflammatory Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Pooja M.; Malgor, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to review the current literature on Wnt5a and its signaling mechanism, along with its role in atherosclerosis. In addition, the significance of Wnt5a as a diagnostic marker and a potential therapeutic target is reviewed. Wnt5a, a secreted glycoprotein, belongs to a family of highly conserved proteins that regulate important processes such as cell fate specification, embryonic development, cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in a variety of organisms. The complexity of Wnt5a signaling lies in the fact that Wnt5a can bind to different classes of frizzled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2, as well as co-receptors such as low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6. Wnt5a signals primarily through the non-canonical pathway, where it mediates cell proliferation, adhesion, and movement. However, the role of Wnt5a in canonical signaling is still unresolved. Depending on the receptor availability, Wnt5a can serve to activate or inhibit the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Due to the promiscuous nature of Wnt5a, it has been extremely difficult to fully understand its signaling mechanism. Wnt5a has recently emerged as a macrophage effector molecule that triggers inflammation. Perturbations in Wnt5a signaling have been reported in several inflammatory diseases, particularly in sepsis, rheumatoid arthritis, and atherosclerosis. Conclusion Both existing and emerging evidence suggests that the expression of Wnt5a is always up-regulated in these, and possibly other inflammatory disorders. This knowledge can be useful for targeting Wnt5a and/or its receptor and downstream signaling molecules for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory disorders. PMID:25240110

  16. Structural disorganization of pronephric glomerulus in zebrafish mpp5a/nagie oko mutant

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Koichiro; Fukuyo, Yayoi; Nakamura, Tomomi; Powell, Rebecca; Sakai, Tatsuo; Obara, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Background The podocyte slit diaphragm (SD) is an essential component of the selective filtration barrier in the glomerulus. Several structural proteins required for formation and maintenance of SD have been identified; however, molecular mechanisms regulating these proteins are still limited. Results Here, we demonstrate that MAGUK p55 subfamily member 5a (Mpp5a)/Nagie oko, a component of the Crb multi-protein complex, was colocalized with an SD-associated protein ZO-1 in the zebrafish pronephric glomerulus. To characterize the function of Mpp5a, zebrafish mpp5am520 mutant embryos, which are known to have defects in cardiac and neuronal morphogenesis, were analyzed. These mutants failed to merge the bilateral glomerular primordia and to form the glomerular capillary and mesangium, but the foot processes and SD showed normal appearance. The structural disorganization in the mpp5am520 mutant glomerulus was quite similar to that of a cardiac troponin T2a/tnnt2a/silent heart knockdown zebrafish, which exhibited circulatory failure due to lack of heart beating. Conclusions Mpp5a is not prerequisite to form podocyte slit diaphragm in the pronephric glomerular development in zebrafish. The structural disorganization of the pronephric glomerulus in the mpp5am520 mutant is likely to result from circulatory failure, rather than the anomaly of Mpp5a protein in the glomerulus. PMID:23027442

  17. 17 CFR 259.5a - Form U5A, for notification of registration filed under section 5(a) of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting Form U5A, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form U5A, for notification of... OF 1935 Forms for Registration and Annual Supplements § 259.5a Form U5A, for notification...

  18. WNT5A inhibits human dental papilla cell proliferation and migration

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, L.; Ye, L.; Dong, G.; Ren, L.B.; Wang, C.L.; Xu, P.; Zhou, X.D.

    2009-12-18

    WNT proteins are a large family of cysteine-rich secreted molecules that are linked to both canonical and non-canonical signal pathways, and have been implicated in oncogenesis and tissue development. Canonical WNT proteins have been proven to play critical roles in tooth development, while little is known about the role of non-canonical WNT proteins such as WNT5A. In this study, WNT5A was localized to human dental papilla tissue and human dental papilla cells (HDPCs) cultured in vitro, using immunochemistry and RT-PCR. Recombinant adenovirus encoding full-length Wnt5a cDNA was constructed to investigate the biological role of WNT5A on HDPCs. The BrdU incorporation assay, the MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis showed that over-expression of Wnt5a strongly inhibited the proliferation of HDPCs in vitro. Wound healing and transwell migration assays indicated that over-expression of WNT5A reduced migration of HDPCs. In conclusion, our results showed that WNT5A negatively regulates both proliferation and migration of HDPCs, suggesting its important role in odontogenesis via controlling the HDPCs.

  19. Structural and functional characterization of human and murine C5a anaphylatoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Janus Asbjørn; Yatime, Laure Larsen, Casper; Petersen, Steen Vang; Klos, Andreas; Andersen, Gregers Rom

    2014-06-01

    The structure of the human C5aR antagonist, C5a-A8, reveals a three-helix bundle conformation similar to that observed for human C5a-desArg, whereas murine C5a and C5a-desArg both form the canonical four-helix bundle. These conformational differences are discussed in light of the differential C5aR activation properties observed for the human and murine complement anaphylatoxins across species. Complement is an ancient part of the innate immune system that plays a pivotal role in protection against invading pathogens and helps to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells. Upon complement activation, a cascade of proteolytic events generates the complement effectors, including the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Signalling through their cognate G-protein coupled receptors, C3aR and C5aR, leads to a wide range of biological events promoting inflammation at the site of complement activation. The function of anaphylatoxins is regulated by circulating carboxypeptidases that remove their C-terminal arginine residue, yielding C3a-desArg and C5a-desArg. Whereas human C3a and C3a-desArg adopt a canonical four-helix bundle fold, the conformation of human C5a-desArg has recently been described as a three-helix bundle. Here, the crystal structures of an antagonist version of human C5a, A8{sup Δ71–73}, and of murine C5a and C5a-desArg are reported. Whereas A8{sup Δ71–73} adopts a three-helix bundle conformation similar to human C5a-desArg, the two murine proteins form a four-helix bundle. A cell-based functional assay reveals that murine C5a-desArg, in contrast to its human counterpart, exerts the same level of activition as murine C5a on its cognate receptor. The role of the different C5a conformations is discussed in relation to the differential activation of C5a receptors across species.

  20. Overexpression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) correlates with cell aggressiveness and poor survival in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing-Bin; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Liu, Yu-Qin; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Li; Cui, Quan-Cai; Zhou, Wei-Xun

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (EIF5A2) plays an important role in tumor progression and prognosis evaluation. However, little information is available about its potential role in gastric cancer. This study aimed to investigate the function of EIF5A2 in tumor progression and its potential mechanisms. EIF5A2 expression was measured in human gastric cancer cell lines, the immortalized gastric mucosal epithelial cell line (GES-1) and human gastric cancer tissues and knocked down by RNA interference or upregulated by EIF5A2 plasmid transfection. Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were assessed in vitro. The downstream targets of EIF5A2 were examined by western blotting. EIF5A2 and its potential target metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) expression were examined in 160 pairs of human gastric cancer and adjacent non-tumor specimens using immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and its correlation with clinicopathological features and survival was investigated. Knockdown of EIF5A2 or MTA1 caused an apparent suppression of HGC27 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. After knockdown of EIF5A2 in HGC27 cells, E-cadherin levels were upregulated and vimentin, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, C-MYC and MTA1 levels were downregulated. Upregulation of EIF5A2 in MKN45 cells resulted in the converse. IHC results showed a positive correlation between EIF5A2 and MTA1 expression in gastric cancers (P<0.001). Both EIF5A2 and MTA1 overexpression were correlated with pT stage (P=0.018 and P=0.042), pN stage (P=0.037 and P=0.020) and lymphovascular invasion (P=0.016 and P=0.044). EIF5A2 or MTA1 overexpression was significantly associated with poor overall survival and disease-free survival (All P<0.05). Multivariate analyses identified EIF5A2 as an independent predictor for both overall survival (P=0.012) and disease-free survival (P=0.008) in gastric cancer patients. Our findings indicate that EIF5A2 upregulation plays an important oncogenic role in gastric cancer. EIF5A

  1. Wnt-5a/Frizzled9 Receptor Signaling through the Gαo-Gβγ Complex Regulates Dendritic Spine Formation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Valerie T; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Henríquez, Juan Pablo; Lorenzo, Alfredo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-09-01

    Wnt ligands play crucial roles in the development and regulation of synapse structure and function. Specifically, Wnt-5a acts as a secreted growth factor that regulates dendritic spine formation in rodent hippocampal neurons, resulting in postsynaptic development that promotes the clustering of the PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein 95). Here, we focused on the early events occurring after the interaction between Wnt-5a and its Frizzled receptor at the neuronal cell surface. Additionally, we studied the role of heterotrimeric G proteins in Wnt-5a-dependent synaptic development. We report that FZD9 (Frizzled9), a Wnt receptor related to Williams syndrome, is localized in the postsynaptic region, where it interacts with Wnt-5a. Functionally, FZD9 is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in dendritic spine density. FZD9 forms a precoupled complex with Gαo under basal conditions that dissociates after Wnt-5a stimulation. Accordingly, we found that G protein inhibition abrogates the Wnt-5a-dependent pathway in hippocampal neurons. In particular, the activation of Gαo appears to be a key factor controlling the Wnt-5a-induced dendritic spine density. In addition, we found that Gβγ is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in cytosolic calcium levels and spinogenesis. Our findings reveal that FZD9 and heterotrimeric G proteins regulate Wnt-5a signaling and dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons.

  2. Wnt-5a/Frizzled9 Receptor Signaling through the Gαo-Gβγ Complex Regulates Dendritic Spine Formation.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Valerie T; Ramos-Fernández, Eva; Henríquez, Juan Pablo; Lorenzo, Alfredo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2016-09-01

    Wnt ligands play crucial roles in the development and regulation of synapse structure and function. Specifically, Wnt-5a acts as a secreted growth factor that regulates dendritic spine formation in rodent hippocampal neurons, resulting in postsynaptic development that promotes the clustering of the PSD-95 (postsynaptic density protein 95). Here, we focused on the early events occurring after the interaction between Wnt-5a and its Frizzled receptor at the neuronal cell surface. Additionally, we studied the role of heterotrimeric G proteins in Wnt-5a-dependent synaptic development. We report that FZD9 (Frizzled9), a Wnt receptor related to Williams syndrome, is localized in the postsynaptic region, where it interacts with Wnt-5a. Functionally, FZD9 is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in dendritic spine density. FZD9 forms a precoupled complex with Gαo under basal conditions that dissociates after Wnt-5a stimulation. Accordingly, we found that G protein inhibition abrogates the Wnt-5a-dependent pathway in hippocampal neurons. In particular, the activation of Gαo appears to be a key factor controlling the Wnt-5a-induced dendritic spine density. In addition, we found that Gβγ is required for the Wnt-5a-mediated increase in cytosolic calcium levels and spinogenesis. Our findings reveal that FZD9 and heterotrimeric G proteins regulate Wnt-5a signaling and dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal neurons. PMID:27402827

  3. Affinity labeling of (2'-5')-oligoadenylate-activated endonuclease with (/sup 32/P)-2', 5'A and its analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Saarma, M.Y.; Gordon, J.; Minks, M.A.

    1985-09-01

    This paper examines the role interferons play in the origin of the antiviral state of cells and in the inhibition of virus reproduction. Treatment of cells with interferon induces the synthesis of a whole series of proteins. For affinity labeling of 2', 5'A-dependent endoribonuclease, the authors synthesized P-32 labeled 2; 5'A by two methods. Results of the investigation show that the most probable candidate for 2', 5'A-dependent endoribonuclease is the protein with molecular weight 80,000. The role of the other two proteins is still unknown.

  4. Crystal Structure of Hypusine-Containing Translation Factor eIF5A Bound to a Rotated Eukaryotic Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Sergey; Mailliot, Justine; Shin, Byung-Sik; Rigger, Lukas; Yusupova, Gulnara; Micura, Ronald; Dever, Thomas E; Yusupov, Marat

    2016-09-11

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A promotes protein synthesis by resolving polyproline-induced ribosomal stalling. Here, we report a 3.25-Å resolution crystal structure of eIF5A bound to the yeast 80S ribosome. The structure reveals a previously unseen conformation of an eIF5A-ribosome complex and highlights a possible functional link between conformational changes of the ribosome during protein synthesis and the eIF5A-ribosome association.

  5. Butyrate and bioactive proteolytic form of Wnt-5a regulate colonic epithelial proliferation and spatial development.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Hasebe, Takumu; Musch, Mark W; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasushi; He, Tong-Chuan; Lichtenstein, Lev; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Jabri, Bana; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Chang, Eugene B

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo, intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical β-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial β-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation. PMID:27561676

  6. Butyrate and bioactive proteolytic form of Wnt-5a regulate colonic epithelial proliferation and spatial development

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Sakiyama, Toshio; Hasebe, Takumu; Musch, Mark W.; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yasushi; He, Tong-Chuan; Lichtenstein, Lev; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Jabri, Bana; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Chang, Eugene B.

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and spatial development of colonic epithelial cells are highly regulated along the crypt vertical axis, which, when perturbed, can result in aberrant growth and carcinogenesis. In this study, two key factors were identified that have important and counterbalancing roles regulating these processes: pericrypt myofibroblast-derived Wnt-5a and the microbial metabolite butyrate. Cultured YAMC cell proliferation and heat shock protein induction were analzyed after butryate, conditioned medium with Wnt5a activity, and FrzB containing conditioned medium. In vivo studies to modulate Hsp25 employed intra-colonic wall Hsp25 encoding lentivirus. To silence Wnt-5a in vivo, intra-colonic wall Wnt-5a silencing RNA was used. Wnt-5a, secreted by stromal myofibroblasts of the lower crypt, promotes proliferation through canonical β-catenin activation. Essential to this are two key requirements: (1) proteolytic conversion of the highly insoluble ~40 kD Wnt-5a protein to a soluble 36 mer amino acid peptide that activates epithelial β-catenin and cellular proliferation, and (2) the simultaneous inhibition of butyrate-induced Hsp25 by Wnt-5a which is necessary to arrest the proliferative process in the upper colonic crypt. The interplay and spatial gradients of these factors insures that crypt epithelial cell proliferation and development proceed in an orderly fashion, but with sufficient plasticity to adapt to physiological perturbations including inflammation. PMID:27561676

  7. Characterization of a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A homolog from Tamarix androssowii involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) promotes formation of the first peptide bond at the onset of protein synthesis. However, the function of eIF5A in plants is not well understood. Results In this study, we characterized the function of eIF5A (TaeIF5A1) from Tamarix androssowii. The promoter of TaeIF5A1 with 1,486 bp in length was isolated, and the cis-elements in the promoter were identified. A WRKY (TaWRKY) and RAV (TaRAV) protein can specifically bind to a W-box motif in the promoter of TaeIF5A1 and activate the expression of TaeIF5A1. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1, TaWRKY and TaRAV share very similar expression pattern and are all stress-responsive gene that functions in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, indicating that they are components of a single regulatory pathway. Transgenic yeast and poplar expressing TaeIF5A1 showed elevated protein levels combined with improved abiotic stresses tolerance. Furthermore, TaeIF5A1-transformed plants exhibited enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, lower electrolyte leakage and higher chlorophyll content under salt stress. Conclusions These results suggested that TaeIF5A1 is involved in abiotic stress tolerance, and is likely regulated by transcription factors TaWRKY and TaRAV both of which can bind to the W-box motif. In addition, TaeIF5A1 may mediate stress tolerance by increasing protein synthesis, enhancing ROS scavenging by improving SOD and POD activities, and preventing chlorophyll loss and membrane damage. Therefore, eIF5A may play an important role in plant adaptation to changing environmental conditions. PMID:22834699

  8. Molecular evolution of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A gene in primates

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Many electron transport chain (ETC) genes show accelerated rates of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions in anthropoid primate lineages, yet in non-anthropoid lineages the ETC proteins are typically highly conserved. Here, we test the hypothesis that COX5A, the ETC gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A, shows a pattern of anthropoid-specific adaptive evolution, and investigate the distribution of this protein in catarrhine brains. Results In a dataset comprising 29 vertebrate taxa, including representatives from all major groups of primates, there is nearly 100% conservation of the COX5A amino acid sequence among extant, non-anthropoid placental mammals. The most recent common ancestor of these species lived about 100 million years (MY) ago. In contrast, anthropoid primates show markedly elevated rates of nonsynonymous evolution. In particular, branch site tests identify five positively selected codons in anthropoids, and ancestral reconstructions infer that substitutions in these codons occurred predominantly on stem lineages (anthropoid, ape and New World monkey) and on the human terminal branch. Examination of catarrhine brain samples by immunohistochemistry characterizes for the first time COX5A protein distribution in the primate neocortex, and suggests that the protein is most abundant in the mitochondria of large-size projection neurons. Real time quantitative PCR supports previous microarray results showing COX5A is expressed in cerebral cortical tissue at a higher level in human than in chimpanzee or gorilla. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that both protein structural and gene regulatory changes contributed to COX5A evolution during humankind's ancestry. Furthermore, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that adaptations in ETC genes contributed to the emergence of the energetically expensive anthropoid neocortex. PMID:18197981

  9. Expression and Subcellular Targeting of Human Complement Factor C5a in Nicotiana species

    PubMed Central

    Nausch, Henrik; Mischofsky, Heike; Koslowski, Roswitha; Meyer, Udo; Broer, Inge; Huckauf, Jana

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated transgenic tobacco plants as an alternative to Escherichia coli for the production of recombinant human complement factor 5a (C5a). C5a has not been expressed in plants before and is highly unstable in vivo in its native form, so it was necessary to establish the most suitable subcellular targeting strategy. We used the strong and constitutive CaMV 35S promoter to drive transgene expression and compared three different subcellular compartments. The yields of C5a in the T0 transgenic plants were low in terms of the proportion of total soluble protein (TSP) when targeted to the apoplast (0.0002% TSP) or endoplasmic reticulum (0.0003% TSP) but was one order of magnitude higher when targeted to the vacuole (0.001% TSP). The yields could be increased by conventional breeding (up to 0.014% TSP in the T2 generation). C5a accumulated to the same level in seeds and leaves when targeted to the apoplast but was up to 1.7-fold more abundant in the seeds when targeted to the ER or vacuole, although this difference was less striking in the better-performing lines. When yields were calculated as an amount per gram fresh weight of transgenic plant tissue, the vacuole targeting strategy was clearly more efficient in seeds, reaching 35.8 µg C5a per gram of fresh seed weight compared to 10.62 µg C5a per gram fresh weight of leaves. Transient expression of C5aER and C5aVac in N. benthamiana, using MagnICON vectors, reached up to 0.2% and 0.7% of TSP, respectively, but was accompanied by cytotoxic effects and induced leaf senescence. Western blot of the plant extracts revealed a band matching the corresponding glycosylated native protein and the bioassay demonstrated that recombinant C5a was biologically active. PMID:23285250

  10. Human Cytomegalovirus UL76 Elicits Novel Aggresome Formation via Interaction with S5a of the Ubiquitin Proteasome System

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shin-Rung; Jiang, Meei Jyh; Wang, Hung-Hsueh; Hu, Cheng-Hui; Hsu, Ming-Shan; Hsi, Edward; Duh, Chang-Yih

    2013-01-01

    HCMV UL76 is a member of a conserved Herpesviridae protein family (Herpes_UL24) that is involved in viral production, latency, and reactivation. UL76 presents as globular aggresomes in the nuclei of transiently transfected cells. Bioinformatic analyses predict that UL76 has a propensity for aggregation and targets cellular proteins implicated in protein folding and ubiquitin-proteasome systems (UPS). Furthermore, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments suggests that UL76 reduces protein mobility in the aggresome, which indicates that UL76 elicits the aggregation of misfolded proteins. Moreover, in the absence of other viral proteins, UL76 interacts with S5a, which is a major receptor of polyubiquitinated proteins for UPS proteolysis via its conserved region and the von Willebrand factor type A (VWA) domain of S5a. We demonstrate that UL76 sequesters polyubiquitinated proteins and S5a to nuclear aggresomes in biological proximity. After knockdown of endogenous S5a by RNA interference techniques, the UL76 level was only minimally affected in transiently expressing cells. However, a significant reduction in the number of cells containing UL76 nuclear aggresomes was observed, which suggests that S5a may play a key role in aggresome formation. Moreover, we show that UL76 interacts with S5a in the late phase of viral infection and that knockdown of S5a hinders the development of both the replication compartment and the aggresome. In this study, we demonstrate that UL76 induces a novel nuclear aggresome, likely by subverting S5a of the UPS. Given that UL76 belongs to a conserved family, this underlying mechanism may be shared by all members of the Herpesviridae. PMID:23966401

  11. Bidirectional Crosstalk between C5a Receptors and the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Macrophages and Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Haggadone, Mikel D.; Grailer, Jamison J.; Fattahi, Fatemeh; Zetoune, Firas S.; Ward, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    C5a is an inflammatory mediator generated by complement activation that positively regulates various arms of immune defense, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. The NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is activated by pathogen products and cellular/tissue damage products and is a major contributor of IL-1β. In this study, we investigate whether C5a modulates lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in myeloid cells. Appearance of plasma IL-1β during endotoxemia was reduced in C5aR1−/− mice when compared to wild-type mice. In vitro, C5a significantly enhanced LPS-induced production of IL-1β in bone marrow Ly6C-high inflammatory monocytes, accompanied by augmented intracellular pro-IL-1β expression. This effect was abolished during p38 blockade by SB 203580 and in the absence of C5aR1. Conversely, C5a suppressed LPS-induced macrophage production of IL-1β, which was accompanied by attenuated levels of pro-IL-1β, NLRP3, and caspase-1 expression. C5a's suppressive effects were negated during phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition by wortmannin but were largely preserved in the absence of C5aR1. Thus, C5a bidirectionally amplifies TLR4-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in monocytes while suppressing this pathway in macrophages. However, as C5aR1 deficiency attenuates the IL-1β response to LPS challenge in vivo, our results suggest overall that C5a augments physiologic inflammasome responses. PMID:27382187

  12. Molecular analysis of the bovine anaphylatoxin C5a receptor

    PubMed Central

    Nemali, Sailasree; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Nelson, Laura K.; Bunger, Peggy L.; Faulkner, Craig L.; Rainard, Pascal; Gauss, Katherine A.; Jutila, Mark A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Recruitment of phagocytes to inflammatory sites involves the coordinated action of several chemoattractants, including the anaphylatoxin C5a. While the C5a receptor (C5aR) has been well characterized in humans and rodents, little is known about the bovine C5aR. Here, we report cloning of bovine C5R1, the gene encoding bovine C5aR. We also analyzed genomic sequence upstream of the C5R1 translation start site. Although the bovine C5aR amino acid sequence was well conserved among species, significant differences in conserved features were found, including major differences in the N terminus, intracellular loop 3, and transmembrane domain VII. Analysis of C5aR expression by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy demonstrated high levels of C5aR on all bovine neutrophils and a subset of bovine monocytes. C5aR was not expressed on resting or activated bovine lymphocytes, although C5aR message was present in these cells. C5aR was also expressed on a small subset of bovine mammary epithelial cells. Pharmacological analysis of bovine C5aR-mediated responses showed that bovine C5a and C5adesArg both induced dose-dependent calcium fluxes and chemotaxis in bovine neutrophils, with similar efficacy for both agonists. Treatment of bovine neutrophils with C5a or C5adesArg resulted in homologous desensitization of bovine C5aR and cross-desensitization to interleukin 8 (IL-8) and platelet-activating factor (PAF); whereas, treatment with IL-8 or PAF did not cross-desensitize the cells to C5a or C5adesArg. Overall, these studies provide important information regarding distinct structural and functional features that may contribute to the unique pharmacological properties of bovine C5aR. PMID:18480166

  13. Mutational analysis of SCN5A gene in long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sameera Fatima; Ali, Altaf; John, Princy; Jadhav, Amol P; Venkateshwari, Ananthapur; Rao, Hygriv; Jayakrishnan, M P; Narasimhan, Calambur; Shenthar, Jayaprakash; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Nallari, Pratibha

    2015-12-01

    The SCN5A gene encodes for the INa channel implicated in long QT syndrome type-3 (LQTS-type-3). Clinical symptoms of this type are lethal as most patients had a sudden death during sleep. Screening of SCN5A in South Indian cohort by PCR-SSCP analyses revealed five polymorphisms - A29A (exon-2), H558R (exon-12), E1061E and S1074R (exon-17) and IVS25 + 65G > A (exon-25) respectively. In-silico and statistical analyses were performed on all the polymorphisms. Exon-2 of SCN5A gene revealed A282G polymorphism (rs6599230), resulting in alanine for alanine (A29A) silent substitution in the N-terminus of SCN5A protein. Exon-12 showed A1868G polymorphism (H558R - rs1805124) and its 'AA' genotype and 'A' allele frequency were found to be higher in LQTS patients pointing towards its role in LQTS etiology. Two polymorphisms A3378G (E1061E) and the novel C3417A (S1074R) were identified as compound heterozygotes/genetic compounds in exon-17 of SCN5A located in the DIIS6-DIIIS1 domain of the SCN5A transmembrane protein. IVS25 + 65G > A was identified in intron-25 of SCN5A. The 'G' allele was identified as the risk allele. Variations were identified in in-silico analyses which revealed that these genetic compounds may lead to downstream signaling variations causing aberrations in sodium channel functions leading to prolonged QTc. The compound heterozygotes of SCN5A gene polymorphisms revealed a significant association which may be deleterious/lethal leading to an aberrant sodium ion channel causing prolonged QTc. PMID:26401487

  14. C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Coulthard, Liam G; Wu, M C L; Taylor, Stephen M; Woodruff, Trent M

    2013-03-01

    C5a is the paramount proinflammatory mediator of the complement cascade, and has been previously thought to act only through a single, G-protein-coupled, C5a receptor (C5aR; also termed CD88). In 2000, a second C5a receptor, C5L2 (previously known as GPR77), was discovered; yet, despite 12 yr of intensive research, its biological, or pathophysiological, function is both enigmatic and controversial. Unlike C5aR, this receptor does not couple to G proteins, and early studies promoted the hypothesis that C5L2 functions as a decoy receptor. However, recent data have provided other evidence for more complicated and conflicting interactions between C5L2 and other inflammatory mediators. C5L2 has been recently demonstrated to physically interact with both C5aR and β-arrestin to negatively regulate C5aR signaling toward an anti-inflammatory manner, and to reduce pathology, in several disease models in vivo. In direct contrast, other groups have demonstrated that C5L2 stimulation caused release of HMGB1 both in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced pathology in sepsis models, suggesting a clear proinflammatory signaling role. These astoundingly contradictory data challenge our precepts and complicate the foundational bases for the possible targeting of C5L2 as a therapeutic option in inflammatory disease. C5L2 may be the great masquerader in complement biology; its function dependent on the cell type, species, and disease context. Because of these unusual and unforeseen complexities, we present the current state of knowledge on C5L2 structure, expression and, most controversially, its putative functions.-Li, R., Coulthard, L.G., Wu, M. C. L., Taylor, S. M., Woodruff, T. M. C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a. PMID:23239822

  15. Induced Wnt5a expression perturbs embryonic outgrowth and intestinal elongation, but is well-tolerated in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Elvira R M; Raghoebir, Lalini; Franken, Patrick F; Helvensteijn, Werner; van Gurp, Léon; Meijlink, Frits; van der Valk, Martin A; Rottier, Robbert J; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Veelen, Wendy; Smits, Ron

    2012-09-01

    Wnt5a is essential during embryonic development, as indicated by mouse Wnt5a knockout embryos displaying outgrowth defects of multiple structures including the gut. The dynamics of Wnt5a involvement in these processes is unclear, and perinatal lethality of Wnt5a knockout embryos has hampered investigation of Wnt5a during postnatal stages in vivo. Although in vitro studies have suggested a relevant role for Wnt5a postnatally, solid evidence for a significant impact of Wnt5a within the complexity of an adult organism is lacking. We generated a tightly-regulated inducible Wnt5a transgenic mouse model and investigated the effects of Wnt5a induction during different time-frames of embryonic development and in adult mice, focusing on the gastrointestinal tract. When induced in embryos from 10.5 dpc onwards, Wnt5a expression led to severe outgrowth defects affecting the gastrointestinal tracts, limbs, facial structures and tails, closely resembling the defects observed in Wnt5a knockout mice. However, Wnt5a induction from 13.5 dpc onwards did not cause this phenotype, indicating that the most critical period for Wnt5a in embryonic development is prior to 13.5 dpc. In adult mice, induced Wnt5a expression did not reveal abnormalities, providing the first in vivo evidence that Wnt5a has no major impact on mouse intestinal homeostasis postnatally. Protein expression of Wnt5a receptor Ror2 was strongly reduced in adult intestine compared to embryonic stages. Moreover, we uncovered a regulatory process where induction of Wnt5a causes downregulation of its receptor Ror2. Taken together, our results indicate a role for Wnt5a during a restricted time-frame of embryonic development, but suggest no impact during homeostatic postnatal stages.

  16. Wnt5a Suppresses Tumor Formation and Redirects Tumor Phenotype in MMTV-Wnt1 Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Stephanie L.; Mitchell, Elizabeth H.; Baxley, Sarah E.; Desmond, Renee; Frost, Andra R.; Serra, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling Wnt that has been implicated in tumor suppression. We previously showed that loss of Wnt5a in MMTV-PyVmT tumors resulted in a switch in tumor phenotype resulting in tumors with increased basal phenotype and high Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The object of this study was to test the hypothesis that Wnt5a can act to inhibit tumors formed by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To this end, we characterized tumor and non-tumor mammary tissue from MMTV-Wnt1 and double transgenic MMTV-Wnt1;MMTV-Wnt5a mice. Wnt5a containing mice demonstrated fewer tumors with increased latency when compared to MMTV-Wnt1 controls. Expression of markers for basal-like tumors was down-regulated in the tumors that formed in the presence of Wnt5a indicating a phenotypic switch. Reduced canonical Wnt signaling was detected in double transgenic tumors as a decrease in active β-catenin protein and a decrease in Axin2 mRNA transcript levels. In non-tumor tissues, over-expression of Wnt5a in MMTV-Wnt1 mammary glands resulted in attenuation of phenotypes normally observed in MMTV-Wnt1 glands including hyperbranching and increased progenitor and basal cell populations. Even though Wnt5a could antagonize Wnt/β-catenin signaling in primary mammary epithelial cells in culture, reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling was not detected in non-tumor MMTV-Wnt1;Wnt5a tissue in vivo. The data demonstrate that Wnt5a suppresses tumor formation and promotes a phenotypic shift in MMTV-Wnt1 tumors. PMID:25401739

  17. Wnt5a suppresses tumor formation and redirects tumor phenotype in MMTV-Wnt1 tumors.

    PubMed

    Easter, Stephanie L; Mitchell, Elizabeth H; Baxley, Sarah E; Desmond, Renee; Frost, Andra R; Serra, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Wnt5a is a non-canonical signaling Wnt that has been implicated in tumor suppression. We previously showed that loss of Wnt5a in MMTV-PyVmT tumors resulted in a switch in tumor phenotype resulting in tumors with increased basal phenotype and high Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The object of this study was to test the hypothesis that Wnt5a can act to inhibit tumors formed by activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. To this end, we characterized tumor and non-tumor mammary tissue from MMTV-Wnt1 and double transgenic MMTV-Wnt1;MMTV-Wnt5a mice. Wnt5a containing mice demonstrated fewer tumors with increased latency when compared to MMTV-Wnt1 controls. Expression of markers for basal-like tumors was down-regulated in the tumors that formed in the presence of Wnt5a indicating a phenotypic switch. Reduced canonical Wnt signaling was detected in double transgenic tumors as a decrease in active β-catenin protein and a decrease in Axin2 mRNA transcript levels. In non-tumor tissues, over-expression of Wnt5a in MMTV-Wnt1 mammary glands resulted in attenuation of phenotypes normally observed in MMTV-Wnt1 glands including hyperbranching and increased progenitor and basal cell populations. Even though Wnt5a could antagonize Wnt/β-catenin signaling in primary mammary epithelial cells in culture, reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling was not detected in non-tumor MMTV-Wnt1;Wnt5a tissue in vivo. The data demonstrate that Wnt5a suppresses tumor formation and promotes a phenotypic shift in MMTV-Wnt1 tumors.

  18. Wnt5a inhibits K(+) currents in hippocampal synapses through nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Jorge; Montecinos-Oliva, Carla; Varas, Rodrigo; Alfaro, Iván E; Serrano, Felipe G; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Muñoz, Francisco J; Cerpa, Waldo; Godoy, Juan A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-09-01

    Hippocampal synapses play a key role in memory and learning processes by inducing long-term potentiation and depression. Wnt signaling is essential in the development and maintenance of synapses via several mechanisms. We have previously found that Wnt5a induces the production of nitric oxide (NO), which modulates NMDA receptor expression in the postsynaptic regions of hippocampal neurons. Here, we report that Wnt5a selectively inhibits a voltage-gated K(+) current (Kv current) and increases synaptic activity in hippocampal slices. Further supporting a specific role for Wnt5a, the soluble Frizzled receptor protein (sFRP-2; a functional Wnt antagonist) fully inhibits the effects of Wnt5a. We additionally show that these responses to Wnt5a are mediated by activation of a ROR2 receptor and increased NO production because they are suppressed by the shRNA-mediated knockdown of ROR2 and by 7-nitroindazole, a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS. Together, our results show that Wnt5a increases NO production by acting on ROR2 receptors, which in turn inhibit Kv currents. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which Wnt5a may regulate the excitability of hippocampal neurons. PMID:26311509

  19. Wnt5a inhibits K(+) currents in hippocampal synapses through nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Jorge; Montecinos-Oliva, Carla; Varas, Rodrigo; Alfaro, Iván E; Serrano, Felipe G; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Muñoz, Francisco J; Cerpa, Waldo; Godoy, Juan A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-09-01

    Hippocampal synapses play a key role in memory and learning processes by inducing long-term potentiation and depression. Wnt signaling is essential in the development and maintenance of synapses via several mechanisms. We have previously found that Wnt5a induces the production of nitric oxide (NO), which modulates NMDA receptor expression in the postsynaptic regions of hippocampal neurons. Here, we report that Wnt5a selectively inhibits a voltage-gated K(+) current (Kv current) and increases synaptic activity in hippocampal slices. Further supporting a specific role for Wnt5a, the soluble Frizzled receptor protein (sFRP-2; a functional Wnt antagonist) fully inhibits the effects of Wnt5a. We additionally show that these responses to Wnt5a are mediated by activation of a ROR2 receptor and increased NO production because they are suppressed by the shRNA-mediated knockdown of ROR2 and by 7-nitroindazole, a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS. Together, our results show that Wnt5a increases NO production by acting on ROR2 receptors, which in turn inhibit Kv currents. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which Wnt5a may regulate the excitability of hippocampal neurons.

  20. Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 Resistance and Subtype Demographic Characterization of Patients Treated with Ombitasvir plus Paritaprevir/Ritonavir

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Rakesh; Beyer, Jill; Reisch, Thomas; Krishnan, Preethi; Lu, Liangjun; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Hall, Coleen; Vilchez, Regis A.; Pilot-Matias, Tami; Collins, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4) is genetically diverse, with 17 confirmed subtypes, and comprises approximately 13% of infections worldwide. In this study, we identified GT4 subtypes by phylogenetic analysis, assessed differences in patient demographics across GT4 subtypes, examined baseline sequence variability among subtypes and the potential impact on treatment outcome, and analyzed the development of viral resistance in patients who received a regimen of ombitasvir (nonstructural protein 5A [NS5A] inhibitor) plus ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir (NS3/4A inhibitor) with or without ribavirin (RBV) for the treatment of HCV GT4 infection. Phylogenetic analysis of HCV NS3/4A, NS5A, and NS5B nucleotide sequences identified 7 subtypes (4a, 4b, 4c, 4d, 4f, 4g/4k, and 4o) among 132 patient samples. Subtype prevalence varied by country, and the distributions of patient birth cohort and race were significantly different across GT4 subtypes 4a, 4d, and non-4a/4d. Baseline amino acid variability was detected in NS5A across GT4 subtypes but had no impact on treatment outcome. Three patients experienced virologic failure and were infected with subtype 4d, and the predominant resistance-associated variants at the time of failure were D168V in NS3 and L28V in NS5A. Overall, high response rates were observed among patients infected with 7 HCV GT4 subtypes, with no impact of baseline variants on treatment outcome. GT4 subtype distribution in this study differed based on patient demographics and geography. PMID:26282418

  1. Structure of the hypusinylated eukaryotic translation factor eIF-5A bound to the ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christian; Becker, Thomas; Heuer, André; Braunger, Katharina; Shanmuganathan, Vivekanandan; Pech, Markus; Berninghausen, Otto; Wilson, Daniel N.; Beckmann, Roland

    2016-01-01

    During protein synthesis, ribosomes become stalled on polyproline-containing sequences, unless they are rescued in archaea and eukaryotes by the initiation factor 5A (a/eIF-5A) and in bacteria by the homologous protein EF-P. While a structure of EF-P bound to the 70S ribosome exists, structural insight into eIF-5A on the 80S ribosome has been lacking. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of eIF-5A bound to the yeast 80S ribosome at 3.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals that the unique and functionally essential post-translational hypusine modification reaches toward the peptidyltransferase center of the ribosome, where the hypusine moiety contacts A76 of the CCA-end of the P-site tRNA. These findings would support a model whereby eIF-5A stimulates peptide bond formation on polyproline-stalled ribosomes by stabilizing and orienting the CCA-end of the P-tRNA, rather than by directly contributing to the catalysis. PMID:26715760

  2. Structure of the hypusinylated eukaryotic translation factor eIF-5A bound to the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christian; Becker, Thomas; Heuer, André; Braunger, Katharina; Shanmuganathan, Vivekanandan; Pech, Markus; Berninghausen, Otto; Wilson, Daniel N; Beckmann, Roland

    2016-02-29

    During protein synthesis, ribosomes become stalled on polyproline-containing sequences, unless they are rescued in archaea and eukaryotes by the initiation factor 5A (a/eIF-5A) and in bacteria by the homologous protein EF-P. While a structure of EF-P bound to the 70S ribosome exists, structural insight into eIF-5A on the 80S ribosome has been lacking. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of eIF-5A bound to the yeast 80S ribosome at 3.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals that the unique and functionally essential post-translational hypusine modification reaches toward the peptidyltransferase center of the ribosome, where the hypusine moiety contacts A76 of the CCA-end of the P-site tRNA. These findings would support a model whereby eIF-5A stimulates peptide bond formation on polyproline-stalled ribosomes by stabilizing and orienting the CCA-end of the P-tRNA, rather than by directly contributing to the catalysis. PMID:26715760

  3. Identification of STAT5A and STAT5B target genes in human T cells.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Takahiro; Seki, Scott; Jenks, Jennifer A; Kohli, Arunima; Kawli, Trupti; Martin, Dorrelyn Patacsil; Snyder, Michael; Bacchetta, Rosa; Nadeau, Kari C

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) comprises a family of universal transcription factors that help cells sense and respond to environmental signals. STAT5 refers to two highly related proteins, STAT5A and STAT5B, with critical function: their complete deficiency is lethal in mice; in humans, STAT5B deficiency alone leads to endocrine and immunological problems, while STAT5A deficiency has not been reported. STAT5A and STAT5B show peptide sequence similarities greater than 90%, but subtle structural differences suggest possible non-redundant roles in gene regulation. However, these roles remain unclear in humans. We applied chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing using human CD4(+) T cells to detect candidate genes regulated by STAT5A and/or STAT5B, and quantitative-PCR in STAT5A or STAT5B knock-down (KD) human CD4(+) T cells to validate the findings. Our data show STAT5A and STAT5B play redundant roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis via SGK1 interaction. Interestingly, we found a novel, unique role for STAT5A in binding to genes involved in neural development and function (NDRG1, DNAJC6, and SSH2), while STAT5B appears to play a distinct role in T cell development and function via DOCK8, SNX9, FOXP3 and IL2RA binding. Our results also suggest that one or more co-activators for STAT5A and/or STAT5B may play important roles in establishing different binding abilities and gene regulation behaviors. The new identification of these genes regulated by STAT5A and/or STAT5B has major implications for understanding the pathophysiology of cancer progression, neural disorders, and immune abnormalities. PMID:24497979

  4. Inhibition of C5a receptor alleviates experimental CNS lupus.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Alexander; Hack, Bradley; Bai, Tao; Brorson, James R; Quigg, Richard J; Alexander, Jessy J

    2010-04-15

    To investigate the role of C5a generated on complement activation in brain, the lupus model, MRL/lpr mice were treated with C5a receptor(R) antagonist (ant). Neutrophil infiltration, ICAM, TNF-alpha and iNOS mRNA expression, neuronal apoptosis and the expression of p-JNK, pSTAT1 and p-Erk were reduced and p-Akt increased on C5aR inhibition in MRL/lpr brains. MRL/lpr serum caused increased apoptosis in neurons showing that lupus had a direct effect on these cells. C5aRant pretreatment prevented the lupus serum induced loss of neuronal cells. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that C5a/C5aR signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CNS lupus.

  5. Inhibition of C5a receptor alleviates experimental CNS lupus

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Alexander; Hack, Bradley; Bai, Tao; Brorson, James R.; Quigg, Richard J.; Alexander, Jessy J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the role of C5a generated on complement activation in brain, the lupus model, MRL/lpr mice were treated with C5a receptor(R) antagonist (ant). Neutrophil infiltration, ICAM, TNF-α and iNOS mRNA expression, neuronal apoptosis and the expression of p-JNK, pSTAT1 and p-Erk were reduced and p-Akt increased on C5aR inhibition in MRL/lpr brains. MRL/lpr serum caused increased apoptosis in neurons showing that lupus had a direct effect on these cells. C5aRant pretreatment prevented the lupus serum induced loss of neuronal cells. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that C5a/C5aR signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CNS lupus. PMID:20207017

  6. Wdr5, a WD-40 protein, regulates osteoblast differentiation during embryonic bone development.

    PubMed

    Gori, Francesca; Friedman, Lauren G; Demay, Marie B

    2006-07-15

    Wdr5 accelerates osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation in vitro, and is developmentally expressed in osteoblasts as well as in proliferating and hypertrophic chondrocytes. To investigate the role of Wdr5 during endochondral bone development, transgenic mice overexpressing Wdr5 under the control of the 2.3-kb fragment of the mouse alpha(1) I collagen promoter were generated. The transgene was specifically expressed in the osteoblasts of transgene positive mice and was absent in the growth plate. Histological analyses at embryonic day 14.5 demonstrated that the humeri of transgene positive embryos were longer than those isolated from wild-type littermates largely due to an expansion of the hypertrophic chondrocyte layer. Acceleration of osteoblast differentiation was observed with greater and more extensive expression of type I collagen and more extensive mineral deposition in the bone collar of transgene positive embryos. Acceleration of vascular invasion was also observed in transgene positive mice. Postnatal analyses of transgenic mice confirmed persistent acceleration of osteoblast differentiation. Targeted expression of Wdr5 to osteoblasts resulted in earlier activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway in the bone collar as well as in primary calvarial osteoblast cultures. In addition, overexpression of Wdr5 increased the expression of OPG, a target of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Overall, our findings suggest that Wdr5 accelerates osteoblast differentiation in association with activation of the canonical Wnt pathway.

  7. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in experimental lupus

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Alexander; Hack, Bradley; Chiang, Eddie; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Quigg, Richard J.; Alexander, Jessy J.

    2010-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial anatomic location in the brain. Its dysfunction complicates many neurodegenerative diseases, from acute conditions, such as sepsis, to chronic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several studies suggest an altered BBB in lupus, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the current study, we observed a definite loss of BBB integrity in MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6lpr (MRL/lpr) lupus mice by IgG infiltration into brain parenchyma. In line with this result, we examined the role of complement activation, a key event in this setting, in maintenance of BBB integrity. Complement activation generates C5a, a molecule with multiple functions. Because the expression of the C5a receptor (C5aR) is significantly increased in brain endothelial cells treated with lupus serum, the study focused on the role of C5a signaling through its G-protein-coupled receptor C5aR in brain endothelial cells, in a lupus setting. Reactive oxygen species production increased significantly in endothelial cells, in both primary cells and the bEnd3 cell line treated with lupus serum from MRL/lpr mice, compared with those treated with control serum from MRL+/+ mice. In addition, increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance, cytoskeletal remodeling caused by actin fiber rearrangement, and increased iNOS mRNA expression were observed in bEnd3 cells. These disruptive effects were alleviated by pretreating cells with a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRant) or a C5a antibody. Furthermore, the structural integrity of the vasculature in MRL/lpr brain was maintained by C5aR inhibition. These results demonstrate the regulation of BBB integrity by the complement system in a neuroinflammatory setting. For the first time, a novel role of C5a in the maintenance of BBB integrity is identified and the potential of C5a/C5aR blockade highlighted as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases

  8. Wnt5a Regulates the Assembly of Human Adipose Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction-Derived Microvasculatures

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Venkat M.; Tien, Kevin T.; McKinley, Thomas R.; Bocard, Braden R.; McCurry, Terry M.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hoying, James B.; Boyd, Nolan L.

    2016-01-01

    Human adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (hSVF) cells are an easily accessible, heterogeneous cell system that can spontaneously self-assemble into functional microvasculatures in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying vascular self-assembly and maturation are poorly understood, therefore we utilized an in vitro model to identify potential in vivo regulatory mechanisms. We utilized passage one (P1) hSVF because of the rapid UEA1+ endothelium (EC) loss at even P2 culture. We exposed hSVF cells to a battery of angiogenesis inhibitors and found that the pan-Wnt inhibitor IWP2 produced the most significant hSVF-EC networking decrease (~25%). To determine which Wnt isoform(s) and receptor(s) may be involved, hSVF was screened by PCR for isoforms associated with angiogenesis, with only WNT5A and its receptor, FZD4, being expressed for all time points observed. Immunocytochemistry confirmed Wnt5a protein expression by hSVF. To see if Wnt5a alone could restore IWP2-induced EC network inhibition, recombinant human Wnt5a (0–150 ng/ml) was added to IWP2-treated cultures. The addition of rhWnt5a significantly increased EC network area and significantly decreased the ratio of total EC network length to EC network area compared to untreated controls. To determine if Wnt5a mediates in vivo microvascular self-assembly, 3D hSVF constructs containing an IgG isotype control, anti-Wnt5a neutralizing antibody or rhWnt5a were implanted subcutaneously for 2w in immune compromised mice. Compared to IgG controls, anti-Wnt5a treatment significantly reduced vessel length density by ~41%, while rhWnt5a significantly increased vessel length density by ~62%. However, anti-Wnt5a or rhWnt5a did not significantly affect the density of segments and nodes, both of which measure vascular complexity. Taken together, this data demonstrates that endogenous Wnt5a produced by hSVF plays a regulatory role in microvascular self-assembly in vivo. These findings also suggest that manipulating Wnt

  9. Daclatasvir plus Asunaprevir Treatment for Real-World HCV Genotype 1-Infected Patients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Arai, Makoto; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background. All-oral combination of direct-acting antivirals could lead to higher sustained virologic response (SVR) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and safety of the dual oral treatment with HCV nonstructural protein (NS) 5A inhibitor daclatasvir (DCV) plus HCV NS3/4A inhibitor asunaprevir (ASV) for 24 weeks in real-world HCV genotype 1-infected Japanese individuals. Methods. After screening for HCV NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) by PCR invader assay, a total of 54 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1 treated with DCV plus ASV were retrospectively analyzed. SVR12 was used for evaluation of the virologic response. Results. Of the total 54 patients, 46 patients (85.2%) were treated with DCV plus ASV for 24 weeks and achieved SVR12. The other 8 patients (14.8%) discontinued this treatment before 24 weeks due to adverse events. Of these 8 patients, 5 and 3 patients did and did not achieve SVR12, respectively. Finally, 51 of 54 (94.4%) patients achieved SVR12. Conclusion. Treatment with DCV and ASV after screening for HCV NS5A RAVs by PCR invader assay is effective and safe in the treatment of real-world HCV genotype 1-infected patients in Japan.

  10. Daclatasvir plus Asunaprevir Treatment for Real-World HCV Genotype 1-Infected Patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Arai, Makoto; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Imazeki, Fumio; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Background. All-oral combination of direct-acting antivirals could lead to higher sustained virologic response (SVR) in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and safety of the dual oral treatment with HCV nonstructural protein (NS) 5A inhibitor daclatasvir (DCV) plus HCV NS3/4A inhibitor asunaprevir (ASV) for 24 weeks in real-world HCV genotype 1-infected Japanese individuals. Methods. After screening for HCV NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs) by PCR invader assay, a total of 54 Japanese patients infected with HCV genotype 1 treated with DCV plus ASV were retrospectively analyzed. SVR12 was used for evaluation of the virologic response. Results. Of the total 54 patients, 46 patients (85.2%) were treated with DCV plus ASV for 24 weeks and achieved SVR12. The other 8 patients (14.8%) discontinued this treatment before 24 weeks due to adverse events. Of these 8 patients, 5 and 3 patients did and did not achieve SVR12, respectively. Finally, 51 of 54 (94.4%) patients achieved SVR12. Conclusion. Treatment with DCV and ASV after screening for HCV NS5A RAVs by PCR invader assay is effective and safe in the treatment of real-world HCV genotype 1-infected patients in Japan. PMID:27279790

  11. Relevance of the Axis Spermidine/eIF5A for Plant Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Belda-Palazón, Borja; Almendáriz, Carla; Martí, Esmeralda; Carbonell, Juan; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    One key role of the essential polyamine spermidine in eukaryotes is to provide the 4-aminobutyl moiety group destined to the post-translational modification of a lysine in the highly conserved translation factor eIF5A. This modification is catalyzed by two sequential enzymatic steps leading to the activation of eIF5A by the conversion of one conserved lysine to the unusual amino acid hypusine. The active translation factor facilitates the sequence-specific translation of polyproline sequences that otherwise cause ribosome stalling. In spite of the well-characterized involvement of active eIF5A in the translation of proline repeat-rich proteins, its biological role has been recently elucidated only in mammals, and it is poorly described at the functional level in plants. Here we describe the alterations in plant growth and development caused by RNAi-mediated conditional genetic inactivation of the hypusination pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana by knocking-down the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase. We have uncovered that spermidine-mediated activation of eIF5A by hypusination is involved in several aspects of plant biology such as the control of flowering time, the aerial and root architecture, and root hair growth. In addition this pathway is required for adaptation to challenging growth conditions such as high salt and high glucose medium and to elevated concentrations of the plant hormone ABA. We have also performed a bioinformatic analysis of polyproline-rich containing proteins as putative eIF5A targets to uncover their organization in clusters of protein networks to find molecular culprits for the disclosed phenotypes. This study represents a first attempt to provide a holistic view of the biological relevance of the spermidine-dependent hypusination pathway for plant growth and development.

  12. Relevance of the Axis Spermidine/eIF5A for Plant Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Belda-Palazón, Borja; Almendáriz, Carla; Martí, Esmeralda; Carbonell, Juan; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    One key role of the essential polyamine spermidine in eukaryotes is to provide the 4-aminobutyl moiety group destined to the post-translational modification of a lysine in the highly conserved translation factor eIF5A. This modification is catalyzed by two sequential enzymatic steps leading to the activation of eIF5A by the conversion of one conserved lysine to the unusual amino acid hypusine. The active translation factor facilitates the sequence-specific translation of polyproline sequences that otherwise cause ribosome stalling. In spite of the well-characterized involvement of active eIF5A in the translation of proline repeat-rich proteins, its biological role has been recently elucidated only in mammals, and it is poorly described at the functional level in plants. Here we describe the alterations in plant growth and development caused by RNAi-mediated conditional genetic inactivation of the hypusination pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana by knocking-down the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase. We have uncovered that spermidine-mediated activation of eIF5A by hypusination is involved in several aspects of plant biology such as the control of flowering time, the aerial and root architecture, and root hair growth. In addition this pathway is required for adaptation to challenging growth conditions such as high salt and high glucose medium and to elevated concentrations of the plant hormone ABA. We have also performed a bioinformatic analysis of polyproline-rich containing proteins as putative eIF5A targets to uncover their organization in clusters of protein networks to find molecular culprits for the disclosed phenotypes. This study represents a first attempt to provide a holistic view of the biological relevance of the spermidine-dependent hypusination pathway for plant growth and development. PMID:26973686

  13. Cloning, expression, cellular distribution, and role in chemotaxis of a C5a receptor in rainbow trout: the first identification of a C5a receptor in a nonmammalian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boshra, Hani; Li, Jun; Peters, Rodney; Hansen, John; Matlapudi, Anjan; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2004-01-01

    C3a, C4a, and C5a anaphylatoxins generated during complement activation play a key role in inflammation. C5a is the most potent of the three anaphylatoxins in eliciting biological responses. The effects of C5a are mediated by its binding to C5a receptor (C5aR, CD88). To date, C5aR has only been identified and cloned in mammalian species, and its evolutionary history remains ill-defined. To gain insights into the evolution, conserved structural domains, and functions of C5aR, we have cloned and characterized a C5aR in rainbow trout, a teleost fish. The isolated cDNA encoded a 350-aa protein that showed the highest sequence similarity to C5aR from other species. Genomic analysis revealed the presence of one continuous exon encoding the entire open reading frame. Northern blot analysis showed significant expression of the trout C5a receptor (TC5aR) message in PBLs and kidney. Flow cytometric analysis showed that two Abs generated against two different areas of the extracellular N-terminal region of TC5aR positively stained the same leukocyte populations from PBLs. B lymphocytes and granulocytes comprised the majority of cells recognized by the anti-TC5aR. More importantly, these Abs inhibited chemotaxis of PBLs toward a chemoattractant fraction purified from complement-activated trout serum. Our data suggest that the split between C5aR and C3aR from a common ancestral molecule occurred before the emergence of teleost fish. Moreover, we demonstrate that the overall structure of C5aR as well as its role in chemotaxis have remained conserved for >300 million years.

  14. Extended phenotypic spectrum of KIF5A mutations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yo-Tsen; Laurá, Matilde; Hersheson, Joshua; Horga, Alejandro; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Brandner, Sebastian; Pittman, Alan; Hughes, Deborah; Polke, James M.; Sweeney, Mary G.; Proukakis, Christos; Janssen, John C.; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Zuchner, Stephan; Shields, Kevin G.; Reilly, Mary M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish the phenotypic spectrum of KIF5A mutations and to investigate whether KIF5A mutations cause axonal neuropathy associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) or typical Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Methods: KIF5A sequencing of the motor-domain coding exons was performed in 186 patients with the clinical diagnosis of HSP and in 215 patients with typical CMT2. Another 66 patients with HSP or CMT2 with pyramidal signs were sequenced for all exons of KIF5A by targeted resequencing. One additional patient was genetically diagnosed by whole-exome sequencing. Results: Five KIF5A mutations were identified in 6 unrelated patients: R204W and D232N were novel mutations; R204Q, R280C, and R280H have been previously reported. Three patients had CMT2 as the predominant and presenting phenotype; 2 of them also had pyramidal signs. The other 3 patients presented with HSP but also had significant axonal neuropathy or other additional features. Conclusion: This is currently the largest study investigating KIF5A mutations. By combining next-generation sequencing and conventional sequencing, we confirm that KIF5A mutations can cause variable phenotypes ranging from HSP to CMT2. The identification of mutations in CMT2 broadens the phenotypic spectrum and underlines the importance of KIF5A mutations, which involve degeneration of both the central and peripheral nervous systems and should be tested in HSP and CMT2. PMID:25008398

  15. 42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3... PROVISIONS RURAL PHYSICIAN TRAINING GRANT PROGRAM § 5a.3 Definition of Underserved Rural Community. Underserved Rural Community means a community: (a) Located in: (1) A non-Metropolitan County or...

  16. 42 CFR 5a.3 - Definition of Underserved Rural Community.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definition of Underserved Rural Community. 5a.3 Section 5a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Professions Shortage Area, (under section 332(a)(1)(A) of the Public Health Service Act) or (2)...

  17. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL... the Public Health Service Act. These provisions define “underserved rural community” for purposes...

  18. 42 CFR 5a.1 - Statutory basis and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Statutory basis and purpose. 5a.1 Section 5a.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS RURAL... the Public Health Service Act. These provisions define “underserved rural community” for purposes...

  19. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in experimental lupus.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Alexander; Hack, Bradley; Chiang, Eddie; Garcia, Joe G N; Quigg, Richard J; Alexander, Jessy J

    2010-06-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial anatomic location in the brain. Its dysfunction complicates many neurodegenerative diseases, from acute conditions, such as sepsis, to chronic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several studies suggest an altered BBB in lupus, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the current study, we observed a definite loss of BBB integrity in MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6(lpr) (MRL/lpr) lupus mice by IgG infiltration into brain parenchyma. In line with this result, we examined the role of complement activation, a key event in this setting, in maintenance of BBB integrity. Complement activation generates C5a, a molecule with multiple functions. Because the expression of the C5a receptor (C5aR) is significantly increased in brain endothelial cells treated with lupus serum, the study focused on the role of C5a signaling through its G-protein-coupled receptor C5aR in brain endothelial cells, in a lupus setting. Reactive oxygen species production increased significantly in endothelial cells, in both primary cells and the bEnd3 cell line treated with lupus serum from MRL/lpr mice, compared with those treated with control serum from MRL(+/+) mice. In addition, increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance, cytoskeletal remodeling caused by actin fiber rearrangement, and increased iNOS mRNA expression were observed in bEnd3 cells. These disruptive effects were alleviated by pretreating cells with a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRant) or a C5a antibody. Furthermore, the structural integrity of the vasculature in MRL/lpr brain was maintained by C5aR inhibition. These results demonstrate the regulation of BBB integrity by the complement system in a neuroinflammatory setting. For the first time, a novel role of C5a in the maintenance of BBB integrity is identified and the potential of C5a/C5aR blockade highlighted as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in experimental lupus.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Alexander; Hack, Bradley; Chiang, Eddie; Garcia, Joe G N; Quigg, Richard J; Alexander, Jessy J

    2010-06-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial anatomic location in the brain. Its dysfunction complicates many neurodegenerative diseases, from acute conditions, such as sepsis, to chronic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several studies suggest an altered BBB in lupus, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the current study, we observed a definite loss of BBB integrity in MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6(lpr) (MRL/lpr) lupus mice by IgG infiltration into brain parenchyma. In line with this result, we examined the role of complement activation, a key event in this setting, in maintenance of BBB integrity. Complement activation generates C5a, a molecule with multiple functions. Because the expression of the C5a receptor (C5aR) is significantly increased in brain endothelial cells treated with lupus serum, the study focused on the role of C5a signaling through its G-protein-coupled receptor C5aR in brain endothelial cells, in a lupus setting. Reactive oxygen species production increased significantly in endothelial cells, in both primary cells and the bEnd3 cell line treated with lupus serum from MRL/lpr mice, compared with those treated with control serum from MRL(+/+) mice. In addition, increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance, cytoskeletal remodeling caused by actin fiber rearrangement, and increased iNOS mRNA expression were observed in bEnd3 cells. These disruptive effects were alleviated by pretreating cells with a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRant) or a C5a antibody. Furthermore, the structural integrity of the vasculature in MRL/lpr brain was maintained by C5aR inhibition. These results demonstrate the regulation of BBB integrity by the complement system in a neuroinflammatory setting. For the first time, a novel role of C5a in the maintenance of BBB integrity is identified and the potential of C5a/C5aR blockade highlighted as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases

  1. Peptidyl arginine deiminase from Porphyromonas gingivalis abolishes anaphylatoxin C5a activity.

    PubMed

    Bielecka, Ewa; Scavenius, Carsten; Kantyka, Tomasz; Jusko, Monika; Mizgalska, Danuta; Szmigielski, Borys; Potempa, Barbara; Enghild, Jan J; Prossnitz, Eric R; Blom, Anna M; Potempa, Jan

    2014-11-21

    Evasion of killing by the complement system, a crucial part of innate immunity, is a key evolutionary strategy of many human pathogens. A major etiological agent of chronic periodontitis, the Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis, produces a vast arsenal of virulence factors that compromise human defense mechanisms. One of these is peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), an enzyme unique to P. gingivalis among bacteria, which converts Arg residues in polypeptide chains into citrulline. Here, we report that PPAD citrullination of a critical C-terminal arginine of the anaphylatoxin C5a disabled the protein function. Treatment of C5a with PPAD in vitro resulted in decreased chemotaxis of human neutrophils and diminished calcium signaling in monocytic cell line U937 transfected with the C5a receptor (C5aR) and loaded with a fluorescent intracellular calcium probe: Fura-2 AM. Moreover, a low degree of citrullination of internal arginine residues by PPAD was also detected using mass spectrometry. Further, after treatment of C5 with outer membrane vesicles naturally shed by P. gingivalis, we observed generation of C5a totally citrullinated at the C-terminal Arg-74 residue (Arg74Cit). In stark contrast, only native C5a was detected after treatment with PPAD-null outer membrane vesicles. Our study suggests reduced antibacterial and proinflammatory capacity of citrullinated C5a, achieved via lower level of chemotactic potential of the modified molecule, and weaker cell activation. In the context of previous studies, which showed crosstalk between C5aR and Toll-like receptors, as well as enhanced arthritis development in mice infected with PPAD-expressing P. gingivalis, our findings support a crucial role of PPAD in the virulence of P. gingivalis. PMID:25324545

  2. WNT5A inhibits hepatocyte proliferation and concludes β-catenin signaling in liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Cusimano, Antonella; Monga, Jappmann K; Preziosi, Morgan E; Pullara, Filippo; Calero, Guillermo; Lang, Richard; Yamaguchi, Terry P; Nejak-Bowen, Kari N; Monga, Satdarshan P

    2015-08-01

    Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling during liver regeneration (LR) after partial hepatectomy (PH) is observed in several species. However, how this pathway is turned off when hepatocyte proliferation is no longer required is unknown. We assessed LR in liver-specific knockouts of Wntless (Wls-LKO), a protein required for Wnt secretion from a cell. When subjected to PH, Wls-LKO showed prolongation of hepatocyte proliferation for up to 4 days compared with littermate controls. This coincided with increased β-catenin-T-cell factor 4 interaction and cyclin-D1 expression. Wls-LKO showed decreased expression and secretion of inhibitory Wnt5a during LR. Wnt5a expression increased between 24 and 48 hours, and Frizzled-2 between 24 and 72 hours, after PH in normal mice. Treatment of primary mouse hepatocytes and liver tumor cells with Wnt5a led to a notable decrease in β-catenin-T-cell factor activity, cyclin-D1 expression, and cell proliferation. Intriguingly, Wnt5a-LKO did not display any prolongation of LR because of compensation by other cells. In addition, Wnt5a-LKO hepatocytes failed to respond to exogenous Wnt5a treatment in culture because of a compensatory decrease in Frizzled-2 expression. In conclusion, we demonstrate Wnt5a to be, by default, a negative regulator of β-catenin signaling and hepatocyte proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. We also provide evidence that the Wnt5a/Frizzled-2 axis suppresses β-catenin signaling in hepatocytes in an autocrine manner, thereby contributing to timely conclusion of the LR process.

  3. Specificity of the deoxyhypusine hydroxylase-eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF5A) interaction: identification of amino acid residues of the enzyme required for binding of its substrate, deoxyhypusine-containing eIF5A.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kee Ryeon; Kim, Yeon Sook; Wolff, Edith C; Park, Myung Hee

    2007-03-16

    Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) is a novel metalloenzyme that catalyzes the final step of the post-translational synthesis of hypusine (Nepsilon-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine) in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). Hypusine synthesis is unique in that it occurs in only one protein, denoting the strict specificity of the modification enzymes toward the substrate protein. The specificity of the interaction between eIF5A and DOHH was investigated using human eIF5A (eIF5A-1 isoform) and human recombinant DOHH. DOHH displayed a strong preference for binding the deoxyhypusine-containing form of eIF5A, over the eIF5A precursor or the hypusine-containing eIF5A, indicating a role for the deoxyhypusine residue in binding. In addition to the deoxyhypusine residue, a large portion of the eIF5A polypeptide (>20-90 amino acids) is required for effective modification by DOHH. We have identified the amino acid residues of DOHH that are critical for substrate binding by alanine substitution of 36 conserved amino acid residues. Of these, alanine substitution at Glu57, Glu90, Glu208, Glu241, Gly63, or Gly214 caused a severe impairment in eIF5A(Dhp) binding, with a complete loss of binding and activity in the E57A and E208A mutant enzymes. Only aspartate substitution mutants, E57D or E208D, retained partial activity and substrate binding, whereas alanine, glutamine, or asparagine mutants did not. These findings support a proposed model of DOHH-eIF5A binding in which the amino group(s) of the deoxyhypusine side chain of the substrate is primarily anchored by gamma-carboxyl groups of Glu57 and Glu208 at the DOHH active site. PMID:17213197

  4. Crystal structures of the bifunctional tRNA methyltransferase Trm5a

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caiyan; Jia, Qian; Chen, Ran; Wei, Yuming; Li, Juntao; Ma, Jie; Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    tRNA methyltransferase Trm5 catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to G37 in eukaryotes and archaea. The N1-methylated guanosine is the product of the initial step of the wyosine hypermodification, which is essential for the maintenance of the reading frame during translation. As a unique member of this enzyme family, Trm5a from Pyrococcus abyssi (PaTrm5a) catalyses not only the methylation of N1, but also the further methylation of C7 on 4-demethylwyosine at position 37 to produce isowyosine, but the mechanism for the double methylation is poorly understood. Here we report four crystal structures of PaTrm5a ranging from 1.7- to 2.3-Å, in the apo form or in complex with various SAM analogues. These structures reveal that Asp243 specifically recognises the base moiety of SAM at the active site. Interestingly, the protein in our structures all displays an extended conformation, quite different from the well-folded conformation of Trm5b from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii reported previously, despite their similar overall architectures. To rule out the possibilities of crystallisation artefacts, we conducted the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments. The FRET data suggested that PaTrm5a adopts a naturally extended conformation in solution, and therefore the open conformation is a genuine state of PaTrm5a. PMID:27629654

  5. Amino acid limitation induces down-regulation of WNT5a at transcriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zuguang; Chen Hong

    2009-01-23

    An aberrant WNT signaling contributes to the development and progression of multiple cancers. WNT5a is one of the WNT signaling molecules. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that amino acid deprivation induces changes in the WNT signaling pathway in colon cancer cells. Results showed that targets of the amino acid response pathway, ATF3 and p21, were induced in the human colon cancer cell line SW480 during amino acid limitation. There was a significant decrease in the WNT5a mRNA level following amino acid deprivation. The down-regulation of WNT5a mRNA by amino acid deprivation is not due to mRNA destabilization. There is a reduction of nuclear {beta}-catenin protein level by amino acid limitation. Under amino acid limitation, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was increased and the blockage of ERK1/2 by the inhibitor U0126 partially restored WNT5a mRNA level. In conclusion, amino acid limitation in colon cancer cells induces phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which then down-regulates WNT5a expression.

  6. Differential Regulation of the Mouse and Human Wnt5a Alternative Promoters A and B

    PubMed Central

    Joyner-Powell, Nicole B.; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Kuk, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Wnt5a is an extracellular glycoprotein that activates Wnt signaling pathways, important in development and tissue homeostasis. Wnt5a expression is often misregulated during cancer progression. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of two of the Wnt5a alternative promoters, termed A and B. Transient transfection of promoter A and B luciferase reporter constructs in to NIH3T3 and Caco-2 cells indicated that the separated promoters are both functional and that 300–450 base pair (bp) of upstream sequence is sufficient for activity. Promoter B constructs displayed distinct patterns of expression in the two cell types. The endogenous levels of promoter A-derived transcripts were found to be greater than the promoter B transcripts by four- to sixfold in fibroblast cells. Treatment of NIH3T3 cells with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha leads to an increase in both promoter A and B activities, but promoter B was more responsive. Using inhibitors of TNF-alpha effector proteins, we provide evidence that the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB and the MEK1/2 and p38 kinases have distinct roles in determining the activity levels of promoters, A and B. These results support the conclusion that Wnt5a promoters, A and B, are differentially regulated and provide a model for complex transcriptional regulation of Wnt5a. PMID:23046419

  7. Crystal structures of the bifunctional tRNA methyltransferase Trm5a.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caiyan; Jia, Qian; Chen, Ran; Wei, Yuming; Li, Juntao; Ma, Jie; Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    tRNA methyltransferase Trm5 catalyses the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to G37 in eukaryotes and archaea. The N1-methylated guanosine is the product of the initial step of the wyosine hypermodification, which is essential for the maintenance of the reading frame during translation. As a unique member of this enzyme family, Trm5a from Pyrococcus abyssi (PaTrm5a) catalyses not only the methylation of N1, but also the further methylation of C7 on 4-demethylwyosine at position 37 to produce isowyosine, but the mechanism for the double methylation is poorly understood. Here we report four crystal structures of PaTrm5a ranging from 1.7- to 2.3-Å, in the apo form or in complex with various SAM analogues. These structures reveal that Asp243 specifically recognises the base moiety of SAM at the active site. Interestingly, the protein in our structures all displays an extended conformation, quite different from the well-folded conformation of Trm5b from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii reported previously, despite their similar overall architectures. To rule out the possibilities of crystallisation artefacts, we conducted the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments. The FRET data suggested that PaTrm5a adopts a naturally extended conformation in solution, and therefore the open conformation is a genuine state of PaTrm5a. PMID:27629654

  8. Wnt-5a increases NO and modulates NMDA receptor in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Francisco J; Godoy, Juan A; Cerpa, Waldo; Poblete, Inés M; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2014-02-01

    Wnt signaling has a crucial role in synaptic function at the central nervous system. Here we evaluate whether Wnts affect nitric oxide (NO) generation in hippocampal neurons. We found that non-canonical Wnt-5a triggers NO production; however, Wnt-3a a canonical ligand did not exert the same effect. Co-administration of Wnt-5a with the soluble Frizzled related protein-2 (sFRP-2) a Wnt antagonist blocked the NO production. Wnt-5a activates the non-canonical Wnt/Ca(2+) signaling through a mechanism that depends on Ca(2+) release from Ryanodine-sensitive internal stores. The increase in NO levels evoked by Wnt-5a promotes the insertion of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) into the neuronal cell surface. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Wnt-5a signaling is related to NO production, which in turn increases NMDARs trafficking to the cell surface.

  9. Separate and distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue, lingual tissue and taste papilla development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Grosse, Ann S; Iwatsuki, Ken; Mishina, Yuji; Gumucio, Deborah L; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-01-01

    Although canonical Wnt signaling is known to regulate taste papilla induction and numbers, roles for noncanonical Wnt pathways in tongue and taste papilla development have not been explored. With mutant mice and whole tongue organ cultures we demonstrate that Wnt5a protein and message are within anterior tongue mesenchyme across embryo stages from the initiation of tongue formation, through papilla placode appearance and taste papilla development. The Wnt5a mutant tongue is severely shortened, with an ankyloglossia, and lingual mesenchyme is disorganized. However, fungiform papilla morphology, number and innervation are preserved, as is expression of the papilla marker, Shh. These data demonstrate that the genetic regulation for tongue size and shape can be separated from that directing lingual papilla development. Preserved number of papillae in a shortened tongue results in an increased density of fungiform papillae in the mutant tongues. In tongue organ cultures, exogenous Wnt5a profoundly suppresses papilla formation and simultaneously decreases canonical Wnt signaling as measured by the TOPGAL reporter. These findings suggest that Wnt5a antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling to dictate papilla number and spacing. In all, distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue size, fungiform papilla patterning and development are shown and a necessary balance between non-canonical and canonical Wnt paths in regulating tongue growth and fungiform papillae is proposed in a model, through the Ror2 receptor. PMID:22024319

  10. High levels of WNT-5A in human glioma correlate with increased presence of tumor-associated microglia/monocytes.

    PubMed

    Dijksterhuis, Jacomijn P; Arthofer, Elisa; Marinescu, Voichita D; Nelander, Sven; Uhlén, Mathias; Pontén, Frederik; Mulder, Jan; Schulte, Gunnar

    2015-12-10

    Malignant gliomas are among the most severe types of cancer, and the most common primary brain tumors. Treatment options are limited and the prognosis is poor. WNT-5A, a member of the WNT family of lipoglycoproteins, plays a role in oncogenesis and tumor progression in various cancers, whereas the role of WNT-5A in glioma remains obscure. Based on the role of WNT-5A as an oncogene, its potential to regulate microglia cells and the glioma-promoting capacities of microglia cells, we hypothesize that WNT-5A has a role in regulation of immune functions in glioma. We investigated WNT-5A expression by in silico analysis of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) transcript profiling of human glioblastoma samples and immunohistochemistry experiments of human glioma tissue microarrays (TMA). Our results reveal higher WNT-5A protein levels and mRNA expression in a subgroup of gliomas (WNT-5A(high)) compared to non-malignant control brain tissue. Furthermore, we show a significant correlation between WNT-5A in the tumor and presence of major histocompatibility complex Class II-positive microglia/monocytes. Our data pinpoint a positive correlation between WNT-5A and a proinflammatory signature in glioma. We identify increased presence of microglia/monocytes as an important aspect in the inflammatory transformation suggesting a novel role for WNT-5A in human glioma.

  11. NR5A1/SF-1 and development and function of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Bashamboo, A; McElreavey, K

    2010-05-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as cessation of menstruation with associated elevation of gonadotropin levels as a result of decreased ovarian function before the age of 40. The incidence of POI is 1% in women prior to age 40, and 0.1% prior to age 30. There is evidence of a strong genetic component associated with POI. However, the gene mutations/variations influencing POI still remain uncharacterized. NR5A1, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a key transcriptional regulator of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal steroidogenic axis. Newborn mice deficient in NR5A1 lack both gonads and adrenal glands and have impaired expression of pituitary gonadotrophins. NR5A1 is also expressed in multiple cell types in the fetal, postnatal, prepubertal and mature ovary. Until 2008, 18 NR5A1 mutations were described in the human. Three of these were identified in individuals with adrenal insufficiency, two associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) and the third a 46,XX female with conserved ovarian function. Other mutations were associated with various anomalies of testis development with no evidence of adrenal failure. We have identified further 19 mutations in NR5A1 including mutations in four familial cases having individuals with 46,XY DSD as well as POI. A further analysis of 25 sporadic cases of POI revealed two additional mutations. Functional analysis revealed that each mutant protein had altered transactivational properties on gonadal promoters. These data reveal novels insights into the role of NR5A1 in ovarian developmental and function and indicate that mutations of the NR5A1 gene may be a significant cause of human ovarian insufficiency.

  12. Novel SLC5A2 mutation contributes to familial renal glucosuria: Abnormal expression in renal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Hou, Ping; Liu, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Familial renal glucosuria (FRG) is characterized by persistent glucosuria in the presence of normal serum glucose concentrations, while other impairments of tubular function are absent. Mutations in the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SLC5A2) gene have been found to be responsible for FRG. However, direct evidence for the presence of SLC5A2 mutant in renal tissues is very rare. In previous studies, a non-sense mutation (c.1320 G>A:p.W440X) that would cause premature termination of the protein was found. However, the effects in the renal tissues were not reported. In the current study, a patient with FRG and a urinary glucose excretion rate of 8.3 g/day is described, for whom a novel missense mutation (c.1319G>A:p.W440X) was revealed by sequencing. Furthermore, in the immunofluorescence examination of a renal biopsy specimen, SLC5A2 was detected in the apical side of the proximal convoluted tubule, discontinuously decreased in comparison with that in normal and disease controls. The results imply that both wild-type SLC5A2 and mutant SLC5A2 with abnormal distribution were expressed in the renal tissues, and that the reduction of SLC5A2 expression and function were due to the c.1319G>A:p.W440X mutation. The current study provides valuable clues regarding the SLC5A2 molecule from genotype to phenotype in families affected by FRG. PMID:27446256

  13. Inhibition of Stat5a/b enhances proteasomal degradation of androgen receptor liganded by antiandrogens in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, David T.; Gu, Lei; Liao, Zhiyong; Talati, Pooja G.; Shen, Feng; Koptyra, Mateusz; Tan, Shyh-Han; Ellsworth, Elyse; Gupta, Shilpa; Montie, Heather; Dagvadorj, Ayush; Savolainen, Saija; Leiby, Benjamin; Mirtti, Tuomas; Merry, Diane E.; Nevalainen, Marja T.

    2015-01-01

    Although poorly understood, androgen receptor (AR) signaling is sustained despite treatment of prostate cancer with antiandrogens and potentially underlies development of incurable castrate-resistant prostate cancer. However, therapies targeting the AR signaling axis eventually fail when prostate cancer progresses to the castrate-resistant stage. Stat5a/b, a candidate therapeutic target protein in prostate cancer, synergizes with AR to reciprocally enhance signaling of both proteins. In this work, we demonstrate that Stat5a/b sequesters antiandrogen-liganded (MDV3100, Bicalutamide, Flutamide) AR in prostate cancer cells and protects it against proteasomal degradation in prostate cancer. Active Stat5a/b increased nuclear levels of both unliganded and antiandrogen-liganded AR, as demonstrated in prostate cancer cell lines, xenograft tumors and clinical patient-derived prostate cancer samples. Physical interaction between Stat5a/b and AR in prostate cancer cells was mediated by the DNA-binding domain of Stat5a/b and the N-terminal domain of AR. Moreover, active Stat5a/b increased AR occupancy of the Prostate Specific Antigen promoter and AR-regulated gene expression in prostate cancer cells. Mechanistically, both Stat5a/b genetic knockdown and antiandrogen treatment induced proteasomal degradation of AR in prostate cancer cells, with combined inhibition of Stat5a/b and AR leading to maximal loss of AR protein and prostate cancer cell viability. Our results indicate that therapeutic targeting of AR in prostate cancer using antiandrogens may be substantially improved by targeting of Stat5a/b. PMID:25552366

  14. A de novo microdeletion of SEMA5A in a boy with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Gueneau, Lucie; Huguet, Guillaume; Goldenberg, Alice; Henry, Céline; Gigot, Nadège; Pallesi-Pocachard, Emilie; Falace, Antonio; Duplomb, Laurence; Thevenon, Julien; Duffourd, Yannis; ST-Onge, Judith; Chambon, Pascal; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Callier, Patrick; Marle, Nathalie; Payet, Muriel; Ragon, Clemence; Goubran Botros, Hany; Buratti, Julien; Calderari, Sophie; Dumas, Guillaume; Delorme, Richard; Lagarde, Nathalie; Pinoit, Jean-Michel; Rosier, Antoine; Masurel-Paulet, Alice; Cardoso, Carlos; Mugneret, Francine; Saugier-Veber, Pascale; Campion, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Bourgeron, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Semaphorins are a large family of secreted and membrane-associated proteins necessary for wiring of the brain. Semaphorin 5A (SEMA5A) acts as a bifunctional guidance cue, exerting both attractive and inhibitory effects on developing axons. Previous studies have suggested that SEMA5A could be a susceptibility gene for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We first identified a de novo translocation t(5;22)(p15.3;q11.21) in a patient with ASD and intellectual disability (ID). At the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 5, we observed a 861-kb deletion encompassing the end of the SEMA5A gene. We delineated the breakpoint by NGS and observed that no gene was disrupted on chromosome 22. We then used Sanger sequencing to search for deleterious variants affecting SEMA5A in 142 patients with ASD. We also identified two independent heterozygous variants located in a conserved functional domain of the protein. Both variants were maternally inherited and predicted as deleterious. Our genetic screens identified the first case of a de novo SEMA5A microdeletion in a patient with ASD and ID. Although our study alone cannot formally associate SEMA5A with susceptibility to ASD, it provides additional evidence that Semaphorin dysfunction could lead to ASD and ID. Further studies on Semaphorins are warranted to better understand the role of this family of genes in susceptibility to neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26395558

  15. Expression of recombinant cellulase Cel5A from Trichoderma reesei in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Megan; Klinger, Johannes; Klose, Holger; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose degrading enzymes, cellulases, are targets of both research and industrial interests. The preponderance of these enzymes in difficult-to-culture organisms, such as hyphae-building fungi and anaerobic bacteria, has hastened the use of recombinant technologies in this field. Plant expression methods are a desirable system for large-scale production of enzymes and other industrially useful proteins. Herein, methods for the transient expression of a fungal endoglucanase, Trichoderma reesei Cel5A, in Nicotiana tabacum are demonstrated. Successful protein expression is shown, monitored by fluorescence using an mCherry-enzyme fusion protein. Additionally, a set of basic tests are used to examine the activity of transiently expressed T. reesei Cel5A, including SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, zymography, as well as fluorescence and dye-based substrate degradation assays. The system described here can be used to produce an active cellulase in a short time period, so as to assess the potential for further production in plants through constitutive or inducible expression systems. PMID:24962636

  16. Semaphorin 5A mediated cellular navigation: connecting nervous system and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Abhilasha; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Myneni, Pavan; Singh, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    The ultraprecise wiring of neurons banks on the instructions provided by guidance cue proteins that steer them to their appropriate target tissue during neuronal development. Semaphorins are one such family of proteins. Semaphorins are known to play major physiological roles during the development of various organs including nervous system, cardiovascular, and immune systems. Their role in different pathologies including cancer remains an intense area of investigation. This review focuses on a novel member of this family of proteins, semaphorin 5A, which is much less explored in comparison to its other affiliates. Recent reports suggest that semaphorins play important roles in the pathology of cancer by affecting angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. We will firstly give a general overview of the semaphorin family and its receptors. Next, we discuss their roles in cellular movements and how that makes them a connecting link between nervous system and cancer. Finally, we focus our discussion on semaphorin 5A to summarize the prevailing knowledge for this molecule in developmental biology and carcinogenesis. PMID:25263940

  17. Expression of Recombinant Cellulase Cel5A from Trichoderma reesei in Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, Megan; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose degrading enzymes, cellulases, are targets of both research and industrial interests. The preponderance of these enzymes in difficult-to-culture organisms, such as hyphae-building fungi and anaerobic bacteria, has hastened the use of recombinant technologies in this field. Plant expression methods are a desirable system for large-scale production of enzymes and other industrially useful proteins. Herein, methods for the transient expression of a fungal endoglucanase, Trichoderma reesei Cel5A, in Nicotiana tabacum are demonstrated. Successful protein expression is shown, monitored by fluorescence using an mCherry-enzyme fusion protein. Additionally, a set of basic tests are used to examine the activity of transiently expressed T. reesei Cel5A, including SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, zymography, as well as fluorescence and dye-based substrate degradation assays. The system described here can be used to produce an active cellulase in a short time period, so as to assess the potential for further production in plants through constitutive or inducible expression systems. PMID:24962636

  18. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2007-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  19. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2014-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  20. The role of the complement system and the activation fragment C5a in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Trent M; Ager, Rahasson R; Tenner, Andrea J; Noakes, Peter G; Taylor, Stephen M

    2010-06-01

    The complement system is a pivotal component of the innate immune system which protects the host from infection and injury. Complement proteins can be induced in all cell types within the central nervous system (CNS), where the pathway seems to play similar roles in host defense. Complement activation produces the C5 cleavage fragment C5a, a potent inflammatory mediator, which recruits and activates immune cells. The primary cellular receptor for C5a, the C5a receptor (CD88), has been reported to be on all CNS cells, including neurons and glia, suggesting a functional role for C5a in the CNS. A second receptor for C5a, the C5a-like receptor 2 (C5L2), is also expressed on these cells; however, little is currently known about its potential role in the CNS. The potent immune and inflammatory actions of complement activation are necessary for host defense. However, if over-activated, or left unchecked it promotes tissue injury and contributes to brain disease pathology. Thus, complement activation, and subsequent C5a generation, is thought to play a significant role in the progression of CNS disease. Paradoxically, complement may also exert a neuroprotective role in these diseases by aiding in the elimination of aggregated and toxic proteins and debris which are a principal hallmark of many of these diseases. This review will discuss the expression and known roles for complement in the CNS, with a particular focus on the pro-inflammatory end-product, C5a. The possible overarching role for C5a in diseases of the CNS is reviewed, and the therapeutic potential of blocking C5a/CD88 interaction is evaluated.

  1. Cutting edge: identification of novel T cell epitopes in Lol p5a by computational prediction.

    PubMed

    de Lalla, C; Sturniolo, T; Abbruzzese, L; Hammer, J; Sidoli, A; Sinigaglia, F; Panina-Bordignon, P

    1999-08-15

    Although atopic allergy affects protein structure and immunogenic activity of the allergens is still largely unknown. We observed that group 5 grass allergens are characterized by repeated structural motifs. Using a new algorithm, TEPITOPE, we predicted promiscuous HLA-DR ligands within the repeated motifs of the Lol p5a allergen from rye grass. In vitro binding studies confirmed the promiscuous binding characteristics of these peptides. Moreover, most of the predicted ligands were novel T cell epitopes that were able to stimulate T cells from atopic patients. We generated a panel of Lol p5a-specific T cell clones, the majority of which recognized the peptides in a cross-reactive fashion. The computational prediction of DR ligands might thus allow the design of T cell epitopes with potential useful application in novel immunotherapy strategies.

  2. 5 A's Dean's Grant Second Year Monograph. 1980-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Curtis C., Ed.

    The monograph presents 12 papers on aspects of retraining College of Education faculty regarding mainstreaming of handicapped children. Papers grew out of the 5 A's Dean's Grant (Awareness, Access, Appropriateness, Assessment, and Accountability) at Roosevelt University. The following titles and authors are represented: "On Loving the Unlovable"…

  3. The Rab5A gene of marine fish, large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), and its response to the infection of Cryptocaryon irritans.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Dongling; Liu, Lanping; Tsai, Huai Jen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-07-01

    Rab GTPases, members of the Ras superfamily, encode monomeric G-proteins. Rab proteins regulate key steps in membrane traffic transport and endocytic pathway of host immune responses. Rab5A is involved in immune regulation, particularly in T cell migration and macrophage endocytosis in higher vertebrates. However, little is known of the molecular structure of Rab5A gene in marine teleost fish species and its expression profile during the parasite infection. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic structure of Rab5A gene of the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) (LycRab5A), one of the most economical marine fishes, were identified and characterized. The LycRab5A protein, containing the ATPase/GTPase binding motifs and the effector molecules binding motifs, was highly homologous to that of other animals. The expression plasmid containing LycRab5A cDNA fused with GST was engineered and transformed into Escherichia coli to produce recombinant protein GST-LycRab5A, which was purified to prepare a polyclonal antibody specifically against LycRab5A. Subcellular localization revealed that LycRab5A expressed in the membrane and cytoplasm. Based on real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, we found that both mRNA and protein of LycRab5A were expressed in all tissues we examined; especially it was highly expressed in blood and gill. Interestingly, both mRNA and protein of LycRab5A were substantially up-regulated when parasitic ciliate protozoan (Cryptocaryon irritans) was infected. The expression of LycRab5A was reached to the maximal level at 24 h after infection. The line of evidence suggested that LycRab5A might play an important role in large yellow croaker defense against parasite infection. Moreover, on the basis of protein interaction, it was found that the LycRab5A interacted with myosin light chain (designated as LycMLC), a crucial protein in the process of phagocytosis. This discovery might contribute better understanding to the molecular

  4. Structural complexes of the agonist, inverse agonist and antagonist bound C5a receptor: insights into pharmacology and signaling.

    PubMed

    Rana, Soumendra; Sahoo, Amita Rani; Majhi, Bharat Kumar

    2016-04-26

    The C5a receptor (C5aR) is a pharmacologically important G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that interacts with (h)C5a, by recruiting both the "orthosteric" sites (site1 at the N-terminus and site2 at the ECS, extra cellular surface) on C5aR in a two site-binding model. However, the complex pharmacological landscape and the distinguishing chemistry operating either at the "orthosteric" site1 or at the functionally important "orthosteric" site2 of C5aR are still not clear, which greatly limits the understanding of C5aR pharmacology. One of the major bottlenecks is the lack of an experimental structure or a refined model structure of C5aR with appropriately defined active sites. The study attempts to understand the pharmacology at the "orthosteric" site2 of C5aR rationally by generating a highly refined full-blown model structure of C5aR through advanced molecular modeling techniques, and further subjecting it to automated docking and molecular dynamics (MD) studies in the POPC bilayer. The first series of structural complexes of C5aR respectively bound to a linear native peptide agonist ((h)C5a-CT), a small molecule inverse agonist (NDT) and a cyclic peptide antagonist (PMX53) are reported, apparently establishing the unique pharmacological landscape of the "orthosteric" site2, which also illustrates an energetically distinct but coherent competitive chemistry ("cation-π" vs. "π-π" interactions) involved in distinguishing the established ligands known for targeting the "orthosteric" site2 of C5aR. Over a total of 1 μs molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in the POPC bilayer, it is evidenced that while the agonist prefers a "cation-π" interaction, the inverse agonist prefers a "cogwheel/L-shaped" interaction in contrast to the "edge-to-face/T-shaped" type π-π interactions demonstrated by the antagonist by engaging the F275(7.28) of the C5aR. In the absence of a NMR or crystallographically guided model structure of C5aR, the computational model complexes not only

  5. GPRC5A is a potential oncogene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells that is upregulated by gemcitabine with help from HuR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Telonis, A G; Jing, Y; Xia, N L; Biederman, L; Jimbo, M; Blanco, F; Londin, E; Brody, J R; Rigoutsos, I

    2016-01-01

    GPRC5A is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor with an intriguing dual behavior, acting as an oncogene in some cancers and as a tumor suppressor in other cancers. In the pancreatic cancer context, very little is known about GPRC5A. By analyzing messenger RNA (mRNA) expression data from 675 human cancer cell lines and 10 609 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) we found that GPRC5A's abundance in pancreatic cancer is highest (cell lines) or second highest (TCGA) among all tissues and cancer types. Further analyses of an independent set of 252 pancreatic normal and cancer samples showed GPRC5A mRNA to be more than twofold upregulated in primary tumor samples compared with normal pancreas (P-value<10(-5)), and even further upregulated in pancreatic cancer metastases to various organs (P-value=0.0021). Immunostaining of 208 cores (103 samples) of a tissue microarray showed generally low expression of GPRC5A protein in normal pancreatic ductal cells; on the other hand, in primary and metastatic samples, GPRC5A protein levels were dramatically increased in pancreatic ductal cells. In vitro studies of multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines showed that an increase in GPRC5A protein levels promoted pancreatic cancer cell growth and migration. Unexpectedly, when we treated pancreatic cancer cell lines with gemcitabine (2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine), we observed an increase in GPRC5A protein abundance. On the other hand, when we knocked down GPRC5A we sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. Through further experimentation we showed that the monotonic increase in GPRC5A protein levels that we observe for the first 18 h following gemcitabine treatment results from interactions between GPRC5A's mRNA and the RNA-binding protein HuR, which is an established key mediator of gemcitabine's efficacy in cancer cells. As we discovered, the interaction between GPRC5A and HuR is mediated by at least one HuR-binding site in GPRC5A's mRNA. Our findings indicate that GPRC

  6. GPRC5A is a potential oncogene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells that is upregulated by gemcitabine with help from HuR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Telonis, A G; Jing, Y; Xia, N L; Biederman, L; Jimbo, M; Blanco, F; Londin, E; Brody, J R; Rigoutsos, I

    2016-07-14

    GPRC5A is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor with an intriguing dual behavior, acting as an oncogene in some cancers and as a tumor suppressor in other cancers. In the pancreatic cancer context, very little is known about GPRC5A. By analyzing messenger RNA (mRNA) expression data from 675 human cancer cell lines and 10 609 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) we found that GPRC5A's abundance in pancreatic cancer is highest (cell lines) or second highest (TCGA) among all tissues and cancer types. Further analyses of an independent set of 252 pancreatic normal and cancer samples showed GPRC5A mRNA to be more than twofold upregulated in primary tumor samples compared with normal pancreas (P-value<10(-5)), and even further upregulated in pancreatic cancer metastases to various organs (P-value=0.0021). Immunostaining of 208 cores (103 samples) of a tissue microarray showed generally low expression of GPRC5A protein in normal pancreatic ductal cells; on the other hand, in primary and metastatic samples, GPRC5A protein levels were dramatically increased in pancreatic ductal cells. In vitro studies of multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines showed that an increase in GPRC5A protein levels promoted pancreatic cancer cell growth and migration. Unexpectedly, when we treated pancreatic cancer cell lines with gemcitabine (2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine), we observed an increase in GPRC5A protein abundance. On the other hand, when we knocked down GPRC5A we sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. Through further experimentation we showed that the monotonic increase in GPRC5A protein levels that we observe for the first 18 h following gemcitabine treatment results from interactions between GPRC5A's mRNA and the RNA-binding protein HuR, which is an established key mediator of gemcitabine's efficacy in cancer cells. As we discovered, the interaction between GPRC5A and HuR is mediated by at least one HuR-binding site in GPRC5A's mRNA. Our findings indicate that GPRC

  7. GPRC5A is a potential oncogene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells that is upregulated by gemcitabine with help from HuR

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, H; Telonis, A G; Jing, Y; Xia, N L; Biederman, L; Jimbo, M; Blanco, F; Londin, E; Brody, J R; Rigoutsos, I

    2016-01-01

    GPRC5A is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor with an intriguing dual behavior, acting as an oncogene in some cancers and as a tumor suppressor in other cancers. In the pancreatic cancer context, very little is known about GPRC5A. By analyzing messenger RNA (mRNA) expression data from 675 human cancer cell lines and 10 609 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) we found that GPRC5A's abundance in pancreatic cancer is highest (cell lines) or second highest (TCGA) among all tissues and cancer types. Further analyses of an independent set of 252 pancreatic normal and cancer samples showed GPRC5A mRNA to be more than twofold upregulated in primary tumor samples compared with normal pancreas (P-value<10−5), and even further upregulated in pancreatic cancer metastases to various organs (P-value=0.0021). Immunostaining of 208 cores (103 samples) of a tissue microarray showed generally low expression of GPRC5A protein in normal pancreatic ductal cells; on the other hand, in primary and metastatic samples, GPRC5A protein levels were dramatically increased in pancreatic ductal cells. In vitro studies of multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines showed that an increase in GPRC5A protein levels promoted pancreatic cancer cell growth and migration. Unexpectedly, when we treated pancreatic cancer cell lines with gemcitabine (2′,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine), we observed an increase in GPRC5A protein abundance. On the other hand, when we knocked down GPRC5A we sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine. Through further experimentation we showed that the monotonic increase in GPRC5A protein levels that we observe for the first 18 h following gemcitabine treatment results from interactions between GPRC5A's mRNA and the RNA-binding protein HuR, which is an established key mediator of gemcitabine's efficacy in cancer cells. As we discovered, the interaction between GPRC5A and HuR is mediated by at least one HuR-binding site in GPRC5A's mRNA. Our findings indicate that

  8. Coordinated repression of cell cycle genes by KDM5A and E2F4 during differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Beshiri, Michael L.; Holmes, Katherine B.; Richter, William F.; Hess, Samuel; Islam, Abul B. M. M. K.; Yan, Qin; Plante, Lydia; Litovchick, Larisa; Gévry, Nicolas; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Kaelin, William G.; Benevolenskaya, Elizaveta V.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation underlies the robust changes in gene expression that occur during development. How precisely epigenetic enzymes contribute to development and differentiation processes is largely unclear. Here we show that one of the enzymes that removes the activating epigenetic mark of trimethylated lysine 4 on histone H3, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5A (KDM5A), reinforces the effects of the retinoblastoma (RB) family of transcriptional repressors on differentiation. Global location analysis showed that KDM5A cooccupies a substantial portion of target genes with the E2F4 transcription factor. During ES cell differentiation, knockout of KDM5A resulted in derepression of multiple genomic loci that are targets of KDM5A, denoting a direct regulatory function. In terminally differentiated cells, common KDM5A and E2F4 gene targets were bound by the pRB-related protein p130, a DREAM complex component. KDM5A was recruited to the transcription start site regions independently of E2F4; however, it cooperated with E2F4 to promote a state of deepened repression at cell cycle genes during differentiation. These findings reveal a critical role of H3K4 demethylation by KDM5A in the transcriptional silencing of genes that are suppressed by RB family members in differentiated cells. PMID:23093672

  9. Brief report: complement C5a promotes human embryonic stem cell pluripotency in the absence of FGF2.

    PubMed

    Hawksworth, Owen A; Coulthard, Liam G; Taylor, Stephen M; Wolvetang, Ernst J; Woodruff, Trent M

    2014-12-01

    The complement activation product, C5a, is a pivotal member of the innate immune response; however, a diverse number of nonimmune functions are now being ascribed to C5a signaling, including roles during embryonic development. Here, we identify the expression of the C5a precursor protein, C5, as well as the C5a receptors, C5aR and C5L2, in both human embryonic stem cells and human-induced pluripotent stem cells. We show that administration of a physiologically relevant dose of purified human C5a (1 nM) stimulates activation of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways, and is able to promote maintenance of the pluripotent state in the absence of FGF2. C5a also reduced cell loss following dissociation of human pluripotent stem cells. Our results reveal that complement C5a signaling supports human stem cell pluripotency and survival, and thus may play a key role in shaping early human embryonic development.

  10. Transonic buffet behavior of Northrop F-5A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, C.; Pi, W. S.

    1975-01-01

    Flight tests were performed on an extensively instrumented F-5A aircraft to investigate the dynamic buffet pressure distribution on the wing surfaces and the responses during a series of transonic maneuvers called the windup turns. The maneuvers to maximum lift were performed at three Mach number-altitude combinations with a constant 'q' of approximately 14,360 N/sq m (300 psf). The fluctuating buffet pressure data at 24 stations on the right wing of the F-5A were acquired by miniaturized semiconductor type pressure transducers mounted on the wing. A new transducer mounting and wiring technique was applied where the interference with the natural flow condition was minimized. The data acquired in this manner were found adequate to trace the shock origin, the movement of the shock front and the development of the separated flow (shock induced or leading edge induced) on the wing surface.

  11. Opposite Roles of Furin and PC5A in N-Cadherin Processing12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Deborah; Sadr, Mohamad Seyed; Sadr, Emad Seyed; Colman, David R; Del Maestro, Rolando F; Seidah, Nabil G

    2012-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that lack of Furin-processing of the N-cadherin precursor (proNCAD) in highly invasive melanoma and brain tumor cells results in the cell-surface expression of a nonadhesive protein favoring cell migration and invasion in vitro. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of malignant human brain tumor cells revealed that of all proprotein convertases (PCs) only the levels of Furin and PC5A are modulated, being inversely (Furin) or directly (PC5A) correlated with brain tumor invasive capacity. Intriguingly, the N-terminal sequence following the Furin-activated NCAD site (RQKR↓DW161, mouse nomenclature) reveals a second putative PC-processing site (RIRSDR↓DK189) located in the first extracellular domain. Cleavage at this site would abolish the adhesive functions of NCAD because of the loss of the critical Trp161. This was confirmed upon analysis of the fate of the endogenous prosegment of proNCAD in human malignant glioma cells expressing high levels of Furin and low levels of PC5A (U343) or high levels of PC5A and negligible Furin levels (U251). Cellular analyses revealed that Furin is the best activating convertase releasing an ∼17-kDa prosegment, whereas PC5A is the major inactivating enzyme resulting in the secretion of an ∼20-kDa product. Like expression of proNCAD at the cell surface, cleavage of the NCAD molecule at RIRSDR↓DK189 renders the U251 cancer cells less adhesive to one another and more migratory. Our work modifies the present view on posttranslational processing and surface expression of classic cadherins and clarifies how NCAD possesses a range of adhesive potentials and plays a critical role in tumor progression. PMID:23097623

  12. Increased mitochondrial function downstream from KDM5A histone demethylase rescues differentiation in pRB-deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Váraljai, Renáta; Islam, Abul B.M.M.K.; Beshiri, Michael L.; Rehman, Jalees; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Benevolenskaya, Elizaveta V.

    2015-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRb restricts cell growth through inhibition of cell cycle progression. Increasing evidence suggests that pRb also promotes differentiation, but the mechanisms are poorly understood, and the key question remains as to how differentiation in tumor cells can be enhanced in order to diminish their aggressive potential. Previously, we identified the histone demethylase KDM5A (lysine [K]-specific demethylase 5A), which demethylates histone H3 on Lys4 (H3K4), as a pRB-interacting protein counteracting pRB's role in promoting differentiation. Here we show that loss of Kdm5a restores differentiation through increasing mitochondrial respiration. This metabolic effect is both necessary and sufficient to induce the expression of a network of cell type-specific signaling and structural genes. Importantly, the regulatory functions of pRB in the cell cycle and differentiation are distinct because although restoring differentiation requires intact mitochondrial function, it does not necessitate cell cycle exit. Cells lacking Rb1 exhibit defective mitochondria and decreased oxygen consumption. Kdm5a is a direct repressor of metabolic regulatory genes, thus explaining the compensatory role of Kdm5a deletion in restoring mitochondrial function and differentiation. Significantly, activation of mitochondrial function by the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator Pgc-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α; also called PPARGC1A) a coactivator of the Kdm5a target genes, is sufficient to override the differentiation block. Overexpression of Pgc-1α, like KDM5A deletion, inhibits cell growth in RB-negative human cancer cell lines. The rescue of differentiation by loss of KDM5A or by activation of mitochondrial biogenesis reveals the switch to oxidative phosphorylation as an essential step in restoring differentiation and a less aggressive cancer phenotype. PMID:26314709

  13. Increased mitochondrial function downstream from KDM5A histone demethylase rescues differentiation in pRB-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Váraljai, Renáta; Islam, Abul B M M K; Beshiri, Michael L; Rehman, Jalees; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Benevolenskaya, Elizaveta V

    2015-09-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein pRb restricts cell growth through inhibition of cell cycle progression. Increasing evidence suggests that pRb also promotes differentiation, but the mechanisms are poorly understood, and the key question remains as to how differentiation in tumor cells can be enhanced in order to diminish their aggressive potential. Previously, we identified the histone demethylase KDM5A (lysine [K]-specific demethylase 5A), which demethylates histone H3 on Lys4 (H3K4), as a pRB-interacting protein counteracting pRB's role in promoting differentiation. Here we show that loss of Kdm5a restores differentiation through increasing mitochondrial respiration. This metabolic effect is both necessary and sufficient to induce the expression of a network of cell type-specific signaling and structural genes. Importantly, the regulatory functions of pRB in the cell cycle and differentiation are distinct because although restoring differentiation requires intact mitochondrial function, it does not necessitate cell cycle exit. Cells lacking Rb1 exhibit defective mitochondria and decreased oxygen consumption. Kdm5a is a direct repressor of metabolic regulatory genes, thus explaining the compensatory role of Kdm5a deletion in restoring mitochondrial function and differentiation. Significantly, activation of mitochondrial function by the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator Pgc-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α; also called PPARGC1A) a coactivator of the Kdm5a target genes, is sufficient to override the differentiation block. Overexpression of Pgc-1α, like KDM5A deletion, inhibits cell growth in RB-negative human cancer cell lines. The rescue of differentiation by loss of KDM5A or by activation of mitochondrial biogenesis reveals the switch to oxidative phosphorylation as an essential step in restoring differentiation and a less aggressive cancer phenotype.

  14. Evaluation of STAT5A Gene Expression in Aflatoxin B1 Treated Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Forouharmehr, Ali; Harkinezhad, Taher; Qasemi-Panahi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent mycotoxin which has been produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus as secondary metabolites due to their growth on food stuffs and induces hepatocellular carcinoma in many animal species, including humans. In the present study, the effect of AFB1 on STAT5A gene expression was investigated in bovine mammary epithelial cells using real time RT-PCR. Methods: Bovine mammary epithelial cells were seeded in a 24-well culture plate for three-dimensional (3D) culture in Matrigel matrix. After 21 days of 3D culture and reaching the required number of cells, cells were treated with AFB1 and incubated for 8 h. For real time PCR reaction, total RNA from the cultured and treated cells was extracted and used for complementary DNA synthesis. Results: The expression of STAT5A gene was significantly down regulated by AFB1 in dose- dependent manner and led to the reduction of proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells, which has direct effect in milk protein quantity and quality. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that down regulation of STAT5A gene in AFB1-treated cells maybe due to DNA damage induced by AFB1 in bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:24312879

  15. Insight into the molecular switch mechanism of human Rab5a from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing-Fang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2009-12-18

    Rab5a is currently a most interesting target because it is responsible for regulating the early endosome fusion in endocytosis and possibly the budding process. We utilized longtime-scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the internal motion of the wild-type Rab5a and its A30P mutant. It was observed that, after binding with GTP, the global flexibility of the two proteins is increasing, while the local flexibility in their sensitive sites (P-loop, switch I and II regions) is decreasing. Also, the mutation of Ala30 to Pro30 can cause notable flexibility variations in the sensitive sites. However, this kind of variations is dramatically reduced after binding with GTP. Such a remarkable feature is mainly caused by the water network rearrangements in the sensitive sites. These findings might be of use for revealing the profound mechanism of the displacements of Rab5a switch regions, as well as the mechanism of the GDP dissociation and GTP association.

  16. The NPG 7120.5A Electronic Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBrayer, Robert; Ives, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The use of electronics to review a document is well within the technical realm of today's state-of-the-art workplace. File servers and web site interaction are common tools for many NASA employees. The electronic comment processing described here was developed for the NPG 7120.5A review to augment the existing NASA Online Directives Information System (NODIS). The NODIS system is NASA's official system for formal review, approval and storage of NASA Directives. The electronic review process worked so well that NASA and other agencies may want to consider it as one of our "best practices." It was participatory decision making at its very best, a process that attracted dozens of very good ideas to improve the document as well as the way we can be managing projects far more effectively. The revision of NPG 7120.5A has significant implications for the way all elements of the Agency accomplish program and project management. Therefore, the review of NPG 7120.5A was an Agencywide effort with high visibility, heavy participation and a short schedule. The level of involvement created interest in supplementing the formal NODIS system with a system to collect comments efficiently and to allow the Centers and Codes to review and consolidate their comments into the official system in a short period of time. In addition, the Program Management Council Working Group (PMCWG), responsible for the revision of the document and the disposition of official comments, needed an electronic system to manage the disposition of comments, obtain PMCWG consensus on each disposition, and coordinate the disposition with the appropriate Headquarters Code that had submitted the official comment. The combined NASA and contractor talents and resources provided a system that supplemented the NODIS system and its operating personnel to produce a thorough review and approval of NPG 7120.5A on April 3, 1998, 7.5 months from the start of the process. The original six-month schedule is indicated. All

  17. Temperature-sensitive eIF5A mutant accumulates transcripts targeted to the nonsense-mediated decay pathway.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Rainer; Young, Craig; Kozian, Detlef; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Lottspeich, Friedrich

    2006-11-17

    The highly conserved protein eIF5A found in Archaea and all eukaryotes uniquely contains the posttranslationally formed amino acid hypusine. Despite being essential the functions of this protein and its modification remain unclear. To gain more insight into these functions temperature-sensitive mutants of the human EIF5A1 were characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Expression of the point mutated form V81G in a DeltaeIF5A strain of yeast led to a strongly temperature-sensitive phenotype and to a significantly reduced protein level at restrictive temperature. The mutant showed accumulation of a subset of mRNAs that was also observed in nonsense-mediated decay (NMD)-deficient yeast strains. After short incubation at restrictive temperature the mutant exhibited increased half-lives of the intron containing CYH2 pre-mRNA and mature transcripts of NMD-dependent genes. Reduced telomere silencing and shortening was detected in the V81G mutant further supporting similarities to NMD-deficient strains. Our data suggest that eIF5A mediates important cellular processes like cell viability and senescence through its effects on the stability of certain mRNAs.

  18. SCN5A variant that blocks fibroblast growth factor homologous factor regulation causes human arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Hassan; Kline, Crystal F.; Sturm, Amy C.; Murphy, Nathaniel; Adelman, Sara; Wang, Chaojian; Yan, Haidun; Johnson, Benjamin L.; Csepe, Thomas A.; Kilic, Ahmet; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Janssen, Paul M. L.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Weiss, Raul; Salazar, Christina; Hund, Thomas J.; Pitt, Geoffrey S.; Mohler, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Nav channels are essential for metazoan membrane depolarization, and Nav channel dysfunction is directly linked with epilepsy, ataxia, pain, arrhythmia, myotonia, and irritable bowel syndrome. Human Nav channelopathies are primarily caused by variants that directly affect Nav channel permeability or gating. However, a new class of human Nav channelopathies has emerged based on channel variants that alter regulation by intracellular signaling or cytoskeletal proteins. Fibroblast growth factor homologous factors (FHFs) are a family of intracellular signaling proteins linked with Nav channel regulation in neurons and myocytes. However, to date, there is surprisingly little evidence linking Nav channel gene variants with FHFs and human disease. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that mutations in SCN5A (encodes primary cardiac Nav channel Nav1.5) that alter FHF binding result in human cardiovascular disease. We describe a five*generation kindred with a history of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, and sudden cardiac death. Affected family members harbor a novel SCN5A variant resulting in p.H1849R. p.H1849R is localized in the central binding core on Nav1.5 for FHFs. Consistent with these data, Nav1.5 p.H1849R affected interaction with FHFs. Further, electrophysiological analysis identified Nav1.5 p.H1849R as a gain-of-function for INa by altering steady-state inactivation and slowing the rate of Nav1.5 inactivation. In line with these data and consistent with human cardiac phenotypes, myocytes expressing Nav1.5 p.H1849R displayed prolonged action potential duration and arrhythmogenic afterdepolarizations. Together, these findings identify a previously unexplored mechanism for human Nav channelopathy based on altered Nav1.5 association with FHF proteins. PMID:26392562

  19. Genome-wide RNAi screens in human brain tumor isolates reveal a novel viability requirement for PHF5A

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Christopher G.; Bradley, Robert K.; Ding, Yu; Toledo, Chad M.; Herman, Jacob; Skutt-Kakaria, Kyobi; Girard, Emily J.; Davison, Jerry; Berndt, Jason; Corrin, Philip; Hardcastle, Justin; Basom, Ryan; Delrow, Jeffery J.; Webb, Thomas; Pollard, Steven M.; Lee, Jeongwu; Olson, James M.; Paddison, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    To identify key regulators of human brain tumor maintenance and initiation, we performed multiple genome-wide RNAi screens in patient-derived glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cells (GSCs). These screens identified the plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger domain protein PHF5A as differentially required for GSC expansion, as compared with untransformed neural stem cells (NSCs) and fibroblasts. Given PHF5A's known involvement in facilitating interactions between the U2 snRNP complex and ATP-dependent helicases, we examined cancer-specific roles in RNA splicing. We found that in GSCs, but not untransformed controls, PHF5A facilitates recognition of exons with unusual C-rich 3′ splice sites in thousands of essential genes. PHF5A knockdown in GSCs, but not untransformed NSCs, astrocytes, or fibroblasts, inhibited splicing of these genes, leading to cell cycle arrest and loss of viability. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition of U2 snRNP activity phenocopied PHF5A knockdown in GSCs and also in NSCs or fibroblasts overexpressing MYC. Furthermore, PHF5A inhibition compromised GSC tumor formation in vivo and inhibited growth of established GBM patient-derived xenograft tumors. Our results demonstrate a novel viability requirement for PHF5A to maintain proper exon recognition in brain tumor-initiating cells and may provide new inroads for novel anti-GBM therapeutic strategies. PMID:23651857

  20. Genome-wide RNAi screens in human brain tumor isolates reveal a novel viability requirement for PHF5A.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Christopher G; Bradley, Robert K; Ding, Yu; Toledo, Chad M; Herman, Jacob; Skutt-Kakaria, Kyobi; Girard, Emily J; Davison, Jerry; Berndt, Jason; Corrin, Philip; Hardcastle, Justin; Basom, Ryan; Delrow, Jeffery J; Webb, Thomas; Pollard, Steven M; Lee, Jeongwu; Olson, James M; Paddison, Patrick J

    2013-05-01

    To identify key regulators of human brain tumor maintenance and initiation, we performed multiple genome-wide RNAi screens in patient-derived glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cells (GSCs). These screens identified the plant homeodomain (PHD)-finger domain protein PHF5A as differentially required for GSC expansion, as compared with untransformed neural stem cells (NSCs) and fibroblasts. Given PHF5A's known involvement in facilitating interactions between the U2 snRNP complex and ATP-dependent helicases, we examined cancer-specific roles in RNA splicing. We found that in GSCs, but not untransformed controls, PHF5A facilitates recognition of exons with unusual C-rich 3' splice sites in thousands of essential genes. PHF5A knockdown in GSCs, but not untransformed NSCs, astrocytes, or fibroblasts, inhibited splicing of these genes, leading to cell cycle arrest and loss of viability. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition of U2 snRNP activity phenocopied PHF5A knockdown in GSCs and also in NSCs or fibroblasts overexpressing MYC. Furthermore, PHF5A inhibition compromised GSC tumor formation in vivo and inhibited growth of established GBM patient-derived xenograft tumors. Our results demonstrate a novel viability requirement for PHF5A to maintain proper exon recognition in brain tumor-initiating cells and may provide new inroads for novel anti-GBM therapeutic strategies. PMID:23651857

  1. Abrogation of immune complex glomerulonephritis by native carboxypeptidase and pharmacological antagonism of the C5a receptor

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jessy J.; Chaves, Lee D.; Chang, Anthony; Dighe, Shruti; Jacob, Alexander; Quigg, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Activation of complement generates C5a which leads to signaling through C5aR1. This is tightly controlled, including by the plasma proteins factor H (FH) and carboxypeptidase N. Here we studied a chronic serum sickness (CSS) model of glomerulonephritis (GN) in which there is an active humoral immune response, formation of glomerular immune complexes (ICs), and resulting glomerular inflammation. The antibody response, glomerular IC deposition, the degree of GN, and consequent renal functional insufficiency in CSS were all worse in FH−/− mice compared to wild-type FH+/+ animals. This was ameliorated in the former by giving a C5aR1 antagonist for the final 3 weeks of the 5-week protocol. In contrast, blocking CP-mediated inactivation of C5a increased these disease measures. Thus, complement regulation by both plasma FH and CP to limit the quantity of active C5a is important in conditions where the humoral immune response is directed to a continuously present foreign antigen. Signaling through C5aR1 enhances the humoral immune response as well as the inflammatory response to ICs that have formed in glomeruli. Both effects are relevant even after disease has begun. Thus, pharmacological targeting of C5a in IC-mediated GN has potential clinical relevance. PMID:26166765

  2. Assaying Wnt5A-mediated invasion in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Michael P; French, Amanda D; Leotlela, Poloko D; Weeraratna, Ashani T

    2008-01-01

    Wnt5A has been implicated in melanoma metastasis, and the progression of other cancers including pancreatic, gastric, prostate, and lung cancers. Assays to test motility and invasion include both in vivo assays and in vitro assays. The in vivo assays include the use of tail vein or footpad injections of metastatic cells, and are often laborious and expensive. In vitro invasion assays provide quick readouts that can help to establish conditions that either activate or inhibit melanoma cell motility, and to assess whether the conditions in question are worth translating into an in vivo model. Here we describe two standard methods for assaying motility and invasion in vitro including wound healing assays and Matrigel invasion assays (Boyden chamber assays). In addition, we and several other laboratories have previously shown that melanoma cells require matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 for their invasion, and have recently shown that Wnt5A treatment can increase the levels of this enzyme in melanoma cells, as demonstrated by gelatin zymography. The use of these techniques can help to assess the migratory capacity of melanoma cells in response to Wnt treatment.

  3. Full activation of RNaseL in animal cells requires binding of 2-5A within ankyrin repeats 6 to 9 of this interferon-inducible enzyme.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Guerra, M; Rivas, C; Esteban, M

    1999-02-01

    To define protein domains important for activation of the interferon (IFN)-induced enzyme 2-5A-dependent RNaseL, we have generated vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants able to express in cultured cells truncated forms of this protein and compared their biologic activities with those producing the wild-type enzyme, with and without coexpression of 2-5A synthetase. Our results show that full activation of RNaseL requires binding of 2-5A oligonucleotides within amino acid positions 212-339, corresponding to ankyrin repeats 6 to 9. The protein kinase and ribonuclease domains of RNaseL, amino acids 340-741, are sufficient for a constitutively active enzyme that is unresponsive to excess 2-5A. These results demonstrate in vivo the importance of the ankyrin domains in the biologic function of RNaseL. We suggest that ankyrin repeats act as key modulators of RNaseL activity.

  4. Identification of two novel KIF5A mutations in hereditary spastic paraplegia associated with mild peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    López, Eva; Casasnovas, Carlos; Giménez, Javier; Santamaría, Raúl; Terrazas, Jesús M; Volpini, Víctor

    2015-11-15

    Spastic paraplegia type 10 (SPG10) is a rare form of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) due to mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding the neuronal kinesin heavy-chain involved in axonal transport. KIF5A mutations have been associated with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from pure HSP to isolated peripheral nerve involvement or complicated HSP phenotypes. Most KIF5A mutations are clustered in the motor domain of the protein that is necessary for microtubule interaction. Here we describe two Spanish families with an adult onset complicated AD-HSP in which neurological studies revealed a mild sensory neuropathy. Intention tremor was also present in both families. Molecular genetic analysis identified two novel mutations c.773 C>T and c.833 C>T in the KIF5A gene resulting in the P258L and P278L substitutions respectively. Both were located in the highly conserved kinesin motor domain of the protein which has previously been identified as a hot spot for KIF5A mutations. This study adds to the evidence associating the known occurrence of mild peripheral neuropathy in the adult onset SPG10 type of AD-HSP. PMID:26403765

  5. Identification of two novel KIF5A mutations in hereditary spastic paraplegia associated with mild peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    López, Eva; Casasnovas, Carlos; Giménez, Javier; Santamaría, Raúl; Terrazas, Jesús M; Volpini, Víctor

    2015-11-15

    Spastic paraplegia type 10 (SPG10) is a rare form of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) due to mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding the neuronal kinesin heavy-chain involved in axonal transport. KIF5A mutations have been associated with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from pure HSP to isolated peripheral nerve involvement or complicated HSP phenotypes. Most KIF5A mutations are clustered in the motor domain of the protein that is necessary for microtubule interaction. Here we describe two Spanish families with an adult onset complicated AD-HSP in which neurological studies revealed a mild sensory neuropathy. Intention tremor was also present in both families. Molecular genetic analysis identified two novel mutations c.773 C>T and c.833 C>T in the KIF5A gene resulting in the P258L and P278L substitutions respectively. Both were located in the highly conserved kinesin motor domain of the protein which has previously been identified as a hot spot for KIF5A mutations. This study adds to the evidence associating the known occurrence of mild peripheral neuropathy in the adult onset SPG10 type of AD-HSP.

  6. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  7. Protein Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard-Blum, S.

    Proteins are key actors in the life of the cell, involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Since variations in the expression of messenger RNA are not systematically correlated with variations in the protein levels, the latter better reflect the way a cell functions. Protein microarrays thus supply complementary information to DNA chips. They are used in particular to analyse protein expression profiles, to detect proteins within complex biological media, and to study protein-protein interactions, which give information about the functions of those proteins [3-9]. They have the same advantages as DNA microarrays for high-throughput analysis, miniaturisation, and the possibility of automation. Section 18.1 gives a brief overview of proteins. Following this, Sect. 18.2 describes how protein microarrays can be made on flat supports, explaining how proteins can be produced and immobilised on a solid support, and discussing the different kinds of substrate and detection method. Section 18.3 discusses the particular format of protein microarrays in suspension. The diversity of protein microarrays and their applications are then reported in Sect. 18.4, with applications to therapeutics (protein-drug interactions) and diagnostics. The prospects for future developments of protein microarrays are then outlined in the conclusion. The bibliography provides an extensive list of reviews and detailed references for those readers who wish to go further in this area. Indeed, the aim of the present chapter is not to give an exhaustive or detailed analysis of the state of the art, but rather to provide the reader with the basic elements needed to understand how proteins are designed and used.

  8. Dietary Proteins

    MedlinePlus

    ... meat, dairy products, nuts, and certain grains and beans. Proteins from meat and other animal products are complete proteins. This means they supply all of the amino acids the body can't make on its own. Most plant proteins are incomplete. You should eat different types ...

  9. Protein Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  10. Is HDF5 a Good Format to Replace UVFITS?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Barsdell, B. R.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-09-01

    The FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) data format was developed in the late 1970s for storage and exchange of astronomy-related image data. Since then, it has become a standard file format not only for images, but also for radio interferometer data (e.g. UVFITS, FITS-IDI). But is FITS the right format for next-generation telescopes to adopt? The newer Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) file format offers considerable advantages over FITS, but has yet to gain widespread adoption within the radio astronomy. One of the major holdbacks is that HDF5 is not well supported by data reduction software packages. Here, we present a comparison of FITS, HDF5, and the MeasurementSet (MS) format for storage of interferometric data. In addition, we present a tool for converting between formats. We show that the underlying data model of FITS can be ported to HDF5, a first step toward achieving wider HDF5 support.

  11. Evaluation of Recharge Potential at Crater U5a (WISHBONE)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard H. French; Samuel L. Hokett

    1998-11-01

    Radionuclides are present both below and above the water table at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), as the result of underground nuclear testing. Mobilization and transport of radionuclides from the vadose zone is a complex process that is influenced by the solubility and sorption characteristics of the individual radionuclides, as well as the soil water flux. On the NTS, subsidence craters resulting from testing underground nuclear weapons are numerous, and many intercept surface water flows. Because craters collect surface water above the sub-surface point of device detonation, these craters may provide a mechanism for surface water to recharge the groundwater aquifer system underlying the NTS. Given this situation, there is a potential for the captured water to introduce contaminants into the groundwater system. Crater U5a (WISHBONE), located in Frenchman Flat, was selected for study because of its potentially large drainage area, and significant erosional features, which suggested that it has captured more runoff than other craters in the Frenchman Flat area. Recharge conditions were studied in subsidence crater U5a by first drilling boreholes and analyzing the collected soil cores to determine the soil properties and moisture conditions. This information, coupled with a 32-year precipitation record, was used to conduct surface and vaodse zone modeling. Surface water modeling predicted that approximately 13 ponding events had occurred during the life of the crater. Vadose zone modeling indicated that since the crater's formation approximately 5,900 m3 of water were captured by the crater. Of this total, approximately 5,200 m3 of potential recahrge may have occurred, and the best estimates of annual average potential recharge rates lie between 36 and 188 cm of water per year. The term potential is used here to indicate that the water is not technically recharged because it has not yet reached the water table.

  12. Protein expression strategies for identification of novel target proteins.

    PubMed

    Schuster, M; Wasserbauer, E; Einhauer, A; Ortner, C; Jungbauer, A; Hammerschmid, F; Werner, G

    2000-04-01

    Identification of new target proteins is a novel paradigm in drug discovery. A major bottleneck of this strategy is the rapid and simultaneous expression of proteins from differential gene expression to identify eligible candidates. By searching for a generic system enabling high throughput expression analysis and purification of unknown cDNAs, we evaluated the YEpFLAG-1 yeast expression system. We have selected cDNAs encoding model proteins (eukaryotic initiation factor-5A [eIF-5A] and Homo sapiens differentiation-dependent protein-A4) and cDNA encoding an unknown protein (UP-1) for overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using fusions with a peptide that changes its conformation in the presence of Ca2+ ions, the FLAG tag (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). The cDNAs encoding unknown proteins originating from a directionally cloned cDNA library were expressed in all three possible reading frames. The expressed proteins were detected by an antibody directed against the FLAG tag and/or by antibodies against the model proteins. The alpha-leader sequence, encoding a yeast mating pheromone, upstream of the gene fusion site facilitates secretion into the culture supernatant. EIF-5A could be highly overexpressed and was secreted into the culture supernatant. In contrast, the Homo sapiens differentiation-dependent protein-A4 as well as the protein UP-1, whose cDNA did not match to any known gene, could not be detected in the culture supernatant. The expression product of the correct frame remained in the cells, whereas the FLAG-tagged proteins secreted into the supernatant were short, out-of-frame products. The presence of transmembrane domains or patches of hydrophobic amino acids may preclude secretion of these proteins into the culture supernatant. Subsequently, isolation and purification of the various proteins was accomplished by affinity chromatography or affinity extraction using magnetizable beads coated with the anti-FLAG monoclonal antibody. The purity of

  13. Wnt5a Evokes Cortical Axon Outgrowth and Repulsive Guidance by Tau Mediated Reorganization of Dynamic Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Fothergill, Thomas; Hutchins, B Ian; Dent, Erik W; Kali, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Wnt5a guides cortical axons in vivo by repulsion and in vitro evokes cortical axon outgrowth and repulsion by calcium signaling pathways. Here we examined the role of microtubule (MT) reorganization and dynamics in mediating effects of Wnt5a. Inhibiting MT dynamics with nocodazole and taxol abolished Wnt5a evoked axon outgrowth and repulsion of cultured hamster cortical neurons. EGFP-EB3 labeled dynamic MTs visualized in live cell imaging revealed that growth cone MTs align with the nascent axon. Wnt5a increased axon outgrowth by reorganization of dynamic MTs from a splayed to a bundled array oriented in the direction of axon extension, and Wnt5a gradients induced asymmetric redistribution of dynamic MTs toward the far side of the growth cone. Wnt5a gradients also evoked calcium transients that were highest on the far side of the growth cone. Calcium signaling and the reorganization of dynamic MTs could be linked by tau, a MT associated protein that stabilizes MTs. Tau is phosphorylated at the Ser 262 MT binding site by CaMKII, and is required for Wnt5a induced axon outgrowth and repulsive turning. Phosphorylation of tau at Ser262 is known to detach tau from MTs to increase their dynamics. Using transfection with tau constructs mutated at Ser262, we found that this site is required for the growth and guidance effects of Wnt5a by mediating reorganization of dynamic MTs in cortical growth cones. Moreover, CaMKII inhibition also prevents MT reorganization required for Wnt5a induced axon outgrowth, thus linking Wnt/calcium signaling to tau mediated MT reorganization during growth cone behaviors. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Develop Neurobiol 74: 797–817, 2014 PMID:23818454

  14. On Hepatitis C Virus Evolution: The Interaction between Virus and Host towards Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bittar, Cíntia; Jardim, Ana Carolina Gomes; Yamasaki, Lilian Hiromi Tomonari; Carareto, Claudia Márcia Aparecida; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Lemey, Philippe; de Carvalho-Mello, Isabel Maria Vicente Guedes; Rahal, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C is a disease spread throughout the world. Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the etiological agent of this disease, is a single-stranded positive RNA virus. Its genome encodes a single precursor protein that yields ten proteins after processing. NS5A, one of the non-structural viral proteins, is most associated with interferon-based therapy response, the approved treatment for hepatitis C in Brazil. HCV has a high mutation rate and therefore high variability, which may be important for evading the immune system and response to therapy. The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution of NS5A quasispecies before, during, and after treatment in patients infected with HCV genotype 3a who presented different therapy responses. Methods Viral RNA was extracted, cDNA was synthesized, the NS5A region was amplified and cloned, and 15 clones from each time-point were sequenced. The sequences were analyzed for evolutionary history, genetic diversity and selection. Results This analysis shows that the viral population that persists after treatment for most non-responder patients is present in before-treatment samples, suggesting it is adapted to evade treatment. In contrast, the population found in before treatment samples from most end-of-treatment responder patients either are selected out or appears in low frequency after relapse, therefore changing the population structure. The exceptions illustrate the uniqueness of the evolutionary process, and therefore the treatment resistance process, in each patient. Conclusion Although evolutionary behavior throughout treatment showed that each patient presented different population dynamics unrelated to therapy outcome, it seems that the viral population from non-responders that resists the treatment already had strains that could evade therapy before it started. PMID:23638063

  15. Editing CCR5: a novel approach to HIV gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Cornu, Tatjana I; Mussolino, Claudio; Bloom, Kristie; Cathomen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a life-threatening disorder caused by infection of individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Entry of HIV-1 into target cells depends on the presence of two surface proteins on the cell membrane: CD4, which serves as the main receptor, and either CCR5 or CXCR4 as a co-receptor. A limited number of people harbor a genomic 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5∆32), leading to expression of a truncated gene product that provides resistance to HIV-1 infection in individuals homozygous for this mutation. Moreover, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation with CCR5∆32 donor cells seems to confer HIV-1 resistance to the recipient as well. However, since Δ32 donors are scarce and allogeneic HSC transplantation is not exempt from risks, the development of gene editing tools to knockout CCR5 in the genome of autologous cells is highly warranted. Targeted gene editing can be accomplished with designer nucleases, which essentially are engineered restriction enzymes that can be designed to cleave DNA at specific sites. During repair of these breaks, the cellular repair pathway often introduces small mutations at the break site, which makes it possible to disrupt the ability of the targeted locus to express a functional protein, in this case CCR5. Here, we review the current promise and limitations of CCR5 gene editing with engineered nucleases, including factors affecting the efficiency of gene disruption and potential off-target effects. PMID:25757618

  16. Silencing of C5a receptor gene with siRNA for protection from Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-ming; Zhu, Shi-ming; Qin, Xiang-jing; Cheng, Zhi-de; Liu, Meng-yuan; Zhang, Hai-mou; Liu, Dong-xu

    2010-03-01

    Endothelial barrier dysfunction leading to increased permeability and vascular leakage is an underlying cause of several pathological conditions. Whereas these changes have been shown to be associated with activation of the complement system, leading to the release of C5a and interaction of C5a-C5a receptor (C5aR), the role of C5aR in endothelial cells remain(s) ill-defined. Here, we report an essential role of C5aR in endothelial cell injury and vascular permeability through silencing of the C5aR gene using siRNA. In the cultured mouse dermal microvascular endothelial cells (MEMECs) monolayer transfected with C5aR-siRNA, endotoxin-induced cell injury by evaluated as transendothelial flux, cell detachment, and cytoskeletal disorganization was inhibited. Upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was also suppressed. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of siRNA-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-kappaB activation and nuclear localization of both p50 and p65. The effect was associated with inhibition in activation of protein kinase Cdelta(PKC-delta) and induction of PKC-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases-1 (MKP-1) leading to the increased activity of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. In the model of mice administrated with C5aR-siRNA, endotoxin-induced plasma leakage was inhibited in local abdominal skin. Systemic administration of endotoxin to mice resulted in increased microvascular permeability in multiple organs was reduced. These studies demonstrate that the C5aR responsible for vascular endothelial cell injury and plasma permeability is an important factor, and that blockade of C5aR may be useful therapeutic targets for the prevention of vascular permeability in pathogenic condition.

  17. Determination of 2-5A synthetase and 2-5A phosphodiesterase in neuroblastoma cells by analytical capillary isotachophoresis: effects of cytokines and comparison with radioenzymatic methods.

    PubMed

    Bruchelt, G; Büdenbender, M; Schmidt, K H; Birk, A; Treuner, J; Niethammer, D

    1994-01-01

    2-5A Synthetase and 2-5A phosphodiesterase were determined by analytical capillary isotachophoresis in comparison to radioenzymatic methods. By means of isotachophoretic analysis, a frequently used radioenzymatic 2-5A synthetase assay was optimized and the results of both assays were compared. Using the isotachophoretic assay the influence of interferon-related cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-2) on 2-5A synthetase induction in neuroblastoma cells was estimated. In contrast to mononuclear blood cells, the tumor necrosis factor induced 2-5A synthetase in these cells. 2-5A Phosphodiesterase was determined using an isotachophoretic assay and a radioenzymatic method. Degradation of A2'p5'A2'p5'A (trimeric form of 2-5A core) was measured by isotachophoresis whereas degradation of a mixture of phosphorus-32 labeled 2-5A cores was registered by radioenzymatic assay. Activity of 2-5A phosphodiesterase was only insignificantly enhanced by interferon in mononuclear blood and neuroblastoma cells. In contrast to the radioenzymatic assays, an accurate determination of 2-5A synthetase as well as of 2-5A phosphodiesterase is possible using the isotachophoretic method because the reactions are followed by measuring the substrates ATP and A2'p5'A2'p5'A, respectively.

  18. Study on the STAT5A/AvaI polymorphism in Jersey cows and association with milk production traits.

    PubMed

    Dario, Cataldo; Selvaggi, Maria

    2011-11-01

    In mammals, the STAT proteins (signal transducers and activators of transcription) are a group of cytoplasmic transcription factors that mediate the actions of many peptide hormones and cytokines within target cells. In this study, the STAT5A/AvaI polymorphism was investigated with the PCR-RFLP technique in a sample of 191 Jersey cows reared in southern Italy. This polymorphism is localized in the coding region of the bovine STAT5A gene. It is a substitution C → T at position 6853 within the exon 7. All the possible genotypes for the C/T polymorphism were identified. The overall frequencies of alleles C and T were 0.75 and 0.25 respectively. In order to study the relationship between this SNP and milk production traits, data for 305-day milk production were used. Significant differences between CC and CT genotypes were found in milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY), solids not fat (SNF) yield, total solids (TS) yield (P < 0.01) and protein yield (PY) (P < 0.05). In particular the CC cows produced more milk than CT ones (6196.07 vs. 5744.66 kg) without differences in protein and fat content. As a consequence, CC cows yielded more fat, protein, solids not fat and total solids than CT. As far as concerns lactose and ash contents and the fat/protein ratio, no significant difference was found between the two genotypes. Even if further studies should be carry out to assess the role of this SNP on production traits, it is possible to conclude that STAT5A/AvaI polymorphism seems to be a promising indirect marker to improve milk production traits in cattle.

  19. ATG5: a distinct role in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Simon, Hans-Uwe; Friis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Both apoptotic and autophagic pathways are activated in cells during anticancer treatment using DNA-damaging agents. Thus, the outcome is balanced between apoptotic cell death and enhanced autophagy, with the possibility of prolonged cell survival. It seems intuitively obvious that this survival mechanism might interfere with the desired tumor cell killing. We addressed this question by tipping the balance in favor of autophagy, using etoposide or cisplatin at low, sublethal doses. Over 4 days, only a little apoptosis was observed, but both drugs sharply increased autophagic flux. Surprisingly, cells underwent a cell cycle arrest at G 2/M, followed later by mitotic catastrophe with formation of multipolar spindles, missegregated chromosomes, or enlarged, irregular, sometimes multiple nuclei. Why? The answer is that even a low level of DNA damage not only upregulates autophagy, but also provokes the recruitment of an autophagy-related protein, ATG5, to the nucleus, where it binds BIRC5/survivin, thereby interfering with correct assembly of the chromosome passenger complex needed for cytokinesis.

  20. Wnt-5a prevents Aβ-induced deficits in long-term potentiation and spatial memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Li; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shao-Feng; Lei, Liu; Xie, Hong-Yan; Deng, Fang; Feng, Jia-Chun; Qi, Jin-Shun

    2015-10-01

    Although the neurotoxicity of amyloid β (Aβ) protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported widely, the exact molecular mechanism underlying the Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction and memory impairment remains largely unclear. Growing evidence indicates that wingless-type (Wnt) signaling plays an important role in neuronal development, synapse formation and synaptic plasticity. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective action of Wnt-5a against the synaptic damage and memory deficit induced by Aβ25-35 by using in vivo electrophysiological recording and Morris water maze (MWM) test. We found that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ25-35 alone did not affect the baseline field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) and the paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats, but significantly suppressed high frequency stimulation (HFS) induced long-term potentiation (LTP); pretreatment with Wnt-5a prevented the Aβ25-35-induced suppression of hippocampal LTP in a dose-dependent manner; soluble Frizzled-related protein (sFRP), a specific Wnt antagonist, effectively attenuated the protective effects of Wnt-5a. In MWM test, Aβ25-35 alone significantly disrupted spatial learning and memory ability of rats, while pretreatment with Wnt-5a effectively prevented the impairments induced by Aβ25-35. These results in the present study demonstrated for the first time the neuroprotective effects of Wnt-5a against Aβ-induced in vivo synaptic plasticity impairment and memory disorder, suggesting that Wnt signaling pathway is one of the important targets of Aβ neurotoxicity and Wnt-5a might be used as one of the putative candidates for the therapeutic intervention of AD.

  1. Unique Function of Kinesin Kif5A in Localization of Mitochondria in Axons

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Philip D.; Shen, Kimberle; Sapio, Matthew R.; Glenn, Thomas D.; Talbot, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in Kinesin proteins (Kifs) are linked to various neurological diseases, but the specific and redundant functions of the vertebrate Kifs are incompletely understood. For example, Kif5A, but not other Kinesin-1 heavy-chain family members, is implicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP), but the mechanism of its involvement in the progressive axonal degeneration characteristic of these diseases is not well understood. We report that zebrafish kif5Aa mutants exhibit hyperexcitability, peripheral polyneuropathy, and axonal degeneration reminiscent of CMT and HSP. Strikingly, although kif5 genes are thought to act largely redundantly in other contexts, and zebrafish peripheral neurons express five kif5 genes, kif5Aa mutant peripheral sensory axons lack mitochondria and degenerate. We show that this Kif5Aa-specific function is cell autonomous and is mediated by its C-terminal tail, as only Kif5Aa and chimeric motors containing the Kif5Aa C-tail can rescue deficits. Finally, concurrent loss of the kinesin-3, kif1b, or its adaptor kbp, exacerbates axonal degeneration via a nonmitochondrial cargo common to Kif5Aa. Our results shed light on Kinesin complexity and reveal determinants of specific Kif5A functions in mitochondrial transport, adaptor binding, and axonal maintenance. PMID:25355224

  2. Transport proteins.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jack D

    2013-04-16

    This Teaching Resource provides and describes two animated lessons that illustrate general properties of transport proteins. The lesson called "transport protein classes" depicts major classes and subclasses of transport proteins. The "transporters, mechanism of action" lesson explains how transporters and P class ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) pumps function. These animations serve as valuable resources for any collegiate-level course that describes these important factors. Courses that might use them include introductory biology, biochemistry, cell biology, physiology, and biophysics.

  3. Transcriptional profiling reveals that C5a alters microRNA in brain endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Eadon, Michael T; Jacob, Alexander; Cunningham, Patrick N; Quigg, Richard J; Garcia, Joe G N; Alexander, Jessy J

    2014-01-01

    Blood–brain barrier (BBB) disturbance is a crucial occurrence in many neurological diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our previous studies showed that experimental lupus serum altered the integrity of the mouse brain endothelial layer, an important constituent of the BBB. Complement activation occurs in lupus with increased circulating complement components. Using a genomics approach, we identified the microRNA (miRNA) altered in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) by lupus serum and the complement protein, C5a. Of the 318 miRNA evaluated, 23 miRNAs were altered by lupus serum and 32 were altered by C5a alone compared with controls. Seven miRNAs (P < 0·05) were differentially expressed by both treatments: mmu-miR-133a*, mmu-miR-193*, mmu-miR-26b, mmu-miR-28*, mmu-miR-320a, mmu-miR-423-3p and mmu-miR-509-5p. The microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. In line with the in vitro results, expression of miR-26b and miR-28* were also significantly up-regulated in lupus mouse brain which was reduced by C5a receptor inhibition. Target prediction analysis revealed miR gene targets encoding components involved in inflammation, matrix arrangement, and apoptosis, pathways known to play important roles in central nervous system lupus. Our findings suggest that the miRNAs reported in this study may represent novel therapeutic targets in central nervous system lupus and other similar neuroinflammatory settings. PMID:24801999

  4. Transcriptional profiling reveals that C5a alters microRNA in brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Eadon, Michael T; Jacob, Alexander; Cunningham, Patrick N; Quigg, Richard J; Garcia, Joe G N; Alexander, Jessy J

    2014-11-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disturbance is a crucial occurrence in many neurological diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our previous studies showed that experimental lupus serum altered the integrity of the mouse brain endothelial layer, an important constituent of the BBB. Complement activation occurs in lupus with increased circulating complement components. Using a genomics approach, we identified the microRNA (miRNA) altered in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) by lupus serum and the complement protein, C5a. Of the 318 miRNA evaluated, 23 miRNAs were altered by lupus serum and 32 were altered by C5a alone compared with controls. Seven miRNAs (P < 0 · 05) were differentially expressed by both treatments: mmu-miR-133a*, mmu-miR-193*, mmu-miR-26b, mmu-miR-28*, mmu-miR-320a, mmu-miR-423-3p and mmu-miR-509-5p. The microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. In line with the in vitro results, expression of miR-26b and miR-28* were also significantly up-regulated in lupus mouse brain which was reduced by C5a receptor inhibition. Target prediction analysis revealed miR gene targets encoding components involved in inflammation, matrix arrangement, and apoptosis, pathways known to play important roles in central nervous system lupus. Our findings suggest that the miRNAs reported in this study may represent novel therapeutic targets in central nervous system lupus and other similar neuroinflammatory settings.

  5. First Survey of the Wheat Chromosome 5A Composition through a Next Generation Sequencing Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vitulo, Nicola; Albiero, Alessandro; Forcato, Claudio; Campagna, Davide; Dal Pero, Francesca; Bagnaresi, Paolo; Colaiacovo, Moreno; Faccioli, Primetta; Lamontanara, Antonella; Šimková, Hana; Kubaláková, Marie; Perrotta, Gaetano; Facella, Paolo; Lopez, Loredana; Pietrella, Marco; Gianese, Giulio; Doležel, Jaroslav; Giuliano, Giovanni; Cattivelli, Luigi; Valle, Giorgio; Stanca, A. Michele

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is one of the world's most important crops and is characterized by a large polyploid genome. One way to reduce genome complexity is to isolate single chromosomes using flow cytometry. Low coverage DNA sequencing can provide a snapshot of individual chromosomes, allowing a fast characterization of their main features and comparison with other genomes. We used massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to obtain a 2x coverage of wheat chromosome 5A. The resulting sequence assembly was used to identify TEs, genes and miRNAs, as well as to infer a virtual gene order based on the synteny with other grass genomes. Repetitive elements account for more than 75% of the genome. Gene content was estimated considering non-redundant reads showing at least one match to ESTs or proteins. The results indicate that the coding fraction represents 1.08% and 1.3% of the short and long arm respectively, projecting the number of genes of the whole chromosome to approximately 5,000. 195 candidate miRNA precursors belonging to 16 miRNA families were identified. The 5A genes were used to search for syntenic relationships between grass genomes. The short arm is closely related to Brachypodium chromosome 4, sorghum chromosome 8 and rice chromosome 12; the long arm to regions of Brachypodium chromosomes 4 and 1, sorghum chromosomes 1 and 2 and rice chromosomes 9 and 3. From these similarities it was possible to infer the virtual gene order of 392 (5AS) and 1,480 (5AL) genes of chromosome 5A, which was compared to, and found to be largely congruent with the available physical map of this chromosome. PMID:22028874

  6. Transcriptional profiling reveals that C5a alters microRNA in brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Eadon, Michael T; Jacob, Alexander; Cunningham, Patrick N; Quigg, Richard J; Garcia, Joe G N; Alexander, Jessy J

    2014-11-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disturbance is a crucial occurrence in many neurological diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our previous studies showed that experimental lupus serum altered the integrity of the mouse brain endothelial layer, an important constituent of the BBB. Complement activation occurs in lupus with increased circulating complement components. Using a genomics approach, we identified the microRNA (miRNA) altered in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) by lupus serum and the complement protein, C5a. Of the 318 miRNA evaluated, 23 miRNAs were altered by lupus serum and 32 were altered by C5a alone compared with controls. Seven miRNAs (P < 0 · 05) were differentially expressed by both treatments: mmu-miR-133a*, mmu-miR-193*, mmu-miR-26b, mmu-miR-28*, mmu-miR-320a, mmu-miR-423-3p and mmu-miR-509-5p. The microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. In line with the in vitro results, expression of miR-26b and miR-28* were also significantly up-regulated in lupus mouse brain which was reduced by C5a receptor inhibition. Target prediction analysis revealed miR gene targets encoding components involved in inflammation, matrix arrangement, and apoptosis, pathways known to play important roles in central nervous system lupus. Our findings suggest that the miRNAs reported in this study may represent novel therapeutic targets in central nervous system lupus and other similar neuroinflammatory settings. PMID:24801999

  7. Proteins wriggle.

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Michael; Cahill, Sean; Cahill, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    We propose an algorithmic strategy for improving the efficiency of Monte Carlo searches for the low-energy states of proteins. Our strategy is motivated by a model of how proteins alter their shapes. In our model, when proteins fold under physiological conditions, their backbone dihedral angles change synchronously in groups of four or more to avoid steric clashes and respect the kinematic conservation laws. They wriggle; they do not thrash. We describe a simple algorithm that can be used to incorporate wriggling in Monte Carlo simulations of protein folding. We have tested this wriggling algorithm against a code in which the dihedral angles are varied independently (thrashing). Our standard of success is the average root-mean-square distance (rmsd) between the alpha-carbons of the folding protein and those of its native structure. After 100,000 Monte Carlo sweeps, the relative decrease in the mean rmsd, as one switches from thrashing to wriggling, rises from 11% for the protein 3LZM with 164 amino acids (aa) to 40% for the protein 1A1S with 313 aa and 47% for the protein 16PK with 415 aa. These results suggest that wriggling is useful and that its utility increases with the size of the protein. One may implement wriggling on a parallel computer or a computer farm. PMID:11964253

  8. WNT5A expression is regulated by the status of its promoter methylation in leukaemia and can inhibit leukemic cell malignant proliferation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gang; Li, Zhao Quan; Zhao, Chen; Yuan, Yuan; Niu, Chang Chun; Zhao, Chen; Pan, Jing; Si, Wei Ke

    2011-02-01

    Although down-regulation of WNT5A expression has been reported in some types of leukaemias, the level of WNT5A expression has not been assessed in leukaemia complete remission (CR) cases, the relationship among WNT5A expression level, the status of its promoter methylation, and the curative effect of leukaemia has not been reported, and the effect of WNT5A on cell proliferation has not been assessed. In this study, we analyzed WNT5A expression in various kinds of leukaemia cases, leukaemia CR cases, non-malignant hematopoietic (NMH) cases, as well as in leukemic cell lines and CD34+ cells. The methylation status of the WNT5A promoter and the levels of the Wnt5a protein were also studied. We also investigated the effect of Wnt5a on leukemic cell proliferation. WNT5A expression level was higher in NMH but lower in leukaemia cases compared to that in CR-cases (P<0.01), and was expressed at low level in leukemic cell lines K562, U937 and Jurkat. Wnt5a protein was positive in NMH, CR cases and CD34+, but negative in leukaemia cases. WNT5A promoter was methylated in leukaemia cases and all leukemic cell lines, but not in NMH and CR cases. WNT5A expression was up-regulated after exposure to the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Aza) in the K562, U937, Jurkat leukemic cell lines and in 83.3% (10/12) of CR patients after cure, respectively. The increased Wnt5a protein can inhibit K562 malignant proliferation and arrest cell cycle at the G2/M phase after exposure to Aza. These results indicate that WNT5A expression was restored in complete remission cases due to demethylation, and Wnt5a can inhibit leukaemic cell proliferation. We propose that WNT5A can act as a suppressor factor in leukemogenesis and can be used as a potential marker for curative effect assessment in leukaemia.

  9. An eukaryotic translation initiation factor, AteIF5A-2, affects cadmium accumulation and sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Ding, Zhong-Jie; Chen, Lei; Yan, Jin-Ying; Li, Gui-Xin; Zheng, Shao-Jian

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic elements and can be accumulated in plants easily; meanwhile, eIF5A is a highly conserved protein in all eukaryotic organisms. The present work tried to investigate whether eIF5A is involved in Cd accumulation and sensitivity in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) by comparing the wild-type Columbia-0 (Col-0) with a knockdown mutant of AteIF5A-2, fbr12-3 under Cd stress conditions. The results showed that the mutant fbr12-3 accumulated more Cd in roots and shoots and had significantly lower chlorophyll content, shorter root length, and smaller biomass, suggesting that downregulation of AteIF5A-2 makes the mutant more Cd sensitive. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expressions of metal transporters involved in Cd uptake and translocation including IRT1, ZIP1, AtNramp3, and AtHMA4 were significantly increased but the expressions of PCS1 and PCS2 related to Cd detoxification were decreased notably in fbr12-3 compared with Col-0. As a result, an increase in MDA and H2 O2 content but decrease in root trolox, glutathione and proline content under Cd stress was observed, indicating that a severer oxidative stress occurs in the mutant. All these results demonstrated for the first time that AteIF5A influences Cd sensitivity by affecting Cd uptake, accumulation, and detoxification in Arabidopsis.

  10. Histone demethylase KDM5A is regulated by its reader domain through a positive-feedback mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Idelisse Ortiz; Kuchenbecker, Kristopher M.; Nnadi, Chimno I.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Kelly, Mark J.S.; Fujimori, Danica Galonić

    2016-01-01

    The retinoblastoma binding protein KDM5A removes methyl marks from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). Misregulation of KDM5A contributes to the pathogenesis of lung and gastric cancers. In addition to its catalytic jumonji C domain, KDM5A contains three PHD reader domains, commonly recognized as chromatin recruitment modules. It is unknown whether any of these domains in KDM5A have functions beyond recruitment and whether they regulate the catalytic activity of the demethylase. Here using biochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structural studies, we show that the PHD1 preferentially recognizes unmethylated H3K4 histone tail, product of KDM5A-mediated demethylation of tri-methylated H3K4 (H3K4me3). Binding of unmodified H3 peptide to the PHD1 stimulates catalytic domain-mediated removal of methyl marks from H3K4me3 peptide and nucleosome substrates. This positive-feedback mechanism—enabled by the functional coupling between a reader and a catalytic domain in KDM5A—suggests a model for the spread of demethylation on chromatin. PMID:25686748

  11. An eukaryotic translation initiation factor, AteIF5A-2, affects cadmium accumulation and sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Ding, Zhong-Jie; Chen, Lei; Yan, Jin-Ying; Li, Gui-Xin; Zheng, Shao-Jian

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic elements and can be accumulated in plants easily; meanwhile, eIF5A is a highly conserved protein in all eukaryotic organisms. The present work tried to investigate whether eIF5A is involved in Cd accumulation and sensitivity in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) by comparing the wild-type Columbia-0 (Col-0) with a knockdown mutant of AteIF5A-2, fbr12-3 under Cd stress conditions. The results showed that the mutant fbr12-3 accumulated more Cd in roots and shoots and had significantly lower chlorophyll content, shorter root length, and smaller biomass, suggesting that downregulation of AteIF5A-2 makes the mutant more Cd sensitive. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expressions of metal transporters involved in Cd uptake and translocation including IRT1, ZIP1, AtNramp3, and AtHMA4 were significantly increased but the expressions of PCS1 and PCS2 related to Cd detoxification were decreased notably in fbr12-3 compared with Col-0. As a result, an increase in MDA and H2 O2 content but decrease in root trolox, glutathione and proline content under Cd stress was observed, indicating that a severer oxidative stress occurs in the mutant. All these results demonstrated for the first time that AteIF5A influences Cd sensitivity by affecting Cd uptake, accumulation, and detoxification in Arabidopsis. PMID:25559189

  12. HMGN2 inducibly binds a novel transactivation domain in nuclear PRLr to coordinate Stat5a-mediated transcription.

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, Alyson A; Medler, Terry R; Feeney, Yvonne B; Liu, Yi; Tommerdahl, Kalie L; Clevenger, Charles V

    2011-09-01

    The direct actions of transmembrane receptors within the nucleus remain enigmatic. In this report, we demonstrate that the prolactin receptor (PRLr) localizes to the nucleus where it functions as a coactivator through its interactions with the latent transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5a (Stat5a) and the high-mobility group N2 protein (HMGN2). We identify a novel transactivation domain within the PRLr that is activated by ligand-induced phosphorylation, an event coupled to HMGN2 binding. The association of the PRLr with HMGN2 enables Stat5a-responsive promoter binding, thus facilitating transcriptional activation and promoting anchorage-independent growth. We propose that HMGN2 serves as a critical regulatory factor in Stat5a-driven gene expression by facilitating the assembly of PRLr/Stat5a onto chromatin and that these events may serve to promote biological events that contribute to a tumorigenic phenotype. Our data imply that phosphorylation may be the molecular switch that activates a cell surface receptor transactivation domain, enabling it to tether chromatin-modifying factors, such as HMGN2, to target promoter regions in a sequence-specific manner.

  13. Histone demethylase KDM5A is regulated by its reader domain through a positive-feedback mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Idelisse Ortiz; Kuchenbecker, Kristopher M.; Nnadi, Chimno I.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Kelly, Mark J. S.; Fujimori, Danica Galonić

    2015-02-01

    The retinoblastoma binding protein KDM5A removes methyl marks from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). Misregulation of KDM5A contributes to the pathogenesis of lung and gastric cancers. In addition to its catalytic jumonji C domain, KDM5A contains three PHD reader domains, commonly recognized as chromatin recruitment modules. It is unknown whether any of these domains in KDM5A have functions beyond recruitment and whether they regulate the catalytic activity of the demethylase. Here using biochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structural studies, we show that the PHD1 preferentially recognizes unmethylated H3K4 histone tail, product of KDM5A-mediated demethylation of tri-methylated H3K4 (H3K4me3). Binding of unmodified H3 peptide to the PHD1 stimulates catalytic domain-mediated removal of methyl marks from H3K4me3 peptide and nucleosome substrates. This positive-feedback mechanism—enabled by the functional coupling between a reader and a catalytic domain in KDM5A—suggests a model for the spread of demethylation on chromatin.

  14. Inhibition of inflammation and fibrosis by a complement C5a receptor antagonist in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Abishek; Woodruff, Trent M; Wu, Mike C L; Stylianou, Con; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P; Taylor, Stephen M; Brown, Lindsay

    2011-11-01

    The anaphylatoxin C5a generated by activation of the innate immunity complement system is a potent inflammatory peptide mediator through the G-protein-coupled receptor C5aR (CD88) present in immune-inflammatory cells, including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, T cells, and mast cells. Inflammatory cells infiltrate and initiate the development of fibrosis in the chronically hypertensive heart. In this study, we have investigated whether treatment with a selective C5aR antagonist prevents cardiovascular remodeling in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Control and DOCA-salt rats were treated with PMX53 (AcF-[OPdChaWR], 1 mg·kg·d oral gavage) for 32 days; structural and functional changes in cardiovascular system were determined. DOCA-salt hypertension increased leukocyte extravasation into ventricular tissue, increasing collagen deposition and ventricular stiffness; PMX53 treatment attenuated these changes, thereby improving cardiac function. Further, treatment with PMX53 suppressed an increased expression of C5aR in the left ventricle from DOCA-salt rats, consistent with the reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. Vascular endothelial dysfunction in thoracic aortic rings was attenuated by PMX53 treatment, but systolic blood pressure was unchanged in DOCA-salt rats. In the heart, PMX53 treatment attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis, and ventricular stiffness, indicating that C5aR is critically involved in ventricular remodeling by regulating inflammatory responses in the hypertensive heart. PMID:21753735

  15. Generating bifunctional fusion enzymes composed of heat-active endoglucanase (Cel5A) and endoxylanase (XylT).

    PubMed

    Rizk, Mazen; Elleuche, Skander; Antranikian, Garabed

    2015-01-01

    Bifunctional enzyme constructs were generated comprising two genes encoding heat-active endoglucanase (cel5A) and endoxylanase (xylT). The fused proteins Cel5A-XylT and XylT-Cel5A were active on both β-glucan and beechwood xylan. An improvement in endoglucanase and endoxylanase catalytic activities was observed. The specific activity of the fusion towards xylan was significantly raised when compared to XylT. The fusion constructs were active from 40 to 100 °C for endoglucanase and from 40 to 90 °C for endoxylanase, but the temperature optima were lowered from 90 to 80 °C for the endoglucanase and from 80 to 70 °C for the endoxylanase. XylT in the construct XylT-Cel5A was less stable at higher temperatures compared to Cel5A-XylT. Due to the enzymatic performance, these fusion enzymes are attractive candidates for applications in biorefineries based on plant waste.

  16. Splicing misregulation of SCN5A contributes to cardiac-conduction delay and heart arrhythmia in myotonic dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Freyermuth, Fernande; Rau, Frédérique; Kokunai, Yosuke; Linke, Thomas; Sellier, Chantal; Nakamori, Masayuki; Kino, Yoshihiro; Arandel, Ludovic; Jollet, Arnaud; Thibault, Christelle; Philipps, Muriel; Vicaire, Serge; Jost, Bernard; Udd, Bjarne; Day, John W.; Duboc, Denis; Wahbi, Karim; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Mochizuki, Hideki; Deryckere, François; Kimura, Takashi; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Ishiura, Shoichi; Lacroix, Vincent; Campan-Fournier, Amandine; Navratil, Vincent; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Horie, Minoru; Imoto, Keiji; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Swanson, Maurice S.; de Munain, Adolfo Lopez; Inada, Shin; Itoh, Hideki; Nakazawa, Kazuo; Ashihara, Takashi; Wang, Eric; Zimmer, Thomas; Furling, Denis; Takahashi, Masanori P.; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is caused by the expression of mutant RNAs containing expanded CUG repeats that sequester muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins, leading to alternative splicing changes. Cardiac alterations, characterized by conduction delays and arrhythmia, are the second most common cause of death in DM. Using RNA sequencing, here we identify novel splicing alterations in DM heart samples, including a switch from adult exon 6B towards fetal exon 6A in the cardiac sodium channel, SCN5A. We find that MBNL1 regulates alternative splicing of SCN5A mRNA and that the splicing variant of SCN5A produced in DM presents a reduced excitability compared with the control adult isoform. Importantly, reproducing splicing alteration of Scn5a in mice is sufficient to promote heart arrhythmia and cardiac-conduction delay, two predominant features of myotonic dystrophy. In conclusion, misregulation of the alternative splicing of SCN5A may contribute to a subset of the cardiac dysfunctions observed in myotonic dystrophy. PMID:27063795

  17. Properdin provides protection from Citrobacter rodentium-induced intestinal inflammation in a C5a/IL-6-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Jain, Umang; Cao, Qi; Thomas, Nikhil A; Woodruff, Trent M; Schwaeble, Wilhelm J; Stover, Cordula M; Stadnyk, Andrew W

    2015-04-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is an attaching and effacing mouse pathogen that models enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in humans. The complement system is an important innate defense mechanism; however, only scant information is available about the role of complement proteins during enteric infections. In this study, we examined the impact of the lack of properdin, a positive regulator of complement, in C. rodentium-induced colitis. Following infection, properdin knockout (P(KO)) mice had increased diarrhea and exacerbated inflammation combined with defective epithelial cell-derived IL-6 and greater numbers of colonizing bacteria. The defect in the mucosal response was reversed by administering exogenous properdin to P(KO) mice. Then, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, we show that the mechanism behind the exacerbated inflammation of P(KO) mice is due to a failure to increase local C5a levels. We show that C5a directly stimulates IL-6 production from colonic epithelial cells and that inhibiting C5a in infected wild-type mice resulted in defective epithelial IL-6 production and exacerbated inflammation. These outcomes position properdin early in the response to an infectious challenge in the colon, leading to complement activation and C5a, which in turn provides protection through IL-6 expression by the epithelium. Our results unveil a previously unappreciated mechanism of intestinal homeostasis involving complement, C5a, and IL-6 during bacteria-triggered epithelial injury.

  18. Splicing misregulation of SCN5A contributes to cardiac-conduction delay and heart arrhythmia in myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Freyermuth, Fernande; Rau, Frédérique; Kokunai, Yosuke; Linke, Thomas; Sellier, Chantal; Nakamori, Masayuki; Kino, Yoshihiro; Arandel, Ludovic; Jollet, Arnaud; Thibault, Christelle; Philipps, Muriel; Vicaire, Serge; Jost, Bernard; Udd, Bjarne; Day, John W; Duboc, Denis; Wahbi, Karim; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Mochizuki, Hideki; Deryckere, François; Kimura, Takashi; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Ishiura, Shoichi; Lacroix, Vincent; Campan-Fournier, Amandine; Navratil, Vincent; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Horie, Minoru; Imoto, Keiji; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Swanson, Maurice S; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Inada, Shin; Itoh, Hideki; Nakazawa, Kazuo; Ashihara, Takashi; Wang, Eric; Zimmer, Thomas; Furling, Denis; Takahashi, Masanori P; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is caused by the expression of mutant RNAs containing expanded CUG repeats that sequester muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins, leading to alternative splicing changes. Cardiac alterations, characterized by conduction delays and arrhythmia, are the second most common cause of death in DM. Using RNA sequencing, here we identify novel splicing alterations in DM heart samples, including a switch from adult exon 6B towards fetal exon 6A in the cardiac sodium channel, SCN5A. We find that MBNL1 regulates alternative splicing of SCN5A mRNA and that the splicing variant of SCN5A produced in DM presents a reduced excitability compared with the control adult isoform. Importantly, reproducing splicing alteration of Scn5a in mice is sufficient to promote heart arrhythmia and cardiac-conduction delay, two predominant features of myotonic dystrophy. In conclusion, misregulation of the alternative splicing of SCN5A may contribute to a subset of the cardiac dysfunctions observed in myotonic dystrophy. PMID:27063795

  19. MADANALYSIS 5, a user-friendly framework for collider phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, Eric; Fuks, Benjamin; Serret, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    We present MADANALYSIS 5, a new framework for phenomenological investigations at particle colliders. Based on a C++ kernel, this program allows us to efficiently perform, in a straightforward and user-friendly fashion, sophisticated physics analyses of event files such as those generated by a large class of Monte Carlo event generators. MADANALYSIS 5 comes with two modes of running. The first one, easier to handle, uses the strengths of a powerful PYTHON interface in order to implement physics analyses by means of a set of intuitive commands. The second one requires one to implement the analyses in the C++ programming language, directly within the core of the analysis framework. This opens unlimited possibilities concerning the level of complexity which can be reached, being only limited by the programming skills and the originality of the user. Program summaryProgram title: MadAnalysis 5 Catalogue identifier: AENO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Permission to use, copy, modify and distribute this program is granted under the terms of the GNU General Public License. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31087 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 399105 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: PYTHON, C++. Computer: All platforms on which Python version 2.7, Root version 5.27 and the g++ compiler are available. Compatibility with newer versions of these programs is also ensured. However, the Python version must be below version 3.0. Operating system: Unix, Linux and Mac OS operating systems on which the above-mentioned versions of Python and Root, as well as g++, are available. Classification: 11.1. External routines: ROOT (http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Nature of problem: Implementing sophisticated phenomenological analyses in high-energy physics through a

  20. Wnt5a can both activate and repress Wnt/β-catenin signaling during mouse embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    van Amerongen, Renée; Fuerer, Christophe; Mizutani, Makiko; Nusse, Roel

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic development is controlled by a small set of signal transduction pathways, with vastly different phenotypic outcomes depending on the time and place of their recruitment. How the same molecular machinery can elicit such specific and distinct responses, remains one of the outstanding questions in developmental biology. Part of the answer may lie in the high inherent genetic complexity of these signaling cascades, as observed for the Wnt-pathway. The mammalian genome encodes multiple Wnt proteins and receptors, each of which show dynamic and tightly controlled expression patterns in the embryo. Yet how these components interact in the context of the whole organism remains unknown. Here we report the generation of a novel, inducible transgenic mouse model that allows spatiotemporal control over the expression of Wnt5a, a protein implicated in many developmental processes and multiple Wnt-signaling responses. We show that ectopic Wnt5a expression from E10.5 onwards results in a variety of developmental defects, including loss of hair follicles and reduced bone formation in the skull. Moreover, we find that Wnt5a can have dual signaling activities during mouse embryonic development. Specifically, Wnt5a is capable of both inducing and repressing β-catenin/TCF signaling in vivo, depending on the time and site of expression and the receptors expressed by receiving cells. These experiments show for the first time that a single mammalian Wnt protein can have multiple signaling activities in vivo, thereby furthering our understanding of how signaling specificity is achieved in a complex developmental context. PMID:22771246

  1. Two novel mutations in the NR5A1 gene as a cause of disorders of sex development in a Pakistani cohort of 46,XY patients.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Amar, A; Najeeb, M N; Khaliq, S

    2016-06-01

    NR5A1 plays a central role in gonadal development and regulation by transcriptional regulation of key modulators involved in steroidogenesis. Mutations in human NR5A1 are frequently associated with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD). We analysed a Pakistani cohort of patients with 46,XY DSD, presenting with variable degrees of gonadal dysgenesis, for NR5A1 mutations. The study identified three mutations (p.Tyr03X, p.Glu07X and p.Gln299HisfsX386), of which two are novel, in these patients with 46,XY DSD. The mutations, p.Tyr03X and novel p.Glu07X, are located in the coding region of the gene, corresponding to DNA-binding domain of the predicted protein. In silico analysis for the novel homozygous p.Gln299HisfsX386 mutation in ligand-binding domain of NR5A1 revealed subtle changes in overall tertiary conformation which is predicted to affect the normal physiology of this mutant protein. This study reveals two novel mutations with altered NR5A1 protein in twenty patients with 46,XY DSD, highlighting the critical role of NR5A1 protein in gonadal development and differentiation. In conclusion, the current and previous studies suggest that the NR5A1 mutations are present in around 8-15% of patients with 46,XY DSD presenting with gonadal dysgenesis. For the clinical utility of NR5A1 gene mutations, more comprehensive studies with large 46,XY DSD patient series in different populations are suggested.

  2. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in a human in vitro model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Supriya D; Parikh, Neil U; Woodruff, Trent M; Jarvis, James N; Lopez, Molly; Hennon, Teresa; Cunningham, Patrick; Quigg, Richard J; Schwartz, Stanley A; Alexander, Jessy J

    2015-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a crucial role in brain homeostasis, thereby maintaining the brain environment precise for optimal neuronal function. Its dysfunction is an intriguing complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a systemic autoimmune disorder where neurological complications occur in 5-50% of cases and is associated with impaired BBB integrity. Complement activation occurs in SLE and is an important part of the clinical profile. Our earlier studies demonstrated that C5a generated by complement activation caused the loss of brain endothelial layer integrity in rodents. The goal of the current study was to determine the translational potential of these studies to a human system. To assess this, we used a two dimensional in vitro BBB model constructed using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells and astroglial cells, which closely emulates the in vivo BBB allowing the assessment of BBB integrity. Increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance and cytoskeletal remodelling caused by actin fiber rearrangement were observed when the cells were exposed to lupus serum and C5a, similar to the observations in mice. In addition, our data show that C5a/C5aR1 signalling alters nuclear factor-κB translocation into nucleus and regulates the expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin-5 and zonula occludens 1 in this setting. Our results demonstrate for the first time that C5a regulates BBB integrity in a neuroinflammatory setting where it affects both endothelial and astroglial cells. In addition, we also demonstrate that our previous findings in a mouse model, were emulated in human cells in vitro, bringing the studies one step closer to understanding the translational potential of C5a/C5aR1 blockade as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Nucleation and growth control in protein crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Nyce, Thomas A.; Meehan, Edward J.; Sowers, Jennifer W.; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    The five topics summarized in this final report are as follows: (1) a technique for the expedient, semi-automated determination of protein solubilities as a function of temperature and application of this technique to proteins other than lysozyme; (2) a small solution cell with adjustable temperature gradients for the growth of proteins at a predetermined location through temperature programming; (3) a microscopy system with image storage and processing capability for high resolution optical studies of temperature controlled protein growth and etching kinetics; (4) growth experiments with lysozyme in thermosyphon flow ; and (5) a mathematical model for the evolution of evaporation/diffusion induced concentration gradients in the hanging drop protein crystallization technique.

  4. *C5a/CD88 signaling alters blood-brain barrier integrity in lupus through NFκb

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Alexander; Hack, Bradley; Chen, Peili; Quigg, Richard J.; Alexander, Jessy J.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation is a key factor in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The complement system is an important mechanism in initiating and amplifying inflammation. Our recent studies demonstrate that C5a, a protein fragment generated during complement activation could alter the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and thereby disturb the brain microenvironment. To understand the mechanism by which this occurs, we examined the effects of C5a on apoptosis, translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NFκb) and the expression of Iκbα, MAPK, CREB and TJ protein, zona occludens (ZO-1) in mouse brain endothelial cells. Apoptosis was examined by DNA laddering and caspase-3 activity and the distribution of the ZO-1 and the p65 subunit of NFκB were determined by immunofluorescence. Inhibition of CD88 reduced translocation of NFκb into the nucleus, altered ZO-1 at the interfaces of neighboring cells, decreased caspase-3 activity and prevented apoptosis in these cells. Our results indicate that signaling through CD88 regulates the BBB in a NFκb dependent manner. These studies suggest that the C5a receptor, CD88 is a promising therapeutic target that will reduce NFκb signaling cascades in inflammatory settings. PMID:21929539

  5. Expression of WNT5A in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Its Control by TGF-β and WNT7B in Human Lung Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Newman, Donna R; Sills, W Shane; Hanrahan, Katherine; Ziegler, Amanda; Tidd, Kathleen McGinnis; Cook, Elizabeth; Sannes, Philip L

    2016-02-01

    The wingless (Wnt) family of signaling ligands contributes significantly to lung development and is highly expressed in patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). We sought to define the cellular distribution of Wnt5A in the lung tissue of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and the signaling ligands that control its expression in human lung fibroblasts and IPF myofibroblasts. Tissue sections from 40 patients diagnosed with IPF or UIP were probed for the immunolocalization of Wnt5A. Further, isolated lung fibroblasts from normal or IPF human lungs, adenovirally transduced for the overexpression or silencing of Wnt7B or treated with TGF-β1 or its inhibitor, were analyzed for Wnt5A protein expression. Wnt5A was expressed in IPF lungs by airway and alveolar epithelium, smooth muscle cells, endothelium, and myofibroblasts of fibroblastic foci and throughout the interstitium. Forced overexpression of Wnt7B with or without TGF-β1 treatment significantly increased Wnt5A protein expression in normal human smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts but not in IPF myofibroblasts where Wnt5A was already highly expressed. The results demonstrate a wide distribution of Wnt5A expression in cells of the IPF lung and reveal that it is significantly increased by Wnt7B and TGF-β1, which, in combination, could represent key signaling pathways that modulate the pathogenesis of IPF.

  6. Mcp5, a meiotic cell cortex protein, is required for nuclear movement mediated by dynein and microtubules in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Takamune T.; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    During meiotic prophase I of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, oscillatory nuclear movement occurs. This promotes homologous chromosome pairing and recombination and involves cortical dynein, which plays a pivotal role by generating a pulling force with the help of an unknown dynein anchor. We show that Mcp5, the homologue of the budding yeast dynein anchor Num1, may be this putative dynein anchor. mcp5+ is predominantly expressed during meiotic prophase, and GFP-Mcp5 localizes at the cell cortex. Moreover, the mcp5Δ strain lacks the oscillatory nuclear movement. Accordingly, homologous pairing and recombination rates of the mcp5Δ strain are significantly reduced. Furthermore, the cortical localization of dynein heavy chain 1 appears to be reduced in mcp5Δ cells. Finally, the full function of Mcp5 requires its coiled-coil and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. Our results suggest that Mcp5 localizes at the cell cortex through its PH domain and functions as a dynein anchor, thereby facilitating nuclear oscillation. PMID:16585273

  7. Direct-acting Antiviral Agents Resistance-associated Polymorphisms in Chinese Treatment-naïve Patients Infected with Genotype 1b Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ye; Rao, Hui-Ying; Xie, Xing-Wang; Wei, Lai

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that several baseline polymorphisms of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) agents resistance-associated variants (RAVs) would affect the treatment outcomes of patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (CHC). The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of DAAs RAVs in treatment-naïve GT1b CHC patients. Methods: Direct sequencing and ultra-deep sequencing of the HCV NS3, NS5A, and NS5B gene were performed in baseline serum samples of treatment-naïve patients infected with genotype 1b hepatitis C virus (HCVs). Results: One hundred and sixty CHC patients were studied. Complete sequence information was obtained for 145 patients (NS3), 148 patients (NS5A), and 137 patients (NS5B). Treatment-failure associated variants of DAAs were detected: 56.6% (82/145) of the patients presented S122G for simeprevir (NS3 protease inhibitor); 10.1% (14/148) of the patients presented Y93H for daclatasvir and ledipasvir (NS5A protein inhibitors); 94.2% (129/137) of the patients presented C316N for sofosbuvir (NS5B polymerase inhibitor). Nearly, all of the DAAs RAVs detected by ultra-deep sequencing could be detected by direct sequencing. Conclusions: The majority of genotype 1b CHC patients in China present a virus population carrying HCV DAAs RAVs. Pretreatment sequencing of HCV genome might need to be performed when patients infected with GT1b HCV receiving DAAs-containing regimens in China. Population sequencing would be quite quantified for the work. PMID:26415801

  8. Upregulation of the expression of Wnt5a promotes the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in a nude mouse model

    PubMed Central

    BO, HAIJI; GAO, LI; CHEN, YING; ZHANG, JING; ZHU, MINGHUA

    2016-01-01

    Wnt proteins are a group of secreted signaling proteins, which function to regulate cell fate and pattern formation during embryogenesis. Altered expression of Wnt5a has been implicated in human carcinogenesis and tumor progression. A previous study identified that Wnt5a is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer tissues, and that upregulated expression of Wnt5a promotes tumor cell migration and invasion. The present study investigated the role of Wnt5a in pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in an orthotopic nude mouse model. Wnt5a cDNA or small interfering RNA were stably transfected into pancreatic cancer cells to assess cell proliferation-associated behaviors, including cell viability, colony formation and apoptosis in vitro, as well as tumor cell growth in an orthotopic nude mouse model. Western blot analysis was used to analyze the expression of Wnt signaling molecules. The data showed that upregulation of the expression of Wnt5a significantly promoted proliferation of the human pancreatic cells, but inhibited tumor cell apoptosis in vitro and promoted tumor growth in an orthotopic nude mouse model. By contrast, knockdown of the expression of Wnt5a inhibited cell growth and promoted apoptosis of the pancreatic cancer cells. The data also revealed that β-catenin mediated the effects of Wnt5a on the regulation of pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis in vitro. These results suggested that Wnt5a is involved in the modulation of pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, and that Wnt5a may be a potential target for pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:26648282

  9. Inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression by Ciclopirox and Deferiprone, drugs that prevent hypusination of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Mainul; Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M; Palumbo, Paul; Saxena, Deepti; D'Alliessi Gandolfi, Darlene; Park, Myung Hee; Pe'ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A has been implicated in HIV-1 replication. This protein contains the apparently unique amino acid hypusine that is formed by the post-translational modification of a lysine residue catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). DOHH activity is inhibited by two clinically used drugs, the topical fungicide ciclopirox and the systemic medicinal iron chelator deferiprone. Deferiprone has been reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication in tissue culture. Results Ciclopirox and deferiprone blocked HIV-1 replication in PBMCs. To examine the underlying mechanisms, we investigated the action of the drugs on eIF5A modification and HIV-1 gene expression in model systems. At early times after drug exposure, both drugs inhibited substrate binding to DOHH and prevented the formation of mature eIF5A. Viral gene expression from HIV-1 molecular clones was suppressed at the RNA level independently of all viral genes. The inhibition was specific for the viral promoter and occurred at the level of HIV-1 transcription initiation. Partial knockdown of eIF5A-1 by siRNA led to inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression that was non-additive with drug action. These data support the importance of eIF5A and hypusine formation in HIV-1 gene expression. Conclusion At clinically relevant concentrations, two widely used drugs blocked HIV-1 replication ex vivo. They specifically inhibited expression from the HIV-1 promoter at the level of transcription initiation. Both drugs interfered with the hydroxylation step in the hypusine modification of eIF5A. These results have profound implications for the potential therapeutic use of these drugs as antiretrovirals and for the development of optimized analogs. PMID:19825182

  10. Cloning and functional identification of slc5a12 as a sodium-coupled low-affinity transporter for monocarboxylates (SMCT2)

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We report in the present paper, on the isolation and functional characterization of slc5a12, the twelfth member of the SLC5 gene family, from mouse kidney. The slc5a12 cDNA codes for a protein of 619 amino acids. Heterologous expression of slc5a12 cDNA in mammalian cells induces Na+-dependent transport of lactate and nicotinate. Several other short-chain monocarboxylates compete with nicotinate for the cDNA-induced transport process. Expression of slc5a12 in Xenopus oocytes induces electrogenic and Na+-dependent transport of lactate, nicotinate, propionate and butyrate. The substrate specificity of slc5a12 is similar to that of slc5a8, an Na+-coupled transporter for monocarboxylates. However, the substrate affinities of slc5a12 were much lower than those of slc5a8. slc5a12 mRNA is expressed in kidney, small intestine and skeletal muscle. In situ hybridization with sagittal sections of mouse kidney showed predominant expression of slc5a12 in the outer cortex. This is in contrast with slc5a8, which is expressed in the cortex as well as in the medulla. The physiological function of slc5a12 in the kidney is likely to mediate the reabsorption of lactate. In the intestinal tract, slc5a12 is expressed in the proximal parts, whereas slc5a8 is expressed in the distal parts. The expression of slc5a12 in the proximal parts of the intestinal tract, where there is minimal bacterial colonization, suggests that the physiological function of slc5a12 is not to mediate the absorption of short-chain monocarboxylates derived from bacterial fermentation but rather to mediate the absorption of diet-derived short-chain monocarboxylates. Based on the functional and structural similarities between slc5a8 and slc5a12, we suggest that the two transporters be designated as SMCT1 (sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1) and SMCT2 respectively. PMID:16104846

  11. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Atefeh; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Lapointe, Evelyne; Tourigny, Catherine; Boyer, Alexandre; Paquet, Marilène; Hayashi, Kanako; Honda, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akira; Price, Christopher; Boerboom, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Whereas the roles of the canonical wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site family (WNT) signaling pathway in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and steroidogenesis are now established, noncanonical WNT signaling in the ovary has been largely overlooked. Noncanonical WNTs, including WNT5a and WNT11, are expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and are differentially regulated throughout follicle development, but their physiologic roles remain unknown. Using conditional gene targeting, we found that GC-specific inactivation ofWnt5a(but notWnt11) results in the female subfertility associated with increased follicular atresia and decreased rates of ovulation. Microarray analyses have revealed that WNT5a acts to down-regulate the expression of FSH-responsive genesin vitro, and corresponding increases in the expression of these genes have been found in the GCs of conditional knockout mice. Unexpectedly, we found that WNT5a regulates its target genes not by signalingviathe WNT/Ca(2+)or planar cell polarity pathways, but rather by inhibiting the canonical pathway, causing both β-catenin (CTNNB1) and cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein levels to decreaseviaa glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent mechanism. We further found that WNT5a prevents follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing protein from up-regulating the CTNNB1 and CREB proteins and their target genes, indicating that WNT5a functions as a physiologic inhibitor of gonadotropin signaling. Together, these findings identify WNT5a as a key regulator of follicle development and gonadotropin responsiveness.-Abedini, A., Zamberlam, G., Lapointe, E., Tourigny, C., Boyer, A., Paquet, M., Hayashi, K., Honda, H., Kikuchi, A., Price, C., Boerboom, D. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling. PMID:26667040

  12. Dimeric structure of pseudokinase RNase L bound to 2-5A reveals a basis for interferon induced antiviral activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Zeqiraj, Elton; Dong, Beihua; Jha, Babal Kant; Duffy, Nicole; Orlicky, Stephen; Thevakumaran, Neroshan; Talukdar, Manisha; Pillon, Monica C.; Ceccarelli, Derek F.; Wan, Leo; Juang, Yu-Chi; Mao, Daniel Y.L.; Gaughan, Christina; Brinton, Margo A.; Perelygin, Andrey A.; Kourinov, Igor; Guarné, Alba; Silverman, Robert H.; Sicheri, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Summary RNase L is an ankyrin repeat domain containing dual endoribonuclease-pseudokinase that is activated by unusual 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2-5A) second messengers and which impedes viral infections in higher vertebrates. Despite its importance in interferon regulated antiviral innate immunity, relatively little is known about its precise mechanism of action. Here, we present a functional characterization of 2.5 Å and 3.25 Å X-ray crystal and small angle x-ray scattering structures of RNase L bound to a natural 2-5A activator with and without ADP or the non-hydrolysable ATP mimetic AMP-PNP. These studies reveal how recognition of 2-5A through interactions with the ankyrin repeat domain and the pseudokinase domain together with nucleotide binding, impose a rigid intertwined dimer configuration that is essential for RNase catalytic and anti-viral functions. The involvement of the pseudokinase domain of RNase L in 2-5A sensing, nucleotide binding, dimerization, and ribonuclease functions highlights the evolutionary adaptability of the eukaryotic protein kinase fold. PMID:24462203

  13. Critical role of the C5a-activated neutrophils in high-fat diet-induced vascular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Mizuko; Ito, Shunsuke; Honda, Masaki; Inomata, Yukihiro; Egashira, Kensuke; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Exceed and chronic high-fat diet (HFD) contributes to the diagnosis and development of atherosclerosis, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. However, the key molecular component(s) triggered by HFD responsible for initiating vascular inflammation remain unknown. We observed that feeding HFD for 4 weeks is sufficient to induce leukocyte recruitment in the femoral artery of wild-type mice. Neutrophil- and monocyte-depletion analyses confirmed the preferential recruitment of neutrophils in these mice. Protein analysis of sera from HFD-fed mice revealed a marked elevation of complement component C5a levels. Exogenous C5a alone induced leukocyte recruitment, which was abolished by a C5a-receptor antagonist. We also examined the role of neutrophil-derived MCP-1 in accumulation of leukocytes in the artery. These results demonstrated a previously unrecognized role for C5a and neutrophils in the early onset of HFD-induced vascular inflammation. Further study may help in elucidating a novel regulatory pathway to control diet-induced inflammation such as that in case of atherosclerosis. PMID:26893238

  14. Protein Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  15. Conditional knockout of the Slc5a6 gene in mouse intestine impairs biotin absorption.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Lambrecht, Nils; Subramanya, Sandeep B; Kapadia, Rubina; Said, Hamid M

    2013-01-01

    The Slc5a6 gene expresses a plasma membrane protein involved in the transport of the water-soluble vitamin biotin; the transporter is commonly referred to as the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) because it also transports pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. The relative contribution of the SMVT system toward carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the native intestine in vivo has not been established. We used a Cre/lox technology to generate an intestine-specific (conditional) SMVT knockout (KO) mouse model to address this issue. The KO mice exhibited absence of expression of SMVT in the intestine compared with sex-matched littermates as well as the expected normal SMVT expression in other tissues. About two-thirds of the KO mice died prematurely between the age of 6 and 10 wk. Growth retardation, decreased bone density, decreased bone length, and decreased biotin status were observed in the KO mice. Microscopic analysis showed histological abnormalities in the small bowel (shortened villi, dysplasia) and cecum (chronic active inflammation, dysplasia) of the KO mice. In vivo (and in vitro) transport studies showed complete inhibition in carrier-mediated biotin uptake in the intestine of the KO mice compared with their control littermates. These studies provide the first in vivo confirmation in native intestine that SMVT is solely responsible for intestinal biotin uptake. These studies also provide evidence for a casual association between SMVT function and normal intestinal health.

  16. The Major Prognostic Features of Nuclear Receptor NR5A2 in Infiltrating Ductal Breast Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Yun; Liu, Li-Yu D.; Roth, Don A.; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Hwa, Hsiao-Lin; Chang, King-Jen; Hsieh, Fon-Jou

    2015-01-01

    Background. Gene expression profiles of 181 breast cancer samples were analyzed to identify prognostic features of nuclear receptors NR5A1 and NR5A2 based upon their associated transcriptional networks. Methods. A supervised network analysis approach was used to build the NR5A-mediated transcriptional regulatory network. Other bioinformatic tools and statistical methods were utilized to confirm and extend results from the network analysis methodology. Results. NR5A2 expression is a negative factor in breast cancer prognosis in both ER(−) and ER(−)/ER(+) mixed cohorts. The clinical and cohort significance of NR5A2-mediated transcriptional activities indicates that it may have a significant role in attenuating grade development and cancer related signal transduction pathways. NR5A2 signature that conditions poor prognosis was identified based upon results from 15 distinct probes. Alternatively, the expression of NR5A1 predicts favorable prognosis when concurrent NR5A2 expression is low. A favorable signature of eight transcription factors mediated by NR5A1 was also identified. Conclusions. Correlation of poor prognosis and NR5A2 activity is identified by NR5A2-mediated 15-gene signature. NR5A2 may be a potential drug target for treating a subset of breast cancer tumors across breast cancer subtypes, especially ER(−) breast tumors. The favorable prognostic feature of NR5A1 is predicted by NR5A1-mediated 8-gene signature. PMID:26366408

  17. Activation of Nrf2 by the dengue virus causes an increase in CLEC5A, which enhances TNF-α production by mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Lin; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chen, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Wu, Yan-Wei; Ou, Yi-Dan; Chu, Yu-Yi; Wang, Ju-Ming; Yu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the dengue virus (DENV) threatens global public health due to its high prevalence and the lack of effective treatments. Host factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of DENV; herein, we investigated the role of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which is activated by DENV in mononuclear phagocytes. DENV infection selectively activates Nrf2 following nuclear translocation. Following endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress, protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK) facilitated Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activation of C-type lectin domain family 5, member A (CLEC5A) to increase CLEC5A expression. Signaling downstream of the Nrf2-CLEC5A interaction enhances Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-independent tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production following DENV infection. Forced expression of the NS2B3 viral protein induces Nrf2 nuclear translocation/activation and CLEC5A expression which increases DENV-induced TNF-α production. Animal studies confirmed Nrf2-induced CLEC5A and TNF-α in brains of DENV-infected mice. These results demonstrate that DENV infection causes Nrf2-regulated TNF-α production by increasing levels of CLEC5A. PMID:27561946

  18. Activation of Nrf2 by the dengue virus causes an increase in CLEC5A, which enhances TNF-α production by mononuclear phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi-Lin; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chen, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Wu, Yan-Wei; Ou, Yi-Dan; Chu, Yu-Yi; Wang, Ju-Ming; Yu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the dengue virus (DENV) threatens global public health due to its high prevalence and the lack of effective treatments. Host factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of DENV; herein, we investigated the role of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), which is activated by DENV in mononuclear phagocytes. DENV infection selectively activates Nrf2 following nuclear translocation. Following endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress, protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK) facilitated Nrf2-mediated transcriptional activation of C-type lectin domain family 5, member A (CLEC5A) to increase CLEC5A expression. Signaling downstream of the Nrf2-CLEC5A interaction enhances Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-independent tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production following DENV infection. Forced expression of the NS2B3 viral protein induces Nrf2 nuclear translocation/activation and CLEC5A expression which increases DENV-induced TNF-α production. Animal studies confirmed Nrf2-induced CLEC5A and TNF-α in brains of DENV-infected mice. These results demonstrate that DENV infection causes Nrf2-regulated TNF-α production by increasing levels of CLEC5A. PMID:27561946

  19. The effect of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) in kidney I/R mediated by C5a/C5aR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ze-Ying; Wu, Yang-Qian; Luo, Heng; Liu, Dong-Xu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between NFAT and C5a/C5aR in C5a/C5aR-mediated kidney Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the rats' NRK-52E cell line was used in this study and was distributed into 4 groups, I: the normal control (NC), II: the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury cell model (MG), III: the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury cell model treated with C5a (50 nmol/l) (MG + C5a), IV: the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury cell model treated with C5aR antagonist (2.5 μmol/l) (MG + anti-C5aR). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry were performed. Nuclear Factor Activated T Cell (NFAT), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-6) were detected in this study. The results of immunofluorescence showed that NFAT had a nuclear translocation phenomenon during the study. The RT-PCR and WB data indicated that the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in group III were higher than any other groups. Apoptosis in group III was much serious than other groups. All the results in this study showed that NFAT plays an important role in ischemia/reperfusion injury, it can be induced to up-regulate the inflammatory factor TNF-α and IL-6 by the complement system member C5a/C5aR.

  20. Potent Antiviral Activities of the Direct-Acting Antivirals ABT-493 and ABT-530 with Three-Day Monotherapy for Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    O'Riordan, William D.; Asatryan, Armen; Freilich, Bradley L.; Box, Terry D.; Overcash, J. Scott; Lovell, Sandra; Ng, Teresa I.; Liu, Wei; Campbell, Andrew; Lin, Chih-Wei; Yao, Betty; Kort, Jens

    2015-01-01

    ABT-493 is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural (NS) protein 3/4A protease inhibitor, and ABT-530 is an HCV NS5A inhibitor. These direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) demonstrated potent antiviral activity against major HCV genotypes and high barriers to resistance in vitro. In this open-label dose-ranging trial, antiviral activity and safety were assessed during 3 days of monotherapy with ABT-493 or ABT-530 in treatment-naive adults with HCV genotype 1 infection, with or without compensated cirrhosis. The presence of baseline resistance-associated variants (RAVs) was also evaluated. The mean maximal decreases in HCV RNA levels from baseline were approximately 4 log10 IU/ml for all ABT-493 doses ranging from 100 mg to 700 mg and for ABT-530 doses of ≥40 mg. There were no meaningful differences in viral load declines for patients with versus without compensated cirrhosis. Twenty-four (50%) of the baseline samples from patients treated with ABT-493 had RAVs to NS3/4A protease inhibitors. Among 40 patients treated with ABT-530, 6 (15%) carried baseline RAVs to NS5A inhibitors. Viral load declines in patients with single baseline NS5A RAVs were similar to those in patients without RAVs. One patient harbored baseline RAVs at 3 NS5A positions and appeared to have a slightly less robust viral load decline on day 3 of monotherapy. No serious or grade 3 (severe) or higher adverse events and no clinically relevant laboratory abnormalities were observed with either compound. ABT-493 and ABT-530 demonstrated potent antiviral activity and acceptable safety during 3-day monotherapy in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection, with or without compensated cirrhosis. Based on these results, phase II studies assessing the combination of these DAAs for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in patients with or without compensated cirrhosis have been initiated. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01995071.) PMID:26711747

  1. Bacteriophage protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Häuser, Roman; Blasche, Sonja; Dokland, Terje; Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth; von Brunn, Albrecht; Salas, Margarita; Casjens, Sherwood; Molineux, Ian; Uetz, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophages T7, λ, P22, and P2/P4 (from Escherichia coli), as well as ϕ29 (from Bacillus subtilis), are among the best-studied bacterial viruses. This chapter summarizes published protein interaction data of intraviral protein interactions, as well as known phage-host protein interactions of these phages retrieved from the literature. We also review the published results of comprehensive protein interaction analyses of Pneumococcus phages Dp-1 and Cp-1, as well as coliphages λ and T7. For example, the ≈55 proteins encoded by the T7 genome are connected by ≈43 interactions with another ≈15 between the phage and its host. The chapter compiles published interactions for the well-studied phages λ (33 intra-phage/22 phage-host), P22 (38/9), P2/P4 (14/3), and ϕ29 (20/2). We discuss whether different interaction patterns reflect different phage lifestyles or whether they may be artifacts of sampling. Phages that infect the same host can interact with different host target proteins, as exemplified by E. coli phage λ and T7. Despite decades of intensive investigation, only a fraction of these phage interactomes are known. Technical limitations and a lack of depth in many studies explain the gaps in our knowledge. Strategies to complete current interactome maps are described. Although limited space precludes detailed overviews of phage molecular biology, this compilation will allow future studies to put interaction data into the context of phage biology. PMID:22748812

  2. Surface Relaxation in Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boutet, S.; Robinson, I. K.; Hu, Z. W.; Thomas, B. R.; Chernov, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    Surface X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on (111) growth faces of crystals of the Cellular iron-storage protein horse spleen ferritin. Crystal Trunkation Rods (CTR) were measured. A fit of the measured profile of the CTR revealed a surface roughness of 48 +/- 4.5 A and a top layer spacing contraction of 3.9 +/- 1.5%. In addition to the peak from the CTR, the rocking curves of the crystals displayed unexpected extra peaks. Multiple-scattering is demonstrated to account for them. Future applications of the method could allow the exploration of hydration effects on the growth of protein crystals.

  3. Semi-synthetic derivatives of natural isoflavones from Maclura pomifera as a novel class of PDE-5A inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ribaudo, Giovanni; Pagano, Mario Angelo; Pavan, Valeria; Redaelli, Marco; Zorzan, Maira; Pezzani, Raffaele; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Vendrame, Tiziano; Bova, Sergio; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Natural (iso)flavonoids have been recently reported to inhibit cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and induce vasorelaxation, albeit the results described in the literature are discordant. The cGMP-selective isoform PDE-5A, in particular, represents the target of sildenafil and its analogues in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) and pulmonary hypertension by promoting relaxation in vascular smooth muscle through the activation of the NO/cGMP pathway. We undertook this study to verify if osajin and pomiferin, two natural prenylated isoflavones and major constituents of Maclura pomifera extracts previously investigated for their anticancer, antibacterial and antidiabetic properties, show inhibitory activity on PDE-5A. These two isoflavones were isolated from the plant extracts and then synthetically modified to obtain a set of semi-synthetic derivatives with slight and focused modifications on the natural scaffold. The compounds were at first screened against PDE-5A in vitro and, based on the encouraging results, further tested for their relaxant effect on isolated rat artery rings. Computational docking studies were also carried out to explore the mode of interaction with the target protein. The obtained data were compared to the behaviour of the well-known PDE-5A inhibitor sildenafil. Our results demonstrate that semi-synthetic derivatives of osajin and pomiferin show an inhibitory effect on the isolated enzyme that, for some of the compounds, is accompanied by a vasorelaxant activity. Based on our findings, we propose the here described isoflavones as potential lead compounds for the development, starting from natural scaffolds, of a new class of PDE-5A inhibitors with vasorelaxant properties.

  4. Cadmium induces cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells through upregulation of eIF5A1 and NF-kappaB

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, De-Ju; Xu, Yan-Ming; Du, Ji-Ying; Huang, Dong-Yang; Lau, Andy T.Y.

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were dosed with cadmium (Cd). • A low level (2 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h elicited negligible cytotoxicity. • High levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd treatment for 36 h induced cell death. • High levels of Cd can upregulate the protein levels of eIF5A1 and NF-κB p65. • We suggest that eIF5A1 level is possibly modulated by NF-κB. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and Cd compounds are widely-distributed in the environment and well-known carcinogens. Here, we report that in CdCl{sub 2}-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B), the level of p53 is dramatically decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the observed Cd-induced cytotoxicity is not likely due to the pro-apoptotic function of p53. Therefore, this prompted us to further study the responsive pro-apoptotic factors by proteomic approaches. Interestingly, we identified that high levels (20 or 30 μM) of Cd can significantly upregulate the protein levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A1 (eIF5A1) and redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB p65. Moreover, there is an enhanced NF-κB nuclear translocation as well as chromatin-binding in Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. We also show that small interfering RNA-specific knockdown of eIF5A1 in Cd-exposed cells attenuated the Cd cytotoxicity, indicating the potential role of eIF5A1 in Cd cytotoxicity. As eIF5A1 is reported to be related with cell apoptosis but little is known about its transcriptional control, we hypothesize that NF-κB might likely modulate eIF5A1 gene expression. Notably, by bioinformatic analysis, several potential NF-κB binding sites on the upstream promoter region of eIF5A1 gene can be found. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that indeed there is enhanced NF-κB binding on eIF5A1 promoter region of Cd-treated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, our findings suggest for the first time a regulatory mechanism for the pro

  5. Recombinant protein production technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  6. Differential effects of the complement peptides, C5a and C5a des Arg on human basophil and lung mast cell histamine release.

    PubMed Central

    Schulman, E S; Post, T J; Henson, P M; Giclas, P C

    1988-01-01

    The ability of purified anaphylatoxins to induce human lung mast cell mediator release was investigated. In eight anti-IgE responsive (histamine release = 22 +/- 5%, mean +/- SEM) mast cell preparations of 1-96% purity, C5a and C5a des Arg (0.55 pg/ml to 55 micrograms/ml), failed to elicit or potentiate histamine release; lung fragments were similarly unresponsive. The related peptide C3a was also inactive. All anaphylatoxins failed to induce mast cell leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) release. LTC4 release was also negligible from basophils where C5a was a potent histamine release stimulus. Supernatants from C5a-challenged mast cells remained fully active on basophils, excluding carboxypeptidase inactivation of C5a as an explanation for the lung mast cell results. In contrast to lung, skin mast cells were C5a-responsive (histamine release = 8 +/- 1%, at 55 micrograms/ml, n = 2). We conclude that C5a, though devoid of activity on the human lung mast cell, is a human basophil and skin mast cell secretagogue. These findings demonstrate significant organ-specific heterogeneity in mast cell responsiveness. PMID:2449462

  7. The complement factor C5a receptor is upregulated in NFL-/- mouse motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Humayun, Saima; Gohar, May; Volkening, Kathryn; Moisse, Katie; Leystra-Lantz, Cheryl; Mepham, Jennifer; McLean, Jesse; Strong, Michael J

    2009-05-29

    In NFL-/- mice, a model of motor neuron degeneration in ALS, degenerating spinal motor neurons express high levels of the receptor for the C5a anaphylatoxin (C5aR) early in the disease process. C5a is a potent in vitro neurotoxin for both Neuro2A and NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. While no interaction was observed between glutamate and C5a, both C5a and kainate upregulated the expression of activated C5aR. C5aR expression was increased in motor neurons in ALS. This data suggests that the early upregulation of C5aR may contribute to motor neuron damage that potentiates excitotoxicity in ALS.

  8. GEC-derived SFRP5 inhibits Wnt5a-induced macrophage chemotaxis and activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenghai; Bu, Xianmin; Wang, Wei; Ma, Tingxian; Ma, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant macrophage infiltration and activation has been implicated in gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis. Overexpression of Wnt5a and downregulation of SFRP5, a Wnt5a antagonist, were both observed in gastric cancers recently. This study attempted to explore whether Wnt5a/SFRP5 axis was involved in macrophage chemotaxis and activation. It was found that both Wnt5a transfection and recombinant Wnt5a (rWnt5a) treatment upregulated CCL2 expression in macrophages, involving JNK and NFκB signals. Conditioned medium from Wnt5a-treated macrophages promoted macrophage chemotaxis mainly dependent on CCL2. SFRP5 from gastric epithelial cells (GECs) inhibited Wnt5a-induced CCL2 expression and macrophage chemotaxis. In addition, Wnt5a treatment stimulated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines and COX-2/PGE2, which was also suppressed by SFRP5 from GECs. These results demonstrate that Wnt5a induces macrophage chemotaxis and activation, which can be blocked by GEC-derived SFRP5, suggesting that Wnt5a overproduction and SFRP5 deficiency in gastric mucosa may together play an important role in gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis.

  9. Receptor residence time trumps drug-likeness and oral bioavailability in determining efficacy of complement C5a antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seow, Vernon; Lim, Junxian; Cotterell, Adam J.; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Xu, Weijun; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Kok, W. Mei; Stoermer, Martin J.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Reid, Robert C.; Suen, Jacky Y.; Fairlie, David P.

    2016-04-01

    Drug discovery and translation are normally based on optimizing efficacy by increasing receptor affinity, functional potency, drug-likeness (rule-of-five compliance) and oral bioavailability. Here we demonstrate that residence time of a compound on its receptor has an overriding influence on efficacy, exemplified for antagonists of inflammatory protein complement C5a that activates immune cells and promotes disease. Three equipotent antagonists (3D53, W54011, JJ47) of inflammatory responses to C5a (3nM) were compared for drug-likeness, receptor affinity and antagonist potency in human macrophages, and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Only the least drug-like antagonist (3D53) maintained potency in cells against higher C5a concentrations and had a much longer duration of action (t1/2 ~ 20 h) than W54011 or JJ47 (t1/2 ~ 1–3 h) in inhibiting macrophage responses. The unusually long residence time of 3D53 on its receptor was mechanistically probed by molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed long-lasting interactions that trap the antagonist within the receptor. Despite negligible oral bioavailability, 3D53 was much more orally efficacious than W54011 or JJ47 in preventing repeated agonist insults to induce rat paw oedema over 24 h. Thus, residence time on a receptor can trump drug-likeness in determining efficacy, even oral efficacy, of pharmacological agents.

  10. Receptor residence time trumps drug-likeness and oral bioavailability in determining efficacy of complement C5a antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Seow, Vernon; Lim, Junxian; Cotterell, Adam J.; Yau, Mei-Kwan; Xu, Weijun; Lohman, Rink-Jan; Kok, W. Mei; Stoermer, Martin J.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Reid, Robert C.; Suen, Jacky Y.; Fairlie, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery and translation are normally based on optimizing efficacy by increasing receptor affinity, functional potency, drug-likeness (rule-of-five compliance) and oral bioavailability. Here we demonstrate that residence time of a compound on its receptor has an overriding influence on efficacy, exemplified for antagonists of inflammatory protein complement C5a that activates immune cells and promotes disease. Three equipotent antagonists (3D53, W54011, JJ47) of inflammatory responses to C5a (3nM) were compared for drug-likeness, receptor affinity and antagonist potency in human macrophages, and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Only the least drug-like antagonist (3D53) maintained potency in cells against higher C5a concentrations and had a much longer duration of action (t1/2 ~ 20 h) than W54011 or JJ47 (t1/2 ~ 1–3 h) in inhibiting macrophage responses. The unusually long residence time of 3D53 on its receptor was mechanistically probed by molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed long-lasting interactions that trap the antagonist within the receptor. Despite negligible oral bioavailability, 3D53 was much more orally efficacious than W54011 or JJ47 in preventing repeated agonist insults to induce rat paw oedema over 24 h. Thus, residence time on a receptor can trump drug-likeness in determining efficacy, even oral efficacy, of pharmacological agents. PMID:27094554

  11. Prostate cancer bone metastases acquire resistance to androgen deprivation via WNT5A-mediated BMP-6 induction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, G T; Kang, D I; Ha, Y-S; Jung, Y S; Chung, J; Min, K; Kim, T H; Moon, K H; Chung, J M; Lee, D H; Kim, W-J; Kim, I Y

    2014-01-01

    Background: Androgen ablation is the first-line therapy for patients with metastatic prostate cancer (CaP). However, castration resistance will eventually emerge. In the present study, we have investigated the role of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in the context of bone metastases. Methods: We initially investigated the clinical course of 158 men with advanced CaP who were treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of CRPC in the context of bone metastases, we examined the impact of bone stromal cells on CaP in the absence of androgens using a co-culture model. Results: In the 158 patients, we found that the median time to prostate-specific antigen progression was significantly shorter when bone metastases were present (14 months (95% CI, 10.2–17.8 months) vs 57 months (95% CI, 19.4–94.6 months)). These results suggest that bone–tumour interactions may accelerate castration resistance. Consistent with this hypothesis, in vitro co-cultures demonstrated that CaP cells proliferated under an androgen-depleted condition when incubated with bone stromal cells. Mechanistically, gene expression analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction arrays showed a dramatic induction of BMP-6 by CaP cell lines in the presence of bone stromal cells. Further studies revealed that WNT5A derived from bone stromal cells induced the expression of BMP-6 by CaP cells; BMP-6 in turn stimulated cellular proliferation of CaP cells in an androgen-deprived media via a physical interaction between Smad5 and β-catenin. Intracellularly, WNT5A increased BMP-6 expression via protein kinase C/NF-κB pathway in CaP cell lines. Conclusions: These observations suggest that bone–CaP interaction leads to castration resistance via WNT5A/BMP-6 loop. PMID:24518599

  12. 4-HPR impairs bladder cancer cell migration and invasion by interfering with the Wnt5a/JNK and Wnt5a/MMP-2 signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuanfei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Chang; Gao, Zhengyan; Zhou, Haihong; Wang, Yongzhi; Cao, Rui; Liu, Tao; Liu, Tongzu

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic effect of the synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) on the human bladder cancer EJ cell line, and to study its impact on the expression of wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family, member 5a (Wnt5a), the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and the migration and invasion of EJ cells, migration and Matrigel invasion assays, as well as western blot analyses, were used in the present study. The results of the migration and Matrigel invasion assays indicated that the inhibitor of JNK SP600125 could inhibit the effect of 4-HPR on EJ cells. The expression of Wnt5a and MMP-2, and the phosphorylation of JNK, were analyzed by western blotting. The data revealed that 4-HPR inhibited the migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells through stimulating Wnt5a activation, causing the downregulation of MMP-2 expression and enhancing the phosphorylation of JNK in these cells. However, JNK signaling did not appear to have a direct effect on the expression of MMP-2. The present study demonstrated that 4-HPR may be a potent anti-invasive and anti-metastatic agent that functions via the Wnt5a/JNK and Wnt5a/MMP-2 signaling pathways. PMID:27602114

  13. 4-HPR impairs bladder cancer cell migration and invasion by interfering with the Wnt5a/JNK and Wnt5a/MMP-2 signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuanfei; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Chang; Gao, Zhengyan; Zhou, Haihong; Wang, Yongzhi; Cao, Rui; Liu, Tao; Liu, Tongzu

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify the anti-invasive and anti-metastatic effect of the synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) on the human bladder cancer EJ cell line, and to study its impact on the expression of wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site family, member 5a (Wnt5a), the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and the migration and invasion of EJ cells, migration and Matrigel invasion assays, as well as western blot analyses, were used in the present study. The results of the migration and Matrigel invasion assays indicated that the inhibitor of JNK SP600125 could inhibit the effect of 4-HPR on EJ cells. The expression of Wnt5a and MMP-2, and the phosphorylation of JNK, were analyzed by western blotting. The data revealed that 4-HPR inhibited the migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells through stimulating Wnt5a activation, causing the downregulation of MMP-2 expression and enhancing the phosphorylation of JNK in these cells. However, JNK signaling did not appear to have a direct effect on the expression of MMP-2. The present study demonstrated that 4-HPR may be a potent anti-invasive and anti-metastatic agent that functions via the Wnt5a/JNK and Wnt5a/MMP-2 signaling pathways.

  14. Physical and Functional Interactions between the Histone H3K4 Demethylase KDM5A and the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Nishibuchi, Gohei; Shibata, Yukimasa; Hayakawa, Tomohiro; Hayakawa, Noriyo; Ohtani, Yasuko; Sinmyozu, Kaori; Tagami, Hideaki; Nakayama, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Histone H3K4 methylation has been linked to transcriptional activation. KDM5A (also known as RBP2 or JARID1A), a member of the KDM5 protein family, is an H3K4 demethylase, previously implicated in the regulation of transcription and differentiation. Here, we show that KDM5A is physically and functionally associated with two histone deacetylase complexes. Immunoaffinity purification of KDM5A confirmed a previously described association with the SIN3B-containing histone deacetylase complex and revealed an association with the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. Sucrose density gradient and sequential immunoprecipitation analyses further confirmed the stable association of KDM5A with these two histone deacetylase complexes. KDM5A depletion led to changes in the expression of hundreds of genes, two-thirds of which were also controlled by CHD4, the NuRD catalytic subunit. Gene ontology analysis confirmed that the genes commonly regulated by both KDM5A and CHD4 were categorized as developmentally regulated genes. ChIP analyses suggested that CHD4 modulates H3K4 methylation levels at the promoter and coding regions of target genes. We further demonstrated that the Caenorhabditis elegans homologues of KDM5 and CHD4 function in the same pathway during vulva development. These results suggest that KDM5A and the NuRD complex cooperatively function to control developmentally regulated genes. PMID:25190814

  15. Wnt5A regulates ABCB1 expression in multidrug-resistant cancer cells through activation of the non-canonical PKA/β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Tsai-Hsien; Hsu, Sheng-Chi; Cheng, Ching-Yi; Choo, Kong-Bung; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Chen, Tse-Ching; Lan, Ying-Wei; Huang, Tsung-Teng; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Chong, Kowit-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance in cancer cells arises from altered drug permeability of the cell. We previously reported activation of the Wnt pathway in ABCB1-overexpressed human uterus sarcoma drug-resistant MES-SA/Dx5 cells through active β-catenin and associated transactivation activities, and upregulation of Wnt-targeting genes. In this study, Wnt5A was found to be significantly upregulated in MES-SA/Dx5 and MCF7/ADR2 cells, suggesting an important role for the Wnt5A signaling pathway in cancer drug resistance. Higher cAMP response elements and Tcf/Lef transcription activities were shown in the drug-resistant cancer cells. However, expression of Wnt target genes and CRE activities was downregulated in Wnt5A shRNA stably-transfected MES-SA/Dx5 cells. Cell viability of the drug-resistant cancer cells was also reduced by doxorubicin treatment and Wnt5A shRNA transfection, or by Wnt5A depletion. The in vitro data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis of 24 paired breast cancer biopsies obtained pre- and post-chemotherapeutic treatment. Wnt5A, VEGF and/or ABCB1 were significantly overexpressed after treatment, consistent with clinical chemoresistance. Taken together, the Wnt5A signaling pathway was shown to contribute to regulating the drug-resistance protein ABCB1 and β-catenin-related genes in antagonizing the toxic effects of doxorubicin in the MDR cell lines and in clinical breast cancer samples. PMID:25401518

  16. The PDB is a covering set of small protein structures.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Daisuke; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2003-12-01

    Structure comparisons of all representative proteins have been done. Employing the relative root mean square deviation (RMSD) from native enables the assessment of the statistical significance of structure alignments of different lengths in terms of a Z-score. Two conclusions emerge: first, proteins with their native fold can be distinguished by their Z-score. Second and somewhat surprising, all small proteins up to 100 residues in length have significant structure alignments to other proteins in a different secondary structure and fold class; i.e. 24.0% of them have 60% coverage by a template protein with a RMSD below 3.5A and 6.0% have 70% coverage. If the restriction that we align proteins only having different secondary structure types is removed, then in a representative benchmark set of proteins of 200 residues or smaller, 93% can be aligned to a single template structure (with average sequence identity of 9.8%), with a RMSD less than 4A, and 79% average coverage. In this sense, the current Protein Data Bank (PDB) is almost a covering set of small protein structures. The length of the aligned region (relative to the whole protein length) does not differ among the top hit proteins, indicating that protein structure space is highly dense. For larger proteins, non-related proteins can cover a significant portion of the structure. Moreover, these top hit proteins are aligned to different parts of the target protein, so that almost the entire molecule can be covered when combined. The number of proteins required to cover a target protein is very small, e.g. the top ten hit proteins can give 90% coverage below a RMSD of 3.5A for proteins up to 320 residues long. These results give a new view of the nature of protein structure space, and its implications for protein structure prediction are discussed.

  17. Wnt5a Is Necessary for Normal Kidney Development in Zebrafish and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liwei; Xiao, An; Choi, Soo Young; Kan, Quane; Zhou, Weibin; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F.; Ryu, Yun Kyoung; McKenna, Sarah; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Kuruvilla, Rejji; Lipschutz, Joshua H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wnt5a is important for the development of various organs and postnatal cellular function. Little is known, however, about the role of Wnt5a in kidney development, although WNT5A mutations were identified in patients with Robinow syndrome, a genetic disease which includes developmental defects in kidneys. Our goal in this study was to determine the role of Wnt5a in kidney development. Methods Whole-mount in situ hybridization was used to establish the expression pattern of Wnt5a during kidney development. Zebrafish with wnt5a knockdown and Wnt5a global knockout mice were used to identify kidney phenotypes. Results In zebrafish, wnt5a knockdown resulted in glomerular cyst formation and dilated renal tubules. In mice, Wnt5a global knockout resulted in pleiotropic, but severe, kidney phenotypes, including agenesis, fused kidney, hydronephrosis and duplex kidney/ureter. Conclusions Our data demonstrated the important role of Wnt5a in kidney development. Disrupted Wnt5a resulted in kidney cysts in zebrafish and pleiotropic abnormal kidney development in mice. PMID:25412793

  18. Genomic organization of the human SCN5A gene encoding the cardiac sodium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qing; Li, Zhizhong; Shen, Jiaxiang; Keating, M.T.

    1996-05-15

    The voltage-gated cardiac sodium channel, SCN5A, is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential. Mutations in the human SCN5A gene cause susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death in the long QT syndrome (LQT). In this report we characterize the genomic structure of SCN5A. SCN5A consists of 28 exons spanning approximately 80 kb on chromosome 3p21. We describe the sequences of all intron/exon boundaries and a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in intron 16. Oligonucleotide primers based on exon-flanking sequences amplify all SCN5A exons by PCR. This work establishes the complete genomic organization of SCN5A and will enable high-resolution analyses of this locus for mutations associated with LQT and other phenotypes for which SCN5A may be a candidate gene. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The human osmoregulatory Na{sup +}/myo-inositol cotransporter gene (SLC5A3): Molecular cloning and localization to chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, G.T.; Mallee, J.J.; Muenke, M.

    1995-01-20

    A human Na{sup +}/myo-inositol cotransporter (SLC5A3) gene was cloned; sequencing revealed a single intron-free open reading frame of 2157 nucleotides. Containing 718 amino acid residues, the predicted protein is highly homologous to the product of the canine osmoregulatory SLC5A3 gene. The SLC5A3 protein is number 3 of the solute carrier family 5 and was previously designated SMIT. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, the human SLC5A3 gene was localized to band q22 on chromosome 21. Many tissues including brain demonstrate gene expression. The inability of a trisomic 21 cell to downregulate expression of three copies of this osmoregulatory gene could result in increased flux of both myo-inositol and Na{sup +} across the plasma membrane. The potential consequences include perturbations in the cell membrane potential and tissue osmolyte levels. The SLC5A3 gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. 54 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePlus

    ... of protein and fat, called lipoproteins (such as LDL cholesterol). ... globulin proteins may indicate: Abnormally low level of LDL cholesterol Malnutrition Increased gamma globulin proteins may indicate: Bone ...

  1. Clinical and molecular characterization of 40 patients with classic Ehlers–Danlos syndrome: identification of 18 COL5A1 and 2 COL5A2 novel mutations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classic Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is a rare autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder that is primarily characterized by skin hyperextensibility, abnormal wound healing/atrophic scars, and joint hypermobility. A recent study demonstrated that more than 90% of patients who satisfy all of these major criteria harbor a type V collagen (COLLV) defect. Methods This cohort included 40 patients with cEDS who were clinically diagnosed according to the Villefranche nosology. The flowchart that was adopted for mutation detection consisted of sequencing the COL5A1 gene and, if no mutation was detected, COL5A2 analysis. In the negative patients the presence of large genomic rearrangements in COL5A1 was investigated using MLPA, and positive results were confirmed via SNP-array analysis. Results We report the clinical and molecular characterization of 40 patients from 28 families, consisting of 14 pediatric patients and 26 adults. A family history of cEDS was present in 9 patients. The majority of the patients fulfilled all the major diagnostic criteria for cEDS; atrophic scars were absent in 2 females, skin hyperextensibility was not detected in a male and joint hypermobility was negative in 8 patients (20% of the entire cohort). Wide inter- and intra-familial phenotypic heterogeneity was observed. We identified causal mutations with a detection rate of approximately 93%. In 25/28 probands, COL5A1 or COL5A2 mutations were detected. Twenty-one mutations were in the COL5A1 gene, 18 of which were novel (2 recurrent). Of these, 16 mutations led to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) and to COLLV haploinsufficiency and 5 mutations were structural. Two novel COL5A2 splice mutations were detected in patients with the most severe phenotypes. The known p. (Arg312Cys) mutation in the COL1A1 gene was identified in one patient with vascular-like cEDS. Conclusions Our findings highlight that the three major criteria for cEDS are useful and sufficient for cEDS clinical

  2. WNT5A Knock-Out Mouse As A New Model of Anorectal Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Cindy C.; Sala, Frederic G.; Ford, Henri R.; Wang, Kasper S.; Minoo, Parviz; Grikscheit, Tracy C.; Bellusci, Saverio

    2009-01-01

    Background Anorectal malformations (ARM) represent a variety of congenital disorders that involve abnormal termination of the anorectum. Mutations in Shh signaling and Fgf10 produce a variety of ARM phenotypes. Wnt signaling has been shown to be crucial during gastrointestinal development. We therefore hypothesized that Wnt5a may play a role in anorectal development. Methods Wild type (WT), Wnt5a+/-, and Wnt5a-/- embryos were harvested from timed pregnant mice from E15.5 to E18.5 and analyzed for anorectal phenotype. Tissues were processed for whole-mount in situ hybridization and histology. Results Wnt5a is expressed in the embryonic WT colon and rectum. Wnt5a-/- mutants exhibit multiple deformities including anorectal malformation. A fistula between the urinary and intestinal tracts can be identified as early as E15.5. By E18.5, the majority of the Wnt5a-/- mutants display a blind-ending pouch of the distal gut. Conclusions The expression pattern of Wnt5a and the ARM phenotype seen in Wnt5a-/- mutants demonstrate the critical role of Wnt5a during anorectal development. This study establishes a new model of ARM involving the Wnt5a pathway. PMID:19577771

  3. Molecular Mechanism of SLC5A8 Inactivation in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Elangovan, Selvakumar; Pathania, Rajneesh; Ramachandran, Sabarish; Ananth, Sudha; Padia, Ravi N.; Srinivas, Sonne R.; Babu, Ellappan; Hawthorn, Lesleyann; Schoenlein, Patricia V.; Boettger, Thomas; Smith, Sylvia B.; Prasad, Puttur D.; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2013-01-01

    SLC5A8 is a putative tumor suppressor that is inactivated in more than 10 different types of cancer, but neither the oncogenic signaling responsible for SLC5A8 inactivation nor the functional relevance of SLC5A8 loss to tumor growth has been elucidated. Here, we identify oncogenic HRAS (HRASG12V) as a potent mediator of SLC5A8 silencing in human nontransformed normal mammary epithelial cell lines and in mouse mammary tumors through DNMT1. Further, we demonstrate that loss of Slc5a8 increases cancer-initiating stem cell formation and promotes mammary tumorigenesis and lung metastasis in an HRAS-driven murine model of mammary tumors. Mammary-gland-specific overexpression of Slc5a8 (mouse mammary tumor virus-Slc5a8 transgenic mice), as well as induction of endogenous Slc5a8 in mice with inhibitors of DNA methylation, protects against HRAS-driven mammary tumors. Collectively, our results provide the tumor-suppressive role of SLC5A8 and identify the oncogenic HRAS as a mediator of tumor-associated silencing of this tumor suppressor in mammary glands. These findings suggest that pharmacological approaches to reactivate SLC5A8 expression in tumor cells have potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for breast cancer treatment. PMID:23918800

  4. Complex Pattern of Resistance-Associated Substitutions of Hepatitis C Virus after Daclatasvir/Asunaprevir Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hasebe, Chitomi; Osaki, Yukio; Joko, Kouji; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Sakita, Shinya; Okushin, Hiroaki; Satou, Takashi; Hisai, Hiroyuki; Abe, Takehiko; Tsuji, Keiji; Tamada, Takashi; Kobashi, Haruhiko; Mitsuda, Akeri; Ide, Yasushi; Ogawa, Chikara; Tsuruta, Syotaro; Takaguchi, Kouichi; Murakawa, Miyako; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Izumi, Namiki

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds & Aims We aimed to clarify the characteristics of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) after treatment failure with NS5A inhibitor, daclatasvir (DCV) in combination with NS3/4A inhibitor, asunaprevir (ASV), in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection. Methods This is a nationwide multicenter study conducted by the Japanese Red Cross Liver Study Group. The sera were obtained from 68 patients with virological failure after 24 weeks of DCV/ASV treatment. RASs in NS5A and NS3 were determined by population sequencing. Results The frequency of signature RASs at position D168 of NS3 was 68%, and at positions L31 and Y93 of NS5A was 79 and 76%, respectively. The frequency of dual signature RASs in NS5A (L31-RAS and Y93-RAS) was 63%. RASs at L28, R30, P32, Q54, P58, and A92 in addition to dual signature RAS were detected in 5, 5, 1, 22, 2, and 0 patients, respectively. In total, triple, quadruple, and quintuple RASs in combination with dual signature RAS were detected in 35, 10, and 1.5% patients, respectively. These RASs were detected in patients without baseline RASs or who prematurely discontinued therapy. Co-existence of D168 RAS in NS3 and L31 and/or Y93 RAS in NS5A was observed in 62% of patients. Conclusion Treatment-emergent RASs after failure with DCV/ASV combination therapy are highly complex in more than 50% of the patients. The identification of complex RAS patterns, which may indicate high levels of resistance to NS5A inhibitors, highlights the need for RAS sequencing when considering re-treatment with regimens including NS5A inhibitors. PMID:27776192

  5. Drosophila SLC5A11 Mediates Hunger by Regulating K(+) Channel Activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Yong; Dus, Monica; Kim, Seonil; Abu, Farhan; Kanai, Makoto I; Rudy, Bernardo; Suh, Greg S B

    2016-08-01

    Hunger is a powerful drive that stimulates food intake. Yet, the mechanism that determines how the energy deficits that result in hunger are represented in the brain and promote feeding is not well understood. We previously described SLC5A11-a sodium/solute co-transporter-like-(or cupcake) in Drosophila melanogaster, which is required for the fly to select a nutritive sugar over a sweeter nonnutritive sugar after periods of food deprivation. SLC5A11 acts on approximately 12 pairs of ellipsoid body (EB) R4 neurons to trigger the selection of nutritive sugars, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here, we report that the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing EB R4 neurons increases dramatically during starvation and that this increase is abolished in the SLC5A11 mutation. Artificial activation of SLC5A11-expresssing neurons is sufficient to promote feeding and hunger-driven behaviors; silencing these neurons has the opposite effect. Notably, SLC5A11 transcript levels in the brain increase significantly when flies are starved and decrease shortly after starved flies are refed. Furthermore, expression of SLC5A11 is sufficient for promoting hunger-driven behaviors and enhancing the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons. SLC5A11 inhibits the function of the Drosophila KCNQ potassium channel in a heterologous expression system. Accordingly, a knockdown of dKCNQ expression in SLC5A11-expressing neurons produces hunger-driven behaviors even in fed flies, mimicking the overexpression of SLC5A11. We propose that starvation increases SLC5A11 expression, which enhances the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons by suppressing dKCNQ channels, thereby conferring the hunger state. PMID:27397890

  6. Nociceptive sensitization by complement C5a and C3a in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jun Ho; Clark, J. David; Li, Xiangqi; Yorek, Matthew S.; Usachev, Yuriy M.; Brennan, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the complement system by injury increases inflammation by producing complement fragments C5a and C3a which are able to recruit and activate immune cells. Complement activation may contribute to pain after inflammation and injury. In the present study, we examined whether C5a and C3a elicit nociception when injected into mouse hind paws in vivo, and whether C5a and C3a activate and/or sensitize mechanosensitive nociceptors when applied on peripheral terminals in vitro. We also examined the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for C5a receptor (C5aR) mRNA and effects of C5a and C3a on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) using Ca2+ imaging. Heat hyperalgesia was elicited by intraplantar injection of C5a, and mechanical hyperalgesia by C5a and C3a. After exposure to either C5a or C3a, C-nociceptors were sensitized to heat as evidenced by an increased proportion of heat responsive fibers, lowered response threshold to heat and increased action potentials during and after heat stimulation. A-nociceptors were activated by complement. However, no change was observed in mechanical responses of A- and C- nociceptors after C5a and C3a application. The presence of C5aR mRNA was detected in DRG. C5a and C3a application elevated [Ca2+]i and facilitated capsaicin-induced [Ca2+]i responses in DRG neurons. The results suggest a potential role for complement fragments C5a and C3a in nociception by activating and sensitizing cutaneous nociceptors. PMID:20031321

  7. Autocrine stimulation of osteoblast activity by Wnt5a in response to TNF-α in human mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Briolay, A.; Lencel, P.; Caverzasio, J.; Buchet, R.; Magne, D.

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) leads to bone fusions and ankylosis. ► TNF-α stimulates osteoblasts through growth factors in AS. ► We compare the involvement of canonical vs non-canonical Wnt signaling. ► Canonical Wnt signaling is not involved in TNF-α effects in differentiating hMSCs. ► TNF-α stimulates osteoblasts through Wnt5a autocrine secretion in hMSCs. -- Abstract: Although anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α treatments efficiently block inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), they are inefficient to prevent excessive bone formation. In AS, ossification seems more prone to develop in sites where inflammation has resolved following anti-TNF therapy, suggesting that TNF-α indirectly stimulates ossification. In this context, our objectives were to determine and compare the involvement of Wnt proteins, which are potent growth factors of bone formation, in the effects of TNF-α on osteoblast function. In human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), TNF-α significantly increased the levels of Wnt10b and Wnt5a. Associated with this effect, TNF-α stimulated tissue-non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and mineralization. This effect was mimicked by activation of the canonical β-catenin pathway with either anti-Dkk1 antibodies, lithium chloride (LiCl) or SB216763. TNF-α reduced, and activation of β-catenin had little effect on expression of osteocalcin, a late marker of osteoblast differentiation. Surprisingly, TNF-α failed to stabilize β-catenin and Dkk1 did not inhibit TNF-α effects. In fact, Dkk1 expression was also enhanced in response to TNF-α, perhaps explaining why canonical signaling by Wnt10b was not activated by TNF-α. However, we found that Wnt5a also stimulated TNAP in MSCs cultured in osteogenic conditions, and increased the levels of inflammatory markers such as COX-2. Interestingly, treatment with anti-Wnt5a antibodies reduced endogenous TNAP expression and activity. Collectively, these data suggest that increased

  8. Experimental Malaria in Pregnancy Induces Neurocognitive Injury in Uninfected Offspring via a C5a-C5a Receptor Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Chloë R.; Cahill, Lindsay S.; Ho, Keith T.; Yang, Jimmy; Kim, Hani; Silver, Karlee L.; Ward, Peter A.; Mount, Howard T.; Liles, W. Conrad; Sled, John G.; Kain, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    The in utero environment profoundly impacts childhood neurodevelopment and behaviour. A substantial proportion of pregnancies in Africa are at risk of malaria in pregnancy (MIP) however the impact of in utero exposure to MIP on fetal neurodevelopment is unknown. Complement activation, in particular C5a, may contribute to neuropathology and adverse outcomes during MIP. We used an experimental model of MIP and standardized neurocognitive testing, MRI, micro-CT and HPLC analysis of neurotransmitter levels, to test the hypothesis that in utero exposure to malaria alters neurodevelopment through a C5a-C5aR dependent pathway. We show that malaria-exposed offspring have persistent neurocognitive deficits in memory and affective-like behaviour compared to unexposed controls. These deficits were associated with reduced regional brain levels of major biogenic amines and BDNF that were rescued by disruption of C5a-C5aR signaling using genetic and functional approaches. Our results demonstrate that experimental MIP induces neurocognitive deficits in offspring and suggest novel targets for intervention. PMID:26402732

  9. Experimental Malaria in Pregnancy Induces Neurocognitive Injury in Uninfected Offspring via a C5a-C5a Receptor Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Chloë R; Cahill, Lindsay S; Ho, Keith T; Yang, Jimmy; Kim, Hani; Silver, Karlee L; Ward, Peter A; Mount, Howard T; Liles, W Conrad; Sled, John G; Kain, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    The in utero environment profoundly impacts childhood neurodevelopment and behaviour. A substantial proportion of pregnancies in Africa are at risk of malaria in pregnancy (MIP) however the impact of in utero exposure to MIP on fetal neurodevelopment is unknown. Complement activation, in particular C5a, may contribute to neuropathology and adverse outcomes during MIP. We used an experimental model of MIP and standardized neurocognitive testing, MRI, micro-CT and HPLC analysis of neurotransmitter levels, to test the hypothesis that in utero exposure to malaria alters neurodevelopment through a C5a-C5aR dependent pathway. We show that malaria-exposed offspring have persistent neurocognitive deficits in memory and affective-like behaviour compared to unexposed controls. These deficits were associated with reduced regional brain levels of major biogenic amines and BDNF that were rescued by disruption of C5a-C5aR signaling using genetic and functional approaches. Our results demonstrate that experimental MIP induces neurocognitive deficits in offspring and suggest novel targets for intervention. PMID:26402732

  10. Major involvement of Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter (SLC5A6/SMVT) in uptake of biotin and pantothenic acid by human brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasuo; Ito, Katsuaki; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Takashi; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression of Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter (SLC5A6/SMVT) and its contribution to the supply of biotin and pantothenic acid to the human brain via the blood-brain barrier. DNA microarray and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that SLC5A6 is expressed in microvessels of human brain. The absolute expression levels of SLC5A6 protein in isolated human and monkey brain microvessels were 1.19 and 0.597 fmol/μg protein, respectively, as determined by a quantitative targeted absolute proteomics technique. Using an antibody-free method established by Kubo et al. (2015), we found that SLC5A6 was preferentially localized at the luminal membrane of brain capillary endothelium. Knock-down analysis using SLC5A6 siRNA showed that SLC5A6 accounts for 88.7% and 98.6% of total [(3) H]biotin and [(3) H]pantothenic acid uptakes, respectively, by human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. SLC5A6-mediated transport in hCMEC/D3 was markedly inhibited not only by biotin and pantothenic acid, but also by prostaglandin E2, lipoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, indomethacin, ketoprofen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, phenylbutazone, and flurbiprofen. This study is the first to confirm expression of SLC5A6 in human brain microvessels and to provide evidence that SLC5A6 is a major contributor to luminal uptake of biotin and pantothenic acid at the human blood-brain barrier. In humans, it was unclear (not concluded) about what transport system at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is responsible for the brain uptakes of two vitamins, biotin and pantothenic acid, which are necessary for brain proper function. This study clarified for the first time that the solute carrier 5A6/Na(+) -dependent multivitamin transporter SLC5A6/SMVT is responsible for the supplies of biotin and pantothenic acid into brain across the BBB in humans. DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PGE2, prostaglandin E2.

  11. Hypotonic Activation of the Myo-Inositol Transporter SLC5A3 in HEK293 Cells Probed by Cell Volumetry, Confocal and Super-Resolution Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Andronic, Joseph; Shirakashi, Ryo; Pickel, Simone U.; Westerling, Katherine M.; Klein, Teresa; Holm, Thorge; Sauer, Markus; Sukhorukov, Vladimir L.

    2015-01-01

    Swelling-activated pathways for myo-inositol, one of the most abundant organic osmolytes in mammalian cells, have not yet been identified. The present study explores the SLC5A3 protein as a possible transporter of myo-inositol in hyponically swollen HEK293 cells. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between the hypotonicity-induced changes in plasma membrane permeability to myo-inositol Pino [m/s] and expression/localization of SLC5A3. Pino values were determined by cell volumetry over a wide tonicity range (100–275 mOsm) in myo-inositol-substituted solutions. While being negligible under mild hypotonicity (200–275 mOsm), Pino grew rapidly at osmolalities below 200 mOsm to reach a maximum of ∼3 nm/s at 100–125 mOsm, as indicated by fast cell swelling due to myo-inositol influx. The increase in Pino resulted most likely from the hypotonicity-mediated incorporation of cytosolic SLC5A3 into the plasma membrane, as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells expressing EGFP-tagged SLC5A3 and super-resolution imaging of immunostained SLC5A3 by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). dSTORM in hypotonic cells revealed a surface density of membrane-associated SLC5A3 proteins of 200–2000 localizations/μm2. Assuming SLC5A3 to be the major path for myo-inositol, a turnover rate of 80–800 myo-inositol molecules per second for a single transporter protein was estimated from combined volumetric and dSTORM data. Hypotonic stress also caused a significant upregulation of SLC5A3 gene expression as detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In summary, our data provide first evidence for swelling-mediated activation of SLC5A3 thus suggesting a functional role of this transporter in hypotonic volume regulation of mammalian cells. PMID:25756525

  12. Hypotonic activation of the myo-inositol transporter SLC5A3 in HEK293 cells probed by cell volumetry, confocal and super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Andronic, Joseph; Shirakashi, Ryo; Pickel, Simone U; Westerling, Katherine M; Klein, Teresa; Holm, Thorge; Sauer, Markus; Sukhorukov, Vladimir L

    2015-01-01

    Swelling-activated pathways for myo-inositol, one of the most abundant organic osmolytes in mammalian cells, have not yet been identified. The present study explores the SLC5A3 protein as a possible transporter of myo-inositol in hyponically swollen HEK293 cells. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between the hypotonicity-induced changes in plasma membrane permeability to myo-inositol P ino [m/s] and expression/localization of SLC5A3. P ino values were determined by cell volumetry over a wide tonicity range (100-275 mOsm) in myo-inositol-substituted solutions. While being negligible under mild hypotonicity (200-275 mOsm), P ino grew rapidly at osmolalities below 200 mOsm to reach a maximum of ∼ 3 nm/s at 100-125 mOsm, as indicated by fast cell swelling due to myo-inositol influx. The increase in P ino resulted most likely from the hypotonicity-mediated incorporation of cytosolic SLC5A3 into the plasma membrane, as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells expressing EGFP-tagged SLC5A3 and super-resolution imaging of immunostained SLC5A3 by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). dSTORM in hypotonic cells revealed a surface density of membrane-associated SLC5A3 proteins of 200-2000 localizations/μm2. Assuming SLC5A3 to be the major path for myo-inositol, a turnover rate of 80-800 myo-inositol molecules per second for a single transporter protein was estimated from combined volumetric and dSTORM data. Hypotonic stress also caused a significant upregulation of SLC5A3 gene expression as detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In summary, our data provide first evidence for swelling-mediated activation of SLC5A3 thus suggesting a functional role of this transporter in hypotonic volume regulation of mammalian cells. PMID:25756525

  13. Hypotonic activation of the myo-inositol transporter SLC5A3 in HEK293 cells probed by cell volumetry, confocal and super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Andronic, Joseph; Shirakashi, Ryo; Pickel, Simone U; Westerling, Katherine M; Klein, Teresa; Holm, Thorge; Sauer, Markus; Sukhorukov, Vladimir L

    2015-01-01

    Swelling-activated pathways for myo-inositol, one of the most abundant organic osmolytes in mammalian cells, have not yet been identified. The present study explores the SLC5A3 protein as a possible transporter of myo-inositol in hyponically swollen HEK293 cells. To address this issue, we examined the relationship between the hypotonicity-induced changes in plasma membrane permeability to myo-inositol P ino [m/s] and expression/localization of SLC5A3. P ino values were determined by cell volumetry over a wide tonicity range (100-275 mOsm) in myo-inositol-substituted solutions. While being negligible under mild hypotonicity (200-275 mOsm), P ino grew rapidly at osmolalities below 200 mOsm to reach a maximum of ∼ 3 nm/s at 100-125 mOsm, as indicated by fast cell swelling due to myo-inositol influx. The increase in P ino resulted most likely from the hypotonicity-mediated incorporation of cytosolic SLC5A3 into the plasma membrane, as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells expressing EGFP-tagged SLC5A3 and super-resolution imaging of immunostained SLC5A3 by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM). dSTORM in hypotonic cells revealed a surface density of membrane-associated SLC5A3 proteins of 200-2000 localizations/μm2. Assuming SLC5A3 to be the major path for myo-inositol, a turnover rate of 80-800 myo-inositol molecules per second for a single transporter protein was estimated from combined volumetric and dSTORM data. Hypotonic stress also caused a significant upregulation of SLC5A3 gene expression as detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In summary, our data provide first evidence for swelling-mediated activation of SLC5A3 thus suggesting a functional role of this transporter in hypotonic volume regulation of mammalian cells.

  14. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 regulates the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via pathways involving reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong-Rong; Lv, Ya-Su; Tang, Yue-Xiao; Wang, Yan-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Xiao; Xie, Shang-Zhi; Cai, Ying; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Ning

    2016-04-26

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2) has been identified as a critical gene in tumor metastasis. Research has suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as signaling molecules in cancer cell proliferation and migration. However, the mechanisms linking eIF5A2 and ROS are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of ROS on the eIF5A2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration in six hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Western hybridization, siRNA transfection, transwell migration assays, wound-healing assays, and immunofluorescence analysis were used. The protein levels of eIF5A2 in tumor and adjacent tissue samples from 90 HCC patients with detailed clinical, pathological, and clinical follow-up data were evaluated. Overexpression of eIF5A2 was found in cancerous tissues compared with adjacent tissues. We found that eIF5A2 overexpression in HCC was associated with reduced overall survival. Knockdown of eIF5A2 and intracellular reduction of ROS significantly suppressed the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells. Interestingly, N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC7) suppressed the intracellular ROS levels. After blocking the EMT, administration of GC7 or N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not reduce cell migration further. Based on the experimental data, we concluded that inhibition of eIF5A2 alters progression of the EMT to decrease the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells via ROS-related pathways. PMID:27028999

  15. C5a Induces the Synthesis of IL-6 and TNF-α in Rat Glomerular Mesangial Cells through MAPK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mingde; Lu, Yanlai; Zhao, Chenhui; Gao, Wenxing; He, Fengxia; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Dan; Qiu, Wen; Wang, Yingwei

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory response has been reported to contribute to the renal lesions in rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N) as an animal model of human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN). Besides C5b-9 complex, C5a is also a potent pro-inflammatory mediator and correlated to severity of various nephritic diseases. However, the role of C5a in mediating pro-inflammatory cytokine production in rats with Thy-1N is poorly defined. In the present studies, the levels of C5a, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were first determined in the renal tissues of rats with Thy-1N. Then, the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α was detected in rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) stimulated with our recombinant rat C5a in vitro. Subsequently, the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways (p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and JNK) and their roles in the regulation of IL-6 and TNF-α production were examined in the GMC induced by C5a. The results showed that the levels of C5a, IL-6 and TNF-α were markedly increased in the renal tissues of Thy-1N rats. Rat C5a stimulation in vitro could up-regulate the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in rat GMC, and the activation of MAPK signaling pathways was involved in the induction of IL-6 and TNF-α. Mechanically, p38 MAPK activation promoted IL-6 production, while either ERK1/2 or JNK activation promoted TNF-α production in the GMC with exposure to C5a. Taken together, these data implicate that C5a induces the synthesis of IL-6 and TNF-α in rat GMC through the activation of MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27583546

  16. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 regulates the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via pathways involving reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yue-Xiao; Wang, Yan-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Xiao; Xie, Shang-Zhi; Cai, Ying; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2) has been identified as a critical gene in tumor metastasis. Research has suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as signaling molecules in cancer cell proliferation and migration. However, the mechanisms linking eIF5A2 and ROS are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of ROS on the eIF5A2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration in six hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Western hybridization, siRNA transfection, transwell migration assays, wound-healing assays, and immunofluorescence analysis were used. The protein levels of eIF5A2 in tumor and adjacent tissue samples from 90 HCC patients with detailed clinical, pathological, and clinical follow-up data were evaluated. Overexpression of eIF5A2 was found in cancerous tissues compared with adjacent tissues. We found that eIF5A2 overexpression in HCC was associated with reduced overall survival. Knockdown of eIF5A2 and intracellular reduction of ROS significantly suppressed the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells. Interestingly, N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC7) suppressed the intracellular ROS levels. After blocking the EMT, administration of GC7 or N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not reduce cell migration further. Based on the experimental data, we concluded that inhibition of eIF5A2 alters progression of the EMT to decrease the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells via ROS-related pathways. PMID:27028999

  17. Targeting the minor pocket of C5aR for the rational design of an oral allosteric inhibitor for inflammatory and neuropathic pain relief

    PubMed Central

    Moriconi, Alessio; Cunha, Thiago M.; Souza, Guilherme R.; Lopes, Alexandre H.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Carneiro, Victor L.; Pinto, Larissa G.; Brandolini, Laura; Aramini, Andrea; Bizzarri, Cinzia; Bianchini, Gianluca; Beccari, Andrea R.; Fanton, Marco; Bruno, Agostino; Costantino, Gabriele; Bertini, Riccardo; Galliera, Emanuela; Locati, Massimo; Ferreira, Sérgio H.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Allegretti, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain resulting from inflammatory and neuropathic disorders causes considerable economic and social burden. Pharmacological therapies currently available for certain types of pain are only partially effective and may cause severe adverse side effects. The C5a anaphylatoxin acting on its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), C5aR, is a potent pronociceptive mediator in several models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Although there has long been interest in the identification of C5aR inhibitors, their development has been complicated, as for many peptidomimetic drugs, mostly by poor drug-like properties. Herein, we report the de novo design of a potent and selective C5aR noncompetitive allosteric inhibitor, DF2593A, guided by the hypothesis that an allosteric site, the “minor pocket,” previously characterized in CXC chemokine receptors-1 and -2, is functionally conserved in the GPCR class. In vitro, DF2593A potently inhibited C5a-induced migration of human and rodent neutrophils. In vivo, oral administration of DF2593A effectively reduced mechanical hyperalgesia in several models of acute and chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain, without any apparent side effects. Mechanical hyperalgesia after spared nerve injury was also reduced in C5aR−/− mice compared with WT mice. Furthermore, treatment of C5aR−/− mice with DF2593A did not produce any further antinociceptive effect compared with C5aR−/− mice treated with vehicle. The successful medicinal chemistry strategy confirms that a conserved minor pocket is amenable for the rational design of selective inhibitors and the pharmacological results support that the allosteric blockade of the C5aR represents a highly promising therapeutic approach to control chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PMID:25385614

  18. The complement component C5a receptor mediates pain and inflammation in a postsurgical pain model.

    PubMed

    Liang, De-Yong; Li, XiangQi; Shi, Xiaoyu; Sun, Yuan; Sahbaie, Peyman; Li, Wen-Wu; Clark, J David

    2012-02-01

    The complement system is an important part of innate immunity. Complement activation generates a set of effector molecules with diverse biological functions. C5a is a crucial terminal component of the complement cascade. Several reports suggest that C5a can support nociceptive sensitization and inflammation in various models, including models of incisional pain. However, information concerning the differential effects of C5a on specific modalities of nociception, the role of C5a in supporting neutrophil infiltration, secondary nociceptive mediator generation, and the location of the relevant populations of C5a receptors supporting incisional sensitization are needed. In these studies we utilized C5a receptor-null mice (C5aR(-/-)) and matched controls to study nociceptive changes after hind paw incision. Heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were measured for 4 days after incision. We also followed hind paw edema, wound area neutrophil infiltration using the myeloperoxidase assay, and interleukin-1β and nerve growth factor levels using both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical techniques. The main findings were: (1) Heat vs mechanical nociceptive sensitization after incision were differentially reduced in C5aR(-/-) mice, with thermal sensitization affected throughout the postincisional period but mechanical sensitization affected only at later time points; (2) Edema developed after incision in wild-type mice but only slightly and transiently in C5aR(-/-) mice, and (3) Deletion of C5aR blocked interleukin-1β and nerve growth factor production near the wound site. These findings demonstrate that the complement system component C5a is a novel biomarker and mediator associated with postsurgical nociceptive processing. C5aR may provide a novel target for the control of pain and inflammation after surgery.

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-5a - Cargo area-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo area-TB/ALL. 30.10-5a Section 30.10-5a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-5a Cargo area—TB/ALL. The term cargo area means that part of a vessel that includes the cargo tanks...

  4. Protein sulfhydration.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bindu D; Snyder, Solomon H

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the gasotransmitters that modulates various biological processes and participates in multiple signaling pathways. H2S signals by a process termed sulfhydration. Sulfhydration has recently been recognized as a posttranslational modification similar to nitrosylation. Sulfhydration occurs at reactive cysteine residues in proteins and results in the conversion of an -SH group of cysteine to an -SSH or a persulfide group. Sulfhydration is highly prevalent in vivo, and aberrant sulfhydration patterns have been observed under several pathological conditions ranging from heart disease to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. The biotin switch assay, originally developed to detect nitrosylation, has been modified to detect sulfhydration. In this chapter, we discuss the physiological roles of sulfhydration and the methodologies used to detect this modification.

  5. Comparisons of subunit 5A and 5B isoenzymes of yeast cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Dodia, Raksha; Meunier, Brigitte; Kay, Christopher W. M.; Rich, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Subunit 5 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is essential for assembly and has two isoforms, 5A and 5B. 5A is expressed under normoxic conditions, whereas 5B is expressed at very low oxygen tensions. As a consequence, COX5A-deleted strains (Δcox5A) have no or only low levels of CcO under normoxic conditions rendering them respiratory deficient. Previous studies have reported that respiratory growth could be restored by combining Δcox5A with mutations of ROX1 that encodes a repressor of COX5B expression. In these mutants, 5B isoenzyme expression level was 30–50% of wild-type (5A isoenzyme) and exhibited a maximum catalytic activity up to 3-fold faster than that of 5A isoenzyme. To investigate the origin of this effect, we constructed a mutant strain in which COX5B replaced COX5A downstream of the COX5A promoter. This strain expressed wild-type levels of the 5B isoenzyme, without the complication of additional effects caused by mutation of ROX1. When produced this way, the isoenzymes displayed no significant differences in their maximum catalytic activities or in their affinities for oxygen or cytochrome c. Hence the elevated activity of the 5B isoenzyme in the rox1 mutant is not caused simply by exchange of isoforms and must arise from an additional effect that remains to be resolved. PMID:25241981

  6. C5A Protects Macaques from Vaginal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Chatterji, Udayan; Bobardt, Michael; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E.; Li, Jian; Wang, Xiaolei

    2015-01-01

    A safe and effective vaginal microbicide could decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in women. Here, we evaluated the safety and microbicidal efficacy of a short amphipathic peptide, C5A, in a rhesus macaque model. We found that a vaginal application of C5A protects 89% of the macaques from a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-162P3) challenge. We observed no signs of lesions or inflammation in animals vaginally treated with repeated C5A applications. With its noncellular cytotoxic activity and rare mechanism of action, C5A represents an attractive microbicidal candidate. PMID:26552985

  7. The Complement Anaphylatoxin C5a Induces Apoptosis in Adrenomedullary Cells during Experimental Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Flierl, Michael A.; Rittirsch, Daniel; Chen, Anthony J.; Nadeau, Brian A.; Day, Danielle E.; Sarma, J. Vidya; Huber-Lang, Markus S.; Ward, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis remains a poorly understood, enigmatic disease. One of the cascades crucially involved in its pathogenesis is the complement system. Especially the anaphylatoxin C5a has been shown to have numerous harmful effects during sepsis. We have investigated the impact of high levels of C5a on the adrenal medulla following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in rats as well as the role of C5a on catecholamine production from pheochromocytoma-derived PC12 cells. There was significant apoptosis of adrenal medulla cells in rats 24 hrs after CLP, as assessed by the TUNEL technique. These effects could be reversed by dual-blockade of the C5a receptors, C5aR and C5L2. When rats were subjected to CLP, levels of C5a and norepinephrine were found to be antipodal as a function of time. PC12 cell production of norepinephrine and dopamine was significantly blunted following exposure to recombinant rat C5a in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. This impaired production could be related to C5a-induced initiation of apoptosis as defined by binding of Annexin V and Propidium Iodine to PC12 cells. Collectively, we describe a C5a-dependent induction of apoptotic events in cells of adrenal medulla in vivo and pheochromocytoma PC12 cells in vitro. These data suggest that experimental sepsis induces apoptosis of adrenomedullary cells, which are responsible for the bulk of endogenous catecholamines. Septic shock may be linked to these events. Since blockade of both C5a receptors virtually abolished adrenomedullary apoptosis in vivo, C5aR and C5L2 become promising targets with implications on future complement-blocking strategies in the clinical setting of sepsis. PMID:18648551

  8. Role of the complement anaphylatoxin C5a-receptor pathway in atopic dermatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    DANG, LIN; HE, LEI; WANG, YAN; XIONG, JIKUI; BAI, BINGXUE; LI, YUZHEN

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a genetic background. The C5a-receptor (C5aR) pathway has been reported to be involved in AD; however, the precise pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the contribution of the C5aR pathway to AD in mice was investigated. A BALB/c mouse model of AD was induced by application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) onto hairless dorsal skin. Following DNCB application for 2 weeks, C5aR expression in skin tissue was assessed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. C5aR expression in skin tissue was significantly increased in mice with AD. In an additional experiment, C5aR antagonist (C5aRA) intracutaneously injected in combination with DNCB treatment. The skin-fold thickness, number of total infiltrating leukocytes and mast cells infiltrating in skin tissue were measured. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels in skin tissue and IL-4, IFN-γ, histamine and immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in serum were measured using ELISA. The skin-fold thickness, numbers of total infiltrating leukocytes and mast cells in skin tissue, as well as levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, histamine and IgE were significantly increased in mice with AD. However, simultaneous treatment with C5aRA significantly attenuated increases in skin fold thickness and the numbers of total infiltrating leukocytes and mast cells in skin tissue. Treatment with C5aRA also decreased IL-4 and IFN-γ levels in skin tissue, as well as the levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, histamine and IgE in the serum. In conclusion, C5aRA inhibited AD in mice, possibly through suppression of the C5aR-mediated cascade action of mast cells. PMID:25650554

  9. Burkitt’s lymphoma-associated c-Myc mutations converge on a dramatically altered target gene response and implicate Nol5a/Nop56 in oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cowling, Victoria H.; Turner, Scott A.; Cole, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Burkitt’s Lymphomas (BLs) acquire consistent point mutations in a conserved domain of Myc, Myc Box I. We report that the enhanced transforming activity of BL-associated Myc mutants can be uncoupled from loss of phosphorylation and increased protein stability. Furthermore, two different BL-associated Myc mutations induced similar gene expression profiles independently of T58 phosphorylation, and these profiles are dramatically different from MycWT. Nol5a/Nop56, which is required for rRNA methylation, was identified as a gene hyperactivated by the BL-associated Myc mutants. We show that Nol5a is necessary for Myc-induced cell transformation, enhances MycWT-induced cell transformation, and increases the size of MycWT induced tumors. Thus, Nol5a expands the link between Myc-induced regulation of nucleolar target genes which are rate-limiting for cell transformation and tumor growth. PMID:24013231

  10. Sphingosine-1-phosphate-enhanced Wnt5a promotes osteogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yoko; Kobayashi, Mari; Matsuzaki, Etsuko; Higashi, Katsumasa; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Takano, Aiko; Hirata, Masato; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the involvement of Wnt signaling in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-enhanced osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 pluripotent stem cells. We found that S1P enhanced the expression of Wnt5a and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 or 6 (LRP5/6) during osteogenic differentiation. Wnt5a-neutralizing antibody inhibited S1P-enhanced expression of LRP5/6 and alkaline phosphatase, which are essential for osteogenic differentiation. Conversely, S1P did not affect endogenous canonical Wnt signaling. Taken together, S1P-enhanced Wnt5a promotes LRP5/6 expression, resulting in the trigger of osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. These findings suggest a potential beneficial role for S1P in bone regeneration. PMID:27486054

  11. Sphingosine-1-phosphate-enhanced Wnt5a promotes osteogenic differentiation in C3H10T1/2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yoko; Kobayashi, Mari; Matsuzaki, Etsuko; Higashi, Katsumasa; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Takano, Aiko; Hirata, Masato; Nishimura, Fusanori

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the involvement of Wnt signaling in sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-enhanced osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 pluripotent stem cells. We found that S1P enhanced the expression of Wnt5a and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 or 6 (LRP5/6) during osteogenic differentiation. Wnt5a-neutralizing antibody inhibited S1P-enhanced expression of LRP5/6 and alkaline phosphatase, which are essential for osteogenic differentiation. Conversely, S1P did not affect endogenous canonical Wnt signaling. Taken together, S1P-enhanced Wnt5a promotes LRP5/6 expression, resulting in the trigger of osteogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells. These findings suggest a potential beneficial role for S1P in bone regeneration.

  12. Wingless ligand 5a is a critical regulator of placental growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt, Gudrun; Saleh, Leila; Otti, Gerlinde R.; Haider, Sandra; Velicky, Philipp; Fiala, Christian; Pollheimer, Jürgen; Knöfler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The maternal uterine environment is likely critical for human placental morphogenesis and development of its different trophoblast subtypes. However, factors controlling growth and differentiation of these cells during early gestation remain poorly elucidated. Herein, we provide evidence that the ligand Wnt5a could be a critical regulator of trophoblast proliferation and survival. Immunofluorescence of tissues and western blot analyses of primary cultures revealed abundant Wnt5a expression and secretion from first trimester decidual and villous stromal cells. The ligand was also detectable in decidual glands, macrophages and NK cells. Wnt5a increased proliferation of villous cytotrophoblasts and cell column trophoblasts, outgrowth on collagen I as well as cyclin A and D1 expression in floating explant cultures, but suppressed camptothecin-induced apoptosis. Similarly, Wnt5a stimulated BrdU incorporation and decreased caspase-cleaved cytokeratin 18 neo-epitope expression in primary cytotrophoblasts. Moreover, Wnt5a promoted activation of the MAPK pathway in the different trophoblast models. Chemical inhibition of p42/44 MAPK abolished cyclin D1 expression and Wnt5a-stimulated proliferation. Compared to controls, MAPK phosphorylation and proliferation of cytotrophoblasts declined upon supplementation of supernatants from Wnt5a gene-silenced decidual or villous stromal cells. In summary, non-canonical Wnt5a signalling could play a role in early human trophoblast development by promoting cell proliferation and survival. PMID:27311852

  13. Anaphylatoxin C5a fails to promote prostacyclin release from cultured human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lunberg, C.; Marceau, F.; Huey, R.; Hugli, T.E.

    1986-03-01

    A predominantly relaxing effect of C5a on isolated blood vessels has been reported, which is associated with prostacyclin release from the vessel wall. Further, the well known hypothensive effect of C5a, also associated with increased prostacyclin output and preventable by indomethacin, indicates an involvement of endothelial cells in this reaction. In this study the authors characterized the response to C5a of cultured human endothelial cells from umbilical vein as measured by prostacyclin release. Prostacyclin was quantitated by radioimmunoassay as 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../. Subcultured cells respond to histamine and mellitin with increased prostacyclin production, but do not respond to leukotriene C4 (LTC/sub 4/). Primary cultures, on the other hand, respond to LTC/sub 4/ and the histamine response is 7-fold greater for these cells than for subcultured cells. However, neither primary nor subcultured cells release prostacyclin following application of either human C5a (100 nM) or C3a (1 ..mu..M). Also, these cells fail to show specific binding sites for /sup 125/I-C5a. In contrast, endothelial cells in the presence of human PMNs challenged with C5a release prostacyclin. These data suggest that C5a has no direct effect on the endothelial cell, but rather activates this cell indirectly via mediators from other cells known to respond to C5a.

  14. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. Detail drawings of several assemblies and subassemblies are given. This is the fifth book of volume 4.

  15. Cloning of three novel neuronal Cdk5 activator binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Ching, Y P; Qi, Z; Wang, J H

    2000-01-25

    Neuronal Cdc2-like kinase (Nclk) is involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation and neuro-cytoskeleton dynamics. The active kinase consists of a catalytic subunit, Cdk5, and a 25 kDa activator protein (p25nck5a) derived from a 35 kDa neuronal-specific protein (p35nck5a). As an extension of our previous study (Qi, Z., Tang, D., Zhu, X., Fujita, D.J., Wang, J.H., 1998. Association of neurofilament proteins with neuronal Cdk5 activator. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 2329-2335), which showed that neurofilament is one of the p35nck5a-associated proteins, we now report the isolation of three other novel p35nck5a-associated proteins using the yeast two-hybrid screen. The full-length forms of these three novel proteins, designated C42, C48 and C53, have a molecular mass of 66, 24, and 57 kDa, respectively. Northern analysis indicates that these novel proteins are widely expressed in human tissues, including the heart, brain, skeletal muscle, placenta, lung, liver, kidney and pancreas. The bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion forms of these three proteins were able to co-precipitate p35nck5a complexed with Cdk5 from insect cell lysate. Among these three proteins, only C48 and C53 can be phosphorylated by Nclk, suggesting that they may be the substrates of Nclk. Sequence homology searches have suggested that the C48 protein is marginally related to restin protein, whereas the C42 protein has homologues of unknown function in Caenorhabditis elegans and Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:10721722

  16. Evidence for a Negative Cooperativity between eIF5A and eEF2 on Binding to the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, Fabio C.; Boldrin, Paulo E. G.; Hershey, John W. B.; Zanelli, Cleslei F.; Fraser, Christopher S.; Valentini, Sandro R.

    2016-01-01

    eIF5A is the only protein known to contain the essential and unique amino acid residue hypusine. eIF5A functions in both translation initiation due to its stimulation of methionyl-puromycin synthesis and translation elongation, being highly required for peptide-bound formation of specific ribosome stalling sequences such as poly-proline. The functional interaction between eIF5A, tRNA, and eEF2 on the surface of the ribosome is further clarified herein. Fluorescence anisotropy assays were performed to determine the affinity of eIF5A to different ribosomal complexes and reveal its interaction exclusively and directly with the 60S ribosomal subunit in a hypusine-dependent manner (Ki60S-eIF5A-Hyp = 16 nM, Ki60S-eIF5A-Lys = 385 nM). A 3-fold increase in eIF5A affinity to the 80S is observed upon charged-tRNAiMet binding, indicating positive cooperativity between P-site tRNA binding and eIF5A binding to the ribosome. Previously identified conditional mutants of yeast eIF5A, eIF5AQ22H/L93F and eIF5AK56A, display a significant decrease in ribosome binding affinity. Binding affinity between ribosome and eIF5A-wild type or mutants eIF5AK56A, but not eIF5AQ22H/L93F, is impaired in the presence of eEF2 by 4-fold, consistent with negative cooperativity between eEF2 and eIF5A binding to the ribosome. Interestingly, high-copy eEF2 is toxic only to eIF5AQ22H/L93F and causes translation elongation defects in this mutant. These results suggest that binding of eEF2 to the ribosome alters its conformation, resulting in a weakened affinity of eIF5A and impairment of this interplay compromises cell growth due to translation elongation defects. PMID:27115996

  17. Evidence for a Negative Cooperativity between eIF5A and eEF2 on Binding to the Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Danuza; Barbosa, Natalia M; Galvão, Fabio C; Boldrin, Paulo E G; Hershey, John W B; Zanelli, Cleslei F; Fraser, Christopher S; Valentini, Sandro R

    2016-01-01

    eIF5A is the only protein known to contain the essential and unique amino acid residue hypusine. eIF5A functions in both translation initiation due to its stimulation of methionyl-puromycin synthesis and translation elongation, being highly required for peptide-bound formation of specific ribosome stalling sequences such as poly-proline. The functional interaction between eIF5A, tRNA, and eEF2 on the surface of the ribosome is further clarified herein. Fluorescence anisotropy assays were performed to determine the affinity of eIF5A to different ribosomal complexes and reveal its interaction exclusively and directly with the 60S ribosomal subunit in a hypusine-dependent manner (Ki60S-eIF5A-Hyp = 16 nM, Ki60S-eIF5A-Lys = 385 nM). A 3-fold increase in eIF5A affinity to the 80S is observed upon charged-tRNAiMet binding, indicating positive cooperativity between P-site tRNA binding and eIF5A binding to the ribosome. Previously identified conditional mutants of yeast eIF5A, eIF5AQ22H/L93F and eIF5AK56A, display a significant decrease in ribosome binding affinity. Binding affinity between ribosome and eIF5A-wild type or mutants eIF5AK56A, but not eIF5AQ22H/L93F, is impaired in the presence of eEF2 by 4-fold, consistent with negative cooperativity between eEF2 and eIF5A binding to the ribosome. Interestingly, high-copy eEF2 is toxic only to eIF5AQ22H/L93F and causes translation elongation defects in this mutant. These results suggest that binding of eEF2 to the ribosome alters its conformation, resulting in a weakened affinity of eIF5A and impairment of this interplay compromises cell growth due to translation elongation defects. PMID:27115996

  18. Caveolae-mediated endocytosis of the glucosaminoglycan-interacting adipokine tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5a in adipocyte progenitor lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Patlaka, Christina; Norgård, Maria; Paulie, Staffan; Nordvall-Bodell, Annica; Lång, Pernilla; Andersson, Göran

    2014-03-01

    Adipogenesis depends on growth factors controlling proliferation/differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Membrane binding and endocytosis of growth factors are often coupled to receptor activation and downstream signaling leading to specific cellular responses. The novel adipokine tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5a exhibits a growth factor-like effect on MSCs and pre-adipocytes and induces hyperplastic obesity in vivo. However its molecular interaction with pre-adipocytes remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate membrane interaction of TRAP and its endocytosis routes in pre-adipocytes. Confocal and/or electron microscopy were used to detect TRAP in untreated or TRAP 5a/b treated pre-adipocytes under conditions that allow or inhibit endocytosis in combination with co-staining of endocytotic vesicles. TRAP interaction with heparin/heparan sulfate was verified by gel filtration. It could be shown that TRAP 5a, but not 5b, binds to the membrane of pre-adipocytes where it co-localizes with heparin-sulfate proteoglycan glypican-4. Also in vitro, TRAP 5a exhibited affinity for both heparin and heparan sulfate with heparin inhibiting its enzyme activity. Upon caveolae-mediated endocytosis of saturating levels of TRAP 5a, TRAP 5a co-localized intracellularly with glypican-4 and late endosomal marker Rab-7 positive vesicles. The protein was also located in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) but did not co-localize with lysosomal marker LAMP-1. TRAP 5a endocytosis was also detectable in pre-osteoblasts, but not fibroblasts, embryonic MSCs or mature adipocytes. These results indicate that TRAP 5a exhibits binding to cell surface, endocytosis and affinity to glucosaminoglycans (GAGs) in pre-adipocyte and pre-osteoblast lineage cells in a manner similar to other heparin-binding growth factors.

  19. Wnt5a attenuates Wnt3a-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in dental follicle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakisaka, Yukihiko; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Nemoto, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    Wnt signaling regulates multiple cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathways. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling can promote the differentiation of dental follicle cells, putative progenitor cells for cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament cells, toward a cementoblast/osteoblast phenotype during root formation, but little is known about the biological significance of noncanonical Wnt signaling in this process. We identified the expression of Wnt5a, a representative noncanonical Wnt ligand, in tooth root lining cells (i.e. precementoblasts/cementoblasts) and dental follicle cells during mouse tooth root development, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Silencing expression of the Wnt5a gene in a dental follicle cell line resulted in enhancement of the Wnt3a (a representative canonical Wnt ligand)-mediated increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. Conversely, treatment with recombinant Wnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression, suggesting that Wnt5a signaling functions as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. Wnt5a did not affect the nuclear translocation of β-catenin as well as β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of T-cell factor (Tcf) triggered by Wnt3a, suggesting that Wnt5a inhibits the downstream part of the β-catenin-Tcf pathway. These findings suggest the existence of a feedback mechanism between canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling during the differentiation of dental follicle cells. - Highlights: • Dental follicle cells express Wnt5a during tooth root development. • Silencing of Wnt5a enhances Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. • Conversely, treatment with rWnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression. • Wnt5a functions as a negative regulator of Wnt3a-mediated ALP expression.

  20. Whole exome sequencing combined with linkage analysis identifies a novel 3 bp deletion in NR5A1.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Stefanie; Smith, Katherine R; Bahlo, Melanie; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Drop, Stenvert L S; Juniarto, Zulfa A; Harley, Vincent R; Koopman, Peter; Faradz, Sultana M H; Sinclair, Andrew H

    2015-04-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) encompass a broad spectrum of conditions affecting the development of the gonads and genitalia. The underlying causes for DSDs include gain or loss of function variants in genes responsible for gonad development or steroidogenesis. Most patients with DSD have an unknown genetic etiology and cannot be given an accurate diagnosis. We used whole exome capture and massively parallel sequencing to analyse a large family with 46,XY DSD and 46,XX premature ovarian insufficiency. In addition, we used a recently developed method for linkage analysis using genotypes extracted from the MPS data. This approach identified a unique linkage peak on chromosome 9 and a novel, 3 bp, in-frame deletion in exon six of NR5A1 (steroidogenic factor-1 or SF1) in all affected individuals. We confirmed that the variant disrupts the SF1 protein and its ability to bind and regulate downstream genes. NR5A1 has key roles at multiple points in gonad development and steroidogenic pathways. The variant described here affects the function of SF1 in early testis development and later ovarian function, ultimately leading to the 46,XY DSD and 46,XX premature ovarian insufficiency phenotypes, respectively. This study shows that even at low coverage, whole exome sequencing, when combined with linkage analysis, can be a powerful tool to identify rapidly the disease-causing variant in large pedigrees.

  1. TLR4 Activation Promotes Bone Marrow MSC Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation via Wnt3a and Wnt5a Signaling.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hai; Jin, Tao; Xu, Yongqing; Mei, Liangbin; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adult bone marrow maintain their self-renewal ability and the ability to differentiate into osteoblast. Thus, adult bone marrow MSCs play a key role in the regeneration of bone tissue. Previous studies indicated that TLR4 is expressed in MSCs and is critical in regulating the fate decision of MSCs. However, the exact functional role and underlying mechanisms of how TLR4 regulate bone marrow MSC proliferation and differentiation are unclear. Here, we found that activated TLR4 by its ligand LPS promoted the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. TLR4 activation by LPS also increased cytokine IL-6 and IL-1β production in MSCs. In addition, LPS treatment has no effect on inducing cell death of MSCs. Deletion of TLR4 expression in MSCs completely eliminated the effects of LPS on MSC proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and cytokine production. We also found that the mRNA and protein expression of Wnt3a and Wnt5a, two important factors in regulating MSC fate decision, was upregulated in a TLR4-dependent manner. Silencing Wnt3a with specific siRNA remarkably inhibited TLR4-induced MSC proliferation, while Wnt5a specific siRNA treatment significantly antagonized TLR4-induced MSC osteogenic differentiation. These results together suggested that TLR4 regulates bone marrow MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation through Wnt3a and Wnt5a signaling. These finding provide new data to understand the role and the molecular mechanisms of TLR4 in regulating bone marrow MSC functions. These data also provide new insight in developing new therapy in bone regeneration using MSCs by modulating TLR4 and Wnt signaling activity.

  2. Improved activity of a thermophilic cellulase, Cel5A, from Thermotoga maritima on ionic liquid pretreated switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiwei; Pereira, Jose H; Liu, Hanbin; Tran, Huu M; Hsu, Nathan S Y; Dibble, Dean; Singh, Seema; Adams, Paul D; Sapra, Rajat; Hadi, Masood Z; Simmons, Blake A; Sale, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquid pretreatment of biomass has been shown to greatly reduce the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, resulting in improved sugar yields after enzymatic saccharification. However, even under these improved saccharification conditions the cost of enzymes still represents a significant proportion of the total cost of producing sugars and ultimately fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Much of the high cost of enzymes is due to the low catalytic efficiency and stability of lignocellulolytic enzymes, especially cellulases, under conditions that include high temperatures and the presence of residual pretreatment chemicals, such as acids, organic solvents, bases, or ionic liquids. Improving the efficiency of the saccharification process on ionic liquid pretreated biomass will facilitate reduced enzyme loading and cost. Thermophilic cellulases have been shown to be stable and active in ionic liquids but their activity is typically at lower levels. Cel5A_Tma, a thermophilic endoglucanase from Thermotoga maritima, is highly active on cellulosic substrates and is stable in ionic liquid environments. Here, our motivation was to engineer mutants of Cel5A_Tma with higher activity on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) pretreated biomass. We developed a robotic platform to screen a random mutagenesis library of Cel5A_Tma. Twelve mutants with 25-42% improvement in specific activity on carboxymethyl cellulose and up to 30% improvement on ionic-liquid pretreated switchgrass were successfully isolated and characterized from a library of twenty thousand variants. Interestingly, most of the mutations in the improved variants are located distally to the active site on the protein surface and are not directly involved with substrate binding. PMID:24244549

  3. Improved Activity of a Thermophilic Cellulase, Cel5A, from Thermotoga maritima on Ionic Liquid Pretreated Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiwei; Pereira, Jose H.; Liu, Hanbin; Tran, Huu M.; Hsu, Nathan S. Y.; Dibble, Dean; Singh, Seema; Adams, Paul D.; Sapra, Rajat; Hadi, Masood Z.; Simmons, Blake A.; Sale, Kenneth L.

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquid pretreatment of biomass has been shown to greatly reduce the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, resulting in improved sugar yields after enzymatic saccharification. However, even under these improved saccharification conditions the cost of enzymes still represents a significant proportion of the total cost of producing sugars and ultimately fuels from lignocellulosic biomass. Much of the high cost of enzymes is due to the low catalytic efficiency and stability of lignocellulolytic enzymes, especially cellulases, under conditions that include high temperatures and the presence of residual pretreatment chemicals, such as acids, organic solvents, bases, or ionic liquids. Improving the efficiency of the saccharification process on ionic liquid pretreated biomass will facilitate reduced enzyme loading and cost. Thermophilic cellulases have been shown to be stable and active in ionic liquids but their activity is typically at lower levels. Cel5A_Tma, a thermophilic endoglucanase from Thermotoga maritima, is highly active on cellulosic substrates and is stable in ionic liquid environments. Here, our motivation was to engineer mutants of Cel5A_Tma with higher activity on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) pretreated biomass. We developed a robotic platform to screen a random mutagenesis library of Cel5A_Tma. Twelve mutants with 25–42% improvement in specific activity on carboxymethyl cellulose and up to 30% improvement on ionic-liquid pretreated switchgrass were successfully isolated and characterized from a library of twenty thousand variants. Interestingly, most of the mutations in the improved variants are located distally to the active site on the protein surface and are not directly involved with substrate binding. PMID:24244549

  4. Fusion-protein-assisted protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Kobe, Bostjan; Ve, Thomas; Williams, Simon J

    2015-07-01

    Fusion proteins can be used directly in protein crystallization to assist crystallization in at least two different ways. In one approach, the `heterologous fusion-protein approach', the fusion partner can provide additional surface area to promote crystal contact formation. In another approach, the `fusion of interacting proteins approach', protein assemblies can be stabilized by covalently linking the interacting partners. The linker connecting the proteins plays different roles in the two applications: in the first approach a rigid linker is required to reduce conformational heterogeneity; in the second, conversely, a flexible linker is required that allows the native interaction between the fused proteins. The two approaches can also be combined. The recent applications of fusion-protein technology in protein crystallization from the work of our own and other laboratories are briefly reviewed.

  5. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  6. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  7. Cutting Edge: CLEC5A Mediates Macrophage Function and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Wortham, Brian W; Eppert, Bryan L; Flury, Jennifer L; Garcia, Sara Morgado; Donica, Walter R; Osterburg, Andrew; Joyce-Shaikh, Barbara; Cua, Daniel J; Borchers, Michael T

    2016-04-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease with no effective therapies. We investigated the role of the C-type lectin receptor, CLEC5A, in macrophage activation and pulmonary pathogenesis in a mouse model of COPD. We demonstrate that CLEC5A is expressed on alveolar macrophages in mice exposed long-term to cigarette smoke (CS), as well as in human smokers. We also show that CLEC5A-mediated activation of macrophages enhanced cytokine elaboration alone, as well as in combination with LPS or GM-CSF in CS-exposed mice. Furthermore, usingClec5a-deficient mice, we demonstrate that CS-induced macrophage responsiveness is mediated by CLEC5A, and CLEC5A is required for the development of inflammation, proinflammatory cytokine expression, and airspace enlargement. These findings suggest a novel mechanism that promotes airway inflammation and pathologies in response to CS exposure and identifies CLEC5A as a novel target for the therapeutic control of COPD pathogenesis. PMID:26927798

  8. Regulation of actin dynamics by WNT-5A: implications for human airway smooth muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Koopmans, Tim; Kumawat, Kuldeep; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of asthma is airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), which underlies the exaggerated bronchoconstriction response of asthmatics. The role of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) in AHR has garnered increasing interest over the years, but how asthmatic ASM differs from healthy ASM is still an active topic of debate. WNT-5A is increasingly expressed in asthmatic ASM and has been linked with Th2-high asthma. Due to its link with calcium and cytoskeletal remodelling, we propose that WNT-5A may modulate ASM contractility. We demonstrated that WNT-5A can increase maximum isometric tension in bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips. In addition, we show that WNT-5A is preferentially expressed in contractile human airway myocytes compared to proliferative cells, suggesting an active role in maintaining contractility. Furthermore, WNT-5A treatment drives actin polymerisation, but has no effect on intracellular calcium flux. Next, we demonstrated that WNT-5A directly regulates TGF-β1-induced expression of α-SMA via ROCK-mediated actin polymerization. These findings suggest that WNT-5A modulates fundamental mechanisms that affect ASM contraction and thus may be of relevance for AHR in asthma. PMID:27468699

  9. Effect of estrogen administration on rat liver 2-5A synthetase activity.

    PubMed

    Smekens, M; Dumont, J E; Degeyter, A; Galand, P

    1986-08-01

    Interferon-induced 2-5A synthetase is also present in various cells and tissues in the absence of any interferon treatment. The activity of this enzyme, which synthesizes a series of oligoadenylates, ppp(A2'p)n5'A (collectively referred to as 2-5A), was previously shown to vary with the growth status of liver tissue i.e., it decreased before and during the peak of DNA synthesis activity induced in rat liver by a two third hepatectomy. In the course of studies aimed at testing the hypothesis that 2-5A synthetase activity might exert negative control on normal cell growth and multiplication, we show here that a treatment of ovariectomized rats with a single dose of estradiol-17beta (100 micrograms/100 g body weight) induced a transient increase in the [3H]thymidine labelling index in the liver after 24 h and markedly decreased the 2-5A synthetase activity. A time course study revealed that 2-5A synthetase activity started to decrease after 3 h, reaching a minimal value (10% of the control level) after 12 h, then slowly increased to come back to control level at 48 h. These results, together with our similar data on regenerating liver, suggest that low 2-5A synthetase activity is permissive for acquisition of proliferative 'competence' by G0 cells. PMID:3730433

  10. Wnt5a Suppresses Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Promoting Cellular Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Bitler, Benjamin G.; Nicodemus, Jasmine P.; Li, Hua; Cai, Qi; Wu, Hong; Hua, Xiang; Li, Tianyu; Birrer, Michael J.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Cairns, Paul; Zhang, Rugang

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the US. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutics for this disease. Cellular senescence is an important tumor suppression mechanism that has recently been suggested as a novel mechanism to target for developing cancer therapeutics. Wnt5a is a non-canonical Wnt ligand that plays a context-dependent role in human cancers. Here, we investigate the role of Wnt5a in regulating senescence of EOC cells. We demonstrate that Wnt5a is expressed at significantly lower levels in human EOC cell lines and in primary human EOCs (n = 130) compared with either normal ovarian surface epithelium (n = 31; p = 0.039) or fallopian tube epithelium (n = 28; p < 0.001). Notably, a lower level of Wnt5a expression correlates with tumor stage (p = 0.003) and predicts shorter overall survival in EOC patients (p = 0.003). Significantly, restoration of Wnt5a expression inhibits the proliferation of human EOC cells both in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic EOC mouse model. Mechanistically, Wnt5a antagonizes canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling and induces cellular senescence by activating the histone repressor A (HIRA)/promyelocytic leukemia (PML) senescence pathway. In summary, we show that loss of Wnt5a predicts poor outcome in EOC patients and Wnt5a suppresses the growth of EOC cells by triggering cellular senescence. We suggest that strategies to drive senescence in EOC cells by reconstituting Wnt5a signaling may offer an effective new strategy for EOC therapy. PMID:21816908

  11. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  12. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  13. Rin-like, a novel regulator of endocytosis, acts as guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab5a and Rab22

    PubMed Central

    Woller, Barbara; Luiskandl, Susan; Popovic, Milica; Prieler, Barbara E.M.; Ikonge, Gloria; Mutzl, Michaela; Rehmann, Holger; Herbst, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    RIN proteins serve as guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rab5a. They are characterized by the presence of a RIN homology domain and a C-terminal Vps9 domain. Currently three family members have been described and analyzed. Here we report the identification of a novel RIN family member, Rin-like (Rinl), that represents a new interaction partner of the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK, which is an essential key regulator of neuromuscular synapse development. Rinl is localized to neuromuscular synapses but shows the highest expression in thymus and spleen. Rinl preferentially binds to nucleotide-free Rab5a and catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP. Moreover, Rinl also binds GDP-bound Rab22 and increases the GDP/GTP exchange implicating Rinl in endocytotic processes regulated by Rab5a and Rab22. Interestingly, Rinl shows a higher catalytic rate for Rab22 compared to Rab5a. Rinl is closely associated with the cytoskeleton and thus contributes to the spatial control of Rab5a and Rab22 signaling at actin-positive compartments. Most importantly, overexpression of Rinl affects fluid-phase as well as EGFR endocytosis. PMID:21419809

  14. KLF4 transcriptionally activates non-canonical WNT5A to control epithelial stratification.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Marie-Pier; Weinblatt, Daniel; Shaverdashvili, Khvaramze; Yang, Yizeng; Katz, Jonathan P

    2016-05-17

    Epithelial differentiation and stratification are essential for normal homeostasis, and disruption of these processes leads to both injury and cancer. The zinc-finger transciption factor KLF4 is a key driver of epithelial differentiation, yet the mechanisms and targets by which KLF4 controls differentiation are not well understood. Here, we define WNT5A, a non-canonical Wnt ligand implicated in epithelial differentiation, repair, and cancer, as a direct transcriptional target that is activated by KLF4 in squamous epithelial cells. Further, we demonstrate functionally that WNT5A mediates KLF4 control of epithelial differentiation and stratification, as treatment of keratinocytes with WNT5A rescues defective epithelial stratification resulting from KLF4 loss. Finally, we show that the small GTPase CDC42 is regulated by KLF4 in a WNT5A dependent manner. As such, we delineate a novel pathway for epithelial differentiation and stratification and define potential therapeutic targets for epithelial diseases.

  15. KLF4 transcriptionally activates non-canonical WNT5A to control epithelial stratification

    PubMed Central

    Tetreault, Marie-Pier; Weinblatt, Daniel; Shaverdashvili, Khvaramze; Yang, Yizeng; Katz, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial differentiation and stratification are essential for normal homeostasis, and disruption of these processes leads to both injury and cancer. The zinc-finger transciption factor KLF4 is a key driver of epithelial differentiation, yet the mechanisms and targets by which KLF4 controls differentiation are not well understood. Here, we define WNT5A, a non-canonical Wnt ligand implicated in epithelial differentiation, repair, and cancer, as a direct transcriptional target that is activated by KLF4 in squamous epithelial cells. Further, we demonstrate functionally that WNT5A mediates KLF4 control of epithelial differentiation and stratification, as treatment of keratinocytes with WNT5A rescues defective epithelial stratification resulting from KLF4 loss. Finally, we show that the small GTPase CDC42 is regulated by KLF4 in a WNT5A dependent manner. As such, we delineate a novel pathway for epithelial differentiation and stratification and define potential therapeutic targets for epithelial diseases. PMID:27184424

  16. VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT WITH BUILDING 5A ATTACHED TO LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT WITH BUILDING 5A ATTACHED TO LEFT, FACING NORTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Receiving & Storage Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Netrin-1 Reduces Monocyte and Macrophage Chemotaxis towards the Complement Component C5a.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lewis; Brodermann, Maximillian Hugo; McCaffary, David; Iqbal, Asif Jilani; Greaves, David R

    2016-01-01

    Netrin-1, acting at its cognate receptor UNC5b, has been previously demonstrated to inhibit CC chemokine-induced immune cell migration. In line with this, we found that netrin-1 was able to inhibit CCL2-induced migration of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs). However, whether netrin-1 is capable of inhibiting chemotaxis to a broader range of chemoattractants remains largely unexplored. As our initial experiments demonstrated that RAW264.7 and BMDMs expressed high levels of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) on their surface, we aimed to determine the effect of netrin-1 exposure on monocyte/macrophage cell migration induced by C5a, a complement peptide that plays a major role in multiple inflammatory pathologies. Treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages, BMDMs and human monocytes with netrin-1 inhibited their chemotaxis towards C5a, as measured using two different real-time methods. This inhibitory effect was found to be dependent on netrin-1 receptor signalling, as an UNC5b blocking antibody was able to reverse netrin-1 inhibition of C5a induced BMDM migration. Treatment of BMDMs with netrin-1 had no effect on C5aR1 proximal signalling events, as surface C5aR1 expression, internalisation and intracellular Ca2+ release following C5aR1 ligation remained unaffected after netrin-1 exposure. We next examined receptor distal events that occur following C5aR1 activation, but found that netrin-1 was unable to inhibit C5a induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and p38, pathways important for cellular migration. Furthermore, netrin-1 treatment had no effect on BMDM cytoskeletal rearrangement following C5a stimulation as determined by microscopy and real-time electrical impedance sensing. Taken together these data highlight that netrin-1 inhibits monocyte and macrophage cell migration, but that the mechanism behind this effect remains unresolved. Nevertheless, netrin-1 and its cognate receptors warrant further investigation as they may represent a potential avenue for the development of

  18. Netrin-1 Reduces Monocyte and Macrophage Chemotaxis towards the Complement Component C5a

    PubMed Central

    McCaffary, David; Iqbal, Asif Jilani; Greaves, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Netrin-1, acting at its cognate receptor UNC5b, has been previously demonstrated to inhibit CC chemokine-induced immune cell migration. In line with this, we found that netrin-1 was able to inhibit CCL2-induced migration of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs). However, whether netrin-1 is capable of inhibiting chemotaxis to a broader range of chemoattractants remains largely unexplored. As our initial experiments demonstrated that RAW264.7 and BMDMs expressed high levels of C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) on their surface, we aimed to determine the effect of netrin-1 exposure on monocyte/macrophage cell migration induced by C5a, a complement peptide that plays a major role in multiple inflammatory pathologies. Treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages, BMDMs and human monocytes with netrin-1 inhibited their chemotaxis towards C5a, as measured using two different real-time methods. This inhibitory effect was found to be dependent on netrin-1 receptor signalling, as an UNC5b blocking antibody was able to reverse netrin-1 inhibition of C5a induced BMDM migration. Treatment of BMDMs with netrin-1 had no effect on C5aR1 proximal signalling events, as surface C5aR1 expression, internalisation and intracellular Ca2+ release following C5aR1 ligation remained unaffected after netrin-1 exposure. We next examined receptor distal events that occur following C5aR1 activation, but found that netrin-1 was unable to inhibit C5a induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and p38, pathways important for cellular migration. Furthermore, netrin-1 treatment had no effect on BMDM cytoskeletal rearrangement following C5a stimulation as determined by microscopy and real-time electrical impedance sensing. Taken together these data highlight that netrin-1 inhibits monocyte and macrophage cell migration, but that the mechanism behind this effect remains unresolved. Nevertheless, netrin-1 and its cognate receptors warrant further investigation as they may represent a potential avenue for the development of

  19. Epidural Analgesia with Ropivacaine during Labour in a Patient with a SCN5A Gene Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Duvekot, J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, J. W.; Gonzalez Candel, A.; van der Marel, C. D.; Adriaens, V. F. R.

    2016-01-01

    SCN5A gene mutations can lead to ion channel defects which can cause cardiac conduction disturbances. In the presence of specific ECG characteristics, this mutation is called Brugada syndrome. Many drugs are associated with adverse events, making anesthesia in patients with SCN5A gene mutations or Brugada syndrome challenging. In this case report, we describe a pregnant patient with this mutation who received epidural analgesia using low dose ropivacaine and sufentanil during labour. PMID:27668095

  20. Wnt5a attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary arteriolar remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuling; Wang, Wang; Chai, Sanbao; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH), which is characterized by pulmonary arteriolar remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy, is still a life-threatening disease with the current treatment strategies. The underlying molecular mechanisms of HPH remain unclear. Our previously published study showed that Wnt5a, one of the ligands in the Wnt family, was critically involved in the inhibition of hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation by downregulation of β-catenin/cyclin D1 in vitro. In this study, we investigated the possible functions and mechanisms of Wnt5a in HPH in vivo. Recombinant mouse Wnt5a (rmWnt5a) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered to male C57/BL6 mice weekly from the first day to the end of the two or four weeks after exposed to hypoxia (10% O2). Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension was associated with a marked increase in β-catenin/cyclin D1 expression in lungs. Right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy index were reduced in animals treated with rmWnt5a compared with PBS. Histology showed less pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in the group treated with rmWnt5a than with PBS. Treatment with rmWnt5a resulted in a concomitant reduction in β-catenin/cyclin D1 levels in lungs. These data demonstrate that Wnt5a exerts its beneficial effects on HPH by regulating pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in a manner that is associated with reduction in β-catenin/cyclin D1 signaling. A therapy targeting the β-catenin/cyclin D1 signaling pathway might be a potential strategy for HPH treatment. PMID:25956683

  1. A Wnt5a signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 gp120-induced pain.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Su-Bo; Ji, Guangchen; Li, Bei; Andersson, Tommy; Neugebauer, Volker; Tang, Shao-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Pathological pain is one of the most common neurological complications in patients with HIV-1/AIDS. However, the pathogenic process is unclear. Our recent studies show that Wnt5a is upregulated in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SDH) of the patients with HIV who develop pain and that HIV-1 gp120, a potential causal factor of the HIV-associated pain, rapidly upregulates Wnt5a in the mouse SDH. Using a mouse model, we show here that a specific Wnt5a antagonist, Box-5, attenuated gp120-induced mechanical allodynia. Conversely, a Wnt5a agonist, Foxy5, facilitated the allodynia. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which Wnt5a regulates gp120-induced allodynia, we tested the role of the JNK/TNF-α pathway. We observed that the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 blocked either gp120- or Foxy5-induced allodynia. Similarly, the TNF-α-specific antagonist Enbrel also reversed either gp120- or Foxy5-induced allodynia. These data suggest that JNK and TNF-α mediate the biological effects of Wnt5a in regulating gp120-induced allodynia. To investigate the cellular mechanism, we performed extracellular single-unit recording from SDH neurons in anesthetized mice. Both Box-5 and SP600125 negated gp120-induced potentiation of SDH neuron spiking evoked by mechanical stimulation of the hind paw. Furthermore, while Foxy5 potentiated spike frequency of SDH neurons, either SP600125 or Enbrel blocked the potentiation. The data indicate that Wnt5a potentiates the activity of SDH neurons through the JNK-TNF-α pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest that Wnt5a regulates the pathogenesis of gp120-induced pain, likely by sensitizing pain-processing SDH neurons through JNK/TNF-α signaling.

  2. Epidural Analgesia with Ropivacaine during Labour in a Patient with a SCN5A Gene Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Duvekot, J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, J. W.; Gonzalez Candel, A.; van der Marel, C. D.; Adriaens, V. F. R.

    2016-01-01

    SCN5A gene mutations can lead to ion channel defects which can cause cardiac conduction disturbances. In the presence of specific ECG characteristics, this mutation is called Brugada syndrome. Many drugs are associated with adverse events, making anesthesia in patients with SCN5A gene mutations or Brugada syndrome challenging. In this case report, we describe a pregnant patient with this mutation who received epidural analgesia using low dose ropivacaine and sufentanil during labour.

  3. Epidural Analgesia with Ropivacaine during Labour in a Patient with a SCN5A Gene Mutation.

    PubMed

    van der Knijff-van Dortmont, A L M J; Dirckx, M; Duvekot, J J; Roos-Hesselink, J W; Gonzalez Candel, A; van der Marel, C D; Scoones, G P; Adriaens, V F R; Dons-Sinke, I J J

    2016-01-01

    SCN5A gene mutations can lead to ion channel defects which can cause cardiac conduction disturbances. In the presence of specific ECG characteristics, this mutation is called Brugada syndrome. Many drugs are associated with adverse events, making anesthesia in patients with SCN5A gene mutations or Brugada syndrome challenging. In this case report, we describe a pregnant patient with this mutation who received epidural analgesia using low dose ropivacaine and sufentanil during labour. PMID:27668095

  4. Epigenetic mediated transcriptional activation of WNT5A participates in arsenical-associated malignant transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Taylor J.; Wozniak, Ryan J.; Eblin, Kylee E.; Wnek, Sean M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Futscher, Bernard W.

    2009-02-15

    Arsenic is a human carcinogen with exposure associated with cancer of the lung, skin, and bladder. Many potential mechanisms have been implicated as playing a role in the process of arsenical-induced malignancy including the perturbation of signaling pathways and aberrant epigenetic regulation. We initiated studies to examine the role of a member of the non-canonical WNT signaling pathway, WNT5A, in UROtsa cells and arsenite [URO-ASSC] and monomethylarsonous acid [URO-MSC] malignantly transformed variants. We present data herein that suggest that WNT5A is transcriptionally activated during arsenical-induced malignant transformation. This WNT5A transcriptional activation is correlated with the enrichment of permissive histone modifications and the reduction of repressive modifications in the WNT5A promoter region. The epigenetic activation of WNT5A expression and acetylation of its promoter remain after the removal of the arsenical, consistent with the maintenance of an anchorage independent growth phenotype in these cells. Additionally, treatment with epigenetic modifying drugs supports a functional role for these epigenetic marks in controlling gene expression. Reduction of WNT5A using lentiviral shRNA greatly attenuated the ability of these cells to grow in an anchorage independent fashion. Extension of our model into human bladder cancer cell lines indicates that each of the cell lines examined also express WNT5A. Taken together, these data suggest that the epigenetic remodeling of the WNT5A promoter is correlated with its transcriptional activation and this upregulation likely participates in arsenical-induced malignant transformation.

  5. Wnt5a attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary arteriolar remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuling; Wang, Wang; Chai, Sanbao; Liu, Jie; Yang, Ting; Wang, Jun

    2015-12-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH), which is characterized by pulmonary arteriolar remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy, is still a life-threatening disease with the current treatment strategies. The underlying molecular mechanisms of HPH remain unclear. Our previously published study showed that Wnt5a, one of the ligands in the Wnt family, was critically involved in the inhibition of hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation by downregulation of β-catenin/cyclin D1 in vitro. In this study, we investigated the possible functions and mechanisms of Wnt5a in HPH in vivo. Recombinant mouse Wnt5a (rmWnt5a) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered to male C57/BL6 mice weekly from the first day to the end of the two or four weeks after exposed to hypoxia (10% O2). Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension was associated with a marked increase in β-catenin/cyclin D1 expression in lungs. Right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy index were reduced in animals treated with rmWnt5a compared with PBS. Histology showed less pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in the group treated with rmWnt5a than with PBS. Treatment with rmWnt5a resulted in a concomitant reduction in β-catenin/cyclin D1 levels in lungs. These data demonstrate that Wnt5a exerts its beneficial effects on HPH by regulating pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in a manner that is associated with reduction in β-catenin/cyclin D1 signaling. A therapy targeting the β-catenin/cyclin D1 signaling pathway might be a potential strategy for HPH treatment.

  6. Protein immobilization strategies for protein biochips.

    PubMed

    Rusmini, Federica; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan

    2007-06-01

    In the past few years, protein biochips have emerged as promising proteomic and diagnostic tools for obtaining information about protein functions and interactions. Important technological innovations have been made. However, considerable development is still required, especially regarding protein immobilization, in order to fully realize the potential of protein biochips. In fact, protein immobilization is the key to the success of microarray technology. Proteins need to be immobilized onto surfaces with high density in order to allow the usage of small amount of sample solution. Nonspecific protein adsorption needs to be avoided or at least minimized in order to improve detection performances. Moreover, full retention of protein conformation and activity is a challenging task to be accomplished. Although a large number of review papers on protein biochips have been published in recent years, few have focused on protein immobilization technology. In this review, current protein immobilization strategies, including physical, covalent, and bioaffinity immobilization for the fabrication of protein biochips, are described. Particular consideration has been given to oriented immobilization, also referred to as site-specific immobilization, which is believed will improve homogeneous surface covering and accessibility of the active site.

  7. Rapid depletion of mutant eukaryotic initiation factor 5A at restrictive temperature reveals connections to actin cytoskeleton and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Gross, Stephane R; Kinzy, Terri Goss; Chen, Kuang Yu

    2006-03-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only protein in nature that contains hypusine, an unusual amino acid derived from the modification of lysine by spermidine. Two genes, TIF51A and TIF51B, encode eIF5A in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In an effort to understand the structure-function relationship of eIF5A, we have generated yeast mutants by introducing plasmid-borne tif51A into a double null strain where both TIF51A and TIF51B have been disrupted. One of the mutants, tsL102A strain (tif51A L102A tif51aDelta tif51bDelta) exhibits a strong temperature-sensitive growth phenotype. At the restrictive temperature, tsL102A strain also exhibits a cell shape change, a lack of volume change in response to temperature increase and becomes more sensitive to ethanol, a hallmark of defects in the PKC/WSC cell wall integrity pathway. In addition, a striking change in actin dynamics and a complete cell cycle arrest at G1 phase occur in tsL102A cells at restrictive temperature. The temperature-sensitivity of tsL102A strain is due to a rapid loss of mutant eIF5A with the half-life reduced from 6 h at permissive temperature to 20 min at restrictive temperature. Phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride (PMSF), an irreversible inhibitor of serine protease, inhibited the degradation of mutant eIF5A and suppressed the temperature-sensitive growth arrest. Sorbitol, an osmotic stabilizer that complement defects in PKC/WSC pathways, stabilizes the mutant eIF5A and suppresses all the observed temperature-sensitive phenotypes. PMID:16408210

  8. The Autophagic Process Occurs in Human Bone Metastasis and Implicates Molecular Mechanisms Differently Affected by Rab5a in the Early and Late Stages

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, Paola; Bendinelli, Paola; Resnati, Massimo; Matteucci, Emanuela; Milan, Enrico; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy favours metastatic growth through fuelling energy and nutrients and resistance to anoikis, typical of disseminated-tumour cells. The autophagic process, mediated by a unique organelle, the autophagosome, which fuses with lysosomes, is divided into three steps. Several stages, especially early omegasome formation and isolation-membrane initiation, remain controversial; molecular mechanisms involve the small-GTPase Rab5a, which regulates vesicle traffic for autophagosome formation. We examined Rab5a involvement in the function of key members of ubiquitin-conjugation systems, Atg7 and LC3-lipidated, interacting with the scaffold-protein p62. Immunohistochemistry of Rab5a was performed in human specimens of bone metastasis and pair-matched breast carcinoma; the autophagic-molecular mechanisms affected by Rab5a were evaluated in human 1833 bone metastatic cells, derived from breast-carcinoma MDA-MB231 cells. To clarify the role of Rab5a, 1833 cells were transfected transiently with Rab5a-dominant negative, and/or stably with the short-hairpin RNA Atg7, were exposed to two inhibitors of autolysosome function, and LC3II and p62 expression was measured. We showed basal autophagy in bone-metastatic cells and the pivotal role of Rab5a together with Beclin 1 between the early stages, elongation of isolation membrane/closed autophagosome mediated by Atg7, and the late-degradative stages. This regulatory network might occur in bone-metastasis and in high-grade dysplastic lesions, preceding invasive-breast carcinoma and conferring phenotypic characteristics for dissemination. PMID:27023526

  9. Complement component C5a Promotes Expression of IL-22 and IL-17 from Human T cells and its Implication in Age-related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Age related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in elderly populations worldwide. Inflammation, among many factors, has been suggested to play an important role in AMD pathogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated a strong genetic association between AMD and complement factor H (CFH), the down-regulatory factor of complement activation. Elevated levels of complement activating molecules including complement component 5a (C5a) have been found in the serum of AMD patients. Our aim is to study whether C5a can impact human T cells and its implication in AMD. Methods Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the blood of exudative form of AMD patients using a Ficoll gradient centrifugation protocol. Intracellular staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure protein expression. Apoptotic cells were detected by staining of cells with the annexin-V and TUNEL technology and analyzed by a FACS Caliber flow cytometer. SNP genotyping was analyzed by TaqMan genotyping assay using the Real-time PCR system 7500. Results We show that C5a promotes interleukin (IL)-22 and IL-17 expression by human CD4+ T cells. This effect is dependent on B7, IL-1β and IL-6 expression from monocytes. We have also found that C5a could protect human CD4+ cells from undergoing apoptosis. Importantly, consistent with a role of C5a in promoting IL-22 and IL-17 expression, significant elevation in IL-22 and IL-17 levels was found in AMD patients as compared to non-AMD controls. Conclusions Our results support the notion that C5a may be one of the factors contributing to the elevated serum IL-22 and IL-17 levels in AMD patients. The possible involvement of IL-22 and IL-17 in the inflammation that contributes to AMD may herald a new approach to treat AMD. PMID:21762495

  10. C5a alters blood–brain barrier integrity in a human in vitro model of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Supriya D; Parikh, Neil U; Woodruff, Trent M; Jarvis, James N; Lopez, Molly; Hennon, Teresa; Cunningham, Patrick; Quigg, Richard J; Schwartz, Stanley A; Alexander, Jessy J

    2015-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) plays a crucial role in brain homeostasis, thereby maintaining the brain environment precise for optimal neuronal function. Its dysfunction is an intriguing complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a systemic autoimmune disorder where neurological complications occur in 5–50% of cases and is associated with impaired BBB integrity. Complement activation occurs in SLE and is an important part of the clinical profile. Our earlier studies demonstrated that C5a generated by complement activation caused the loss of brain endothelial layer integrity in rodents. The goal of the current study was to determine the translational potential of these studies to a human system. To assess this, we used a two dimensional in vitro BBB model constructed using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells and astroglial cells, which closely emulates the in vivo BBB allowing the assessment of BBB integrity. Increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance and cytoskeletal remodelling caused by actin fiber rearrangement were observed when the cells were exposed to lupus serum and C5a, similar to the observations in mice. In addition, our data show that C5a/C5aR1 signalling alters nuclear factor-κB translocation into nucleus and regulates the expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin-5 and zonula occludens 1 in this setting. Our results demonstrate for the first time that C5a regulates BBB integrity in a neuroinflammatory setting where it affects both endothelial and astroglial cells. In addition, we also demonstrate that our previous findings in a mouse model, were emulated in human cells in vitro, bringing the studies one step closer to understanding the translational potential of C5a/C5aR1 blockade as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26059553

  11. Wnt5a is expressed in spondyloarthritis and exerts opposite effects on enthesis and bone in murine organ and cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Bougault, Carole; Briolay, Anne; Boutet, Marie-Astrid; Pilet, Paul; Delplace, Séverine; Le Goff, Benoît; Guicheux, Jérôme; Blanchard, Frédéric; Magne, David

    2015-12-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disorder that initiates at the enthesis, where tendons attach to bone through a fibrocartilage zone. At late stages, excessive bone apposition appears within the diseased enthesis. Because Wnt5a participates to normal bone formation and appears related to inflammatory processes, we investigated the role of this Wnt growth factor in inflammation-associated ossification in SpA. The concentration of Wnt5a assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in synovial fluids of patients with SpA (2.58 ± 0.98 ng/mL) was higher than in osteoarthritic patients (1.33 ± 0.71 ng/mL). In murine primary cultures of tendon cells, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts and in an organotypic model of mouse ankle, we showed that tumor necrosis factor α reversibly diminished Wnt5a expression and secretion, respectively. Wnt5a decreased gene expression of differentiation markers and mineralization in cultured chondrocytes and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity in Achilles tendon enthesis (-14%) and osteocalcin protein levels released by ankle explants (-36%). On the contrary, Wnt5a stimulated ossification markers' expression in cultured osteoblasts and increased the bone volume of the tibial plateau of the cultured explants (+19%). In conclusion, our results suggest that Wnt5a is expressed locally in the joints of patients with SpA. Wnt5a appears more associated with ossification than with inflammation and tends to inhibit mineralization in chondrocytes and enthesis, whereas it seems to favor the ossification process in osteoblasts and bone. Further studies are needed to decipher the opposing effects observed locally in enthesis and systemically in bone in SpA.

  12. Paracrine WNT5A Signaling Inhibits Expansion of Tumor-Initiating Cells.

    PubMed

    Borcherding, Nicholas; Kusner, David; Kolb, Ryan; Xie, Qing; Li, Wei; Yuan, Fang; Velez, Gabriel; Askeland, Ryan; Weigel, Ronald J; Zhang, Weizhou

    2015-05-15

    It is not well understood how paracrine communication between basal and luminal cell populations in the mammary gland affects tumorigenesis. During ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis, enriched mammary stem cells that represent a subpopulation of basal cells exhibit enhanced tumorigenic capacity compared with the corresponding luminal progenitors. Transcript profiling of tumors derived from basal and luminal tumor-initiating cells (TIC) revealed preferential loss of the noncanonical Wnt ligand WNT5A in basal TIC-derived tumors. Heterozygous loss of WNT5A was correlated with shorter survival of breast cancer patients. In a mouse model of ErbB2-induced breast cancer, Wnt5a heterozygosity promoted tumor multiplicity and pulmonary metastasis. As a TGFβ substrate, luminal cell-produced WNT5A induced a feed-forward loop to activate SMAD2 in a RYK and TGFβR1-dependent manner to limit the expansion of basal TIC in a paracrine fashion, a potential explanation for the suppressive effect of WNT5A in mammary tumorigenesis. Our results identify the WNT5A/RYK module as a spatial regulator of the TGFβ-SMAD signaling pathway in the context of mammary gland development and carcinogenesis, offering a new perspective on tumor suppression provided by basal-luminal cross-talk in normal mammary tissue.

  13. Wnt5a attenuates Wnt3a-induced alkaline phosphatase expression in dental follicle cells.

    PubMed

    Sakisaka, Yukihiko; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takashi; Tamura, Masato; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Nemoto, Eiji

    2015-08-01

    Wnt signaling regulates multiple cellular events such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis through β-catenin-dependent canonical and β-catenin-independent noncanonical pathways. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling can promote the differentiation of dental follicle cells, putative progenitor cells for cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and periodontal ligament cells, toward a cementoblast/osteoblast phenotype during root formation, but little is known about the biological significance of noncanonical Wnt signaling in this process. We identified the expression of Wnt5a, a representative noncanonical Wnt ligand, in tooth root lining cells (i.e. precementoblasts/cementoblasts) and dental follicle cells during mouse tooth root development, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Silencing expression of the Wnt5a gene in a dental follicle cell line resulted in enhancement of the Wnt3a (a representative canonical Wnt ligand)-mediated increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression. Conversely, treatment with recombinant Wnt5a inhibited the increase in ALP expression, suggesting that Wnt5a signaling functions as a negative regulator of canonical Wnt-mediated ALP expression of dental follicle cells. Wnt5a did not affect the nuclear translocation of β-catenin as well as β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of T-cell factor (Tcf) triggered by Wnt3a, suggesting that Wnt5a inhibits the downstream part of the β-catenin-Tcf pathway. These findings suggest the existence of a feedback mechanism between canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling during the differentiation of dental follicle cells.

  14. Posttranslational hypusination of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-5A regulates Fusarium graminearum virulence

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Rocha, Ana Lilia; Woriedh, Mayada; Chemnitz, Jan; Willingmann, Peter; Kröger, Cathrin; Hadeler, Birgit; Hauber, Joachim; Schäfer, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A requires a posttranslational modification, forming the unique amino acid hypusine. This activation is mediated by two enzymes, deoxyhypusine synthase, DHS, and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase, DOHH. The impact of this enzymatic complex on the life cycle of a fungal pathogen is unknown. Plant pathogenic ascomycetes possess a single copy of the eIF5A activated by hypusination. We evaluated the importance of imbalances in eIF5A hypusination in Fusarium graminearum, a devastating fungal pathogen of cereals. Overexpression of DHS leads to increased virulence in wheat, elevated production of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, more infection structures, faster wheat tissue invasion in plants and increases vegetatively produced conidia. In contrast, overexpression of DOHH completely prevents infection structure formation, pathogenicity in wheat and maize, leads to overproduction of ROS, reduced DON production and increased sexual reproduction. Simultaneous overexpression of both genes restores wild type-like phenotypes. Analysis of eIF5A posttranslational modification displayed strongly increased hypusinated eIF5A in DOHH overexpression mutant in comparison to wild type, and the DHS overexpression mutants. These are the first results pointing to different functions of differently modified eIF5A. PMID:27098988

  15. MOD-5A wind turbine generator program design report: Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator covering work performed between July 1980 and June 1984 is discussed. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discusses the conceptual and preliminary design phases, Volume 3 describes the final design of the MOD-5A, and Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, summarizes all phases of the MOD-5A program. The performance and cost of energy generated by the MOD-5A are presented. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation, power generation, and control and instrumentation subsystems - is described briefly. The early phases of the MOD-5A program, during which the design was analyzed and optimized, and new technologies and materials were developed, are discussed. Manufacturing, quality assurance, and safety plans are presented. The volume concludes with an index of volumes 2 and 3.

  16. Paracrine WNT5A signaling inhibits expansion of tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Borcherding, Nicholas; Kusner, David; Kolb, Ryan; Xie, Qing; Li, Wei; Yuan, Fang; Velez, Gabriel; Askeland, Ryan; Weigel, Ronald J.; Zhang, Weizhou

    2015-01-01

    It is not well understood how paracrine communication between basal and luminal cell populations in the mammary gland affects tumorigenesis. During ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis, enriched mammary stem cells that represent a subpopulation of basal cells exhibit enhanced tumorigenic capacity compared to the corresponding luminal progenitors. Transcript profiling of tumors derived from basal and luminal tumor-initiating cells (TIC) revealed preferential loss of the noncanonical Wnt ligand WNT5A in basal TIC-derived tumors. Heterozygous loss of WNT5A was correlated with shorter survival of breast cancer patients. In a mouse model of ErbB2-induced breast cancer, Wnt5a heterozygosity promoted tumor multiplicity and pulmonary metastasis. As a TGFβ substrate, luminal cell-produced WNT5A induced a feed-forward loop to activate SMAD2 in a RYK and TGFβR1-dependent manner to limit the expansion of basal TIC in a paracrine fashion, a potential explanation for the suppressive effect of WNT5A in mammary tumorigenesis. Our results identify the WNT5A/RYK module as a spatial regulator of TGFβ/SMAD signaling pathway in the context of mammary gland development and carcinogenesis, offering a new perspective on tumor suppression provided by basal-luminal crosstalk in normal mammary tissue. PMID:25769722

  17. Genetically engineered SCN5A mutant pig hearts exhibit conduction defects and arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Park, David S; Cerrone, Marina; Morley, Gregory; Vasquez, Carolina; Fowler, Steven; Liu, Nian; Bernstein, Scott A; Liu, Fang-Yu; Zhang, Jie; Rogers, Christopher S; Priori, Silvia G; Chinitz, Larry A; Fishman, Glenn I

    2015-01-01

    SCN5A encodes the α subunit of the major cardiac sodium channel Na(V)1.5. Mutations in SCN5A are associated with conduction disease and ventricular fibrillation (VF); however, the mechanisms that link loss of sodium channel function to arrhythmic instability remain unresolved. Here, we generated a large-animal model of a human cardiac sodium channelopathy in pigs, which have cardiac structure and function similar to humans, to better define the arrhythmic substrate. We introduced a nonsense mutation originally identified in a child with Brugada syndrome into the orthologous position (E558X) in the pig SCN5A gene. SCN5A(E558X/+) pigs exhibited conduction abnormalities in the absence of cardiac structural defects. Sudden cardiac death was not observed in young pigs; however, Langendorff-perfused SCN5A(E558X/+) hearts had an increased propensity for pacing-induced or spontaneous VF initiated by short-coupled ventricular premature beats. Optical mapping during VF showed that activity often began as an organized focal source or broad wavefront on the right ventricular (RV) free wall. Together, the results from this study demonstrate that the SCN5A(E558X/+) pig model accurately phenocopies many aspects of human cardiac sodium channelopathy, including conduction slowing and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias.

  18. Protein-losing enteropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  19. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number ...

  20. Complement activation product C5a is a selective suppressor of TLR4-induced, but not TLR3-induced, production of IL-27(p28) from macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bosmann, Markus; Haggadone, Mikel D.; Hemmila, Mark R.; Zetoune, Firas S.; Sarma, J. Vidya; Ward, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the complement activation product, C5a, can orchestrate cellular immune functions. IL-27 (p28/EBI3) is an emerging key player essential for regulating inflammatory responses and T cells. Here, we report that C5a robustly suppressed IL-27(p28) gene expression and release in peritoneal macrophages. These cells from C57BL/6J mice abundantly produced IL-27(p28) after engagement of either the TLR3 (Poly I:C) or TLR4 (LPS) receptor. Genetic deficiency of either TLR4 or LPS-binding protein (LBP) completely incapacitated the ability of macrophages to secrete IL-27(p28) in response to LPS. IL-27(p28) producing macrophages also expressed the C5aR receptor, thus displaying an IL-27(p28)+F4/80+C5aR+ phenotype. C5a suppressed IL-27(p28) in LPS-stimulated macrophages via interactions with the C5aR receptor, rather than the C5L2 receptor. C5aR−/− mice after endotoxemia displayed higher plasma levels of IL-27(p28) when compared to C57BL/6J mice. C5a did not affect the release of IL-27(p28) or frequency of IL-27(p28)+F4/80+ macrophages after engagement of TLR3. Mechanistically, LPS activated both NFκB and the PI3K-Akt pathways, whereas C5a activated only the PI3K-Akt pathway. Engagement of PI3K-Akt was inhibitory for IL-27(p28) production, since PI3K-Akt pharmacologic blockade resulted in increased amounts of IL-27(p28) and reversed the suppressive effects of C5a. Blockade of PI3K-Akt in endotoxemic C57BL/6J mice resulted in higher generation of IL-27(p28). In contrast, for TLR3-mediated release of IL-27(p28), the PI3K-Akt pathway was not involved. These data provide new evidence on how complement activation may selectively interfere with production of T cell regulatory cytokines by antigen-presenting cells in the varying contexts of either bacterial (TLR4-pathway) or viral (TLR3-pathway) infection. PMID:22491257

  1. C5a/CD88 signaling alters blood-brain barrier integrity in lupus through nuclear factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Alexander; Hack, Bradley; Chen, Peili; Quigg, Richard J; Alexander, Jessy J

    2011-12-01

    Inflammation is a key factor in a number of neurodegenerative diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus. The complement system is an important mechanism in initiating and amplifying inflammation. Our recent studies demonstrate that C5a, a protein fragment generated during complement activation could alter the blood-brain barrier integrity, and thereby disturb the brain microenvironment. To understand the mechanism by which this occurs, we examined the effects of C5a on apoptosis, translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κb) and the expression of Iκbα, MAPK, CREB and TJ protein, zona occludens (ZO-1) in mouse brain endothelial cells. Apoptosis was examined by DNA laddering and caspase 3 activity and the distribution of the ZO-1 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB were determined by immunofluorescence. Inhibition of CD88 reduced translocation of NF-κb into the nucleus, altered ZO-1 at the interfaces of neighboring cells, decreased caspase 3 activity and prevented apoptosis in these cells. Our results indicate that signaling through CD88 regulates the blood-brain barrier in a NF-κb-dependent manner. These studies suggest that the C5a receptor, CD88 is a promising therapeutic target that will reduce NF-κb-signaling cascades in inflammatory settings.

  2. Nanotechnologies in protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Krizkova, Sona; Heger, Zbynek; Zalewska, Marta; Moulick, Amitava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology became an important research tool for study and detection of proteins, protein-protein interactions and a number of other applications. The utilization of nanoparticle-based materials and nanotechnology-based techniques for immobilization allows us not only to extend the surface for biomolecule immobilization resulting in enhanced substrate binding properties, decreased background signals and enhanced reporter systems for more sensitive assays. Generally in contemporarily developed microarray systems, multiple nanotechnology-based techniques are combined. In this review, applications of nanoparticles and nanotechnologies in creating protein microarrays, proteins immobilization and detection are summarized. We anticipate that advanced nanotechnologies can be exploited to expand promising fields of proteins identification, monitoring of protein-protein or drug-protein interactions, or proteins structures. PMID:26039143

  3. Protein domain architectures.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Nicola J

    2010-01-01

    Proteins are composed of functional units, or domains, that can be found alone or in combination with other domains. Analysis of protein domain architectures and the movement of protein domains within and across different genomes provide clues about the evolution of protein function. The classification of proteins into families and domains is provided through publicly available tools and databases that use known protein domains to predict other members in new proteins sequences. Currently at least 80% of the main protein sequence databases can be classified using these tools, thus providing a large data set to work from for analyzing protein domain architectures. Each of the protein domain databases provide intuitive web interfaces for viewing and analyzing their domain classifications and provide their data freely for downloading. Some of the main protein family and domain databases are described here, along with their Web-based tools for analyzing domain architectures.

  4. C5a Receptor Signaling Prevents Folate Deficiency-Induced Neural Tube Defects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Kerina J; Coulthard, Liam G; Jeanes, Angela; Lisgo, Steven; Simmons, David G; Callaway, Leonie K; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan; Finnell, Richard H; Woodruff, Trent M; Taylor, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    The complement system is involved in a range of diverse developmental processes including cell survival, growth, differentiation, and regeneration. However, little is known about the role of complement in embryogenesis. Herein we demonstrate a novel role for the canonical complement 5a receptor (C5aR) in the development of the mammalian neural tube under conditions of maternal dietary folic acid deficiency. Specifically, we found C5aR and C5 to be expressed throughout the period of neurulation in wildtype mice and localized the expression to the cephalic regions of the developing neural tube. C5aR was also found to be expressed in the neuroepithelium of early human embryos. Ablation of the C5ar1 gene or the administration of a specific C5aR peptide antagonist to folic acid-deficient pregnant mice resulted in a high prevalence of severe anterior neural tube defect-associated congenital malformations. These findings provide a new and compelling insight into the role of the complement system during mammalian embryonic development. PMID:23420882

  5. Protective effects of anti-C5a in sepsis-induced thymocyte apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ren-Feng; Huber-Lang, Markus; Wang, Xin; Sarma, Vidya; Padgaonkar, Vaishalee A.; Craig, Ronald A.; Riedemann, Niels C.; McClintock, Shannon D.; Hlaing, Tommy; Shi, Michael M.; Ward, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Multiorgan apoptosis occurs during sepsis. Following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats, thymocytes underwent apoptosis in a time-dependent manner. C5a blockade dramatically reduced thymocyte apoptosis as measured by thymic weight, binding of annexin V to thymocytes, and laddering of thymocyte DNA. When C5a was generated in vivo by infusion of purified cobra venom factor (CVF), thymocyte apoptosis was significantly increased. Similar results were found when CVF was injected in vivo during the early stages of CLP. In animals 12 hours after induction of CLP, there was an increase in the activities of caspase-3, -6, and -9, but not caspase-1 and -8. Cytosolic cytochrome c levels increased by twofold, whereas mitochondrial levels showed a 50% decrease. Western blot analysis revealed that the content of Bcl-XL (but not of Bcl-2, BAX, Bad, and Bim) significantly decreased in thymocytes after CLP. C5a blockade in the sepsis model almost completely inhibited caspase-3, -6, and -9 activation, significantly preserved cytochrome c in the mitochondrial fraction, and restored Bcl-XL expression. These data suggest that systemic activation of complement induces C5a-dependent apoptosis of thymocytes and that the blockade of C5a during sepsis rescues thymocytes from apoptosis. PMID:11086028

  6. Vacuolin-1 potently and reversibly inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion by activating RAB5A

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingying; Dong, Shichen; Hao, Baixia; Li, Chang; Zhu, Kaiyuan; Guo, Wenjing; Wang, Qian; Cheung, King-Ho; Wong, Connie WM; Wu, Wu-Tian; Markus, Huss; Yue, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic lysosomal degradation process essential for cellular homeostasis and cell survival. Dysfunctional autophagy has been associated with a wide range of human diseases, e.g., cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A large number of small molecules that modulate autophagy have been widely used to dissect this process and some of them, e.g., chloroquine (CQ), might be ultimately applied to treat a variety of autophagy-associated human diseases. Here we found that vacuolin-1 potently and reversibly inhibited the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes in mammalian cells, thereby inducing the accumulation of autophagosomes. Interestingly, vacuolin-1 was less toxic but at least 10-fold more potent in inhibiting autophagy compared with CQ. Vacuolin-1 treatment also blocked the fusion between endosomes and lysosomes, resulting in a defect in general endosomal-lysosomal degradation. Treatment of cells with vacuolin-1 alkalinized lysosomal pH and decreased lysosomal Ca2+ content. Besides marginally inhibiting vacuolar ATPase activity, vacuolin-1 treatment markedly activated RAB5A GTPase activity. Expression of a dominant negative mutant of RAB5A or RAB5A knockdown significantly inhibited vacuolin-1-induced autophagosome-lysosome fusion blockage, whereas expression of a constitutive active form of RAB5A suppressed autophagosome-lysosome fusion. These data suggest that vacuolin-1 activates RAB5A to block autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Vacuolin-1 and its analogs present a novel class of drug that can potently and reversibly modulate autophagy. PMID:25483964

  7. Wnt5a regulates growth, patterning, and odontoblast differentiation of developing mouse tooth.

    PubMed

    Lin, Minkui; Li, Lu; Liu, Chao; Liu, Hongbing; He, Fenglei; Yan, Fuhua; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, Yiping

    2011-02-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for tooth development beyond the bud stage, but little is known about the role of non-canonical Wnt signaling in odontogenesis. Here we compared the expression of Wnt5a, a representative of noncanonical Wnts, with that of Ror2, the Wnt5a receptor for non-canonical signaling, in the developing tooth, and analyzed tooth phenotype in Wnt5a mutants. Wnt5a-deficient mice exhibit retarded tooth development beginning from E16.5, leading to the formation of smaller and abnormally patterned teeth with a delayed odontoblast differentiation at birth. These defects are associated with upregulated Axin2 and Shh expression in the dental epithelium and reduced levels of cell proliferation in the dental epithelium and mesenchyme. Retarded tooth development and defective odontoblast differentiation were also observed in Ror2 mutant mice. Our results suggest that Wnt5a regulates growth, patterning, and odontoblast differentiation during odontogenesis, at least partially by modulating Wnt/β-catenin canonical signaling.

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure, characterization and antifungal activity of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Peng, Ju-Fang; Wang, Tao; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Zun-Ting

    2016-09-01

    Under microwave radiation, isomers 2-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-5-yl)phenols (3) and 2-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)phenols (4) were simultaneously obtained by the condensation of chromones and 3-aminopyrazoles. These two isomers were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS. In addition, a representative product 5-chloro-2-(2-methyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-5-yl)phenol (3e) was further conformed by the single crystal X-ray diffraction. The antifungal abilities of the obtained products 3 and 4 were evaluated against five phytopathogenic fungi (Cytospora sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani and Fusarium solani). The results revealed that 2-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-5-yl)phenol (3a) and 4-chloro-2-(2-methylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)phenol (4e) exhibited good antifungal abilities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides with the IC50 values of 24.90 and 28.28 μg/mL, respectively.

  9. Wnt5a Suppresses β-catenin Signaling during Hair Follicle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yizhan; Ma, Xiaogen; Guo, Haiying; Deng, Fang; Yang, Jin; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    Hair follicles display periodic growth. Wnt signaling is a critical regulator for hair follicle regeneration. Previously, we reported that Wnt5a inhibits the telogen-to-anagen transition of hair follicles, but the mechanism by which this process occurs has not yet been reported. Here, we determined the expression patterns of Wnt signaling pathway molecules by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry and found that β-catenin signaling was suppressed by Wnt5a. We then compared the phenotypes and expression patterns following β-catenin knockdown and Wnt5a overexpression during hair follicle regeneration induced by hair depilation and observed similar patterns. In addition, we performed a rescue experiment in the JB6 cell line and found that the inhibitory effect of Wnt5a on cell proliferation could be rescued by the addition of Wnt3a. Our data reveal that Wnt5a suppresses the activation of β-catenin signaling during hair follicle regeneration. PMID:27499692

  10. Wnt5a Signals through DVL1 to Repress Ribosomal DNA Transcription by RNA Polymerase I.

    PubMed

    Dass, Randall A; Sarshad, Aishe A; Carson, Brittany B; Feenstra, Jennifer M; Kaur, Amanpreet; Obrdlik, Ales; Parks, Matthew M; Prakash, Varsha; Love, Damon K; Pietras, Kristian; Serra, Rosa; Blanchard, Scott C; Percipalle, Piergiorgio; Brown, Anthony M C; Vincent, C Theresa

    2016-08-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is essential for cell growth and proliferation and is commonly elevated in cancer. Accordingly, numerous oncogene and tumor suppressor signaling pathways target rRNA synthesis. In breast cancer, non-canonical Wnt signaling by Wnt5a has been reported to antagonize tumor growth. Here, we show that Wnt5a rapidly represses rDNA gene transcription in breast cancer cells and generates a chromatin state with reduced transcription of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). These effects were specifically dependent on Dishevelled1 (DVL1), which accumulates in nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and binds to rDNA regions of the chromosome. Upon DVL1 binding, the Pol I transcription activator and deacetylase Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) releases from rDNA loci, concomitant with disassembly of Pol I transcription machinery at the rDNA promoter. These findings reveal that Wnt5a signals through DVL1 to suppress rRNA transcription. This provides a novel mechanism for how Wnt5a exerts tumor suppressive effects and why disruption of Wnt5a signaling enhances mammary tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27500936

  11. Wnt5a Signals through DVL1 to Repress Ribosomal DNA Transcription by RNA Polymerase I

    PubMed Central

    Dass, Randall A.; Sarshad, Aishe A.; Feenstra, Jennifer M.; Kaur, Amanpreet; Pietras, Kristian; Serra, Rosa; Blanchard, Scott C.; Percipalle, Piergiorgio; Brown, Anthony M. C.; Vincent, C. Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is essential for cell growth and proliferation and is commonly elevated in cancer. Accordingly, numerous oncogene and tumor suppressor signaling pathways target rRNA synthesis. In breast cancer, non-canonical Wnt signaling by Wnt5a has been reported to antagonize tumor growth. Here, we show that Wnt5a rapidly represses rDNA gene transcription in breast cancer cells and generates a chromatin state with reduced transcription of rDNA by RNA polymerase I (Pol I). These effects were specifically dependent on Dishevelled1 (DVL1), which accumulates in nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and binds to rDNA regions of the chromosome. Upon DVL1 binding, the Pol I transcription activator and deacetylase Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) releases from rDNA loci, concomitant with disassembly of Pol I transcription machinery at the rDNA promoter. These findings reveal that Wnt5a signals through DVL1 to suppress rRNA transcription. This provides a novel mechanism for how Wnt5a exerts tumor suppressive effects and why disruption of Wnt5a signaling enhances mammary tumor growth in vivo. PMID:27500936

  12. Nonlinear magnetoelectric behavior of Terfenol-D/PZT-5A laminate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yezuo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Prasoon, Ruchir

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive experimental study and modeling of the nonlinear behavior of Terfenol-D/PZT-5A magnetoelectric laminate composites is reported. Magnetostriction versus magnetic field of an individual Terfenol-D sample of dimensions length = 22 mm, width = 19 mm, thickness = 0.683 mm, and polarization versus electric field as well as strain versus electric field of an individual PZT-5A sample of dimensions length = 22 mm, width = 19 mm, thickness = 0.127 mm were characterized. These samples were bonded to form a symmetric PZT-5A/Terfenol-D/PZT-5A laminate composite to avoid bending-extension coupling. Electric response of this composite to magnetic input was comprehensively characterized to include major loop and minor loop behavior. A modeling approach that structurally couples the nonlinear magnetostrictive Terfenol-D behavior and linear PZT-5A behavior to predict the magnetoelectric response was developed and validated against experimental results. This analysis, with further refinements, could prove to be a useful tool to model and design magnetoelectric sensors.

  13. Nuclear receptor NR5A2 controls neural stem cell fate decisions during development

    PubMed Central

    Stergiopoulos, Athanasios; Politis, Panagiotis K.

    2016-01-01

    The enormous complexity of mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is generated by highly synchronized actions of diverse factors and signalling molecules in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms that integrate extrinsic and intrinsic signals to control proliferation versus differentiation decisions of NSCs are not well-understood. Here we identify nuclear receptor NR5A2 as a central node in these regulatory networks and key player in neural development. Overexpression and loss-of-function experiments in primary NSCs and mouse embryos suggest that NR5A2 synchronizes cell-cycle exit with induction of neurogenesis and inhibition of astrogliogenesis by direct regulatory effects on Ink4/Arf locus, Prox1, a downstream target of proneural genes, as well as Notch1 and JAK/STAT signalling pathways. Upstream of NR5a2, proneural genes, as well as Notch1 and JAK/STAT pathways control NR5a2 endogenous expression. Collectively, these observations render NR5A2 a critical regulator of neural development and target gene for NSC-based treatments of CNS-related diseases. PMID:27447294

  14. Secreted tyrosine sulfated-eIF5A mediates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Seko, Yoshinori; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Yao, Takako; Taka, Hikari; Mineki, Reiko; Okumura, Ko; Murayama, Kimie

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a critical role in ischemia/reperfusion-injury, atherosclerosis, and aging. It causes cell damage that leads to apoptosis via uncertain mechanisms. Because conditioned medium from cardiac myocytes subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation induces extensive apoptosis of cardiac myocytes under normoxia, we hypothesized that a humoral factor released from the hypoxic/reoxygenated cardiac myocytes mediates apoptosis. We identified an apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in the hypoxia/reoxygenation-conditioned medium. Here, we found that eIF5A undergoes tyrosine sulfation in the trans-Golgi and is rapidly secreted from cardiac myocytes in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation; then, eIF5A induces apoptosis by acting as a pro-apoptotic ligand. The apoptosis of cardiac myocytes induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation or ultraviolet irradiation was suppressed by anti-eIF5A neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in vitro. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (but not ischemia alone) markedly increased the plasma levels of eIF5A, and treatment with anti-eIF5A neutralizing mAbs significantly reduced myocardial injury. These results identify an important, novel specific biomarker and a critical therapeutic target for oxidative stress-induced cell injury. PMID:26348594

  15. PREFACE: Protein protein interactions: principles and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung

    2005-06-01

    Proteins are the `workhorses' of the cell. Their roles span functions as diverse as being molecular machines and signalling. They carry out catalytic reactions, transport, form viral capsids, traverse membranes and form regulated channels, transmit information from DNA to RNA, making possible the synthesis of new proteins, and they are responsible for the degradation of unnecessary proteins and nucleic acids. They are the vehicles of the immune response and are responsible for viral entry into the cell. Given their importance, considerable effort has been centered on the prediction of protein function. A prime way to do this is through identification of binding partners. If the function of at least one of the components with which the protein interacts is known, that should let us assign its function(s) and the pathway(s) in which it plays a role. This holds since the vast majority of their chores in the living cell involve protein-protein interactions. Hence, through the intricate network of these interactions we can map cellular pathways, their interconnectivities and their dynamic regulation. Their identification is at the heart of functional genomics; their prediction is crucial for drug discovery. Knowledge of the pathway, its topology, length, and dynamics may provide useful information for forecasting side effects. The goal of predicting protein-protein interactions is daunting. Some associations are obligatory, others are continuously forming and dissociating. In principle, from the physical standpoint, any two proteins can interact, but under what conditions and at which strength? The principles of protein-protein interactions are general: the non-covalent interactions of two proteins are largely the outcome of the hydrophobic effect, which drives the interactions. In addition, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions play important roles. Thus, many of the interactions observed in vitro are the outcome of experimental overexpression. Protein disorder

  16. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  17. Intrinsic HER4/4ICD transcriptional activation domains are required for STAT5A activated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Han, Wen; Sfondouris, Mary E; Semmes, Eleanor C; Meyer, Alicia M; Jones, Frank E

    2016-10-30

    The epidermal growth factor receptor family member HER4 undergoes proteolytic processing at the cell surface to release the HER4 intracellular domain (4ICD) nuclear protein. Interestingly, 4ICD direc