Blackfolds in (anti)-de Sitter backgrounds
Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.
2011-04-15
We construct different neutral blackfold solutions in Anti-de Sitter and de Sitter background spacetimes in the limit where the cosmological constant is taken to be much smaller than the horizon size. This includes a class of blackfolds with horizons that are products of odd-spheres times a transverse sphere, for which the thermodynamic stability is also studied. Moreover, we exhibit a specific case in which the same blackfold solution can describe different limiting black hole spacetimes therefore illustrating the geometric character of the blackfold approach. Furthermore, we show that the higher-dimensional Kerr-(Anti)-de Sitter black hole allows for ultraspinning regimes in the same limit under consideration and demonstrate that this is correctly described by a pancaked blackfold geometry. We also give evidence for the possibility of saturating the rigidity theorem in these backgrounds.
The bizarre anti-de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokołowski, Leszek M.
2016-08-01
Anti-de Sitter spacetime is important in general relativity and modern field theory. We review its geometrical features and properties of light signals and free particles moving in it. By applying only the elementary tools of tensor calculus, we derive ab initio of all these properties and show that they are really weird. One finds superluminal velocities of light and particles, infinite particle energy necessary to escape at infinite distance and spacetime regions inaccessible by a free fall, though reachable by an accelerated spaceship. Radial timelike geodesics are identical to the circular ones and actually all timelike geodesics are identical to one circle in a fictitious five-dimensional space. Employing the latter space, one is able to explain these bizarre features of anti-de Sitter spacetime; in this sense the spacetime is not self-contained. This is not a physical world.
Colorful Horizons with Charge in Anti-de Sitter Space
Gubser, Steven S.
2008-11-07
An Abelian gauge symmetry can be spontaneously broken near a black hole horizon in anti-de Sitter space using a condensate of non-Abelian gauge fields. A second order phase transition is shown to separate Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter solutions from a family of symmetry-breaking solutions which preserve a diagonal combination of gauge invariance and spatial rotational invariance.
Farakos, K.; Kouretsis, A. P.; Pasipoularides, P.
2009-09-15
We construct asymptotically AdS black hole solutions, with a self-interacting bulk scalar field, in the context of 5D general relativity. As the observable universe is characterized by spatial flatness, we focus on solutions where the horizon of the black hole, and subsequently all 3D hypersurfaces for fixed radial coordinate, have zero spatial curvature. We examine two cases for the black hole scalar hair: (a) an exponential decaying scalar field profile and (b) an inverse power scalar field profile. The scalar black hole solutions we present in this paper are characterized by four functions f(r), a(r), {phi}(r), and V({phi}(r)). Only the functions {phi}(r) and a(r) are determined analytically, while the functions f(r) and V({phi}(r)) are expressed semianalytically by integral formulas in terms of a(r). We present our numerical results and study in detail the characteristic properties of our solutions. We also note that the potential we obtain has a nonconvex form in agreement with the corresponding 'no hair theorem' for AdS spacetimes.
On electric field in anti-de Sitter spacetime
Cheong, Lee Yen E-mail: chewxy01813@gmail.com Yan, Chew Xiao E-mail: chewxy01813@gmail.com Ching, Dennis Ling Chuan E-mail: chewxy01813@gmail.com
2014-10-24
In this paper we calculate the electromagnetic field produced using retarded Green's function in Anti-de Sitter spacetime (AdS). Since this spacetime is non-globally hyperbolic and has no Cauchy surface, we only consider the field originated from a charge moving along its geodesic in the region consists of points covered by future null geodesic of the charge.
Photon rockets in the (anti-)de Sitter universe
Podolsky, J.
2008-08-15
A class of exact solutions to Einstein's equations is presented, which describes accelerating photon rockets in the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter universes. These are particular members of the Robinson-Trautman family of axially symmetric spacetimes with pure radiation. In particular, generalizations of (type D) Kinnersley's rockets and (type II) Bonnor's rockets to the case of a nonvanishing cosmological constant are given. Some of the main physical properties of these solutions are investigated, and their relation to the C-metric solution which describes uniformly accelerated black holes is also given.
Asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes in topologically massive gravity
Henneaux, Marc; Martinez, Cristian; Troncoso, Ricardo
2009-04-15
We consider asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity with a negative cosmological constant, for all values of the mass parameter {mu} ({mu}{ne}0). We provide consistent boundary conditions that accommodate the recent solutions considered in the literature, which may have a slower falloff than the one relevant for general relativity. These conditions are such that the asymptotic symmetry is in all cases the conformal group, in the sense that they are invariant under asymptotic conformal transformations and that the corresponding Virasoro generators are finite. It is found that, at the chiral point |{mu}l|=1 (where l is the anti-de Sitter radius), allowing for logarithmic terms (absent for general relativity) in the asymptotic behavior of the metric makes both sets of Virasoro generators nonzero even though one of the central charges vanishes.
Weakly turbulent instability of anti-de Sitter spacetime.
Bizoń, Piotr; Rostworowski, Andrzej
2011-07-15
We study the nonlinear evolution of a weakly perturbed anti-de Sitter (AdS) space by solving numerically the four-dimensional spherically symmetric Einstein-massless-scalar field equations with negative cosmological constant. Our results suggest that AdS space is unstable under arbitrarily small generic perturbations. We conjecture that this instability is triggered by a resonant mode mixing which gives rise to diffusion of energy from low to high frequencies.
Dirac fermions on an anti-de Sitter background
Ambruş, Victor E. Winstanley, Elizabeth
2014-11-24
Using an exact expression for the bi-spinor of parallel transport, we construct the Feynman propagator for Dirac fermions in the vacuum state on anti-de Sitter space-time. We compute the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor by removing coincidence-limit divergences using the Hadamard method. We then use the vacuum Feynman propagator to compute thermal expectation values at finite temperature. We end with a discussion of rigidly rotating thermal states.
Cosmic censorship of rotating Anti-de Sitter black hole
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon E-mail: bhl@sogang.ac.kr
2016-02-01
We test the validity of cosmic censorship in the rotating anti-de Sitter black hole. For this purpose, we investigate whether the extremal black hole can be overspun by the particle absorption. The particle absorption will change the mass and angular momentum of the black hole, which is analyzed using the Hamilton-Jacobi equations consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. We have found that the mass of the extremal black hole increases more than the angular momentum. Therefore, the outer horizon of the black hole still exists, and cosmic censorship is valid.
Lightlike hypersurfaces along spacelike submanifolds in anti-de Sitter space
Izumiya, Shyuichi
2015-11-15
Anti-de Sitter space is the Lorentzian space form with negative curvature. In this paper, we consider lightlike hypersurfaces along spacelike submanifolds in anti-de Sitter space with general codimension. In particular, we investigate the singularities of lightlike hypersurfaces as an application of the theory of Legendrian singularities.
Generalized Gravitational Entropy for Warped Anti-de Sitter Space.
Song, Wei; Wen, Qiang; Xu, Jianfei
2016-07-01
For spacetimes that are not asymptotic to anti-de Sitter (non AAdS) space, we adapt the Lewkowycz-Maldacena procedure to find the holographic entanglement entropy. The key observation, which to our knowledge is not very well appreciated, is that asymptotic boundary conditions play an essential role on extending the replica trick to the bulk. For non AAdS, we expect the following three main modifications: (1) the expansion near the special surface has to be compatible with the asymptotic expansion; (2) periodic conditions are imposed to coordinates on the phase space with diagonalized symplectic structure, not to all fields appearing in the action; (3) evaluating the entanglement functional using the boundary term method amounts to evaluating the presymplectic structure at the special surface, where some additional exact form may contribute. An explicit calculation is carried out for three-dimensional warped anti-de Sitter spacetime (WAdS_{3}) in a consistent truncation of string theory, the so-called S-dual dipole theory. It turns out that the generalized gravitational entropy in WAdS_{3} is captured by the least action of a charged particle in WAdS_{3} space, or equivalently, by the geodesic length in an auxiliary AdS_{3}. Consequently, the bulk calculation agrees with the CFT results, providing another piece of evidence for the WAdS_{3}/CFT_{2} correspondence.
Generalized Gravitational Entropy for Warped Anti-de Sitter Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Wei; Wen, Qiang; Xu, Jianfei
2016-07-01
For spacetimes that are not asymptotic to anti-de Sitter (non AAdS) space, we adapt the Lewkowycz-Maldacena procedure to find the holographic entanglement entropy. The key observation, which to our knowledge is not very well appreciated, is that asymptotic boundary conditions play an essential role on extending the replica trick to the bulk. For non AAdS, we expect the following three main modifications: (1) the expansion near the special surface has to be compatible with the asymptotic expansion; (2) periodic conditions are imposed to coordinates on the phase space with diagonalized symplectic structure, not to all fields appearing in the action; (3) evaluating the entanglement functional using the boundary term method amounts to evaluating the presymplectic structure at the special surface, where some additional exact form may contribute. An explicit calculation is carried out for three-dimensional warped anti-de Sitter spacetime (WAdS3 ) in a consistent truncation of string theory, the so-called S -dual dipole theory. It turns out that the generalized gravitational entropy in WAdS3 is captured by the least action of a charged particle in WAdS3 space, or equivalently, by the geodesic length in an auxiliary AdS3 . Consequently, the bulk calculation agrees with the CFT results, providing another piece of evidence for the WAdS3/CFT2 correspondence.
Holographic entanglement entropy for noncommutative anti-de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Momeni, Davood; Raza, Muhammad; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2016-04-01
A metric is proposed to explore the noncommutative form of the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space due to quantum effects. It has been proved that the noncommutativity in AdS space induces a single component gravitoelectric field. The holographic Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) algorithm is then applied to compute the entanglement entropy (EE) in dual CFT2. This calculation can be exploited to compute ultraviolet-infrared (UV-IR) cutoff dependent central charge of the certain noncommutative CFT2. This noncommutative computation of the EE can be interpreted in the form of the surface/state correspondence. We have shown that noncommutativity increases the dimension of the effective Hilbert space of the dual conformal field theory (CFT).
Black hole microstates in anti-de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaghoulian, Edgar
2016-11-01
We extend a recently derived higher-dimensional Cardy formula to include angular momenta, which we use to obtain the Bekensten-Hawking entropy of anti-de Sitter black branes, compactified rotating branes, and large Schwarzschild/Kerr black holes. This is the natural generalization of Strominger's microscopic derivation of the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole entropy to higher dimensions. We propose an extension to include U (1 ) charge, which agrees with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of large Reissner-Nordstrom/Kerr-Newman black holes at high temperature. We extend the results to an arbitrary hyperscaling-violation exponent (this captures the case of black D p -branes as a subclass) and reproduce logarithmic corrections.
A uniqueness theorem for the anti-de Sitter soliton.
Galloway, G J; Surya, S; Woolgar, E
2002-03-11
The stability of physical systems depends on the existence of a state of least energy. In gravity, this is guaranteed by the positive energy theorem. For topological reasons, this fails for nonsupersymmetric Kaluza-Klein compactifications, which can decay to arbitrarily negative energy. For related reasons, this also fails for the anti-de Sitter (AdS) soliton, a globally static, asymptotically toroidal Lambda<0 spacetime with negative mass. Nonetheless, arguing from the AdS conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, Horowitz and Myers proposed a new positive energy conjecture, which asserts that the AdS soliton is the unique state of least energy in its asymptotic class. We give a new structure theorem for static Lambda<0 spacetimes and use it to prove uniqueness of the AdS soliton. Our results offer significant support for the new positive energy conjecture and add to the body of rigorous results inspired by the AdS/CFT correspondence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Tirthabir; Koshelev, Alexey S.; Mazumdar, Anupam
2017-02-01
In this paper we provide the criteria for any generally covariant, parity preserving, and torsion-free theory of gravity to possess a stable de Sitter (dS) or anti-de Sitter (AdS) background. By stability we mean the absence of tachyonic or ghostlike states in the perturbative spectrum that can lead to classical instabilities and violation of quantum unitarity. While we find that the usual suspects, the F (R ) and F (G ) theories, can indeed possess consistent (A)dS backgrounds, G being the Gauss-Bonnet term, another interesting class of theories, string-inspired infinite derivative gravitational theories, can also be consistent around such curved vacuum solutions. Our study should not only be relevant for quantum gravity and early universe cosmology involving ultraviolet physics, but also for modifications of gravity in the infrared sector vying to replace dark energy.
Einstein-Maxwell-Anti-de-Sitter spinning solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen
2016-06-01
Electrostatics on global Anti-de-Sitter (AdS) spacetime is sharply different from that on global Minkowski spacetime. It admits a multipolar expansion with everywhere regular, finite energy solutions, for every multipole moment except the monopole [1]. A similar statement holds for global AdS magnetostatics. We show that everywhere regular, finite energy, electric plus magnetic fields exist on AdS in three distinct classes: (I) with non-vanishing total angular momentum J; (II) with vanishing J but non-zero angular momentum density, Tφt; (III) with vanishing J and Tφt . Considering backreaction, these configurations remain everywhere smooth and finite energy, and we find, for example, Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons that are globally - Type I - or locally (but not globally) - Type II - spinning. This backreaction is considered first perturbatively, using analytical methods and then non-perturbatively, by constructing numerical solutions of the fully non-linear Einstein-Maxwell-AdS system. The variation of the energy and total angular momentum with the boundary data is explicitly exhibited for one example of a spinning soliton.
Dynamical boundary for anti-de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash; Subramanian, P. N. Bala
2016-12-01
We argue that a natural boundary condition for gravity in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces is to hold the renormalized boundary stress tensor density fixed, instead of the boundary metric. This leads to a well-defined variational problem, as well as new counterterms and a finite on-shell action. We elaborate this in various (even and odd) dimensions in the language of holographic renormalization. Even though the form of the new renormalized action is distinct from the standard one, once the cutoff is taken to infinity, their values on classical solutions coincide when the trace anomaly vanishes. For AdS4 , we compute the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner form of this renormalized action and show in detail how the correct thermodynamics of Kerr-AdS black holes emerge. We comment on the possibility of a consistent quantization with our boundary conditions when the boundary is dynamical, and make a connection to the results of Compere and Marolf. The difference between our approach and microcanonical-like ensembles in standard AdS/CFT is emphasized.
The fate of monsters in anti-de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ong, Yen Chin; Chen, Pisin
2013-07-01
Black hole entropy remains a deep puzzle: where does such enormous amount of entropy come from? Curiously, there exist gravitational configurations that possess even larger entropy than a black hole of the same mass, in fact, arbitrarily high entropy. These are the so-called monsters, which are problematic to the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence paradigm since there is far insufficient degrees of freedom on the field theory side to account for the enormous entropy of monsters in AdS bulk. The physics of the bulk however may be considerably modified at semi-classical level due to the presence of branes. We show that this is especially so since monster spacetimes are unstable due to brane nucleation. As a consequence, it is not clear what the final fate of monsters is. We argue that in some cases there is no real threat from monsters since although they are solutions to Einstein's Field Equations, they are very likely to be completely unstable when embedded in string theory, and thus probably are not solutions to the full quantum theory of gravity. Our analysis, while suggestive and supportive of the claim that such pathological objects are not allowed in the final theory, by itself does not rule out all monsters. We comment on various kin of monsters such as the "bag-of-gold" spacetime, and also discuss briefly the implications of our work to some puzzles related to black hole entropy.
Simulation of black hole collisions in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetimes.
Bantilan, Hans; Romatschke, Paul
2015-02-27
We present results from the evolution of spacetimes that describe the merger of asymptotically global anti-de Sitter black holes in 5D with an SO(3) symmetry. Prompt scalar field collapse provides us with a mechanism for producing distinct trapped regions on the initial slice, associated with black holes initially at rest. We evolve these black holes towards a merger, and follow the subsequent ring down. The boundary stress tensor of the dual conformal field theory is conformally related to a stress tensor in Minkowski space that inherits an axial symmetry from the bulk SO(3). We compare this boundary stress tensor to its hydrodynamic counterpart with viscous corrections of up to second order, and compare the conformally related stress tensor to ideal hydrodynamic simulations in Minkowski space, initialized at various time slices of the boundary data. Our findings reveal far-from-hydrodynamic behavior at early times, with a transition to ideal hydrodynamics at late times.
Semiclassical quantization of circular strings in de Sitter and anti--de Sitter spacetimes
de Vega, H.J. |; Larsen, A.L.; Sanchez, N.
1995-06-15
We compute the {ital exact} equation of state of circular strings in the (2+1)--dimensional de Sitter (dS) and anti--de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes, and analyze its properties for the different (oscillating, contracting, and expanding) strings. The string equation of state has the perfect fluid form {ital P}=({gamma}{minus}1){ital E}, with the pressure and energy expressed closely and completely in terms of elliptic functions, the instantaneous coefficient {gamma} depending on the elliptic modulus. We semiclassically quantize the oscillating circular strings. The string mass is {ital m}= {radical}{ital C} /({pi}{ital H}{alpha}{prime}), {ital C} being the Casimir operator, {ital C}={minus}{ital L}{sub {mu}{nu}}{ital L}{sup {mu}{nu}}, of the O(3,1)-dS [O(2,2)-AdS] group, and {ital H} is the Hubble constant. We find {alpha}{prime}{ital m}{sub dS}{sup 2}{approx}4{ital n}{minus}5{ital H}{sup 2}{alpha}{prime}{ital n}{sup 2} ({ital n}{element_of}{ital N}{sub 0}), and a {ital finite} number of states {ital N}{sub dS}{approx}0.34/({ital H}{sup 2}{alpha}{prime}) in de Sitter spacetime; {ital m}{sub AdS}{sup 2}{approx}{ital H}{sup 2}{ital n}{sup 2} (large {ital n}{element_of}{ital N}{sub 0}) and {ital N}{sub AdS}={infinity} in anti--de Sitter spacetime. The level spacing grows with {ital n} in AdS spacetime, while it is approximately constant (although smaller than in Minkowski spacetime and slightly decreasing) in dS spacetime. The massive states in dS spacetime decay through the tunnel effect and the semiclassical decay probability is computed. The semiclassical quantization of {ital exact} (circular) strings and the canonical quantization of generic string perturbations around the string center of mass qualitatively agree.
Deformations of anti-de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Detournay, Stephane
2006-11-01
This PhD thesis mainly deals with deformations of locally anti-de Sitter black holes, focusing in particular on BTZ black holes. We first study the generic rotating and (extended) non-rotating BTZ black holes within a pseudo-Riemannian symmetric spaces framework, emphasize on the role played by solvable subgroups of SL(2,R) in the black hole structure and derive their global geometry in a group-theoretical way. We analyse how these observations are transposed in the case of higher-dimensional locally AdS black holes. We then show that there exists, in SL(2,R), a family of twisted conjugacy classes which give rise to winding symmetric WZW D1-branes in a BTZ black hole background. The term "deformation" is then considered in two distinct ways. On the one hand, we deform the algebra of functions on the branes in the sense of (strict) deformation quantization, giving rise to a "noncommutative black hole". In the same context, we investigate the question of invariant deformations of the hyperbolic plane and present explicit formulae. On the other hand, we explore the moduli space of the (orbifolded) SL(2,R) WZW model by studying its marginal deformations, yielding namely a new class of exact black string solutions in string theory. These deformations also allow us to relate the D1-branes in BTZ black holes to D0-branes in the 2D black hole. A fair proportion of this thesis consists of (hopefully) pedagogical short introductions to various subjects: deformation quantization, string theory, WZW models, symmetric spaces, symplectic and Poisson geometry.
Phase space localization for anti-de Sitter quantum mechanics and its zero curvature limit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elgradechi, Amine M.
1993-01-01
Using techniques of geometric quantization and SO(sub 0)(3,2)-coherent states, a notion of optimal localization on phase space is defined for the quantum theory of a massive and spinning particle in anti-de Sitter space time. It is shown that this notion disappears in the zero curvature limit, providing one with a concrete example of the regularizing character of the constant (nonzero) curvature of the anti-de Sitter space time. As a byproduct a geometric characterization of masslessness is obtained.
Kar, Supriya
2006-12-15
We obtain de Sitter (dS) and anti-de Sitter (AdS) generalized Reissner-Nordstrom-like black hole geometries in a curved D{sub 3}-brane framework, underlying a noncommutative gauge theory on the brane world. The noncommutative scaling limit is explored to investigate a possible tunneling of an AdS vacuum in string theory to dS vacuum in its low energy gravity theory. The Hagedorn transition is invoked into its self-dual gauge theory to decouple the gauge nonlinearity from the dS geometry, which in turn is shown to describe a pure dS vacuum.
Discrete Torsion, (Anti) de Sitter D4-Brane and Tunneling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Abhishek K.; Pandey, P. K.; Singh, Sunita; Kar, Supriya
2014-06-01
We obtain quantum geometries on a vacuum created pair of a (DDbar)3-brane, at a Big Bang singularity, by a local two form on a D4-brane. In fact our analysis is provoked by an established phenomenon leading to a pair creation by a gauge field at a black hole horizon by Stephen Hawking in 1975. Importantly, the five dimensional microscopic black holes are described by an effective non-perturbative curvature underlying a discrete torsion in a second order formalism. In the case for a non-propagating torsion, the effective curvature reduces to Riemannian, which in a low energy limit may describe Einstein vacuum in the formalism. In particular, our analysis suggests that a non-trivial space begin with a hot de Sitter brane-Universe underlying a nucleation of a vacuum pair of (DDbar)-instanton at a Big Bang. A pair of instanton nucleats a D-particle which in turn combines with an anti D-particle to describe a D-string and so on. The nucleation of a pair of higher dimensional pair of brane/anti-brane from a lower dimensional pair may be viewed via an expansion of the brane-Universe upon time. It is in conformity with the conjecture of a branes within a brane presumably in presence of the non-zero modes of two form. Interestingly, we perform a thermal analysis underlying various emergent quantum de Sitter vacua on a D4-brane and argue for the plausible tunneling geometries underlying a thermal equilibrium. It is argued that a de Sitter Schwarzschild undergoes quantum tunneling to an AdS-brane Schwarzschild via Nariai and de Sitter topological black hole.
Delayed collapses of Bose-Einstein condensates in relation to anti-de Sitter gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biasi, Anxo F.; Mas, Javier; Paredes, Angel
2017-03-01
We numerically investigate spherically symmetric collapses in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with attractive nonlinearity in a harmonic potential. Even below threshold for direct collapse, the wave function bounces off from the origin and may eventually become singular after a number of oscillations in the trapping potential. This is reminiscent of the evolution of Einstein gravity sourced by a scalar field in anti de Sitter space where collapse corresponds to black-hole formation. We carefully examine the long time evolution of the wave function for continuous families of initial states in order to sharpen out this qualitative coincidence which may bring new insights in both directions. On the one hand, we comment on possible implications for the so-called Bosenova collapses in cold atom Bose-Einstein condensates. On the other hand, Gross-Pitaevskii provides a toy model to study the relevance of either the resonance conditions or the nonlinearity for the problem of anti de Sitter instability.
Hawking radiation from general Kerr-(anti)de Sitter black holes
Xu Zhibo; Chen Bin
2007-01-15
We calculate the total flux of Hawking radiation from Kerr-(anti)de Sitter black holes by using gravitational anomaly method developed in [S. P. Robinson and F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 011303 (2005)]. We consider the general Kerr-(anti)de Sitter black holes in arbitrary D dimensions with the maximal number [D/2] of independent rotating parameters. We find that the physics near the horizon can be described by an infinite collection of (1+1)-dimensional quantum fields coupled to a set of gauge fields with charges proportional to the azimuthal angular momentums m{sub i}. With the requirement of anomaly cancellation and regularity at the horizon, the Hawking radiation is determined.
Stability of anti-de sitter space in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity.
Deppe, Nils; Kolly, Allison; Frey, Andrew; Kunstatter, Gabor
2015-02-20
Recently it has been argued that in Einstein gravity anti-de Sitter spacetime is unstable against the formation of black holes for a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. We examine the effects of including a Gauss-Bonnet term. In five dimensions, spherically symmetric Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity has two key features: Choptuik scaling exhibits a radius gap, and the mass function goes to a finite value as the horizon radius vanishes. These suggest that black holes will not form dynamically if the total mass-energy content of the spacetime is too small, thereby restoring the stability of anti-de Sitter spacetime in this context. We support this claim with numerical simulations and uncover a rich structure in horizon radii and formation times as a function of perturbation amplitude.
Collision of domain walls in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime
Takamizu, Yu-ichi; Maeda, Kei-ichi
2006-05-15
We study collision of two domain walls in five-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. This may provide the reheating mechanism of an ekpyrotic (or cyclic) brane universe, in which two Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield branes collide and evolve into a hot big bang universe. We evaluate a change of scalar field making the domain wall and can investigate the effect of a negative cosmological term in the bulk to the collision process and the evolution of our universe.
Resonant Dynamics and the Instability of Anti-de Sitter Spacetime.
Bizoń, Piotr; Maliborski, Maciej; Rostworowski, Andrzej
2015-08-21
We consider spherically symmetric Einstein-massless-scalar field equations with a negative cosmological constant in five dimensions and analyze the evolution of small perturbations of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime using the recently proposed resonant approximation. We show that for typical initial data the solution of the resonant system develops an oscillatory singularity in finite time. This result hints at a possible route to establishing the instability of AdS under arbitrarily small perturbations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahaman, Farook; Bhar, Piyali; Sharma, Ranjan; Tiwari, Rishi Kumar
2015-03-01
We report a -D charged black hole solution in an anti-de Sitter space inspired by noncommutative geometry. In this construction, the black hole exhibits two horizons, which turn into a single horizon in the extreme case. We investigate the impacts of electromagnetic field on the location of the event horizon, mass and thermodynamic properties such as Hawking temperature, entropy, and heat capacity of the black hole. The geodesics of the charged black hole are also analyzed.
Conservation laws for classical particles in anti-de Sitter-Beltrami space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angsachon, T.; Manida, S. N.; Tchaikovskii, M. E.
2013-07-01
The behavior of free classical pointlike particles is governed by conservation laws in the anti-de Sitter space. We present the general form of these laws and their realization in the Beltrami coordinates. In these coordinates, we can pass to the nonrelativistic limit resulting in physics in the R space. We construct the initial covariant distribution function for an ideal gas uniformly filling the entire R space.
Anti-de Sitter quantum field theory and the AdS-CFT correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moschella, U.
We give a short account of a new approach to anti-de Sitter quantum field theory that is based on the assumption of certain analyticity properties of the n-point correlation functions. We then discuss the application of this formalism to the construction of conformal field theories that are naturally obtained on the covering of the cone asymptotic to the AdS manifold, and that satisfy the axioms of Luscher and Mack.
Recursive Techniques for Computing Gluon Scattering in Anti-de-Sitter Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shyaka, Claude; Kharel, Savan
2016-03-01
The anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence is a relationship between two kinds of physical theories. On one side of the duality are special type of quantum (conformal) field theories known as the Yang-Mills theory. These quantum field theories are known to be equivalent to theories of gravity in Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The physical observables in the theory are the correlation functions that live in the boundary of AdS space. In general correlation functions are computed using configuration space and the expressions are extremely complicated. Using momentum basis and recursive techniques developed by Raju, we extend tree level correlation functions for four and five-point correlation functions in Yang-Mills theory in Anti-de Sitter space. In addition, we show that for certain external helicity, the correlation functions have simple analytic structure. Finally, we discuss how one can generalize these results to n-point functions. Hendrix college odyssey Grant.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes: conserved quantities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashtekar, Abhay; Das, Saurya
2000-01-01
Asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes are considered in a general dimension dicons/Journals/Common/ge" ALT="ge" ALIGN="TOP"/> 4. As one might expect, the boundary conditions at infinity ensure that the asymptotic symmetry group is the anti-de Sitter group (although there is an interesting subtlety if d = 4). Asymptotic field equations imply that, associated with each generator icons/Journals/Common/xi" ALT="xi" ALIGN="TOP"/> of this group, there is a quantity Qicons/Journals/Common/xi" ALT="xi" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> which satisfies the expected `balance equation' if there is a flux of physical matter fields across the boundary icons/Journals/Common/calI" ALT="calI" ALIGN="TOP"/> at infinity and is absolutely conserved in the absence of this flux. Irrespective of the dimension d , all of these quantities vanish if the spacetime under considerations is (globally) anti-de Sitter. Furthermore, this result is required by a general covariance argument. However, it contradicts some of the recent findings based on the conjectured ADS/CFT duality. This and other features of our analysis suggest that, if a consistent dictionary between gravity and conformal field theories does exist in fully non-perturbative regimes, it would have to be more subtle than the one used currently.
Raising anti-de Sitter vacua to de Sitter vacua in heterotic M theory
Buchbinder, Evgeny I.
2004-09-15
We explore the possibility of obtaining de Sitter vacua in strongly coupled heterotic models by adding various corrections to the supergravity potential energy. We show that, in a generic compactification scenario, Fayet-Iliopoulos terms can generate a de Sitter vacuum. The cosmological constant in this vacuum can be fine tuned to be consistent with observation. We also study moduli potentials in nonsupersymmetric compactifications of E{sub 8}xE{sub 8} theory with anti five-branes and E{sub 8}xE{sub 8} theory. We argue that they can be used to create a de Sitter vacuum only if some of the Kahler structure moduli are stabilized at values much less than the Calabi-Yau scale.
Toroidal configurations of perfect fluid in the Reissner-Nordström-(anti-)de Sitter spacetimes
Kucáková, Hana; Slaný, Petr; Stuchlík, Zdenĕk E-mail: petr.slany@fpf.slu.cz
2011-01-01
Influence of cosmological constant on toroidal fluid configurations around charged spherically symmetric black holes and naked singularities is demostrated by study of perfect-fluid tori with uniform distribution of specific angular momentum orbiting in the Reissner-Nordström-(anti-)de Sitter spacetimes. Toroidal configurations are allowed only in the spacetimes admitting existence of stable circular geodesics. Configurations with marginally closed equipotential (equipressure) surfaces crossing itself in a cusp allow accretion (through the inner cusp) and/or excretion (through the outer cusp) of matter from the toroidal configuration. Detailed classification of the Reissner-Nordström-(anti-)de Sitter spacetimes according to properties of the marginally stable tori is given. It is demonstrated that in the Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter naked-singularity spacetimes an interesting phenomenon of doubled tori can exist enabling exchange of matter between two tori in both inward and outward directions. In naked-singularity spacetimes the accretion onto the central singularity is impossible due to existence of a potential barrier.
Analytical solution of the geodesic equation in Kerr-(anti-) de Sitter space-times
Hackmann, Eva; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Kagramanova, Valeria; Kunz, Jutta
2010-02-15
The complete analytical solutions of the geodesic equations in Kerr-de Sitter and Kerr-anti-de Sitter space-times are presented. They are expressed in terms of Weierstrass elliptic p, {zeta}, and {sigma} functions as well as hyperelliptic Kleinian {sigma} functions restricted to the one-dimensional {theta} divisor. We analyze the dependency of timelike geodesics on the parameters of the space-time metric and the test-particle and compare the results with the situation in Kerr space-time with vanishing cosmological constant. Furthermore, we systematically can find all last stable spherical and circular orbits and derive the expressions of the deflection angle of flyby orbits, the orbital frequencies of bound orbits, the periastron shift, and the Lense-Thirring effect.
Generic cosmic-censorship violation in anti-de Sitter space.
Hertog, Thomas; Horowitz, Gary T; Maeda, Kengo
2004-04-02
We consider (four-dimensional) gravity coupled to a scalar field with potential V(phi). The potential satisfies the positive energy theorem for solutions that asymptotically tend to a negative local minimum. We show that for a large class of such potentials, there is an open set of smooth initial data that evolve to naked singularities. Hence cosmic censorship does not hold for certain reasonable matter theories in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. The asymptotically flat case is more subtle. We suspect that potentials with a local Minkowski minimum may similarly lead to violations of cosmic censorship in asymptotically flat spacetimes, but we do not have definite results.
Anyonic Strings and Membranes in Anti-de Sitter Space and Dual Aharonov-Bohm Effects
Hartnoll, Sean A.
2007-03-16
It is observed that strings in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} and membranes in AdS{sub 7}xS{sup 4} exhibit long range phase interactions. Two well separated membranes dragged around one another in anti-de Sitter space (AdS) acquire phases of 2{pi}/N. The same phases are acquired by a well separated F and D string dragged around one another. The phases are shown to correspond to both the standard and a novel type of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the dual field theory.
Anyonic strings and membranes in anti-de Sitter space and dual Aharonov-Bohm effects.
Hartnoll, Sean A
2007-03-16
It is observed that strings in AdS(5) x S(5) and membranes in AdS(7) x S(4) exhibit long range phase interactions. Two well separated membranes dragged around one another in anti-de Sitter space (AdS) acquire phases of 2 pi/N. The same phases are acquired by a well separated F and D string dragged around one another. The phases are shown to correspond to both the standard and a novel type of Aharonov-Bohm effect in the dual field theory.
A note on conformally compactified connection dynamics tailored for anti-de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodendorfer, N.
2016-12-01
A framework conceptually based on the conformal techniques employed to study the structure of the gravitational field at infinity is set up in the context of loop quantum gravity to describe asymptotically anti-de Sitter quantum spacetimes. A conformal compactification of the spatial slice is performed, which, in terms of the rescaled metric, has now finite volume, and can thus be conveniently described by spin networks states. The conformal factor used is a physical scalar field, which has the necessary asymptotics for many asymptotically AdS black hole solutions.
Classical Yang-Mills Black Hole Hair in Anti-de Sitter Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winstanley, E.
The properties of hairy black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) theory are reviewed, focusing on spherically symmetric solutions. In particular, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space (adS) stable black hole hair is known to exist for frak su(2) EYM. We review recent work in which it is shown that stable hair also exists in frak su(N) EYM for arbitrary N, so that there is no upper limit on how much stable hair a black hole in adS can possess.
Extended Anti-de Sitter Hypergravity in 2 + 1 Dimensions and Hypersymmetry Bounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henneaux, Marc; Pérez, Alfredo; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo
In a recent paper (JHEP 1508 (2015) 021), we have investigated hypersymmetry bounds in the context of simple anti-de Sitter hypergravity in 2+1 dimensions. We showed that these bounds involved non linearly the spin-2 and spin-4 charges, and were saturated by a class of extremal black holes, which are 1/4-hypersymmetric. We continue the analysis here by considering (M,N)-extended anti-de Sitter hypergravity models, based on the superalgebra osp(M|4) ⊕ osp(N|4). The asymptotic symmetry superalgebra is then the direct sum of two-copies of a W-superalgebra that contains so(M) (or so(N)) Kac-Moody currents of conformal weight 1, fermionic generators of conformal weight 5/2 and bosonic generators of conformal weight 4 in addition to the Virasoro generators. The nonlinear hypersymmetry bounds on the conserved charges are derived and shown to be saturated by a class of extreme hypersymmetric black holes which we explicitly construct.
The Hawking-Page crossover in noncommutative anti-deSitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolini, Piero; Torrieri, Giorgio
2011-08-01
We study the problem of a Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter black hole in a non-commutative geometry framework, thought to be an effective description of quantum-gravitational spacetime. As a first step we derive the noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter solution. After studying the horizon structure, we find that the curvature singularity is smeared out by the noncommutative fluctuations. On the thermodynamics side, we show that the black hole temperature, instead of a divergent behavior at small scales, admits a maximum value. This fact implies an extension of the Hawking-Page transition into a van der Waals-like phase diagram, with a critical point at a critical cosmological constant size in Plank units and a smooth crossover thereafter. We speculate that, in the gauge-string dictionary, this corresponds to the confinement "critical point" in number of colors at finite number of flavors, a highly non-trivial parameter that can be determined through lattice simulations.
Massless and massive higher spins from anti-de Sitter space waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gwak, Seungho; Kim, Jaewon; Rey, Soo-Jong
2016-11-01
Understanding Higgs mechanism for higher-spin gauge fields is an outstanding open problem. We investigate this problem in the context of Kaluza-Klein compactification. Starting from a free massless higher-spin field in ( d + 2)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space and compactifying over a finite angular wedge, we obtain an infinite tower of heavy, light and massless higher-spin fields in ( d + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. All massive higher-spin fields are described gauge invariantly in terms of Stueckelberg fields. The spectrum depends on the boundary conditions imposed at both ends of the wedges. We observed that higher-derivative boundary condition is inevitable for spin greater than three. For some higher-derivative boundary conditions, equivalently, spectrum-dependent boundary conditions, we get a non-unitary representation of partially-massless higher-spin fields of varying depth. We present intuitive picture which higher-derivative boundary conditions yield non-unitary system in terms of boundary action. We argue that isotropic Lifshitz interfaces in O( N ) Heisenberg magnet or O( N ) Gross-Neveu model provides the holographic dual conformal field theory and propose experimental test of (inverse) Higgs mechanism for massive and partially massless higher-spin fields.
Asymptotically (anti)-de Sitter solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity without a cosmological constant
Dehghani, M.H.
2004-09-15
In this paper I show that one can have asymptotically de Sitter, anti-de Sitter (AdS), and flat solutions in Gauss-Bonnet gravity without a cosmological constant term in field equations. First, I introduce static solutions whose three surfaces at fixed r and t have constant positive (k=1), negative (k=-1), or zero (k=0) curvature. I show that for k={+-}1 one can have asymptotically de Sitter, AdS, and flat spacetimes, while for the case of k=0, one has only asymptotically AdS solutions. Some of these solutions present naked singularities, while some others are black hole or topological black hole solutions. I also find that the geometrical mass of these five-dimensional spacetimes is m+2{alpha}|k|, which is different from the geometrical mass m of the solutions of Einstein gravity. This feature occurs only for the five-dimensional solutions, and is not repeated for the solutions of Gauss-Bonnet gravity in higher dimensions. Second, I add angular momentum to the static solutions with k=0, and introduce the asymptotically AdS charged rotating solutions of Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Finally, I introduce a class of solutions which yields an asymptotically AdS spacetime with a longitudinal magnetic field, which presents a naked singularity, and generalize it to the case of magnetic rotating solutions with two rotation parameters.
Nonlinear Evolution and Final Fate of Charged Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Superradiant Instability.
Bosch, Pablo; Green, Stephen R; Lehner, Luis
2016-04-08
We describe the full nonlinear development of the superradiant instability for a charged massless scalar field coupled to general relativity and electromagnetism, in the vicinity of a Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter black hole. The presence of the negative cosmological constant provides a natural context for considering perfectly reflecting boundary conditions and studying the dynamics as the scalar field interacts repeatedly with the black hole. At early times, small superradiant perturbations grow as expected from linearized studies. Backreaction then causes the black hole to lose charge and mass until the perturbation becomes nonsuperradiant, with the final state described by a stable hairy black hole. For large gauge coupling, the instability extracts a large amount of charge per unit mass, resulting in greater entropy increase. We discuss the implications of the observed behavior for the general problem of superradiance in black hole spacetimes.
Thermodynamics and phase transitions in the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes
Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai
2008-10-15
We investigate the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter (BIAdS) black hole solutions in the four dimensions, which is a nonlinear generalization of the Reissner-Norstroem-AdS (RNAdS) black hole. We analyze all thermodynamic quantities of the BIAdS black hole in the canonical ensembles, which are characterized by the charge Q, the mass M, the nonlinear parameter b, comparing with those of the RNAdS and Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. We find the forbidden region of 0{<=}bQ<0.5 for the presence of a charged BIAdS black hole. We also discuss the Hawking-Page phase transitions in the BIAdS black holes. Here we obtain a new Hawking-Page phase transition for the bQ=0.5 critical BIAdS black hole.
Unique Continuation from Infinity in Asymptotically Anti-de Sitter Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holzegel, Gustav; Shao, Arick
2016-11-01
We consider the unique continuation properties of asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes by studying Klein-Gordon-type equations {Box_g φ + σ φ = {G} ( φ, partial φ )}, {σ in {R}}, on a large class of such spacetimes. Our main result establishes that if {φ} vanishes to sufficiently high order (depending on {σ}) on a sufficiently long time interval along the conformal boundary I, then the solution necessarily vanishes in a neighborhood of I. In particular, in the {σ}-range where Dirichlet and Neumann conditions are possible on I for the forward problem, we prove uniqueness if both these conditions are imposed. The length of the time interval can be related to the refocusing time of null geodesics on these backgrounds and is expected to be sharp. Some global applications as well as a uniqueness result for gravitational perturbations are also discussed. The proof is based on novel Carleman estimates established in this setting.
The Derivation and Quasinormal Mode Spectrum of Acoustic Anti-de Sitter Black Hole Analogues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babb, James Patrick
Dumb holes (also known as acoustic black holes) are fluid flows which include an "acoustic horizon": a surface, analogous to a gravitational horizon, beyond which sound may pass but never classically return. Soundwaves in these flows will therefore experience "effective geometries" which are identical to black hole spacetimes up to a conformal factor. By adjusting the parameters of the fluid flow, it is possible to create an effective geometry which is conformal to the Anti-de Sitter black hole spacetime---a geometry which has received a great deal of attention in recent years due to its conjectured holographic duality to Conformal Field Theories. While we would not expect an acoustic analogue of the AdS-CFT correspondence to exist, this dumb hole provides a means, at least in principle, of experimentally testing the theoretical properties of the AdS spacetime. In particular, I have calculated the quasinormal mode spectrum of this acoustic geometry.
Noncommutative brane-world, (Anti) de Sitter vacua and extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kar, Supriya
2006-10-01
We investigate a curved brane-world, inspired by a noncommutative D3-brane, in a type IIB string theory. We obtain, an axially symmetric and a spherically symmetric, (anti) de Sitter black holes in 4D. The event horizons of these black holes possess a constant curvature and may be seen to be governed by different topologies. The extremal geometries are explored, using the noncommutative scaling in the theory, to reassure the attractor behavior at the black hole event horizon. The emerging two dimensional, semi-classical, black hole is analyzed to provide evidence for the extra dimensions in a curved brane-world. It is argued that the gauge nonlinearity in the theory may be redefined by a potential in a moduli space. As a result, D = 11 and D = 12 dimensional geometries may be obtained at the stable extrema of the potential.
The emergence of superconducting systems in Anti-de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, W. M.; Pierpoint, M. P.; Forrester, D. M.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2016-10-01
In this article, we investigate the mathematical relationship between a (3+1) dimensional gravity model inside Anti-de Sitter space AdS4, and a (2+1) dimensional superconducting system on the asymptotically flat boundary of AdS4 (in the absence of gravity). We consider a simple case of the Type II superconducting model (in terms of Ginzburg-Landau theory) with an external perpendicular magnetic field H. An interaction potential V ( r, ψ) = α( T)| ψ|2 /r 2 + χ| ψ|2 /L 2 + β| ψ|4 /(2 r k ) is introduced within the Lagrangian system. This provides more flexibility within the model, when the superconducting system is close to the transition temperature T c. Overall, our result demonstrates that the Ginzburg-Landau differential equations can be directly deduced from Einstein's theory of general relativity.
Conserved charges for gravity with locally anti-de sitter asymptotics
Aros; Contreras; Olea; Troncoso; Zanelli
2000-02-21
A new formula for the conserved charges in 3+1 gravity for spacetimes with local anti-de Sitter asymptotic geometry is proposed. It is shown that requiring the action to have an extremum for this class of asymptotia sets the boundary term that must be added to the Lagrangian as the Euler density with a fixed weight factor. The resulting action gives rise to the mass and angular momentum as Noether charges associated to the asymptotic Killing vectors without requiring specification of a reference background in order to have a convergent expression. A consequence of this definition is that any negative constant curvature spacetime has vanishing Noether charges. These results remain valid in the Lambda = 0 limit.
Charged anti-de Sitter scalar-tensor black holes and their thermodynamic phase structure
Doneva, Daniela D.; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Stefanov, Ivan Zh.; Todorov, Michail D.
2010-05-15
In the present paper we numerically construct new charged anti-de Sitter black holes coupled to nonlinear Born-Infeld electrodynamics within a certain class of scalar-tensor theories. The properties of the solutions are investigated both numerically and analytically. We also study the thermodynamics of the black holes in the canonical ensemble. For large values of the Born-Infeld parameter and for a certain interval of the charge values we find the existence of a first-order phase transition between small and very large black holes. An unexpected result is that for a certain small charge subinterval two phase transitions have been observed, one of zeroth and one of first order. It is important to note that such phase transitions are also observed for pure Einstein-Born-Infeld-AdS black holes.
Holographic thermalization, stability of anti-de sitter space, and the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam paradox.
Balasubramanian, Venkat; Buchel, Alex; Green, Stephen R; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L
2014-08-15
For a real massless scalar field in general relativity with a negative cosmological constant, we uncover a large class of spherically symmetric initial conditions that are close to anti-de Sitter space (AdS) but whose numerical evolution does not result in black hole formation. According to the AdS/conformal field theory (CFT) dictionary, these bulk solutions are dual to states of a strongly interacting boundary CFT that fail to thermalize at late times. Furthermore, as these states are not stationary, they define dynamical CFT configurations that do not equilibrate. We develop a two-time-scale perturbative formalism that captures both direct and inverse cascades of energy and agrees with our fully nonlinear evolutions in the appropriate regime. We also show that this formalism admits a large class of quasiperiodic solutions. Finally, we demonstrate a striking parallel between the dynamics of AdS and the classic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou problem.
Holographic Thermalization, Stability of Anti-de Sitter Space, and the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Paradox
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balasubramanian, Venkat; Buchel, Alex; Green, Stephen R.; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.
2014-08-01
For a real massless scalar field in general relativity with a negative cosmological constant, we uncover a large class of spherically symmetric initial conditions that are close to anti-de Sitter space (AdS) but whose numerical evolution does not result in black hole formation. According to the AdS/conformal field theory (CFT) dictionary, these bulk solutions are dual to states of a strongly interacting boundary CFT that fail to thermalize at late times. Furthermore, as these states are not stationary, they define dynamical CFT configurations that do not equilibrate. We develop a two-time-scale perturbative formalism that captures both direct and inverse cascades of energy and agrees with our fully nonlinear evolutions in the appropriate regime. We also show that this formalism admits a large class of quasiperiodic solutions. Finally, we demonstrate a striking parallel between the dynamics of AdS and the classic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou problem.
New Dynamics in the Anti-de Sitter Universe AdS 5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachelot, Alain
2013-06-01
This paper deals with the propagation of the gravitational waves in the Poincaré patch of the 5-dimensional Anti-de Sitter universe. We construct a large family of unitary dynamics with respect to some high order energies that are conserved and positive. These dynamics are associated with asymptotic conditions on the conformal time-like boundary of the universe. This result does not contradict the statement of Breitenlohner-Freedman that the hamiltonian is essentially self-adjoint in L 2 and thus accordingly the dynamics is uniquely determined. The key point is the introduction of a new Hilbert functional framework that contains the massless graviton which is not normalizable in L 2. Then the hamiltonian is not essentially self-adjoint in this new space and possesses a lot of different positive self-adjoint extensions. These dynamics satisfy a holographic principle: there exists a renormalized boundary value which completely characterizes the whole field in the bulk.
A scalar field condensation instability of rotating Anti-de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Óscar J. C.; Monteiro, Ricardo; Reall, Harvey S.; Santos, Jorge E.
2010-11-01
Near-extreme Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter black holes are unstable against the condensation of an uncharged scalar field with mass close to the Breitenlöhner-Freedman bound. It is shown that a similar instability afflicts near-extreme large rotating AdS black holes, and near-extreme hyperbolic Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. The resulting nonlinear hairy black hole solutions are determined numerically. Some stability results for (possibly charged) scalar fields in black hole backgrounds are proved. For most of the extreme black holes we consider, these demonstrate stability if the “effective mass” respects the near-horizon BF bound. Small spherical Reissner-Nordström-AdS black holes are an interesting exception to this result.
Spinning σ-model solitons in 2 + 1 anti-de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harms, B.; Stern, A.
2016-12-01
We obtain numerical solutions for rotating topological solitons of the nonlinear σ-model in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. Two types of solutions, i) and ii), are found. The σ-model fields are everywhere well defined for both types of solutions, but they differ in their space-time domains. Any time slice of the space-time for the type i) solution has a causal singularity, despite the fact that all scalars constructed from the curvature tensor are bounded functions. No evidence of a horizon is seen for any of the solutions, and therefore the type i) solutions have naked singularities. On the other hand, the space-time domain, along with the fields, for the type ii) solutions are singularity free. Multiple families of solutions exhibiting bifurcation phenomena are found for this case.
Strings in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with a symmetry
Koike, Tatsuhiko; Kozaki, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Hideki
2008-06-15
The equation of motion of an extended object in spacetime reduces to an ordinary differential equation in the presence of symmetry. By properly defining the symmetry with the notion of cohomogeneity, we discuss the method for classifying all these extended objects. We carry out the classification for the strings in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space by the effective use of the local isomorphism between SO(4,2) and SU(2,2). In the case where the string is described by the Nambu-Goto action, we present a general method for solving the trajectory. We then apply the method to one of the classification cases, where the spacetime naturally obtains a Hopf-like bundle structure, and find a solution. The geometry of the solution is analyzed and found to be a timelike, helicoidlike surface.
Quantum groups, roots of unity and particles on quantized Anti-de Sitter space
Steinacker, Harold
1997-05-23
Quantum groups in general and the quantum Anti-de Sitter group U_{q}(so(2,3)) in particular are studied from the point of view of quantum field theory. The author shows that if q is a suitable root of unity, there exist finite-dimensional, unitary representations corresponding to essentially all the classical one-particle representations with (half) integer spin, with the same structure at low energies as in the classical case. In the massless case for spin ≥ 1, "naive" representations are unitarizable only after factoring out a subspace of "pure gauges", as classically. Unitary many-particle representations are defined, with the correct classical limit. Furthermore, the author identifies a remarkable element Q in the center of U_{q}(g), which plays the role of a BRST operator in the case of U_{q}(so(2,3)) at roots of unity, for any spin ≥ 1. The associated ghosts are an intrinsic part of the indecomposable representations. The author shows how to define an involution on algebras of creation and anihilation operators at roots of unity, in an example corresponding to non-identical particles. It is shown how nonabelian gauge fields appear naturally in this framework, without having to define connections on fiber bundles. Integration on Quantum Euclidean space and sphere and on Anti-de Sitter space is studied as well. The author gives a conjecture how Q can be used in general to analyze the structure of indecomposable representations, and to define a new, completely reducible associative (tensor) product of representations at roots of unity, which generalizes the standard "truncated" tensor product as well as many-particle representations.
Vacuum for a massless quantum scalar field outside a collapsing shell in anti-de Sitter space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abel, Paul G.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2016-08-01
We consider a massless quantum scalar field on a two-dimensional space-time describing a thin shell of matter collapsing to form a Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black hole. At early times, before the shell starts to collapse, the quantum field is in the vacuum state, corresponding to the Boulware vacuum on an eternal black hole space-time. The scalar field satisfies reflecting boundary conditions on the anti-de Sitter boundary. Using the Davies-Fulling-Unruh prescription for computing the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor, we find that at late times the black hole is in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath at the Hawking temperature, so the quantum field is in a state analogous to the Hartle-Hawking vacuum on an eternal black hole space-time.
6D Anti-de Sitter Space Solutions to Einstein’s Field Equation with a Scalar Field
2007-05-04
Resource, http://mathworld.wolfram.com/RiemmannTensor.html. [7] F. Kristiansson, ”An Excusion into the Anti-de Sitter Spacetime and the World of...and Spacetime . (W.W. Norton & Co., New York, New York, 1976). [14] B. Grinstein, D. Nolte, and W. Skiba, ”On a Covariant Determination of Mass Scales in Warped Backgrounds,” Phys.Rev. 63, (2001).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anninos, Dionysios; Pastras, Georgios
2009-07-01
The local and global thermal phase structure for asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes charged under an abelian gauge group, with both Gauss-Bonnet and quartic field strength corrections, is mapped out for all parameter space. We work in the grand canonical ensemble where the external electric potential is held fixed. The analysis is performed in an arbitrary number of dimensions, for all three possible horizon topologies — spherical, flat or hyperbolic. For spherical horizons, new metastable configurations are exhibited both for the pure Gauss-Bonnet theory as well as the pure higher derivative gauge theory and combinations thereof. In the pure Gauss-Bonnet theory with negative coefficient and five or more spatial dimensions, two locally thermally stable black hole solutions are found for a given temperature. Either one or both of them may be thermally favored over the anti-de Sitter vacuum — corresponding to a single or a double decay channel for the metastable black hole. Similar metastable configurations are uncovered for the theory with pure quartic field strength corrections, as well combinations of the two types of corrections, in three or more spatial dimensions. Finally, a secondary Hawking-Page transition between the smaller thermally favored black hole and thermal anti-de Sitter space is observed when both corrections are turned on and their couplings are both positive.
The Wave Turbulence Approach to Gravitational Collapse in Anti-de Sitter Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Brian; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo
2017-01-01
Over the last few decades there has been a great deal of research relating gravity to the dynamics of fluids. In the weakly turbulent regime fluids can be described using the formulation of wave turbulence rather than full-blown Kolmogorov turbulence, which uses vortices. It is with these two ideas in mind that we construct the wave equation describing gravitational collapse of a scalar field in anti de-Sitter (AdS) space using Einstein's field equations. By using the appropriate limits we reach a solution with truncated terms for increasingly complicated mode interactions. While this formulation has implications in the AdS/CFT correspondence we are more concerned with the implications of this wave turbulence formulation as it relates to gravitational waves in asymptotically flat space. When there is negligible interaction between modes the wave acts as a simple harmonic oscillator, but for nonlinear time scales ($\\sim 1/A^{2}$) the interactions become important and we simulate the cascade from one mode of the wave to the next using numerical techniques. Future research will be focused on geometrodynamics as it relates to compact objects and the analysis of data being generated by gravitational wave interferometers.
Scalar hair on the black hole in asymptotically anti--de Sitter spacetime
Torii, Takashi; Maeda, Kengo; Narita, Makoto
2001-08-15
We examine the no-hair conjecture in asymptotically anti--de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. First, we consider a real scalar field as the matter field and assume static spherically symmetric spacetime. Analysis of the asymptotics shows that the scalar field must approach the extremum of its potential. Using this fact, it is proved that there is no regular black hole solution when the scalar field is massless or has a 'convex' potential. Surprisingly, while the scalar field has a growing mode around the local minimum of the potential, there is no growing mode around the local maximum. This implies that the local maximum is a kind of 'attractor' of the asymptotic scalar field. We give two examples of the new black hole solutions with a nontrivial scalar field configuration numerically in the symmetric or asymmetric double well potential models. We study the stability of these solutions by using the linear perturbation method in order to examine whether or not the scalar hair is physical. In the symmetric double well potential model, we find that the potential function of the perturbation equation is positive semidefinite in some wide parameter range and that the new solution is stable. This implies that the black hole no-hair conjecture is violated in asymptotically AdS spacetime.
Rainbow valley of colored (anti) de Sitter gravity in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gwak, Seungho; Joung, Euihun; Mkrtchyan, Karapet; Rey, Soo-Jong
2016-04-01
We propose a theory of three-dimensional (anti) de Sitter gravity carrying Chan-Paton color charges. We define the theory by Chern-Simons formulation with the gauge algebra (gl_2oplus gl_2)⊗ u(N) , obtaining a color-decorated version of interacting spin-one and spin-two fields. We also describe the theory in metric formulation and show that, among N 2 massless spin-two fields, only the singlet one plays the role of metric graviton whereas the rest behave as colored spinning matter that strongly interacts at large N. Remarkably, these colored spinning matter acts as Higgs field and generates a non-trivial potential of staircase shape. At each extremum labelled by k=0,dots, [N-1/2] , the u(N) color gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken down to u(N-k)oplus u(k) and provides different (A)dS backgrounds with the cosmological constants {(N/N-2k)}^2Λ . When this symmetry breaking takes place, the spin-two Goldstone modes combine with (or are eaten by) the spin-one gauge fields to become partially-massless spin-two fields. We discuss various aspects of this theory and highlight physical implications.
Reissner-Nordstrom-anti-de Sitter nontopological solitons in broken Einstein-Maxwell-Higgs theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Honda, Ethan
2017-01-01
Results are presented from numerical simulations of the Einstein-Maxwell-Higgs equations with a broken U(1) symmetry. Coherent nontopological soliton solutions are shown to exist that separate an anti-de Sitter (AdS) true vacuum interior from a Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) false vacuum exterior. The stability of these bubble solutions is tested by perturbing the charge of the coherent solution and evolving the time-dependent equations of motion. In the weak gravitational limit, the short-term stability depends on the sign of (ω /Q )∂ωQ , similar to Q -balls. The long-term end state of the perturbed solutions demonstrates a rich structure and is visualized using "phase diagrams." Regions of both stability and instability are shown to exist for κg≲0.015 , while solutions with κg≳0.015 were observed to be entirely unstable. Threshold solutions are shown to demonstrate time-scaling laws, and the space separating true and false vacuum end states is shown to be fractal in nature, similar to oscillons. Coherent states with superextremal charge-to-mass ratios are shown to exist and observed to collapse or expand, depending on the sign of the charge perturbation. Expanding superextremal bubbles induce phase transitions to the true AdS vacuum, while collapsing superextremal bubbles can form nonsingular strongly gravitating solutions with superextremal RN exteriors.
Thin-shell bubbles and information loss problem in anti de Sitter background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han
2014-12-01
We study the motion of thin-shell bubbles and their tunneling in anti de Sitter (AdS) background. We are interested in the case when the outside of a shell is a Schwarzschild-AdS space (false vacuum) and the inside of it is an AdS space with a lower vacuum energy (true vacuum). If a collapsing true vacuum bubble is created, classically it will form a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. However, this collapsing bubble can tunnel to a bouncing bubble that moves out to spatial infinity. Then, although the classical causal structure of a collapsing true vacuum bubble has the singularity and the event horizon, quantum mechanically the wavefunction has support for a history without any singularity nor event horizon which is mediated by the non-perturbative, quantum tunneling effect. This may be regarded an explicit example that shows the unitarity of an asymptotic observer in AdS, while a classical observer who only follows the most probable history effectively lose information due to the formation of an event horizon.
More on asymptotically anti-de Sitter spaces in topologically massive gravity
Henneaux, Marc; Martinez, Cristian; Troncoso, Ricardo
2010-09-15
Recently, the asymptotic behavior of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity with a topological mass term was investigated. Boundary conditions were given that were asymptotically invariant under the two dimensional conformal group and that included a falloff of the metric sufficiently slow to consistently allow pp-wave type of solutions. Now, pp waves can have two different chiralities. Above the chiral point and at the chiral point, however, only one chirality can be considered, namely, the chirality that has the milder behavior at infinity. The other chirality blows up faster than AdS and does not define an asymptotically AdS spacetime. By contrast, both chiralities are subdominant with respect to the asymptotic behavior of AdS spacetime below the chiral point. Nevertheless, the boundary conditions given in the earlier treatment only included one of the two chiralities (which could be either one) at a time. We investigate in this paper whether one can generalize these boundary conditions in order to consider simultaneously both chiralities below the chiral point. We show that this is not possible if one wants to keep the two-dimensional conformal group as asymptotic symmetry group. Hence, the boundary conditions given in the earlier treatment appear to be the best possible ones compatible with conformal symmetry. In the course of our investigations, we provide general formulas controlling the asymptotic charges for all values of the topological mass (not just below the chiral point).
Globally regular instability of 3-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime.
Bizoń, Piotr; Jałmużna, Joanna
2013-07-26
We consider three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity minimally coupled to a massless scalar field and study numerically the evolution of small smooth circularly symmetric perturbations of the AdS3 spacetime. As in higher dimensions, for a large class of perturbations, we observe a turbulent cascade of energy to high frequencies which entails instability of AdS3. However, in contrast to higher dimensions, the cascade cannot be terminated by black hole formation because small perturbations have energy below the black hole threshold. This situation appears to be challenging for the cosmic censor. Analyzing the energy spectrum of the cascade we determine the width ρ(t) of the analyticity strip of solutions in the complex spatial plane and argue by extrapolation that ρ(t) does not vanish in finite time. This provides evidence that the turbulence is too weak to produce a naked singularity and the solutions remain globally regular in time, in accordance with the cosmic censorship hypothesis.
On quantum deformations of (anti-)de Sitter algebras in (2+1) dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballesteros, A.; Herranz, F. J.; Musso, F.
2014-09-01
Quantum deformations of (anti-)de Sitter (A)dS algebras in (2+1) dimensions are revisited, and several features of these quantum structures are reviewed. In particular, the classification problem of (2+1) (A)dS Lie bialgebras is presented and the associated noncommutative quantum (A)dS spaces are also analysed. Moreover, the flat limit (or vanishing cosmological constant) of all these structures leading to (2+1) quantum Poincare algebras and groups is simultaneously given by considering the cosmological constant as an explicit Lie algebra parameter in the (A)dS algebras. By making use of this classification, a three-parameter generalization of the K-deformation for the (2+1) (A)dS algebras and quantum spacetimes is given. Finally, the same problem is studied in (3+1) dimensions, where a two-parameter generalization of the κ-(A)dS deformation that preserves the space isotropy is found.
Black hole formation from pointlike particles in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindgren, E. J.
2016-07-01
We study collisions of many point-like particles in three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space, generalizing the known result with two particles. We show how to construct exact solutions corresponding to the formation of either a black hole or a conical singularity from the collision of an arbitrary number of massless particles falling in radially from the boundary. We find that when going away from the case of equal energies and discrete rotational symmetry, this is not a trivial generalization of the two-particle case, but requires that the excised wedges corresponding to the particles must be chosen in a very precise way for a consistent solution. We also explicitly take the limit when the number of particles goes to infinity and obtain thin shell solutions that in general break rotational invariance, corresponding to an instantaneous and inhomogeneous perturbation at the boundary. We also compute the stress-energy tensor of the shell using the junction formalism for null shells and obtain agreement with the point particle picture.
Instantons near a tachyonic top in an anti de Sitter and the no-boundary regulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Ro, Daeho; Yeom, Dong-han
2015-08-01
We investigate instantons near a tachyonic top in an anti de Sitter (AdS) background. If the mass scale around the hill-top is above the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound, then the top is classically stable. When the BF bound is satisfied, it is already known that there can exist instantons with a non-zero probability, though fine-tunings of the potential are required. On the other hand, we may consider a possibility to obtain instantons with a non-zero probability for a more natural shape of potentials. We found that the no-boundary regulator is useful to assign a non-zero probability for general instantons near the tachyonic top with a consistent framework. To use the no-boundary regulator, we need to introduce the complexification of fields. One interesting feature is that, for these AdS instantons, the classicality may not be satisfied after the Wick rotation and hence after the nucleation. This magnifies a novel difference between dS and AdS; a semi-classical boundary observer in AdS may notice the dispersion of quantum fields as a kind of uncertainty, while every semi-classical observer in dS is classicalized individually and hence there is no semi-classical observer who can see the quantum dispersion of the scalar field.
Maeda, Kengo; Fujii, Shunsuke; Koga, Jun-ichirou
2010-06-15
We investigate instability of four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS{sub 4}) black holes with various topologies by charged scalar field perturbations. We numerically find that the RN-AdS{sub 4} black holes become unstable against the linear perturbations below a critical temperature. It is analytically shown that charge extraction from the black holes occurs during the unstable evolution. To explore the end state of the instability, we perturbatively construct static black hole solutions with the scalar hair near the critical temperature. It is numerically found that the entropy of the hairy black hole is always larger than the one of the unstable RN-AdS{sub 4} black hole in the microcanonical ensemble. Our results support the speculation that the black hole with charged scalar hair always appears as the final fate of the instability of the RN-AdS{sub 4} black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kai; Yang, ShuZheng
2009-10-01
Applying the method beyond semiclassical approximation, fermion tunneling from higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild black hole is researched. In our work, the "tortoise" coordinate transformation is introduced to simplify Dirac equation, so that the equation proves that only the (r - t) sector is important to our research. Because we only need to study the (r - t) sector, the Dirac equation is decomposed into several pairs of equations spontaneously, and we then prove the components of wave functions are proportional to each other in every pair of equations. Therefore, the suitable action forms of the wave functions are obtained, and finally the correctional Hawking temperature and entropy can be determined via the method beyond semiclassical approximation.
Test of the Anti-de Sitter-Space/Conformal-Field-Theory Correspondence Using High-Spin Operators
Benna, M. K.; Benvenuti, S.; Klebanov, I. R.; Scardicchio, A.
2007-03-30
In two remarkable recent papers the planar perturbative expansion was proposed for the universal function of the coupling appearing in the dimensions of high-spin operators of the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We study numerically the integral equation derived by Beisert, Eden, and Staudacher, which resums the perturbative series. In a confirmation of the anti-de Sitter-space/conformal-field-theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, we find a smooth function whose two leading terms at strong coupling match the results obtained for the semiclassical folded string spinning in AdS{sub 5}. We also make a numerical prediction for the third term in the strong coupling series.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasia, P.; Kuriakose, V. C.
2017-01-01
In this work we study the Quasi-Normal Modes (QNMs) under massless scalar perturbations and the thermodynamics of linearly charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity in the (Anti)de Sitter ((A)dS) space-time. It is found that the behavior of QNMs changes with the massive parameter of the graviton and also with the charge of the black hole. The thermodynamics of such black holes in the (A)dS space-time is also analyzed in detail. The behavior of specific heat with temperature for such black holes gives an indication of a phase transition that depends on the massive parameter of the graviton and also on the charge of the black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Shubhrangshu; Banik, Prabir
2015-07-01
In this paper, we present a complete work on steady state spherically symmetric Bondi type accretion flow in the presence of cosmological constant (Λ) in both Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SDS) and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter (SADS) backgrounds considering an isolated supermassive black hole (SMBH), with the inclusion of a simple radiative transfer scheme, in the pseudo-general relativistic paradigm. We do an extensive analysis on the transonic behavior of the Bondi type accretion flow onto the cosmological BHs including a complete analysis of the global parameter space and the stability of flow, and do a complete study of the global family of solutions for a generic polytropic flow. Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background renders multiplicity in its transonic behavior with inner "saddle" type and outer "center" type sonic points, with the transonic solutions forming closed loops or contours. There is always a limiting value for ∣Λ∣ up to which we obtain valid stationary transonic solutions, which correspond to both SDS and SADS geometries; this limiting value moderately increases with the increasing radiative efficiency of the flow, especially correspond to Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background. Repulsive Λ suppresses the Bondi accretion rate by an order of magnitude for relativistic Bondi type accretion flow for a certain range in temperature, and with a marginal increase in the Bondi accretion rate if the corresponding accretion flow occurs in SADS background. However, for a strongly radiative Bondi type accretion flow with high mass accretion rate, the presence of cosmological constant do not much influence the corresponding Bondi accretion rate of the flow. Our analysis show that the relic cosmological constant has a substantial effect on Bondi type accretion flow onto isolated SMBHs and their transonic solutions beyond length-scale of kiloparsecs, especially if the Bondi type accretion occurs onto the host supergiant ellipticals or central
Stability of Gauss-Bonnet black holes in anti-de Sitter space-time against scalar field condensation
Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti
2011-10-15
We study the stability of static, hyperbolic Gauss-Bonnet black holes in (4+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time against the formation of scalar hair. Close to extremality the black holes possess a near-horizon topology of AdS{sub 2}xH{sup 3} such that within a certain range of the scalar field mass one would expect that they become unstable to the condensation of an uncharged scalar field. We confirm this numerically and observe that there exists a family of hairy black hole solutions labeled by the number of nodes of the scalar field function. We construct explicit examples of solutions with a scalar field that possesses zero nodes, one node, and two nodes, respectively, and show that the solutions with nodes persist in the limit of Einstein gravity, i.e. for vanishing Gauss-Bonnet coupling. We observe that the interval of the mass for which scalar field condensation appears decreases with increasing Gauss-Bonnet coupling and/or with increasing node number.
Phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes probed by non-local observables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Liu, Xian-Ming; Li, Li-Fang
2016-11-01
With the non-local observables such as two point correlation function and holographic entanglement entropy, we probe the phase structure of the Born-Infeld-anti-de Sitter black holes. For the case bQ>0.5, where b is the Born-Infeld parameter and Q is the charge of the black hole, the phase structure is found to be similar to that of the Van der Waals phase transition, namely the black hole undergoes a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition before it reaches a stable phase. While for the case bQ<0.5, a new phase branch emerges besides the Van der Waals phase transition. For the first order phase transition, the equal area law is checked, and for the second order phase transition, the critical exponent of the heat capacity is obtained. All these results are found to be the same as that observed in the entropy-temperature plane.
Dyons and dyonic black holes in su (N ) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in anti-de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shepherd, Ben L.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2016-03-01
We present new spherically symmetric, dyonic soliton and black hole solutions of the su (N ) Einstein-Yang-Mills equations in four-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The gauge field has nontrivial electric and magnetic components and is described by N -1 magnetic gauge field functions and N -1 electric gauge field functions. We explore the phase space of solutions in detail for su (2 ) and su (3 ) gauge groups. Combinations of the electric gauge field functions are monotonic and have no zeros; in general the magnetic gauge field functions may have zeros. The phase space of solutions is extremely rich, and we find solutions in which the magnetic gauge field functions have more than fifty zeros. Of particular interest are solutions for which the magnetic gauge field functions have no zeros, which exist when the negative cosmological constant has sufficiently large magnitude. We conjecture that at least some of these nodeless solutions may be stable under linear, spherically symmetric, perturbations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mengjie; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sampaio, Marco O. P.
2015-12-01
Perturbations of asymptotically anti-de-Sitter (AdS) spacetimes are often considered by imposing field vanishing boundary conditions (BCs) at the AdS boundary. Such BCs, of Dirichlet-type, imply a vanishing energy flux at the boundary, but the converse is, generically, not true. Regarding AdS as a gravitational box, we consider vanishing energy flux (VEF) BCs as a more fundamental physical requirement and we show that these BCs can lead to a new branch of modes. As a concrete example, we consider Maxwell perturbations on Kerr-AdS black holes in the Teukolsky formalism, but our formulation applies also for other spin fields. Imposing VEF BCs, we find a set of two Robin BCs, even for Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. The Robin BCs on the Teukolsky variables can be used to study quasinormal modes, superradiant instabilities and vector clouds. As a first application, we consider here the quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. We find that one of the Robin BCs yields the quasinormal spectrum reported in the literature, while the other one unveils a new branch for the quasinormal spectrum.
Randall-Sundrum membrane model with 7D anti-de Sitter space
Bao, Ruoyu; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U. /Fermilab
2005-09-01
In the same sense that AdS{sub 5} warped geometries arise naturally from Type IIB string theory with stacks of D3 branes, AdS{sub 7} warped geometries arise naturally from M theory with stacks of M5 branes. We compactify two spatial dimensions of AdS{sub 7} to get AdS{sub 5} x {Sigma}{sup 2}, where {Sigma}{sup 2} is e.g. a torus T{sup 2} or a sphere S{sup 2}. The metric for {Sigma} inherits the same warp factor as appears in the AdS{sub 5}. Bulk fields generically have both Kaluza-Klein and winding modes associated with {Sigma}. In the effective 5d action these will contribute exotic new excitations. We analyze the 5d spectrum in detail for the case of a bulk scalar or a graviton in AdS{sub 5} x T{sup 2}, in a setup which mimics the first Randall-Sundrum model. The results display several novel features, some of which might be observed in experiments at the LHC. For example, we obtain TeV scale string winding states without lowering the string scale. This is due to the double warping which is a generic feature of winding states along compactified AdS directions. Experimental verification of these signatures of AdS{sub 7} could be interpreted as direct evidence for M theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kraniotis, G. V.
2016-11-01
Exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon-Fock (KGF) general relativistic equation that describe the dynamics of a massive, electrically charged scalar particle in the curved spacetime geometry of an electrically charged, rotating Kerr-Newman-(anti) de Sitter black hole are investigated. In the general case of a rotating, charged, cosmological black hole the solution of the KGF equation with the method of separation of variables results in Fuchsian differential equations for the radial and angular parts which for most of the parameter space contain more than three finite singularities and thereby generalise the Heun differential equations. For particular values of the physical parameters (i.e. mass of the scalar particle) these Fuchsian equations reduce to the case of the Heun equation and the closed form analytic solutions we derive are expressed in terms of Heun functions. For other values of the parameters some of the extra singular points are false singular points. We derive the conditions on the coefficients of the generalised Fuchsian equation such that a singular point is a false point. In such a case the exact solution of the Fuchsian equation can in principle be simplified and expressed in terms of Heun functions. This is the generalisation of the case of a Heun equation with a false singular point in which the exact solution of Heun’s differential equation is expressed in terms of Gauß hypergeometric function. We also derive the exact solutions of the radial and angular equations for a charged massive scalar particle in the Kerr-Newman spacetime. The analytic solutions are expressed in terms of confluent Heun functions. Moreover, we derived the constraints on the parameters of the theory such that the solution simplifies and expressed in terms of confluent Kummer hypergeometric functions. We also investigate the radial solutions in the KN case in the regions near the event horizon and far from the black hole. Finally, we construct several expansions of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baxter, J. Erik
2016-10-01
We investigate the existence of black hole and soliton solutions to four dimensional, anti-de Sitter (adS), Einstein-Yang-Mills theories with general semisimple connected and simply connected gauge groups, concentrating on the so-called regular case. We here generalise results for the asymptotically flat case, and compare our system with similar results from the well-researched adS {mathfrak {su}}(N) system. We find the analysis differs from the asymptotically flat case in some important ways: the biggest difference is that for Λ <0, solutions are much less constrained as r→ infty , making it possible to prove the existence of global solutions to the field equations in some neighbourhood of existing trivial solutions, and in the limit of |Λ |→ infty . In particular, we can identify non-trivial solutions where the gauge field functions have no zeroes, which in the {mathfrak {su}}(N) case proved important to stability.
Flavor-changing decays of the top quark in 5D warped models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Díaz-Furlong, Alfonso; Frank, Mariana; Pourtolami, Nima; Toharia, Manuel; Xoxocotzi, Reyna
2016-08-01
We study flavor-changing neutral current decays of the top quark in the context of general warped extra dimensions, where the five-dimensional (5D) metric is slightly modified from 5D anti-de Sitter (AdS5 ). These models address the Planck-electroweak hierarchies of the Standard Model and can obey all the low-energy flavor bounds and electroweak precision tests, while allowing the scale of new physics to be at the TeV level, and thus within the reach of the LHC at Run II. We perform the calculation of these exotic top decay rates for the case of a bulk Higgs, and thus include in particular the effect of the additional Kaluza-Klein (KK) Higgs modes running in the loops, along with the usual KK fermions and KK gluons.
De Sitter vacua and N = 2 supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogetbil, Orcan Bahri
After reviewing the existing results we give an extensive analysis of the critical points of the potentials of the gauged N = 2 Yang-Mills/Einstein Supergravity theories coupled to tensor- and hyper multiplets in five dimensions. Our analysis includes all the possible gaugings of all N = 2 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories whose scalar manifolds are symmetric spaces. In general, the scalar potential gets contributions from R-symmetry gauging, tensor couplings and hyper-couplings. We show that the coupling of a hypermultiplet into a theory whose potential has a non-zero value at its critical point, and gauging a compact subgroup of the hyperscalar isometry group will only rescale the value of the potential at the critical point by a positive factor, and therefore will not change the nature of an existing critical point. However this is not the case for non-compact SO(1, 1) gaugings. An SO(1, 1) gauging of the hyper isometry will generally lead to de Sitter vacua, which is analogous to the ground states found by simultaneously gauging SO(1, 1) symmetry of the real scalar manifold of the five dimensional vector multiplets with U(1)R in earlier literature. SO(m, 1) gaugings with m > 1, which give contributions to the scalar potential only in the Magical Jordan family theories, on the other hand, do not lead to de Sitter vacua. Anti-de Sitter vacua are generically obtained when the U(1)R symmetry is gauged. We also show that it is possible to embed certain generic Jordan family theories into the Magical Jordan family while preserving the nature of the ground states. However the Magical Jordan family theories admit additional vacua which are not found in the generic Jordan family theories. The five dimensional stable de Sitter ground states obtained by gauging SO(1, 1) symmetry of the real symmetric scalar manifold (in particular a generic Jordan family manifold of the vector multiplets) simultaneously with a subgroup Rs of the R-symmetry group descend to four
De Sitter brane-world, localization of gravity, and the cosmological constant
Neupane, Ishwaree P.
2011-04-15
Cosmological models with a de Sitter 3-brane embedded in a 5-dimensional de Sitter spacetime (dS{sub 5}) give rise to a finite 4D Planck mass similar to that in Randall-Sundrum (RS) brane-world models in anti-de Sitter 5-dimensional spacetime(AdS{sub 5}). Yet, there arise a few important differences as compared to the results with a flat 3-brane or 4D Minkowski spacetime. For example, the mass reduction formula (MRF) M{sub Pl}{sup 2}=M{sub (5)}{sup 3}l{sub AdS} as well as the relationship M{sub Pl}{sup 2}=M{sub Pl(4+n)}{sup n+2}L{sup n} (with L being the average size or the radius of the n extra dimensions) expected in models of product-space (or Kaluza-Klein) compactifications get modified in cosmological backgrounds. In an expanding universe, a physically relevant MRF encodes information upon the 4-dimensional Hubble expansion parameter, in addition to the length and mass parameters L, M{sub Pl}, and M{sub Pl(4+n)}. If a bulk cosmological constant is present in the solution, then the reduction formula is further modified. With these new insights, we show that the localization of a massless 4D graviton as well as the mass hierarchy between M{sub Pl} and M{sub Pl(4+n)} can be explained in cosmological brane-world models. A notable advantage of having a 5D de Sitter bulk is that in this case the zero-mass wave function is normalizable, which is not necessarily the case if the bulk spacetime is anti-de Sitter. In spacetime dimensions D{>=}7, however, the bulk cosmological constant {Lambda}{sub b} can take either sign ({Lambda}{sub b}<0, =0, or >0). The D=6 case is rather inconclusive, in which case {Lambda}{sub b} may be introduced together with 2-form gauge field (or flux). We obtain some interesting classical gravity solutions that compactify higher-dimensional spacetime to produce a Robertson-Walker universe with de Sitter-type expansion plus one extra noncompact direction. We also show that such models can admit both an effective 4-dimensional Newton constant
Constraints on Meta-stable de Sitter Flux Vacua
Soroush, Masoud
2007-03-05
We consider flux compactification of type IIB string theory as the orientifold limit of an F-theory on a Calabi-Yau fourfold. We show that when supersymmetry is dominantly broken by the axion-dilaton and the contributions of the F-terms associated with complex structure moduli are small, the Hessian of the flux potential always has tachyonic modes for de Sitter vacua. This implies that there exist no meta-stable de Sitter vacua in this limit. Moreover, we find that the stability requirement imposes a relation between the values of cosmological constant and the scale of supersymmetry breaking for non-supersymmetric anti de Sitter vacua in this limit. The proof is general and does rely on the details of the geometry of the compact Calabi-Yau internal space. We finally analyze the consequences of these constraints on the statistics of meta-stable de Sitter vacua and address some other related issues.
Configurational entropy of anti-de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braga, Nelson R. F.; da Rocha, Roldão
2017-04-01
Recent studies indicate that the configurational entropy is an useful tool to investigate the stability and (or) the relative dominance of states for diverse physical systems. Recent examples comprise the connection between the variation of this quantity and the relative fraction of light mesons and glueballs observed in hadronic processes. Here we develop a technique for defining a configurational entropy for an AdS-Schwarzschild black hole. The achieved result corroborates consistency with the Hawking-Page phase transition. Namely, the dominance of the black hole configurational entropy will be shown to increase with the temperature. In order to verify the consistency of the new procedure developed here, we also consider the case of black holes in flat space-time. For such a black hole, it is known that evaporation leads to instability. The configurational entropy obtained for the flat space case is thoroughly consistent with the physical expectation. In fact, we show that the smaller the black holes, the more unstable they are. So, the configurational entropy furnishes a reliable measure for stability of black holes.
Expanding plasmas from anti de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camilo, Giancarlo
2016-12-01
We introduce a new foliation of AdS_5 black holes such that the conformal boundary takes the form of a 4-dimensional FLRW spacetime with scale factor a( t). The foliation employs Eddington-Finkelstein-like coordinates and is applicable to a large class of AdS black holes, supported by matter fields or not, considerably extending previous efforts in the literature. We argue that the holographic dual picture of a CFT plasma on a FLRW background provides an interesting prototype to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of expanding plasmas and use holographic renormalization to extract the renormalized energy-momentum tensor of the dual plasma. We illustrate the procedure for three black holes of interest, namely AdS-Schwarzschild, AdS-Gauss-Bonnet, and AdS-Reissner-Nordström. For the latter, as a by-product, we show that the nonequilibrium dynamics of a CFT plasma subject to a quench in the chemical potential (i.e., a time-dependent chemical potential) resembles a cosmological evolution with the scale factor a( t) being inversely related to the quench profile μ (t).
Anti-de Sitter D-branes in curved backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wung-Hong
2005-07-01
We investigate the properties of the AdS D1-branes which are the bound states of a curved D1-brane with n fundamental strings (F1) in the AdS3 spacetime, and the AdS D2-branes which are the axially symmetric bound states of a curved D2-brane with m D0-branes and n fundamental strings in the AdS3 × S3 spacetime. We see that, while the AdS D1-branes asymptotically approach to the event horizon of the AdS3 spacetime the AdS D2-branes will end on it. As the near horizon geometry of the F1/NS5 becomes the spacetime of AdS3 × S3 × T4 with NS-NS three form turned on, we furthermore investigate the corresponding AdS D-branes in the NS5-branes and macroscopic F-strings backgrounds, as an attempt to understand the origin of the AdS D-branes. From the found DBI solutions we see that in the F-strings background, both of the AdS D1-branes and AdS D2-branes will asymptotically approach to the position with a finite distance away from the F-strings. However, the AdS D2-branes therein could also end on the F-strings once it carries sufficient D0-branes charges. We also see that there does not exist any stable AdS D-branes in the NS5-branes backgrounds. We present physical arguments to explain these results, which could help us in understanding the intriguing mechanics of the formation of the AdS D-branes.
Perturbations on and off de Sitter brane in anti-de Sitter bulk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Libanov, M.; Rubakov, V.
2016-09-01
Motivated by holographic models of a (pseudo)conformal Universe, we carry out a complete analysis of linearized metric perturbations in the time-dependent two-brane setup of the Lykken-Randall type. We present the equations of motion for the scalar, vector and tensor perturbations and identify light modes in the spectrum, which are scalar radion and transverse-traceless graviton. We show that there are no other modes in the discrete part of the spectrum. We pay special attention to properties of light modes and show, in particular, that the radion has red power spectrum at late times, as anticipated on holographic grounds. Unlike the graviton, the radion survives in the single-brane limit, when one of the branes is sent to the adS boundary. These properties imply that potentially observable features characteristic of the 4d (pseudo)conformal cosmology, such as statistical anisotropy and specific shapes of non-Gaussianity, are inherent also in holographic conformal models as well as in brane world inflation.
'Micromanaging de Sitter holography'
Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP
2010-08-26
We develop tools to engineer de Sitter vacua with semi-holographic duals, using elliptic fibrations and orientifolds to uplift Freund-Rubin compactifications with CFT duals. The dual brane construction is compact and constitutes a microscopic realization of the dS/dS correspondence, realizing d-dimensional de Sitter space as a warped compactification down to (d-1)-dimensional de Sitter gravity coupled to a pair of large-N matter sectors. This provides a parametric microscopic interpretation of the Gibbons-Hawking entropy. We illustrate these ideas with an explicit class of examples in three dimensions, and describe ongoing work on four-dimensional constructions. The Gibbons-Hawking entropy of the de Sitter horizon [1] invites a microscopic interpretation and a holographic formulation of inflating spacetimes. Much progress was made in the analogous problem in black hole physics using special black holes in string theory whose microstates could be reliably counted, such as those analyzed in [2,3]; this led to the AdS/CFT correspondence [4]. In contrast, a microscopic understanding of the entropy of de Sitter space is more difficult for several reasons including its potential dynamical connections to other backgrounds (metastability), the absence of a non-fluctuating timelike boundary, and the absence of supersymmetry. In this paper, we develop a class of de Sitter constructions in string theory, built up from AdS/CFT dual pairs along the lines of [5], which are simple enough to provide a microscopic accounting of the parametric scaling of the Gibbons-Hawking entropy. These models realize microscopically a semi-holographic description of metastable de Sitter space which had been derived macroscopically in [6]. It would also be interesting to connect this to other approaches to de Sitter holography such as [7, 8] and to other manifestations of the de Sitter entropy such as [9]. The construction is somewhat analogous to neutral black branes analyzed in [11]. We will
Silverstein, Eva
2008-05-15
We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable de Sitter (dS) minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four-dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, Kaluza Klein (KK), and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential.
Silverstein, Eva; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2008-01-07
We present a framework for de Sitter model building in type IIA string theory, illustrated with specific examples. We find metastable dS minima of the potential for moduli obtained from a compactification on a product of two Nil three-manifolds (which have negative scalar curvature) combined with orientifolds, branes, fractional Chern-Simons forms, and fluxes. As a discrete quantum number is taken large, the curvature, field strengths, inverse volume, and four dimensional string coupling become parametrically small, and the de Sitter Hubble scale can be tuned parametrically smaller than the scales of the moduli, KK, and winding mode masses. A subtle point in the construction is that although the curvature remains consistently weak, the circle fibers of the nilmanifolds become very small in this limit (though this is avoided in illustrative solutions at modest values of the parameters). In the simplest version of the construction, the heaviest moduli masses are parametrically of the same order as the lightest KK and winding masses. However, we provide a method for separating these marginally overlapping scales, and more generally the underlying supersymmetry of the model protects against large corrections to the low-energy moduli potential.
Nonstationary de Sitter Cosmological Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibohal, Ng
This paper proposes a class of nonstationary de Sitter, rotating and nonrotating, solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological term of variable function Λ*(u). It is found that the space-time of the rotating nonstationary de Sitter model is algebraically special in the Petrov classification of the gravitational field with a null vector, which is a geodesic, shear-free, expanding as well as nonzero twist. However, that of the nonrotating nonstationary model is conformally flat, with nonempty space.
A de Sitter tachyon thick braneworld
Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto; Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel; Rocha, Roldão da E-mail: aha@fis.unam.mx E-mail: rigel@ifm.umich.mx
2013-02-01
Among the multiple 5D thick braneworld models that have been proposed in the last years, in order to address several open problems in modern physics, there is a specific one involving a tachyonic bulk scalar field. Delving into this framework, a thick braneworld with a cosmological background induced on the brane is here investigated. The respective field equations — derived from the model with a warped 5D geometry — are highly non-linear equations, admitting a non-trivial solution for the warp factor and the tachyon scalar field as well, in a de Sitter 4D cosmological background. Moreover, the non-linear tachyonic scalar field, that generates the brane in complicity with warped gravity, has the form of a kink-like configuration. Notwithstanding, the non-linear field equations restricting character does not allow one to easily find thick brane solutions with a decaying warp factor which leads to the localization of 4D gravity and other matter fields. We derive such a thick brane configuration altogether in this tachyon-gravity setup. When analyzing the spectrum of gravity fluctuations in the transverse traceless sector, the 4D gravity is shown to be localized due to the presence of a single zero mode bound state, separated by a continuum of massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes by a mass gap. It contrasts with previous results, where there is a KK massive bound excitation providing no clear physical interpretation. The mass gap is determined by the scale of the metric parameter H. Finally, the corrections to Newton's law in this model are computed and shown to decay exponentially. It is in full compliance to corrections reported in previous results (up to a constant factor) within similar braneworlds with induced 4D de Sitter metric, despite the fact that the warp factor and the massive modes have a different form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubin, Vera C.
2010-07-01
Charlotte Moore Sitterly was a scientist in an era when it was rare for a woman to have the opportunity to devote her life to forefront science. Following her graduation from Swarthmore College in 1920, she accepted a position at Princeton University as an assistant to Henry Norris Russell. In 1925 she started a study of the solar spectrum. She could then not know that she would devote much of her scientific career to gathering basic atomic data that are invaluable to the scientific community, even today. In 1931 she obtained a Ph.D. degree at the University of California, Berkeley, and returned to Princeton as a staff member of the Princeton University Observatory. In 1945 Moore moved to the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), to supervise preparation of the widely-used tables of atomic energy levels. Following the successful launching (1946) of a V2 rocket to obtain the ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun, she started working also with Richard Tousey and his group at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Ultimately, they extended the solar spectrum down to 2200 angstroms. She continued her affiliations with both the NBS and the NRL until her death in 1990. Charlotte Moore was a rare scientist who devoted her career to obtaining accurate numbers, thus enabling the scientific community to open her tables and know that the data are reliable.
Analogue model for anti-de Sitter as a description of point sources in fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mosna, Ricardo A.; Pitelli, João Paulo M.; Richartz, Maurício
2016-11-01
We introduce an analogue model for a nonglobally hyperbolic spacetime in terms of a two-dimensional fluid. This is done by considering the propagation of sound waves in a radial flow with constant velocity. We show that the equation of motion satisfied by sound waves is the wave equation on AdS2×S1. Since this spacetime is not globally hyperbolic, the dynamics of the Klein-Gordon field is not well defined until boundary conditions at the spatial boundary of AdS2 are prescribed. On the analogue model end, those extra boundary conditions provide an effective description of the point source at r =0 . For waves with circular symmetry, we relate the different physical evolutions to the phase difference between ingoing and outgoing scattered waves. We also show that the fluid configuration can be stable or unstable depending on the chosen boundary condition.
Unstable Mode Solutions to the Klein-Gordon Equation in Kerr-anti-de Sitter Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dold, Dominic
2017-03-01
For any cosmological constant {Λ = -3/ℓ2 < 0} and any {α < 9/4}, we find a Kerr-AdS spacetime {({M}, g_{KAdS})}, in which the Klein-Gordon equation {Box_{g_{KAdS}}ψ + α/ℓ2ψ = 0} has an exponentially growing mode solution satisfying a Dirichlet boundary condition at infinity. The spacetime violates the Hawking-Reall bound {r+2 > |a|ℓ}. We obtain an analogous result for Neumann boundary conditions if {5/4 < α < 9/4}. Moreover, in the Dirichlet case, one can prove that, for any Kerr-AdS spacetime violating the Hawking-Reall bound, there exists an open family of masses {α} such that the corresponding Klein-Gordon equation permits exponentially growing mode solutions. Our result adopts methods of Shlapentokh-Rothman developed in (Commun. Math. Phys. 329:859-891, 2014) and provides the first rigorous construction of a superradiant instability for negative cosmological constant.
Variations on holography from modifications of gravity in anti-de sitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apolo Velez, Luis Alberto
In this thesis we study aspects of the AdS/CFT correspondence that result from modifications of gravity in the bulk and lead to novel features in the dual theories at the boundary. The variations on the holographic theme studied in this thesis are model-independent since we have not assumed a particular UV-completion of gravity. Our results can be applied to a wide class of models that include higher-spin theories and compactifications of string theory on AdS backgrounds. The modifications of the bulk physics studied in this thesis include massive gravitons, higher-derivative terms in the Einstein-Hilbert action, and new boundary conditions for gravity. We begin by showing that it is possible to construct duals with a massive graviton in the bulk by deforming the dual theory at the boundary. This procedure does not break the translation invariance of the dual theory and might be useful in the study of certain condensed matter systems. We then construct the most general class of parity-even tricritical gravities in three and four dimensions. These higher-derivative theories are not unitary and characterized by the logarithmic fall-off of their linearized perturbations. They are conjectured to be dual to rank-3 logarithmic conformal field theories. We will show that, at linear order in the equations of motion, it is possible to truncate the theory to a unitary subsector. We also show that tricritical gravities in three and four dimensions suffer from a linearization instability that forbids unitary truncations beyond linear order. Finally we consider the role of boundary conditions in the AdS3/CFT2 correspondence. We show that free boundary conditions that lead to enhanced asymptotic symmetry groups are dual to 2D theories of quantum gravity in either the conformal or lightcone gauges. In particular we match the generators of symmetries in the bulk and boundary theories and show that a proper identification of the generator of Virasoro transformations in the bulk leads to a vanishing total central charge. We also show that this identification is consistent with the constraint equations of 2D gravity.
Transforming to Lorentz gauge on de Sitter
Miao, S. P.; Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.
2009-12-15
We demonstrate that certain gauge fixing functionals cannot be added to the action on backgrounds such as de Sitter, in which a linearization instability is present. We also construct the field-dependent gauge transformation that carries the electromagnetic vector potential from a convenient, non-de Sitter invariant gauge to the de Sitter invariant, Lorentz gauge. The transformed propagator agrees with the de Sitter invariant result previously found by solving the propagator equation in Lorentz gauge. This shows that the gauge transformation technique will eliminate unphysical breaking of de Sitter invariance introduced by a gauge condition. It is suggested that the same technique can be used to finally resolve the issue of whether or not free gravitons are de Sitter invariant.
Aguilar, José Edgar Madriz; Bellini, Mauricio E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar
2010-11-01
We study scalar field fluctuations of the inflaton field in an early inflationary universe on an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) metric, which is obtained after make a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) static metric. We obtain the important result that the spectrum of fluctuations at zeroth order is independent of the scalar field mass M on Schwarzschild scales, while on cosmological scales it exhibits a mass dependence. However, in the first-order expansion, the spectrum depends of the inflaton mass and the amplitude is linear with the Black-Hole (BH) mass m.
Note on stability of de Sitter solutions of f(R) theories
Quiros, Israel; Leyva, Yoelsy; Napoles, Yunelsy
2009-07-15
The consequences of the constraints which stability of de Sitter solutions of f(R) theories imposes on the Lagrangian's parameters are investigated within the metric formalism. It is shown, in particular, that several common f(R) Lagrangians do not actually admit matching of local solutions with background de Sitter spaces. Otherwise, asymptotic matching of local solutions of the corresponding models with maximally symmetric spaces of constant curvature is either unstable or anti-de Sitter space is the only stable asymptotic solution. Additional arguments are given in favor of a previous claim that a class of f(R) models comprising both positive and negative powers of R (two different mass scales) could be a nice scenario in which to address, in a united picture, both early-time inflation and late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe. The approach undertaken here is used, also, to check ghost freedom of a Dirac-Born-Infeld modification of general relativity previously studied in the literature.
Thermodynamics of horizons: de Sitter black holes and reentrant phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubizňák, David; Simovic, Fil
2016-12-01
In this paper we propose a straightforward method for understanding the thermodynamics of black holes in de Sitter space, one that will allow us to study these black holes in a way that is analogous to the anti-de Sitter case. As per usual, we formulate separate thermodynamic first laws for each horizon present in the spacetime, and study their thermodynamics as if they were independent systems characterized by their own temperature. That these systems are not entirely independent and various thermodynamic quantities in them are in fact ‘correlated’ is reflected by the fact that their thermodynamics can be captured by a single Gibbs free energy-like thermodynamic potential. This quantity contains information about possible phase transitions in the system and allows us to uncover a rich phase structure for de Sitter black holes. In particular, we discover reentrant phase transitions for Kerr-dS black holes in six dimensions, a phenomenon recently observed for their six dimensional AdS cousins.
Noncommutative de Sitter and FRW spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burić, Maja; Madore, John
2015-10-01
Several versions of fuzzy four-dimensional de Sitter space are constructed using the noncommutative frame formalism. Although all noncommutative spacetimes which are found have commutative de Sitter metric as a classical limit, the algebras and the differential calculi which define them have many differences, which we derive and discuss.
de Sitter supergravity model building
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallosh, Renata; Wrase, Timm
2015-11-01
We present the explicit de Sitter supergravity action describing the interaction of supergravity with an arbitrary number of chiral and vector multiplets as well as one nilpotent chiral multiplet. The action has a non-Gaussian dependence on the auxiliary field of the nilpotent multiplet; however, it can be integrated out for an arbitrary matter-coupled supergravity. The general supergravity action with a given Kähler potential K , superpotential W and vector matrix fA B interacting with a nilpotent chiral multiplet consists of the standard supergravity action defined by K , W and fA B where the scalar in the nilpotent multiplet has to be replaced by a bilinear combination of the fermion in the nilpotent multiplet divided by the Gaussian value of the auxiliary field. All additional contributions to the action start with terms quartic and higher order in the fermion of the nilpotent multiplet. These are given by a simple universal closed form expression.
Infrared divergences in de Sitter space
Polarski, D. Service d'Astrophysique, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, France)
1991-03-15
Infrared divergences in de Sitter space are considered. It is shown that symmetry breaking is unavoidable only when the infrared divergence is strong enough. The static vacuum has no symmetry breaking despite the presence of an infrared divergence.
De Sitter space in gauge/gravity duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2015-10-01
We investigate gauge/gravity duality for gauge theories in de Sitter space. More precisely, we study a five-dimensional consistent truncation of type IIB supergravity, which encompasses a wide variety of gravity duals of strongly coupled gauge theories, including the Maldacena-Nunez solution and its walking deformations. We find several solutions of the 5d theory with dS4 spacetime and nontrivial profiles for (some of) the scalars along the fifth (radial) direction. In the process, we prove that one of the equations of motion becomes dependent on the others, for nontrivial warp factor. This dependence reduces the number of field equations and, thus, turns out to be crucial for the existence of solutions with (A) dS 4 spacetime. Finally, we comment on the implications of our dS4 solutions for building gravity duals of Glueball Inflation.
de Sitter Space as a Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maltz, Jonathan; Susskind, Leonard
2017-03-01
A quantum mechanical formulation of de Sitter cosmological spacetimes still eludes string theory. In this Letter we conjecture a potentially rigorous framework in which the status of de Sitter space is the same as that of a resonance in a scattering process. We conjecture that transition amplitudes between certain states with asymptotically supersymmetric flat vacua contain resonant pole characteristic metastable intermediate states. A calculation employing constrained instantons illustrates this idea.
Inflation as de Sitter instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadoni, Mariano; Franzin, Edgardo; Mignemi, Salvatore
2016-09-01
We consider cosmological inflation generated by a scalar field slowly rolling off from a de Sitter maximum of its potential. The models belong to the class of hilltop models and represent the most general model of this kind in which the scalar potential can be written as the sum of two exponentials. The minimally coupled Einstein-scalar gravity theory obtained in this way is the cosmological version of a two-scale generalization of known holographic models, allowing for solitonic solutions interpolating between an AdS spacetime in the infrared and scaling solutions in the ultraviolet. We then investigate cosmological inflation in the slow-roll approximation. Our model reproduces correctly, for a wide range of its parameters, the most recent experimental data for the power spectrum of primordial perturbations. Moreover, it predicts inflation at energy scales of four to five orders of magnitude below the Planck scale. At the onset of inflation, the mass of the tachyonic excitation, i.e. of the inflaton, turns out to be seven to eight orders of magnitude smaller than the Planck mass.
Stable de Sitter vacua in four-dimensional supergravity originating from five dimensions
Oegetbil, O.
2008-11-15
The five-dimensional stable de Sitter ground states in N=2 supergravity obtained by gauging SO(1,1) symmetry of the real symmetric scalar manifold (in particular, a generic Jordan family manifold of the vector multiplets) simultaneously with a subgroup R{sub s} of the R-symmetry group descend to four-dimensional de Sitter ground states under certain conditions. First, the holomorphic section in four dimensions has to be chosen carefully by using the symplectic freedom in four dimensions; second, a group contraction is necessary to bring the potential into a desired form. Under these conditions, stable de Sitter vacua can be obtained in dimensionally reduced theories (from 5D to 4D) if the semidirect product of SO(1,1) with R{sup (1,1)} together with a simultaneous R{sub s} is gauged. We review the stable de Sitter vacua in four dimensions found in earlier literature for N=2 Yang-Mills Einstein supergravity with the SO(2,1)xR{sub s} gauge group in a symplectic basis that comes naturally after dimensional reduction. Although this particular gauge group does not descend directly from five dimensions, we show that its contraction does. Hence, two different theories overlap in certain limits. Examples of stable de Sitter vacua are given for the cases: (i) R{sub s}=U(1){sub R}, (ii) R{sub s}=SU(2){sub R}, and (iii) N=2 Yang-Mills/Einstein supergravity theory coupled to a universal hypermultiplet. We conclude with a discussion regarding the extension of our results to supergravity theories with more general homogeneous scalar manifolds.
Remark on massive particle's de Sitter tunneling
Jiang, Qing-Quan; Chen, De-You; Wen, Dan E-mail: deyouchen@126.com
2013-11-01
In the work [J. Y. Zhang and Z. Zhao, Massive particles's black hole tunneling and de Sitter tunneling, Nucl. Phys. B 725 (2005) 173.], the Hawking radiation of the massive particle via tunneling from the de Sitter cosmological horizon has been first described in the tunneling framework. However, the geodesic equation of the massive particle was unnaturally and awkwardly defined there by investigating the relation between the group and phase velocity. In this paper, we start from the Lagrangian analysis on the action to naturally produce the geodesic equation of the tunneling massive particle. Then, based on the new definition for the geodesic equation, we revisit the Hawking radiation of the massive particle via tunneling from the de Sitter cosmological horizon. It is noteworthy that, the highlight of our work is a new and important development of the Parikh-Wilczek's tunneling method, which can make it more physical.
Faizal, Mir; Higuchi, Atsushi
2008-09-15
The propagators of the Faddeev-Popov (FP) ghosts for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge are infrared (IR) divergent in de Sitter spacetime. We point out, however, that the modes responsible for these divergences will not contribute to loop diagrams in computations of time-ordered products in either Yang-Mills theories or perturbative quantum gravity. Therefore, we propose that the IR-divergent FP-ghost propagator should be regularized by a small mass term that is sent to zero in the end of any perturbative calculations. This proposal is equivalent to using the effective FP-ghost propagators, which we present in an explicit form, obtained by removing the modes responsible for the IR divergences. We also make some comments on the corresponding propagators in anti-de Sitter spacetime.
Cosmological perturbations in inflation and in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pimentel, Guilherme Leite
holography and entanglement entropy to study superhorizon correlations in quantum field theories in de Sitter space. The entropy has interesting terms that have no equivalent in flat space field theories. These new terms are due to particle creation in an expanding universe. The entropy is calculated directly for free massive scalar theories. For theories with holographic duals, it is determined by the area of some extremal surface in the bulk geometry. We calculate the entropy for different classes of holographic duals. For one of these classes, the holographic dual geometry is an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter space that decays into a crunching cosmology, an open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. The extremal surface used in the calculation of the entropy lies almost entirely on the slice of maximal scale factor of the crunching cosmology.
Nakamura, Shin
2012-09-21
We find novel phase transitions and critical phenomena that occur only outside the linear-response regime of current-driven nonequilibrium states. We consider the strongly interacting (3+1)-dimensional N = 4 large-N(c) SU(N(c)) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with a single flavor of fundamental N = 2 hypermultiplet as a microscopic theory. We compute its nonlinear nonballistic quark-charge conductivity by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. We find that the system exhibits a novel nonequilibrium first-order phase transition where the conductivity jumps and the sign of the differential conductivity flips at finite current density. A nonequilibrium critical point is discovered at the end point of the first-order regime. We propose a nonequilibrium steady-state analogue of thermodynamic potential in terms of the gravity-dual theory in order to define the transition point. Nonequilibrium analogues of critical exponents are proposed as well. The critical behavior of the conductivity is numerically confirmed on the basis of these proposals. The present work provides a new example of nonequilibrium phase transitions and nonequilibrium critical points.
{gamma}*{gamma}*{yields}{pi}{sup 0} form factor from anti-de Sitter-space/QCD correspondence
Stoffers, Alexander; Zahed, Ismail
2011-08-15
The recently measured {gamma}*{gamma}*{yields}{pi}{sup 0} anomalous form factor is analyzed using the D4/D8D8 holographic approach to QCD. The half-on-shell transition form factor is vector meson dominated and is shown to exactly tie to the charged-pion form factor. The holographic result compares well with the data for the lowest vector resonance.
Schwinger effect in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fröb, Markus B.; Garriga, Jaume; Kanno, Sugumi; Sasaki, Misao; Soda, Jiro; Tanaka, Takahiro; Vilenkin, Alexander
2014-04-01
We consider Schwinger pair production in 1+1 dimensional de Sitter space, filled with a constant electric field E. This can be thought of as a model for describing false vacuum decay beyond the semiclassical approximation, where pairs of a quantum field phi of mass m and charge e play the role of vacuum bubbles. We find that the adiabatic ``in" vacuum associated with the flat chart develops a space-like expectation value for the current J, which manifestly breaks the de Sitter invariance of the background fields. We derive a simple expression for J(E), showing that both ``upward" and ``downward" tunneling contribute to the build-up of the current. For heavy fields, with m2 gg eE,H2, the current is exponentially suppressed, in agreement with the results of semiclassical instanton methods. Here, H is the inverse de Sitter radius. On the other hand, light fields with m ll H lead to a phenomenon of infrared hyperconductivity, where a very small electric field mHlesssimeE ll H2 leads to a very large current J ~ H3/E. We also show that all Hadamard states for phi necessarily break de Sitter invariance. Finally, we comment on the role of initial conditions, and ``persistence of memory" effects.
Schwinger effect in de Sitter space
Fröb, Markus B.; Garriga, Jaume; Kanno, Sugumi; Sasaki, Misao; Tanaka, Takahiro; Soda, Jiro; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp E-mail: tanaka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp
2014-04-01
We consider Schwinger pair production in 1+1 dimensional de Sitter space, filled with a constant electric field E. This can be thought of as a model for describing false vacuum decay beyond the semiclassical approximation, where pairs of a quantum field φ of mass m and charge e play the role of vacuum bubbles. We find that the adiabatic ''in'' vacuum associated with the flat chart develops a space-like expectation value for the current J, which manifestly breaks the de Sitter invariance of the background fields. We derive a simple expression for J(E), showing that both ''upward'' and ''downward'' tunneling contribute to the build-up of the current. For heavy fields, with m{sup 2} >> eE,H{sup 2}, the current is exponentially suppressed, in agreement with the results of semiclassical instanton methods. Here, H is the inverse de Sitter radius. On the other hand, light fields with m || H lead to a phenomenon of infrared hyperconductivity, where a very small electric field mH∼
Special Sitters: Teenage Respite Care Providers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reid, Penny; Legaz, Mary Ann
1988-01-01
Camp Fire's Special Sitters Project addresses the need for respite care experienced by parents of disabled children. The project trains teenagers to care for young handicapped children and links the teenagers with parents who call for babysitting service. The project has been successfully replicated in five communities. (Author/JDD)
Quantum Dynamics for de Sitter Radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sang Pyo
2012-02-01
We revisit the Hamiltonian formalism for a massive scalar field and study the particle production in a de Sitter space. In the invariant-operator picture the time-dependent annihilation and creation operators are constructed in terms of a complex solution to the classical equation of motion for the field and the Gaussian wave function for each Fourier mode is found which is an exact solution to the Schrödinger equation. The in-out formalism is reformulated by the annihilation and creation operators and the Gaussian wave functions. The de Sitter radiation from the in-out formalism differs from the Gibbons-Hawking radiation in the planar coordinates, and we discuss the discrepancy of the particle production by the two methods.
Cosmic curvature from de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.
Albrecht, Andreas
2011-10-07
I show that the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology generically predicts observable levels of curvature in the Universe today. The predicted value of the curvature, Ω(k), depends only on the ratio of the density of nonrelativistic matter to cosmological constant density ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and the value of the curvature from the initial bubble that starts the inflation, Ω(k)(B). The result is independent of the scale of inflation, the shape of the potential during inflation, and many other details of the cosmology. Future cosmological measurements of ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and Ω(k) will open up a window on the very beginning of our Universe and offer an opportunity to support or falsify the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.
Horizon complementarity in elliptic de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackl, Lucas; Neiman, Yasha
2015-02-01
We study a quantum field in elliptic de Sitter space dS4/Z2—the spacetime obtained from identifying antipodal points in dS4. We find that the operator algebra and Hilbert space cannot be defined for the entire space, but only for observable causal patches. This makes the system into an explicit realization of the horizon complementarity principle. In the absence of a global quantum theory, we propose a recipe for translating operators and states between observers. This translation involves information loss, in accordance with the fact that two observers see different patches of the spacetime. As a check, we recover the thermal state at the de Sitter temperature as a state that appears the same to all observers. This thermal state arises from the same functional that, in ordinary dS4, describes the Bunch-Davies vacuum.
De Sitter's theory of Galilean satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broer, Henk; Zhao, Lei
2017-01-01
In this article, we investigate the mathematical part of De Sitter's theory on the Galilean satellites, and further extend this theory by showing the existence of some quasi-periodic librating orbits by application of KAM theorems. After showing the existence of De Sitter's family of linearly stable periodic orbits in the Jupiter-Io-Europa-Ganymede model by averaging and reduction techniques in the Hamiltonian framework, we further discuss the possible extension of this theory to include a fourth satellite Callisto, and establish the existence of a set of positive measure of quasi-periodic librating orbits in both models for almost all choices of masses among which one sufficiently dominates the others.
de Sitter harmonies: Cosmological spacetimes as resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maltz, Jonathan
2017-03-01
The aim of this work is to provide the details of a calculation summarized in the recent paper by Maltz and Susskind which conjectured a potentially rigorous framework where the status of de Sitter space is the same as that of a resonance in a scattering process. The conjecture is that transition amplitudes between certain states with asymptotically supersymmetric flat vacua contain resonant poles characteristic metastable intermediate states. A calculation employing constrained instantons is presented that illustrates this idea.
De Sitter Space Without Dynamical Quantum Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boddy, Kimberly K.; Carroll, Sean M.; Pollack, Jason
2016-06-01
We argue that, under certain plausible assumptions, de Sitter space settles into a quiescent vacuum in which there are no dynamical quantum fluctuations. Such fluctuations require either an evolving microstate, or time-dependent histories of out-of-equilibrium recording devices, which we argue are absent in stationary states. For a massive scalar field in a fixed de Sitter background, the cosmic no-hair theorem implies that the state of the patch approaches the vacuum, where there are no fluctuations. We argue that an analogous conclusion holds whenever a patch of de Sitter is embedded in a larger theory with an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space, including semiclassical quantum gravity with false vacua or complementarity in theories with at least one Minkowski vacuum. This reasoning provides an escape from the Boltzmann brain problem in such theories. It also implies that vacuum states do not uptunnel to higher-energy vacua and that perturbations do not decohere while slow-roll inflation occurs, suggesting that eternal inflation is much less common than often supposed. On the other hand, if a de Sitter patch is a closed system with a finite-dimensional Hilbert space, there will be Poincaré recurrences and dynamical Boltzmann fluctuations into lower-entropy states. Our analysis does not alter the conventional understanding of the origin of density fluctuations from primordial inflation, since reheating naturally generates a high-entropy environment and leads to decoherence, nor does it affect the existence of non-dynamical vacuum fluctuations such as those that give rise to the Casimir effect.
Fermions in 5D brane world models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolyakov, Mikhail
2016-10-01
In the present manuscript the fermion fields in the background of 5D brane world models with compact extra dimension are examined. It is shown that the only case that allows one to perform the Kaluza-Klein decomposition in a mathematically consistent way without unnatural fine-tunings and possible pathologies, is the one which does not admit localization of the zero mode. The report is based on the results presented in [1].
Supersymmetry and Lorentz Violation in 5D
Garcia-Aguilar, J. D.; Perez-Lorenzana, A.; Pedraza-Ortega, O.
2011-10-14
We present a study for a Supersymmetric field theory with Lorentz-Violation terms in 5D. We perform the analysis in the context of the Berger-Kostelecky model (BK), adding one compactified dimension that explicitly breaks the Lorentz invariance. We introduce terms that encode this breaking, and find non trivial restrictions over boundary conditions of fields that one needs to close the supersymmetric algebra.
Supersymmetry and Lorentz Violation in 5D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-Aguilar, J. D.; Pérez-Lorenzana, A.; Pedraza-Ortega, O.
2011-10-01
We present a study for a Supersymmetric field theory with Lorentz-Violation terms in 5D. We perform the analysis in the context of the Berger-Kostelecky model (BK), adding one compactified dimension that explicitly breaks the Lorentz invariance. We introduce terms that encode this breaking, and find non trivial restrictions over boundary conditions of fields that one needs to close the supersymmetric algebra.
De Sitter Transitivity, Conformal Transformations and Conservation Laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, J. G.; Sampson, A. C.; Savi, L. L.
2014-02-01
Minkowski spacetime is transitive under ordinary translations, a transformation that do not have matrix representations. The de Sitter spacetime, on the other hand, is transitive under a combination of translations and proper conformal transformations, which do have a matrix representation. Such matrix, however, is not by itself a de Sitter generator: it gives rise to a conformal re-scaling of the metric, a transformation not belonging to the de Sitter group, and in general not associated with diffeomorphisms in spacetime. When dealing with variational principles and Noether's theorem in de Sitter spacetime, it is necessary to regularize the transformations in order to eliminate the conformal re-scaling of the metric.
Inflation Driven by q-de Sitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setare, M. R.; Momeni, D.; Kamali, V.; Myrzakulov, R.
2016-02-01
We propose a generalised de Sitter scale factor for the cosmology of early and late time universe, including single scalar field is called as inflaton. This form of scale factor has a free parameter q is called as nonextensivity parameter. When q = 1, the scale factor is de Sitter. This scale factor is an intermediate form between power-law and de Sitter. We study cosmology of such families. We show that both kinds of dark components, dark energy and dark matter simultaneously are described by this family of solutions. As a motivated idea, we investigate inflation in the framework of q-de Sitter. We consider three types of scenarios for inflation. In a single inflation scenario, we observe that, inflation ended without any specific ending inflation ϕ e n d , the spectral index and the associated running of the spectral index are n s - 1 ˜ -2 𝜖, α s ≡ 0. To end the inflation: we should have q={3}/{4}. We deduce that the inflation ends when the evolution of the scale factor is a( t) = e 3/4( t). With this scale factor there is no need to specify ϕ e n d . As an alternative to have inflation with ending point, We will study q-inflation model in the context of warm inflation. We propose two forms of damping term Γ. In the first case when Γ = Γ0, we show the scale invariant spectrum, (Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum, i.e. n s = 1) may be approximately presented by (q={9}/{10}, ~N=70). Also there is a range of values of R and n s which is compatible with the BICEP2 data where q={9}/{10}. In case Γ = Γ1 V( ϕ), it is observed that small values of a number of e-folds are assured for small values of q parameter. Also in this case, the scale-invariant spectrum may be represented by (q,N) = ({9}/{10},70). For q={9}/{10} a range of values of R and n s is compatible with the BICEP2 data. Consequently, the proposal of q-de Sitter is consistent with observational data. We observe that the non-extensivity parameter q plays a significant role in inflationary scenario.
Initial development of 5D COGENT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, R. H.; Lee, W.; Dorf, M.; Dorr, M.
2015-11-01
COGENT is a continuum gyrokinetic edge code being developed by the by the Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) collaboration. Work to date has been primarily focussed on a 4D (axisymmetric) version that models transport properties of edge plasmas. We have begun development of an initial 5D version to study edge turbulence, with initial focus on kinetic effects on blob dynamics and drift-wave instability in a shearless magnetic field. We are employing compiler directives and preprocessor macros to create a single source code that can be compiled in 4D or 5D, which helps to ensure consistency of physics representation between the two versions. A key aspect of COGENT is the employment of mapped multi-block grid capability to handle the complexity of diverter geometry. It is planned to eventually exploit this capability to handle magnetic shear, through a series of successively skewed unsheared grid blocks. The initial version has an unsheared grid and will be used to explore the degree to which a radial domain must be block decomposed. We report on the status of code development and initial tests. Work performed for USDOE, at LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Dirac oscillator and nonrelativistic Snyder-de Sitter algebra
Stetsko, M. M. E-mail: mykola@ktf.franko.lviv.ua
2015-01-15
Three dimensional Dirac oscillator was considered in space with deformed commutation relations known as Snyder-de Sitter algebra. Snyder-de Sitter commutation relations give rise to appearance of minimal uncertainties in position as well as in momentum. To derive energy spectrum and wavefunctions of the Dirac oscillator, supersymmetric quantum mechanics and shape invariance technique were applied.
De Sitter uplift with Dynamical Susy Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Retolaza, Ander; Uranga, Angel
2016-04-01
We propose the use of D-brane realizations of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking (DSB) gauge sectors as sources of uplift in compactifications with moduli stabilization onto de Sitter vacua. This construction is fairly different from the introduction of anti D-branes, yet allows for tunably small contributions to the vacuum energy via their embedding into warped throats. The idea is explicitly exemplified by the embedding of the 1-family SU(5) DSB model in a local warped throat with fluxes, which we discuss in detail in terms of orientifolds of dimer diagrams.
Discrete symmetries and de Sitter spacetime
Cotăescu, Ion I. Pascu, Gabriel
2014-11-24
Aspects of the ambiguity in defining quantum modes on de Sitter spacetime using a commuting system composed only of differential operators are discussed. Discrete symmetries and their actions on the wavefunction in commonly used coordinate charts are reviewed. It is argued that the system of commuting operators can be supplemented by requiring the invariance of the wavefunction to combined discrete symmetries- a criterion which selects a single state out of the α-vacuum family. Two such members of this family are singled out by particular combined discrete symmetries- states between which exists a well-known thermality relation.
Gravitational waves in a de Sitter universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishop, Nigel T.
2016-02-01
The construction of exact linearized solutions to the Einstein equations within the Bondi-Sachs formalism is extended to the case of linearization about de Sitter spacetime. The gravitational wave field measured by distant observers is constructed, leading to a determination of the energy measured by such observers. It is found that gravitational wave energy conservation does not normally apply to inertial observers but that it can be formulated for a class of accelerated observers, i.e., with worldlines that are timelike but not geodesic.
de Sitter Vacua via Consistent D Terms
Villadoro, Giovanni; Zwirner, Fabio
2005-12-02
We introduce a new mechanism for producing locally stable de Sitter or Minkowski vacua, with spontaneously broken N=1 supersymmetry and no massless scalars, applicable to superstring and M-theory compactifications with fluxes. We illustrate the mechanism with a simple N=1 supergravity model that provides parametric control on the sign and the size of the vacuum energy. The crucial ingredient is a gauged U(1) that involves both an axionic shift and an R symmetry, and severely constrains the F- and D-term contributions to the potential.
Constraining de Sitter Space in String Theory.
Kutasov, David; Maxfield, Travis; Melnikov, Ilarion; Sethi, Savdeep
2015-08-14
We argue that the heterotic string does not have classical vacua corresponding to de Sitter space-times of dimension four or higher. The same conclusion applies to type II vacua in the absence of Ramond-Ramond fluxes. Our argument extends prior supergravity no-go results to regimes of high curvature. We discuss the interpretation of the heterotic result from the perspective of dual type II orientifold constructions. Our result suggests that the genericity arguments used in string landscape discussions should be viewed with caution.
Effective Lagrangian in de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitamoto, Hiroyuki; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa
2017-01-01
Scale invariant fluctuations of metric are a universal feature of quantum gravity in de Sitter spacetime. We construct an effective Lagrangian which summarizes their implications on local physics by integrating superhorizon metric fluctuations. It shows infrared quantum effects are local and render fundamental couplings time dependent. We impose Lorenz invariance on the effective Lagrangian as it is required by the principle of general covariance. We show that such a requirement leads to unique physical predictions by fixing the quantization ambiguities. We explain how the gauge parameter dependence of observables is canceled. In particular the relative evolution speed of the couplings are shown to be gauge invariant.
Spherically Symmetric Space Time with Regular de Sitter Center
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dymnikova, Irina
We formulate the requirements which lead to the existence of a class of globally regular solutions of the minimally coupled GR equations asymptotically de Sitter at the center.
The critical phenomena of charged rotating de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiongying; Li, Huaifan; Zhang, Lichun; Zhao, Ren
2016-07-01
In this paper, we investigate the effective thermodynamic quantities in Kerr-Newman-de Sitter spacetime by considering the relations between the black hole event horizon and the cosmological event horizon. We find the effect of the critical point of Kerr-Newman-de Sitter spacetime for the different state parameters. We study the critical phenomena of the system taking different state parameters. This result is consistent with the nature of a liquid-gas phase transition at the critical point, hence deepening the understanding of the analogy of charged de Sitter spacetime and liquid-gas systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiang
2012-11-01
We investigate the net force on a rigid Casimir cavity generated by vacuum fluctuations of electromagnetic field in three cases: de Sitter space-time, de Sitter space-time with weak gravitational field and Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time. In de Sitter space-time the resulting net force follows the square inverse law but unfortunately it is too weak to be measurable due to the large universe radius. By introducing a weak gravitational field into the de Sitter space-time, we find that the net force can now be split into two parts, one is the gravitational force due to the induced effective mass between the two plates and the other one is generated by the metric structure of de Sitter space-time. In order to investigate the vacuum fluctuation force on the rigid cavity under strong gravitational field, we perform a similar analysis in Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time and results are obtained in three different limits. The most interesting one is when the cavity gets closer to the horizon of a blackhole, square inverse law is recovered and the repulsive force due to negative energy/mass of the cavity now has an observable strength. More importantly the force changes from being repulsive to attractive when the cavity crosses the event horizon, so that the energy/mass of the cavity switches the sign, which suggests the unusual time direction inside the event horizon.
Oxidation of 5'-dGMP, 5'-dGDP, and 5'-dGTP by a platinum(IV) complex.
Kipouros, Ioannis; Fica-Contreras, Sebastian Matias; Bowe, Gregory Joon Kee; Choi, Sunhee
2015-12-01
We previously reported that a Pt(IV) complex, [Pt(IV)(dach)Cl4] [trans-d,l-1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetrachloroplatinum(IV)] binds to the N7 of 5'-dGMP (deoxyguanosine-5'-monophosphate) at a relatively fast rate and oxidizes it to 8-oxo-5'-dGMP. Here, we further studied the kinetics of the oxidation of 5'-dGMP by the Pt(IV) complex. The electron transfer rate constants between 5'-dGMP and Pt(IV) in [H8-5'-dGMP-Pt(IV)] and [D8-5'-dGMP-Pt(IV)] were similar, giving a small value of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE: 1.2 ± 0.2). This small KIE indicates that the deprotonation of H8 in [H8-5'-dGMP-Pt(IV)] is not involved in the rate-determining step in the electron transfer between guanine (G) and Pt(IV). We also studied the reaction of 5'-dGDP (deoxyguanosine-5'-diphosphate) and 5'-dGTP (deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate) with the Pt(IV) complex. Our results showed that [Pt(IV)(dach)Cl4] oxidized 5'-dGDP and 5'-dGTP to 8-oxo-5'-dGDP and 8-oxo-5'-dGTP, respectively, by the same mechanism and kinetics as for 5'-dGMP. The Pt(IV) complex binds to N7 followed by a two-electron inner sphere electron transfer from G to Pt(IV). The reaction was catalyzed by Pt(II) and occurred faster at higher pH. The electron transfer was initiated by either an intramolecular nucleophilic attack by any of the phosphate groups or an intermolecular nucleophilic attack by free OH(-) in the solution. The rates of reactions for the three nucleotides followed the order: 5'-dGMP > 5'-dGDP > 5'-dGTP, indicating that the bulkier the phosphate groups are, the slower the reaction is, due to the larger steric hindrance and rotational barrier of the phosphate groups.
Ghost inflation and de Sitter entropy
Jazayeri, Sadra; Mukohyama, Shinji; Saitou, Rio; Watanabe, Yota
2016-08-01
In the setup of ghost condensation model the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics can be respected under a radiatively stable assumption that couplings between the field responsible for ghost condensate and matter fields such as those in the Standard Model are suppressed by the Planck scale. Since not only black holes but also cosmology are expected to play important roles towards our better understanding of gravity, we consider a cosmological setup to test the theory of ghost condensation. In particular we shall show that the de Sitter entropy bound proposed by Arkani-Hamed, et al. is satisfied if ghost inflation happened in the early epoch of our universe and if there remains a tiny positive cosmological constant in the future infinity. We then propose a notion of cosmological Page time after inflation.
Sculpture, cast iron lamps at northeast corner of Stephen Sitter ...
Sculpture, cast iron lamps at northeast corner of Stephen Sitter Avenue and Forney road, with scale - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD
Biscalar and Bivector Green's Functions in de Sitter Space Time
Narlikar, J. V.
1970-01-01
Biscalar and bivector Green's functions of wave equations are calculated explicitly in de Sitter space time. The calculation is performed by considering the electromagnetic field generated by the spontaneous creation of an electric charge. PMID:16591816
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chun-Xiao; Liu, Mo-Lin; Liu, Hong-Ya
2008-10-01
As one exact candidate of the higher dimensional black hole, the 5D Ricci Qat Schwarzschild-de Sitter black string space presents something interesting. In this paper, we give a numerical solution to the real scalar field around the Nariai black hole by the polynomial approximation. Unlike the previous tangent approximation, this fitting function makes a perfect match in the leading intermediate region and gives a good description near both the event and the cosmological horizons. We can read from our results that the wave is close to a harmonic one with the tortoise coordinate. Furthermore, with the actual radial coordinate the waves pile up almost equally near the both horizons.
Liu Molin; Gui Yuanxing; Liu Hongya
2008-12-15
In this paper, we study the quantum statistical entropy in a 5D Ricci-flat black string solution, which contains a 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole on the brane, by using the improved thin-layer method with the generalized uncertainty principle. The entropy is the linear sum of the areas of the event horizon and the cosmological horizon without any cutoff and any constraint on the bulk's configuration rather than the usual uncertainty principle. The system's density of state and free energy are convergent in the neighborhood of horizon. The small-mass approximation is determined by the asymptotic behavior of metric function near horizons. Meanwhile, we obtain the minimal length of the position {delta}x, which is restrained by the surface gravities and the thickness of layer near horizons.
Tachyons in classical de Sitter vacua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Junghans, Daniel
2016-06-01
We revisit the possibility of de Sitter vacua and slow-roll inflation in type II string theory at the level of the classical two-derivative supergravity approximation. Previous attempts at explicit constructions were plagued by ubiquitous tachyons with a large η parameter whose origin has not been fully understood so far. In this paper, we determine and explain the tachyons in two setups that are known to admit unstable dS critical points: an SU(3) structure compactification of massive type IIA with O6-planes and an SU(2) structure compactification of type IIB with O5/O7-planes. We explicitly show that the tachyons are always close to, but never fully aligned with the sgoldstino direction in the considered examples and argue that this behavior is explained by a generalized version of a no-go theorem by Covi et al, which holds in the presence of large mixing in the mass matrix between the sgoldstino and the orthogonal moduli. This observation may also provide a useful stability criterion for general dS vacua in supergravity and string theory.
Charlotte Moore Sitterly: A Life of Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubin, Vera C.
2010-01-01
Dr. Charlotte Moore Sitterly was a scientist in an era when it was rare for a woman to have the opportunity to devote her life to forefront science. Following her graduation from Swarthmore College in 1920, she accepted a position at Princeton University as an assistant to Henry Norris Russell. In 1925 she started a study of the solar spectrum. She could then not know that she would devote much of her scientific career to gathering basic atomic data that are invaluable to the scientific community, even today. In 1931 she obtained a PhD degree at U. California, Berkeley, and returned to Princeton as a staff member of the Princeton University Observatory. In 1945 she moved to the National Bureau of Science (NBS), to supervise preparation of the widely used tables of atomic energy levels. Following the successful lunching (1946) of a V2 rocket to obtain the ultra violet spectrum of the sun, Moore started working with Richard Tousey and his group at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Ultimately, they extended the solar spectrum down to 2200 angstroms. She continued her affiliations with NBS and NRL until her death in 1990. Charlotte Moore was rare scientist who devoted her career to obtaining accurate numbers, thus enabling the scientific community to open her tables and know that the data are accurate.
Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia; Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio
2012-10-01
We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.
Hawking's radiation in non-stationary rotating de Sitter background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibohal, N.; Ibungochouba, T.
2011-05-01
Hawking's radiation effect of Klein-Gordon scalar field, Dirac particles and Maxwell's electromagnetic field in the non-stationary rotating de Sitter cosmological space-time is investigated by using a method of generalized tortoise co-ordinates transformation. The locations and the temperatures of the cosmological horizons of the non-stationary rotating de Sitter model are derived. It is found that the locations and the temperatures of the rotating cosmological model depend not only on the time but also on the angle. The stress-energy regularization techniques are applied to the two dimensional analog of the de Sitter metrics and the calculated stress-energy tensor contains the thermal radiation effect.
Thermodynamic properties of black holes in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huai-Fan; Ma, Meng-Sen; Ma, Ya-Qin
2017-01-01
We study the thermodynamic properties of Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) black hole and Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter (RNdS) black hole in view of global and effective thermodynamic quantities. Making use of the effective first law of thermodynamics, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of de Sitter black holes. It is found that these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formula. Especially, the effective temperatures are nonzero in the Nariai limit. By calculating heat capacity and Gibbs free energy, we find SdS black hole is always thermodynamically stable and RNdS black hole may undergoes phase transition at some points.
Holography for a De Sitter-Esque geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anninos, Dionysios; de Buyl, Sophie; Detournay, Stéphane
2011-05-01
Warped dS3 arises as a solution to topologically massive gravity (TMG) with positive cosmological constant +1/ ℓ 2 and Chern-Simons coefficient 1/ μ in the region μ 2 ℓ 2 < 27. It is given by a real line fibration over two-dimensional de Sitter space and is equivalent to the rotating Nariai geometry at fixed polar angle. We study the thermodynamic and asymptotic structure of a family of geometries with warped dS3 asymptotics. Interestingly, these solutions have both a cosmological horizon and an internal one, and their entropy is unbounded from above unlike black holes in regular de Sitter space. The asymptotic symmetry group resides at future infinity and is given by a semi-direct product of a Virasoro algebra and a current algebra. The right moving central charge vanishes when μ 2 ℓ 2 = 27/5. We discuss the possible holographic interpretation of these de Sitter-esque spacetimes.
Temperature and entropy of Schwarzschild de Sitter space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shankaranarayanan, S.
2003-04-01
In the light of recent interest in quantum gravity in de Sitter space, we investigate semiclassical aspects of four-dimensional Schwarzschild de Sitter space-time using the method of complex paths. The standard semiclassical techniques (such as Bogoliubov coefficients and Euclidean field theory) have been useful to study quantum effects in space-times with single horizons; however, none of these approaches seem to work for Schwarzschild de Sitter space-time or, in general, for space-times with multiple horizons. We extend the method of complex paths to space-times with multiple horizons and obtain the spectrum of particles produced in these space-times. We show that the temperature of radiation in these space-times is proportional to the effective surface gravity—the inverse harmonic sum of surface gravity of each horizon. For the Schwarzschild de Sitter space-time, we apply the method of complex paths to three different coordinate systems—spherically symmetric, Painlevé, and Lemaître. We show that the equilibrium temperature in Schwarzschild de Sitter space-time is the harmonic mean of cosmological and event horizon temperatures. We obtain Bogoliubov coefficients for space-times with multiple horizons by analyzing the mode functions of the quantum fields near the horizons. We propose a new definition of entropy for space-times with multiple horizons, analogous to the entropic definition for space-times with a single horizon. We define entropy for these space-times to be inversely proportional to the square of the effective surface gravity. We show that this definition of entropy for Schwarzschild de Sitter space-time satisfies the D-bound conjecture.
A No-Go Theorem for de Sitter Compactifications?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hari Dass, N. D.
A general framework for studying compactifications in supergravity and string theories was introduced by Candelas, Horowitz, Strominger and Witten1. This was further generalised to take into account the warp factor by de Wit, Smit and Hari Dass2. Though the prime focus of the latter was to find solutions with nontrivial warp factors (shown not to exist under a variety of circumstances), it was shown there that de Sitter compactifications are generically disfavoured (see also3). In this note we place these results in the context of a revived interest in de Sitter spacetimes.
The fields of uniformly accelerated charges in de Sitter spacetime.
Bicák, Jirí; Krtous, Pavel
2002-05-27
The scalar and electromagnetic fields of charges uniformly accelerated in de Sitter spacetime are constructed. They represent the generalization of the Born solutions describing fields of two particles with hyperbolic motion in flat spacetime. In the limit Lambda-->0, the Born solutions are retrieved. Since in the de Sitter universe the infinities I+/- are spacelike, the radiative properties of the fields depend on the way in which a given point of I+/- is approached. The fields must involve both retarded and advanced effects: Purely retarded fields do not satisfy the constraints at the past infinity I-.
An Analysis of Charged Anisotropic Star with de Sitter Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Kanika; Ali, Nawsad
2016-02-01
We propose a model for charged anisotropic star in de Sitter spacetime. We have taken Krori and Barua (J. Phys. A, Math. Gen. 8, 508, 1975) metric in de Sitter spacetime with non-zero cosmological constant. The model is free from singularity. We incorporate the existence of the cosmological constant on a small scale to study the structure of anisotropic charged star. To solve the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we assume the relation between the radial and transverse pressure as p t - p r = g q( r)2 r 2 (where g is a non-zero positive constant). The physical conditions inside the stellar model are also discussed.
Recurrent Nightmares?: Measurement Theory in de Sitter Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, Tom; Fischler, Willy; Paban, Sonia
2002-12-01
The idea that asymptotic de Sitter space can be described by a finite Hilbert Space implies that any quantum measurement has an irreducible innacuracy. We argue that this prevents any measurement from verifying the existence of the Poincaré recurrences that occur in the mathematical formulation of quantum de Sitter (dS) space. It also implies that the mathematical quantum theory of dS space is not unique. There will be many different hamiltonians, which give the same results, within the uncertainty in all possible measurements.
Aspects of Symmetry in de Sitter Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, Gim Seng
We study various aspects of symmetry in four-dimensional de Sitter space (dS4). The asymptotic symmetry group at future null infinity (I+) of dS4 is shown to be given by the group of three-dimensional diffeomorphisms acting on I+. However, for physics relevant to an eternal observatory in dS4, we should instead impose unconventional future boundary conditions at I+. These boundary conditions violate conventional causality, but we argue the causality violations cannot be detected by any experiment in the observatory. As the next step, we study the relevant dynamics in quantum dS4 by illuminating some previously inaccessible aspects of the dS/CFT dictionary in the context of the higher spin dS4/CFT3 correspondence relating Vasiliev's higher-spin gravity on dS4 to a Euclidean Sp(N) CFT3 . We found that CFT3 states created by operator insertions are found to be dual to (anti) quasinormal modes (QNM) in the bulk. A R-norm is defined on the R3 bulk Hilbert space and shown for the scalar case to be equivalent to both the Zamolodchikov and pseudounitary C-norm of the Sp(N) CFT3. The QNMs are found to lie in two complex highest-weight representations of the dS4 isometry group and form a complete orthogonal basis with respect to the R-norm. The conventional Euclidean vacuum may be defined as the state annihilated by half of the QNMs, and the Euclidean Green function is obtained from a simple mode sum. Finally, as a step towards understanding non-linear dynamics of dS 4 we study both linear and non-linear deformations of dS4 which leave the induced conformal metric and trace of the extrinsic curvature unchanged for a fixed hypersurface. These deformations are required to be regular at the future horizon of the static patch observer. When the slices are arbitrarily close to the cosmological horizon, the finite deformations are characterized by solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation.
How to use retarded Green's functions in de Sitter spacetime
Higuchi, Atsushi; Cheong, Lee Yen
2008-10-15
We demonstrate in examples that the covariant retarded Green's functions in electromagnetism and linearized gravity work as expected in de Sitter spacetime. We first clarify how retarded Green's functions should be used in spacetimes with spacelike past infinity such as de Sitter spacetime. In particular, we remind the reader of a general formula which gives the field for given initial data on a Cauchy surface and a given source (a charge or stress-energy tensor distribution) in its future. We then apply this formula to three examples: (i) electromagnetism in the future of a Cauchy surface in Minkowski spacetime, (ii) electromagnetism in de Sitter spacetime, and (iii) linearized gravity in de Sitter spacetime. In each example the field is reproduced correctly as predicted by the general argument. In the third example we construct a linearized gravitational field from two equal point masses located at the 'North and South Poles' which is nonsingular on the cosmological horizon and satisfies a covariant gauge condition and show that this field is reproduced by the retarded Green's function with corresponding gauge parameters.
Attractor states and quantum instabilities in de Sitter space
Anderson, P. R.; Eaker, W.; Habib, S.; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Mottola, E.
2001-01-01
The asymptotic behavior of the energy-momentum tensor for a free quantized scalar field with mass m and curvature coupling {zeta} in de Sitter space is investigated. It is shown that for an arbitrary, homogeneous and isotropic, fourth order adiabatic state for which the two-point function is infrared finite,
Further investigations of the Kerr--de Sitter space
Khanal, U.
1985-08-15
Some recursion relations pertaining to the radial functions of Dirac, electromagnetic, and gravitational fields in the Kerr--de Sitter universe are proved. The behavior of the tortoise coordinate is investigated and it is shown that super radiance can also occur in this space.
de Sitter Tunneling, Emission Spectrum and Entropy/Area Quantum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Qing-Quan
2012-08-01
The Banerjee—Majhi's recent work shows that the Hawking radiation and entropy/area quantum of the black hole horizon (EH) can be well described in the tunneling picture. In this paper, we develop this idea to the case of a de Sitter tunneling from the cosmological horizon (CH), and obtain the Hawking emission spectrum and entropy/area spectroscopy from the CH of the purely de Sitter black hole as well as the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole. It is interestingly found that the area of the CH is quantized by ΔA = 4l2pl, as was given by Hod for the area quantum of -the EH by considering the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and Schwinger-type emission process. Also, we conclude from our derivation that the entropy/area quantum of the CH is universal in the sense that it is independent of the black hole parameters. This realization implies that, (at least) at a semiclassical level, the de Sitter gravity shares the similar quantum behavior as the usual gravity without presence of a cosmological constant.
Substitutional 4d and 5d impurities in graphene.
Alonso-Lanza, Tomás; Ayuela, Andrés; Aguilera-Granja, Faustino
2016-08-21
We describe the structural and electronic properties of graphene doped with substitutional impurities of 4d and 5d transition metals. The adsorption energies and distances for 4d and 5d metals in graphene show similar trends for the later groups in the periodic table, which are also well-known characteristics of 3d elements. However, along earlier groups the 4d impurities in graphene show very similar adsorption energies, distances and magnetic moments to the 5d ones, which can be related to the influence of the 4d and 5d lanthanide contraction. Surprisingly, within the manganese group, the total magnetic moment of 3 μB for manganese is reduced to 1 μB for technetium and rhenium. We find that compared with 3d elements, the larger size of the 4d and 5d elements causes a high degree of hybridization with the neighbouring carbon atoms, reducing spin splitting in the d levels. It seems that the magnetic adjustment of graphene could be significantly different if 4d or 5d impurities are used instead of 3d impurities.
Baxter, J. Erik
2016-02-15
We investigate dyonic black hole and dyon solutions of four-dimensional su(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a negative cosmological constant. We derive a set of field equations in this case, and prove the existence of non-trivial solutions to these equations for any integer N, with 2N − 2 gauge degrees of freedom. We do this by showing that solutions exist locally at infinity, and at the event horizon for black holes and the origin for solitons. We then prove that we can patch these solutions together regularly into global solutions that can be integrated arbitrarily far into the asymptotic regime. Our main result is to show that dyonic solutions exist in open sets in the parameter space, and hence that we can find non-trivial dyonic solutions in a number of regimes whose magnetic gauge fields have no zeros, which is likely important to the stability of the solutions.
2.5D dictionary learning based computed tomography reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Jiajia; Eri, Haneda; Can, Ali; Ramani, Sathish; Fu, Lin; De Man, Bruno
2016-05-01
A computationally efficient 2.5D dictionary learning (DL) algorithm is proposed and implemented in the model- based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) framework for low-dose CT reconstruction. MBIR is based on the minimization of a cost function containing data-fitting and regularization terms to control the trade-off between data-fidelity and image noise. Due to the strong denoising performance of DL, it has previously been considered as a regularizer in MBIR, and both 2D and 3D DL implementations are possible. Compared to the 2D case, 3D DL keeps more spatial information and generates images with better quality although it requires more computation. We propose a novel 2.5D DL scheme, which leverages the computational advantage of 2D-DL, while attempting to maintain reconstruction quality similar to 3D-DL. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new 2.5D DL scheme for MBIR in low-dose CT. By applying the 2D DL method in three different orthogonal planes and calculating the sparse coefficients accordingly, much of the 3D spatial information can be preserved without incurring the computational penalty of the 3D DL method. For performance evaluation, we use baggage phantoms with different number of projection views. In order to quantitatively compare the performance of different algorithms, we use PSNR, SSIM and region based standard deviation to measure the noise level, and use the edge response to calculate the resolution. Experimental results with full view datasets show that the different DL based algorithms have similar performance and 2.5D DL has the best resolution. Results with sparse view datasets show that 2.5D DL outperforms both 2D and 3D DL in terms of noise reduction. We also compare the computational costs, and 2.5D DL shows strong advantage over 3D DL in both full-view and sparse-view cases.
Instanton transition in thermal and moduli deformed de Sitter cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kounnas, Costas; Partouche, Hervé
2008-04-01
We consider the de Sitter cosmology deformed by the presence of a thermal bath of radiation and/or time-dependent moduli fields. Depending on the parameters, either a first or second-order phase transition can occur. In the first case, an instanton allows a double analytic continuation. It induces a probability to enter the inflationary evolution by tunnel effect from another cosmological solution. The latter starts with a big bang and, in the case the transition does not occur, ends with a big crunch. A temperature duality exchanges the two cosmological branches. In the limit where the pure de Sitter universe is recovered, the tunnel effect reduces to a “creation from nothing”, due to the vanishing of the big bang branch. However, the latter may be viable in some range of the deformation parameter. In the second case, there is a smooth evolution from a big bang to the inflationary phase.
Fermionic Schwinger effect and induced current in de Sitter space
Hayashinaka, Takahiro; Fujita, Tomohiro; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi
2016-07-08
We explore Schwinger effect of spin 1/2 charged particles with static electric field in 1+3 dimensional de Sitter spacetime. We analytically calculate the vacuum expectation value of the spinor current which is induced by the produced particles in the electric field. The renormalization is performed with the adiabatic subtraction scheme. We find that the current becomes negative, namely it flows in the direction opposite to the electric field, if the electric field is weaker than a certain threshold value depending on the fermion mass, which is also known to happen in the case of scalar charged particles in 1+3 de Sitter spacetime. Contrary to the scalar case, however, the IR hyperconductivity is absent in the spinor case.
Refining the boundaries of the classical de Sitter landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andriot, David; Blåbäck, Johan
2017-03-01
We derive highly constraining no-go theorems for classical de Sitter backgrounds of string theory, with parallel sources; this should impact the embedding of cosmological models. We study ten-dimensional vacua of type II supergravities with parallel and backreacted orientifold O p -planes and D p -branes, on four-dimensional de Sitter spacetime times a compact manifold. Vacua for p = 3, 7 or 8 are completely excluded, and we obtain tight constraints for p = 4, 5, 6. This is achieved through the derivation of an enlightening expression for the four-dimensional Ricci scalar. Further interesting expressions and no-go theorems are obtained. The paper is self-contained so technical aspects, including conventions, might be of more general interest.
One loop graviton corrections to dynamical photons in de Sitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glavan, D.; Miao, S. P.; Prokopec, Tomislav; Woodard, R. P.
2017-04-01
We employ a recent, general gauge computation of the one loop graviton contribution to the vacuum polarization on de Sitter to solve for one loop corrections to the photon mode function. The vacuum polarization takes the form of a gauge independent, spin 2 contribution and a gauge dependent, spin 0 contribution. We show that the leading secular corrections derive entirely from the spin 2 contribution.
Stability of black holes in de Sitter space
Mellor, F.; Moss, I. )
1990-01-15
The theory of black-hole perturbations is extended to charged black holes in de Sitter space. These spacetimes have wormholes connecting different asymptotic regions. It appears that, at least in some cases, these holes are stable even at the Cauchy horizon. It follows that they violate cosmic censorship and an observer could in principle travel through the black hole to another universe. The stability of these spacetimes also implies the existence of a cosmological no hair'' theorem.
Dynamics of test bodies with spin in de Sitter spacetime
Obukhov, Yuri N.; Puetzfeld, Dirk
2011-02-15
We study the motion of spinning test bodies in the de Sitter spacetime of constant positive curvature. With the help of the 10 Killing vectors, we derive the 4-momentum and the tensor of spin explicitly in terms of the spacetime coordinates. However, in order to find the actual trajectories, one needs to impose the so-called supplementary condition. We discuss the dynamics of spinning test bodies for the cases of the Frenkel and Tulczyjew conditions.
Semiclassical fermion pair creation in de Sitter spacetime
Stahl, Clément Eckhard, Strobel
2015-12-17
We present a method to semiclassically compute the pair creation rate of bosons and fermions in de Sitter spacetime. The results in the bosonic case agree with the ones in the literature. We find that for the constant electric field the fermionic and bosonic pair creation rate are the same. This analogy of bosons and fermions in the semiclassical limit is known from several flat spacetime examples.
The solar photon thruster as a terrestrial pole sitter.
Matloff, Gregory L
2004-05-01
Geosynchronous satellites are invisible at high latitudes. A pole-sitting spacecraft would have communication, climate-studies, and near-polar Earth observation applications. We present a pole-sitter based on the solar photon thruster (SPT), a two-sail variant of the solar sail using a large curved collector sail (always normal to the Sun) to direct sunlight against a much smaller thruster. Thrust decreases slower for an SPT than for a conventional sail arrangement as the angle between sunlight and the collector normal increases. An SPT pole-sitter is offset from the terrestrial pole so that a component of Earth gravity balances the solar radiation-pressure component pushing the SPT off station. The component of gravitational attraction of the Earth pulling the spacecraft towards Earth is also balanced by a solar radiation-pressure component. Results are presented for 80-100% collector/thruster reflectivities. For a spacecraft areal mass thickness of 0.002 kg/m(2), collector and thruster reflectivities of 0.9, the SPT can be situated above latitude 45 degrees at a distance of approximately 60 Earth radii. An SPT pole sitter would be affected by lunar perturbation, which can be compensated for by an on-board rocket thruster producing 2 x 10(-6) g acceleration, a second SPT thruster sail thrusting against the influence of the Moon, or by directing a microwave beam against the spacecraft. Since an SPT pole sitter is in a position rather than an orbit, the effect of terrestrial gravitation limits the size and design of the payload package, which limits terrestrial target resolution.
Universe Without Singularities A Group Approach to De Sitter Cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Licata, Ignazio
2006-05-01
In the last years the traditional scenario of ``Big Bang'' has been deeply modified by the study of the quantum features of the Universe evolution, proposing again the problem of using ``local'' physical laws on cosmic scale, with particular regard to the cosmological constant role. The ``group extention'' method shows that the De Sitter group univocally generalizes the Poincaré group, formally justifies the cosmological constant use and suggests a new interpretation for Hartle-Hawking boundary conditions in Quantum Cosmology.
Probing Planckian physics in de Sitter space with quantum correlations
Feng, Jun; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Gould, Mark D.; Fan, Heng; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Yang, Wen-Li
2014-12-15
We study the quantum correlation and quantum communication channel of both free scalar and fermionic fields in de Sitter space, while the Planckian modification presented by the choice of a particular α-vacuum has been considered. We show the occurrence of degradation of quantum entanglement between field modes for an inertial observer in curved space, due to the radiation associated with its cosmological horizon. Comparing with standard Bunch–Davies choice, the possible Planckian physics causes some extra decrement on the quantum correlation, which may provide the means to detect quantum gravitational effects via quantum information methodology in future. Beyond single-mode approximation, we construct proper Unruh modes admitting general α-vacua, and find a convergent feature of both bosonic and fermionic entanglements. In particular, we show that the convergent points of fermionic entanglement negativity are dependent on the choice of α. Moreover, an one-to-one correspondence between convergent points H{sub c} of negativity and zeros of quantum capacity of quantum channels in de Sitter space has been proved. - Highlights: • Quantum correlation and quantum channel in de Sitter space are studied. • Gibbons–Hawking effect causes entanglement degradation for static observer. • Planckian physics causes extra decrement on quantum correlation. • Convergent feature of negativity relies on the choice of alpha-vacua. • Link between negativity convergence and quantum channel capacity is given.
Massless scalar field vacuum in de Sitter spacetime
Page, Don N.; Wu, Xing E-mail: xwu5@ualberta.ca
2012-11-01
As a spacetime with compact spatial sections, de Sitter spacetime does not have a de Sitter-invariant ground state for a minimally-coupled massless scalar field that gives definite expectation values for any observables not invariant under constant shifts of the field. However, if one restricts to observables that are shift invariant, as the action is, then there is a unique vacuum state. Here we calculate the shift-invariant four-point function that is the vacuum expectation value of the product of the difference of the field values at one pair of points and of the difference of the field values at a second pair of points. We show that this vacuum expectation value obeys a cluster-decomposition property of vanishing in the limit that the one pair of points is moved arbitrarily far from the other pair. We also calculate the shift-invariant correlation of the gradient of the scalar field at two different points and show that it also obeys a cluster-decomposition property. Possible relevance to a putative de Sitter-invariant quantum state for gravity is discussed.
Response-Scale Heterogeneity in the EQ-5D.
Knott, Rachel J; Black, Nicole; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Lorgelly, Paula K
2017-03-01
This paper discusses two types of response-scale heterogeneity, which may impact upon the EQ-5D. Response-scale heterogeneity in reporting occurs when individuals systematically differ in their use of response scales when responding to self-assessments. This type of heterogeneity is widely observed in relation to other self-assessed measures but is often overlooked with regard to the EQ-5D. Analogous to this, preference elicitation involving the EQ-5D could be subject to a similar type of heterogeneity, where variations across respondents may occur in the interpretations of the levels (response categories) being valued. This response-scale heterogeneity in preference elicitation may differ from variations in preferences for health states, which have been observed in the literature. This paper explores what these forms of response-scale heterogeneity may mean for the EQ-5D and the potential implications for researchers who rely on the instrument as a measure of health and quality of life. We identify situations where they are likely to be problematic and present potential avenues for overcoming these issues. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Trigonal bipyramidal 5d-4f molecules with SMM behavior.
Saber, Mohamed R; Dunbar, Kim R
2014-02-28
A family of trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) 5d-4f cyanide bridged aggregates were synthesized that exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization below 4 K as indicated by a signal in the out-of-phase ac susceptibility data under zero field.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jelsma, Jennifer
2010-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the recent EQ-5D-Y instrument compared with the standard EQ-5D in assessing the health-related quality of life of high school children in Cape Town. Either the EQ-5D or the EQ-5D-Y was given to high school children. The sample consisted of 521 respondents. The EQ-5D-Y was found to be…
Facade Reconstruction with Generalized 2.5d Grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demantke, J.; Vallet, B.; Paparoditis, N.
2013-10-01
Reconstructing fine facade geometry from MMS lidar data remains a challenge: In addition to being inherently sparse, the point cloud provided by a single street point of view is necessarily incomplete. We propose a simple framework to estimate the facade surface with a deformable 2.5d grid. Computations are performed in a "sensor-oriented" coordinate system that maximizes consistency with the data. the algorithm allows to retrieve the facade geometry without priori knowledge. It can thus be automatically applied to a large amount of data in spite of the variability of encountered architectural forms. The 2.5d image structure of the output makes it compatible with storage and real-time constraints of immersive navigation.
Time-Dependent 5D Solutions of the Einstein Equations
Lopez, L. A.
2010-07-12
In this work are obtained 5D time-dependent solutions of Einstein equations, one is obtained by means of equiping a cylindrically symmetry solution (JEKK) with a scalar field, then lifting it to a fifth dimension. The other is obtained transforming the Myers-Perry solution via Wick rotation. The two solutions can be interpreted as gravitational waves in some cases. The singularities and C-energy are addressed.
Heterogeneous 2.5D integration on through silicon interposer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaowu; Lin, Jong Kai; Wickramanayaka, Sunil; Zhang, Songbai; Weerasekera, Roshan; Dutta, Rahul; Chang, Ka Fai; Chui, King-Jien; Li, Hong Yu; Wee Ho, David Soon; Ding, Liang; Katti, Guruprasad; Bhattacharya, Suryanarayana; Kwong, Dim-Lee
2015-06-01
Driven by the need to reduce the power consumption of mobile devices, and servers/data centers, and yet continue to deliver improved performance and experience by the end consumer of digital data, the semiconductor industry is looking for new technologies for manufacturing integrated circuits (ICs). In this quest, power consumed in transferring data over copper interconnects is a sizeable portion that needs to be addressed now and continuing over the next few decades. 2.5D Through-Si-Interposer (TSI) is a strong candidate to deliver improved performance while consuming lower power than in previous generations of servers/data centers and mobile devices. These low-power/high-performance advantages are realized through achievement of high interconnect densities on the TSI (higher than ever seen on Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) or organic substrates), and enabling heterogeneous integration on the TSI platform where individual ICs are assembled at close proximity (<1 mm separation) compared with several centimeters on a typical PCB. In this paper, we have outlined the benefits of adopting 2.5D TSI technology and also highlighted the current day approaches to implement this technology in Si fabrication facilities, and in assembly/packaging factories. While the systems and devices that power the mobile society benefit from exploiting advantages of 2.5D integration on TSI, there do exist surmountable challenges that need to be addressed for this relatively new technology to be used in high volume production of next generation semiconductor devices. The key areas of focus and challenges include: Technology planning and design-execution that are necessary for harnessing 2.5D TSI for building systems, processing flow for the fabrication of 100 μm thick TSI at acceptable costs, manufacturing flow for assembling multiple ICs on a 100 μm thick TSI in a repeatable, and reliable manner, thermo-mechanical analysis and optimization for addressing warpage issues, and thermal
Coulomb's law corrections and fermion field localization in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartas-Fuentevilla, Roberto; Escalante, Alberto; Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Rigel Mora-Luna, Refugio
2016-05-01
Following recent studies which show that it is possible to localize gravity as well as scalar and gauge vector fields in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld, we investigate the solution of the gauge hierarchy problem, the localization of fermion fields in this model, the recovering of the Coulomb law on the non-relativistic limit of the Yukawa interaction between bulk fermions and gauge bosons localized in the brane, and confront the predicted 5D corrections to the photon mass with its upper experimental/observational bounds, finding the model physically viable since it passes these tests. In order to achieve the latter aims we first consider the Yukawa interaction term between the fermionic and the tachyonic scalar fields MF(T)ΨΨ̅ in the action and analyze four distinct tachyonic functions F(T) that lead to four different structures of the respective fermionic mass spectra with different physics. In particular, localization of the massless left-chiral fermion zero mode is possible for three of these cases. We further analyze the phenomenology of these Yukawa interactions among fermion fields and gauge bosons localized on the brane and obtain the crucial and necessary information to compute the corrections to Coulomb's law coming from massive KK vector modes in the non-relativistic limit. These corrections are exponentially suppressed due to the presence of the mass gap in the mass spectrum of the bulk gauge vector field. From our results we conclude that corrections to Coulomb's law in the thin brane limit have the same form (up to a numerical factor) as far as the left-chiral massless fermion field is localized on the brane. Finally we compute the corrections to the Coulomb's law for an arbitrarily thick brane scenario which can be interpreted as 5D corrections to the photon mass. By performing consistent estimations with brane phenomenology, we found that the predicted corrections to the photon mass, which are well bounded by the experimentally observed or
Coulomb’s law corrections and fermion field localization in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld
Cartas-Fuentevilla, Roberto; Escalante, Alberto; Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel
2016-05-11
Following recent studies which show that it is possible to localize gravity as well as scalar and gauge vector fields in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld, we investigate the solution of the gauge hierarchy problem, the localization of fermion fields in this model, the recovering of the Coulomb law on the non-relativistic limit of the Yukawa interaction between bulk fermions and gauge bosons localized in the brane, and confront the predicted 5D corrections to the photon mass with its upper experimental/observational bounds, finding the model physically viable since it passes these tests. In order to achieve the latter aims we first consider the Yukawa interaction term between the fermionic and the tachyonic scalar fields MF(T)ΨΨ-bar in the action and analyze four distinct tachyonic functions F(T) that lead to four different structures of the respective fermionic mass spectra with different physics. In particular, localization of the massless left-chiral fermion zero mode is possible for three of these cases. We further analyze the phenomenology of these Yukawa interactions among fermion fields and gauge bosons localized on the brane and obtain the crucial and necessary information to compute the corrections to Coulomb’s law coming from massive KK vector modes in the non-relativistic limit. These corrections are exponentially suppressed due to the presence of the mass gap in the mass spectrum of the bulk gauge vector field. From our results we conclude that corrections to Coulomb’s law in the thin brane limit have the same form (up to a numerical factor) as far as the left-chiral massless fermion field is localized on the brane. Finally we compute the corrections to the Coulomb’s law for an arbitrarily thick brane scenario which can be interpreted as 5D corrections to the photon mass. By performing consistent estimations with brane phenomenology, we found that the predicted corrections to the photon mass, which are well bounded by the experimentally
Short distance physics of the inflationary de Sitter universe
Ali, Ahmed Farag; Faizal, Mir; Khalil, Mohammed M. E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca
2015-09-01
In this work, we investigate inflationary cosmology using scalar field theory deformed by the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) containing a linear momentum term. Apart from being consistent with the existence of a minimum measurable length scale, this GUP is also consistent with doubly special relativity and hence with the existence of maximum measurable momentum. We use this deformed scalar field theory to analyze the tensor and scalar mode equations in a de Sitter background, and to calculate modifications to the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Finally, we compare our results for the tensor-to-scalar ratio with the Planck data to constrain the minimum length parameter in the GUP.
Electromagnetic energy dispersion in a 5D universe
Hartnett, John G.
2010-06-15
Electromagnetism is analyzed in a 5D expanding universe. Compared to the usual 4D description of electrodynamics it can be viewed as adding effective charge and current densities to the universe that are static in time. These lead to effective polarization and magnetization of the vacuum, which is most significant at high redshift. Electromagnetic waves propagate but group and phase velocities are dispersive. This introduces a new energy scale to the cosmos. And as a result electromagnetic waves propagate with superluminal speeds but no energy is transmitted faster than the canonical speed of light c.
The properties of 5-D braided reinforced organic silicon composites
Xiao, L.; Li, J.; Dong, F.
1994-12-31
A study of the mechanical properties of braided reinforced composites is presented. Three braided structures 1 * 1, 1 * 2, 1 * 3 braids with and without axially layed-in yarns have been adopted. It is found that the different braided structures greatly affect the tensile strength , flexural strength and modulus of braided fabric reinforced composites; 1 * 1 4-D braided composite has the highest tensile and flexural strengths. The fiber fraction volume and surface geometries of braids changed greatly corresponding to the braiding process chosen. By laying in non-braiding yarns in the longitudinal direction, the tensile, and flexural strengths of 5-D braided reinforced composite increase.
3.5 D temperature model of a coal stockpile
Ozdeniz, A.H.; Corumluoglu, O.; Kalayci, I.; Sensogut, C.
2008-07-01
Overproduced coal mines that are not sold should remain in coal stock sites. If these coal stockpiles remain at the stock yards over a certain period of time, a spontaneous combustion can be started. Coal stocks under combustion threat can cost too much economically to coal companies. Therefore, it is important to take some precautions for saving the stockpiles from the spontaneous combustion. In this research, a coal stock which was 5 m wide, 10 m long, and 3 m in height, with a weight of 120 tons, was monitored to observe internal temperature changes with respect to time under normal atmospheric conditions. Internal temperature measurements were obtained at 20 points distributed all over the two layers in the stockpile. Temperatures measured by a specially designed mechanism were then stored into a computer every 3 h for a period of 3 months. Afterward, this dataset was used to delineate 3.5 D temporal temperature distribution models for these two levels, and they were used to analyze and interpret what was seen in these models to derive some conclusions. It was openly seen, followed, and analyzed that internal temperature changes in the stockpile went up to 31{sup o}C by 3.5 D models created for this research.
Toward 5D image reconstruction for optical interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baron, Fabien; Kloppenborg, Brian; Monnier, John
2012-07-01
We report on our progress toward a flexible image reconstruction software for optical interferometry capable of "5D imaging" of stellar surfaces. 5D imaging is here defined as the capability to image directly one or several stars in three dimensions, with both the time and wavelength dependencies taken into account during the reconstruction process. Our algorithm makes use of the Healpix (Gorski et al., 2005) sphere partition scheme to tesselate the stellar surface, 3D Open Graphics Language (OpenGL) to model the spheroid geometry, and the Open Compute Language (OpenCL) framework for all other computations. We use the Monte Carlo Markov Chain software SQUEEZE to solve the image reconstruction problem on the surfaces of these stars. Finally, the Compressed Sensing and Bayesian Evidence paradigms are employed to determine the best regularization for spotted stars. Our algorithm makes use of the Healpix (reference needed) sphere partition scheme to tesselate the stellar surface, 3D Open Graphics Language (OpenGL) to model the spheroid, and the Open Compute Language (OpenCL) framework to model the Roche gravitational potential equation.
Equations on knot polynomials and 3d/5d duality
Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.
2012-09-24
We briefly review the current situation with various relations between knot/braid polynomials (Chern-Simons correlation functions), ordinary and extended, considered as functions of the representation and of the knot topology. These include linear skein relations, quadratic Plucker relations, as well as 'differential' and (quantum) A-polynomial structures. We pay a special attention to identity between the A-polynomial equations for knots and Baxter equations for quantum relativistic integrable systems, related through Seiberg-Witten theory to 5d super-Yang-Mills models and through the AGT relation to the q-Virasoro algebra. This identity is an important ingredient of emerging a 3d- 5d generalization of the AGT relation. The shape of the Baxter equation (including the values of coefficients) depend on the choice of the knot/braid. Thus, like the case of KP integrability, where (some, so far torus) knots parameterize particular points of the Universal Grassmannian, in this relation they parameterize particular points in the moduli space of many-body integrable systems of relativistic type.
Nearly free electrons in a 5d delafossite oxide metal
Kushwaha, Pallavi; Sunko, Veronika; Moll, Philip J. W.; Bawden, Lewis; Riley, Jonathon M.; Nandi, Nabhanila; Rosner, Helge; Schmidt, Marcus P.; Arnold, Frank; Hassinger, Elena; Kim, Timur K.; Hoesch, Moritz; Mackenzie, Andrew P.; King, Phil D. C.
2015-01-01
Understanding the role of electron correlations in strong spin-orbit transition-metal oxides is key to the realization of numerous exotic phases including spin-orbit–assisted Mott insulators, correlated topological solids, and prospective new high-temperature superconductors. To date, most attention has been focused on the 5d iridium-based oxides. We instead consider the Pt-based delafossite oxide PtCoO2. Our transport measurements, performed on single-crystal samples etched to well-defined geometries using focused ion beam techniques, yield a room temperature resistivity of only 2.1 microhm·cm (μΩ-cm), establishing PtCoO2 as the most conductive oxide known. From angle-resolved photoemission and density functional theory, we show that the underlying Fermi surface is a single cylinder of nearly hexagonal cross-section, with very weak dispersion along kz. Despite being predominantly composed of d-orbital character, the conduction band is remarkably steep, with an average effective mass of only 1.14me. Moreover, the sharp spectral features observed in photoemission remain well defined with little additional broadening for more than 500 meV below EF, pointing to suppressed electron-electron scattering. Together, our findings establish PtCoO2 as a model nearly-free–electron system in a 5d delafossite transition-metal oxide. PMID:26601308
One-loop gravitational wave spectrum in de Sitter spacetime
Fröb, Markus B.; Verdaguer, Enric
2012-08-01
The two-point function for tensor metric perturbations around de Sitter spacetime including one-loop corrections from massless conformally coupled scalar fields is calculated exactly. We work in the Poincare patch (with spatially flat sections) and employ dimensional regularization for the renormalization process. Unlike previous studies we obtain the result for arbitrary time separations rather than just equal times. Moreover, in contrast to existing results for tensor perturbations, ours is manifestly invariant with respect to the subgroup of de Sitter isometries corresponding to a simultaneous time translation and rescaling of the spatial coordinates. Having selected the right initial state for the interacting theory via an appropriate iε prescription is crucial for that. Finally, we show that although the two-point function is a well-defined spacetime distribution, the equal-time limit of its spatial Fourier transform is divergent. Therefore, contrary to the well-defined distribution for arbitrary time separations, the power spectrum is strictly speaking ill-defined when loop corrections are included.
A note on entropy of de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Sourav
2016-03-01
A de Sitter black hole or a black hole spacetime endowed with a positive cosmological constant has two Killing horizons—a black hole and a cosmological event horizon surrounding it. It is natural to expect that the total Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of such spacetimes should be the sum of the two horizons' areas. In this work we apply the recently developed formalism using the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term and the near horizon symmetries to derive the total entropy of such two horizon spacetimes. We construct a suitable general geometric set up for general stationary axisymmetric spacetimes with two or more than two commuting Killing vector fields in an arbitrary spacetime dimensions. This framework helps us to deal with both horizons on an equal footing. We show that in order to obtain the total entropy of such spacetimes, the near horizon mode functions for the diffeomorphism generating vector fields have to be restricted in a certain manner, compared to the single horizon spacetimes. We next discuss specific known exact solutions belonging to the Kerr-Newman or the Plebanski-Demianski-de Sitter families to show that they fall into the category of our general framework. We end with a sketch of further possible extensions of this work.
One-loop gravitational wave spectrum in de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fröb, Markus B.; Roura, Albert; Verdaguer, Enric
2012-08-01
The two-point function for tensor metric perturbations around de Sitter spacetime including one-loop corrections from massless conformally coupled scalar fields is calculated exactly. We work in the Poincaré patch (with spatially flat sections) and employ dimensional regularization for the renormalization process. Unlike previous studies we obtain the result for arbitrary time separations rather than just equal times. Moreover, in contrast to existing results for tensor perturbations, ours is manifestly invariant with respect to the subgroup of de Sitter isometries corresponding to a simultaneous time translation and rescaling of the spatial coordinates. Having selected the right initial state for the interacting theory via an appropriate iepsilon prescription is crucial for that. Finally, we show that although the two-point function is a well-defined spacetime distribution, the equal-time limit of its spatial Fourier transform is divergent. Therefore, contrary to the well-defined distribution for arbitrary time separations, the power spectrum is strictly speaking ill-defined when loop corrections are included.
Separability of Gravitational Perturbation in Generalized Kerr-Nut Sitter Space-Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oota, Takeshi; Yasui, Yukinori
Generalized Kerr-NUT-de Sitter space-time is the most general space-time which admits a rank-2 closed conformal Killing-Yano tensor. It contains the higher-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter black holes with partially equal angular momenta. We study the separability of gravitational perturbations in the generalized Kerr-NUT-de Sitter space-time. We show that a certain type of tensor perturbations admits the separation of variables. The linearized perturbation equations for the Einstein condition are transformed into the ordinary differential equations of Fuchs type.
Scale-invariant spectrum of Lee-Wick model in de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon
2015-02-01
We obtain a scale-invariant spectrum from the Lee-Wick model in de Sitter spacetime. This model is a fourth-order scalar theory whose mass parameter is determined by M2=2H2. The Harrison-Zel'dovich scale-invariant spectrum is obtained by Fourier transforming the propagator in position space as well as by computing the power spectrum directly. It shows clearly that the LW scalar theory provides a truly scale-invariant spectrum in whole de Sitter, while the massless scalar propagation in de Sitter shows a scale-invariant spectrum in the superhorizon region only.
Open quantum system approach to the Gibbons-Hawking effect of de Sitter space-time.
Yu, Hongwei
2011-02-11
We analyze, in the paradigm of open quantum systems, the reduced dynamics of a freely falling two-level detector in de Sitter space-time in weak interaction with a reservoir of fluctuating quantized conformal scalar fields in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum. We find that the detector is asymptotically driven to a thermal state at the Gibbons-Hawking temperature, regardless of its initial state. Our discussion, therefore, shows that the Gibbons-Hawking effect of de Sitter space-time can be understood as a manifestation of thermalization phenomena that involves decoherence and dissipation in open quantum systems.
Quantum statistical entropy for Kerr de Sitter black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Li-Chun; Wu, Yue-Qin; Zhao, Ren
2004-06-01
Improving the membrane model by which the entropy of the black hole is studied, we study the entropy of the black hole in the non-thermal equilibrium state. To give the problem stated here widespread meaning, we discuss the (n+2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime. Through discussion, we obtain that the black hole's entropy which contains two horizons (a black hole's horizon and a cosmological horizon) in the non-thermal equilibrium state comprises the entropy corresponding to the black hole's horizon and the entropy corresponding to the cosmological horizon. Furthermore, the entropy of the black hole is a natural property of the black hole. The entropy is irrelevant to the radiation field out of the horizon. This deepens the understanding of the relationship between black hole's entropy and horizon's area. A way to study the bosonic and fermionic entropy of the black hole in high non-thermal equilibrium spacetime is given.
Nonlinear Laplace equation, de Sitter vacua, and information geometry
Loran, Farhang
2005-06-15
Three exact solutions say {phi}{sub 0} of massless scalar theories on Euclidean space, i.e. D=6 {phi}{sup 3}, D=4 {phi}{sup 4} and D=3 {phi}{sup 6} models are obtained which share similar properties. The information geometry of their moduli spaces coincide with the Euclidean AdS{sub 7}, AdS{sub 5} and AdS{sub 4} respectively on which {phi}{sub 0} can be described as a stable tachyon. In D=4 we recognize that the SU(2) instanton density is proportional to {phi}{sub 0}{sup 4}. The original action S[{phi}] written in terms of new scalars {phi}-tilde={phi}-{phi}{sub 0} is shown to be equivalent to an interacting scalar theory on D-dimensional de Sitter background.
Entanglement entropy of α-vacua in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanno, Sugumi; Murugan, Jeff; Shock, Jonathan P.; Soda, Jiro
2014-07-01
We consider the entanglement entropy of a free massive scalar field in the one parameter family of α-vacua in de Sitter space by using a method developed by Maldacena and Pimentel. An α-vacuum can be thought of as a state filled with particles from the point of view of the Bunch-Davies vacuum. Of all the α-vacua we find that the entanglement entropy takes the minimal value in the Bunch-Davies solution. We also calculate the asymptotic value of the Rényi entropy and find that it increases as α increases. We argue these features stem from pair condensation within the non-trivial α-vacua where the pairs have an intrinsic quantum correlation.
Dynamics of black holes in de Sitter spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zilhão, Miguel; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sperhake, Ulrich; Witek, Helvi
2012-05-01
Nonlinear dynamics in cosmological backgrounds has the potential to teach us immensely about our Universe, and also to serve as prototype for nonlinear processes in generic curved spacetimes. Here we report on dynamical evolutions of black holes in asymptotically de Sitter spacetimes. We focus on the head-on collision of equal mass binaries and for the first time compare analytical and perturbative methods with full blown nonlinear simulations. Our results include an accurate determination of the merger/scatter transition (consequence of an expanding background) for small mass binaries and a test of the cosmic censorship conjecture, for large mass binaries. We observe that, even starting from small separations, black holes in large mass binaries eventually lose causal contact, in agreement with the conjecture.
Energy, momentum and angular momentum conservations in de Sitter gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Jia-An
2016-08-01
In de Sitter (dS) gravity, where gravity is a gauge field introduced to realize the local dS invariance of the matter field, two kinds of conservation laws are derived. The first kind is a differential equation for a dS-covariant current, which unites the canonical energy-momentum (EM) and angular momentum (AM) tensors. The second kind presents a dS-invariant current which is conserved in the sense that its torsion-free divergence vanishes. The dS-invariant current unites the total (matter plus gravity) EM and AM currents. It is well known that the AM current contains an inherent part, called the spin current. Here it is shown that the EM tensor also contains an inherent part, which might be observed by its contribution to the deviation of the dust particle’s world line from a geodesic. All the results are compared to the ordinary Lorentz gravity.
Generating technique for U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity
Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Scherbluk, Nikolai G.
2008-09-15
We develop a generating technique for solutions of U(1){sup 3} 5D supergravity via dimensional reduction to three dimensions. This theory, which recently attracted attention in connection with black rings, can be viewed as a consistent truncation of the T{sup 6} compactification of the 11-dimensional supergravity. Its further reduction to three dimensions accompanied by dualization of the vector fields leads to a 3D gravity coupled sigma model on the homogeneous space SO(4,4)/SO(4)xSO(4) or SO(4,4)/SO(2,2)xSO(2,2) depending on the signature of the three-space. We construct a 8x8 matrix representation of these cosets in terms of lower-dimensional blocks. Using it we express a solution generating transformations in terms of potentials and identify those preserving asymptotic conditions relevant to black holes and black rings. As an application we derive the doubly rotating black hole solution with three independent charges. A suitable contraction of the above cosets is used to construct a new representation of the coset G{sub 2(2)}/(SL(2,R)xSL(2,R)) relevant for minimal five-dimensional supergravity.
Kapteyn and de Sitter; a rare and special teacher-student and coach-player relationship
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Sitter, Wolter Reinold
Measured along the yardstick of subsequent success, Willem de Sitter [1872-1934] was one of Kapteyn's foremost pupils along with van Rhijn, Schilt and Jan Hendrik Oort. From his appointment as professor at Leiden University in 1908 until Kapteyn's death in 1922, de Sitter maintained in close contact with his teacher. Kapteyn was his trusted sounding board and consultant in scientific and administrative matters, as well as academic politics. De Sitter had his ideas on a complete reorganisation and restructuring of Leiden Observatory scrutinized by Kapteyn's experienced judgement, and together they developed ideas and completed a plan of action, including touchy staffing, salary and budgettary aspects. Together they were a formidable team and operated as such. Notes by de Sitter and many letters from Kapteyn illustrate their fruitful relationship.
Interpretational conflicts between the static and non-static forms of the de Sitter metric.
Mitra, Abhas
2012-01-01
The de-Sitter metric is a special form of the non-static Friedmann metric, and appears to be genuinely non-static since it describes the initial exponential expansion of the Big Bang universe. However, the de Sitter metric appears to be perfectly static in the Schwarzschild frame where the vacuum fluid is supposed to be in motion. Here we highlight the conflicts between the static and non-static versions of the de-Sitter metric from a physical perspective. In particular, while the "Principle of Energy Conservation" is honored in one case, the same is badly violated for the other. However, we offer a partial resolution of such conflicts by deriving the static de Sitter metric by solving the relevant field equations. It is seen that, it is the very special vacuum equation of state pressure = -density which results in the static form even when the vacuum fluid is supposed to be in motion.
Do scale-invariant fluctuations imply the breaking of de Sitter invariance?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youssef, A.
2013-01-01
The quantization of the massless minimally coupled (mmc) scalar field in de Sitter spacetime is known to be a non-trivial problem due to the appearance of strong infrared (IR) effects. In particular, the scale-invariance of the CMB power-spectrum - certainly one of the most successful predictions of modern cosmology - is widely believed to be inconsistent with a de Sitter invariant mmc two-point function. Using a Cesaro-summability technique to properly define an otherwise divergent Fourier transform, we show in this Letter that de Sitter symmetry breaking is not a necessary consequence of the scale-invariant fluctuation spectrum. We also generalize our result to the tachyonic scalar fields, i.e. the discrete series of representations of the de Sitter group, that suffer from similar strong IR effects.
Quantum Linear Gravity in de Sitter Universe on Gupta-Bleuler Vacuum State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enayati, M.; Takook, M. V.; Rouhani, S.
2017-04-01
Application of Krein space quantization to the linear gravity in de Sitter space-time have constructed on Gupta-Bleuler vacuum state, resulting in removal of infrared divergence and preserving de Sitter covariant. By pursuing this path, the non uniqueness of vacuum expectation value of the product of field operators in curved space-time disappears as well. Then the vacuum expectation value of the product of field operators can be defined properly and uniquely.
Contribution of the cosmological constant to the bending of light in Kerr-de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sultana, Joseph
2013-08-01
We examine the effect of the cosmological constant Λ on the angle of deflection of null geodesics in the equatorial plane of the Kerr-de Sitter spacetime. This is done by employing a procedure used recently by Rindler and Ishak to obtain the bending angle of light in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry. We show that this approach yields a contribution from the cosmological constant in the expression for the bending angle.
Doukas, Jason; Cho, H. T.; Cornell, A. S.; Naylor, Wade
2009-08-15
In this article we present results for tensor graviton modes (in seven dimensions and greater, n{>=}3) for gray-body factors of Kerr-de Sitter black holes and for Hawking radiation from simply rotating (n+4)-dimensional Kerr black holes. Although there is some subtlety with defining the Hawking temperature of a Kerr-de Sitter black hole, we present some preliminary results for emissions assuming the standard Hawking normalization and a Bousso-Hawking-like normalization.
Holography and quantum states in elliptic de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halpern, Illan F.; Neiman, Yasha
2015-12-01
We outline a program for interpreting the higher-spin dS/CFT model in terms of physics in the causal patch of a dS observer. The proposal is formulated in "elliptic" de Sitter space d{S}_4/{Z}_2 , obtained by identifying antipodal points in dS 4. We discuss recent evidence that the higher-spin model is especially well-suited for this, since the antipodal symmetry of bulk solutions has a simple encoding on the boundary. For context, we test some other (free and interacting) theories for the same property. Next, we analyze the notion of quantum field states in the non-time-orientable d{S}_4/{Z}_2 . We compare the physics seen by different observers, with the outcome depending on whether they share an arrow of time. Finally, we implement the marriage between higher-spin holography and observers in d{S}_4/{Z}_2 , in the limit of free bulk fields. We succeed in deriving an observer's operator algebra and Hamiltonian from the CFT, but not her S-matrix. We speculate on the extension of this to interacting higher-spin theory.
Castles in the Air: The Einstein-De Sitter Debate, 1916-1918
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Midwinter, Charles; Janssen, Michel
2011-03-01
The Einstein De Sitter debate marked the birth of modern cosmology and the infamous cosmological constant. For Einstein, the controversy was essentially a philosophical one. Einstein's insistence on a static Universe and Mach's Principle guided him in the construction of his own cosmological model, and compelled him to criticize De Sitter's. For De Sitter, the debate began as idle conjecture. Before long, however, he began to wonder if the "spacious castles" he and Einstein had constructed might actually represent physical reality. We plan to write a volume that reproduces the documents relevant to the debate. Our commentary will retrace and explain the arguments of the historical players, complete with calculations. For the first time readers will be able to follow the arguments of Einstein and De Sitter in a detailed exploration of the first two relativistic cosmological models. Readers will see how Einstein's flawed criticisms of De Sitter were supported by Herman Weyl, and finally how Felix Klein settled the whole matter with a coordinate transformation.
Riemann correlator in de Sitter including loop corrections from conformal fields
Fröb, Markus B.; Verdaguer, Enric
2014-07-01
The Riemann correlator with appropriately raised indices characterizes in a gauge-invariant way the quantum metric fluctuations around de Sitter spacetime including loop corrections from matter fields. Specializing to conformal fields and employing a method that selects the de Sitter-invariant vacuum in the Poincaré patch, we obtain the exact result for the Riemann correlator through order H{sup 4}/m{sub p}{sup 4}. The result is expressed in a manifestly de Sitter-invariant form in terms of maximally symmetric bitensors. Its behavior for both short and long distances (sub- and superhorizon scales) is analyzed in detail. Furthermore, by carefully taking the flat-space limit, the explicit result for the Riemann correlator for metric fluctuations around Minkowki spacetime is also obtained. Although the main focus is on free scalar fields (our calculation corresponds then to one-loop order in the matter fields), the result for general conformal field theories is also derived.
Riemann correlator in de Sitter including loop corrections from conformal fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fröb, Markus B.; Roura, Albert; Verdaguer, Enric
2014-07-01
The Riemann correlator with appropriately raised indices characterizes in a gauge-invariant way the quantum metric fluctuations around de Sitter spacetime including loop corrections from matter fields. Specializing to conformal fields and employing a method that selects the de Sitter-invariant vacuum in the Poincaré patch, we obtain the exact result for the Riemann correlator through order H4/mp4. The result is expressed in a manifestly de Sitter-invariant form in terms of maximally symmetric bitensors. Its behavior for both short and long distances (sub- and superhorizon scales) is analyzed in detail. Furthermore, by carefully taking the flat-space limit, the explicit result for the Riemann correlator for metric fluctuations around Minkowki spacetime is also obtained. Although the main focus is on free scalar fields (our calculation corresponds then to one-loop order in the matter fields), the result for general conformal field theories is also derived.
Dark fluid or cosmological constant: Why there are different de Sitter-type spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nouri-Zonoz, M.; Koohbor, J.; Ramezani-Aval, H.
2015-03-01
Many different forms of the de Sitter metric in different coordinate systems are used in the general relativity literature. Two of them are the most common: the static form and the cosmological (exponentially expanding) form. The staticity and nonstationarity of these two different forms are traced back to the noncomoving and comoving nature of the corresponding coordinate systems. In this paper, using the quasi-Maxwell form of the Einstein field equations and a definition of static spacetimes based upon them, we look at these two different forms of the same solution from a new perspective which classifies them as a special case in a general one-parameter family of solutions. Specifically it is proved that, irrespective of the spacetime symmetry, a one-element perfect fluid in any frame noncomoving with the fluid could be the source of a static spacetime, only if its equation of state is that of a dark fluid, namely, p =-ρ =const . These static solutions, which include the well-known de Sitter spacetime, are called de Sitter-type spacetimes. To answer the question posed in the title, we consider static axially and cylindrically symmetric de Sitter-type spacetimes and their dynamic (cosmological) versions. It is shown how despite the seemingly natural expectation based on the presence of Λ as their only parameter, the nonspherical expansions of these genuinely different solutions should be expected indeed. To the best of our knowledge the dynamic version of the cylindrically symmetric de Sitter-type spacetime is introduced here for the first time. Finally it is noted that the identification of the geometric term Λ gi j with a perfect fluid with equation of state p =-ρ =const , although mathematically consistent, obscures the crucial role of the (dark) fluid's velocity in defining a preferred (comoving) coordinate system in de Sitter-type spacetimes.
Natural realization of a large extra dimension in 5D supersymmetric theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakamura, Yutaka; Yamada, Yusuke
2014-09-01
An exponentially large extra dimension can be naturally realized by the Casimir energy and the gaugino condensation in 5D supersymmetric theory. The model does not require any hierarchies among the 5D parameters. The key ingredient is an additional modulus other than the radion, which generically exists in 5D supergravity. SUSY is broken at the vacuum, which can be regarded as the Scherk-Schwarz SUSY breaking. We also analyze the mass spectrum and discuss some phenomenological aspects.
Fermion production in dipolar electric field on de Sitter expanding universe
Băloi, Mihaela-Andreea Crucean, Cosmin
2015-12-07
The production of fermions in dipolar electric fields on de Sitter universe is studied. The amplitude and probability of pair production are computed using the exact solution of the Dirac equation in de Sitter spacetime. The form of the dipolar fields is established using the conformal invariance of the Maxwell equations. We obtain that the momentum conservation law is broken in the process of pair production in dipolar electric fields. Also we establish that there are nonvanishing probabilities for processes in which the helicity is conserved/nonconserved. The Minkowski limit is recovered when the expansion factor becomes zero.
More on the covariant retarded Green's function for the electromagnetic field in de Sitter spacetime
Higuchi, Atsushi; Lee, Yen Cheong; Nicholas, Jack R.
2009-11-15
In a recent paper 2 it was shown in examples that the covariant retarded Green's functions in certain gauges for electromagnetism and linearized gravity can be used to reproduce field configurations correctly in spite of the spacelike nature of past infinity in de Sitter spacetime. In this paper we extend the work of Ref. 2 concerning the electromagnetic field and show that the covariant retarded Green's function with an arbitrary value of the gauge parameter reproduces the electromagnetic field from two opposite charges at antipodal points of de Sitter spacetime.
Gravitationally induced adiabatic particle production: from big bang to de Sitter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya
2016-08-01
In the background of a flat homogeneous and isotropic space-time, we consider a scenario of the Universe driven by the gravitationally induced ‘adiabatic’ particle production with constant creation rate. We have shown that this Universe attains a big bang singularity in the past and at late-time it asymptotically becomes de Sitter. To clarify this model Universe, we performed a dynamical analysis and found that the Universe attains a thermodynamic equilibrium in this late de Sitter phase. Finally, for the first time, we have discussed the possible effects of ‘adiabatic’ particle creations in the context of loop quantum cosmology.
High-frequency microwave anti-/de-icing system for carbon-reinforced airfoil structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feher, Lambert; Thumm, Manfred
2001-08-01
An aircraft may be subjected to icing for a variety of meteorological reasons during the flight. Ice formation on the plane and in particular on the aerodynamically carrying structures adversely affects the flight behaviour. Conventional de-icing methods for aluminum wings are characterised by a high energy consumption during the flight and slow ice melting due to thermal diffusion of the heat in the wing material. In addition to advanced turbines, novel materials and composites have to be used in order to reduce the weight and, hence, the fuel consumption. These composite materials have a far worse thermal conductivity than metals and undergo delamination when hot air systems, resistance or ohmic heating mats are used. In the paper, the unique advantages of a novel High Frequency Microwave Anti-/De-icing System for large future aircraft with carbon reinforced leading edge structures are presented.
Bulk matters on symmetric and asymmetric de Sitter thick branes
Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Wei, Shao-Wen; Duan, Yi-Shi E-mail: zhaozhenhua@impcas.ac.cn E-mail: ysduan@lzu.edu.cn
2009-02-15
An asymmetric thick domain wall solution with de Sitter (dS) expansion in five dimensions can be constructed from a symmetric one by using a same scalar (kink) with different potentials. In this paper, by presenting the mass-independent potentials of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes in the corresponding Schroedinger equations, we investigate the localization and mass spectra of various bulk matter fields on the symmetric and asymmetric dS thick branes. For spin 0 scalars and spin 1 vectors, the potentials of KK modes in the corresponding Schroedinger equations are the modified Poeschl-Teller potentials, and there exist a mass gap and a series of continuous spectrum. It is shown that the spectrum of scalar KK modes on the symmetric dS brane contains only one bound mode (the massless mode). However, for the asymmetric dS brane with a large asymmetric factor, there are two bound scalar KK modes: a zero mode and a massive mode. For spin 1 vectors, the spectra of KK modes on both dS branes consist of a bound massless mode and a set of continuous ones, i.e., the asymmetric factor does not change the number of the bound vector KK modes. For spin 1/2 fermions, two types of kink-fermion couplings are investigated in detail. For the usual Yukawa coupling {eta}barPsi{phi}{Psi}, there exists no mass gap but a continuous gapless spectrum of KK states. For the scalar-fermion coupling {eta}barPsisin({phi}/{phi}{sub 0})cos{sup -{delta}}({phi}/{phi}{sub 0}){Psi} with a positive coupling constant {eta}, there exist some discrete bound KK modes and a series of continuous ones. The total number of bound states increases with the coupling constant {eta}. For the case of the symmetric dS brane and positive {eta}, there are N{sub L}(N{sub L} {>=} 1) left chiral fermion bound states (including zero mode and massive KK modes) and N{sub L}-1 right chiral fermion bound states (including only massive KK modes). For the asymmetric dS brane scenario, the asymmetric factor a reduces the number of the
Experimental study of cesium 5D+5D->6S+(nL=9D,11S,7F) energy pooling collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qian; Dai, Kang; Shen, Yifan
2007-07-01
We report experimentally the measured rate coefficients for the energy pooling (EP) collisions process Cs(5D)+Cs(5D)->Cs(6S)+Cs(nL=9D,11S,7F) in cesium densities of 10^(16)-10^(17) cm^(-3). The 5D state was populated via 8S->7P->5D spontaneous emission following two-step pumping 6S->6P_(3/2)->8S. Since the 5D->6P (3.0-3.6 microns) fluorescence could not be detected in this experiment, we carried out a relative measurement for the process 6P+5D->6S+7D. The excited-atom density and spatial distribution were mapped by monitoring the absorption of a counterpropagating single-mode laser beam, tuned to 6P_(3/2)->9S_(1/2) transition, which could be translated parallelly to the pump beam. The excited atom densities have been combined with the measured fluorescence ratios to yield EP rate coefficients. The average values for nL=9D,11S and 7F are 8.0+-4.0, 7.0+-3.5, and 9.3+-4.6 (in units of 10^(-10) cm3/s), respectively. Influence of the energy transfer process 11S+6S->7F+6S on the rate coefficients k_(11S) and k_(7F) is also discussed.
Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau oscillator with Snyder-de Sitter algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falek, M.; Merad, M.; Birkandan, T.
2017-02-01
We present an exact solution of the one-dimensional Bosonic oscillator for spin 1 and spin 0 particles with the Snyder-de Sitter model, where the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are determined for both cases. The wave functions can be given in terms of Gegenbauer polynomials. We also comment on the thermodynamic properties of the system.
Interpretational conflicts between the static and non-static forms of the de Sitter metric
Mitra, Abhas
2012-01-01
The de-Sitter metric is a special form of the non-static Friedmann metric, and appears to be genuinely non-static since it describes the initial exponential expansion of the Big Bang universe. However, the de Sitter metric appears to be perfectly static in the Schwarzschild frame where the vacuum fluid is supposed to be in motion. Here we highlight the conflicts between the static and non-static versions of the de-Sitter metric from a physical perspective. In particular, while the “Principle of Energy Conservation” is honored in one case, the same is badly violated for the other. However, we offer a partial resolution of such conflicts by deriving the static de Sitter metric by solving the relevant field equations. It is seen that, it is the very special vacuum equation of state pressure = –density which results in the static form even when the vacuum fluid is supposed to be in motion. PMID:23213359
A new method of researching fermion tunneling from the Vaidya-Bonner de Sitter black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kai; Yang, Shu-Zheng
2009-06-01
Using the general tortoise coordinate transformation, we research the fermion tunneling of the Vaidya-Bonner de Sitter black hole via a semi-classical method and finally obtain the right surface gravity, Hawking temperature and tunneling rate near the event horizon and cosmical horizon.
The Booth Sitters of Santa Fe's Indian Market: Making and Maintaining Authenticity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bernstein, Bruce
2007-01-01
In this article, the author addresses the burden of non-Native expectation on Native artists, highlighting issues of authenticity, creation, and public display. The author writes about the booth sitters hired by collectors to sit--sometimes all night--and wait for the official opening of the annual Indian Market in Santa Fe, New Mexico. He focuses…
Late-time quadrupolar gravitational wave power in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazboun, Jeffrey
2017-01-01
We have calculated the power emitted by a binary system in a cosmological context modeled by a stress energy source on a de Sitter background. The calculation is based on the quadrupole formula for late-time gravitational waves in de Sitter space put forward by Ashtekar, Bonga and Kesavan. There is little reason to expect, a priori, that the projection operator usually used to find the transverse-traceless components of a tensor in asymptotically flat spaces will accurately characterize the physical degrees of freedom in an asymptotically de Sitter spacetime. Instead we use the differential recipe that is true in general, but cumbersome to solve explicitly. The solution presented is based on a conformally transformed version of the quadrupole moment from a Minkowski spacetime for a stable circular binary. A process for calculating the late time power is presented, which coincides with future null infinity. Progress on time dependent results will also be presented. We will discuss the physicality of these results and compare it to other results for gravitational waves in de Sitter space, including recent results on gravitational wave memory.
A review of health utilities using the EQ-5D in studies of cardiovascular disease
2010-01-01
Background The EQ-5D has been extensively used to assess patient utility in trials of new treatments within the cardiovascular field. The aims of this study were to review evidence of the validity and reliability of the EQ-5D, and to summarise utility scores based on the use of the EQ-5D in clinical trials and in studies of patients with cardiovascular disease. Methods A structured literature search was conducted using keywords related to cardiovascular disease and EQ-5D. Original research studies of patients with cardiovascular disease that reported EQ-5D results and its measurement properties were included. Results Of 147 identified papers, 66 met the selection criteria, with 10 studies reporting evidence on validity or reliability and 60 reporting EQ-5D responses (VAS or self-classification). Mean EQ-5D index-based scores ranged from 0.24 (SD 0.39) to 0.90 (SD 0.16), while VAS scores ranged from 37 (SD 21) to 89 (no SD reported). Stratification of EQ-5D index scores by disease severity revealed that scores decreased from a mean of 0.78 (SD 0.18) to 0.51 (SD 0.21) for mild to severe disease in heart failure patients and from 0.80 (SD 0.05) to 0.45 (SD 0.22) for mild to severe disease in angina patients. Conclusions The published evidence generally supports the validity and reliability of the EQ-5D as an outcome measure within the cardiovascular area. This review provides utility estimates across a range of cardiovascular subgroups and treatments that may be useful for future modelling of utilities and QALYs in economic evaluations within the cardiovascular area. PMID:20109189
RH 1.5D: Polarized multi-level radiative transfer with partial frequency distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Tiago M. D.; Uitenbroek, Han
2015-02-01
RH 1.5D performs Zeeman multi-level non-local thermodynamical equilibrium calculations with partial frequency redistribution for an arbitrary amount of chemical species. Derived from the RH code and written in C, it calculates spectra from 3D, 2D or 1D atmospheric models on a column-by-column basis (or 1.5D). It includes optimization features to speed up or improve convergence, which are particularly useful in dynamic models of chromospheres. While one should be aware of its limitations, the calculation of spectra using the 1.5D or column-by-column is a good approximation in many cases, and generally allows for faster convergence and more flexible methods of improving convergence. RH 1.5D scales well to at least tens of thousands of CPU cores.
5D Einstein-Maxwell solitons and concentric rotating dipole black rings
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.
2008-09-15
We discuss the application of the solitonic techniques to the 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity. As an illustration we construct a new exact solution describing two concentric rotating dipole black rings. The properties of the solution are investigated.
Validation of a 2.5D CFD model for cylindrical gas–solids fluidized beds
Li, Tingwen
2015-09-25
The 2.5D model recently proposed by Li et al. (Li, T., Benyahia, S., Dietiker, J., Musser, J., and Sun, X., 2015. A 2.5D computational method to simulate cylindrical fluidized beds. Chemical Engineering Science. 123, 236-246.) was validated for two cylindrical gas-solids bubbling fluidized bed systems. Different types of particles tested under various flow conditions were simulated using the traditional 2D model and the 2.5D model. Detailed comparison against the experimental measurements on solid concentration and velocity were conducted. Comparing to the traditional Cartesian 2D flow simulation, the 2.5D model yielded better agreement with the experimental data especially for the solidmore » velocity prediction in the column wall region.« less
Validation of a 2.5D CFD model for cylindrical gas–solids fluidized beds
Li, Tingwen
2015-09-25
The 2.5D model recently proposed by Li et al. (Li, T., Benyahia, S., Dietiker, J., Musser, J., and Sun, X., 2015. A 2.5D computational method to simulate cylindrical fluidized beds. Chemical Engineering Science. 123, 236-246.) was validated for two cylindrical gas-solids bubbling fluidized bed systems. Different types of particles tested under various flow conditions were simulated using the traditional 2D model and the 2.5D model. Detailed comparison against the experimental measurements on solid concentration and velocity were conducted. Comparing to the traditional Cartesian 2D flow simulation, the 2.5D model yielded better agreement with the experimental data especially for the solid velocity prediction in the column wall region.
Chinese Version of the EQ-5D Preference Weights: Applicability in a Chinese General Population
Wu, Chunmei; Gong, Yanhong; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Shengchao; Yin, Xiaoxv; Dong, Xiaoxin; Li, Wenzhen; Cao, Shiyi; Mkandawire, Naomie; Lu, Zuxun
2016-01-01
Objectives This study aimed to test the reliability, validity and sensitivity of Chinese version of the EQ-5D preference weights in Chinese general people, examine the differences between the China value set and the UK, Japan and Korea value sets, and provide methods for evaluating and comparing the EQ-5D value sets of different countries. Methods A random sample of 2984 community residents (15 years or older) were interviewed using a questionnaire including the EQ-5D scale. Level of agreement, convergent validity, known-groups validity and sensitivity of the EQ-5D China, United Kingdom (UK), Japan and Korea value sets were determined. Results The mean EQ-5D index scores were significantly (P<0.05) different among the UK (0.964), Japan (0.981), Korea (0.987), and China (0.985) weights. High level of agreement (intraclass correlations coefficients > 0.75) and convergent validity (Pearson’s correlation coefficients > 0.95) were found between each paired schemes. The EQ-5D index scores discriminated equally well for the four versions between levels of 10 known-groups (P< 0.05). The effect size and the relative efficiency statistics showed that the China weights had better sensitivity. Conclusions The China EQ-5D preference weights show equivalent psychometric properties with those from the UK, Japan and Korea weights while slightly more sensitive to known group differences than those from the Japan and Korea weights. Considering both psychometric and sociocultural issues, the China scheme should be a priority as an EQ-5D based measure of the health related quality of life in Chinese general population. PMID:27711169
Validation of Brunei’s Malay EQ-5D Questionnaire in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Koh, David; Abdullah, Awg Muhammad Khairulamin bin; Wang, Pei; Lin, Naing; Luo, Nan
2016-01-01
Background The Malay spoken in Brunei a South East Asian country where Malay is the national language is distinctive and different from Malay spoken in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. This study aimed to develop a Brunei Malay version of the 5-level EQ-5D questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) and to assess its psychometric properties among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods The Brunei Malay EQ-5D-5L was developed by culturally adapting two existing Malay versions. A total of 154 Bruneians with T2DM completed the questionnaire in two different points of time with one week apart. Known-groups validity of the utility-based EQ-5D-5L index and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was evaluated by comparing subgroups of patients known to differ in health status. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or Cohen’s kappa. Results As hypothesized, patients known to have ‘better’ health had higher EQ-5D-5L index scores than those having ‘worse’ health in all 7 known-groups comparisons. The hypothesized difference in the EQ-VAS scores was observed in only 4 of the 7 known-groups comparisons. Kappa values ranged from 0.206 to 0.446 for the EQ-5D-5L items; the ICC value for the EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-VAS was 0.626 and 0.521, respectively. Conclusions The utility-based EQ-5D-5L index appears to be valid and reliable for measuring the health of Brunei patients with T2DM. The validity of the EQ-VAS in Brunei requires further investigation. PMID:27835652
Fedichev, Petr O; Fischer, Uwe R
2003-12-12
We propose an experimental scheme to observe the Gibbons-Hawking effect in the acoustic analog of a (1+1)-dimensional de Sitter universe, produced in an expanding, cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate. It is shown that a two-level system created at the center of the trap, an atomic quantum dot interacting with phonons, observes a thermal Bose distribution at the de Sitter temperature.
Can The EQ-5D Detect Meaningful Change? A Systematic Review
Payakachat, Nalin; Ali, Mir M.; Tilford, J. Mick
2015-01-01
Background The EQ-5D is one of the most frequently used generic, preference-based instruments for measuring the health utilities of patients in economic evaluations. It is recommended for health technology assessment by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Because the EQ-5D plays such an important role in economic evaluations, useful information on its responsiveness to detect meaningful change in health status is required. Objective This study systematically reviewed and synthesized evidence on the responsiveness of the EQ-5D to detect meaningful change in health status for clinical research and economic evaluations. Methods We searched the EuroQol website, PubMed, PsychINFO, and EconLit databases to identify studies published in English from the inception of the EQ-5D until August 15, 2014 using keywords that were related to responsiveness. Studies that used only the EQ-VAS were excluded from the final analysis. Narrative synthesis was conducted to summarize evidence on the responsiveness of the EQ-5D by conditions or physiological functions. Results Of 1,401 studies, 145 were included in the narrative synthesis and categorized into 19 categories for 56 conditions. The EQ-5D was found to be responsive in 25 conditions (45%) with the magnitude of responsiveness varying from small to large depending on the condition. There was mixed evidence of responsiveness in 27 conditions (48%). Only four conditions (7%) (i.e., alcohol dependency, schizophrenia, limb reconstruction, and hearing impairment) were identified where the EQ-5D was not responsive. Conclusion The EQ-5D is an appropriate measure for economic evaluation and health technology assessment in conditions where it has demonstrated evidence of responsiveness. In conditions with mixed evidence of responsiveness, researchers should consider using the EQ-5D with other condition-specific measures to ensure appropriate estimates of effectiveness. These conditions should be a main focus for
Late-time structure of the Bunch-Davies de Sitter wavefunction
Anninos, Dionysios; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Konstantinidis, George; Anous, Tarek E-mail: tanous@mit.edu E-mail: cgcoss@stanford.edu
2015-11-01
We examine the late time behavior of the Bunch-Davies wavefunction for interacting light fields in a de Sitter background. We use perturbative techniques developed in the framework of AdS/CFT, and analytically continue to compute tree and loop level contributions to the Bunch-Davies wavefunction. We consider self-interacting scalars of general mass, but focus especially on the massless and conformally coupled cases. We show that certain contributions grow logarithmically in conformal time both at tree and loop level. We also consider gauge fields and gravitons. The four-dimensional Fefferman-Graham expansion of classical asymptotically de Sitter solutions is used to show that the wavefunction contains no logarithmic growth in the pure graviton sector at tree level. Finally, assuming a holographic relation between the wavefunction and the partition function of a conformal field theory, we interpret the logarithmic growths in the language of conformal field theory.
Gravitational deflection of light in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time
Bhadra, Arunava; Biswas, Swarnadeep; Sarkar, Kabita
2010-09-15
Recent studies suggest that the cosmological constant affects the gravitational bending of photons, although the orbital equation for light in Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time is free from a cosmological constant. Here we argue that the very notion of a cosmological constant independent of the photon orbit in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time is not proper. Consequently, the cosmological constant has some clear contributions to the deflection angle of light rays. We stress the importance of the study of photon trajectories from the reference objects in bending calculations, particularly for asymptotically nonflat space-time. When such an aspect is taken into consideration, the contribution of a cosmological constant to the effective bending is found to depend on the distances of the source and the reference objects.
Quantum Kalb-Ramond Field in D-Dimensional de Sitter Space-Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alencar, G.; Guedes, I.; Landim, R. R.; Costa Filho, R. N.
2013-03-01
In this work, we investigate the quantum theory of the Kalb-Ramond fields propagating in D-dimensional de Sitter space-times using the dynamic invariant method developed by Lewis and Riesenfeld [J. Math. Phys.10, 1458 (1969)] to obtain the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The wave function is written in terms of a c-number quantity satisfying the Milne-Pinney equation, whose solution can be expressed in terms of two independent solutions of the respective equation of motion. We obtain the exact solution for the quantum Kalb-Ramond field in the de Sitter background and discuss its relation with the Cremmer-Scherk-Kalb-Ramond model.
Restoration of the covariant gauge α in the initial field of gravity in de Sitter spacetime
Cheong, Lee Yen; Yan, Chew Xiao
2014-03-05
The gravitational field generated by a mass term and the initial surface through covariant retarded Green's function for linearized gravity in de Sitter spacetime was studied recently [4, 5] with the covariant gauges set to β = 2/3 and α = 5/3. In this paper we extend the work to restore the gauge parameter α in the field coming from the initial data using the method of shifting the parameter. The α terms in the initial field cancels exactly with the one coming from the source term. Consequently, the correct field configuration, with two equal mass points moving in its geodesic, one located at the North pole and another one located at the South pole, is reproduced in the whole manifold of de Sitter spacetime.
Isometry generators in momentum representation of the Dirac theory on the de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cotăescu, Ion I.; Băltăţeanu, Doru-Marcel
2015-11-01
In this paper, it is shown that the covariant representation (CR) transforming the Dirac field under de Sitter isometries is equivalent to a direct sum of two unitary irreducible representations (UIRs) of the Sp(2, 2) group transforming alike the particle and antiparticle field operators in momentum representation. Their basis generators and Casimir operators are written down for the first time finding that these representations are equivalent to an UIR from the principal series whose canonical labels are determined by the fermion mass and spin. The properties of the conserved observables (i.e. one-particle operators) associated to the de Sitter isometries via Noether theorem and of the corresponding Pauli-Lubanski type operator are also pointed out.
Rain, Hail, and Drip frames of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter Geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finch, Tehani
2017-01-01
Various families of coordinate systems associated with observers moving inwardly along radial geodesics in the Schwarzschild geometry have been constructed by generalizing the Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates. Such observers have categorized as being in the rain frame, a hail frame, or a drip frame, by Taylor and Wheeler. This framework naturally progresses into a search for counterparts of these coordinate systems for the Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) geometry. Consideration of local measurements made by a fiducial observer suggests that the conserved Killing quantity which best fits the designation of ``energy'' in the SdS geometry differs from the one which is typically denoted as such. This leads to Painleve-Gullstrand-style coordinate systems for the SdS geometry that differ from the naïve extrapolations of the Schwarzschild or de Sitter geometries.
Evidence for a bound on the lifetime of de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freivogel, Ben; Lippert, Matthew
2008-12-01
Recent work has suggested a surprising new upper bound on the lifetime of de Sitter vacua in string theory. The bound is parametrically longer than the Hubble time but parametrically shorter than the recurrence time. We investigate whether the bound is satisfied in a particular class of de Sitter solutions, the KKLT vacua. Despite the freedom to make the supersymmetry breaking scale exponentially small, which naively would lead to extremely stable vacua, we find that the lifetime is always less than about exp(1022) Hubble times, in agreement with the proposed bound. This result, however, is contingent on several estimates and assumptions; in particular, we rely on a conjectural upper bound on the Euler number of the Calabi-Yau fourfolds used in KKLT compactifications.
Late-time structure of the Bunch-Davies de Sitter wavefunction
Anninos, Dionysios; Anous, Tarek; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Konstantinidis, George
2015-11-30
We examine the late time behavior of the Bunch-Davies wavefunction for interacting light fields in a de Sitter background. We use perturbative techniques developed in the framework of AdS/CFT, and analytically continue to compute tree and loop level contributions to the Bunch-Davies wavefunction. We consider self-interacting scalars of general mass, but focus especially on the massless and conformally coupled cases. We show that certain contributions grow logarithmically in conformal time both at tree and loop level. We also consider gauge fields and gravitons. The four-dimensional Fefferman-Graham expansion of classical asymptotically de Sitter solutions is used to show that the wavefunction contains no logarithmic growth in the pure graviton sector at tree level. Finally, assuming a holographic relation between the wavefunction and the partition function of a conformal field theory, we interpret the logarithmic growths in the language of conformal field theory.
Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium 1.5D modeling of red giant stars
Young, Mitchell E.; Short, C. Ian
2014-05-20
Spectra for two-dimensional (2D) stars in the 1.5D approximation are created from synthetic spectra of one-dimensional (1D) non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) spherical model atmospheres produced by the PHOENIX code. The 1.5D stars have the spatially averaged Rayleigh-Jeans flux of a K3-4 III star while varying the temperature difference between the two 1D component models (ΔT {sub 1.5D}) and the relative surface area covered. Synthetic observable quantities from the 1.5D stars are fitted with quantities from NLTE and local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) 1D models to assess the errors in inferred T {sub eff} values from assuming horizontal homogeneity and LTE. Five different quantities are fit to determine the T {sub eff} of the 1.5D stars: UBVRI photometric colors, absolute surface flux spectral energy distributions (SEDs), relative SEDs, continuum normalized spectra, and TiO band profiles. In all cases except the TiO band profiles, the inferred T {sub eff} value increases with increasing ΔT {sub 1.5D}. In all cases, the inferred T {sub eff} value from fitting 1D LTE quantities is higher than from fitting 1D NLTE quantities and is approximately constant as a function of ΔT {sub 1.5D} within each case. The difference between LTE and NLTE for the TiO bands is caused indirectly by the NLTE temperature structure of the upper atmosphere, as the bands are computed in LTE. We conclude that the difference between T {sub eff} values derived from NLTE and LTE modeling is relatively insensitive to the degree of the horizontal inhomogeneity of the star being modeled and largely depends on the observable quantity being fit.
Thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: Thermal stability of the Nariai black hole
Myung, Yun Soo
2008-05-15
We study the thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole in five dimensions by introducing two temperatures based on the standard and Bousso-Hawking normalizations. We use the first-law of thermodynamics to derive thermodynamic quantities. The two temperatures indicate that the Nariai black hole is thermodynamically unstable. However, it seems that black hole thermodynamics favors the standard normalization and does not favor the Bousso-Hawking normalization.
Quantum nonthermal effect of the Vaidya-Bonner-de Sitter black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Wei-Zhen; Yang, Xue-Jun; Yu, Guo-Xiang
2014-02-01
Using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of a scalar particle in the curve space-time and a correct-dimension new tortoise coordinate transformation, the quantum nonthermal radiation of the Vaidya-Bonner-de Sitter black hole is investigated. The energy condition for the occurrence of the Starobinsky-Unruh process is obtained. The event horizon surface gravity and the Hawking temperature on the event horizon are also given.
Quantum Radiation of a Non-stationary Kerr Newman Black Hole in de Sitter Space Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Qing-Quan; Yang, Shu-Zheng
2006-12-01
Hawking radiation of Klein-Gordon and Dirac particles in a non-stationary Kerr-Newman-de-Sitter black hole is studied by introducing a new tortoise coordinate transformation. The result shows that the Fermi-Dirac radiant spectrum displays a new term that represents the interaction between the spin of spinor particles and the rotation of black holes, which is absent in the Bose-Einstein distribution of Klein-Gordon particles.
Point splitting renormalization of Schwinger induced current in de Sitter spacetime
Hayashinaka, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Jun’ichi
2016-07-08
The covariant and gauge invariant calculation of the current expectation value in the homogeneous electric field in 1+3 dimensional de Sitter spacetime is shown. The result accords with previous work obtained by using adiabatic subtraction scheme. We therefore conclude the counterintuitive behaviors of the current in the infrared (IR) regime such as IR hyperconductivity and negative current are not artifacts of the renormalization scheme, but are real IR effects of the spacetime.
On the covariant gauge {alpha} of the linearized gravity in de Sitter spacetime
Cheong, Lee Yen
2012-09-26
In previous work, we studied the linearized gravity with covariant gauge {beta}= 2/3 and {alpha}= 5/3. It was found that the sum of the source and initial contributions reproduces the correct field configuration over the whole de Sitter spacetime. In this paper, we extend this work to generalizing the linearized gravitational field in an arbitrary value of the gauge parameter {alpha} but the gauge parameter {beta} remains the same.
Reduce phase space quantization of Ashtekar's gravity on de Sitter background
I. Grigentch; D.V. Vassilevich
1994-05-01
The authors solve perturbative constraints and eliminate gauge freedom for Ashtekar's gravity on de Sitter background. They show that the reduced phase space consists of transverse, traceless, symmetric, fluctuations of the triad and of transverse, traceless, symmetric fluctuations of the connection. A part of gauge freedom corresponding to the conformal Killing vectors of the three-manifold can be fixed only by imposing conditions on Lagrange multiplier. The reduced phase space is equivalent to that of ADM gravity on the same background.
Separability and Killing tensors in Kerr Taub-NUT de Sitter metrics in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chong, Z.-W.; Gibbons, G. W.; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.
2005-03-01
A generalisation of the four-dimensional Kerr-de Sitter metrics to include a NUT charge is well known, and is included within a class of metrics obtained by Plebanski. In this Letter, we study a related class of Kerr-Taub-NUT-de Sitter metrics in arbitrary dimensions D ⩾ 6, which contain three non-trivial continuous parameters, namely the mass, the NUT charge, and a (single) angular momentum. We demonstrate the separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and wave equations, we construct a closely-related rank-2 Stäckel-Killing tensor, and we show how the metrics can be written in a double Kerr-Schild form. Our results encompass the case of the Kerr-de Sitter metrics in arbitrary dimension, with all but one rotation parameter vanishing. Finally, we consider the real Euclidean-signature continuations of the metrics, and show how in a limit they give rise to certain recently-obtained complete non-singular compact Einstein manifolds.
A preferred ground state for the scalar field in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aslanbeigi, S.; Buck, M.
2013-08-01
We investigate a recent proposal for a distinguished vacuum state of a free scalar quantum field in an arbitrarily curved spacetime, known as the Sorkin-Johnston (SJ) vacuum, by applying it to de Sitter space. We derive the associated two-point functions on both the global and Poincaré (cosmological) patches in general d + 1 dimensions. In all cases where it is defined, the SJ vacuum belongs to the family of de Sitter invariant α-vacua. We obtain different states depending on the spacetime dimension, mass of the scalar field, and whether the state is evaluated on the global or Poincaré patch. We find that the SJ vacuum agrees with the Euclidean/Bunch-Davies state for heavy ("principal series") fields on the global patch in even spacetime dimensions. We also compute the SJ vacuum on a causal set corresponding to a causal diamond in 1 + 1 dimensional de Sitter space. Our simulations show that the mean of the SJ two-point function on the causal set agrees well with its expected continuum counterpart.
Dynamics and quantum entanglement of two-level atoms in de Sitter spacetime
Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang
2014-11-15
In the framework of open quantum systems, we study the internal dynamics of both freely falling and static two-level atoms interacting with quantized conformally coupled massless scalar field in de Sitter spacetime. We find that the atomic transition rates depend on both the nature of de Sitter spacetime and the motion of atoms, interestingly the steady states for both cases are always driven to being purely thermal, regardless of the atomic initial states. This thermalization phenomenon is structurally similar to what happens to an elementary quantum system immersed in a thermal field, and thus reveals the thermal nature of de Sitter spacetime. Besides, we find that the thermal baths will drive the entanglement shared by the freely falling atom (the static atom) and its auxiliary partner, a same two-level atom which is isolated from external fields, to being sudden death, and the proper time for the entanglement to be extinguished is computed. We also analyze that such thermalization and disentanglement phenomena, in principle, could be understood from the perspective of table-top simulation experiment.
Huygens' principle for the Klein-Gordon equation in the de Sitter spacetime
Yagdjian, Karen
2013-09-15
In this article we prove that the Klein-Gordon equation in the de Sitter spacetime obeys the Huygens' principle only if the physical mass m of the scalar field and the dimension n⩾ 2 of the spatial variable are tied by the equation m{sup 2}= (n{sup 2}−1)/4. Moreover, we define the incomplete Huygens' principle, which is the Huygens' principle restricted to the vanishing second initial datum, and then reveals that the massless scalar field in the de Sitter spacetime obeys the incomplete Huygens' principle and does not obey the Huygens' principle, for the dimensions n= 1, 3, only. Thus, in the de Sitter spacetime the existence of two different scalar fields (in fact, with m= 0 and m{sup 2}= (n{sup 2}−1)/4), which obey incomplete Huygens' principle, is equivalent to the condition n= 3, the spatial dimension of the physical world. In fact, Paul Ehrenfest in 1917 addressed the question: “Why has our space just three dimensions?”. For n= 3 these two values of the mass are the endpoints of the so-called in quantum field theory the Higuchi bound. The value m{sup 2}= (n{sup 2}−1)/4 of the physical mass allows us also to obtain complete asymptotic expansion of the solution for the large time.
Detecting the Curvature of de Sitter Universe with Two Entangled Atoms
Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang; Dragan, Andrzej
2016-01-01
Casimir-Polder interaction arises from the vacuum fluctuations of quantum field that depend on spacetime curvature and thus is spacetime-dependent. Here we show how to use the resonance Casimir-Polder interaction (RCPI) between two entangled atoms to detect spacetime curvature. We find that the RCPI of two static entangled atoms in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum depends on the de Sitter spacetime curvature relevant to the temperature felt by the static observer. It is characterized by a 1/L2 power law decay when beyond a characteristic length scale associated to the breakdown of a local inertial description of the two-atom system. However, the RCPI of the same setup embedded in a thermal bath in the Minkowski universe is temperature-independent and is always characterized by a 1/L power law decay. Therefore, although a single static atom in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum responds as if it were bathed in thermal radiation in a Minkowski universe, using the distinct difference between RCPI of two entangled atoms one can in principle distinguish these two universes. PMID:27731419
Detecting the Curvature of de Sitter Universe with Two Entangled Atoms.
Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang; Dragan, Andrzej
2016-10-12
Casimir-Polder interaction arises from the vacuum fluctuations of quantum field that depend on spacetime curvature and thus is spacetime-dependent. Here we show how to use the resonance Casimir-Polder interaction (RCPI) between two entangled atoms to detect spacetime curvature. We find that the RCPI of two static entangled atoms in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum depends on the de Sitter spacetime curvature relevant to the temperature felt by the static observer. It is characterized by a 1/L(2) power law decay when beyond a characteristic length scale associated to the breakdown of a local inertial description of the two-atom system. However, the RCPI of the same setup embedded in a thermal bath in the Minkowski universe is temperature-independent and is always characterized by a 1/L power law decay. Therefore, although a single static atom in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum responds as if it were bathed in thermal radiation in a Minkowski universe, using the distinct difference between RCPI of two entangled atoms one can in principle distinguish these two universes.
Axial and polar gravitational wave equations in a de Sitter expanding universe by Laplace transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viaggiu, Stefano
2017-02-01
In this paper we study the propagation in a de Sitter universe of gravitational waves generated by perturbating some unspecified spherical astrophysical object in the frequencies domain. We obtain the axial and polar perturbation equations in a cosmological de Sitter universe in the usual comoving coordinates, the coordinates we occupy in our galaxy. We write down the relevant equations in terms of Laplace transform with respect to the comoving time t instead of the usual Fourier one that is no longer available in a cosmological context. Both axial and polar perturbation equations are expressed in terms of a non trivial mixture of retarded-advanced metric coefficients with respect to the Laplace parameter s (complex translation). The axial case is studied in more detail. In particular, the axial perturbations can be reduced to a master linear second-order differential equation in terms of the Regge–Wheeler function Z where a coupling with a retarded Z with respect to the cosmological time t is present. It is shown that a de Sitter expanding universe can change the frequency ω of a gravitational wave as perceived by a comoving observer. The polar equations are much more involved. Nevertheless, we show that the polar perturbations can also be expressed in terms of four independent integrable differential equations.
Detecting the Curvature of de Sitter Universe with Two Entangled Atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang; Dragan, Andrzej
2016-10-01
Casimir-Polder interaction arises from the vacuum fluctuations of quantum field that depend on spacetime curvature and thus is spacetime-dependent. Here we show how to use the resonance Casimir-Polder interaction (RCPI) between two entangled atoms to detect spacetime curvature. We find that the RCPI of two static entangled atoms in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum depends on the de Sitter spacetime curvature relevant to the temperature felt by the static observer. It is characterized by a 1/L2 power law decay when beyond a characteristic length scale associated to the breakdown of a local inertial description of the two-atom system. However, the RCPI of the same setup embedded in a thermal bath in the Minkowski universe is temperature-independent and is always characterized by a 1/L power law decay. Therefore, although a single static atom in the de Sitter-invariant vacuum responds as if it were bathed in thermal radiation in a Minkowski universe, using the distinct difference between RCPI of two entangled atoms one can in principle distinguish these two universes.
Interplay of 3 d-5 d interactions in high-TC osmium-based double perovskites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, A. E.; Calder, S.; Morrow, R.; Woodward, P. M.; Yan, J. Q.; Winn, B.; Lumsden, M. D.; Christianson, A. D.
2015-03-01
In 3d-5d systems the strongly magnetic 3d orbitals and extended 5d orbitals with enhanced spin-orbit coupling lead to a range of high TC magnetic states and novel behavior not present in systems consisting solely of 3d or 5d ions. The two distinct octahedral sites in double perovskites A2 BB 'O6 allow an ordered 3d-5d structure to form, providing a variety of systems to be investigated. Unravelling the interactions controlling these systems, however, is an open challenge. The highest known TC in such a system, 725K, is found in insulator Sr2CrOsO6. This questions the theory for high-TCs in systems such as TC=400K Sr2FeReO6 which relies on half-metallic behavior. To unravel the nature of the interactions in 3d-5d systems, we have studied the series of compounds Sr2 X OsO6. We have utilized elastic and inelastic neutron scattering to probe the spin states in the systems, and therefore test predictions that the magnetic interactions are controlled by a frustrated AFM Heisenberg model. By studying the series, we are able to relate changes in the spin wave spectrum to dramatic changes in the magnetic order from TN = 95 K antiferromagnetism to TC = 725 K ferrimagnetism.
Hund's Rule-Driven Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction at 3 d -5 d Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belabbes, A.; Bihlmayer, G.; Bechstedt, F.; Blügel, S.; Manchon, A.
2016-12-01
Using relativistic first-principles calculations, we show that the chemical trend of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in 3 d -5 d ultrathin films follows Hund's first rule with a tendency similar to their magnetic moments in either the unsupported 3 d monolayers or 3 d -5 d interfaces. We demonstrate that, besides the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effect in inversion asymmetric noncollinear magnetic systems, the driving force is the 3 d orbital occupations and their spin-flip mixing processes with the spin-orbit active 5 d states control directly the sign and magnitude of the DMI. The magnetic chirality changes are discussed in the light of the interplay between SOC, Hund's first rule, and the crystal-field splitting of d orbitals.
5D Data Modelling: Full Integration of 2D/3D Space, Time and Scale Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Oosterom, Peter; Stoter, Jantien
This paper proposes an approach for data modelling in five dimensions. Apart from three dimensions for geometrical representation and a fourth dimension for time, we identify scale as fifth dimensional characteristic. Considering scale as an extra dimension of geographic information, fully integrated with the other dimensions, is new. Through a formal definition of geographic data in a conceptual 5D continuum, the data can be handled by one integrated approach assuring consistency across scale and time dimensions. Because the approach is new and challenging, we choose to step-wise studying several combinations of the five dimensions, ultimately resulting in the optimal 5D model. We also propose to apply mathematical theories on multidimensional modelling to well established principles of multidimensional modelling in the geo-information domain. The result is a conceptual full partition of the 3Dspace+time+scale space (i.e. no overlaps, no gaps) realised in a 5D data model implemented in a Database Management System.
2.5D Multi-View Gait Recognition Based on Point Cloud Registration
Tang, Jin; Luo, Jian; Tjahjadi, Tardi; Gao, Yan
2014-01-01
This paper presents a method for modeling a 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) human body and extracting the gait features for identifying the human subject. To achieve view-invariant gait recognition, a multi-view synthesizing method based on point cloud registration (MVSM) to generate multi-view training galleries is proposed. The concept of a density and curvature-based Color Gait Curvature Image is introduced to map 2.5D data onto a 2D space to enable data dimension reduction by discrete cosine transform and 2D principle component analysis. Gait recognition is achieved via a 2.5D view-invariant gait recognition method based on point cloud registration. Experimental results on the in-house database captured by a Microsoft Kinect camera show a significant performance gain when using MVSM. PMID:24686727
Dingle and de Sitter Against the Metaphysicians, or Two Ways to Keep Modern Cosmology Physical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gale, George
It would be hard to find two more radically different personalities than the irascible Herbert Dingle and the courtly Willem de Sitter. Yet, when it came to their philosophy of science, these two otherwise-so-different men were united against a common enemy, those they both called the "metaphysicians." Right from 1917, de Sitter attempted always to keep cosmology tightly bound to real observations made upon a real world. In Kosmos, written near the end of his life, he re-affirms most strongly his principle that "there is nothing an orthodox physicist abhors more than metaphysics." Dingle, for his part, accepts early on the positivist use of the verifiability principle to eliminate metaphysics from science, and continuously wields the principle as a weapon against those errant cosmologists who would sacrifice science for a sort of mysticism. Both men reject the strict and literal use of the term "universe," and for the same reasons: there is no observation, no verification, of statements containing that term. Both men reject the "cosmological principle" as Milne and others use it, on the grounds, as de Sitter puts it, that "we have . . . no means of communicating with other observers, situated on faraway stars." Eddington, although always closely associated with de Sitter personally, comes in for his own fine share of criticism. After de Sitter's death, Dingle carried on the battle alone, always on the bases that he and de Sitter had earlier established. The two peaks in Dingle's long struggle were the notorious 1937 controversy in the pages of Nature, a nasty dogfight which managed to involve almost every single important physicist in Britain; thirteen years later, the long war with the metaphysicians ended with the pyrrhic victory of Dingle's Royal Astronomical Society Presidential Address' invective against the latest and greatest metaphysical creation, Bondi's steady state universe theory. In the end, however, it would be a mistake to believe that the campaign
Hawking Radiation of Scalar and Vector Particles from 5D Myers-Perry Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jusufi, Kimet; Övgün, Ali
2017-02-01
In the present paper we explore the Hawking radiation as a quantum tunneling effect from a rotating 5 dimensional Myers-Perry black hole (5D-MPBH) with two independent angular momentum components. First, we investigate the Hawking temperature by considering the tunneling of massive scalar particles and spin-1 vector particles from the 5D-MPBH in the Painlevé coordinates and then in the corotating frames. More specifically, we solve the Klein-Gordon and Proca equations by applying the WKB method and Hamilton-Jacobi equation in both cases. Finally, we recover the Hawking temperature and show that coordinates systems do not affect the Hawking temperature.
Exploring the relation between 4D and 5D BPS solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behrndt, Klaus; Lopes Cardoso, Gabriel; Mahapatra, Swapna
2006-01-01
Based on recent proposals linking four and five-dimensional BPS solutions, we discuss the explicit dictionary between general stationary 4D and 5D supersymmetric solutions in N=2 supergravity theories with cubic prepotentials. All these solutions are completely determined in terms of the same set of harmonic functions and the same set of attractor equations. As an example, we discuss black holes and black rings in Gödel-Taub-NUT spacetime. Then we consider corrections to the 4D solutions associated with more general prepotentials and comment on analogous corrections on the 5D side.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saurer, W.; Seeberger, R.; Weinberger, R.
1997-12-01
As the fourth part in a series of papers on galaxies in the "zone of avoidance" (ZOA) of the Milky Way we present a compilation of 1067 galaxies discovered during a systematic search on Palomar Observatory Sky Survey I (POSS I) red-sensitive prints. The region searched comprises 500 square degrees, at 130d <= l <= 180d, -5d <= b <= +5d. In addition to galactic and equatorial coordinates, we list maximum and minimum optical diameters derived from both the red- and blue-sensitive prints and made cross checks with the IRAS PSC catalogue. An asymmetric distribution of the galaxies with respect to the galactic equator is found and is compared to the locations of optically visible dust clouds and/or the distribution of IR-emitting dust material. There is a pronounced bridge of galaxies across the galactic plane at l ~160d which will be discussed according to recent results on the extension of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
Enhanced spin-phonon-electronic coupling in a 5d oxide
Calder, S.; Lee, J. H.; Stone, M. B.; Lumsden, M. D.; Lang, J. C.; Feygenson, M.; Zhao, Z.; Yan, J.-Q.; Shi, Y. G.; Sun, Y. S.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Yamaura, K.; Christianson, A. D.
2015-01-01
Enhanced coupling of material properties offers new fundamental insights and routes to multifunctional devices. In this context 5d oxides provide new paradigms of cooperative interactions that drive novel emergent behaviour. This is exemplified in osmates that host metal–insulator transitions where magnetic order appears intimately entwined. Here we consider such a material, the 5d perovskite NaOsO3, and observe a coupling between spin and phonon manifested in a frequency shift of 40 cm−1, the largest measured in any material. The anomalous modes are shown to involve solely Os–O interactions and magnetism is revealed as the driving microscopic mechanism for the phonon renormalization. The magnitude of the coupling in NaOsO3 is primarily due to a property common to all 5d materials: the large spatial extent of the ion. This allows magnetism to couple to phonons on an unprecedented scale and in general offers multiple new routes to enhanced coupled phenomena in 5d materials. PMID:26608626
Cold brittleness of corrosion-resistant maraging steel 08Kh15N5D2T
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makhneva, T. M.
2012-03-01
Results of a study of the effect of the method of remelting and of heat treatment modes on the behavior of serial curves of impact toughness and on the position of cold-shortness threshold in steel 08Kh15N5D2T are presented.
Quantitative comparison of 3D and 2.5D gamma analysis: introducing gamma angle histograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sa'd, M. Al; Graham, J.; Liney, G. P.; Moore, C. J.
2013-04-01
Comparison of dose distributions using the 3D gamma method is anticipated to provide better indicators for the quality assurance process than the 2.5D (stacked 2D slice-by-slice) gamma calculation, especially for advanced radiotherapy technologies. This study compares the accuracy of the 3D and 2.5D gamma calculation methods. 3D and 2.5D gamma calculations were carried out on four reference/evaluation 3D dose sample pairs. A number of analysis methods were used, including average gamma and gamma volume histograms. We introduce the concept of gamma-angle histograms. Noise sensitivity tests were also performed using two different noise models. The advantage of the 3D gamma method showed up as a higher proportion of points passing the tolerance criteria of 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance-to-agreement (DTA), with considerably lower average gamma values, a lower influence of the DTA criterion, and a higher noise tolerance. The 3D gamma approach is more reliable than the 2.5D approach in terms of providing comprehensive quantitative results, which are needed in quality assurance procedures for advanced radiotherapy methods.
Alfvén Wave Heating of the Solar Chromosphere: 1.5D Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arber, T. D.; Brady, C. S.; Shelyag, S.
2016-02-01
Physical processes that may lead to solar chromospheric heating are analyzed using high-resolution 1.5D non-ideal MHD modeling. We demonstrate that it is possible to heat the chromospheric plasma by direct resistive dissipation of high-frequency Alfvén waves through Pedersen resistivity. However, this is unlikely to be sufficient to balance radiative and conductive losses unless unrealistic field strengths or photospheric velocities are used. The precise heating profile is determined by the input driving spectrum, since in 1.5D there is no possibility of Alfvén wave turbulence. The inclusion of the Hall term does not affect the heating rates. If plasma compressibility is taken into account, shocks are produced through the ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to slow modes and shock heating dominates the resistive dissipation. In 1.5D shock coalescence amplifies the effects of shocks, and for compressible simulations with realistic driver spectra, the heating rate exceeds that required to match radiative and conductive losses. Thus, while the heating rates for these 1.5D simulations are an overestimate, they do show that ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to sound waves is more important in chromospheric heating than Pedersen dissipation through ion-neutral collisions.
Simulation of Laser Wake Field Acceleration using a 2.5D PIC Code
An, W. M.; Hua, J. F.; Huang, W. H.; Tang, Ch. X.; Lin, Y. Z.
2006-11-27
A 2.5D PIC simulation code is developed to study the LWFA( Laser WakeField Acceleration ). The electron self-injection and the generation of mono-energetic electron beam in LWFA is briefly discussed through the simulation. And the experiment of this year at SILEX-I laser facility is also introduced.
Enhanced spin-phonon-electronic coupling in a 5d oxide
Calder, Stuart A.; Yamaura, K.; Tsujimoto, Y.; ...
2015-11-26
Enhanced coupling of material properties offers new fundamental insights and routes to multifunctional devices. In this context 5d oxides provide new paradigms of cooperative interactions that drive novel emergent behaviour. This is exemplified in osmates that host metal insulator transitions where magnetic order appears intimately entwined. Here we consider such a material, the 5d perovskite NaOsO3, and observe a coupling between spin and phonon manifested in a frequency shift of 40 cm 1, the largest measured in any material. The anomalous modes are shown to involve solely Os O interactions and magnetism is revealed as the driving microscopic mechanism formore » the phonon renormalization. The magnitude of the coupling in NaOsO3 is primarily due to a property common to all 5d materials: the large spatial extent of the ion. This allows magnetism to couple to phonons on an unprecedented scale and in general offers multiple new routes to enhanced coupled phenomena in 5d materials.« less
Geoelectric Characterization of Thermal Water Aquifers Using 2.5D Inversion of VES Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyulai, Á.; Szűcs, P.; Turai, E.; Baracza, M. K.; Fejes, Z.
2017-03-01
This paper presents a short theoretical summary of the series expansion-based 2.5D combined geoelectric weighted inversion (CGWI) method and highlights the advantageous way with which the number of unknowns can be decreased due to the simultaneous characteristic of this inversion. 2.5D CGWI is an approximate inversion method for the determination of 3D structures, which uses the joint 2D forward modeling of dip and strike direction data. In the inversion procedure, the Steiner's most frequent value method is applied to the automatic separation of dip and strike direction data and outliers. The workflow of inversion and its practical application are presented in the study. For conventional vertical electrical sounding (VES) measurements, this method can determine the parameters of complex structures more accurately than the single inversion method. Field data show that the 2.5D CGWI which was developed can determine the optimal location for drilling an exploratory thermal water prospecting well. The novelty of this research is that the measured VES data in dip and strike direction are jointly inverted by the 2.5D CGWI method.
The existence of Newtonian analogs of a class of 5D Wesson's cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waga, I.
1992-07-01
The conditions for the existence of Newtonian analogs of a five dimensional (5D) generalization of the Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological models in Wesson's gravitational theory are re-analyzed. Contrarily to other claims, we show that classical analogs can be obtained for non-null cosmological constant and negative or null spatial curvature.
Enhanced spin-phonon-electronic coupling in a 5d oxide
Calder, Stuart A.; Yamaura, K.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Sun, Y. S.; Stone, Matthew B.; Shi, Y. G.; Lang, Jonathan; Christianson, Andrew D.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lee, Jun Hee; Feygenson, Mikhail; Zhao, Zhiying; Yan, Jiaqiang
2015-11-26
Enhanced coupling of material properties offers new fundamental insights and routes to multifunctional devices. In this context 5d oxides provide new paradigms of cooperative interactions that drive novel emergent behaviour. This is exemplified in osmates that host metal insulator transitions where magnetic order appears intimately entwined. Here we consider such a material, the 5d perovskite NaOsO_{3}, and observe a coupling between spin and phonon manifested in a frequency shift of 40 cm 1, the largest measured in any material. The anomalous modes are shown to involve solely Os O interactions and magnetism is revealed as the driving microscopic mechanism for the phonon renormalization. The magnitude of the coupling in NaOsO_{3} is primarily due to a property common to all 5d materials: the large spatial extent of the ion. This allows magnetism to couple to phonons on an unprecedented scale and in general offers multiple new routes to enhanced coupled phenomena in 5d materials.
Automation of Scientific Modeling and Visualization Using Model5D and ModelPOV Software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artemov, Yuri; Schwartz, Brian
2000-03-01
When scientists try to visualize complex phenomena, they often choose to do programming on their own. Although such powerful packages as Mathematica or Matlab are convenient in small to medium size simulations, they do not perform well in massive 3D computations, and they have very limited ability of volume rendering and animation of 3D data. Such programs as Bob and Vis5D are specifically tailored to visualization of volume data. However, learning data file formats of these programs is time consuming and error prone task. In this report we present Model5D software, which greatly simplifies the process of calculation of scalar multi-variable time-dependent 3D data and its preparation for visualization in Bob or Vis5D. Numerical model of any kind intended for calculation on a regular 3D grid can be implemented as an 'engine' (dynamic link library, actually performing calculation) and a 'model' (collection of parameters, etc.). Engine and model are implemented as small modules, which can be easily exchanged over the Internet. The model functionality is incorporated into engine by using the templates provided and a C++ compiler. The calculations can be performed in a batch mode. ModelPOV, which prepares data for popular ray tracer POV-Ray, is to Model5D as vector graphics to bitmapped graphics. ModelPOV is especially useful for visualization of large number of particles. Example of using these tools for visualization of vortices in superconductors is discussed.
Geoelectric Characterization of Thermal Water Aquifers Using 2.5D Inversion of VES Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gyulai, Á.; Szűcs, P.; Turai, E.; Baracza, M. K.; Fejes, Z.
2016-11-01
This paper presents a short theoretical summary of the series expansion-based 2.5D combined geoelectric weighted inversion (CGWI) method and highlights the advantageous way with which the number of unknowns can be decreased due to the simultaneous characteristic of this inversion. 2.5D CGWI is an approximate inversion method for the determination of 3D structures, which uses the joint 2D forward modeling of dip and strike direction data. In the inversion procedure, the Steiner's most frequent value method is applied to the automatic separation of dip and strike direction data and outliers. The workflow of inversion and its practical application are presented in the study. For conventional vertical electrical sounding (VES) measurements, this method can determine the parameters of complex structures more accurately than the single inversion method. Field data show that the 2.5D CGWI which was developed can determine the optimal location for drilling an exploratory thermal water prospecting well. The novelty of this research is that the measured VES data in dip and strike direction are jointly inverted by the 2.5D CGWI method.
ALFVÉN WAVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE: 1.5D MODELS
Arber, T. D.; Brady, C. S.; Shelyag, S.
2016-02-01
Physical processes that may lead to solar chromospheric heating are analyzed using high-resolution 1.5D non-ideal MHD modeling. We demonstrate that it is possible to heat the chromospheric plasma by direct resistive dissipation of high-frequency Alfvén waves through Pedersen resistivity. However, this is unlikely to be sufficient to balance radiative and conductive losses unless unrealistic field strengths or photospheric velocities are used. The precise heating profile is determined by the input driving spectrum, since in 1.5D there is no possibility of Alfvén wave turbulence. The inclusion of the Hall term does not affect the heating rates. If plasma compressibility is taken into account, shocks are produced through the ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to slow modes and shock heating dominates the resistive dissipation. In 1.5D shock coalescence amplifies the effects of shocks, and for compressible simulations with realistic driver spectra, the heating rate exceeds that required to match radiative and conductive losses. Thus, while the heating rates for these 1.5D simulations are an overestimate, they do show that ponderomotive coupling of Alfvén waves to sound waves is more important in chromospheric heating than Pedersen dissipation through ion–neutral collisions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pîrghie, Ana-Camelia; Dariescu, Ciprian; Dariescu, Marina-Aura
2010-01-01
Projecting the closed form expression of the de Sitter scalar field operator onto the Minkowskian positive frequency massless modes, we compute the corresponding Bogolubov coefficient which is associated to the (massless) quasiparticle creation during the stationary quasi-de Sitter stage of the Universe. Thereafter, we derive the expression of the thermalized energy density which reveals an interesting mixture of de Sitter false vacuum and dark-radiation, exotic dust and black body radiation. Setting the temperature to the value of the Hawking one for the de Sitter spacetime, we finally analyze the (straightforward) back-reaction of the newly created “matter” on the scale function. It basically points out three stages of highly continuous evolution represented by an initially short radiation-like era, a somewhat long-lasting connecting phase made of coherent massless oscillations, in its beginnings, ended up by the dark-radiation (i.e. curvature-like term) contribution and, finally, a much slower exponential expansion than the initial de Sitter one.
Comparison of SF-6D and EQ-5D Scores in Patients With Breast Cancer
Yousefi, Mahmood; Najafi, Safa; Ghaffari, Shahram; Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Ghaderi, Hossein
2016-01-01
Background Utility values are a key component of a cost-utility analysis. The EQ-5D and SF-6D are two commonly used measures for deriving utilities. Of particular importance is assessing the performance of these instruments in terms of validity. Objectives This study aimed to compare the performance of the EQ-5D and the SF-6D in different states of breast cancer. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 163 patients with breast cancer who attended the breast cancer subspecialty clinic affiliated with the breast cancer research center (BCRC) at ACECR, in Tehran, Iran, and were consecutively recruited. Patients completed several questionnaires, including the EQ-5D, SF-36, and general questions regarding their demographic characteristics. Utility values for different states of breast cancer were obtained using predetermined algorithms for the EQ-5D and SF-6D. The distribution of the utility values and the differences between the different states for both instruments were statistically assessed. Furthermore, the agreement between the two instruments was evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Results The mean and median EQ-5D utility scores for the total sample were 0.685 and 0.761, respectively. The mean SF-6D utility score for the total sample was 0.653, and the median utility score was 0.640. The mean utility values of the EQ-5D for “state P,” “state R,” “state S,” and “state M” were estimated as 0.674, 0.718, 0.730, and 0.552, respectively. The SF-6D provided mean utility values of 0.638, 0.677, 0.681, and 0.587 for those states. Both instruments assigned statistically significant (P < 0.01) scores for different states. The intra-class correlation for the two measures was 0.677 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.558 - 0.764). The Bland-Altman plot indicated a better agreement on the higher values and that at higher values, the EQ-5D yields a higher score than the SF-6D; this relationship was
On a boundary-localized Higgs boson in 5D theories.
Barceló, Roberto; Mitra, Subhadip; Moreau, Grégory
In the context of a simple five-dimensional (5D) model with bulk matter coupled to a brane-localized Higgs boson, we point out a non-commutativity in the 4D calculation of the mass spectrum for excited fermion towers: the obtained expression depends on the choice in ordering the limits, [Formula: see text] (infinite Kaluza-Klein tower) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text] being the parameter introduced for regularizing the Higgs Dirac peak). This introduces the question of which one is the correct order; we then show that the two possible orders of regularization (called I and II) are experimentally equivalent, as both can typically reproduce the measured observables, but that the one with less degrees of freedom (I) could be uniquely excluded by future experimental constraints. This conclusion is based on the exact matching between the 4D and 5D analytical calculations of the mass spectrum - via regularizations of type I and II. Beyond a deeper insight into the Higgs peak regularizations, this matching brings another confirmation of the validity of the 5D mixed formalism. All the conclusions, deduced from regularizing the Higgs peak through a brane shift or a smoothed square profile, are expected to remain similar in realistic models with a warped extra-dimension. The complementary result of the study is that the non-commutativity disappears, both in the 4D and the 5D calculations, in the presence of higher order derivative operators. For clarity, the 4D and 5D analytical calculations, matching with each other, are presented in the first part of the paper, while the second part is devoted to the interpretation of the results.
Perturbative Quantum Gravity and Yang-Mills Theories in de Sitter Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faizal, Mir
2011-05-01
This thesis consists of three parts. In the first part we review the quantization of Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in curved spacetime. In the second part we calculate the Feynman propagators of the Faddeev-Popov ghosts for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge. In the third part we investigate the physical equivalence of covariant Wightman graviton two-point function with the physical graviton two-point function. The Feynman propagators of the Faddeev-Popov ghosts for Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity in the covariant gauge are infrared (IR) divergent in de Sitter spacetime. We point out, that if we regularize these divergences by introducing a finite mass and take the zero mass limit at the end, then the modes responsible for these divergences will not contribute to loop diagrams in computations of time-ordered products in either Yang-Mills theories or perturbative quantum gravity. We thus find effective Feynman propagators for ghosts in Yang-Mills theories and perturbative quantum gravity by subtracting out these divergent modes. It is known that the covariant graviton two-point function in de Sitter spacetime is infrared divergent for some choices of gauge parameters. On the other hand it is also known that there are no infrared problems for the physical graviton two-point function obtained by fixing all gauge degrees of freedom, in global coordinates. We show that the covariant Wightman graviton two-point function is equivalent to the physical one in the sense that they result in the same two-point function of any local gauge-invariant quantity. Thus any infrared divergence in the Wightman graviton two-point function in de Sitter spacetime can only be an gauge artefact.
Thermodynamic analysis of universes with the initial and final de Sitter eras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moradpour, H.; Sabet, M. T. Mohammadi; Ghasemi, A.
2015-08-01
Our aim is studying the thermodynamics of cosmological models including initial and final de Sitter eras. For this propose, bearing Cai-Kim temperature in mind, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of a dark energy (DE) candidate with variable energy density, and show that the state parameter of this dark energy candidate (ωD) should obey the ωD≠ - 1 constraint, whiles there is no interaction between the fluids filled the universe, and the universe is not in the de Sitter eras. Additionally, based on the thermal fluctuation theory, we study the possibility of inducing fluctuations to the entropy of the DE candidate due to a mutual interaction between the cosmos sectors. Therefore, we find a relation between the thermal fluctuations and the mutual interaction between the cosmos sectors, whiles the DE candidate has a varying energy density. Finally, bearing the coincidence problem in mind, we derive a constraint on the vacuum energy, and investigate its relation with the entropy evolution of the DE candidate. We also point to a model with initial and final de Sitter eras in which a gravitationally induced particle production process leads to change the expansion eras, whiles the corresponding pressure is considered as the cause of current accelerated phase. We study its thermodynamics, and show that such processes may also leave thermal fluctuations into the system. We also find an expression between the thermal fluctuations and the particle production rate. Finally, we use Hayward-Kodama temperature to get a relation for the horizon entropy in models including the gravitationally induced particle production process. Our study shows that the first law of thermodynamics is available on the apparent horizon whiles, the gravitationally induced particle production process, as the DE candidate, may add an additional term to the Bekenstein limit of the horizon. The relation between the validity of the second law of thermodynamics and the gravitationally particle
Reissner—Nordström-de—Sitter-type Solution by a Gauge Theory of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enache, V.; Camelia, Popa; Păun, V.; Agop, M.
2008-10-01
We use the theory based on a gravitational gauge group (Wu's model) to obtain a spherical symmetric solution of the Geld equations for the gravitational potential on a Minkowski spacetime. The gauge group, the gauge covariant derivative, the strength tensor of the gauge Held, the gauge invariant Lagrangean with the cosmological constant, the Geld equations of the gauge potentials with a gravitational energy-momentum tensor as well as with a tensor of the Geld of a point like source are determined. Finally, a Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter-type metric on the gauge group space is obtained.
Exact gravitational lensing in conformal gravity and Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Yen-Kheng; Wang, Qing-hai
2017-01-01
An exact solution is obtained for the gravitational bending of light in static, spherically symmetric metrics which includes the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime and also the Mannheim-Kazanas metric of conformal Weyl gravity. From the exact solution, we obtain a small-bending-angle approximation for a lens system where the source, lens, and observer are coaligned. This expansion improves previous calculations where we systematically avoid parameter ranges that correspond to nonexistent null trajectories. The linear coefficient γ characteristic to conformal gravity is shown to contribute enhanced deflection compared to the angle predicted by general relativity for small γ .
Comment on "Fermion production in a magnetic field in a de Sitter universe"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolaevici, Nistor; Farkas, Attila
2017-02-01
We point out that the transition probabilities used in a recent perturbative calculation of pair creation in an external magnetic field in the expanding de Sitter space with the in and out fermion states defined by the Bunch-Davies modes [C. Crucean and M. A. Baloi, Phys. Rev. D 93, 044070 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.044070] are gauge-dependent quantities. We examine the gauge variations of these amplitudes assuming a decoupling of the interaction at infinite times, which allows us to conclude that the source of the problem lies in the nonoscillatory behavior of the fermion current in the infinite future.
New tortoise coordinate transformation and Hawking's radiation in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibohal, N.; Ibungochouba, T.
2013-01-01
Hawking's radiation effect of Klein-Gordon equation, Dirac particles and Maxwell's electromagnetic fields in the non-stationary rotating de Sitter cosmological space-time is investigated by using a new method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation. It is found that the new transformation produces constant additional terms in the expressions of the surface gravities and the Hawking's temperatures. If the constant terms are set to zero, then the surface gravities and Hawking's temperatures will be equal to those obtained from the old generalized tortoise coordinate transformations. This shows that the new transformations are more reasonable. The Fermionic spectrum of Dirac particles displays a new spin-rotation coupling effect.
Hawking radiation of a Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ren; Zhang, Li-Chun; Li, Huai-Fan
2010-04-01
Generalizing the method proposed by Damour-Ruffini, we discuss Hawking radiation of a Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter (RNdS) black hole. Under the condition that total energy and charge are conserved, taking the reaction of the radiation of particles to the spacetime into consideration and considering the interrelation between the event horizon and cosmological horizon, we investigate radiation spectrum of RNdS spacetime by a new Tortoise coordinate transformation. This radiation spectrum is no longer a purely thermal spectrum. It is related to the changes in the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy corresponding the event horizon and cosmological horizon. The result satisfies the unitary principle.
Spinor Field at the Phase Transition Point of Reissner-Nordström de Sitter Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyu, Yan; Zhang, Li-Qing; Zheng, Wei; Pan, Qing-Chao
2010-08-01
The radial parts of Dirac equation between the outer black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon are solved in Reissner-Nordström de Sitter (RNdS) space when it is at the phase transition point. We use an accurate polynomial approximation to approximate the modified tortoise coordinate hat{r}_{*} in order to get the inverse function r=r(hat{r}_{*}) and the potential V(hat{r}_{*}). Then we use a quantum mechanical method to solve the wave equation numerically. We consider two cases, one is when the two horizons are lying close to each other, the other is when the two horizons are widely separated.
Real scalar field scattering in the nearly extremal Schwarzschild—de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Guang-Hai
2010-11-01
Reasonable approximations are introduced to investigate the real scalar field scattering in the nearly extremal Schwarzschild—de Sitter (SdS) space. The approximations naturally lead to the invertible x(r) and the global replacement of the true potential by a Pöshl—Teller one. Meanwhile, the Schrödinger-like wave equation is transformed into a solvable form. Our numerical solutions to the wave equation show that the wave is characteristically similar to the harmonic under the tortoise coordinate x, while the wave piles up near the two horizons and the wavelength tends to its maximum as the potential approaches to the peak under the radial coordinate r.
Solution of Dirac equation in Reissner-Nordström de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyu, Yan; Cui, Song
2009-02-01
The radial parts of the Dirac equation between the outer black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon are solved in Reissner-Nordström de Sitter (RNdS) space numerically. An accurate approximation, the polynomial approximation, is used to approximate the modified tortoise coordinate \\hat r_* , which leads to the inverse function r = r(\\hat r_* ) and the potential V(\\hat r_* ). The potential V(\\hat r_* ) is replaced by a collection of step functions in sequence. Then the solution of the wave equation as well as the reflection and transmission coefficients is computed by a quantum mechanical method.
On Fayet-Iliopoulos Terms and de Sitter Vacua in Supergravity: Some Easy Pieces
Catino, Francesca; Villadoro, Giovanni; Zwirner, Fabio; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua
2012-03-27
We clarify a number of issues on Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) terms in supergravity, keeping the formalism at a minimum and making use of explicit examples. We explain why, if the U(1) vector is massive everywhere in field space, FI terms are not genuine and can always be redefined away or introduced when they are not present. We formulate a simple anomaly-free model with a genuine FI term, a classically stable de Sitter (dS) vacuum and no global symmetries. We explore the relation between N = 2 and N = 1 FI terms by discussing N = 1 truncations of N = 2 models with classically stable dS vacua.
The algebra of supertraces for 2+1 super de Sitter gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Urrutia, L. F.; Waelbroeck, H.; Zertuche, F.
1993-01-01
The algebra of the observables for 2+1 super de Sitter gravity, for one genus of the spatial surface is calculated. The algebra turns out to be an infinite Lie algebra subject to non-linear constraints. The constraints are solved explicitly in terms of five independent complex supertraces. These variables are the true degrees of freedom of the system and their quantized algebra generates a new structure which is referred to as a 'central extension' of the quantum algebra SU(2)q.
Cosmology in Scalar-Tensor Theory and Asymptotically de Sitter Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, A. A.; Sen, S.
We have investigated the cosmological scenarios with a four-dimensional effective action which is connected with multidimensional, supergravity and string theories. The solution for the scale factor is such that initially universe undergoes a decelerated expansion but in late times it enters into the accelerated expansion phase. In fact, it asymptotically becomes a de Sitter universe. The dilaton field in our model is a decreasing function of time and it becomes a constant in late time resulting the exit from the scalar-tensor theory to the standard Einstein's gravity. Also the dilaton field results in the existence of a positive cosmological constant in late times.
Entropy of Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Meng-Sen
2016-10-01
Based on the consideration that the black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon of Reissner-Nordström black hole in de Sitter space are not independent each other, we conjecture the total entropy of the system should have an extra term contributed from the entanglement between the two horizons, except for the sum of the two horizon entropies. Making use of the globally effective first law and the effective thermodynamic quantities, we derive the total entropy and find that it will diverge as the two horizons tend to coincide.
Attracted to de Sitter II: cosmology of the shift-symmetric Horndeski models
Martín-Moruno, Prado; Nunes, Nelson J. E-mail: njnunes@fc.ul.pt
2015-09-01
Horndeski models with a de Sitter critical point for any kind of material content may provide a mechanism to alleviate the cosmological constant problem. Moreover, they could allow us to understand the current accelerated expansion of the universe as the result of the dynamical approach to the critical point when it is an attractor. We show that this critical point is indeed an attractor for the shift-symmetric subfamily of models with these characteristics. We study the cosmological scenario that results when considering radiation and matter content, and conclude that their background dynamics is compatible with the latest observational data.
Symmetron and de Sitter attractor in a teleparallel model of cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohseni Sadjadi, H.
2017-01-01
In the teleparallel framework of cosmology, a quintessence with non-minimal couplings to the scalar torsion and a boundary term is considered. A conformal coupling to matter density is also taken into account. It is shown that the model can describe onset of cosmic acceleration after an epoch of matter dominated era, where dark energy is negligible, via Z2 symmetry breaking. While the conformal coupling holds the Universe in a state with zero dark energy density in the early epoch, the non-minimal couplings lead the Universe to a stable state with de Sitter expansion at late time.
Measurement of the de Sitter precession of the moon - A relativistic three-body effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shapiro, I. I.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Chandler, J. F.; Babcock, R. W.
1988-01-01
Lunar laser-ranging data, accumulated between 1970 and 1986, are analyzed to estimate the deviation of the precession of the moon's orbit from the predictions of general relativity. No deviation from this predicted de Sitter precession rate of nearly 2 angular sec per century (sec/cy) is found, to within an estimated standard error of 0.04 sec/cy. This standard error, 2 percent of the predicted effect, incorporates an assessment of the likely contributions of systematic errors, and is about threefold larger than the statistical standard error.
One loop graviton self-energy in a locally de Sitter background
tSAMIS, n.c. |; Woodard, R.P.
1996-02-01
The graviton tadpole has recently been computed at two loops in a locally de Sitter background. We apply intermediate results of this work to exhibit the graviton self-energy at one loop. This quantity is interesting both to check the accuracy of the first calculation and to understand the relaxation effect it reveals. In the former context we show that the self-energy obeys the appropriate Ward identity. We also show that its flat space limit agrees with the flat space result obtained by Capper in what should be the same gauge. 15 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.
Mode analysis and Ward identities for perturbative quantum gravity in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.
1992-10-01
We study linearized gravitons on the D-dimensional open submanifold spanned by de Sitter conformal coordinates. The physical modes are found in the same way as for flat space by imposing exact gauge conditions on the invariant field equations and then exploiting the residual gauge freedom of solutions. The resulting polatization tensors have vanishing zero components and are transverse and traceless, just as in flat space. We also show that vacua exist such that the ghost and graviton propagators obey the Ward identity relating them.
Mode analysis and Ward identities for perturbative quantum gravity in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.
1992-06-01
We study linearized gravitons on the D-dimensional open submanifold spanned by de Sitter conformal coordinates. The physical modes are found in the same way as for flat space by imposing exact gauge conditions on the invariant field equations and then exploiting the residual gauge freedom of solutions. The resulting polarization tensors have vanishing zero components and are transverse and traceless, just as in flat space. We also show that vacua exist such that the ghost and graviton propagators obey the Ward identity relating them.
Rotating black hole in asymptotic de Sitter space: Perturbation of the space-time with spin fields
Khanal, U.
1983-09-15
The Newman-Penrose formalism is used to work with gravitational, electromagnetic, and Dirac field perturbations of the Kerr--de Sitter space. It is shown that the resulting equations are separable, and the radial parts (for the massless fields) combine into a master equation resembling that of Teukolsky. This master equation includes the Teukolsky equation and the equation arising from the de Sitter--Schwarzschild universe, and can be reduced to these cases under appropriate limiting conditions. Finally, the radial parts of the electromagnetic and neutrino fields are transformed to the form of the one-dimensional barrier-penetration equation.
Optimal design analysis for thermal performance of high power 2.5D package
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiaoyang, Liu; He, Ma; Daquan, Yu; Wenlu, Chen; Xiaolong, Wu
2016-03-01
Based on ANSYS and Icepak softwares, the numerical analysis method is used to build up the thermal analysis model of the 2.5D package, which contains a high power CPU chip. The focus of the research is on the determination of the contributing factors and their effects on the thermal resistance and heat distribution of the package. The parametric analysis illustrates that the substrate conductivity, TIM conductivity and fin height are more crucial for heat conduction in the package. Furthermore, these major parameters are compared and analyzed by orthogonal tests, and the optimal solution for 2.5D integration is proposed. The factors' influence patterns on thermal resistance, obtained in this article, could be utilized as a thermal design reference. Project supported by the National S & T Major Projects (No. 2011ZX02709-2) and the China National Science Foundation (No. 61176098).
Status of the 5D gyrokinetic code COGENT and its initial applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wonjae; Dorf, M.; Dorr, M.; Cohen, R.; Ghosh, D.; Rognlien, T.; Hittinger, J.; Umansky, M.; Krasheninnikov, S.
2016-10-01
We report recent progress with the development of the 5D (3D configuration and 2D velocity space) version of the full-f continuum gyrokinetic code COGENT. The original 2D configuration space has been successfully extended to 3D, with the Cartesian (slab) geometry chosen for verification and initial applications. The code has been successfully verified with drift-wave simulations including drift-kinetic equations for both electrons and ions coupled to the long-wavelength limit of the Gyro-Poisson equation. The initial application of the 5D COGENT is focused on addressing kinetic effects of drift-wave instabilities (e.g., universal instability) on blob dynamics in tokamak edge plasmas. Work performed for USDOE, at UCSD under Grants DE-FG02-04ER54739 and DE-SC0010413, and at LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and under Livermore Graduate Scholar Program.
Area functional relation for 5D-Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradhan, Parthapratim
2016-08-01
We present area (or entropy) functional relation for multi-horizons five dimensional (5D) Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole. It has been observed by exact and explicit calculation that some complicated function of two or three horizons area is mass-independent whereas the entropy product relation is not mass-independent. We also study the local thermodynamic stability of this black hole. The phase transition occurs at certain condition. Smarr mass formula and first law of thermodynamics have been derived. This mass-independent relation suggests they could turn out to be an universal quantity and further helps us to understanding the nature of black hole entropy (both interior and exterior) at the microscopic level. In the "Appendix", we have derived the thermodynamic products for 5D Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet black hole with vanishing cosmological constant.
First principles calculations of mechanical properties of cubic 5d transition metal monocarbides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jun; Gao, Faming
2012-09-01
The electronic and elastic properties of cubic 5d transition metal monocarbides in rocksalt, cesium chloride, and zinc blende structures have been studied by first principles calculations. The calculations show that the incompressibility for ReC in cesium chloride structure is even higher than that of diamond under pressure (above 89 GPa). The transformation pressure from zinc blende structure to rocksalt structure takes place at about 47 GPa for PtC. HfC-NaCl, ReC-CsCl, and HfC-ZnS have the smallest metallicity, leading to higher hardness. A valence electron number of 8/cell may be a stable valence shell configuration for 5d transition metal monocarbides in rocksalt and zinc blende structures.
[Contribution for the validation of the Portuguese version of EQ-5D].
Ferreira, Pedro Lopes; Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Pereira, Luis Nobre
2013-01-01
Introdução: O EQ-5D permite a junção de duas componentes essenciais de qualquer medida de qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde a ser usada em avaliações económicas de custo-utilidade: (i) um perfil descrevendo o estado de saúde em termos de domínios ou dimensões; e (ii) um valor numérico associado ao estado de saúde anteriormente descrito.Objectivo: A versão portuguesa do questionário EQ-5D foi finalizada em 1998, com base em normas de orientação definidas pelo Grupo EuroQol, incluindo os procedimentos de tradução e retroversão. Apesar da sua larga utilização em Portugal, até agora ainda não tinham sido publicados os estudos que conduziram inicialmente à versão portuguesa e à garantia de aceitabilidade, fiabilidade e validade. O propósito do presente artigo é, assim, documentar estes primeiros valores referentes à versão portuguesa do EQ-5D.Material e Métodos: Foram utilizadas três amostras diferentes: uma primeira com 1.500 indivíduos representativa da populaçãoportuguesa; uma segunda com 140 indivíduos apenas destinada ao teste da fiabilidade; e uma terceira amostra com 643 indivíduos doentes com cataratas, asma, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica ou artrite reumatoide.Resultados: A aceitabilidade foi avaliada pelo número de respostas em falta. Foi também encontrado um marcado efeito de teto com grande parte da amostra a não reportar quaisquer problemas nas dimensões do EQ-5D.Discussão: A validade de construção foi testada pela análise do grau com que valores baixos de EQ-5D estavam positivamente associados ao aumento da idade, ao ser do sexo feminino, e ao estar doente, assim como a valores de dimensões da escala SF-36v2. A validade convergente foi baseada nas correlações entre valores do EQ-5D e outras escalas específicas de condição de saúde. O EQ-5D apresentou correlações moderadas a altas com outras medidas de estado de saúde e de qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde, específicas de cada
NORMATIVE VALUES OF EQ-5D-5L FOR DIABETES PATIENTS FROM SPAIN.
Collado Mateo, Daniel; García Gordillo, Miguel A; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C
2015-10-01
Introducción: la diabetes es una enfermedad metabólica que puede conllevar una reducción de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. El EQ-5D es un cuestionario genérico de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud basado en preferencias sociales. Este cuestionario ha sido muy utilizado en pacientes con diabetes. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente artículo es informar sobre los valores normativos del cuestionario EQ-5D-5L en personas españolas con diabetes. Métodos: se utilizaron datos de la Encuesta Española de Salud (2011/2012). Un total de 1.857 personas con diabetes participaron en la encuesta. La puntuación del EQ-5D-5L se ha reflejado en función del sexo, región (incluyendo las 17 comunidades autónomas y las 2 ciudades autónomas de España), y 8 grupos de edad. Resultados: la media del índice de utilidad para toda la muestra fue de 0,742. Esta fue mejor para hombres (0,826) que para mujeres (0,673). Resultados similares se observaron en la Escala Visual Analógica. El efecto techo fue mucho mayor en hombres (44,83%) que en mujeres (24,41%). Conclusiones: el presente estudio recoge datos normativos representativos del EQ-5D-5L en España de personas con diabetes.
On the Relation Between BPS Solutions in 4d and 5D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behrndt, Klaus; Cardoso, Gabriel Lopes; Mahapatra, Swapna
We discuss the explicit dictionary between general stationary four- and five-dimensional supersymmetric solutions in N = 2 supergravity theories with cubic prepotentials. All these solutions are completely determined in terms of the same set of harmonic functions and attractor equations. We discuss various examples like black holes and black rings in Taub-NUT space-time. Then we consider corrections to the four-dimensional solutions associated with more general prepotentials and comment on analogous corrections on the 5D side.
Evidence from Lake Baikal for Siberian glaciation during oxygen-isotope substage 5d
Karabanov, E.B.; Prokopenko, A.A.; Williams, D.F.; Colman, Steven M.
1998-01-01
The paleoclimatic record from bottom sediments of Lake Baikal (eastern Siberia) reveals new evidence for an abrupt and intense glaciation during the initial part of the last interglacial period (isotope substage 5d). This glaciation lasted about 12 000 yr from 117 000 to 105 000 yr BP according to correlation with the SPEC-MAP isotope chronology. Lithological and biogeochemical evidence of glaciation from Lake Baikal agrees with evidence for the advance of ice sheet in northwestern Siberia during this time period and also with cryogenic features within the strata of Kazantzevo soils in Southern Siberia. The severe 5d glaciation in Siberia was caused by dramatic cooling due to the decrease in solar insolation (as predicted by the model of insulation changes for northern Asia according to Milankovich theory) coupled with western atmospheric transport of moisture from the opea areas of Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas (which became ice-free due to the intense warming during preceeding isotope substage 5e). Other marine and continental records show evidence for cooling during 5d, but not for intense glaciation. Late Pleistocene glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere may have begun in northwestern Siberia.
Use of 2.5-D and 3-D technology to evaluate control room upgrades
Hanes, L. F.; Naser, J.
2006-07-01
This paper describes an Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI) study in which 2.5-D and 3-D visualization technology was applied to evaluate the design of a nuclear power plant control room upgrade. The study involved converting 3-D CAD flies of a planned upgrade into a photo-realistic appearing virtual model, and evaluating the value and usefulness of the model. Nuclear utility and EPRI evaluators viewed and interacted with the control room virtual model with both 2.5-D and 3-D representations. They identified how control room and similar virtual models may be used by utilities for design and evaluation purposes; assessed potential economic and other benefits; and identified limitations, potential problems, and other issues regarding use of visualization technology for this and similar applications. In addition, the Halden CREATE (Control Room Engineering Advanced Tool-kit Environment) Verification Tool was applied to evaluate features of the virtual model against US NRC NUREG 0700 Revision 2 human factors engineering guidelines (NUREG 0700) [1]. The study results are very favorable for applying 2.5-D visualization technology to support upgrading nuclear power plant control rooms and other plant facilities. Results, however, show that today's 3-D immersive viewing systems are difficult to justify based on cost, availability and value of information provided for this application. (authors)
Simultaneous denoising and reconstruction of 5-D seismic data via damped rank-reduction method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yangkang; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Zhaoyu; Chen, Xiaohong; Zu, Shaohuan; Huang, Weilin; Gan, Shuwei
2016-09-01
The Cadzow rank-reduction method can be effectively utilized in simultaneously denoising and reconstructing 5-D seismic data that depend on four spatial dimensions. The classic version of Cadzow rank-reduction method arranges the 4-D spatial data into a level-four block Hankel/Toeplitz matrix and then applies truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) for rank reduction. When the observed data are extremely noisy, which is often the feature of real seismic data, traditional TSVD cannot be adequate for attenuating the noise and reconstructing the signals. The reconstructed data tend to contain a significant amount of residual noise using the traditional TSVD method, which can be explained by the fact that the reconstructed data space is a mixture of both signal subspace and noise subspace. In order to better decompose the block Hankel matrix into signal and noise components, we introduced a damping operator into the traditional TSVD formula, which we call the damped rank-reduction method. The damped rank-reduction method can obtain a perfect reconstruction performance even when the observed data have extremely low signal-to-noise ratio. The feasibility of the improved 5-D seismic data reconstruction method was validated via both 5-D synthetic and field data examples. We presented comprehensive analysis of the data examples and obtained valuable experience and guidelines in better utilizing the proposed method in practice. Since the proposed method is convenient to implement and can achieve immediate improvement, we suggest its wide application in the industry.
Hidden hyperchaos and electronic circuit application in a 5D self-exciting homopolar disc dynamo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Zhouchao; Moroz, Irene; Sprott, J. C.; Akgul, Akif; Zhang, Wei
2017-03-01
We report on the finding of hidden hyperchaos in a 5D extension to a known 3D self-exciting homopolar disc dynamo. The hidden hyperchaos is identified through three positive Lyapunov exponents under the condition that the proposed model has just two stable equilibrium states in certain regions of parameter space. The new 5D hyperchaotic self-exciting homopolar disc dynamo has multiple attractors including point attractors, limit cycles, quasi-periodic dynamics, hidden chaos or hyperchaos, as well as coexisting attractors. We use numerical integrations to create the phase plane trajectories, produce bifurcation diagram, and compute Lyapunov exponents to verify the hidden attractors. Because no unstable equilibria exist in two parameter regions, the system has a multistability and six kinds of complex dynamic behaviors. To the best of our knowledge, this feature has not been previously reported in any other high-dimensional system. Moreover, the 5D hyperchaotic system has been simulated using a specially designed electronic circuit and viewed on an oscilloscope, thereby confirming the results of the numerical integrations. Both Matlab and the oscilloscope outputs produce similar phase portraits. Such implementations in real time represent a new type of hidden attractor with important consequences for engineering applications.
2.5D complex resistivity modeling and inversion using unstructured grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Kaijun; Sun, Jie
2016-04-01
The characteristic of complex resistivity on rock and ore has been recognized by people for a long time. Generally we have used the Cole-Cole Model(CCM) to describe complex resistivity. It has been proved that the electrical anomaly of geologic body can be quantitative estimated by CCM parameters such as direct resistivity(ρ0), chargeability(m), time constant(τ) and frequency dependence(c). Thus it is very important to obtain the complex parameters of geologic body. It is difficult to approximate complex structures and terrain using traditional rectangular grid. In order to enhance the numerical accuracy and rationality of modeling and inversion, we use an adaptive finite-element algorithm for forward modeling of the frequency-domain 2.5D complex resistivity and implement the conjugate gradient algorithm in the inversion of 2.5D complex resistivity. An adaptive finite element method is applied for solving the 2.5D complex resistivity forward modeling of horizontal electric dipole source. First of all, the CCM is introduced into the Maxwell's equations to calculate the complex resistivity electromagnetic fields. Next, the pseudo delta function is used to distribute electric dipole source. Then the electromagnetic fields can be expressed in terms of the primary fields caused by layered structure and the secondary fields caused by inhomogeneities anomalous conductivity. At last, we calculated the electromagnetic fields response of complex geoelectric structures such as anticline, syncline, fault. The modeling results show that adaptive finite-element methods can automatically improve mesh generation and simulate complex geoelectric models using unstructured grids. The 2.5D complex resistivity invertion is implemented based the conjugate gradient algorithm.The conjugate gradient algorithm doesn't need to compute the sensitivity matrix but directly computes the sensitivity matrix or its transpose multiplying vector. In addition, the inversion target zones are
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yongyi; King, Michael A.
2012-09-01
Temporal regularization plays a critical role in cardiac gated dynamic SPECT reconstruction, of which the goal is to obtain an image sequence from a single acquisition which simultaneously shows both cardiac motion and tracer distribution change over the course of imaging (termed 5D). In our recent work, we explored two different approaches for temporal regularization of the dynamic activities in gated dynamic reconstruction without the use of fast camera rotation: one is the dynamic EM (dEM) approach which is imposed on the temporal trend of the time activity of each voxel, and the other is a B-spline modeling approach in which the time activity is regulated by a set of B-spline basis functions. In this work, we extend the B-spline approach to fully 5D reconstruction and conduct a thorough quantitative comparison with the dEM approach. In the evaluation of the reconstruction results, we apply a number of quantitative measures on two major aspects of the reconstructed dynamic images: (1) the accuracy of the reconstructed activity distribution in the myocardium and (2) the ability of the reconstructed dynamic activities to differentiate perfusion defects from normal myocardial wall uptake. These measures include the mean square error (MSE), bias-variance analysis, accuracy of time-activity curves (TAC), contrast-to-noise ratio of a defect, composite kinetic map of the left ventricle wall and perfusion defect detectability with channelized Hotelling observer. In experiments, we simulated cardiac gated imaging with the NURBS-based cardiac-torso phantom and Tc99m-Teboroxime as the imaging agent, where acquisition with the equivalent of only three full camera rotations was used during the imaging period. The results show that both dEM and B-spline 5D could achieve similar overall accuracy in the myocardium in terms of MSE. However, compared to dEM 5D, the B-spline approach could achieve a more accurate reconstruction of the voxel TACs; in particular, B-spline 5D could
Hawking radiation of stationary and non-stationary Kerr-de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, T. Ibungochouba
2015-07-01
Hawking radiation of the stationary Kerr-de Sitter black hole is investigated using the relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi method. Meanwhile, extending this work to a non-stationary black hole using Dirac equations and generalized tortoise coordinate transformation, we derived the locations, the temperature of the thermal radiation as well as the maximum energy of the non-thermal radiation. It is found that the surface gravity and the Hawking temperature depend on both time and different angles. An extra coupling effect is obtained in the thermal radiation spectrum of Dirac particles which is absent from thermal radiation of scalar particles. Further, the chemical potential derived from the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particle has been found to be equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of the scalar particle in the non-thermal radiation for the Kerr-de Sitter black hole. It is also shown that for stationary black hole space time, these two different methods give the same Hawking radiation temperature.
Scalar current of created pairs by Schwinger mechanism in de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bavarsad, Ehsan; Stahl, Clément; Xue, She-Sheng
2016-11-01
We consider a charged scalar field in a D -dimensional de Sitter spacetime and investigate pair creation by a Schwinger mechanism in a constant electric field background. Using a semiclassical approximation the current of the created pairs has been estimated. We find that the semiclassical current of the created pairs in the strong electric field limit responds as ED/2. Going further but restricting to D =3 dimensional de Sitter spacetime, the quantum expectation value of the spacelike component of the induced current has been computed in the in-vacuum state by applying an adiabatic subtraction scheme. We find that, in the strong electric field limit, the current responds as E3/2. In the weak electric field limit the current has a linear response in E and an inverse dependence on the mass of the scalar field. In the case of a massless scalar field, the current varies with E-1 which leads to a phenomenon of infrared hyperconductivity. A new relation between infrared hyperconductivity, tachyons, and conformality is discussed, and a scheme to avoid an infrared hyperconductivity regime is proposed. In D dimension, we eventually presented some first estimates of the backreaction of the Schwinger pairs to the gravitational field, and we find a decrease of the Hubble constant due to the pair creation.
Infrared dynamics of the massive ϕ4 theory on de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akhmedov, E. T.; Popov, F. K.; Slepukhin, V. M.
2013-07-01
We study massive real scalar ϕ4 theory in the expanding Poincare patch of de Sitter space. We calculate the leading two-loop infrared contribution to the two-point function in this theory. We do that for the massive fields both from the principal and complementary series. As can be expected at this order, light fields from the complementary series show stronger infrared effects than the heavy fields from the principal one. For the principal series, unlike the complementary one, we can derive the kinetic equation from the system of Dyson-Schwinger equation, which allows us to sum up the leading infrared contributions from all loops. We find two peculiar solutions of the kinetic equation. One of them describes the stationary Gibbons-Hawking-type distribution for the density per comoving volume. Another solution shows explosive (square root of the pole in finite proper time) growth of the particle number density per comoving volume. That signals the possibility of the destruction of the expanding Poincaré patch even by the very massive fields. We conclude with the consideration of the infrared divergences in global de Sitter space and in its contracting Poincaré patch.
Massive gravity in de Sitter space via the gravitational Higgs mechanism
Iglesias, Alberto; Kakushadze, Zurab
2010-12-15
In this paper we discuss massive gravity in de Sitter space via the gravitational Higgs mechanism, which provides a nonlinear definition thereof. The Higgs scalars are described by a nonlinear sigma model, which includes higher derivative terms required to obtain the Fierz-Pauli mass term. Using the aforesaid nonperturbative definition, we address the appearance of an enhanced local symmetry and a null norm state in the linearized massive gravity in de Sitter space at the special value of the graviton mass to the Hubble parameter ratio. By studying full nonperturbative equations of motion, we argue that there is no enhanced symmetry in the full nonlinear theory. We then argue that in the full nonlinear theory no null norm state is expected to arise at the aforesaid special value. This suggests that no ghost might be present for lower graviton mass values and the full nonlinear theory might be unitary for all values of the graviton mass and the Hubble parameter with no van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. We argue that this is indeed the case by studying the full nonlinear Hamiltonian for the relevant conformal and helicity-0 longitudinal modes. In particular, we argue that no negative norm state is present in the full nonlinear theory.
Massive gravity on de Sitter and unique candidate for partially massless gravity
Rham, Claudia de; Renaux-Petel, Sébastien E-mail: srenaux@lpthe.jussieu.fr
2013-01-01
We derive the decoupling limit of Massive Gravity on de Sitter in an arbitrary number of space-time dimensions d. By embedding d-dimensional de Sitter into d+1-dimensional Minkowski, we extract the physical helicity-1 and helicity-0 polarizations of the graviton. The resulting decoupling theory is similar to that obtained around Minkowski. We take great care at exploring the partially massless limit and define the unique fully non-linear candidate theory that is free of the helicity-0 mode in the decoupling limit, and which therefore propagates only four degrees of freedom in four dimensions. In the latter situation, we show that a new Vainshtein mechanism is at work in the limit m{sup 2} → 2H{sup 2} which decouples the helicity-0 mode when the parameters are different from that of partially massless gravity. As a result, there is no discontinuity between massive gravity and its partially massless limit, just in the same way as there is no discontinuity in the massless limit of massive gravity. The usual bounds on the graviton mass could therefore equivalently well be interpreted as bounds on m{sup 2}−2H{sup 2}. When dealing with the exact partially massless parameters, on the other hand, the symmetry at m{sup 2} = 2H{sup 2} imposes a specific constraint on matter. As a result the helicity-0 mode decouples without even the need of any Vainshtein mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braun, Andreas P.; Rummel, Markus; Sumitomo, Yoske; Valandro, Roberto
2015-12-01
In [1] a mechanism to fix the closed string moduli in a de Sitter minimum was proposed: a D-term potential generates a linear relation between the volumes of two rigid divisors which in turn produces at lower energies a race-track potential with de Sitter minima at exponentially large volume. In this paper, we systematically search for implementations of this mechanism among all toric Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces with h 1,1 ≤ 4 from the Kreuzer-Skarke list. For these, topological data can be computed explicitly allowing us to find the subset of three-folds which have two rigid toric divisors that do not intersect each other and that are orthogonal to h 1,1 - 2 independent four-cycles. These manifolds allow to find D7-brane configurations compatible with the de Sitter uplift mechanism and we find an abundance of consistent choices of D7-brane fluxes inducing D-terms leading to a de Sitter minimum. Finally, we work out a couple of models in detail, checking the global consistency conditions and computing the value of the potential at the minimum.
Impact of cinacalcet introduction on MBD management: the MBD-5D study in Japan
Fukuma, Shingo; Kurita, Noriaki; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Akizawa, Tadao; Fukuhara, Shunichi
2013-01-01
Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has recently attracted attention in light of its association with clinical outcomes, such as fracture, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Management of CKD-MBD has therefore come to have a central role in dialysis practice. Cinacalcet, a newly developed drug, has changed prescription patterns in many centers based on different changes in MBD markers than those observed with active vitamin D derivatives. As physicians require real-world evidence to guide their treatment decisions with respect to MBD management, we conducted the Mineral and Bone Disorder Outcomes Study for Japanese CKD Stage 5D Patients (MBD-5D), a 3-year observational study involving prevalent hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Here, we review the results from the MBD-5D and discuss issues of MBD management in the cinacalcet era. Three years since the introduction of cinacalcet, 40% of hemodialysis patients with SHPT have come to use cinacalcet, enjoying marked improvement in management of circulating MBD markers, such as intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), phosphorus, and calcium. Combination therapy with cinacalcet and a vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA) may allow physicians to choose more suitable prescription patterns based on patient characteristics and therapeutic purposes. We observed an additive association between ‘starting cinacalcet' and ‘increased VDRA dose,' with marked improvement in the control of intact PTH levels. Further, the combination pattern of ‘starting cinacalcet' and ‘decreased VDRA dose' was associated with better achievement of target serum phosphorus and calcium levels. Future studies should examine the effect of different prescription patterns for SHPT treatment on clinical outcomes. PMID:25019026
Relaxing constraints from lepton flavor violation in 5D flavorful theories
Agashe, Kaustubh
2009-12-01
We propose new mechanisms for ameliorating the constraints on the Kaluza-Klein mass scale from charged lepton flavor violation in the framework of the standard model fields propagating in a warped extra dimension, especially in models accounting for neutrino data. These mechanisms utilize the extended five-dimensional (5D) electroweak gauge symmetry [SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xU(1){sub X}] which is already strongly motivated in order to satisfy electroweak precision tests in this framework. We show that new choices of representations for leptons under this symmetry (naturally) can allow small mixing angles for left-handed (LH) charged leptons and simultaneously large mixing angles for their SU(2){sub L} partners, i.e., the LH neutrinos, with the neutrino data being accounted for by the latter mixings. Enhancement of charged lepton flavor violation by the large mixing angle observed in leptonic charged currents, which is present for the minimal choice of representations where the LH charged lepton and neutrino mixing angles are similar, can thus be avoided in these models. This idea might also be useful for suppressing the contributions to B{sub d,s} mixing in this framework and in order to suppress flavor violation from exchange of superpartners (instead of from KK modes) in 5D 'flavorful supersymmetry' models. Additionally, the less minimal representations can provide custodial protection for shifts in couplings of fermions to Z and, in turn, further suppress charged lepton flavor violation from tree-level Z exchange in the warped extra-dimensional scenario. As a result, {approx}O(3) TeV KK mass scale can be simultaneously consistent with charged lepton flavor violation and neutrino data, even without any particular structure in the 5D flavor parameters in the framework of a warped extra dimension.
Electronic structure and local magnetism of 3d-5d impurity substituted CeFe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Rakesh; Das, G. P.; Srivastava, S. K.
2016-04-01
We present here a systematic first-principles study of electronic structure and local magnetic properties of Ce[Fe0.75M0.25]2 compounds, where M is a 3d, 4d or 5d transition or post-transition element, using the generalized gradient approximation of the density functional theory. The d-f band hybridizations existing in CeFe2 get modified by the impurity M in an orderly manner across a period for each impurity series: the hybridization is strongest for the Mn group impurity in the period and gets diminished on either side of it. The weakening of the d-f hybridization strength is also associated with a relative localization of the Ce 4f states with respect to the delocalized 4f states in CeFe2. The above effects are most prominent for 3d impurity series, while for 4d and 5d impurities, the hybridizations and relocalizations are relatively weak due primarily to the relatively extended nature of 4d and 5d wavefunctions. The Ce local moment is found to decrease from the CeFe2 value in proportion to the strength of relocalization, thus following almost the same orderly trend as obeyed by the d-f hybridization. Further, depending on the way the spin-up and spin-down densities of states of an impurity shift relative to the Fermi energy, the impurity local moments are highest for Mn or Fe group, reduce on either side, become zero for Ni to Ga, and are small but negative for V and Ti. The Ce hyperfine field is found to follow the M local moment in a linear fashion, and vice-versa.
Host Materials for 4d(N) and 5d(N) Transition-Metal Ions
1990-12-01
ELL COP.Y 0 HDL- TM -90-20 0 to December 1990 N I Host Materials for 4dN and 5dN Transition-Metal Ions by Clyde A. Morrison DTIC ELECTE SFEB13 1991u...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) B. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Harry Diamond Laboratories HDL- TM -90-20 2800 Powder Mill Road Adeiphi...October 1988), Analysis of the optical spectra of triply ionized transition-metal ions in yttrium aluminum garnet ( YAG ), Harry Diamond Laboratories
The primordial explosion of a false white hole from a 5D vacuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Moreno, Claudia; Bellini, Mauricio
2014-01-01
We explore the cosmological consequences of some possible big bang produced by a black-hole with mass M in a 5D extended SdS. Under these particular circumstances, the effective 4D metric obtained by the use of a constant foliation on the extra coordinate is comported as a false white hole (FWH), which evaporates for all unstable modes that have wavelengths bigger than the size of the FWH. Outside the white hole the repulsive gravitational field can be considered as weak, so that the dynamics for fluctuations of the inflaton field and the scalar perturbations of the metric can be linearized.
Neutrino democracy, fermion mass hierarchies, and proton decay from 5D SU(5)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shafi, Qaisar; Tavartkiladze, Zurab
2003-04-01
The explanation of various observed phenomena such as large angle neutrino oscillations, hierarchies of charged fermion masses and CKM mixings, and apparent baryon number conservation may have a common origin. We show how this could occur in 5D SUSY SU(5) supplemented by a U(1) flavor symmetry and additional matter supermultiplets called “copies.” In addition, the proton decays into p→Kν, with an estimated lifetime of the order of 1033-1036 yr. Other decay channels include Ke and Kμ with comparable rates. We also expect that BR(μ→eγ)˜BR(τ→μγ).
EuroQol 5D Quality of Life in Meniere's Disorder Can Be Explained with Symptoms and Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levo, Hilla; Stephens, Dafydd; Poe, Dennis; Kentala, Erna; Rasku, Jyrki; Pyykko, Ilmari
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors explaining changes in the generic quality of life among patients with Meniere's disorder (MD) and to evaluate the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) quality-of-life measures. A questionnaire focusing on symptoms and disabilities caused by MD was collected from 726 individuals. General health-related quality…
Comparing NetCDF and SciDB on managing and querying 5D hydrologic dataset
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Haicheng; Xiao, Xiao
2016-11-01
Efficiently extracting information from high dimensional hydro-meteorological modelling datasets requires smart solutions. Traditional methods are mostly based on files, which can be edited and accessed handily. But they have problems of efficiency due to contiguous storage structure. Others propose databases as an alternative for advantages such as native functionalities for manipulating multidimensional (MD) arrays, smart caching strategy and scalability. In this research, NetCDF file based solutions and the multidimensional array database management system (DBMS) SciDB applying chunked storage structure are benchmarked to determine the best solution for storing and querying 5D large hydrologic modelling dataset. The effect of data storage configurations including chunk size, dimension order and compression on query performance is explored. Results indicate that dimension order to organize storage of 5D data has significant influence on query performance if chunk size is very large. But the effect becomes insignificant when chunk size is properly set. Compression of SciDB mostly has negative influence on query performance. Caching is an advantage but may be influenced by execution of different query processes. On the whole, NetCDF solution without compression is in general more efficient than the SciDB DBMS.
An Australian discrete choice experiment to value eq-5d health states.
Viney, Rosalie; Norman, Richard; Brazier, John; Cronin, Paula; King, Madeleine T; Ratcliffe, Julie; Street, Deborah
2014-06-01
Conventionally, generic quality-of-life health states, defined within multi-attribute utility instruments, have been valued using a Standard Gamble or a Time Trade-Off. Both are grounded in expected utility theory but impose strong assumptions about the form of the utility function. Preference elicitation tasks for both are complicated, limiting the number of health states that each respondent can value and, therefore, that can be valued overall. The usual approach has been to value a set of the possible health states and impute values for the remainder. Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) offer an attractive alternative, allowing investigation of more flexible specifications of the utility function and greater coverage of the response surface. We designed a DCE to obtain values for EQ-5D health states and implemented it in an Australia-representative online panel (n = 1,031). A range of specifications investigating non-linear preferences with respect to time and interactions between EQ-5D levels were estimated using a random-effects probit model. The results provide empirical support for a flexible utility function, including at least some two-factor interactions. We then constructed a preference index such that full health and death were valued at 1 and 0, respectively, to provide a DCE-based algorithm for Australian cost-utility analyses.
125 GeV Higgs boson mass and muon g -2 in 5D MSSM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okada, Nobuchika; Tran, Hieu Minh
2016-10-01
In the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the tension between the observed Higgs boson mass and the experimental result of the muon g -2 measurement requires a large mass splitting between stops and smuons/charginos/neutralinos. We consider a five-dimensional (5D) framework of the MSSM with the Randall-Sundrum warped background metric, and show that such a mass hierarchy is naturally achieved in terms of geometry. In our setup, the supersymmetry is broken at the ultraviolet (UV) brane, while all the MSSM multiplets reside in the 5D bulk. An appropriate choice of the bulk mass parameters for the MSSM matter multiplets can naturally realize the sparticle mass hierarchy desired to resolve the tension. The gravitino is localized at the UV brane and hence becomes very heavy, while the gauginos spreading over the bulk acquire their masses suppressed by the fifth dimensional volume. As a result, the lightest sparticle neutralino is a candidate for the dark matter as usual in the MSSM. In addition to reproducing the SM-like Higgs boson mass of around 125 GeV and the measured value of the muon g -2 , we consider a variety of phenomenological constraints, and present the benchmark particle mass spectra that can be explored at the LHC Run-2 in the near future.
Solution and dynamics of a fractional-order 5-D hyperchaotic system with four wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Limin; Sun, Kehui; He, Shaobo; Wang, Huihai; Xu, Yixin
2017-01-01
Based on the Adomian decomposition method (ADM), the numerical solution of a fractional-order 5-D hyperchaotic system with four wings is investigated. Dynamics of the system are analyzed by means of phase diagram, bifurcation diagram, Lyapunov exponents spectrum and chaos diagram. The method of one-dimensional linear path through the multidimensional parameter space is proposed to observe the evolution law of the system dynamics with parameters varying. The results illustrate that the system has abundant dynamical behaviors. Both the system order and parameters can be taken as bifurcation parameters. The phenomenon of multiple attractors is found, which means that some attractors are generated simultaneously from different initial values. The spectral entropy (SE) algorithm is applied to estimate the fractional-order system complexity, and we found that the complexity decreases with the increasing of system order. In order to verify the reliability of numerical solution, the fractional-order 5-D system with four wings is implemented on a DSP platform. The phase portraits of fractional-order system generated on DSP agree well with those obtained by computer simulations. It is shown that the fractional-order hyperchaotic system is a potential model for application in the field of chaotic secure communication.
Experimental bandstructure of the 5 d transition metal oxide IrO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawasaki, Jason; Nie, Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Schlom, Darrell; Shen, Kyle
2015-03-01
In the 5 d iridium oxides the close energy scales of spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron correlations lead to emergent quantum phenomena. Much research has focused on the ternary iridium oxides, e.g. the Ruddlesden-Poppers An + 1BnO3 n + 1 , which exhibit behavior from metal to antiferromagnetic insulator ground states, share common features with the cuprates, and may host a number of topological phases. The binary rutile IrO2 is another important 5 d oxide, which has technological importance for spintronics due to its large spin Hall effect and also applications in catalysis. IrO2 is expected to share similar physics as its perovskite-based cousins; however, due to bond-length distortions of the IrO6 octahedra in the rutile structure, the extent of similarities remains an open question. Here we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to perform momentum-resolved measurements of the electronic structure of IrO2 . IrO2 thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on TiO2 (110) substrates using an Ir e-beam source and distilled ozone. Films were subsequently transferred through ultrahigh vacuum to a connected ARPES system. Combined with first-principles calculations we explore the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and correlations in IrO2 .
First Principles Study of HCN Adsorption on Graphene Doped with 5d Transition Metal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Hai-Kuan; Wang, Yong-Ping; Shi, Li Bin
2016-11-01
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) adsorption on graphene doped with 5d transition metal (TM) is investigated by the first principles based on density functional theory. It is observed that Hg atom cannot be doped into graphene due to saturated valence electron configurations of 5d106s2. Three kinds of HCN adsorption configurations are investigated, in which H, C and N in HCN are close to the adsorption site, respectively. The most stable adsorption configuration is obtained by total energy optimization. HCN adsorption can be studied by adsorption energy and electron density difference. HCN can only be physisorbed on Ir, Pt and Au-doped graphenes, while chemisorption is observed for Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os-doped graphenes. The band structure is calculated by B3LYP and Generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals. It is observed from B3LYP method that the conductivity of Lu, Hf, Re and Os-doped graphenes does not obviously change before and after HCN adsorption. Ta and W-doped graphenes change from semiconductor to metal after adsorption of HCN molecule. The results indicate that Ta and W-doped graphenes may be a promising sensor for detecting HCN. This study provides a useful basis for understanding of a wide variety of physical properties on graphene.
Numerical analysis of 2.5-D true-amplitude diffraction stack migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz, J. C. R.; Urban, J.; Garabito, G.
2000-09-01
By considering arbitrary source-receiver configurations, compressional primary reflections can be imaged into time or depth-migrated seismic sections so that the migrated wavefield amplitudes are a measure of angle-dependent reflection coefficients. Several migration algorithms were proposed in the recent past based on the Born or Kirchhoff approach. All of them are given in form of a weighted diffraction-stack integral operator that is applied to the input seismic data. The result is a migrated seismic section where at each reflection point the source wavelet is reconstructed with an amplitude proportional to the reflection coefficient at that point. Based on the Kirchhoff approach, we derive the weight function and the diffraction stack integral operator for a two and one-half (2.5-D) seismic model and apply it to a set of synthetic seismic data in noisy environment. The result shows the accuracy and stability of the 2.5-D migration method as a tool for obtaining important information about the reflectivity properties of the earth's subsurface, which is of great interest for amplitude vs. offset (angle) analysis. We also present a new application of the Double Diffraction Stack (DDS) inversion method to determine three important parameters along the normal ray path, i.e., the angle and point of emergence at the earth surface, and also the radius of curvature of the hypothetical Normal Incidence Point (NIP) wave.
The Riemann tensor and the Bianchi identity in 5D space-time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taki, Mehran; Mirjalili, Abolfazl
2017-01-01
The initial assumption of theories with extra dimension is based on the efforts to yield a geometrical interpretation of the gravitation field. In this paper, using an infinitesimal parallel transportation of a vector, we generalize the obtained results in four dimensions to five-dimensional space-time. For this purpose, we first consider the effect of the geometrical structure of 4D space-time on a vector in a round trip of a closed path, which is basically quoted from chapter three of Ref. [5]. If the vector field is a gravitational field, then the required round trip will lead us to an equation which is dynamically governed by the Riemann tensor. We extend this idea to five-dimensional space-time and derive an improved version of Bianchi's identity. By doing tensor contraction on this identity, we obtain field equations in 5D space-time that are compatible with Einstein's field equations in 4D space-time. As an interesting result, we find that when one generalizes the results to 5D space-time, the new field equations imply a constraint on Ricci scalar equations, which might be containing a new physical insight.
Keramati, B.; Masters, M.; Huennekens, J.
1988-11-01
The excitation-transfer collision Cs(5D5/2) + Cs(6S) yields CS(5D3/2) + Cs(6S) was studied. The upper 5D5/2 state was excited by a c-w dye laser tuned to the one photon, quadrupole-allowed 6S yields 5D5/2 transition. Since the direct 5D yields 6P fluorescence could not be detected with our apparatus we monitored instead the cascade 6P yields 6S fluorescence. The ratio of 6P 1/2 to 6P3/2 fluorescence contains information on the collisional mixing that takes place in the 5D levels but also includes a significant contribution from mixing in the 6P levels. This latter contribution could effectively be subtracted out using the results of a second experiment in which a tunable cw diode laser was used to pump the 6P3/2 state, and the same fluorescence ratio monitored. The 5D mixing cross section obtained, 70 A, is significantly larger than previous indirect determinations.
Keramati, B.; Masters, M.; Huennekens, J.
1988-11-01
We report an experimental investigation of the excitation-transfer collision Cs(5D/sub 5/2/)+Cs(6S)..-->..CS ((5D/sub 3/2/)+Cs(6S). The upper 5D/sub 5/2/ state was excited by a cw dye laser tuned to the one-photon, quadrupole-allowed 6S..-->..5D/sub 5/2/ transition. Since the direct 5D..-->..6P fluorescence could not be detected with our apparatus, we monitored instead the cascade 6P..-->..6S fluorescence. The ratio of 6P/sub 1/2/ to 6P/sub 3/2/ fluorescence contains information on the collisional mixing that takes place in the 5D levels but also includes a significant contribution from mixing in the 6P levels. This latter contribution could effectively be subtracted out using the results of a second experiment in which a tunable cw diode laser was used to pump the 6P/sub 3/2/ state, and the same fluorescence ratio monitored. The 5D mixing cross section we obtain, 70 A/sup 2/, is significantly larger than previous indirect determinations.
The structure of perturbative quantum gravity on a de Sitter background
Tsamis, N.C.; Woodward, R.P.
1992-05-01
Classical gravitation on de Sitter space suffers from a linearization instability. One consequence is that the response to a spatially localized distribution of positive energy cannot be globally regular. We use this fact to show that no causal Green`s function can give the correct linearized response to certain bilocalized distributions, even though these distributions obey the constraints of linearization stability. We avoid the problem by working on the open submanifold spanned by conformal coordinates. The retarded Green`s function is first computed in a simple gauge, then the rest of the propagator is inferred by analyticity -- up to the usual ambiguity about real, analytic and homogeneous terms. We show that the latter can be chosen so as to give a propagator which does not grow in any direction. The ghost propagator is also given and the interaction vertices are worked out.
The structure of perturbative quantum gravity on a de Sitter background
Tsamis, N.C. . Dept. of Physics); Woodward, R.P. . Dept. of Physics)
1992-05-01
Classical gravitation on de Sitter space suffers from a linearization instability. One consequence is that the response to a spatially localized distribution of positive energy cannot be globally regular. We use this fact to show that no causal Green's function can give the correct linearized response to certain bilocalized distributions, even though these distributions obey the constraints of linearization stability. We avoid the problem by working on the open submanifold spanned by conformal coordinates. The retarded Green's function is first computed in a simple gauge, then the rest of the propagator is inferred by analyticity -- up to the usual ambiguity about real, analytic and homogeneous terms. We show that the latter can be chosen so as to give a propagator which does not grow in any direction. The ghost propagator is also given and the interaction vertices are worked out.
Reply to "Comment on `Fermion production in a magnetic field in a de Sitter universe"'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crucean, Cosmin; Bǎloi, Mihaela-Andreea
2017-02-01
In this paper, we study the problem of gauge invariance of the first order transition amplitudes in de Sitter QED in the Coulomb gauge. We consider the gauge transformations which preserve the Coulomb gauge, that contain the gradient of the gauge function. The final results prove that the first order transition amplitudes do not change at a gradient transformation of the vector potential because the only allowed transformation is Λ =0 . Our results suggest that the remarks made in the comment by Nicolaevici and Farkas [this issue, Phys. Rev. D 95, 048501 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.048501] are not directly applicable to the results in our paper since their proposed gauge transformations do not preserve the Coulomb gauge.
The Solution of Dirac Equation in Quasi-Extreme REISSNER-NORDSTRÖM de Sitter Space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyu, Yan; Cui, Song; Liu, Ling
The radial parts of Dirac equation between the outer black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon in quasi-extreme Reissner-Nordström de Sitter (RNdS) geometry is solved numerically. We use an accurate polynomial approximation to mimic the modified tortoise coordinate hat r*(r), for obtaining the inverse function r=r(hat r*) and V=V(hat r*). We then use a quantum mechanical method to solve the wave equation and give the reflection and transmission coefficients. We concentrate on two limiting cases. The first case is when the two horizons are close to each other, and the second case is when the horizons are far apart.
Real scalar field scattering with polynomial approximation around Schwarzschild—de Sitter black-hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Mo-Lin; Liu, Hong-Ya; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Yu, Fei
2008-05-01
As one of the fitting methods, the polynomial approximation is effective to process sophisticated problem. In this paper, we employ this approach to handle the scattering of scalar field around the Schwarzschild—de Sitter black-hole. The complicated relationship between tortoise coordinate and radial coordinate is replaced by the approximate polynomial. The Schrödinger-like equation, the real boundary conditions and the polynomial approximation construct a full Sturm-Liouville type problem. Then this boundary value problem can be solved numerically for two limiting cases: the first one is the Nariai black-hole whose horizons are close to each other, the second one is the black-hole with the horizons widely separated. Compared with previous results (Brevik and Tian), the field near the event horizon and cosmological horizon can have a better description.
Quantum radiation of Maxwell’s electromagnetic field in nonstationary Kerr-de Sitter black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibungochouba Singh, T.; Ablu Meitei, I.; Yugindro Singh, K.
2016-03-01
Quantum radiation properties of nonstationary Kerr-de Sitter (KdS) black hole is investigated using the method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation. The locations of horizons and the temperature of the thermal radiation as well as the maximum energy of the nonthermal radiation are derived. It is found that the surface gravity and the Hawking temperature depend on both time and different angles. An extra coupling effect is obtained in the thermal radiation spectrum of Maxwell’s electromagnetic field equations which is absent in the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particles. Further, the chemical potential derived from the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particle has been found to be equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of the scalar particle in the nonthermal radiation for KdS black hole. It is also shown that the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation produces a constant term in the expression of the surface gravity and Hawking temperature.
Numerical solution of the Dirac equation in Schwarzschild de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyu, Y.; Gui, Y. X.
2007-02-01
The radial parts of the Dirac equation between the inner and the outer horizon in Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry are solved. Two limiting cases are concerned. The first case is when the two horizons are far apart and the second case is when the horizons are close to each other. In each case, a 'tangent' approximation is used to replace the modified 'tortoise' coordinate r*, which leads to a simple analytically invertible relation between r* and the radius r. The potential V(r*) is replaced by a collection of step functions in sequence. Then the solutions of the wave equation as well as the reflection and transmission coefficients are computed by a quantum mechanical method.
Infrared behavior and gauge artifacts in de Sitter spacetime: the photon field.
Youssef, A
2011-07-08
We study the infrared (long-distance) behavior of the free photon field in de Sitter spacetime. Using a two-parameter family of gauge-fixing terms, we show that the infrared (IR) behavior of the two-point function is highly gauge-dependent and ranges from vanishing to growing. This situation is in disagreement with its counterpart in flat spacetime, where the two-point function vanishes in the IR region for any choice of the gauge-fixing parameters. A criterion to isolate the physical part of the two-point function is given and is shown to lead to a well-behaved two-point function in the IR region.
2D anti{endash}de Sitter gravity as a conformally invariant mechanical system
Cadoni, M.; Carta, P.; Klemm, D.; Mignemi, S.
2001-06-15
We show that two-dimensional (2D) AdS gravity induces on the spacetime boundary a conformally invariant dynamics that can be described in terms of a de Alfaro{endash}Fubini{endash}Furlan model coupled to an external source with conformal dimension 2. The external source encodes information about the gauge symmetries of the 2D gravity system. Alternatively, there exists a description in terms of a mechanical system with anholonomic constraints. The considered systems are invariant under the action of the conformal group generated by a Virasoro algebra, which occurs also as an asymptotic symmetry algebra of two-dimensional anti{endash}de Sitter space. We calculate the central charge of the algebra and find perfect agreement between the statistical and thermodynamical entropies of AdS{sub 2} black holes.
The stability of de Sitter space with a scalar quantum field (II). The linear analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, Barrett; Isaacson, Jeffrey A.
1992-01-01
Using the semiclassical Einstein equations, we study the spatially homogeneous perturbations of a spatially flat de Sitter metric arising from fluctuations of a scalar quantum field about the Bunch-Davies vacuum state. The exact solution for the metric perturbation in the linear approzimation is obtained in terms of its Laplace transform, and analyzed for late times and arbitrary initial conditions. The results indicate the existence of only two undamped modes: (i) a "neutrally stable" mode, which derives from a spatial coordinate re-scaling symmetry in flat, Robertson-Walker space-times, and (ii) an unstable but unphysical "ghost" mode with a typical time scale m P-1 = G, which is related to the Landau ghost of the underlying quantum field theory. We show how to remove the latter mode by a restriction on the initial data. The existence of any physical instability in this spatially homogeneous system has been ruled out.
Scalar field as a Bose-Einstein condensate in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellanos, Elías; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Macías, Alfredo
In this paper, we analyze some properties of a scalar field configuration, where it is considered as a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter background spacetime. In a natural way, the geometry of the curved spacetime provides an effective trapping potential for the scalar field configuration. This allows us to explore some thermodynamical properties of the system. Additionally, the curved geometry of the spacetime also induces a position-dependent self-interaction parameter, which can be interpreted as a kind of gravitational Feshbach resonance, that could affect the stability of the cloud and could be used to obtain information about the interactions among the components of the system.
Gauge formulation of gravitation theories. I. The Poincaré, de Sitter, and conformal cases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, E. A.; Niederle, J.
1982-02-01
The gauge formulations of various gravitation theories are discussed. They are based on the approach in which we have the group Diff R4 acting on xμ and in which we attach to every xμ a tangent space with the group of action H. Group H does not act on xμ and plays the role of an internal (global) symmetry group in the standard Yang-Mills theory. The matter fields in the theory transform according to representations of H and are assumed to be scalars of Diff R4. The full invariance group of the Lagrangian is then of the form Hloc⊗Diff R4. Here Hloc is a local gauge group obtained from H exactly as in the Yang-Mills theory. The approach has two characteristic features: (i) The group Hloc must be spontaneously broken in order to exclude redundant gauge fields (the Lorentz connections) from the theory in a way covariant with respect to the gauge transformations. (ii) To different H there correspond different gravitational theories, all invariant under Diff R4 but differing in backgrounds. Thus if H is isomorphic to the Poincaré group the corresponding gauge theory turns out to be equivalent to the usual Einstein or Einstein-Cartan theory of gravity in the Minkowski space as a background. The other choices for H considered in the paper are the de Sitter groups and the conformal group. They yield the Einstein theory with a negative (or positive) cosmological term in the corresponding de Sitter space and the Weyl or Cartan-Weyl theory (depending on realization of the conformal group), respectively.
Initial insights from 2.5D hydraulic modeling of floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars
Keszthelyi, L.P.; Denlinger, R.P.; O'Connell, D. R. H.; Burr, D.M.
2007-01-01
We present the first application of a 2.5D hydraulic model to catastrophic floods on Mars. This model simulates flow over complex topography and incorporates flood dynamics that could not be modeled in the earlier 1D models. We apply this model to Athabasca Valles, the youngest outflow channel on Mars, investigating previous bank-full discharge estimates and utilizing the interpolated Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter elevation map as input. We confirm that the bank-full assumption does not fit the observed landforms. Instead, the channel appears more deeply incised near the source. Flow modeling also identifies several areas of special interest, including a dry cataract that coincides with a region of predicted high erosion. However, artifacts in the elevation data strongly impacted estimated stages and velocities in other areas. More extensive connection between the flood hydraulics and observed landforms awaits improved topographic data.
Solitons via Lie-Bäcklund transformation for 5D low-energy string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herrera-Aguilar, A.; Paschalis, J. E.; Téllez-Vázquez, J. O.
2009-08-01
We apply a non-linear matrix transformation of Lie-Bäcklund type on a seed soliton configuration in order to obtain a new solitonic solution in the framework of the 5D low-energy effective field theory of the bosonic string. The seed solution represents a stationary axisymmetric two-soliton configuration previously constructed through the inverse scattering method and consists of a massless gravitational field coupled to a non-trivial chargeless dilaton and to an axion field endowed with charge. We apply a fully parameterized non-linear matrix transformation of Ehlers type on this massless solution and get a massive rotating axisymmetric gravitational soliton coupled to charged axion and dilaton fields. We discuss on some physical properties of both the initial and the generated solitons and fully clarify the physical effect of the non-linear normalized Ehlers transformation on the seed solution.
Simulations of the 2.5D inviscid primitive equations in a limited domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qingshan; Temam, Roger; Tribbia, Joseph J.
2008-12-01
The primitive equations (PEs) of the atmosphere and the oceans without viscosity are considered. These equations are not well-posed for any set of local boundary conditions. In space dimension 2.5 a set of nonlocal boundary conditions has been proposed in Chen et al. [Q. Chen, J. Laminie, A. Rousseau, R. Temam, J. Tribbia, A 2.5D Model for the equations of the ocean and the atmosphere, Anal. Appl. 5(3) (2007) 199-229]. The present article is aimed at testing the validity of these boundary conditions with physically relevant data. The issues tested are the well-posedness in the nonlinear case and the computational efficiency of the boundary conditions for limited area models [T.T. Warner, R.A. Peterson, R.E. Treadon, A tutorial on lateral boundary conditions as a basic and potentially serious limitation to regional numerical weather prediction, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 78(11) (1997) 2599-2617].
Inhibition of light emission in a 2.5D photonic structure
Peretti, Romain; Seassal, Christian; Viktorovich, Pierre; Letartre, Xavier
2014-07-14
We analyse inhibition of emission in a 2.5D photonic structures made up of a photonic crystal (PhC) and Bragg mirrors using Finite Differences Time Domaine (FDTD) simulations. A comparison is made between an isolated PhC membrane and the same PhC suspended onto a Bragg mirror or sandwiched between 2 Bragg mirrors. Strong inhibition of the Purcell factor is observed in a broad spectral range, whatever the in-plane orientation and location of the emitting dipole. We analysed these results numerically and theoretically by simulating the experimentally observed lifetime of a collection of randomly distributed emitters, showing that their average emission rate is decreased by more than one decade, both for coupled or isolated emitters.
2.5D Finite/infinite Element Approach for Simulating Train-Induced Ground Vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Y. B.; Hung, H. H.; Kao, J. C.
2010-05-01
The 2.5D finite/infinite element approach for simulating the ground vibrations by surface or underground moving trains will be briefly summarized in this paper. By assuming the soils to be uniform along the direction of the railway, only a two-dimensional profile of the soil perpendicular to the railway need be considered in the modeling. Besides the two in-plane degrees of freedom (DOFs) per node conventionally used for plane strain elements, an extra DOF is introduced to account for the out-of-plane wave transmission. The profile of the half-space is divided into a near field and a semi-infinite far field. The near field containing the train loads and irregular structures is simulated by the finite elements, while the far field covering the soils with infinite boundary by the infinite elements, by which due account is taken of the radiation effects for the moving loads. Enhanced by the automated mesh expansion procedure proposed previously by the writers, the far field impedances for all the lower frequencies are generated repetitively from the mesh created for the highest frequency considered. Finally, incorporated with a proposed load generation mechanism that takes the rail irregularity and dynamic properties of trains into account, an illustrative case study was performed. This paper investigates the vibration isolation effect of the elastic foundation that separates the concrete slab track from the underlying soil or tunnel structure. In addition, the advantage of the 2.5D approach was clearly demonstrated in that the three-dimensional wave propagation effect can be virtually captured using a two-dimensional finite/infinite element mesh. Compared with the conventional 3D approach, the present approach appears to be simple, efficient and generally accurate.
Komura, Kazumasa; Jeong, Seong Ho; Hinohara, Kunihiko; Qu, Fangfang; Wang, Xiaodong; Hiraki, Masayuki; Azuma, Haruhito; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Kantoff, Philip W.; Sweeney, Christopher J.
2016-01-01
The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in prostate cancer, and suppression of its signaling with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the mainstay of treatment for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer for more than 70 y. Chemotherapy has been reserved for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-led trial E3805: ChemoHormonal Therapy Versus Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial for Extensive Disease in Prostate Cancer (CHAARTED) showed that the addition of docetaxel to ADT prolonged overall survival compared with ADT alone in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. This finding suggests that there is an interaction between AR signaling activity and docetaxel sensitivity. Here we demonstrate that the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and LAPC4 display markedly different sensitivity to docetaxel with AR activation, and RNA-seq analysis of these cell lines identified KDM5D (lysine-specific demethylase 5D) encoded on the Y chromosome as a potential mediator of this sensitivity. Knocking down KDM5D expression in LNCaP leads to docetaxel resistance in the presence of dihydrotestosterone. KDM5D physically interacts with AR in the nucleus, and regulates its transcriptional activity by demethylating H3K4me3 active transcriptional marks. Attenuating KDM5D expression dysregulates AR signaling, resulting in docetaxel insensitivity. KDM5D deletion was also observed in the LNCaP-derived CRPC cell line 104R2, which displayed docetaxel insensitivity with AR activation, unlike parental LNCaP. Dataset analysis from the Oncomine database revealed significantly decreased KDM5D expression in CRPC and poorer prognosis with low KDM5D expression. Taking these data together, this work indicates that KDM5D modulates the AR axis and that this is associated with altered docetaxel sensitivity. PMID:27185910
Komura, Kazumasa; Jeong, Seong Ho; Hinohara, Kunihiko; Qu, Fangfang; Wang, Xiaodong; Hiraki, Masayuki; Azuma, Haruhito; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Kantoff, Philip W; Sweeney, Christopher J
2016-05-31
The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in prostate cancer, and suppression of its signaling with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the mainstay of treatment for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer for more than 70 y. Chemotherapy has been reserved for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-led trial E3805: ChemoHormonal Therapy Versus Androgen Ablation Randomized Trial for Extensive Disease in Prostate Cancer (CHAARTED) showed that the addition of docetaxel to ADT prolonged overall survival compared with ADT alone in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. This finding suggests that there is an interaction between AR signaling activity and docetaxel sensitivity. Here we demonstrate that the prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and LAPC4 display markedly different sensitivity to docetaxel with AR activation, and RNA-seq analysis of these cell lines identified KDM5D (lysine-specific demethylase 5D) encoded on the Y chromosome as a potential mediator of this sensitivity. Knocking down KDM5D expression in LNCaP leads to docetaxel resistance in the presence of dihydrotestosterone. KDM5D physically interacts with AR in the nucleus, and regulates its transcriptional activity by demethylating H3K4me3 active transcriptional marks. Attenuating KDM5D expression dysregulates AR signaling, resulting in docetaxel insensitivity. KDM5D deletion was also observed in the LNCaP-derived CRPC cell line 104R2, which displayed docetaxel insensitivity with AR activation, unlike parental LNCaP. Dataset analysis from the Oncomine database revealed significantly decreased KDM5D expression in CRPC and poorer prognosis with low KDM5D expression. Taking these data together, this work indicates that KDM5D modulates the AR axis and that this is associated with altered docetaxel sensitivity.
Fröb, Markus B.; Verdaguer, Enric E-mail: enric.verdaguer@ub.edu
2016-03-01
We derive the leading quantum corrections to the gravitational potentials in a de Sitter background, due to the vacuum polarization from loops of conformal fields. Our results are valid for arbitrary conformal theories, even strongly interacting ones, and are expressed using the coefficients b and b' appearing in the trace anomaly. Apart from the de Sitter generalization of the known flat-space results, we find two additional contributions: one which depends on the finite coefficients of terms quadratic in the curvature appearing in the renormalized effective action, and one which grows logarithmically with physical distance. While the first contribution corresponds to a rescaling of the effective mass, the second contribution leads to a faster fall-off of the Newton potential at large distances, and is potentially measurable.
F5D-1 on ramp with Neil Armstrong preparing to fly a Dyna-Soar simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1962-01-01
The Douglas F5D-1 Skylancer being pre-flighted by the pilot while the crew chief prepares to pull the wheel chocks on the 'hot gun' ramp at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The aircraft was one of two prototype F5D-1s obtained by NASA Flight Research Center in 1961. The F5D-1 Skylancer (Bu. No. 142350) had a red and white paint pattern with a NASA identification number of 213 which later became NASA 708. The Douglas F5D-1 Skylancer was built by the Navy as an all-weather fighter interceptor that never made the jump to production. Four test aircraft were developed with the same basic airframe as the Douglas F4D Skyray. With increasing modifications the four aircraft were re-designated F5D-1s before their first flights. Future Astronaut Neil Armstrong was one of the NASA research pilots assigned to support duties for the Dyna-Soar program. In addition to working at the Boeing facility in Washington state, Armstrong also tested the Dyna-Soar launch abort profile using this F5D-1, which had a similar wing shape to the Dyna-Soar. The aircraft arrived at the Flight Research Center on June 15, 1961. After the Dyna-Soar program was cancelled in December 1963, this F5D-1 continued to be used, serving as a flying simulator for the M2-F2 and as a chase plane for lifting-body flights (providing the lifting-body pilot with an extra set of eyes to assist in emergencies and avert potential crashes) This F5D-1 left the Flight Research Center (later designated the Dryden Flight Research Center) on May 19, 1970, and was donated to the Neil A. Armstrong Museum in Wapakoneta, Ohio.
Blaga, Robert
2015-12-07
We investigate the energy radiated by an inertial scalar charge evolving in the expanding Poincaré patch of de Sitter spacetime, in the framework of scalar QED perturbation theory. We approximate the transition amplitude in the small expansion parameter limit and show that the leading contribution to the radiated energy has the form of the energy radiated by an accelerated particle in Minkowski space.
Chu, Yi-Zen
2014-09-15
Motivated by the desire to understand the causal structure of physical signals produced in curved spacetimes – particularly around black holes – we show how, for certain classes of geometries, one might obtain its retarded or advanced minimally coupled massless scalar Green's function by using the corresponding Green's functions in the higher dimensional Minkowski spacetime where it is embedded. Analogous statements hold for certain classes of curved Riemannian spaces, with positive definite metrics, which may be embedded in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces. The general formula is applied to (d ≥ 2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime, and the scalar Green's function is demonstrated to be sourced by a line emanating infinitesimally close to the origin of the ambient (d + 1)-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and piercing orthogonally through the de Sitter hyperboloids of all finite sizes. This method does not require solving the de Sitter wave equation directly. Only the zero mode solution to an ordinary differential equation, the “wave equation” perpendicular to the hyperboloid – followed by a one-dimensional integral – needs to be evaluated. A topological obstruction to the general construction is also discussed by utilizing it to derive a generalized Green's function of the Laplacian on the (d ≥ 2)-dimensional sphere.
Nature of the insulating ground state of the 5d postperovskite CaIrO3
Kim, Sun -Woo; Liu, Chen; Kim, Hyun -Jung; ...
2015-08-26
In this study, the insulating ground state of the 5d transition metal oxide CaIrO3 has been classified as a Mott-type insulator. Based on a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study with local, semilocal, and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, we reveal that the Ir t2g states exhibit large splittings and one-dimensional electronic states along the c axis due to a tetragonal crystal field. Our hybrid DFT calculation adequately describes the antiferromagnetic (AFM) order along the c direction via a superexchange interaction between Ir4+ spins. Furthermore, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) hybridizes the t2g states to open an insulating gap. These results indicate thatmore » CaIrO3 can be represented as a spin-orbit Slater insulator, driven by the interplay between a long-range AFM order and the SOC. Such a Slater mechanism for the gap formation is also demonstrated by the DFT + dynamical mean field theory calculation, where the metal-insulator transition and the paramagnetic to AFM phase transition are concomitant with each other.« less
Frequency-domain Green's functions for radar waves in heterogeneous 2.5D media
Ellefsen, K.J.; Croize, D.; Mazzella, A.T.; McKenna, J.R.
2009-01-01
Green's functions for radar waves propagating in heterogeneous 2.5D media might be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid method. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties might vary in the x- and z-directions, but not in the y-direction. Wave propagation in the x- and z-directions is simulated with the finite-difference method, and wave propagation in the y-direction is simulated with an analytic function. The absorbing boundaries on the finite-difference grid are perfectly matched layers that have been modified to make them compatible with the hybrid method. The accuracy of these numerical Greens functions is assessed by comparing them with independently calculated Green's functions. For a homogeneous model, the magnitude errors range from -4.16% through 0.44%, and the phase errors range from -0.06% through 4.86%. For a layered model, the magnitude errors range from -2.60% through 2.06%, and the phase errors range from -0.49% through 2.73%. These numerical Green's functions might be used for forward modeling and full waveform inversion. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.
RPC based 5D tracking concept for high multiplicity tracking trigger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Distante, L.; Liberti, B.; Paolozzi, L.; Pastori, E.; Santonico, R.
2017-01-01
The recently approved High Luminosity LHC project (HL-LHC) and the future colliders proposals present a challenging experimental scenario, dominated by high pileup, radiation background and a bunch crossing time possibly shorter than 5 ns. This holds as well for muon systems, where RPCs can play a fundamental role in the design of the future experiments. The RPCs, thanks to their high space-time granularity, allows a sparse representation of the particle hits, in a very large parametric space containing, in addition to 3D spatial localization, also the pulse time and width associated to the avalanche charge. This 5D representation of the hits can be exploited to improve the performance of complex detectors such as muon systems and increase the discovery potential of a future experiment, by allowing a better track pileup rejection and sharper momentum resolution, an effective measurement of the particle velocity, to tag and trigger the non-ultrarelativistic particles, and the detection local multiple track events in close proximity without ambiguities. Moreover, due to the fast response, typically for RPCs of the order of a few ns, this information can be provided promptly to the lowest level trigger. We will discus theoretically and experimentally the principles and performance of this original method.
I-IMAS: A 1.5D sensor for high-resolution scanning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fant, A.; Gasiorek, P.; Turchetta, R.; Avset, B.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cavouras, D.; Evangelou, I.; French, M. J.; Galbiati, A.; Georgiou, H.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Longo, R.; Manthos, N.; Metaxas, M. G.; Noy, M.; Ostby, J. M.; Psomadellis, F.; Royle, G. J.; Schulerud, H.; Speller, R. D.; van der Stelt, P. F.; Theodoridis, S.; Triantis, F.; Venanzi, C.
2007-04-01
We have developed a 1.5 D CMOS active pixel sensor to be used in conjunction with a scintillator for X-ray imaging. Within the Intelligent Imaging Sensors (I-ImaS) project, multiple sensors will be aligned to form a line-scanning system and its performance evaluated with respect to existing sensors in other digital radiography systems. Each sensor contains a 512×32 array of pixels and the electronics to convert the collected amount of charge to a digital output value. These include programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs). The gain of the PGA can be switched between one or two, to increase the sensitivity for smaller collected charge; the ADC is a 14-bit successive approximation with a sampling rate of 1.25 MHz. The ASIC includes a programmable column fixed pattern noise mitigation circuit and a digitally controllable pixel reset mode block. Here we will describe the sensor design and the expected performance.
Prediction of Protein Kinase-Ligand Interactions through 2.5D Kinochemometrics.
Bosc, Nicolas; Wroblowski, Berthold; Meyer, Christophe; Bonnet, Pascal
2017-01-23
So far, 518 protein kinases have been identified in the human genome. They share a common mechanism of protein phosphorylation and are involved in many critical biological processes of eukaryotic cells. Deregulation of the kinase phosphorylation function induces severe illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, or inflammatory diseases. Many actors in the pharmaceutical domain have made significant efforts to design potent and selective protein kinase inhibitors as new potential drugs. Because the ATP binding site is highly conserved in the protein kinase family, the design of selective inhibitors remains a challenge and has negatively impacted the progression of drug candidates to late-stage clinical development. The work presented here adopts a 2.5D kinochemometrics (KCM) approach, derived from proteochemometrics (PCM), in which protein kinases are depicted by a novel 3D descriptor and the ligands by 2D fingerprints. We demonstrate in two examples that the protein descriptor successfully classified protein kinases based on their group membership and their Asp-Phe-Gly (DFG) conformation. We also compared the performance of our models with those obtained from a full 2D KCM model and QSAR models. In both cases, the internal validation of the models demonstrated good capabilities to distinguish "active" from "inactive" protein kinase-ligand pairs. However, the external validation performed on two independent data sets showed that the two statistical models tended to overestimate the number of "inactive" pairs.
The development of vector based 2.5D print methods for a painting machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parraman, Carinna
2013-02-01
Through recent trends in the application of digitally printed decorative finishes to products, CAD, 3D additive layer manufacturing and research in material perception, [1, 2] there is a growing interest in the accurate rendering of materials and tangible displays. Although current advances in colour management and inkjet printing has meant that users can take for granted high-quality colour and resolution in their printed images, digital methods for transferring a photographic coloured image from screen to paper is constrained by pixel count, file size, colorimetric conversion between colour spaces and the gamut limits of input and output devices. This paper considers new approaches to applying alternative colour palettes by using a vector-based approach through the application of paint mixtures, towards what could be described as a 2.5D printing method. The objective is to not apply an image to a textured surface, but where texture and colour are integral to the mark, that like a brush, delineates the contours in the image. The paper describes the difference between the way inks and paints are mixed and applied. When transcribing the fluid appearance of a brush stroke, there is a difference between a halftone printed mark and a painted mark. The issue of surface quality is significant to subjective qualities when studying the appearance of ink or paint on paper. The paper provides examples of a range of vector marks that are then transcribed into brush stokes by the painting machine.
High-resolution infrared studies of perdeutero-spiropentane, C5D8
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erickson, B. A.; Ju, X.; Nibler, J. W.; Beaudry, C. M.; Blake, T. A.
2016-07-01
Perdeutero-spiropentane (C5D8) has been synthesized, and infrared and Raman spectra are reported for the first time. Wavenumber assignments are made for most of the fundamental vibrational states. Gas phase infrared spectra were recorded at a resolution (0.002 cm-1) sufficient to resolve individual rovibrational lines and show evidence of strong Coriolis and/or Fermi resonance interactions for most bands. However a detailed rovibrational analysis of the fundamental ν15 (b2) parallel band proved possible, and a fit of more than 1600 lines yielded a band origin of 1053.84465(10) cm-1 and ground state constants (in units of cm-1): B0 = 0.1120700(9), DJ = 1.51(3) × 10-8, DJK = 3.42(15) × 10-8. We note that the B0 value is significantly less than a value of Ba = 0.1140 cm-1 calculated using structural parameters from an earlier electron diffraction (ED) study, whereas one expects Ba to be lower than B0 because of thermal averaging over higher vibrational levels. A similar discrepancy was noted in an earlier study of C5H8 (Price et al., 2011). The structural and spectroscopic results are in good accord with values computed at the anharmonic level using the B3LYP density functional method with a cc-pVTZ basis set.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolosov, Vladimir
2015-03-01
Unexpected transrotational microcrystals can be grown in thin 10-100 nm amorphous films. Crystals of different morphology (from nanowhiskers to spherulites, complex textures) and chemical nature (oxides, chalcogenides, metals and alloys) grown in thin films prepared by various methods are studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We use primarily our TEM bend-contour method and SAED (HREM, AFM are also performed). The phenomenon resides in strong (up to 300 degrees/ μm) regular internal bending of crystal lattice planes in a growing crystal. It can be traced inside TEM in situ. Usual translation is complicated by slight regular rotation of the crystal unit cell (transrotation) most prominent at the mesoscale. Different geometries of transrotation of positive and negative curvature are revealed. Transrotational crystal resembles ideal single crystal enclosed in a curved space. It can be also considered similar to hypothetical endless 2.5 D analogy of MW nanotube/nano-onion halves. Transrotation is strongly increasing as the film gets thinner in the range 100-15 nm. Transrotations supplement dislocations and disclinations. New transrotational nanocrystalline model of amorphous state is proposed. Support of Ministry of Higher Education and Science is acknowledged.
Correlation between the spin Hall angle and the structural phases of early 5d transition metals
Liu, Jun; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Mitani, Seiji; Hono, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masamitsu
2015-12-07
We have studied the relationship between the structure and the spin Hall angle of the early 5d transition metals in X/CoFeB/MgO (X = Hf, Ta, W, and Re) heterostructures. Spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) is used to characterize the spin Hall angle of the heavy metals. Transmission electron microscopy images show that all underlayers are amorphous-like when their thicknesses are small, however, crystalline phases emerge as the thickness is increased for certain elements. We find that the heavy metal layer thickness dependence of the SMR reflects these changes in structure. The largest spin Hall angle |θ{sub SH}| of Hf, Ta, W, and Re (∼0.11, 0.10, 0.23, and 0.07, respectively) is found when the dominant phase is amorphous-like. We find that the amorphous-like phase not only possesses large resistivity but also exhibits sizeable spin Hall conductivity, which both contribute to the emergence of the large spin Hall angle.
An efficient quadrature for 2.5D boundary element calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasess, Christian H.; Kreuzer, Wolfgang; Waubke, Holger
2016-11-01
In recent years, the boundary element method has become a widely used tool for calculating the mitigation effects of noise barriers. However, since for large structures calculations in 3D become very inefficient, most of the standard implementations are only in 2D. This means that the noise source is implicitly assumed to be given by a coherent line source, which is not realistic in most cases. By using a Fourier transform with respect to a spatial coordinate along the length of the structure it is possible to reduce the 3D problem to several 2D problems with distinct wavenumbers which allows the simulation of more realistic noise sources and which is typically referred to as 2.5D BEM. To that end, it is necessary to numerically calculate a Fourier-like integral over all the 2D solutions. In this work, an efficient way to calculate this integral is given building on existing approaches using Clenshaw-Curtis-Filon quadrature and demodulation combined with an adaptive order-selection scheme. As BEM calculations are costly, the main focus of the method introduced lies on avoiding too many of these calculations. The efficiency of the method is illustrated using two different examples: a reflecting cylinder and an L-shaped noise barrier.
An index for ray operators in 5d E n SCFTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Chi-Ming; Ganor, Ori J.; Oh, Jihwan
2017-02-01
We construct an index for BPS operators supported on a ray in five dimensional superconformal field theories with exceptional global symmetries. We compute the E n representations (for n = 2 , . . . , 7) of operators of low spin, thus verifying that while the expression for the index is only SO(2 n - 2) × U(1) invariant, the index itself exhibits the full E n symmetry (at least up to the order we expanded). The ray operators we studied in 5d can be viewed as generalizations of operators constructed in a Yang-Mills theory with fundamental matter by attaching an open Wilson line to a quark. For n ≤ 7, in contrast to local operators, they carry nontrivial charge under the ℤ 9 - n ⊂ E n center of the global symmetry. The representations that appear in the ray operator index are therefore different, for n ≤ 7, from those appearing in the previously computed superconformal index. For 3 ≤ n ≤ 7, we find that the leading term in the index is a character of a minuscule representation of E n . We also discuss the case n = 8, which presents a unique technical challenge, and remains an open problem.
Full Waveform 2.5D Teleseismic Surface Wave Tomography with Application to the Tien Shan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roecker, S. W.; Priestley, K. F.; Baker, B. I.
2011-12-01
We adapt the 2.5D spectral domain finite difference waveform tomography algorithm of Roecker et al. (2010) to permit the analysis of teleseismically recorded surface waves. The teleseismic body wave technique of generating synthetic waveforms by specifying an analytic solution for a background wavefield in a 1D model and solving for a scattered field excited by this background is equally applicable to surface waves. We use the locked mode approach of Gomberg and Masters (1988) to calculate the background Greens functions at each point of the finite difference (FD) grid. Because of the much greater concentration of energy at the surface, we adopt the cell-based FD operators of Min et al. (2004) to calculate the free surface boundary conditions, and the generalized stretching function of Komatitch and Martin (2007) to improve the absorption in the PML. We use this algorithm to analyze broad band seismograms of events in Sumatra recorded by the MANAS array in the Tien Shan. Our results show that the upper mantle beneath much of the central Tien Shan has shear wavespeeds at least 10% lower than the lithosphere beneath the Tarim basin to the south or the Kazach shield to the north. At the same time, there appears to be a remnant lithospheric lid beneath the Kyrgyz range in the north, an observation consistent with previous receiver function studies in this area.
Pressure-induced crossing of the core levels in 5 d metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tal, Alexey A.; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Ekholm, Marcus; Jönsson, H. Johan M.; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Abrikosov, Igor A.
2016-05-01
A pressure-induced interaction between core electrons, the core-level crossing (CLC) transition, has been observed in hcp Os at P ≈400 GPa [L. Dubrovinsky et al., Nature (London) 525, 226 (2015)], 10.1038/nature14681. By carrying out a systematic theoretical study for all metals of the 5 d series (Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au) we have found that the CLC transition is a general effect for this series of metals. While in Pt it occurs at ≈1500 GPa , at a pressure substantially higher than in Os, in Ir it occurs already at 80 GPa. Moreover, we predict that in Re the CLC transition may take place already at ambient pressure. We explain the effect of the CLC and analyze the shift of the transition pressure across the series within the Thomas-Fermi model. In particular, we show that the effect has many common features with the atomic collapse in rare-earth elements.
Comparison of the HUI3 and the EQ-5D-3L in a nursing home setting
2017-01-01
Background Accurately assessing changes in the quality of life of older people living permanently in nursing homes is important. The multi-attribute utility instrument most commonly used and recommended to assess health-related quality of life in the nursing home population is the three-level EuroQol EQ-5D-3L. To date, there have been no studies using the Health Utilities Index Mark III (HUI3). The purpose of this study was to compare the level of agreement and sensitivity to change of the EQ-5D-3L and HUI3 in a nursing home population. Methods EQ-5D-3L and HUI3 scores were measured as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial of nurse led care coordination in a nursing home population in Perth, Western Australia at baseline and 6-month follow up. Results Both measures were completed for 199 residents at baseline and 177 at 6-month follow-up. Mean baseline utility scores for EQ-5D-3L (0.45; 95% CI 0.41–0.49) and HUI3 (0.15; 95% CI 0.10–0.20) were significantly different (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.01) and agreement was poor to moderate between absolute scores from each instrument (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.63). The EQ-5D-3L appeared more sensitive to change over the 6-month period. Conclusion Our findings show that the EQ-5D-3L and HUI3 estimate different utility scores among nursing home residents. These differences should be taken into account, particularly when considering the implications of the cost-effectiveness of particular interventions and we conclude that the HUI3 is no better suited to measuring health-related quality of life in a nursing home population when compared to the EQ-5D-3L. PMID:28234983
An Exploratory Study to Test the Impact on Three “Bolt-On” Items to the EQ-5D
Yang, Yaling; Rowen, Donna; Brazier, John; Tsuchiya, Aki; Young, Tracey; Longworth, Louise
2015-01-01
Background Generic preference-based measures were criticized for being inappropriate in some conditions. One solution is to include “bolt-on” dimensions describing additional specific health problems. Objectives This study aimed to develop bolt-on dimensions to the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and assess their impact on health state values. Methods Bolt-on dimensions were developed for vision problems, hearing problems, and tiredness. Each bolt-on dimension had three severity levels to match the EQ-5D. Three “core” EQ-5D states across a range of severity were selected, and each level of a bolt-on item was added, resulting in nine states in each condition. Health states with and without the bolt-on dimensions were valued by 300 members of the UK general public using time trade-off in face-to-face interviews, and mean health state values were compared using t tests. Regression analysis examined the impact of the bolt-on variants and the level of the bolt-on items after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Bolt-on dimensions had an impact on health state values of the EQ-5D; however, the size, direction, and significance of the impact depend on the severity of the core EQ-5D state and of the bolt-on dimension. Regression analysis demonstrated that after controlling for possible differences in sociodemographic characteristics between the groups, there were no significant differences in health state values between the three bolt-on dimensions but confirmed that the impact depended on the severity of the EQ-5D health state and the levels of bolt-on dimensions. Conclusions The impact of a bolt-on dimension on the EQ-5D depends on the core health state and the level of the bolt-on dimension. Further research in this area is encouraged. PMID:25595234
5D-QSAR for spirocyclic sigma1 receptor ligands by Quasar receptor surface modeling.
Oberdorf, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas J; Wünsch, Bernhard
2010-07-01
Based on a contiguous and structurally as well as biologically diverse set of 87 sigma(1) ligands, a 5D-QSAR study was conducted in which a quasi-atomistic receptor surface modeling approach (program package Quasar) was applied. The superposition of the ligands was performed with the tool Pharmacophore Elucidation (MOE-package), which takes all conformations of the ligands into account. This procedure led to four pharmacophoric structural elements with aromatic, hydrophobic, cationic and H-bond acceptor properties. Using the aligned structures a 3D-model of the ligand binding site of the sigma(1) receptor was obtained, whose general features are in good agreement with previous assumptions on the receptor structure, but revealed some novel insights since it represents the receptor surface in more detail. Thus, e.g., our model indicates the presence of an H-bond acceptor moiety in the binding site as counterpart to the ligands' cationic ammonium center, rather than a negatively charged carboxylate group. The presented QSAR model is statistically valid and represents the biological data of all tested compounds, including a test set of 21 ligands not used in the modeling process, with very good to excellent accuracy [q(2) (training set, n=66; leave 1/3 out) = 0.84, p(2) (test set, n=21)=0.64]. Moreover, the binding affinities of 13 further spirocyclic sigma(1) ligands were predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean deviation in pK(i) approximately 0.8). Thus, in addition to novel insights into the requirements for binding of spirocyclic piperidines to the sigma(1) receptor, the presented model can be used successfully in the rational design of new sigma(1) ligands.
5D model for accurate representation and visualization of dynamic cardiac structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Wei-te; Robb, Richard A.
2000-05-01
Accurate cardiac modeling is challenging due to the intricate structure and complex contraction patterns of myocardial tissues. Fast imaging techniques can provide 4D structural information acquired as a sequence of 3D images throughout the cardiac cycle. To mode. The beating heart, we created a physics-based surface model that deforms between successive time point in the cardiac cycle. 3D images of canine hearts were acquired during one complete cardiac cycle using the DSR and the EBCT. The left ventricle of the first time point is reconstructed as a triangular mesh. A mass-spring physics-based deformable mode,, which can expand and shrink with local contraction and stretching forces distributed in an anatomically accurate simulation of cardiac motion, is applied to the initial mesh and allows the initial mesh to deform to fit the left ventricle in successive time increments of the sequence. The resulting 4D model can be interactively transformed and displayed with associated regional electrical activity mapped onto anatomic surfaces, producing a 5D model, which faithfully exhibits regional cardiac contraction and relaxation patterns over the entire heart. The model faithfully represents structural changes throughout the cardiac cycle. Such models provide the framework for minimizing the number of time points required to usefully depict regional motion of myocardium and allow quantitative assessment of regional myocardial motion. The electrical activation mapping provides spatial and temporal correlation within the cardiac cycle. In procedures which as intra-cardiac catheter ablation, visualization of the dynamic model can be used to accurately localize the foci of myocardial arrhythmias and guide positioning of catheters for optimal ablation.
Reducing NPR 7120.5D to Practice: Preparing for a Life-Cycle Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Randall L.
2008-01-01
In March 2007, NASA issued revised rules for space flight project management, NPR 7120.5D, 'NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements.' Central to the new rules was the construct of Key Decision Points, maturity gates that the project team must pass in order to continue development. In order that the KDP decision be fully informed, the NPR required, as entrance criteria for the gate, the generation and delivery of specified planning, technical, and cost/schedule documents (gate products) and a life-cycle review, the Preliminary Design Review. Building on JPL experience on the Prometheus and Juno projects, the team successfully organized for and conducted these reviews on an aggressive schedule. Key actions were taken to proactively interact with the SRB, produce high-quality gate products with stakeholder review, generate review presentation materials, and handle a myriad of supporting logistical functions. A review preparation team was established, including a Review Captain and leads for documentation, information systems, and logistics, and their roles, responsibilities and task assignments were identified. Aids were produced, including a detailed review preparation schedule and a comprehensive gate products production table. Institutional support was leveraged early and often. Implementation strategy reflected the needs of a nationally-distributed team, as well as applicable export control and IT security requirements. This paper gives a brief overview of the GRAIL mission and its project management challenges, provides a detailed description of project PMSR and PDR preparation and execution activities, including positive and negative lessons learned, and identifies recommendations for future NASA (and non-NASA) project teams.
Regular black holes: Electrically charged solutions, Reissner-Nordstroem outside a de Sitter core
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.
2011-06-15
To have the correct picture of a black hole as a whole, it is of crucial importance to understand its interior. The singularities that lurk inside the horizon of the usual Kerr-Newman family of black hole solutions signal an endpoint to the physical laws and, as such, should be substituted in one way or another. A proposal that has been around for sometime is to replace the singular region of the spacetime by a region containing some form of matter or false vacuum configuration that can also cohabit with the black hole interior. Black holes without singularities are called regular black holes. In the present work, regular black hole solutions are found within general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. We show that there are objects which correspond to regular charged black holes, whose interior region is de Sitter, whose exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem, and the boundary between both regions is made of an electrically charged spherically symmetric coat. There are several types of solutions: regular nonextremal black holes with a null matter boundary, regular nonextremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, regular extremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, and regular overcharged stars with a timelike matter boundary. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular solutions are analyzed.
No practical lensing by Lambda: Deflection of light in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butcher, Luke M.
2016-10-01
Debate persists as to whether the cosmological constant Λ can directly modify the power of a gravitational lens. With the aim of reestablishing a consensus on this issue, I conduct a comprehensive analysis of gravitational lensing (to second order) in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime, wherein the effects of Λ should be most apparent. To second order, the effective lensing law is found to be in precise agreement with the Λ =0 result: αeff=4 m /beff+15 π m2/4 beff2+O (m3/beff3) , where the effective bending angle αeff and impact parameter beff are defined by the angles and angular diameter distances measured by a comoving cosmological observer. [These observers follow the timelike geodesic congruence which (i) respects the continuous symmetries of the spacetime and (ii) approaches local isotropy most rapidly far from the lens.] The effective lensing law can be derived using lensed or unlensed angular diameter distances, although the inherent ambiguity of unlensed distances generates an additional uncertainty O (m5/Λ beff7). These calculations do not rule out the possibility of an extremely small Λ -lensing effect O (m3/beff3); however, such an effect would be completely negligible in practice and will always be smaller than the uncertainty from unlensed distances. I conclude that, despite recent legitimate corrections to the formalism, the cosmological constant does not interfere with gravitational lensing in any practical way.
Marginally outer trapped surfaces in de Sitter space by low-dimensional geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musso, Emilio; Nicolodi, Lorenzo
2015-10-01
A marginally outer trapped surface (MOTS) in de Sitter spacetime is an oriented spacelike surface whose mean curvature vector is proportional to one of the two null sections of its normal bundle. Associated with a spacelike immersed surface there are two enveloping maps into Möbius space (the conformal 3-sphere), which correspond to the two future-directed null directions of the surface normal planes. We give a description of MOTSs based on the Möbius geometry of their envelopes. We distinguish three cases according to whether both, one, or none of the fundamental forms in the normal null directions vanish. Special attention is given to MOTSs with non-zero parallel mean curvature vector. It is shown that any such a surface is generically the central sphere congruence (conformal Gauss map) of a surface in Möbius space which is locally Möbius equivalent to a non-zero constant mean curvature surface in some space form subgeometry.
Einstein-vector gravity, emerging gauge symmetry, and de Sitter bounce
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Wei-Jian; Lü, H.
2016-02-01
We construct a class of Einstein-vector theories where the vector field couples bilinearly to the curvature polynomials of arbitrary order in such a way that only the Riemann tensor rather than its derivative enters the equations of motion. The theories can thus be ghost free. The U (1 ) gauge symmetry may emerge in the vacuum and also in some weak-field limit. We focus on the two-derivative theory and study a variety of applications. We find that in this theory, the energy-momentum tensor of dark matter provides a position-dependent gauge-violating term to the Maxwell field. We also use the vector as an inflaton and construct cosmological solutions. We find that the expansion can accelerate without a bare cosmological constant, indicating a new candidate for dark energy. Furthermore, we obtain exact solutions of de Sitter bounce, generated by the vector which behaves like a Maxwell field at later times. We also obtain a few new exact black holes that are asymptotic to flat and Lifshitz spacetimes. In addition, we construct exact wormholes and Randall-Sundrum II domain walls.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guilleux, Maxime; Serreau, Julien
2017-02-01
Nonperturbative renormalization group techniques have recently proven a powerful tool to tackle the nontrivial infrared dynamics of light scalar fields in de Sitter space. In the present article, we develop the formalism beyond the local potential approximation employed in earlier works. In particular, we consider the derivative expansion, a systematic expansion in powers of field derivatives, appropriate for long wavelength modes, that we generalize to the relevant case of a curved metric with Lorentzian signature. The method is illustrated with a detailed discussion of the so-called local potential approximation prime which, on top of the full effective potential, includes a running (but field-independent) field renormalization. We explicitly compute the associated anomalous dimension for O (N ) theories. We find that it can take large values along the flow, leading to sizable differences as compared to the local potential approximation. However, it does not prevent the phenomenon of gravitationally induced dimensional reduction pointed out in previous studies. We show that, as a consequence, the effective potential at the end of the flow is unchanged as compared to the local potential approximation, the main effect of the running anomalous dimension being merely to slow down the flow. We discuss some consequences of these findings.
Tunneling probability for the birth of an asymptotically de Sitter universe
Acacio de Barros, J.; Correa Silva, E. V.; Monerat, G. A.; Oliveira-Neto, G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.; Romildo, P. Jr.
2007-05-15
In the present work, we quantize a closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model in the presence of a positive cosmological constant and radiation. It gives rise to a Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the scale factor which has the form of a Schroedinger equation for a potential with a barrier. We solve it numerically and determine the tunneling probability for the birth of a asymptotically DeSitter, inflationary universe, initially, as a function of the mean energy of the initial wave function. Then, we verify that the tunneling probability increases with the cosmological constant, for a fixed value of the mean energy of the initial wave function. Our treatment of the problem is more general than previous ones, based on the WKB approximation. That is the case because we take into account the fact that the scale factor (a) cannot be smaller than zero. It means that, one has to introduce an infinity potential wall at a=0, which forces any wave packet to be zero there. That condition introduces new results, in comparison with previous works.
Ce 5d and Fe 3d magnetic profiles in CeH2/Fe multilayers probed by XRMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaouen, N.; Tonnerre, J. M.; Raoux, D.; Ortega, L.; Bontempi, E.; Münzenberg, M.; Felsch, W.; Suzuki, M.; Maruyama, H.; Dürr, H. A.; Dudzik, E.; van der Laan, G.
The element and electronic shell specificities of X-ray resonant magnetic scattering have been used to investigate the magnetization of Ce 5d and Fe 3d states in [CeH2(19.6 Å)/Fe(25.4 Å)]*38 a multilayer. We show that the measurement of the magnetic contribution to the intensities reflected at low angles at the Ce L2 and Fe L2,3 edges allows us to investigate the profile of the Ce 5d and Fe 3d magnetic polarization. The Fe 3d polarization is found to be uniform across the Fe layer and the Ce 5d polarization appears to be restricted close to the interface with Fe.
5D-intravital tomography as a novel tool for non-invasive in-vivo analysis of human skin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans G.; Gregory, Axel; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Schwarz, Martin; Riemann, Iris; Stracke, Frank; Huck, Volker; Gorzelanny, Christian; Schneider, Stefan W.
2010-02-01
Some years ago, CE-marked clinical multiphoton systems for 3D imaging of human skin with subcellular resolution have been launched. These tomographs provide optical biopsies with submicron resolution based on two-photon excited autofluorescence (NAD(P)H, flavoproteins, keratin, elastin, melanin, porphyrins) and second harmonic generation by collagen. The 3D tomograph was now transferred into a 5D imaging system by the additional detection of the emission spectrum and the fluorescence lifetime based on spatially and spectrally resolved time-resolved single photon counting. The novel 5D intravital tomograph (5D-IVT) was employed for the early detection of atopic dermatitis and the analysis of treatment effects.
Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life of Chinese Adults in Heilongjiang Using EQ-5D-3L
Huang, Weidong; Yu, Hongjuan; Liu, Chaojie; Liu, Guoxiang; Wu, Qunhong; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xiaowen; Shi, Linmei; Xu, Xiaoxue
2017-01-01
This study aimed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Heilongjiang adult populations by using the EuroQol five-dimension three-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire and to identify factors associated with HRQOL. Data from the National Health Services Survey (NHSS) 2008 in Heilongjiang province were obtained. Results of EQ-5D-3L questionnaires completed by 11,523 adult respondents (18 years or older) were converted to health index scores using a recently developed Chinese value set. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression models were established to determine demographic, socioeconomic, health, and lifestyle factors that were associated with HRQOL and reported problems in the five dimensions of EQ-5D-3L. The Heilongjiang population had a mean EQ-5D-3L index score of 0.959. Lower EQ-5D-3L index scores were associated with older age, lower levels of education, chronic conditions, temporary accommodation, poverty, unemployment, and lack of regular physical activities. Older respondents and those who were unemployed, had chronic conditions, and lived in poverty were more likely to report problems in all of the five health dimensions. Higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of reporting health problems in mobility, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression. Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor HRQOL. Regional population norms for EQ-5D-3L are needed for health economic studies due to great socioeconomic disparities across regions in China. Overall, the Heilongjiang population has a similar level of HRQOL compared with the national average. PMID:28241507
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doulamis, A.; Doulamis, N.; Ioannidis, C.; Chrysouli, C.; Grammalidis, N.; Dimitropoulos, K.; Potsiou, C.; Stathopoulou, E.-K.; Ioannides, M.
2015-08-01
Outdoor large-scale cultural sites are mostly sensitive to environmental, natural and human made factors, implying an imminent need for a spatio-temporal assessment to identify regions of potential cultural interest (material degradation, structuring, conservation). On the other hand, in Cultural Heritage research quite different actors are involved (archaeologists, curators, conservators, simple users) each of diverse needs. All these statements advocate that a 5D modelling (3D geometry plus time plus levels of details) is ideally required for preservation and assessment of outdoor large scale cultural sites, which is currently implemented as a simple aggregation of 3D digital models at different time and levels of details. The main bottleneck of such an approach is its complexity, making 5D modelling impossible to be validated in real life conditions. In this paper, a cost effective and affordable framework for 5D modelling is proposed based on a spatial-temporal dependent aggregation of 3D digital models, by incorporating a predictive assessment procedure to indicate which regions (surfaces) of an object should be reconstructed at higher levels of details at next time instances and which at lower ones. In this way, dynamic change history maps are created, indicating spatial probabilities of regions needed further 3D modelling at forthcoming instances. Using these maps, predictive assessment can be made, that is, to localize surfaces within the objects where a high accuracy reconstruction process needs to be activated at the forthcoming time instances. The proposed 5D Digital Cultural Heritage Model (5D-DCHM) is implemented using open interoperable standards based on the CityGML framework, which also allows the description of additional semantic metadata information. Visualization aspects are also supported to allow easy manipulation, interaction and representation of the 5D-DCHM geometry and the respective semantic information. The open source 3DCity
Quality of life profile and psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS patients
2012-01-01
Objectives We assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL), its associated factors, and examined measurement properties of the EuroQol - 5 Dimensions - 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods A cross-sectional multi-site survey was conducted in 1016 patients (age: 35.4 ± 7.0 years; 63.8% male) in three epicenters of Vietnam. Internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, and discriminative validity of the EQ-5D-5L and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were evaluated. Tobit censored regression models were used to identify predictors of HRQOL in HIV/AIDS patients. Results The mean EQ-5D-5L single index and VAS were 0.65 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.63; 0.67) and 70.3 (95% CI = 69.2; 71.5). Cronbach’s alpha of five dimensions was 0.85. EQ-5D-5L has a good convergent validity with VAS (0.73). It discriminated patients at different HIV/AIDS stages, duration of ART, and CD4 cell count. Predictors of poorer HRQOL included being female, lower education level, unemployment, alcohol and drug use, CD4<200 cells/mL, and advanced HIV/AIDS stages. Conclusion The EQ-5D-5L has good measurement properties in HIV/AIDS patients and holds potentials for monitoring ART outcomes. Integration of HRQOL measurement using EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS clinical practice could be helpful for economic evaluation of HIV/AIDS interventions. PMID:23116130
Nolan, Claire M; Longworth, Louise; Lord, Joanne; Canavan, Jane L; Jones, Sarah E; Kon, Samantha S C; Man, William D-C
2016-01-01
Background The EQ-5D, a generic health status questionnaire that is widely used in health economic evaluation, was recently expanded to the EQ-5D-5L to address criticisms of unresponsiveness and ceiling effect. Aims To describe the validity, responsiveness and minimum important difference of the EQ-5D-5L in COPD. Methods Study 1: The validity of the EQ-5D-5L utility index and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was compared with four established disease-specific health status questionnaires and other measures of disease severity in 616 stable outpatients with COPD. Study 2: The EQ-5D-5L utility index and EQ-VAS were measured in 324 patients with COPD before and after 8 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation. Distribution and anchor-based approaches were used to estimate the minimum important difference. Results There were moderate-to-strong correlations between utility index and EQ-VAS with disease-specific questionnaires (Pearson's r=0.47–0.72). A ceiling effect was seen in 7% and 2.6% of utility index and EQ-VAS. Utility index decreased (worsening health status) with indices of worsening disease severity. With rehabilitation, mean (95% CI) changes in utility index and EQ-VAS were 0.065 (0.047 to 0.083) and 8.6 (6.5 to 10.7), respectively, with standardised response means of 0.39 and 0.44. The mean (range) anchor estimates of the minimum important difference for utility index and EQ-VAS were 0.051 (0.037 to 0.063) and 6.9 (6.5 to 8.0), respectively. Conclusions The EQ-5D-5L is a valid and responsive measure of health status in COPD and may provide useful additional cost-effectiveness data in clinical trials. PMID:27030578
Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life of Chinese Adults in Heilongjiang Using EQ-5D-3L.
Huang, Weidong; Yu, Hongjuan; Liu, Chaojie; Liu, Guoxiang; Wu, Qunhong; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xiaowen; Shi, Linmei; Xu, Xiaoxue
2017-02-23
This study aimed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Heilongjiang adult populations by using the EuroQol five-dimension three-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire and to identify factors associated with HRQOL. Data from the National Health Services Survey (NHSS) 2008 in Heilongjiang province were obtained. Results of EQ-5D-3L questionnaires completed by 11,523 adult respondents (18 years or older) were converted to health index scores using a recently developed Chinese value set. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression models were established to determine demographic, socioeconomic, health, and lifestyle factors that were associated with HRQOL and reported problems in the five dimensions of EQ-5D-3L. The Heilongjiang population had a mean EQ-5D-3L index score of 0.959. Lower EQ-5D-3L index scores were associated with older age, lower levels of education, chronic conditions, temporary accommodation, poverty, unemployment, and lack of regular physical activities. Older respondents and those who were unemployed, had chronic conditions, and lived in poverty were more likely to report problems in all of the five health dimensions. Higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of reporting health problems in mobility, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression. Low socioeconomic status is associated with poor HRQOL. Regional population norms for EQ-5D-3L are needed for health economic studies due to great socioeconomic disparities across regions in China. Overall, the Heilongjiang population has a similar level of HRQOL compared with the national average.
1.5D Quasilinear Model for Alpha Particle-TAE Interaction in ARIES ACT-I
K. Ghantous, N.N. Gorelenkov, C. Kessel, F. Poli
2013-01-30
We study the TAE interaction with alpha particle fusion products in ARIES ACT-I using the 1.5D quasilinear model. 1.5D uses linear analytic expressions for growth and damping rates of TAE modes evaluated using TRANSP pro les to calculates the relaxation of pressure pro les. NOVA- K simulations are conducted to validate the analytic dependancies of the rates, and to normalize their absolute value. The low dimensionality of the model permits calculating loss diagrams in large parameter spaces.
Santos, J. F. M. dos; Terra, I. A. A.; Nunes, L. A. O.; Catunda, T.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Guimarães, F. B.; Baesso, M. L.
2015-02-07
Trivalent Tb-doped materials exhibit strong emission in the green and weak emission in the UV-blue levels. Usually, this behavior is attributed to the cross relaxation (CR) process. In this paper, the luminescence properties of Tb{sup 3+}-doped low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses are analyzed for UV (λ{sub exc} = 325 nm) and visible (488 nm) excitations. Under 325 nm excitation, the intensity of green luminescence increases proportionally to Tb{sup 3+} concentration. However, the blue luminescence intensity is strongly reduced with the increase of concentration from 0.5–15.0 wt. %. In the case of 488 nm excitation, a saturation behavior of the green emission is observed at intensities two orders of magnitude smaller than expected for bleaching of the ground state population. Using a rate equation model, we showed that this behavior can be explained by an excited state absorption cross section two orders of magnitude larger than the ground state absorption. The blue emission is much weaker than expected from our rate equations (325 nm and 488 nm excitation). We concluded that only the CR process cannot explain the overall feature of measured luminescence quenching in the wide range of Tb{sup 3+} concentrations. Cooperative upconversion from a pair of excited ions ({sup 5}D{sub 3}:{sup 5}D{sub 3} or {sup 5}D{sub 3}:{sup 5}D{sub 4}) and other mechanisms involving upper lying states (4f5d, charge transfer, host matrix, defects, etc.) may play a significant role.
Induced fermionic currents in de Sitter spacetime in the presence of a compactified cosmic string
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammadi, A.; Bezerra de Mello, E. R.; Saharian, A. A.
2015-07-01
We investigate the vacuum fermionic currents in the geometry of a compactified cosmic string on the background of de Sitter (dS) spacetime. The currents are induced by magnetic fluxes running along the cosmic string and enclosed by the compact dimension. We show that the vacuum charge and the radial component of the current density vanish. By using the Abel-Plana summation formula, the azimuthal and axial currents are explicitly decomposed into two parts: the first one corresponds to the geometry of a straight cosmic string, and the second one is induced by the compactification of the string along its axis. For the axial current the first part vanishes and the corresponding topological part is an even periodic function of the magnetic flux along the string axis and an odd periodic function of the flux enclosed by the compact dimension with the periods equal to the flux quantum. The azimuthal current density is an odd periodic function of the flux along the string axis and an even periodic function of the flux enclosed by the compact dimension with the same period. Depending on the magnetic fluxes, the planar angle deficit can either enhance or reduce the azimuthal and axial currents. The influence of the background gravitational field on the vacuum currents is crucial at distances from the string larger than the dS curvature radius. In particular, for the geometry of a straight cosmic string and for a massive fermionic field, we show that the decay of the azimuthal current density is damping oscillatory with the amplitude inversely proportional to the fourth power of the distance from the string. This behavior is in clear contrast with the case of the string in Minkowski bulk, where the current density is exponentially suppressed at large distances.
Spin-orbit-driven magnetic structure and excitation in the 5d pyrochlore Cd2Os2O7
Calder, Stuart A; Vale, James G.; Bogdanov, Nikolay; ...
2016-06-07
Here, much consideration has been given to the role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in 5d oxides, particularly on the formation of novel electronic states and manifested metal-insulator transitions (MITs). SOC plays a dominant role in 5d5 iridates (Ir4+), undergoing MITs both concurrent (pyrochlores) and separated (perovskites) from the onset of magnetic order. However, the role of SOC for other 5d configurations is less clear. For example, 5d3 (Os5+) systems are expected to have an orbital singlet with reduced effective SOC. The pyrochlore Cd2Os2O7 nonetheless exhibits a MIT entwined with magnetic order phenomenologically similar to pyrochlore iridates. Here, we resolve themore » magnetic structure in Cd2Os2O7 with neutron diffraction and then via resonant inelastic X-ray scattering determine the salient electronic and magnetic energy scales controlling the MIT. In particular, SOC plays a subtle role in creating the electronic ground state but drives the magnetic order and emergence of a multiple spin-flip magnetic excitation.« less
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Kernel vitreosity is an important trait of wheat grain, but its complete developmental control is not known. We developed back-cross seven (BC7) near isogenic lines in the soft white spring wheat cultivar Alpowa that possess or lack the distal portion of chromosome 5D short arm. This deletion was de...
A comparison of 1D and 1.5D arrays for imaging volumetric flaws in small bore pipework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barber, T. S.; Wilcox, P. D.; Nixon, A. D.
2015-03-01
1.5D arrays can be seen as a potentially ideal compromise between 1D arrays and 2D matrix arrays in terms of focusing capability, element density, weld coverage and data processing time. This paper presents an initial study of 1D and 1.5D arrays for high frequency (15MHz) imaging of volumetric flaws in small-bore (30-60mm outer diameter) thin-walled (3-8mm) pipework. A combination of 3D modelling and experimental work is used to determine Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) improvement with a strong relationship between SNR and the longer dimension of element size observed. Similar behavior is demonstrated experimentally rendering a 1mm diameter Flat Bottom Hole (FBH) in Copper-Nickel alloy undetectable using a larger array element. A 3-5dB SNR increase is predicted when using a 1.5D array assuming a spherical reflector and a 2dB increase was observed on experimental trials with a FBH. It is argued that this improvement is likely to be a lower bound estimate due to the specular behavior of a FBH with future trials planned on welded samples with realistic flaws.
Spin-orbit-driven magnetic structure and excitation in the 5d pyrochlore Cd2Os2O7
Calder, S.; Vale, J. G.; Bogdanov, N. A.; Liu, X.; Donnerer, C.; Upton, M. H.; Casa, D.; Said, A. H.; Lumsden, M. D.; Zhao, Z.; Yan, J. -Q.; Mandrus, D.; Nishimoto, S.; van den Brink, J.; Hill, J. P.; McMorrow, D. F.; Christianson, A. D.
2016-01-01
Much consideration has been given to the role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in 5d oxides, particularly on the formation of novel electronic states and manifested metal-insulator transitions (MITs). SOC plays a dominant role in 5d5 iridates (Ir4+), undergoing MITs both concurrent (pyrochlores) and separated (perovskites) from the onset of magnetic order. However, the role of SOC for other 5d configurations is less clear. For example, 5d3 (Os5+) systems are expected to have an orbital singlet with reduced effective SOC. The pyrochlore Cd2Os2O7 nonetheless exhibits a MIT entwined with magnetic order phenomenologically similar to pyrochlore iridates. Here, we resolve the magnetic structure in Cd2Os2O7 with neutron diffraction and then via resonant inelastic X-ray scattering determine the salient electronic and magnetic energy scales controlling the MIT. In particular, SOC plays a subtle role in creating the electronic ground state but drives the magnetic order and emergence of a multiple spin-flip magnetic excitation. PMID:27273216
Bessa Pereira, Catarina; Bocková, Markéta; Santos, Rita F.; Santos, Ana Mafalda; Martins de Araújo, Mafalda; Oliveira, Liliana; Homola, Jiří; Carmo, Alexandre M.
2016-01-01
The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) family comprises a group of membrane-attached or secreted proteins that contain one or more modules/domains structurally similar to the membrane distal domain of type I macrophage scavenger receptor. Although no all-inclusive biological function has been ascribed to the SRCR family, some of these receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) of bacteria, fungi, or other microbes. SSc5D is a recently described soluble SRCR receptor produced by monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes, consisting of an N-terminal portion, which contains five SRCR modules, and a large C-terminal mucin-like domain. Toward establishing a global common role for SRCR domains, we interrogated whether the set of five SRCR domains of SSc5D displayed pattern recognition receptor (PRR) properties. For that purpose, we have expressed in a mammalian expression system the N-terminal SRCR-containing moiety of SSc5D (N-SSc5D), thus excluding the mucin-like domain likely by nature to bind microorganisms, and tested the capacity of the SRCR functional groups to physically interact with bacteria. Using conventional protein–bacteria binding assays, we showed that N-SSc5D had a superior capacity to bind to Escherichia coli strains RS218 and IHE3034 compared with that of the extracellular domains of the SRCR proteins CD5 and CD6 (sCD5 and sCD6, respectively), and similar E. coli-binding properties as Spα, a proven PRR of the SRCR family. We have further designed a more sensitive, real-time, and label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assay and examined the capacity of N-SSc5D, Spα, sCD5, and sCD6 to bind to different bacteria. We demonstrated that N-SSc5D compares with Spα in the capacity to bind to E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and further that it can distinguish between pathogenic E. coli RS218 and IHE3034 strains and the non-pathogenic laboratory E. coli strain BL21(DE3). Our work thus advocates the
Performance and applicability of a 2.5-D ice-flow model in the vicinity of a dome
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passalacqua, Olivier; Gagliardini, Olivier; Parrenin, Frédéric; Todd, Joe; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Ritz, Catherine
2016-07-01
Three-dimensional ice flow modelling requires a large number of computing resources and observation data, such that 2-D simulations are often preferable. However, when there is significant lateral divergence, this must be accounted for (2.5-D models), and a flow tube is considered (volume between two horizontal flowlines). In the absence of velocity observations, this flow tube can be derived assuming that the flowlines follow the steepest slope of the surface, under a few flow assumptions. This method typically consists of scanning a digital elevation model (DEM) with a moving window and computing the curvature at the centre of this window. The ability of the 2.5-D models to account properly for a 3-D state of strain and stress has not clearly been established, nor their sensitivity to the size of the scanning window and to the geometry of the ice surface, for example in the cases of sharp ridges. Here, we study the applicability of a 2.5-D ice flow model around a dome, typical of the East Antarctic plateau conditions. A twin experiment is carried out, comparing 3-D and 2.5-D computed velocities, on three dome geometries, for several scanning windows and thermal conditions. The chosen scanning window used to evaluate the ice surface curvature should be comparable to the typical radius of this curvature. For isothermal ice, the error made by the 2.5-D model is in the range 0-10 % for weakly diverging flows, but is 2 or 3 times higher for highly diverging flows and could lead to a non-physical ice surface at the dome. For non-isothermal ice, assuming a linear temperature profile, the presence of a sharp ridge makes the 2.5-D velocity field unrealistic. In such cases, the basal ice is warmer and more easily laterally strained than the upper one, the walls of the flow tube are not vertical, and the assumptions of the 2.5-D model are no longer valid.
Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru
2015-03-26
We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.
An Exact Solution to the Quantized Electromagnetic Field in D-Dimensional de Sitter Space-Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alencar, G.; Guedes, I.; Landim, R. R.; Filho, R. N. Costa
2012-12-01
In this work, we investigate the quantum theory of light propagating in D-dimensional de Sitter space-times. To do so, we use the method of dynamic invariants to obtain the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The quantum behavior of the electromagnetic field in this background is analyzed. As the electromagnetism loses its conformality in D≠4, we point out that there will be particle production and comoving objects will feel a Bunch-Davies thermal bath. This may become important in extra dimension physics and raises the intriguing possibility that precise measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background could verify the existence of extra dimensions.
Real Scalar Field Scattering Around the Extreme Reissner-Nordström Black Hole in de Sitter Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Guanghai; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Suojie
2015-02-01
The real scalar field scattering of the extreme Reissner-Nordström black hole in de Sitter spacetime is investigated numerically via the polynomial approximation. It is found that the scalar field behaves like harmonic waves under the tortoise coordinate, while piles up near the outer event horizon and the cosmological horizon. The abnormity in previous work is eliminated by appropriate application of the boundary conditions in numerical calculations. Substituting the continuous effective potential with a stair potential of n steps, we evaluate the transmission and reflection coefficients of the scalar field in high and low energy regimes, where an asymptotical formula is derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brizuela, David; Kiefer, Claus; Krämer, Manuel
2016-05-01
We present detailed calculations for quantum-gravitational corrections to the power spectra of gauge-invariant scalar and tensor perturbations during inflation. This is done by performing a semiclassical Born-Oppenheimer type of approximation to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, from which we obtain a Schrödinger equation with quantum-gravitational correction terms. As a first step, we perform our calculation for a de Sitter universe and find that the correction terms lead to an enhancement of power on the largest scales.
Akpinar, Bala A; Lucas, Stuart J; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet
2015-08-01
Flow cytometric sorting of individual chromosomes and chromosome-based sequencing reduces the complexity of large, repetitive Triticeae genomes. We flow-sorted chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat and sequenced it by Roche 454 GS FLX platform to approximately 2.2x coverage. Repetitive sequences represent 81.09% of the survey sequences of this chromosome, and Class I retroelements are the prominent type, with a particular abundance of LTR/Gypsy superfamily. Nonrepetitive sequences were assembled to cover 17.76% of the total chromosome regions. Up to 6188 nonrepetitive gene loci were predicted to be encoded by the 5D chromosome. The numbers and chromosomal distribution patterns of tRNA genes suggest abundance in tRNA(L) (ys) and tRNA(M) (et) species, while the nonrepetitive assembly reveals tRNA(A) (la) species as the most abundant type. A comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of bread wheat and Aegilops chromosome 5D indicates conservation of gene content. Orthologous unique genes, matching Aegilops 5D sequences, numbered 3730 in barley, 5063 in Brachypodium, 4872 in sorghum and 4209 in rice. In this study, we provide a chromosome-specific view into the structure and organization of the 5D chromosome of Ae. tauschii, the D genome ancestor of bread wheat. This study contributes to our understanding of the chromosome-level evolution of the wheat genome and presents a valuable resource in wheat genomics due to the recent hybridization of Ae. tauschii genome with its tetraploid ancestor.
Oak, Sameer R.; Strnad, Gregory J.; Bena, James; Farrow, Lutul D.; Parker, Richard D.; Jones, Morgan H.; Spindler, Kurt P.
2016-01-01
Background: The EuroQol 5 dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D), Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) 10 Global Health, and Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) are generic patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires that assess a patient’s general health. In choosing a PRO to track general health status, it is necessary to consider which measure will be the most responsive to change after treatment. To date, no studies exist comparing responsiveness among the EQ-5D, PROMIS 10 Global Health, and the Veterans Rand 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12). Purpose: To determine which of the generic PROs are most responsive internally and externally in the setting of knee arthroscopy. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Fifty patients who underwent knee arthroscopy were surveyed preoperatively and a mean 3.6 months postoperatively, with 90% follow-up. PROs included the EQ-5D, EQ-5D visual analog scale, PROMIS 10 Global Health (PROMIS 10) physical and mental components, VR-12 physical and mental components, and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)–pain subscale. Internal responsiveness was evaluated by performing paired t tests on the changes in measures and calculating 2 measures of effect size: Cohen d and standardized response mean (SRM). External responsiveness was evaluated by comparing Pearson correlation measures between the disease-specific reference KOOS-pain and generic PROs. Results: For internal responsiveness, 3 PROs showed a statistically significant improvement in score after treatment (EQ-5D: +0.10 [95% CI, 0.06-0.15], VR-12 physical: +7.2 [95% CI, 4.0-10.4]), and PROMIS 10 physical: +4.4 [95% CI, 2.6-6.3]) and effect size statistics with moderate change (Cohen d and SRM, 0.5-0.8). Assessing external responsiveness, a high correlation with the disease-specific reference (KOOS-pain score) was found for EQ-5D (0.65), VR-12 physical (0.57), and PROMIS 10 physical (0.77). For
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gobin, Damien
2015-05-01
In this paper, we consider massive charged Dirac fields propagating in the exterior region of de Sitter-Reissner-Nordström black holes. We show that the parameters of such black holes are uniquely determined by the partial knowledge of the corresponding scattering operator S(λ ) at a fixed energy λ. More precisely, we consider the partial wave scattering operators S(λ ,n) (here λ \\in {R} is the energy and n\\in {{{N}}\\star } denotes the angular momentum) defined as the restrictions of the full scattering operator on a well-chosen basis of spin-weighted spherical harmonics. We prove that the knowledge of the scattering operators S(λ ,n), for all n\\in L, where L is a subset of {{{N}}\\star } that satisfies the Müntz condition {{\\sum }n\\in L}\\frac{1}{n} = +∞ , makes it possible to recover the mass, the charge, and the cosmological constant of a de Sitter-Reissner-Nordström black hole. The main tool consists in the complexification of the angular momentum n and in studying the analytic properties of the ‘unphysical’ corresponding data in the complex variable z.
Newcastle disease outbreaks in the Sudan from 2003 to 2006 were caused by viruses of genotype 5d.
Hassan, Wegdan; Khair, Sobhi Ahmed Mohamed; Mochotlhoane, Bontsi; Abolnik, Celia
2010-02-01
Newcastle disease (ND) is a serious neurological and respiratory disease of poultry that affects all types of birds but has traditionally not caused symptoms in wild aquatic birds, the natural hosts. In the late 1990s, a new genotype, viz. 5d that is pathogenic to all types of birds, including waterfowl, arose in China and has since spread from East Asia into parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein gene of isolates obtained from outbreaks of ND in Sudan and found that all contemporary strains isolated between 2003 and 2006 were of genotype 5d, containing the virulent fusion protein cleavage site (F0) motif (112)RRQKRF(117). Introduction via a Middle Eastern trade partner is likely to be the source of infection since phylogenetic analysis excluded the possibility of introduction from western and southern Africa.
Uniqueness theorem for black holes with Kaluza-Klein asymptotic in 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity
Yazadjiev, Stoytcho
2010-07-15
In the present paper, we prove a uniqueness theorem for stationary multi-black hole configurations with Kaluza-Klein asymptotic in a certain sector of 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity. As a part of the technical assumptions in the theorem, we assume that the Killing vector associated with the compact dimension is orthogonal to the other Killing vectors and that it is also hypersurface orthogonal. About the Maxwell field, we assume that it is invariant under the Killing symmetries and has a nonzero component only along the Killing vector associated with the compact dimension. We show that such multi-black hole configurations are uniquely specified by the interval structure, angular momenta of the horizons, magnetic charges, and the magnetic flux. A straightforward generalization of the uniqueness theorem for 5D Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity is also given.
Spectroscopic analysis of the ν17 band of C2H5D at 770 - 850 cm-1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daly, Adam; Drouin, Brian J.; Brown, Linda R.; Pearson, John C.; Sung, Keeyoon; Groner, Peter; Mantz, Arlan W.; Smith, Mary Ann H.
2014-11-01
To support planetary investigations of hydrocarbons, we analyzed the high resolution spectrum of C2H5D from 680 to 880 cm-1 in order to enable its detection in the atmospheres of Titan, Neptune and Uranus. Ethane, methane and acetylene are regarded as important organic molecules in the analysis of atmospheres and have been observed by ground based and satellite observations. The isotopes of ethane contain strong bands within the commonly viewed window of ethane’s ν9 band at 800 cm-1. Detailed analyses of d1-ethane and 13C-ethane provide unique insight into the isotopic fractionation and can be used to refine models of hydrocarbons in organic rich atmospheres. We present the analyses of the strong ν17 band of C2H5D at 805 cm-1 which lies within the often-measured "12 micron" window utilized by many present and past surveys of planetary atmospheres. Using the FTIR Bruker IFS 125HR at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the spectrum of 98% deuterium-enriched sample of C2H5D at high resolution (Resolving power ~ 320,000) was recorded at 130 K using a 0.20 m absorption cell. Over 10000 individual line frequencies and intensities were retrieved between 690 and 870 cm-1. Improved quantum mechanical models permitted over 4700 quantum assignments to be determined for the ν17 band at 805 cm-1, and the corresponding measured line positions were reproduced with a standard deviation of 4 x 10-4 cm-1. We will describe the resulting linelist for the ν17 band of C2H5D that enable this species to be identified in planetary atmospheres.Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, and NASA Langley under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jiulong; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhao, Hongkai; Gao, Yu; Thomas, David; Low, Daniel A.; Gao, Hao
2015-11-01
4D cone-beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) reconstructs a temporal sequence of CBCT images for the purpose of motion management or 4D treatment in radiotherapy. However the image reconstruction often involves the binning of projection data to each temporal phase, and therefore suffers from deteriorated image quality due to inaccurate or uneven binning in phase, e.g., under the non-periodic breathing. A 5D model has been developed as an accurate model of (periodic and non-periodic) respiratory motion. That is, given the measurements of breathing amplitude and its time derivative, the 5D model parametrizes the respiratory motion by three time-independent variables, i.e., one reference image and two vector fields. In this work we aim to develop a new 4DCBCT reconstruction method based on 5D model. Instead of reconstructing a temporal sequence of images after the projection binning, the new method reconstructs time-independent reference image and vector fields with no requirement of binning. The image reconstruction is formulated as a optimization problem with total-variation regularization on both reference image and vector fields, and the problem is solved by the proximal alternating minimization algorithm, during which the split Bregman method is used to reconstruct the reference image, and the Chambolle's duality-based algorithm is used to reconstruct the vector fields. The convergence analysis of the proposed algorithm is provided for this nonconvex problem. Validated by the simulation studies, the new method has significantly improved image reconstruction accuracy due to no binning and reduced number of unknowns via the use of the 5D model.
2014-12-01
imidazoles are nitrated with the elimination of N2O to generate TNGU. This method of TNGU synthesis results in material that is less sensitive than...using known literature procedures [6] and attempts were made to further nitrate them in an effort to produce a novel material 8 (Figure 3). 2 Results...Abstract : A new method for the preparation of tetranitro- glycoluril (TNGU, Sorguyl) is described, in which imidazo- [4,5-d]-imidazoles are nitrated
Orbital-selective singlet dimer formation and suppression of double exchange in 4d and 5d systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streltsov, Sergey; Cao, Gang; Khomskii, Daniel
One of the main mechanisms of ferromagnetic ordering in conducting materials is the double exchange (DE). It is usually supposed in DE model that the Hund's coupling JH is much larger than electron hopping t; in this case one stabilizes the state with maximum spin per pair of ions, which finally leads to ferromagnetism in bulk systems. We show that in the dimerized 4 d / 5 d transition metal oxides for which JH is reduced and t is in contrast enhanced, another situation is possible, when formation of the spin-singlets on delocalized orbitals is more favorable. This leads to suppression of the DE and to a strong decrease of the total spin. The model calculations using the dynamical mean-field theory show that this effect survives even in the extended systems, not only for dimers. Such a situation is realized, e.g., in Y5Mo2O12, CrO2 under pressure and in many other 4 d / 5 d based materials. Another mechanism, which may suppress DE and which is also typical for 4 d / 5 d compounds is the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We show on the example of Ba5AlIr2O11, that in this system it is the combination of molecular-orbital formation and SOC that strongly decreases magnetic moment on Ir. Civil Research and Development Foundation via FSCX-14-61025-0.
Field quantization in 5D space-time with Z{sub 2} parity and position/momentum propagator
Ichinose, S.; Murayama, A.
2007-09-15
Field quantization in 5D flat and warped space-times with Z{sub 2} parity is comparatively examined. We carefully and closely derive 5D position/momentum propagators. Their characteristic behaviors depend on the 4D (real world) momentum in relation to the boundary parameter (l) and the bulk curvature ({omega}). They also depend on whether the 4D momentum is spacelike or timelike. Their behaviors are graphically presented, and the Z{sub 2} symmetry, the brane formation, and the singularities are examined. It is shown that the use of absolute functions is important for properly treating the singular behavior. The extra coordinate appears as a directed one like the temperature. The {delta}(0) problem, which is an important consistency check of the bulk-boundary system, is solved without the use of Kaluza-Klein (KK) expansion. The relation between the position/momentum propagator (a closed expression which takes into account all KK modes) and the KK-expansion-series propagator is clarified. In this process of comparison, two views on the extra space naturally come up: the orbifold picture and the interval (boundary) picture. Sturm-Liouville expansion (a generalized Fourier expansion) is essential there. Both 5D flat and warped quantum systems are formulated by Dirac's bra and ket vector formalism, which shows that the warped model can be regarded as a deformation of the flat one with the deformation parameter {omega}. We examine the meaning of the position-dependent cutoff proposed by Randall and Schwartz.
Fatigue Hysteresis Behavior of 2.5D Woven C/SiC Composites: Theory and Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Xuteng; Sun, Zhigang; Yang, Fushu; Chen, Xihui; Song, Yingdong
2017-02-01
This paper presents an intriguing fatigue hysteresis behavior of 2.5 dimensional woven C/SiC composites via the integration tool of advanced experimental techniques with a multiscale theoretical model. Tension-tension fatigue experiment has been carried out to predict the fatigue hysteresis properties of 2.5D woven C/SiC composite at room temperature, accompanied with the fracture of specimens to investigate the mechanism of fatigue damage. Meanwhile, a multiscale fatigue model of 2.5D woven C/SiC composites, which encompasses a micro-scale model of fiber/matrix/porosity in fiber tows and a macro-scale model of unit-cell, has been proposed to provide a reliable validation of the experimental results based on fiber damages resulting from relative slip motion with respect to matrix at interfaces and the architecture of 2.5D woven C/SiC composites. The predicted hysteresis loop from theoretical model at room temperature holds great agreement with that from tension-tension fatigue experiments. Also, effects of fatigue load, braided structural parameters and material properties at micro scale on fatigue hysteresis behavior have been investigated.
Dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phosphole: a highly luminescent electron-accepting building block.
He, Xiaoming; Woo, Alva Y Y; Borau-Garcia, Javier; Baumgartner, Thomas
2013-06-03
A family of highly emissive dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phospholes has been designed and synthesized. The structures of two trivalent P species, as well as their corresponding P oxides, have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The parent dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phosphole oxide exhibits strong blue photoluminescence at λem = 442 nm, with an excellent quantum yield efficiency of ϕPL = 0.81. The photophysical properties of these compounds can be easily tuned by extension of the conjugation and modification of the phosphorus center. Compared with the established dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]phosphole system, the incorporation of electronegative nitrogen atoms leads to significantly lowered frontier orbital energy levels, as validated by both electrochemistry and theoretical calculations, thus suggesting that the dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phospholes are valuable, air-stable, n-type conjugated materials. These new building blocks have been further applied to the construction of an extended oligomer with fluorene. Extension of the dithiazolophosphole core with triazole units through click reactions also provides a suitable N,N-chelating moiety for metal binding and a representative molecular species was successfully used as a selective colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for Cu(II) ions.
Thermalization of fast cesium 5D{sub 3sol2} atoms in collisions with ground-state cesium atoms
Marks, A.; Hickman, A. P.; Huennekens, J.; Streater, A. D.
2005-01-01
We have investigated collisions involving fast, excited Cs atoms produced by photodissociating Cs{sub 2} molecules with a pulsed dye laser. The velocities of the atoms in the 5D state formed by the process Cs{sub 2}(X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +})+({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{sub pump}{yields}Cs{sub 2}{sup *}{yields}Cs(5D)+Cs(6S) are much greater than typical thermal velocities associated with the cell temperature. Using a narrow-band cw probe laser to observe the increased Doppler broadening of the 5D{sub 3/2}{yields}5F{sub 5/2} excitation line shape, we are able to monitor the time evolution of the velocity distribution of these 5D atoms. We analyze the data using a model that predicts the time-dependent excitation line shape of the fast atoms. Because the photons used to dissociate the molecules have a well-defined energy, the velocity distribution of the excited atoms in the early time after they are produced can be fairly well determined. Over time, velocity-changing collisions with ground-state Cs atoms cause the velocity distribution of excited atoms to approach the thermal limit. An analysis based on the strong-collision model leads to a prediction that the observed line shape at intermediate times will be a linear combination of contributions from distinct 'fast' and 'thermalized' atomic populations. By fitting our data to this model, a rate coefficient for velocity-changing collisions of fast Cs(5D{sub 3/2}) atoms with ground-state Cs atoms has been determined. The result k{sub VCC}=(6.1{+-}1.2)x10{sup -10} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} corresponds to an effective velocity-changing collision cross section of {sigma}{sub VCC}{sup Cs,eff}=(1.2{+-}0.2)x10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}.
Fendri, Imen; Abdou, Laetitia; Trotter, Valentine; Dedieu, Luc; Maamar, Hédia; Minton, Nigel P; Tardif, Chantal
2013-01-01
Transcription and expression regulation of some individual cel genes (cel5A, cel5I, cel5D and cel44O) of Clostridium cellulolyticum were investigated. Unlike the cip-cel operon, these genes are transcribed as monocistronic units of transcription, except cel5D. The location of the transcription initiation sites was determined using RT-PCR and the mRNA 5'-end extremities were detected using primer extension experiments. Similarly to the cip-cel operon, cel5A and cel5I expressions are regulated by a carbon catabolite repression mechanism, whereas cel44O and cel5D expressions do not seem to be submitted to this regulation. The role of the putative transcriptional regulator GlyR2 in the regulation of cel5D expression was investigated. The recombinant protein GlyR2 was produced and was shown to bind in vitro to the cel5D and glyR2 promoter regions, suggesting that besides regulating its own expression, GlyR2 may regulate cel5D expression. To test this hypothesis in vivo, an insertional glyR2 mutant was generated and the effect of this disruption on cel5D expression was evaluated. Levels of cel5D mRNAs in the mutant were 16 fold lower than that of the wild-type strain suggesting that GlyR2 acts as an activator of cel5D expression.
4f-5d Transitions of Tb3+ in Cs2NaYF6: the effect of distortion of the excited-state configuration.
Duan, Chang-Kui; Tanner, Peter A; Meijerink, Andries; Makhov, Vladimir
2011-08-25
The low-temperature absorption and excitation spectra of interconfigurational 4f-5d transitions of Tb(3+) in a cubic fluoride host demonstrate the appearance of a first-order linear Jahn-Teller effect for the high-spin excited states of the excited electronic configuration 4f(7)5d involving 5d t(2g) orbitals. The τ(2g) mode is observed to be responsible for the splitting of the otherwise degenerate 5d t(2g) orbitals.
Comparing the performance of the SF-6D and the EQ-5D in different patient groups.
Ferreira, Lara N; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N
2014-01-01
Introdução: O objectivo geral deste artigo consiste em comparar o desempenho do EQ-5D e do SF-6D em quatro grupos de doentes que sofrem de asma, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica, cataratas e artrite reumatóide. Em particular, este artigo tem dois objectivos específicos: 1) estudar o nível de concordância entre os índices e os sistemas descritivos das dimensões do SF-6D e EQ-5D, e 2) analisar a capacidade de discriminação dos instrumentos.Material e Métodos: Uma amostra de 643 doentes respondeu ao SF-36v2 e ao EQ-5D. Foram analisados a capacidade de discriminação dos instrumentos, bem como o nível de concordância entre os índices e os sistemas descritivos das dimensões do SF-6D e EQ-5D. O nível de concordância entre os instrumentos foi estudado com base em coeficientes de correlação e nos gráficos de Bland-Altman, enquanto a influência da condição médica e de outras variáveis de natureza sociodemográfica nos índices foi analisada com o recurso a testes não paramétricos. Utilizaram-se também testes para amostras emparelhadas para identificar diferenças entre osscores finais dos instrumentos.Resultados e Discussão: Verificou-se a existência de uma correlação forte e de uma concordância elevada entre os dois índices. Em termos globais, os índices diferem por condição médica e por grupo sociodemográfico e ambos os instrumentos demonstraram uma capacidade discriminativa semelhante entre grupos sociodemográficosConclusão: Confirmou-se a hipótese de que o SF-6D gera valores de utilidade superiores em populações com doenças. O SF-6D e o EQ-5D parecem comportar-se de forma diferente em cada uma das doenças analisadas, uma vez que as medidas descritivas diferem entre instrumentos e os coeficientes de correlação não são uniformes. Os resultados demonstraram que o EQ-5D e o SF-6D geram valores de utilidade diferentes, mas que existe uma concordância elevada entre os dois instrumentos. Pode-se concluir que os resultados
Picavet, H; Hoeymans, N
2004-01-01
Objective: To examine the health related quality of life of persons with one or more self reported musculoskeletal diseases, as measured by the short form 36 item health status survey (SF-36) and the Euroqol questionnaire (EQ-5D). Methods: A sample of Dutch inhabitants aged 25 years or more (n = 3664) participated in a questionnaire survey. Twelve lay descriptions of common musculoskeletal diseases were presented and the subjects were asked whether they had ever been told by a physician that they had any of these. Their responses were used to assess the prevalence of these conditions. Commonly used scores of SF-36 and descriptive scores from EQ-5D are presented, along with standardised differences between disease groups and the general population. Results: Subjects with musculoskeletal diseases had significantly lower scores on all SF-36 dimensions than those without musculoskeletal disease, especially for physical functioning (SF-36 score (SE), 75.2 (0.5) v 87.8 (0.5)); role limitations caused by physical problems (67.1 (0.9) v 85.8 (0.8)); and bodily pain (68.5 (0.5) v 84.1 (0.5)). The worst health related quality of life patterns were found for osteoarthritis of the hip, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and fibromyalgia. Those with multiple musculoskeletal diseases had the poorest health related quality of life. Similar results were found for EQ-5D. Conclusions: All musculoskeletal diseases involve pain and reduced physical function. The coexistence of musculoskeletal diseases should be taken into account in research and clinical practice because of its high prevalence and its substantial impact on health related quality of life. PMID:15140781
Mazzotti, M.; Bartoli, I.; Marzani, A.; Viola, E.
2013-09-01
Highlights: •Dispersive properties of viscoelastic waveguides and cavities are computed using a regularized 2.5D BEM. •Linear viscoelasticity is introduced at the constitutive level by means of frequency dependent complex moduli. •A contour integral algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear eigenvalue problem. •The Sommerfeld radiation condition is used to select the permissible Riemann sheets. •Attenuation of surface waves in cavities approaches the attenuation of Rayleigh waves. -- Abstract: A regularized 2.5D boundary element method (BEM) is proposed to predict the dispersion properties of damped stress guided waves in waveguides and cavities of arbitrary cross-section. The wave attenuation, induced by material damping, is introduced using linear viscoelastic constitutive relations and described in a spatial manner by the imaginary component of the axial wavenumber. The discretized dispersive wave equation results in a nonlinear eigenvalue problem, which is solved obtaining complex axial wavenumbers for a fixed frequency using a contour integral algorithm. Due to the singular characteristics and the multivalued feature of the wave equation, the requirement of holomorphicity inside the contour region over the complex wavenumber plane is fulfilled by the introduction of the Sommerfeld branch cuts and by the choice of the permissible Riemann sheets. A post processing analysis is developed for the extraction of the energy velocity of propagative guided waves. The reliability of the method is demonstrated by comparing the results obtained for a rail and a bar with square cross-section with those obtained from a 2.5D Finite Element formulation also known in literature as Semi Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method. Next, to show the potential of the proposed numerical framework, dispersion properties are predicted for surface waves propagating along cylindrical cavities of arbitrary cross-section. It is demonstrated that the attenuation of surface waves
Role of magnetism in superconductivity of BaFe2As2: Study of 5d Au-doped crystals
Li, Li; Cao, Huibo; McGuire, Michael A.; ...
2015-09-09
We investigate properties of BaFe2As2 (122) single crystals upon gold doping, which is the transition metal with the highest atomic weight. The Au substitution into the FeAs-planes of 122 crystal structure (Au-122) is only possible up to a small amount of ~3%. We find that 5d is more effective in reducing magnetism in 122 than its counter 3d Cu, and this relates to superconductivity. We provide evidence of short-range magnetic fluctuations and local lattice inhomogeneities that may prevent strong percolative superconductivity in Ba(Fe1-xAux)2As2.
Thermostructural Properties Of Sic/Sic Panels With 2.5d And 3d Fiber Architectures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yun, H. M.; DeCarlo, J. A.; Bhatt, R. H.; Jaskowiak, M. H.
2005-01-01
CMC hot-section components in advanced engines for power and propulsion will typically require high cracking strength, high ultimate strength and strain, high creep- rupture resistance, and high thermal conductivity in all directions. In the past, NASA has demonstrated fabrication of a variety of SiC/SiC flat panels and round tubes with various 2D fiber architectures using the high-modulus high-performance Sylramic-iBN Sic fiber and Sic-based matrices derived by CVI, MI, and/or PIP processes. The thermo- mechanical properties of these CMC have shown state-of-the-art performance, but primarily in the in-plane directions. Currently NASA is extending the thermostructural capability of these SiC/SiC systems in the thru-thickness direction by using various 2.5D and 3D fiber architectures. NASA is also using specially designed fabrication steps to optimize the properties of the BN-based interphase and Sic-based matrices. In this study, Sylramic-iBN/SiC panels with 2D plain weave, 2.5D satin weave, 2.5D ply-to-ply interlock weave, and 3D angle interlock fiber architectures, all woven at AITI, were fabricated using matrix densification routes previously established between NASA and GEPSC for CVI-MI processes and between NASA and Starfire-Systems for PIP processes. Introduction of the 2.5 D fiber architecture along with an improved matrix process was found to increase inter-laminar tensile strength from 1.5 -2 to 3 - 4 ksi and thru-thickness thermal conductivity from 15-20 to 30-35 BTU/ft.hr.F with minimal reduction in in-plane strength and creep-rupture properties. Such improvements should reduce thermal stresses and increase the thermostructural operating envelope for SiC/SiC engine components. These results are analyzed to offer general guidelines for selecting fiber architectures and constituent processes for high-performance SiC/SiC engine components.
High-efficiency ({eta} = 39.6%, AM 1.5D) cascade of photoconverters in solar splitting systems
Khvostikov, V. P. Vlasov, A. S.; Sorokina, S. V.; Potapovich, N. S.; Timoshina, N. Kh.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Andreev, V. M.
2011-06-15
A concentrator photovoltaic module with spectral splitting of solar radiation is developed. The module is based on a Fresnel lens and two dichroic filters. Solar cells based on AlGaAs and GaAs are grown by low-temperature liquid-phase epitaxy. GaSb photoconverters are fabricated by zinc gas-phase diffusion into a base epitaxial layer or an n-type GaSb substrate. The total efficiency of three solar cells developed for the spectral splitting module reached 39.6% (AM 1.5D spectrum).
First principle study of AlX (X=3d, 4d, 5d elements and Lu) dimer.
Ouyang, Yifang; Wang, Jianchuan; Hou, Yuhua; Zhong, Xiaping; Du, Yong; Feng, Yuanping
2008-02-21
The ground state equilibrium bond length, harmonic vibrational frequency, and dissociation energy of AlX (X=3d,4d,5d elements and Lu) dimers are investigated by density functional method B3LYP. The present results are in good agreement with the available experimental and other theoretical values except the dissociation energy of AlCr. The present calculations show that the late transition metal can combine strongly with aluminum compared with the former transition metal. The present calculation also indicates that it is more reasonable to replace La with Lu in the Periodic Table and that the bonding strengths of zinc, cadmium, and mercury with aluminum are very weak.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chikara, Shalinee
Correlated electron materials have been at the forefront of condensed matter research in the past couple of decades. Correlation in materials, especially, with open d and f electronic shells often lead to very exciting and intriguing phenomenon like high temperature superconductivity, Mott metal-insulator transition, colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). This thesis focuses on triple-layered Sr4Ru3O10, Sr substituted double layered (Ca1 - xAx) 3Ru2O7 (A = Ba, Sr) and 5d system Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7. Triple-layered Sr4Ru3O10 displays interesting phenomena ranging from quantum oscillations, tunneling magnetoresistance, unusual low temperature specific heat, strong spin-lattice coupling to switching behavior. The central feature, however, is the unique borderline magnetism: along the c-axis. Sr4Ru3O10 shows spontaneous ferromagnetism, indicating a strong Coulomb exchange interaction, U and a large density of states at the Fermi surface, g( EF), hence Ug(EF) ≥ 1 (Stoner criterion). But within the ab-plane it features a pronounced peak in magnetization and a first-order metamagnetic transition. The coexistence of the interlayer ferromagnetism and the intralayer metamagnetism makes Sr4Ru3O10 a really unique system. Also, in this thesis the spin-valve behavior exhibited by impurity doping at the Ca site by Ba and Sr in the double layered Ca3Ru2O 7 is reported. Spin valve effect is a phenomenon only realized in multilayer thin films. Here, spin valve is observed in bulk single crystals of impurity doped Ca3Ru2O7, Ca3(Ru 1-xCrx) 2O7 and (Ca1 - xAx) 3Ru2O7 (A = Ba, Sr). 5d Iridates are expected to be more metallic and less magnetic than their 3d and 4f counterparts because of the extended 5d orbitals. In marked contrast, many iridates are magnetic insulators with exotic properties. The focus in this thesis is on Sr2IrO4 which diplays a novel Jeff = 1=2 Mott state. Magnetic, electrical, and thermal measurements on single-crystals of Sr2IrO4, reveal a novel giant magneto
The general Taub-NUT-De Sitter metric as a self-dual Yang-Mills solution of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boutaleb-Joutei, H.
1980-02-01
We show in a simple and systematical way the self-duality constraints of certain SU(2) gauge fields can be used to rediscover the Einstein metrics. Starting with a metric tensor with two unknown functions, the self-duality constraints of the SU(2) gauge field obtained from the spin connections are studied. The general Taub-NUT-De Sitter metric is found to emerge quite simply as a solution, though the riemannian tensor of the metric itself is not self-dual in the general case. Different interesting limiting cases, such as the Eguchi-Hanson metric, are also obtained directly from the constraint equations. On leave of absence from Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de la Faculté des Sciences de Rabat, Morocco.
Einstein's cosmology review of 1933: a new perspective on the Einstein-de Sitter model of the cosmos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; O'Keeffe, Michael; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon
2015-09-01
We present a first English translation and analysis of a little-known review of relativistic cosmology written by Albert Einstein in late 1932. The article, which was published in 1933 in a book of Einstein papers translated into French, contains a substantial review of static and dynamic relativistic models of the cosmos, culminating in a discussion of the Einstein-de Sitter model. The article offers a valuable contemporaneous insight into Einstein's cosmology in the early 1930s and confirms that his interest lay in the development of the simplest model of the cosmos that could account for observation. The article also confirms that Einstein did not believe that simplified relativistic models could give an accurate description of the early universe.
Luo, N; Chew, L H; Fong, K Y; Koh, D R; Ng, S C; Yoon, K H; Vasoo, S; Li, S C; Thumboo, J
2003-02-01
Validity and reliability of a Singaporean English EQ-5D self-report questionnaire (EQ-5D) were evaluated among consecutive outpatients with rheumatic diseases attending a tertiary referral hospital in Singapore (a multi-ethnic, urban Asian country). Subjects were interviewed twice within a 2-week period using a standardized questionnaire containing the EQ-5D, Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and assessing demographic and psychosocial characteristics. To assess validity of the EQ-5D, 13 hypotheses relating responses to EQ-5D dimension/Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS) to SF-36 scores or other variables were examined using the Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, or Spearman's correlation coefficient. Test-retest reliability was assessed using Cohen's kappa. Sixty-six subjects were studied (osteoarthritis: 9, rheumatoid arthritis: 26, systemic lupus erythematosus: 23, spondyloarthropathy: 8; female: 72.7%; mean age: 44.3 years). Ten of 13 a-priori hypotheses relating EQ-5D responses to external variables were fulfilled, supporting the validity of the EQ-SD. Cohen's kappa for test-retest reliability (n = 52) ranged from 0.29 to 0.61. The Singaporean English EQ-5D appears to be valid in measuring quality of life in Singaporeans with rheumatic diseases; however, its reliability requires further investigation. These data provide a basis for further studies assessing the validity of the EQ-5D in Singapore.
A structural basis for a phosphoramide mustard-induced DNA interstrand cross-link at 5'-d(GAC).
Dong, Q; Barsky, D; Colvin, M E; Melius, C F; Ludeman, S M; Moravek, J F; Colvin, O M; Bigner, D D; Modrich, P; Friedman, H S
1995-01-01
Phosphoramide mustard-induced DNA interstrand cross-links were studied both in vitro and by computer simulation. The local determinants for the formation of phosphoramide mustard-induced DNA interstrand cross-links were defined by using different pairs of synthetic oligonucleotide duplexes, each of which contained a single potentially cross-linkable site. Phosphoramide mustard was found to cross-link dG to dG at a 5'-d(GAC)-3'. The structural basis for the formation of this 1,3 cross-link was studied by molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry. Molecular dynamics indicated that the geometrical proximity of the binding sites also favored a 1,3 dG-to-dG linkage over a 1,2 dG-to-dG linkage in a 5'-d(GCC)-3' sequence. While the enthalpies of 1,2 and 1,3 mustard cross-linked DNA were found to be very close, a 1,3 structure was more flexible and may therefore be in a considerably higher entropic state. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8618865
Spin-lattice coupling mediated multiferroicity in (ND4)2FeCl5.D2O
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, W.; Cao, Huibo; Wang, Jincheng; Ye, Feng; Matsuda, M.; Yan, J.-Q.; Liu, Yaohua; Garlea, V. O.; Agrawal, Harish K.; Chakoumakos, B. C.; Sales, B. C.; Fishman, Randy S.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.
2016-12-01
We report a neutron diffraction study of the multiferroic mechanism in (ND4)2FeCl5.D2O , a molecular compound that exhibits magnetically induced ferroelectricity. This material exhibits two successive magnetic transitions on cooling: a long-range order transition to an incommensurate (IC) collinear sinusoidal spin state at TN=7.3 K, followed by a second transition to an IC cycloidal spin state at TF E=6.8 K, the latter of which is accompanied by spontaneous ferroelectric polarization. The cycloid structure is strongly distorted by spin-lattice coupling, as evidenced by the observations of both odd and even higher-order harmonics associated with the cycloid wave vector, and a weak commensurate phase that coexists with the IC phase. The second-order harmonic appears at TF E, thereby providing unambiguous evidence that the onset of the electric polarization is accompanied by a lattice modulation due to spin-lattice interaction. The neutron results, in conjunction with the negative thermal expansion and large magnetostriction observed in Ref. [19], indicate that spin-lattice coupling plays a critical role in the ferroelectric mechanism of (ND4)2FeCl5.D2O .
Location and identification of the collagen found in the 14.5-d rat embryo visceral yolk sac
1982-01-01
The collagens associated with 14.5-d rat visceral yolk sacs were localized and identified by a variety of procedures. Morphological examination showed that both the visceral epithelium and mesothelium rested upon thin basement membranes, whereas the majority of the extracellular matrix consisted of a stroma containing occasional cells and abundant banded fibrils. Immunohistochemistry at the electron microscope level showed that the basement membranes specifically cross- reacted with antibodies directed against mouse basement membrane components, whereas the stroma specifically cross-reacted with antibodies directed against rat type I collagen. Extractions of acellular visceral yolk sacs and subsequent analyses showed that type I collagen components were prevalent. Furthermore, in vitro biosynthetic studies showed only the presence of type I procollagen components (or their conversion products) and alpha-fetoprotein. These findings, taken together with our previous studies on the 14.5-d rat parietal yolk sac, provide us with protein markers for studying the origin of cells in rat parietovisceral yolk sac carcinomas. PMID:7096438
3D Ultrasonic Needle Tracking with a 1.5D Transducer Array for Guidance of Fetal Interventions
West, Simeon J.; Mari, Jean-Martial; Ourselin, Sebastien; David, Anna L.; Desjardins, Adrien E.
2016-01-01
Ultrasound image guidance is widely used in minimally invasive procedures, including fetal surgery. In this context, maintaining visibility of medical devices is a significant challenge. Needles and catheters can readily deviate from the ultrasound imaging plane as they are inserted. When the medical device tips are not visible, they can damage critical structures, with potentially profound consequences including loss of pregnancy. In this study, we performed 3D ultrasonic tracking of a needle using a novel probe with a 1.5D array of transducer elements that was driven by a commercial ultrasound system. A fiber-optic hydrophone integrated into the needle received transmissions from the probe, and data from this sensor was processed to estimate the position of the hydrophone tip in the coordinate space of the probe. Golay coding was used to increase the signal-to-noise (SNR). The relative tracking accuracy was better than 0.4 mm in all dimensions, as evaluated using a water phantom. To obtain a preliminary indication of the clinical potential of 3D ultrasonic needle tracking, an intravascular needle insertion was performed in an in vivo pregnant sheep model. The SNR values ranged from 12 to 16 at depths of 20 to 31 mm and at an insertion angle of 49° relative to the probe surface normal. The results of this study demonstrate that 3D ultrasonic needle tracking with a fiber-optic hydrophone sensor and a 1.5D array is feasible in clinically realistic environments. PMID:28111644
Is it necessary to penalize impulsive noise +5 dB due to higher risk of hearing damage?
de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo; Reuter, Karen; Hammershøi, Dorte
2011-06-01
It is studied whether the +5 dB penalty for impulsiveness established by ISO 1999:1990 accounts for a higher risk of noise-induced hearing loss. A total of 16 normal-hearing human subjects were exposed for 10 min to two types of binaural industrial-recordings: (1) a continuous broad-band noise normalized to L(EX,8 h)=80 dBA and (2) the combination of the previous stimulus with an impulsive noise normalized to L(EX,8 h)=75+5(db penalty)=80 dBA (peak level 117 dBC and repetition rate of 0.5 impacts per second). Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured in a broad frequency range before and in the following 90 min after the exposure. The group results show that the continuous exposure had a bigger impact on DPOAE levels, with a maximum DPOAE shift of approximately 5 dB in the frequency range of 2-3.15 kHz during the first 10 min of the recovery. No evident DPOAE shift is seen for the impulsive + continuous stimulus. The results indicate that the penalty overestimated the effects on DPOAE levels and support the concept that the risk of hearing loss from low-level impulses may be predicted on an equal-energy basis.
Crystal, magnetic and electronic structures of 3d-5d ordered double perovskite Ba2CoReO6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musa Saad H.-E., M.; Rammeh, N.
2016-12-01
A comprehensive study on crystal, magnetic and electronic structures of ordered double perovskite Ba2CoReO6 was carried out using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Also, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed by full potential linear muffin-tin orbital (FP-LMTO) method within the localized spin density approximation (LSDA+U) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA+U). At room temperature, the crystal structure of Ba2CoReO6 is face-centered cubic, space group Fm 3 bar m , containing an almost completely ordered arrangement of CoO6-ReO6 octahedra. Magnetic structure showed an antiferromagnetic (AF) behavior below TN=41 K. The magnetic and electronic structures are consistent with the electronic configurations Co2+(3d7)-Re6+(5d1) having a total spin magnetic moment of about 2.0 μB/f.u. DFT electronic structures predicted half-metallic yields from 3d-t2g↓ and 5d-t2g↓ through O2-.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu Shan; Ku, Hui Yu; Tsai, Yun Chi; Chang, Chin Hao; Pao, Sih Hua; Sun, Y. Henry; Chiou, Arthur
2017-03-01
5D images of engrailed (en) and eye gone (eyg) gene expressions during the course of the eye-antenna disc primordium (EADP) formation of Drosophila embryos from embryonic stages 13 through 16 were recorded via light sheet microscopy and analyzed to reveal the cell dynamics involved in the development of the EADP. Detailed analysis of the time-lapsed images revealed the process of EADP formation and its invagination trajectory, which involved an inversion of the EADP anterior-posterior axis relative to the body. Furthermore, analysis of the en-expression pattern in the EADP provided strong evidence that the EADP is derived from one of the en-expressing head segments.
Huang, Yu Shan; Ku, Hui Yu; Tsai, Yun Chi; Chang, Chin Hao; Pao, Sih Hua; Sun, Y. Henry; Chiou, Arthur
2017-01-01
5D images of engrailed (en) and eye gone (eyg) gene expressions during the course of the eye-antenna disc primordium (EADP) formation of Drosophila embryos from embryonic stages 13 through 16 were recorded via light sheet microscopy and analyzed to reveal the cell dynamics involved in the development of the EADP. Detailed analysis of the time-lapsed images revealed the process of EADP formation and its invagination trajectory, which involved an inversion of the EADP anterior-posterior axis relative to the body. Furthermore, analysis of the en-expression pattern in the EADP provided strong evidence that the EADP is derived from one of the en-expressing head segments. PMID:28322328
Novel magnetism of Ir5+(5d4) Ions in the double perovskite Sr2YIrO6.
Cao, G; Qi, T F; Li, L; Terzic, J; Yuan, S J; DeLong, L E; Murthy, G; Kaul, R K
2014-02-07
We synthesize and study single crystals of a new double-perovskite Sr2YIrO6. Despite two strongly unfavorable conditions for magnetic order, namely, pentavalent Ir5+(5d4) ions which are anticipated to have Jeff=0 singlet ground states in the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) limit and geometric frustration in a face-centered cubic structure formed by the Ir5+ ions, we observe this iridate to undergo a novel magnetic transition at temperatures below 1.3 K. We provide compelling experimental and theoretical evidence that the origin of magnetism is in an unusual interplay between strong noncubic crystal fields, local exchange interactions, and "intermediate-strength" SOC. Sr2YIrO6 provides a rare example of the failed dominance of SOC in the iridates.
A 14-bit 100-MS/s CMOS pipelined ADC featuring 83.5-dB SFDR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nan, Zhao; Qi, Wei; Huazhong, Yang; Hui, Wang
2014-09-01
This paper demonstrates a 14-bit 100 MS/s CMOS pipelined analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The nonlinearity model for bootstrapped switches is established to optimize the design parameters of bootstrapped switches, and the calculations based on this model agree well with the measurement results. In order to achieve high linearity, a gradient-mismatch cancelling technique is proposed, which eliminates the first order gradient error of sampling capacitors by combining arrangement of reference control signals and capacitor layout. Fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology, this ADC occupies 10.16-mm2 area. With statistics-based background calibration of finite opamp gain in the first stage, the ADC achieves 83.5-dB spurious free dynamic range and 63.7-dB signal-to-noise-and distortion ratio respectively, and consumes 393 mW power with a supply voltage of 2 V.
Structural and magnetic properties of the 5d2 double perovskites Sr2BReO6 (B = Y, In)
Aczel, A. A.; Zhao, Z.; Calder, S.; ...
2016-06-01
With this study, we have performed magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, neutron powder diffraction, and muon spin relaxation experiments to investigate the magnetic ground states of the 5more » $d^2$ double perovskites Sr$$_2$$YReO$$_6$$ and Sr$$_2$$InReO$$_6$$. We find that Sr$$_2$$YReO$$_6$$ is a spin glass, while Sr$$_2$$InReO$$_6$$ hosts a non-magnetic singlet state. By making detailed comparisons with other 5$d^2$ double perovskites, we argue that a delicate interplay between spin-orbit coupling, non-cubic crystal fields, and exchange interactions plays a key role in the great variation of magnetic ground states observed for this family of materials.« less
Coherent excitation of the 5D{sub 5/2} level of ultra-cold rubidium atoms with short laser pulses
Snigirev, S A; Golovizin, A A; Vishnyakova, G A; Akimov, A V; Sorokin, V N; Kolachevskii, N N
2012-08-31
We demonstrate the use of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) for population transfer from the ground state to the 5D{sub 5/2} level (5S{sub 1/2} {yields} 5P{sub 3/2} {yields} 5D{sub 5/2}) in laser-cooled {sup 87}Rb atoms and examine the influence of the time delay between laser pulses, pulse height, pulse duration and frequency detuning from resonance on the efficiency of Rb atom excitation to the 5D{sub 5/2} level. In our experiments, the pulse duration was varied widely (30 - 200 ns), which allowed us to assess the effect of spontaneous decay on the population of the 5D{sub 5/2} level (natural lifetime, 300 ns). We performed numerical calculations with allowance for spontaneous decay from the 5P{sub 3/2} and 5D{sub 5/2} levels and compared the results to experimental data, which allowed the population of the 5D{sub 5/2} level to be determined. The maximum population of the 5D{sub 5/2} level in the region under excitation was 80 % of the total number of rubidium atoms. (cooling of atoms)
Funahashi, Shiro; Tanaka, Kiyoaki; Iga, Fumitoshi
2010-06-01
Accurate electron-density measurement of SmB(6) at 100, 165, 230 and 298 K, and X-ray atomic orbital (XAO) analysis were carried out. The 4f-electron density around Sm and 5d electron density at approximately 1 A from Sm were analysed by XAO analysis. The 5d electron density is due to the electrons of the 5d(J = 5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals which stem from the e(g) orbitals in the strong field approximation. The change in electron populations of the 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals with temperature is similar to that of the resistivity. Since the conduction band consists of 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) and B-2p orbitals according to band theory, this indicates that the larger populations of the 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals correspond to the larger number of localized electrons and are correlated to the resistivity of SmB(6). The occupation of the bulky 5d(5/2)Gamma(8) orbitals may be the reason for the elongation of the lattice parameter below 150 K. The 4f(7/2)Gamma(6) orbitals are obviously occupied except at 100 K, which seems to be caused by the energy gap between 4f(5/2) and 4f(7/2) states, which begins to exist between 100 and 150 K, and may represent one of the properties of a Kondo insulator.
2.5D S-wave velocity model of the TESZ area in northern Poland from receiver function analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilde-Piorko, Monika; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek
2016-04-01
Receiver function (RF) locally provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and information about the shear wave (S-wave) velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. The data recorded by "13 BB Star" broadband seismic stations (Grad et al., 2015) and by few PASSEQ broadband seismic stations (Wilde-Piórko et al., 2008) are analysed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in northern Poland. The TESZ is one of the most prominent suture zones in Europe separating the young Palaeozoic platform from the much older Precambrian East European craton. Compilation of over thirty deep seismic refraction and wide angle reflection profiles, vertical seismic profiling in over one hundred thousand boreholes and magnetic, gravity, magnetotelluric and thermal methods allowed for creation a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model down to 60 km depth in the area of Poland (Grad et al. 2016). On the other hand the receiver function methods give an opportunity for creation the S-wave velocity model. Modified ray-tracing method (Langston, 1977) are used to calculate the response of the structure with dipping interfaces to the incoming plane wave with fixed slowness and back-azimuth. 3D P-wave velocity model are interpolated to 2.5D P-wave velocity model beneath each seismic station and synthetic back-azimuthal sections of receiver function are calculated for different Vp/Vs ratio. Densities are calculated with combined formulas of Berteussen (1977) and Gardner et al. (1974). Next, the synthetic back-azimuthal sections of RF are compared with observed back-azimuthal sections of RF for "13 BB Star" and PASSEQ seismic stations to find the best 2.5D S-wave models down to 60 km depth. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, J.; Everett, M. E.; Weiss, C. J.
2012-12-01
A 2.5D finite difference (FD) frequency-domain modeling algorithm based on the theory of fractional diffusion of electromagnetic (EM) fields generated by a loop source lying above a fractured geological medium is addressed in this paper. The presence of fractures in the subsurface, usually containing highly conductive pore fluids, gives rise to spatially hierarchical flow paths of induced EM eddy currents. The diffusion of EM eddy currents in such formations is anomalous, generalizing the classical Gaussian process described by the conventional Maxwell equations. Based on the continuous time random walk (CTRW) theory, the diffusion of EM eddy currents in a rough medium is governed by the fractional Maxwell equations. Here, we model the EM response of a 2D subsurface containing fractured zones, with a 3D loop source, which results the so-called 2.5D model geometry. The governing equation in the frequency domain is converted using Fourier transform into k domain along the strike direction (along which the model conductivity doesn't vary). The resulting equation system is solved by the multifrontal massively parallel solver (MUMPS). The data obtained is then converted back to spatial domain and the time domain. We find excellent agreement between the FD and analytic solutions for a rough halfspace model. Then FD solutions are calculated for a 2D fault zone model with variable conductivity and roughness. We compare the results with responses from several classical models and explore the relationship between the roughness and the spatial density of the fracture distribution.
Predicting the EQ-5D-3L Preference Index from the SF-12 Health Survey in a National US Sample
Coca Perraillon, Marcelo; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Thisted, Ronald A.
2015-01-01
Background. When data on preferences are not available, analysts rely on condition-specific or generic measures of health status like the SF-12 for predicting or mapping preferences. Such prediction is challenging because of the characteristics of preference data, which are bounded, have multiple modes, and have a large proportion of observations clustered at values of 1. Methods. We developed a finite mixture model for cross-sectional data that maps the SF-12 to the EQ-5D-3L preference index. Our model characterizes the observed EQ-5D-3L index as a mixture of 3 distributions: a degenerate distribution with mass at values indicating perfect health and 2 censored (Tobit) normal distributions. Using estimation and validation samples derived from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2000 dataset, we compared the prediction performance of these mixture models to that of 2 previously proposed methods: ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and two-part models. Results. Finite mixture models in which predictions are based on classification outperform two-part models and OLS regression based on mean absolute error, with substantial improvement for samples with fewer respondents in good health. The potential for misclassification is reflected on larger root mean square errors. Moreover, mixture models underperform around the center of the observed distribution. Conclusions. Finite mixtures offer a flexible modeling approach that can take into account idiosyncratic characteristics of the distribution of preferences. The use of mixture models allows researchers to obtain estimates of health utilities when only summary scores from the SF-12 and a limited number of demographic characteristics are available. Mixture models are particularly useful when the target sample does not have a large proportion of individuals in good health. PMID:25840902
Manurung, Robeth Viktoria; Fu, Pei-Wen; Chu, Yeh-Shiu; Lo, Chun-Min; Chattopadhyay, Surojit
2016-04-01
Human osteosarcoma cells MG-63 were cultured on anodically etched titania nanotubes (TiO2 NT), with diameters ranging from 40-100 nm, to study the correlations between cell proliferation and adhesion on the 2.5 dimensional (2.5D) extracellular matrix (ECM). Unlike other reports, mostly based on mouse stem cells, and 2D cell culture, our studies indicate that the 2.5D NT promote higher proliferation and activity, but less 2D adhesion. Proliferation of the MG-63 cells was significantly higher in the NTs, the best being the 70 nm diameter sample, compared to planar titania (control). This is consistent with previous studies. However, cellular adhesion was stronger on TiO2 NT with increasing diameter, and highest on the control as obtained from shear stress measurement, paxilin imaging, and western blot measurements probing focal adhesion kinase, p130 CAS, and extracellular-regulated kinase, in addition to cell morphology imaging by fluorescence microscopy. We provide direct videography of cell migration, and cell speed data indicating faster filopodial activity on the TiO2 NT surfaces having lower adhesion. This evidence was not available previously. The NT matrices promote cells with smaller surface area, because of less 2D stretching. In contrast, on comparatively planar 2D-like surfaces uniaxial stretching of the cell body with strong anchoring of the filopodia, resulted in larger cell surface area, and demonstrated stronger adhesion. The difference in the results, with those previously published, may be generally attributed to, among others, the use of mouse stem cells (human osteosarcoma used here), and unannealed as-grown TiO2 NTs used previously (annealed ECMs used here).
A New Fate of a Warped 5D FLRW Model with a U(1) Scalar Gauge Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slagter, Reinoud Jan; Pan, Supriya
2016-09-01
If we live on the weak brane with zero effective cosmological constant in a warped 5D bulk spacetime, gravitational waves and brane fluctuations can be generated by a part of the 5D Weyl tensor and carries information of the gravitational field outside the brane. We consider on a cylindrical symmetric warped FLRW background a U(1) self-gravitating scalar field coupled to a gauge field without bulk matter. It turns out that brane fluctuations can be formed dynamically, due to the modified energy-momentum tensor components of the scalar-gauge field ("cosmic string"). As a result, we find that the late-time behavior could significantly deviate from the standard evolution of the universe. The effect is triggered by the time-dependent warpfactor with two branches of the form ± 1/√{τ r}√{(c_1e^{√{2τ } t}+c_2e^{-√{2τ } t})(c_3e^{√{2τ } r}+c_4e^{-√{2τ } r})} ( with τ , c_i constants) and the modified brane equations comparable with a dark energy effect. This is a brane-world mechanism, not present in standard 4D FLRW, where the large disturbances are rapidly damped as the expansion proceed. Because gravity can propagate in the bulk, the cosmic string can build up a huge angle deficit (or mass per unit length) by the warpfactor and can induce massive KK-modes felt on the brane. Disturbances in the spatial components of the stress-energy tensor cause cylindrical symmetric waves, amplified due to the presence of the bulk space and warpfactor. They could survive the natural damping due to the expansion of the universe. It turns out that one of the metric components becomes singular at the moment the warp factor develops an extremum. This behavior could have influence on the possibility of a transition from acceleration to deceleration or vice versa.
Torrance, Nicola; Lawson, Kenny D; Afolabi, Ebenezer; Bennett, Michael I; Serpell, Michael G; Dunn, Kate M; Smith, Blair H
2014-10-01
The EQ-5D and Short Form (SF)12 are widely used generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires. They can be used to derive health utility index scores, on a scale where 0 is equivalent to death and 1 represents full health, with scores less than zero representing states "worse than death." We compared EQ-5D or SF-6D health utility index scores in patients with no chronic pain, and chronic pain with and without neuropathic characteristics (NC), and to explore their discriminant ability for pain severity. Self-reported health and chronic pain status was collected as part of a UK general population survey (n=4451). We found moderate agreement between individual dimensions of EQ-5D and SF-6D, with most highly correlated dimensions found for mental health and anxiety/depression, role limitations and usual activities, and pain and pain/discomfort. Overall 43% reported full health on the EQ-5D, compared with only 4.2% on the SF-6D. There were significant differences in mean utilities for chronic pain with NC (EQ-5D 0.47 vs SF-6D 0.62) and especially for severe pain (EQ-5D 0.33 vs SF-6D 0.58). On the EQ-5D, 17% of those with chronic pain with NC and 3% without NC scored "worse than death," a state which is not possible using the SF-6D. Health utilities derived from EQ-5D and SF-12/36 can discriminate between group differences for chronic pain with and without NC and greater pain severity. However, the instruments generate widely differing HRQoL scores for the same patient groups. The choice between using the EQ-5D or SF-6D matters greatly when estimating the burden of disease.
SU-D-17A-03: 5D Respiratory Motion Model Based Iterative Reconstruction Method for 4D Cone-Beam CT
Gao, Y; Thomas, D; Low, D; Gao, H
2014-06-01
Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a new iterative reconstruction method for 4D cone-beam CT (CBCT) based on a published time-independent 5D respiratory motion model. The proposed method will offer a single high-resolution image at a user-selected breathing phase and the 5D motion model parameters, which could be used to generate the breathing pattern during the CT acquisition. Methods: 5D respiratory motion model was proposed for accurately modeling the motion of lung and lung tumor tissues. 4D images are then parameterized by a reference image, measured breathing amplitude, breathing rate, two time-independent vector fields that describe the 5D model parameters, and a scalar field that describes the change in HU as a function of breathing amplitude. In contrast with the traditional method of reconstructing multiple temporal image phases to reduce respiratory artifact, 5D model based method simplify the problem into the reconstruction of a single reference image and the 5D motion model parameters. The reconstruction formulation of the reference image and scalar and vector fields is a nonlinear least-square optimization problem that consists of solving the reference image and fields alternately, in which the reference image is regularized with the total variation sparsity transform and the vector fields are solved through linearizations regularized by the H1 norm. 2D lung simulations were performed in this proof-of-concept study. Results: The breathing amplitude, its rate, and the corresponding scalar and vector fields were generated from a patient case. Compared with filtered backprojection method and sparsity regularized iterative method for the phase-by-phase reconstruction, the proposed 5D motion model based method yielded improved image quality. Conclusion: Based on 5D respiratory motion model, we have developed a new iterative reconstruction method for 4D CBCT that has the potential for improving image quality while providing needed on
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakravarthi, V.; Mallesh, K.; Ramamma, B.
2017-03-01
We develop two automatic techniques in the spatial domain using the exponential density contrast model (EDCM) to trace the bottom surface of a 2.5D sedimentary basin from the observed gravity anomalies. The interface between the sediments and basement is described with a finite strike polygonal source, whose depth ordinates become the unknown parameters to be estimated. The proposed automatic modeling technique makes use of the forward difference approximation and the inversion solves a system of normal equations using the ridge regression to estimate the unknown parameters. Furthermore, the proposed inversion technique simultaneously estimates the regional gravity background that is associated with the residual gravity anomaly. In either case, forward modeling is realized in the spatial domain through a method that combines both analytical and numerical approaches. The utility of each algorithm was successfully tested on a theoretically produced noisy residual gravity dataset. The validity of the inversion technique is also exemplified with the noisy gravity anomalies attributable to a synthetic structure in the presence of regional gravity background. We demonstrate that the magnitude of gravity anomaly is offset dependent and that it would influence the modeling result. Additionally, some applications with real gravity datasets from the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens in western Turkey using the derived EDCMs have produced geologically reasonable results which are in close agreement with those reported previously.
Nature of the insulating ground state of the 5d postperovskite CaIrO_{3}
Kim, Sun -Woo; Liu, Chen; Kim, Hyun -Jung; Lee, Jun -Ho; Yao, Yongxin; Ho, Kai -Ming; Cho, Jun -Hyung
2015-08-26
In this study, the insulating ground state of the 5d transition metal oxide CaIrO_{3} has been classified as a Mott-type insulator. Based on a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study with local, semilocal, and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, we reveal that the Ir t_{2g} states exhibit large splittings and one-dimensional electronic states along the c axis due to a tetragonal crystal field. Our hybrid DFT calculation adequately describes the antiferromagnetic (AFM) order along the c direction via a superexchange interaction between Ir^{4+} spins. Furthermore, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) hybridizes the t_{2g} states to open an insulating gap. These results indicate that CaIrO_{3} can be represented as a spin-orbit Slater insulator, driven by the interplay between a long-range AFM order and the SOC. Such a Slater mechanism for the gap formation is also demonstrated by the DFT + dynamical mean field theory calculation, where the metal-insulator transition and the paramagnetic to AFM phase transition are concomitant with each other.
Magnetic order and electronic structure of 5d3 double perovskite Sr2ScOsO6
Taylor, A. E.; Morrow, R.; Singh, D. J.; ...
2015-03-01
The magnetic susceptibility, crystal and magnetic structures, and electronic structure of double perovskite Sr2ScOsO6 are reported. Using both neutron and x-ray powder diffraction we find that the crystal structure is monoclinic P21/n from 3.5 to 300 K. Magnetization measurements indicate an antiferromagnetic transition at TN=92 K, one of the highest transition temperatures of any double perovskite hosting only one magnetic ion. Type I antiferromagnetic order is determined by neutron powder diffraction, with an Os moment of only 1.6(1) muB, close to half the spin-only value for a crystal field split 5d electron state with t2g^3 ground state. Density functional calculationsmore » show that this reduction is largely the result of strong Os-O hybridization, with spin-orbit coupling responsible for only a ~0.1 muB reduction in the moment.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frietsch, Björn; Carley, Robert; Gleich, Markus; Teichmann, Martin; Bowlan, John; Weinelt, Martin
2016-07-01
We investigate the fluence-dependent dynamics of the exchange-split 5d6s valence bands of Gd metal after femtosecond, near-infrared (IR) laser excitation. Time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (tr-ARPES) with extreme ultraviolet (XUV) probe pulses is used to simultaneously map the transient binding energies of the minority and majority spin valence bands. The decay constant of the exchange splitting increases with fluence. This reflects the slower response of the occupied majority-spin component, which we attribute to Elliot-Yafet spin-flip scattering in accordance with the microscopic three-temperature model (M3TM). In contrast, the time constant of the partly unoccupied minority-spin band stays unaffected by a change in pump fluence. Here, we introduce as an alternative to superdiffusive spin transport exchange scattering, which is an ultrafast electronic mechanism explaining the observed dynamics. Exchange scattering can reduce the spin polarization in the partially unoccupied minority-spin band and thus its energetic position without effective demagnetization.
Rossi, Elda; Evangelisti, Stefano; Laganà, Antonio; Monari, Antonio; Rampino, Sergio; Verdicchio, Marco; Baldridge, Kim K; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Borini, Stefano; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Angeli, Celestino; Kallay, Peter; Lüthi, Hans P; Ruud, Kenneth; Sanchez-Marin, José; Scemama, Anthony; Szalay, Peter G; Tajti, Attila
2014-03-30
Code interoperability and the search for domain-specific standard data formats represent critical issues in many areas of computational science. The advent of novel computing infrastructures such as computational grids and clouds make these issues even more urgent. The design and implementation of a common data format for quantum chemistry (QC) and quantum dynamics (QD) computer programs is discussed with reference to the research performed in the course of two Collaboration in Science and Technology Actions. The specific data models adopted, Q5Cost and D5Cost, are shown to work for a number of interoperating codes, regardless of the type and amount of information (small or large datasets) to be exchanged. The codes are either interfaced directly, or transfer data by means of wrappers; both types of data exchange are supported by the Q5/D5Cost library. Further, the exchange of data between QC and QD codes is addressed. As a proof of concept, the H + H2 reaction is discussed. The proposed scheme is shown to provide an excellent basis for cooperative code development, even across domain boundaries. Moreover, the scheme presented is found to be useful also as a production tool in the grid distributed computing environment.
Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F
2016-08-01
[V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of
2.5D real waveform and real noise simulation of receiver functions in 3D models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiffer, Christian; Jacobsen, Bo; Balling, Niels
2014-05-01
There are several reasons why a real-data receiver function differs from the theoretical receiver function in a 1D model representing the stratification under the seismometer. Main reasons are ambient noise, spectral deficiencies in the impinging P-waveform, and wavefield propagation in laterally varying velocity variations. We present a rapid "2.5D" modelling approach which takes these aspects into account, so that a given 3D velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle can be tested more realistically against observed recordings from seismometer arrays. Each recorded event at each seismometer is simulated individually through the following steps: A 2D section is extracted from the 3D model along the direction towards the hypocentre. A properly slanted plane or curved impulsive wavefront is propagated through this 2D section, resulting in noise free and spectrally complete synthetic seismometer data. The real vertical component signal is taken as a proxy of the real impingent wavefield, so by convolution and subsequent addition of real ambient noise recorded just before the P-arrival we get synthetic vertical and horizontal component data which very closely match the spectral signal content and signal to noise ratio of this specific recording. When these realistic synthetic data undergo exactly the same receiver function estimation and subsequent graphical display we get a much more realistic image to compare to the real-data receiver functions. We applied this approach to the Central Fjord area in East Greenland (Schiffer et al., 2013), where a 3D velocity model of crust and uppermost mantle was adjusted to receiver functions from 2 years of seismometer recordings and wide angle crustal profiles (Schlindwein and Jokat, 1999; Voss and Jokat, 2007). Computationally this substitutes tens or hundreds of heavy 3D computations with hundreds or thousands of single-core 2D computations which parallelize very efficiently on common multicore systems. In perspective
High-pressure Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of 4d and 5d Transition-metal Oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, J.-G.
2011-03-01
The pressure effect on synthesis of oxides with perovskite A BO3 and perovskite-related structures has become more clear in recent years. The geometric tolerance factor t ≡ (A-O)/ √ 2 (B-O) measures the structural stability. High-pressure synthesis enlarges the range of the t factor where the perovskite structure can be stabilized. For the A BO3 compounds with t 1, high pressure reduces the t factor since the A-O bond is more compressible than the B-O bond. Therefore, perovskite would be the high-pressure phase for ambient-pressure polytype structures. However, the bonding compressibility argument is no longer valid for the ABO3 with t < 1 . Adt / dP 0 isnormallyobtainedfortlessthanbutverycloseto 1 , i . e . theorthorhombicdistortionbecomessmallerunderpressure . Forthosehighlydistortedperovskiteswithtfactorfarlessthanone , pressureenlargesfurthertheorthorhombicdistortionandeventuallyleadstoaphasetransitiontothepost - perovskitephase . Asfor < formula > < ? TeX , high pressure prefers the small-volume perovskite phase relative to a competitive pyrochlore phase . Understanding the pressure effect and the new capacity provided by a Walker-type multianvil press enabled us to expand the perovskite family and to obtain new phases of 4d and 5d oxides. Studies of these new 4d and 5d oxides allow us not only to address long-standing problems, but also to explore exotic physical properties. (1) In the perovskite (A= alkaline earth), we have completed the phase diagram from A= Ca to Sr and to Ba and also accounted for the A-cation size-variance effect. A systematic study of the Curie temperature and the critical behavior as a function of the average A-site size and the size variance as well as external high pressures reveals explicitly the crucial role of the lattice strain on the ferromagnetism. The mean-field critical behaviour near found previously in is not typical of these perovskite ruthenates. is completely suppressed by Pb doping in not due to the steric effect
The essential role of spin-memory loss at 3d/5d metallic interfaces in spin pumping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaffres, Henri
2015-03-01
I will present a review of experiments and theory of spin-pumping in Co/(Cu)/Pt 3d/5d metallic systems in the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) regime of spin injection. By combining i) FMR analyses of the resonance linewidth of the Co spectra in contact with the Pt (or Cu/Pt) reservoir and ii) detection of the inverse spin-hall effect signal vs. Pt thickness, we were able to evidence two different lengthscales for the spin-current profile generated or absorbed at the interfaces. The first lenghscale, extracted from FMR analyses and of the order of 2 nm, represents a typical interface length characteristic of a spin memory loss at the Co/Pt and Co/Cu/Pt interfaces. This represent a typical region of spin-current dissipation by which almost 60-70 % of the total current generated is lost before conversion in bulk Pt. The second lengthscale, roughly equal to 3.4 nm, like determined by Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) transverse voltage measurement, is more characteristic of the spin-diffusion length of the bulk Pt that governs a part of the spin-to-charge conversion efficiency by ISHE. After careful analyses, we determined a spin-hall angle of 5.6 % for Pt and an intrinsic spin hall conductivity of 3200 (Ohm.cm)-1 for our corresponding Pt resistivity. In the end, I will focus on the physical description of our experiments within a derived Valet-Fert model describing the spin transport/relaxation in a diffusive approach and using relevant boundary conditions for spin-pumping (constant spin accumulation in the ferromagnet). The origin of the spin-memory loss and spin-current discontinuity, also proposed in a very recent work, will be explained in terms of atomic intermixing at interfaces or possible Rashba-split states at Co/Pt interfaces.
Fukagawa, Masafumi; Fukuma, Shingo; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Akizawa, Tadao; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi
2012-01-01
Summary Background and objectives Prescription patterns for hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism have varied widely since market introduction of cinacalcet. This study examined associations between prescription patterns and subsequent laboratory values. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using a Mineral and Bone Disorder Outcomes Study for Japanese CKD Stage 5D Patients subcohort, 1716 prevalent hemodialysis patients (4048 sets for repeated measures between January 2008 and July 2009) with an intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level >180 pg/ml who used intravenous vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA) without cinacalcet were selected. Prescription patterns were defined based on cinacalcet administration (starting or not) and VDRA dosage change (decreased [<−25%], stable [−25% to 25%], or increased [>25%]). Proportion differences (PDs) were determined for decreasing iPTH levels by at least one category (<180, 180–299, 300–499, and ≥500 pg/ml) and for achieving target phosphorus (3.5–6.0 mg/dl) and calcium (8.4–10.0 mg/dl) levels, adjusting for potential confounders. Results The starting cinacalcet and increased VDRA patterns were associated with decreasing iPTH levels (PD, 0.25 and 0.13; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs], 0.19–0.31 and 0.09–0.17, respectively); combination use had an additive association (PD, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20–0.42). The starting cinacalcet and decreased VDRA combination was associated with simultaneously achieving target phosphorus (PD, 0.12; 95% CI: 0.04–0.20) and calcium (PD, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01–0.17) levels. Conclusions Certain combinations of cinacalcet and VDRA were associated with decreasing iPTH and achieving targets for phosphorus and calcium. Combinations may prove advantageous versus VDRA alone in managing secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:22822017
Old ice investigation along the Dome C ridge using a 2.5D thermomecanical ice flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passalacqua, Olivier; Parrenin, Frédéric; Gagliardini, Olivier; Ritz, Catherine; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien
2015-04-01
One of the main present-day challenges in ice core sciences, as fixed by the IPICS (International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences), consists in finding a continuous ice archive as old as 1.5 million year. This would allow to study the MPT, a transition which occurred ~900,000 yr ago from low amplitude 40,000 yr cycles to high amplitude 100,000 yr cycles. The previous oldest ice core was drilled at Dome C, on the East Antarctic plateau (800,000 years), and some observations seem to indicate that even older ice could be retrieved in the vicinity of the dome. Fourty kilometers from the dome lies a bedrock relief that makes the ice thinner (~2700 m), so that the bottom ice could be prevented from encountering basal melting. We show that due to a ridge configuration leading to low horizontal velocities, the ice at this possible drilling site mainly comes from ~15 km upstream only, so that some assumptions of the model (no basal sliding and uniform geothermal flux) have less impact on the computed results. The presented model consist in a 2D steady-state ice flow along the ridge to Vostok, that accounts for the widening of the flow tube (2.5D model), anisotropy of the ice, thermal advection and diffusion. The poorly-known parameters of the ice rheology are inversed to minimize the gap between the computed isochrones and observed internal layers. We discuss the possibility that very old ice could lie above the bedrock, depending on the geothermal flux value and the rheological parameters. Our results corroborate those of a recent simple 1D thermo-kinetic ice flow model which inverses the internal layers along a flow line as well and shows that there could be some 1 million year-old ice at ~40 km south-west of the dome.
Roth, Holger R; Lu, Le; Seff, Ari; Cherry, Kevin M; Hoffman, Joanne; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M
2014-01-01
Automated Lymph Node (LN) detection is an important clinical diagnostic task but very challenging due to the low contrast of surrounding structures in Computed Tomography (CT) and to their varying sizes, poses, shapes and sparsely distributed locations. State-of-the-art studies show the performance range of 52.9% sensitivity at 3.1 false-positives per volume (FP/vol.), or 60.9% at 6.1 FP/vol. for mediastinal LN, by one-shot boosting on 3D HAAR features. In this paper, we first operate a preliminary candidate generation stage, towards -100% sensitivity at the cost of high FP levels (-40 per patient), to harvest volumes of interest (VOI). Our 2.5D approach consequently decomposes any 3D VOI by resampling 2D reformatted orthogonal views N times, via scale, random translations, and rotations with respect to the VOI centroid coordinates. These random views are then used to train a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier. In testing, the CNN is employed to assign LN probabilities for all N random views that can be simply averaged (as a set) to compute the final classification probability per VOI. We validate the approach on two datasets: 90 CT volumes with 388 mediastinal LNs and 86 patients with 595 abdominal LNs. We achieve sensitivities of 70%/83% at 3 FP/vol. and 84%/90% at 6 FP/vol. in mediastinum and abdomen respectively, which drastically improves over the previous state-of-the-art work.
Lu, Le; Seff, Ari; Cherry, Kevin M.; Hoffman, Joanne; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M.
2015-01-01
Automated Lymph Node (LN) detection is an important clinical diagnostic task but very challenging due to the low contrast of surrounding structures in Computed Tomography (CT) and to their varying sizes, poses, shapes and sparsely distributed locations. State-of-the-art studies show the performance range of 52.9% sensitivity at 3.1 false-positives per volume (FP/vol.), or 60.9% at 6.1 FP/vol. for mediastinal LN, by one-shot boosting on 3D HAAR features. In this paper, we first operate a preliminary candidate generation stage, towards ~100% sensitivity at the cost of high FP levels (~40 per patient), to harvest volumes of interest (VOI). Our 2.5D approach consequently decomposes any 3D VOI by resampling 2D reformatted orthogonal views N times, via scale, random translations, and rotations with respect to the VOI centroid coordinates. These random views are then used to train a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier. In testing, the CNN is employed to assign LN probabilities for all N random views that can be simply averaged (as a set) to compute the final classification probability per VOI. We validate the approach on two datasets: 90 CT volumes with 388 mediastinal LNs and 86 patients with 595 abdominal LNs. We achieve sensitivities of 70%/83% at 3 FP/vol. and 84%/90% at 6 FP/vol. in mediastinum and abdomen respectively, which drastically improves over the previous state-of-the-art work. PMID:25333158
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, Mikhail A.
2015-05-01
We perform 2.5D axisymmetric simulations of the pulsar magnetosphere (aligned dipole rotator) using the charge conservative, relativistic, electromagnetic particle in cell code PICSAR. Particle in cell codes are a powerful tool to use for studying the pulsar magnetosphere, because they can handle the force-free and vacuum limits and provide a self-consistent treatment of magnetic reconnection. In the limit of dense plasma throughout the magnetosphere, our solutions are everywhere in the force-free regime except for dissipative regions at the polar caps, in the current layers, and at the Y-point. These dissipative regions arise self-consistently, since we do not have any explicit dissipation in the code. A minimum of ≈15-20 per cent of the electromagnetic spin-down luminosity is transferred to the particles inside 5 light cylinder radii. However, the particles can carry as much as ≳ 50 per cent of the spin-down luminosity if there is insufficient plasma in the outer magnetosphere to screen the component of electric field parallel to the magnetic field. In reality, the component of the spin-down luminosity carried by the particles could be radiated as gamma-rays, but high-frequency synchrotron emission would need to be implemented as a sub-grid process in our simulations and is not present for the current suite of runs. The value of the spin-down luminosity in our simulations is within ≈10 per cent of the force-free value, and the structure of the electromagnetic fields in the magnetosphere is on the whole consistent with the force-free model.
Reducing NPR 7120.5D to Practice: Transitioning from Design Reviews to the SIR Hardware Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Randall
2011-01-01
The Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was the first Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) project initiated under NASA's revised rules for space flight project management, NPR 7120.5D, "NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements." NASA selected GRAIL through a competitive Announcement of Opportunity process and funded its Phase B Preliminary Design effort. The team's first major milestone was a JPL institutional milestone, the Project Mission System Review (PMSR), which proved an excellent tune-up for the end-of-Phase-B NASA life-cycle review, the Preliminary Design Review (PDR). Building on JPL experience on the Prometheus and Juno projects, the team successfully organized for and conducted these reviews on an aggressive schedule. For the Project Critical Design Review (CDR), lessons learned from the PDR and updated Standing Review Board (SRB) practices from the Agency were factored into the review preparation effort. Additionally, the review was held at the Principal Investigator's institution, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, rather than at the project management center (JPL), which necessitated additional cross-country coordination steps. The PMSR, PDR, and CDR were design reviews and largely paper-oriented. For the System Integration Review (SIR), the project needed to transition to a hardware review and deal with paper in a very different manner. While many of the practices employed for the design reviews were modified and retained (e.g., review preparation team, gate products management, pre-reviews, SRB coordination), the review agenda, presentation style, and slide templates were significantly changed. A key success factor concerned the handling of project open paper, which was succinctly and effectively communicated to the SRB in presentations.This paper provides a brief overview of the GRAIL mission and its project management challenges, provides a detailed description of project SIR preparation and execution
2.5D Full Waveform Inversion of Teleseismic Body and Surface Waves in the Tien Shan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, B. I.; Roecker, S. W.
2013-12-01
The Tien Shan is the best contemporary example of intracontinental shortening resulting from continental collision, a process believed to have been significant in the evolution of a number of ancient orogens. Previous tomographic studies of the Tien Shan implicate structures in the crust and upper mantle as key to understanding the dynamics of the region. In this study we apply recently developed full waveform inversion (FWI) techniques to passive data collected by the linear dense MANAS array between 2005 to 2007 in order to obtain higher resolution images of lateral heterogeneity beneath the Tien Shan than have previously been available. Our technique is an extension of that proposed by Roecker et al (2010); specifically the forward problem can now account for topographic features with a new 2.5D p-adaptive finite element solver. We incorporate a method developed by Bielak et. al. (2003) to input an appropriate force distribution to accommodate sources external to our model. The p-adaptivity allows us to suit element size to expected resolution as a function of depth and reduce the number of variables in inversion. Consequently, we can now explicitly calculate Frechet derivatives and generate the corresponding Gauss-Newton form with a model covariance regularization matrix all for modest additional computational expense. In order to take advantage of the complimentary sensitivities of different kinds of observations, we simultaneously invert fundamental mode Rayleigh waves and teleseismic P-wave coda. Our strategy is a multiscale approach by which we fit the longer period surface waves first followed by inclusion of body wave data.
2014-01-01
Background The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 43-item short form (PROMIS-43) and the five-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) are recently developed measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL) that have potentially broad application in evaluating treatments and capturing burden of respiratory-related diseases. The aims of this study were: (1) to examine their psychometric properties in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and (2) to identify dimensions of HRQL that differ and do not differ by lung function. Methods We conducted a multi-center, cross-sectional study (“COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness & Research Translation” [CONCERT]). We analyzed patients who met spirometric criteria for COPD, and completed EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS questionnaires. Disease severity was graded based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification. Pulmonary function test, PROMIS-43, EQ-5D (index score and EQ-Visual Analog Scale [EQ-VAS]), six minute walk test (6MWT), and three dyspnea scales (mMRC, Borg, FACIT-Dyspnea) were administered. Validity and reliability of EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS-43 were examined, and differences in HRQL by GOLD grade were assessed. Results Data from 670 patients with COPD were analyzed (mean age 68.5 years; 58% male). More severe COPD was associated with more problems with mobility, self-care and usual activities (all p-values <0.01) according to EQ-5D-5L. Related domains on EQ-5D-5L, PROMIS and clinical measures were moderately (r = 0.30-0.49) to strongly (r ≥ 0.50) correlated. A statistically significant trend of decreasing HRQL with more severe lung functions was observed for EQ-5D-5L index scores, EQ-VAS scores, and PROMIS physical function and social roles. Conclusions Results supported the validity of EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS-43 in COPD patients, and indicate that physical function and social activities decrease with level of lung function by GOLD
Zeng, Xinhua; Yan, Xiaohong; Yuan, Rong; Li, Keqi; Wu, Yuhua; Liu, Fang; Luo, Junling; Li, Jun; Wu, Gang
2016-01-01
Here, we report the identification of the Brassica-specific gene MS5(d), which is responsible for male sterility in Brassica napus. The MS5(d) gene is highly expressed in the microsporocyte and encodes a protein that localizes to the nucleus. Light microscopy analyses have demonstrated that the MS5(d) gene affects microsporocyte meiosis in the thermosensitive genic male sterility line TE5A. Sequence comparisons and genetic complementation revealed a C-to-T transition in MS5(d), encoding a Leu-to-Phe (L281F) substitution and causing abnormal male meiosis in TE5A. These findings suggest arrested meiotic chromosome dynamics at pachytene. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analyses showed that double-strand break (DSB) formation and axial elements were normal but that DSB repair and spindle behavior were aberrant in TE5A meiocytes. Collectively, our results indicate that MS5(d) likely encodes a protein required for chromosomal DSB repair at early stages of meiosis in B. napus.
Zeng, Xinhua; Yan, Xiaohong; Yuan, Rong; Li, Keqi; Wu, Yuhua; Liu, Fang; Luo, Junling; Li, Jun; Wu, Gang
2017-01-01
Here, we report the identification of the Brassica-specific gene MS5d, which is responsible for male sterility in Brassica napus. The MS5d gene is highly expressed in the microsporocyte and encodes a protein that localizes to the nucleus. Light microscopy analyses have demonstrated that the MS5d gene affects microsporocyte meiosis in the thermosensitive genic male sterility line TE5A. Sequence comparisons and genetic complementation revealed a C-to-T transition in MS5d, encoding a Leu-to-Phe (L281F) substitution and causing abnormal male meiosis in TE5A. These findings suggest arrested meiotic chromosome dynamics at pachytene. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analyses showed that double-strand break (DSB) formation and axial elements were normal but that DSB repair and spindle behavior were aberrant in TE5A meiocytes. Collectively, our results indicate that MS5d likely encodes a protein required for chromosomal DSB repair at early stages of meiosis in B. napus. PMID:28101089
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Diantang; Chen, Li; Wang, Yanjie; Sun, Ying; Jia, Na; Qian, Kun
2016-11-01
A study is conducted with the aim of developing meso-scale voxel-based model for evaluating the compressive behaviors of warp-reinforced 2.5D woven composites. The real microstructure of warp-reinforced 2.5D woven composites is established. For the validation of this model, a series of axial (warp direction) and transverse (weft direction) compressive tests are conducted. The results show that under axial and transverse compressive loading, the calculated max stress and the final damage morphology agree well with the experimental results. Moreover, it is found that the axial compressive strength is mainly dependent on the high-crimp blinder warp, while the transverse compressive strength is significantly influenced by the warp/weft interlaced regions. It is expected that such a numerical investigation will provide useful information for understanding the strength and failure characteristic of 2.5D woven composites.
Carreon, Leah Y; Djurasovic, Mladen; Dimar, John R; Owens, R Kirk; Crawford, Charles H; Puno, Rolando M; Bratcher, Kelly R; McGraw, Katlyn E; Glassman, Steven D
2016-09-01
OBJECTIVE Studies have shown that anxious or depressed patients may have poorer outcomes after lumbar fusion. These conclusions were drawn from questionnaires specifically designed to measure anxiety and depression. The objective of this study is to determine if responses to the EQ-5D anxiety/depression domain or the items used to calculate the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) Mental Component Summary (MCS) can predict outcomes after lumbar fusion surgery. METHODS Patients enrolled in the National Neurosurgery Quality and Outcomes Database from a single center with 1-year follow-up were identified. The outcomes collected include the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EQ-5D, SF-36, and the back- and leg-pain numeric rating scales (range 0-10). Linear regression modeling was performed to predict the 1-year ODI scores using the EQ-5D anxiety/depression domain and the 14 items used to calculate SF-36 MCS. RESULTS Complete data were available for 312 (88%) of 353 eligible patients. The mean patient age was 58.5 years, 175 (56%) patients were women, and 52 patients were smokers. After controlling for other factors, the item in the SF-36 that asks "Have you felt downhearted and depressed?" is the strongest predictor of the 1-year ODI score (r(2) = 0.191; p = 0.000) and 1-year EQ-5D score (r(2) = 0.205; p = 0.000). Neither the EQ-5D anxiety/depression domain nor the diagnoses of anxiety or depression were predictors of 1-year outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Patient responses to SF-36 item "Have you felt downhearted and depressed?" account for 20% of the variability of the 1-year ODI and EQ-5D scores and can be used by clinicians to screen for anxiety or depression in patients prior to lumbar fusion surgery. Clinicians may offer psychological support to these patients preoperatively in order to improve treatment outcomes.
Kim, Sang-Kyu; Jo, Min-Woo
2017-01-01
Background and Objective The Korean version of the EQ-5D-Y was launched in 2015 by the EuroQol group. Currently, there is no HRQOL data obtained by using the EQ-5D-Y in Korea. This study aimed to measure health-related quality of life of Korean elementary school students using the EQ-5D-Y. Methods Elementary school students were recruited from 11 primary schools in Gyungbuk, South Korea. The EQ-5D-Y was self-administered in the sample population. Demographic characteristics were collected from the subjects’ parents or guardians. The percentage of respondents reporting problems and VAS scores were calculated. Feasibility of the EQ-5D-Y was assessed by analysing the proportion of missing responses. The percentage of reported problems on the dimensions and VAS score between groups were compared by demographic factors. Results A total of 2,494 questionnaires were collected. There were 24 (0.96%) missing responses on the EQ-5D-Y and 187 (7.5%) missing VAS score responses. The proportion of reported problems ranged from 2.3% on the mobility dimension to 9.8% on the “having pain or discomfort” dimension. There was no significant difference in the proportion of problems by age group in male participants. However, in females, the older group reported significantly more problems on the “having pain or discomfort” and “feeling worried, sad, or unhappy” dimensions compared to the younger group. Students living with parents with the lowest educational level reported significantly more problems on the “looking after myself” and “doing usual activities” dimensions than did those living with parents with higher levels of education. Discussion This study showed the distribution of health-related quality of life and explored the feasibility of the EQ-5D-Y for measuring health-related quality of life in Korean elementary school students. Further studies are required to examine other psychometric properties of the Korean EQ-5D-Y. PMID:28344908
Au Eong, K G; Chan, E W; Luo, N; Wong, S H; Tan, N W H; Lim, T H; Wagle, A M
2012-01-01
Background/aims Utility values of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Asian patients are unknown. This study aims to assess utility values and construct validity of the EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D), time trade-off (TTO), and standard gamble (SG) instruments in the Singapore multi-ethnic AMD population. Methods Cross-sectional, two-centre, institution-based study. Visual acuity (VA), clinical AMD severity, and utility scores on the EQ-5D, TTO, and SG were obtained from 338 AMD patients. VA was analysed in terms of the better-seeing eye (BEVA), worse-seeing eye (WEVA), and weighted average of both eyes (WVA). We evaluated SG on the perfect health-death (SG(death)) and binocular perfect vision-binocular blindness (SG(blindness)) scales. Construct validity was determined by testing a priorihypotheses relating the EQ-5D, TTO, and SG utility scores to VA and clinical AMD severity. Results The mean utilities on the EQ-5D, TTO, SG(death), and SG(blindness) were 0.89, 0.81, 0.86, and 0.90, respectively. EQ-5D scores correlated weakly with BEVA, WEVA, and WVA (Pearson's correlation coefficients −0.291, −0.247, and −0.305 respectively, P<0.001 for all). SG(death) and SG(blindness) demonstrated no correlation with BEVA, WEVA, or WVA (Pearson's correlation coefficients, range −0.06 to −0.125). TTO showed weak association only with WEVA and WVA (correlation coefficients −0.237, −0.228, P<0.0001), but not with BEVA (correlation coefficient −0.161). Clinical AMD severity correlated with EQ-5D and SG(death), but not with TTO and SG(blindness) (P=0.004, 0.002, 0.235, and 0.069, respectively). Conclusions AMD has a negative impact on utilities, although utility scores were high compared with Western cohorts. EQ-5D, TTO, and SG showed suboptimal construct validity, suggesting that health status utilities may not be sufficiently robust for cost-utility analyses in this population. PMID:22222257
GARONA, JUAN; PIFANO, MARINA; ORLANDO, ULISES D.; PASTRIAN, MARIA B.; IANNUCCI, NANCY B.; ORTEGA, HUGO H.; PODESTA, ERNESTO J.; GOMEZ, DANIEL E.; RIPOLL, GISELLE V.; ALONSO, DANIEL F.
2015-01-01
Desmopressin (dDAVP) is a safe haemostatic agent with previously reported antitumour activity. It acts as a selective agonist for the V2 vasopressin membrane receptor (V2r) present on tumour cells and microvasculature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the novel peptide derivative [V4Q5]dDAVP in V2r-expressing preclinical mouse models of breast cancer. We assessed antitumour effects of [V4Q5]dDAVP using human MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells, as well as the highly metastatic mouse F3II cell line. Effect on in vitro cancer cell growth was evaluated by cell proliferation and clonogenic assays. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by flow cytometry. In order to study the effect of intravenously administered [V4Q5]dDAVP on tumour growth and angiogenesis, breast cancer xenografts were generated in athymic mice. F3II cells were injected into syngeneic mice to evaluate the effect of [V4Q5]dDAVP on spontaneous and experimental metastatic spread. In vitro cytostatic effects of [V4Q5]dDAVP against breast cancer cells were greater than those of dDAVP, and associated with V2r-activated signal transduction and partial cell cycle arrest. In MDA-MB-231 xenografts, [V4Q5]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice a week) reduced tumour growth and angiogenesis. Treatment of F3II mammary tumour-bearing immunocompetent mice resulted in complete inhibition of metastatic progression. [V4Q5]dDAVP also displayed greater antimetastatic efficacy than dDAVP on experimental lung colonisation by F3II cells. The novel analogue was well tolerated in preliminary acute toxicology studies, at doses ≥300-fold above that required for anti-angiogenic/antimetastatic effects. Our data establish the preclinical activity of [V4Q5]dDAVP in aggressive breast cancer, providing the rationale for further clinical trials. PMID:25846632
The quality of life of Spanish patients with Huntington's disease measured with H-QoL-I and EQ-5D
Dorey, Julie; Clay, Emilie; Khemiri, Amine; Belhadj, Anis; Cubillo, Patricia Trigo; Toumi, Mondher
2016-01-01
Background and objective Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that heavily affects the patient's motor, cognitive, and psychological functions. Yet, very few studies have measured the impact of this disease on the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with specific and validated instruments. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of HD on the HRQoL of Spanish HD patients using the self-reported, Huntington Quality of Life Instrument (H-QoL-I) and the generic instrument EuroQoL five dimensions (EQ-5D-3L) and thereafter compare the results obtained with the two instruments. Methods Fifty-five patients and an equal number of caregivers participated. Patient assessments included the questionnaires of the Huntington Self-Assessment Instrument's four parts: background information assessment, Huntington clinical self-reported instrument, disease-specific HRQoL assessment (H-QoL-I instrument) and Huntington resource utilisation interview, and the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Levels of disease severity were also determined based on the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale that was completed by caregivers. Pearson's correlation tests were computed between H-QoL-I and EQ-5D-3L scores. Results The scores obtained with the H-QoL-I instrument showed that motor dimension was the most altered followed by the psychological dimension while the social dimension was the least altered. Increase of disease severity resulted in lower patient QoL. The usual activities and anxiety/depression were the most severely altered dimensions according to the EQ-5D-3L results. Mobility was also altered to a great extent while pain was the least altered dimension. All correlations between H-QoL-I and EQ-5D-3L scores were moderate to high and statistically significant (p<0.01) with the exception of the correlation between H-QoL-I socialising score and EQ-5D-3L anxiety score. The highest correlations were found between H-QoL-I motor score and three EQ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhong-wen; Li, Guo-ping; Zhang, Yan; Zu, Xiao-tao
2015-02-01
In this paper, we combine the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with a new general tortoise coordinate transformation to study quantum tunneling of scalar particles and fermions from the non-stationary higher dimensional Vaidya-de Sitter black hole. The results show that Hamilton-Jacobi equation is a semi-classical foundation equation which can easily derived from the particles' dynamic equations, it can helps us understand the origin of Hawking radiation. Besides, based on the dimensional analysis, we believed that the new general tortoise coordinate transformation is more reasonable than old ones.
Spin-orbit-driven magnetic structure and excitation in the 5d pyrochlore Cd_{2}Os_{2}O_{7}
Calder, Stuart A; Vale, James G.; Bogdanov, Nikolay; Liu, Xeurong; Donnerer, Christian; Upton, Mary; Casa, Diego; Ayman, Said; Lumsden, M. D.; Zhao, Zhiying; Yan, J. -Q.; Mandrus, David; Satoshi, Nishimoto; Van den Brink, Jeroen; Hill, John P; McMorrow, D. F.; Christianson, Andrew D
2016-06-07
Here, much consideration has been given to the role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in 5d oxides, particularly on the formation of novel electronic states and manifested metal-insulator transitions (MITs). SOC plays a dominant role in 5d^{5} iridates (Ir^{4+}), undergoing MITs both concurrent (pyrochlores) and separated (perovskites) from the onset of magnetic order. However, the role of SOC for other 5d configurations is less clear. For example, 5d^{3} (Os^{5+}) systems are expected to have an orbital singlet with reduced effective SOC. The pyrochlore Cd_{2}Os_{2}O_{7} nonetheless exhibits a MIT entwined with magnetic order phenomenologically similar to pyrochlore iridates. Here, we resolve the magnetic structure in Cd_{2}Os_{2}O_{7} with neutron diffraction and then via resonant inelastic X-ray scattering determine the salient electronic and magnetic energy scales controlling the MIT. In particular, SOC plays a subtle role in creating the electronic ground state but drives the magnetic order and emergence of a multiple spin-flip magnetic excitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gasanalizade, A. G.
Using the absolute oscillator strengths for Fe I lines by the Oxford scale and the absolute curve of growth of iron for two atmospheric models the author determines the equivalent widths of 21 solar lines of Fe I arising from the term a5D.
Nam, Ki Hyun; Haitjema, Charles; Liu, Xueqi; Ding, Fran; Wang, Hongwei; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Ke, Ailong
2012-10-10
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), together with an operon of CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins, form an RNA-based prokaryotic immune system against exogenous genetic elements. Cas5 family proteins are found in several type I CRISPR-Cas systems. Here, we report the molecular function of subtype I-C/Dvulg Cas5d from Bacillus halodurans. We show that Cas5d cleaves pre-crRNA into unit length by recognizing both the hairpin structure and the 3 single stranded sequence in the CRISPR repeat region. Cas5d structure reveals a ferredoxin domain-based architecture and a catalytic triad formed by Y46, K116, and H117 residues. We further show that after pre-crRNA processing, Cas5d assembles with crRNA, Csd1, and Csd2 proteins to form a multi-sub-unit interference complex similar to Escherichia coli Cascade (CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense) in architecture. Our results suggest that formation of a crRNA-presenting Cascade-like complex is likely a common theme among type I CRISPR subtypes.
Spin-orbit coupling control of anisotropy, ground state and frustration in 5d2 Sr2MgOsO6
Morrow, Ryan; Taylor, Alice E.; Singh, D. J.; Xiong, Jie; Rodan, Steven; Wolter, A. U. B.; Wurmehl, Sabine; Büchner, Bernd; Stone, M. B.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Aczel, Adam A.; Christianson, A. D.; Woodward, Patrick M.
2016-01-01
The influence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the physical properties of the 5d2 system Sr2MgOsO6 is probed via a combination of magnetometry, specific heat measurements, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering, and density functional theory calculations. Although a significant degree of frustration is expected, we find that Sr2MgOsO6 orders in a type I antiferromagnetic structure at the remarkably high temperature of 108 K. The measurements presented allow for the first accurate quantification of the size of the magnetic moment in a 5d2 system of 0.60(2) μB –a significantly reduced moment from the expected value for such a system. Furthermore, significant anisotropy is identified via a spin excitation gap, and we confirm by first principles calculations that SOC not only provides the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, but also plays a crucial role in determining both the ground state magnetic order and the size of the local moment in this compound. Through comparison to Sr2ScOsO6, it is demonstrated that SOC-induced anisotropy has the ability to relieve frustration in 5d2 systems relative to their 5d3 counterparts, providing an explanation of the high TN found in Sr2MgOsO6. PMID:27571715
Spin-orbit coupling control of anisotropy, ground state and frustration in 5d2Sr2MgOsO6
Morrow, Ryan; Taylor, Alice E.; Singh, D. J.; ...
2016-08-30
The influence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the physical properties of the 5d2 system Sr2MgOsO6 is probed via a combination of magnetometry, specific heat measurements, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering, and density functional theory calculations. Although a significant degree of frustration is expected, we find that Sr2MgOsO6 orders in a type I antiferromagnetic structure at the remarkably high temperature of 108 K. The measurements presented allow for the first accurate quantification of the size of the magnetic moment in a 5d2 system of 0.60(2) μB a significantly reduced moment from the expected value for such a system. Furthermore, significant anisotropymore » is identified via a spin excitation gap, and we confirm by first principles calculations that SOC not only provides the magnetocrystalline anisotropy, but also plays a crucial role in determining both the ground state magnetic order and the moment size in this compound. In conclusion, through comparison to Sr2ScOsO6, it is demonstrated that SOC-induced anisotropy has the ability to relieve frustration in 5d2 systems relative to their 5d3 counterparts, providing an explanation of the high TN found in Sr2MgOsO6.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radzhabov, E. A.; Prosekina, E. A.
2011-09-01
The vacuum ultraviolet emission spectra of alkaline-earth fluoride (CaF2, SrF2, BaF2) crystals with rare earth impurity ions (Nd, Gd, Er, Tm, Ho) have been investigated. The main luminescence bands are described well by the transitions from the lowest excited 5 d state to different 4 f levels of rare earth ions.
Interconfigurational 5d → 4f luminescence of Ce3+ and Pr3+ in Ca9Lu(PO4)7.
Trevisani, M; Ivanovskikh, K V; Piccinelli, F; Speghini, A; Bettinelli, M
2012-09-26
Ca(9)Lu(PO(4))(7):Ce (3+) and Ca (9)Lu (PO (4))(7):Pr (3+) polycrystalline materials were synthesized by solid state reaction at high temperature. The materials were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRPD). The luminescence spectroscopy and the excited state dynamics of these compounds were investigated upon excitation with UV/VUV synchrotron radiation. Both materials showed efficient and fast 5d-4f emission upon direct VUV excitation into the 5d levels but only Ca(9)Lu(PO(4))(7):Ce (3+) revealed luminescence upon excitation across the bandgap. The decay kinetics of the 5d-4f emission upon VUV intra-center excitation is characterized by a decay time of 29 ns for Ce (3+) and 17 ns for Pr (3+) with no significant build-up after the excitation pulse. For the both compounds, no significant temperature dependence of the 5d-4f emission lifetime was observed within the range 8-300 K.
Papaioannou, Diana; Brazier, John; Parry, Glenys
2011-01-01
Objectives Generic health status measures such as the short form health survey (SF-36) and EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) are increasingly being used to inform health policy. They are claimed to be applicable across disease areas and have started to be used within mental health research. This review aims to assess the construct validity and responsiveness of four generic health status measures in schizophrenia, including the preference-based SF-6D and EQ-5D. Method A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Ten databases were searched from inception to August 2009 and reference lists scrutinized to identify relevant studies. Studies were appraised and data extracted. A narrative synthesis was performed of the evidence on construct validity including known groups validity (detecting a difference in health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores between two different groups such as samples from the general population and people with schizophrenia), convergent validity (strength of association between generic HRQL and other measures (e.g., symptom or functional), and responsiveness. Responsiveness was considered by: 1) differences in generic HRQL measure scores in responders/non-responders and 2) correlation between changes on generic HRQL measures and changes in specific measures obtained from patients and clinicians. Results Thirty-three studies were identified that provided data on the validity and/or responsiveness of the instruments. Most of the evidence concerns the SF-36 and EQ-5D, and for these instruments there was evidence for known group validity. The evidence for convergent validity and responsiveness was mixed, with studies presenting contradictory results. Conclusion Although the evidence base is limited in a number of important respects, including problems with the measures used to develop constructs in the validation studies, it is sufficient to raise doubts about the use of generic measures of health like the EQ-5D and SF-36 in patients with
Davis, Jennifer C.; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek; Bryan, Stirling; Jacova, Claudia; Jacova, Patrizio; Munkacsy, Michelle; Cheung, Winnie; Lee, Philip; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa
2016-01-01
Background The assessment of quality of life is critical in ascertaining the benefit of interventions aimed to reduce morbidity among individuals with cognitive impairment. However, the assessment of quality of life is challenging in this population due to the uncertain validity of patient responses as cognitive function declines. Hence, we examined the level of agreement between patient and proxy assessments of health related quality of life (HRQoL) and wellbeing based on the domains that comprise each of these constructs. Methods Analysis of baseline data from 71 community-dwelling older adults with mild Vascular Cognitive Impairment (VCI) who participated in a six-month proof-of-concept single-blinded randomized trial. Level of agreement between patient and caregiver ratings of HRQoL (EQ-5D-3L) and wellbeing (ICECAP-O) were compared using raw agreement (%), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and weighted Cohen’s kappa statistic. Results Self-care (assessed via the EQ-5D-3L) demonstrated almost perfect raw agreement between the patient and caregiver ratings. Three domains (mobility, pain and anxiety) of the EQ-5D-3L demonstrated fair agreement between the patient and caregiver ratings. Two (attachment and control) of the five ICECAP-O domains demonstrated slight agreement. The ICC indicated good agreement for the EQ-5D-3L and poor agreement for the ICECAP-O. Conclusion There is better patient-proxy agreement for the EQ-5D-3L compared with the ICECAP-O among individuals with mild VCI. These findings imply that the ICECAP-O may have limited clinical, research and policy related utility among individuals with mild VCI. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01027858 PMID:27101402
Cheville, Andrea L.; Almoza, Mously; Courmier, Janice N.; Basford, Jeffrey R.
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND The devastating impact of lymphedema on cancer survivors’ quality of life has prompted consideration of several changes in medical and surgical care. Unfortunately, our understanding of the benefits gained from these approaches relative to their cost remains limited. This study was designed to estimate utilities for lymphedema and characterize how utilities differ between subgroups defined by lymphedema etiology and distribution. METHODS A consecutive sample of 236 subjects with lymphedema seen at a lymphedema clinic completed both a time trade-off (TTO) exercise and the Euroqol 5D. Responses were adjusted in multivariate regression models for demographic factors, comorbidities, and lymphedema severity/location. RESULTS Most participants (167 of 236, 71%) had lymphedema as a consequence of cancer treatment; 123 with breast cancer and upper extremity involvement. Mean TTO utility estimates were consistently higher than Euroqol 5D estimates. Unadjusted TTO (0.85; standard deviation [SD], 0.21) and Euroqol 5D (0.76; SD, 0.18) scores diminished with increasing lymphedema stage and patient body mass index (BMI). Adjusted utility scores were lowest in patients with cancer-related lower extremity lymphedema (TTO=0.82; SD, 0.04 and Euroqol 5D=0.80; SD, 0.03). Breast cancer patients also had lower adjusted Euroqol 5D scores (0.80; SD, 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Lymphedema-associated utilities are in the range of 0.80. Lower utilities are observed for patients with higher lymphedema stages, elevated BMI, and cancer-related lymphedema. Greater expenditures for the prevention and treatment of cancer-related lymphedema are warranted. PMID:20564063
Yuan, Yahua; Feng, Hai L; Shi, Youguo; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Belik, Alexei A; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Arai, Masao; He, Jianfeng; Tanaka, Masahiko; Yamaura, Kazunari
2014-01-01
5d Solid-state oxides K0.84OsO3 (Os5.16+; 5d 2.84) and Bi2.93Os3O11 (Os4.40+; 5d 3.60) were synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions (6 GPa and 1500–1700 °C). Their crystal structures were determined by synchrotron x-ray diffraction and their 5d electronic properties and tunnel-like structure motifs were investigated. A KSbO3-type structure with a space group of Im-3 and Pn-3 was determined for K0.84OsO3 and Bi2.93Os3O11, respectively. The magnetic and electronic transport properties of the polycrystalline compounds were compared with those obtained theoretically. It was revealed that the 5d tunnel-like structures are paramagnetic with metallic charge conduction at temperatures above 2 K. This was similar to what was observed for structurally relevant 5d oxides, including Bi3Re3O11 (Re4.33+; 5d 2.66) and Ba2Ir3O9 (Ir4.66+; 5d 4.33). The absence of long-range magnetic order seems to be common among 5d KSbO3-like oxides, regardless of the number of 5d electrons (between 2.6 and 4.3 per 5d atom). PMID:27877729
Strickland, Gemma; Pauling, John; Cavill, Charlotte; McHugh, Neil
2012-08-01
This study evaluates predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and fatigue in systemic sclerosis (SSc) using two novel self-report indices. A cross-sectional study of patients with SSc was undertaken using a postal questionnaire including the EuroQol-5Domain health questionnaire (EQ-5D™), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale (FACIT-F) and the Scleroderma Health Assessment Questionnaire (SHAQ). The EQ-5D assesses five domains of health quality and is quantified as a time trade-off (TTO) value and patient global assessment (0-100 visual analogue scale [VAS]). The FACIT-F is a 13-item questionnaire (0-52 scale). Higher scores for both the EQ-5D and FACIT-F indicate better health. Case notes were scrutinised for patient demographics, disease duration, serology and clinical phenotype. Sixty-eight patients (60 females, mean age 62.6 years) completed the questionnaires. Fatigue correlated closely with HRQoL (r (s) = 0.78 and 0.77 for FACIT-F vs. EQ-5D VAS and TTO respectively, p < 0.01) and disability (r (s) = -0.74 for FACIT-F vs. HAQ-DI, p < 0.01). Pain was the most frequently reported health problem (80 %) in the EQ-5D. HRQoL also correlated closely with disability (r (s) = 0.83 for EQ-5D vs. HAQ-DI, p < 0.01). SHAQ-VAS scores correlated well with the FACIT-F, EQ-5D and HAQ-DI scores (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Of the patient demographics and clinical disease associations, only the absence of upper gastrointestinal complications was associated with better levels of fatigue, HRQoL and function. There is a strong correlation between disability, fatigue and HRQoL measured using self-reports, possibly reflecting similarly perceived health beliefs amongst patients across outcomes. There was little association between self-report indices and patient demographics and/or clinical phenotype.
Nonsingular AdS-dS transitions in a landscape scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupt, Brajesh; Singh, Parampreet
2014-03-01
Understanding transitions between different vacua of a multiverse allowing eternal inflation is an open problem whose resolution is important to gain insights on the global structure of the spacetime as well as the problem of measure. In the classical theory, transitions from the anti-de Sitter to de Sitter vacua are forbidden due to the big-crunch singularity. In this paper, we consider toy landscape potentials: a double well and a triple well potential allowing anti-de Sitter and de Sitter vacua, in the effective dynamics of loop quantum cosmology for the k=-1 FRW model. We show that due to the nonperturbative quantum gravity effects as understood in loop quantum cosmology, nonsingular anti-de Sitter to de Sitter transitions are possible. In the future evolution, an anti-de Sitter bubble universe does not encounter a big-crunch singularity but undergoes a big bounce occurring at a scale determined by the underlying quantum geometry. These nonsingular transitions provide a mechanism through which a probe or a "watcher," used to define a local measure, can safely evolve through the bounce and geodesics can be smoothly extended from anti-de Sitter to de Sitter vacua.
Non-singular AdS-dS transitions in a landscape scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupt, Brajesh; Singh, Parampreet
2014-03-01
In the multiverse scanario allowing eternal inflation, it is an important problem to understand transitions between different vacua, of which the ones from anti-deSitter to de-Sitter is forbidden in the classical theory. In this talk, we consider toy landscape potentials: a double well and a triple well potential allowing anti-deSitter and de-Sitter vacua, in the effective dynamics of loop quantum cosmology for the k = - 1 FRW model. We show that due to the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects as understood in loop quantum cosmology, non-singular anti-deSitter to de-Sitter transitions are possible. In the future evolution, an anti-deSitter bubble universe does not encounter a big crunch singularity but undergoes a big bounce occurring at a scale determined by the underlying quantum geometry. These non-singular transitions provide a mechanism through which a probe or a ``watcher,'' used to define a local measure, can safely evolve through the bounce and geodesics can be smoothly extended from anti-deSitter to de-Sitter vacua.
Veiga, L. S. I.; Fabbris, G.; van Veenendaal, M.; Souza-Neto, N. M.; Feng, H. L.; Yamaura, K.; Haskel, D.
2015-06-19
The ability to tune exchange (magnetic) interactions between 3d transition metals in perovskite structures has proven to be a powerful route to discovery of novel properties. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of 3d-5d exchange pathways in double perovskites enables additional tunability, a result of the large spatial extent of 5d wave functions. Using x-ray probes of magnetism and structure at high pressure, we show that compression of Sr₂FeOsO₆ drives an unexpected continuous change in the sign of Fe-Os exchange interactions and a transition from antiferromagnetic to ferrimagnetic order. We analyze the relevant electron-electron interactions, shedding light into fundamental differences with the more thoroughly studied 3d-3d systems.
Neutron scattering study of magnetic excitations in a 5d-based double-perovskite Ba2FeReO6
Plumb, K. W.; Cook, A. M.; Clancy, J.P.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Jeon, B. C.; Noh, Tae Won; Paramekanti, A.; Kim, Young-June
2013-01-01
Motivated by exploring spin-orbit-coupled magnetism in 5d-based transition metal oxides (TMOs) beyond the iridates, we present a powder inelastic neutron scattering study of magnetic excitations in Ba2FeReO6 - a member of the double-perovskite family of materials which exhibit half-metallic behavior and high Curie temperatures Tc. We find clear evidence of two well-defined dispersing magnetic modes in its low-temperature ferromagnetic state. We develop a local moment model, which incorporates the interaction of Fe spins with spin-orbital locked magnetic moments on Re and show that it captures our experimental observations. This allows us to extract moment sizes and exchange couplings, explain the magnitude of Tc, and infer that magnetostructural locking terms are weak. Our study further opens up Re-based compounds as model systems to explore the interplay of strong correlations and spin-orbit coupling in 5d TMOs.
Structural and magnetic properties of the 5 d2 double perovskites Sr2B ReO6 (B =Y , In)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aczel, A. A.; Zhao, Z.; Calder, S.; Adroja, D. T.; Baker, P. J.; Yan, J.-Q.
2016-06-01
We have performed magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, neutron powder diffraction, and muon spin relaxation experiments to investigate the magnetic ground states of the 5 d2 double perovskites Sr2YReO6 and Sr2InReO6 . We find that Sr2YReO6 is a spin glass, while Sr2InReO6 hosts a nonmagnetic singlet state. By making detailed comparisons with other 5 d2 double perovskites, we argue that a delicate interplay between spin-orbit coupling, noncubic crystal fields, and exchange interactions plays a key role in the great variation of magnetic ground states observed for this family of materials.