Science.gov

Sample records for 5d ppe fetuses

  1. About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... evaluation or testing against specific viruses, such as Ebola or flu. If performance data has met FDA ... about the Flu What You Should Know about Ebola Q3. Should caregivers use PPE to help protect ...

  2. New PPE Policy Will Help Prevent Injuries | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley Shoemaker, Guest Writer In January 2013, a revised policy on personal protective equipment (PPE) was approved for all government and contractor employees at NCI at Frederick. This new policy was driven by a high number of eye injuries at NCI at Frederick (56 between 2007 and 2012) that were directly related to inadequate PPE. The Occupational Safety and Health Act states that each employer is responsible for identifying hazards in the workplace and determining what kind of PPE is necessary.

  3. Structure-Properties of PPE Alloy by Reactive Blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuta, Motonobu; Koyama, Yoshio; Inoue, Takashi

    Poly(phenylene ether) (PPE) is a high temperature polymer (Tg=210°C). Neat PPE is hardly melt-processed below its thermal decomposition temperature. It is believed that the melt-processability is only achieved by blending with polystyrene as a polymeric plasticizer. The polymeric plasticizer sacrifices the heat resistance; the Tg decreases almost linearly with polystyrene content. We found that PPE can react with poly(ethylene-co-glycidylmethacrylate) (EGMA) by melt mixing. Reactive blending of PPE with EGMA yielded an excellent engineering plastic with nice melt-processability, even when a small amount of EGMA (e.g., 5 wt%) was incorporated. The injection molded parts showed high impact strength, high temperature resistance, high tensile strength, and low dielectric loss. It can be classified as a super-engineering plastics. The computer simulation based on a particle-slip model revealed why the melt-processability is attained by the incorporation of polyolefin in pure PPE matrix.

  4. Photothermoelectric (PTE) Versus Photopyroelectric (PPE) Detection of Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadarlat, D.; Guilmeau, E.; Hadj Sahraoui, A.; Tudoran, C.; Surducan, V.; Bourgès, C.; Lemoine, P.

    2016-05-01

    The photopyroelectric (PPE) technique is one of the photothermal (PT) methods mostly used for phase transitions investigations. In this paper, we want to compare the PPE results with those obtained using another, recently developed PT method [the photothermoelectric (PTE) calorimetry] for the same purpose of detecting phase transitions. The well-known ferro-paraelectric phase transition of TGS, taking place at a convenient temperature (about 49 {}^{circ }hbox {C}), has been selected for demonstration. A comparison of the two PPE and PTE methods, both in the back detection configuration (in the special case of optically opaque sample and thermally thick regime for both sensors and sample) shows that they are equally suitable for phase transitions detection. Performing a proper calibration, the amplitude and phase of the signals can be used in order to obtain the critical behaviour of all sample's static and dynamic thermal parameters.

  5. Variation of the expression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ppe44 gene among clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Rindi, Laura; Peroni, Irene; Lari, Nicoletta; Bonanni, Daniela; Tortoli, Enrico; Garzelli, Carlo

    2007-11-01

    PPE44 is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE proteins, a polymorphic family of 69 glycine-rich proteins that predictively represent a source of antigenic variation. The genetic diversity of gene ppe44 among clinical isolates has been studied. No genomic polymorphism of ppe44 was found by a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay using three restriction enzymes. Nucleotide sequencing of gene ppe44 of a number of isolates, selected to represent the major phylogenetic lineages of M. tuberculosis, showed no nucleotide substitution, with the exception of isolates of the Beijing genotype. These findings indicate that gene ppe44 is basically conserved among M. tuberculosis strains. The expression of gene ppe44 was then determined at the transcriptional level by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay. Extremely high quantitative variations in ppe44 expression were found among the isolates; ppe44 expression of the Beijing strains was significantly higher than the non-Beijing strains. To test whether differential expression of gene ppe44 has the potential to provide a dynamic antigen display, antibodies to PPE44 were titered in the sera of M. tuberculosis-infected subjects. Variation of antibody response to PPE44 was found with regard to both antibody titers and the proportion of responding subjects. These results indicate that the differential expression of genes ppe could influence the host's immune responsiveness, thus having implications in the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID:17727653

  6. Fathers and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Harris, George W

    1986-04-01

    Harris postulates that in certain instances it would be morally impermissible for a woman to have an abortion because it would be a wrongful harm to the father and a violation of his autonomy. He constructs and analyzes five cases chosen to elucidate the moral issues involved and concludes that, for a man to lay claim to the fetus being his in a sense that the mother is obligated to respect, the fetus must be the result of his having pursued a legitimate interest in procreation in a morally legitimate way. When a man has satisfied the requirements of autonomy both for himself and for his sexual partner in regard to the interest in procreation, the woman has a prima facie obligation to him not to harm the fetus. Therefore, unless there is some contravening moral consideration that overrides this obligation, the abortion of the fetus is morally impermissible.

  7. Phylogeny to function: PE/PPE protein evolution and impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, S; van Wyk, N; Warren, R M; Sampson, S L

    2015-06-01

    The pe/ppe genes represent one of the most intriguing aspects of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. These genes are especially abundant in pathogenic mycobacteria, with more than 160 members in M. tuberculosis. Despite being discovered over 15 years ago, their function remains unclear, although various lines of evidence implicate selected family members in mycobacterial virulence. In this review, we use PE/PPE phylogeny as a framework within which we examine the diversity and putative functions of these proteins. We report on the evolution and diversity of the respective gene families, as well as the implications thereof for function and host immune recognition. We summarize recent findings on pe/ppe gene regulation, also placing this in the context of PE/PPE phylogeny. We collate data from several large proteomics datasets, providing an overview of PE/PPE localization, and discuss the implications this may have for host responses. Assessment of the current knowledge of PE/PPE diversity suggests that these proteins are not variable antigens as has been so widely speculated; however, they do clearly play important roles in virulence. Viewing the growing body of pe/ppe literature through the lens of phylogeny reveals trends in features and function that may be associated with the evolution of mycobacterial pathogenicity.

  8. Morphology-dependent optical properties of substituted poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene) (PPE) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X. M.; Wu, C. C.; Wohlgenannt, M.; Huang, W. Y.; Kwei, T. K.; Okamoto, Y.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2003-10-01

    Two different batches of substituted poly(p-phenylene-ethynylene) [PPEs] were synthesized, where the substituents: di-2-butyl(a) and di-2-ethylhexyl(d), were placed on the 2 and 5 positions of the backbone phenyl rings. The photoinduced absorption (PA) spectrum of PPE(a) shows a polaron band at about 850 cm -1, whereas PPE(d) does not show polaron bands at all. At T=10 K the PA spectrum of PPE(a) in the visible spectral range has two main bands around 1.25 and 1.9 eV, respectively, and a broad shoulder at 2.1 eV. Using the photoinduced absorption detected magnetic resonance (PADMR) spectroscopy, we found that in PPE(a) the 1.9 eV PA band is associated with spin {1}/{2}, thus it is due to long-lived photogenerated polarons, whereas both the 1.25 eV PA band and 2.1 eV band do not have any spin {1}/{2}, resonance. In PPE(d) there is a very sharp peak at 1.45 eV, which is due to triplets excitons, and a broad band around 2.0 eV similar to PPE(a), which is due to aggregates.

  9. [The fetus and noise].

    PubMed

    Brezinka, C; Lechner, T; Stephan, K

    1997-01-01

    From 23 weeks of gestation some and from 28 weeks all healthy fetuses are capable of reacting to sound stimulation. The intrauterine acoustic environment is dominated by maternal sounds--heartbeat, breathing, the mother's voice, borborygmi and sounds caused by body movements. Background noise is never below 28 dB and can rise to 84 dB when the mother is singing. Noises that are meant to reach the fetus must be louder than the background noise and must be of low frequency as high frequency sounds are damped by maternal tissue. Vibroacoustic stimulation tests (VAST) have become popular in pregnancy surveillance over the last 20 years, mostly using an artificial larynx. Advantages and problems of the various VAST protocols in fetal monitoring are discussed in the light of animal experiments and clinical studies. Health legislation laws in most countries forbid pregnant women to work in surroundings with a high noise level (80 dB continuous noise and/or rapid impulse noise changes of 40 dB). Whereas regulations for pregnant women are easy to enforce in industry, pregnant women employed in discos or performing as musicians spend most of their working day exposed to noise impact higher than the recommended limit.

  10. Genomic Comparison of PE and PPE Genes in the Mycobacterium avium Complex▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Nick; Alexander, David C.; Turenne, Christine Y.; Behr, Marcel A.; De Buck, Jeroen M.

    2009-01-01

    The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) comprises genomically similar but phenotypically divergent bacteria that inhabit diverse environments and that cause disease in different hosts. In this study, a whole-genome approach was used to examine the polymorphic PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) gene families, implicated in immunostimulation and virulence. The four major groups of MAC organisms were examined, including the newly sequenced type strains of M. intracellulare and M. avium subsp. avium, plus M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis, for the purpose of finding genetic differences that could be exploited to design diagnostic tests specific to these groups and that could help explain their divergence in pathogenesis and host specificity. Unique and missing PPE genes were found in all MAC members except M. avium subsp. avium. Only M. intracellulare had a unique PE gene. Apart from this, most PE and PPE sequences were conserved, with average nucleotide sequence identities of 99.1 and 98.1%, respectively, among the M. avium subspecies, but only 82.9 and 79.7% identities with the PE and PPE sequences of M. intracellulare, respectively. A detailed analysis of the amino acid sequences was performed between M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis. Most differences were detected in the PPE proteins, with amino acid substitutions and frame shifts leading to unique amino acid sequences. In conclusion, several unique PPE proteins were identified in MAC organisms next to numerous polymorphisms in both the PE and PPE gene families. These substantial differences could help explain the divergence in phenotypes within the MAC and could lead to diagnostic tests with better discriminatory abilities. PMID:19144814

  11. Conserved Immune Recognition Hierarchy of Mycobacterial PE/PPE Proteins during Infection in Natural Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Vordermeier, H. Martin; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Gideon, Hannah P.; Young, Douglas B.; Sampson, Samantha L.

    2012-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome contains two large gene families encoding proteins of unknown function, characterized by conserved N-terminal proline and glutamate (PE and PPE) motifs. The presence of a large number of PE/PPE proteins with repetitive domains and evidence of strain variation has given rise to the suggestion that these proteins may play a role in immune evasion via antigenic variation, while emerging data suggests that some family members may play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we examined cellular immune responses to a panel of 36 PE/PPE proteins during human and bovine infection. We observed a distinct hierarchy of immune recognition, reflected both in the repertoire of PE/PPE peptide recognition in individual cows and humans and in the magnitude of IFN-γ responses elicited by stimulation of sensitized host cells. The pattern of immunodominance was strikingly similar between cattle that had been experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis and humans naturally infected with clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. The same pattern was maintained as disease progressed throughout a four-month course of infection in cattle, and between humans with latent as well as active tuberculosis. Detailed analysis of PE/PPE responses at the peptide level suggests that antigenic cross-reactivity amongst related family members is a major determinant in the observed differences in immune hierarchy. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a subset of PE/PPE proteins are major targets of the cellular immune response to tuberculosis, and are recognized at multiple stages of infection and in different disease states. Thus this work identifies a number of novel antigens that could find application in vaccine development, and provides new insights into PE/PPE biology. PMID:22870206

  12. Treatment of Palmar Plantar Erythrodysesthesia (PPE) with Topical Sildenafil: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Kellen L.; Rushing, Christel; Honeycutt, Wanda; Latta, Kenneth; Howard, Leigh; Arrowood, Christy A.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Hurwitz, Herbert I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Palmar-plantar erythrodysethesia (PPE) is a common chemotherapy and anti-VEGF multi-kinase inhibitor class-related toxicity that often results in debilitating skin changes and often limits the use of active anti-cancer regimens. Mechanistic and anecdotal clinical evidence suggested that topical application of sildenafil cream may help reduce the severity of PPE. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of topical sildenafil cream for the treatment of PPE. Methods Eligible subjects were required to have grade 1–3 PPE associated with either capecitabine or sunitinib. Subjects were randomized to receive 1% topical sildenafil cream to the left extremities or right extremities and placebo cream on the opposite extremity. 0.5 mL of cream was applied to each affected hand/foot two times per day. The primary endpoint was improvement in PPE grading at any point on study. Clinical assessments were evaluated by NCI-CTC 4.0 grading and patient self-reported pain. Results Ten subjects were enrolled; 9 were evaluable for safety and efficacy. Five of nine subjects reported some improvement in foot pain and 3 of 8 subjects for hand pain improvement. One of these subjects noted specific improvement in tactile function. No treatment-related toxicities were observed. Conclusions In this limited, single center study, topical cream containing 1% sildenafil is feasible to administer, is well-tolerated, and may mitigate PPE-related symptoms due to anti-cancer therapeutic agents. Further validation is necessary. PMID:25341548

  13. Comparative Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis pe and ppe Genes Reveals High Sequence Variation and an Apparent Absence of Selective Constraints

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Christopher R. E.; Cloete, Ruben; Müller, Borna; Schürch, Anita C.; van Helden, Paul D.; Gagneux, Sebastien; Warren, Robin M.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genomes contain 2 large gene families termed pe and ppe. The function of pe/ppe proteins remains enigmatic but studies suggest that they are secreted or cell surface associated and are involved in bacterial virulence. Previous studies have also shown that some pe/ppe genes are polymorphic, a finding that suggests involvement in antigenic variation. Using comparative sequence analysis of 18 publicly available MTBC whole genome sequences, we have performed alignments of 33 pe (excluding pe_pgrs) and 66 ppe genes in order to detect the frequency and nature of genetic variation. This work has been supplemented by whole gene sequencing of 14 pe/ppe (including 5 pe_pgrs) genes in a cohort of 40 diverse and well defined clinical isolates covering all the main lineages of the M. tuberculosis phylogenetic tree. We show that nsSNP's in pe (excluding pgrs) and ppe genes are 3.0 and 3.3 times higher than in non-pe/ppe genes respectively and that numerous other mutation types are also present at a high frequency. It has previously been shown that non-pe/ppe M. tuberculosis genes display a remarkably low level of purifying selection. Here, we also show that compared to these genes those of the pe/ppe families show a further reduction of selection pressure that suggests neutral evolution. This is inconsistent with the positive selection pressure of “classical” antigenic variation. Finally, by analyzing such a large number of genes we were able to detect large differences in mutation type and frequency between both individual genes and gene sub-families. The high variation rates and absence of selective constraints provides valuable insights into potential pe/ppe function. Since pe/ppe proteins are highly antigenic and have been studied as potential vaccine components these results should also prove informative for aspects of M. tuberculosis vaccine design. PMID:22496726

  14. 5-D Choptuik critical exponent and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, J.; Kunstatter, G.

    2007-05-01

    Recently, a holographic argument was used to relate the saturation exponent, γBFKL, of 4-dimensional Yang-Mills theory in the Regge limit to the Choptuik critical scaling exponent, γ5d, in 5-dimensional black hole formation via scalar field collapse [L. Álvarez-Gaumé, C. Gómez, and M. A. Vázquez-Mozo, arXiv:hep-th/0611312.]. Remarkably, the numerical value of the former agreed quite well with previous calculations of the latter. We present new results of an improved calculation of γ5d with substantially decreased numerical error. Our current result is γ5d=0.4131±0.0001, which is close to, but not in strict agreement with, the value of γBFKL=0.409552 quoted in [L. Álvarez-Gaumé, C. Gómez, and M. A. Vázquez-Mozo, arXiv:hep-th/0611312.].

  15. PPE Antigen Rv2430c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces a Strong B-Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Rakesh Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita; Chakhaiyar, Prachee; Sharma, Naresh; Murthy, K. J. R.; Katoch, V. M.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2003-01-01

    The variation in sequence and length in the C-terminal region among members of the unique PE (Pro-Glu) and PPE (Pro-Pro-Glu) protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a likely source of antigenic variation, giving rise to the speculation that these protein families could be immunologically important. Based on in silico analysis, we selected a hypothetical open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein belonging to the PPE family and having epitopes with predictably higher antigenic indexes. Reverse transcriptase PCR using total RNA extracted from in vitro-cultured M. tuberculosis H37Rv generated an mRNA product corresponding to this gene, indicating the expression of this ORF (Rv2430c) at the mRNA level. Recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was used to screen the sera of M. tuberculosis-infected patients, as well as those of clinically healthy controls (n = 10), by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The panel of patient sera comprised sera from fresh infection cases (category 1; n = 32), patients with relapsed tuberculosis (category 2; n = 30), and extrapulmonary cases (category 3; n = 30). Category 2 and 3 sera had strong antibody responses to the PPE antigen, equal to or higher than those to other well-known antigens, such as Hsp10 or purified protein derivative (PPD). However, a higher percentage of patients belonging to category 1, as opposed to clinically healthy controls, showed stronger antibody response against the PPE protein when probed with anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM) (71 versus 37.5%) or anti-IgG (62.5 versus 28.12%). Our results reveal that this PPE ORF induces a strong B-cell response compared to that generated by M. tuberculosis Hsp10 or PPD, pointing to the immunodominant nature of the protein. PMID:14573653

  16. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Nuzhat, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses) and group II (third-trimester fetuses), followed by dissection. Result. (1) Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%). In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2) Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3) Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4) Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position. PMID:27313956

  17. Supersymmetry and Lorentz Violation in 5D

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Aguilar, J. D.; Perez-Lorenzana, A.; Pedraza-Ortega, O.

    2011-10-14

    We present a study for a Supersymmetric field theory with Lorentz-Violation terms in 5D. We perform the analysis in the context of the Berger-Kostelecky model (BK), adding one compactified dimension that explicitly breaks the Lorentz invariance. We introduce terms that encode this breaking, and find non trivial restrictions over boundary conditions of fields that one needs to close the supersymmetric algebra.

  18. The Co-Operonic PE25/PPE41 Protein Complex of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Elicits Increased Humoral and Cell Mediated Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Tundup, Smanla; Pathak, Niteen; Ramanadham, M.; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita; Murthy, K. J. R.; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many of the PE/PPE proteins are either surface localized or secreted outside and are thought to be a source of antigenic variation in the host. The exact role of these proteins are still elusive. We previously reported that the PPE41 protein induces high B cell response in TB patients. The PE/PPE genes are not randomly distributed in the genome but are organized as operons and the operon containing PE25 and PPE41 genes co-transcribe and their products interact with each other. Methodology/Principal Finding We now describe the antigenic properties of the PE25, PPE41 and PE25/PPE41 protein complex coded by a single operon. The PPE41 and PE25/PPE41 protein complex induces significant (p<0.0001) B cell response in sera derived from TB patients and in mouse model as compared to the PE25 protein. Further, mice immunized with the PE25/PPE41 complex and PPE41 proteins showed significant (p<0.00001) proliferation of splenocyte as compared to the mice immunized with the PE25 protein and saline. Flow cytometric analysis showed 15–22% enhancement of CD8+ and CD4+ T cell populations when immunized with the PPE41 or PE25/PPE41 complex as compared to a marginal increase (8–10%) in the mice immunized with the PE25 protein. The PPE41 and PE25/PPE41 complex can also induce higher levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 cytokines. Conclusion While this study documents the differential immunological response to the complex of PE and PPE vis-à-vis the individual proteins, it also highlights their potential as a candidate vaccine against tuberculosis. PMID:18974870

  19. Prediction of Certain Well-Characterized Domains of Known Functions within the PE and PPE Proteins of Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Kumar, Ashwin B R; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    The PE and PPE protein family are unique to mycobacteria. Though the complete genome sequences for over 500 M. tuberculosis strains and mycobacterial species are available, few PE and PPE proteins have been structurally and functionally characterized. We have therefore used bioinformatics tools to characterize the structure and function of these proteins. We selected representative members of the PE and PPE protein family by phylogeny analysis and using structure-based sequence annotation identified ten well-characterized protein domains of known function. Some of these domains were observed to be common to all mycobacterial species and some were species specific.

  20. Prediction of Certain Well-Characterized Domains of Known Functions within the PE and PPE Proteins of Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Kumar, Ashwin B. R.; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    The PE and PPE protein family are unique to mycobacteria. Though the complete genome sequences for over 500 M. tuberculosis strains and mycobacterial species are available, few PE and PPE proteins have been structurally and functionally characterized. We have therefore used bioinformatics tools to characterize the structure and function of these proteins. We selected representative members of the PE and PPE protein family by phylogeny analysis and using structure-based sequence annotation identified ten well-characterized protein domains of known function. Some of these domains were observed to be common to all mycobacterial species and some were species specific. PMID:26891364

  1. STS-42 Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE) closeup taken onboard OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Phase Partitioning Experiment (PPE), an International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) experiment, is documented in a closeup taken onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Phase partitioning is a very effective technique used by biochemists and cell biologists to obtain fairly pure cells. Cells are separated and collected in a mixture of two immiscible liquids (fluids that tend not to mix) by their surface characteristics. In the PPE, investigators feel they will be able to separate closely related cells because cell density and convection flows are not factors in the phase partitioning process in space. They also hope to study other factors that influence the process. Phase partitioning is used to separate biological materials such as bone marrow cells for cancer treatment.

  2. Thermophysical analysis of II-VI semiconductors by PPE calorimetry and lock-in thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Streza, M.; Dadarlat, D.; Strzałkowski, K.

    2013-11-13

    An accurate determination of thermophysical properties such as thermal diffusivity, thermal effusivity and thermal conductivity is extremely important for characterization and quality assurance of semiconductors. Thermal diffusivity and effusivity of some binary semiconductors have been investigated. Two experimental techniques were used: a contact technique (PPE calorimetry) and a non contact technique (lock-in thermography). When working with PPE, in the back (BPPE) configuration and in the thermally thick regim of the pyroelectric sensor, we can get the thermal diffusivity of the sample by performing a scanning of the excitation frequency of radiation. Thermal effusivity is obtained in front configuration (sensor directly irradiated and sample in back position) by performing a thickness scan of a coupling fluid. By using the lock-in thermography technique, the thermal diffusivity of the sample is obtained from the phase image. The results obtained by the two techniques are in good agreement. Nevertheless, for the determination of thermal diffusivity, lock-in thermography is preferred.

  3. Transduction of Functionally Contrasting Signals by Two Mycobacterial PPE Proteins Downstream of TLR2 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Udgata, Atul; Qureshi, Rahila; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-09-01

    As pathogen-associated molecular pattern sensors, the TLRs can detect diverse ligands to elicit either proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses, but the mechanism that dictates such contrasting immune responses is not well understood. In this work, we demonstrate that proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE)17 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces TLR1/2 heterodimerization to elicit proinflammatory-type response, whereas PPE18-induced homodimerization of TLR2 triggers anti-inflammatory type responses. Ligation of TLR1/2 caused an increased recruitment of IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)1, MyD88, and protein kinase C (PKC)ε to the downstream TLR-signaling complex that translocated PKCε into the nucleus in an IRAK1-dependent manner. PKCε-mediated phosphorylation allowed the nuclear IRAK3 to be exported to the cytoplasm, leading to increased activation of ERK1/2, stabilization of MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), and induction of TNF-α with concomitant downregulation of p38MAPK. Silencing of TLR1 inhibited PPE17-triggered cytoplasmic export of IRAK3 as well as TNF-α induction, suggesting an important role of TLR1/2 heterodimer in regulating proinflammatory responses via the IRAK3-signaling pathway. In contrast, PPE18-mediated homodimerization of TLR2 caused poorer cytoplasmic export of nuclear IRAK3 and MKP-1 stabilization, resulting in increased p38MAPK activation. Our study hints to a novel mechanism that implicates PKCε-IRAK3-MKP-1 signaling in the regulation of MAPK activity and inflammatory cascades downstream of TLR2 in tuberculosis. PMID:27481848

  4. The fetus in maternal hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Perelman, A H; Clemons, R D

    1992-01-01

    A recent article in the New England Journal of Medicine reported the successful diagnosis and treatment of fetal goitrous hypothyroidism in a mother with Graves' disease. The fetus is being recognized as an important patient in its own right in terms of thyroid disease. The fetal thyroid system develops independently of the normal maternal thyroid axis. Presence of feedback suppression of TSH by T4 has been demonstrated in a 35-week fetus. Information learned from congenital hypothyroidism suggests that lack of fetal thyroid hormones may have a negative impact on the developing fetal brain with lack of normal myelination. It is uncertain at what gestational age the fetus and the developing central nervous system become adversely affected by thyroid hormone deficiency. Since congenital hypothyroidism is sporadic and since there is no current method for easily screening all pregnancies for hypothyroidism, the thrust in fetal diagnosis and therapy has been in those pregnancies suspected of having a hypothyroid fetus when a fetal goiter is detected by ultrasonography or in a hyperthyroid mother who may be on antithyroid therapy. Intraamniotic injections of L-thyroxine have proven successful for fetal therapy. Amniotic fluid TSH may prove useful in the diagnosis and treatment of a hypothyroid fetus. Previous studies have suggested that the period of thyroxine dependency of the fetal central nervous system is limited predominantly to the last 4-8 weeks of gestation. Fetal hyperthyroidism due to transplacental transmission of thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulins may occur in a mother with a history of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Mycobacterial PE/PPE Proteins at the Host-Pathogen Interface

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Samantha L.

    2011-01-01

    The mycobacterial PE/PPE proteins have attracted much interest since their formal identification just over a decade ago. It has been widely speculated that these proteins may play a role in evasion of host immune responses, possibly via antigenic variation. Although a cohesive understanding of their function(s) has yet to be established, emerging data increasingly supports a role for the PE/PPE proteins at multiple levels of the infectious process. This paper will delineate salient features of the families revealed by comparative genomics, bioinformatic analyses and genome-wide screening approaches and will summarise existing knowledge of subcellular localization, secretion pathways, and protein structure. These characteristics will be considered in light of findings on innate and adaptive host responses to PE/PPE proteins, and we will review the increasing body of data on B and T cell recognition of these proteins. Finally, we will consider how current knowledge and future explorations may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of these intriguing proteins and their involvement in host pathogen interactions. Ultimately this information could underpin future intervention strategies, for example, in the area of new and improved diagnostic tools and vaccine candidates. PMID:21318182

  6. Initial development of 5D COGENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, R. H.; Lee, W.; Dorf, M.; Dorr, M.

    2015-11-01

    COGENT is a continuum gyrokinetic edge code being developed by the by the Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) collaboration. Work to date has been primarily focussed on a 4D (axisymmetric) version that models transport properties of edge plasmas. We have begun development of an initial 5D version to study edge turbulence, with initial focus on kinetic effects on blob dynamics and drift-wave instability in a shearless magnetic field. We are employing compiler directives and preprocessor macros to create a single source code that can be compiled in 4D or 5D, which helps to ensure consistency of physics representation between the two versions. A key aspect of COGENT is the employment of mapped multi-block grid capability to handle the complexity of diverter geometry. It is planned to eventually exploit this capability to handle magnetic shear, through a series of successively skewed unsheared grid blocks. The initial version has an unsheared grid and will be used to explore the degree to which a radial domain must be block decomposed. We report on the status of code development and initial tests. Work performed for USDOE, at LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Intraventricular twin fetuses in fetu.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Lauren N; Fuller, Christine; Powell, Tiffany; Hiemenga, Judith A; Yan, Jia; Deuell, Brian; Lyders, Eric M; Bodurtha, Joann N; Papenhausen, Peter R; Jackson-Cook, Colleen K; Pandya, Arti; Jaworski, Margie; Tye, Gary W; Ritter, Ann M

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of multiple intracranial fetuses in fetu, fulfilling Willis' traditional criteria, which include an axial and appendicular skeleton with surrounding organized tissue. This case was ascertained from studies of a full-term female neonate who presented with ventriculomegaly. A CT scan showed intracranial calcifications that were suggestive of an axial skeleton. Her birth weight was 3.176 kg (50th-75th percentile), length was 52 cm (90th percentile), head circumference was 35 cm (50th-75th percentile), and Apgar scores were 7 and 8 at 1 and 5 minutes, respectively. Prenatal ultrasonography studies performed at 12 weeks and 5 days, and 19 weeks and 6 days revealed normal findings. A 37-week prenatal ultrasonography study showed ventriculomegaly and obstructive hydrocephalus, with a possible intracranial teratoma. Cranial imaging at birth with ultrasonography, CT and MR imaging, and MR angiography demonstrated 2 complex intraventricular masses with cystic, solid, and bony elements. A craniotomy with resection of the masses was performed at 3 months of age. The infant survived and is now 12 months old with some developmental progress. Two axial skeletons, with accompanying rib cage and extremities, including well-formed feet and toes, were noted. Both anencephalic structures had skin with hair, fat, skeletal and smooth muscle, and bony structures with bone marrow and focal areas of calcification. Multiple viscera were present and included thymus, bowel, stomach, salivary gland, kidney, adrenal gland, lung, and presumed adnexal structures. A diagnosis of fetuses in fetu was rendered. Chromosomal studies of the child and tissue from the 2 fetuses in fetu showed normal female karyotypes. A single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis from the proband infant and tissue from the 2 identified fetuses in fetu appeared to be genetically identical. These results are consistent with a monozygotic twin embryonic origin of the fetus in fetu tissue

  8. 5D supergravity and projective superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Tartaglino-Mazzucchelli, Gabriele

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a companion to our earlier work [1] in which the projective superspace formulation for matter-coupled simple supergravity in five dimensions was presented. For the minimal multiplet of 5D Script N = 1 supergravity introduced by Howe in 1981, we give a complete solution of the Bianchi identities. The geometry of curved superspace is shown to allow the existence of a large family of off-shell supermultiplets that can be used to describe supersymmetric matter, including vector multiplets and hypermultiplets. We formulate a manifestly locally supersymmetric action principle. Its natural property turns out to be the invariance under so-called projective transformations of the auxiliary isotwistor variables. We then demonstrate that the projective invariance allows one to uniquely restore the action functional in a Wess-Zumino gauge. The latter action is well-suited for reducing the supergravity-matter systems to components.

  9. The Short-term Protective Effects of 'Non-PPE' Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers.

    PubMed

    Roff, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin 'splash-resistant single-use' (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These 'non-personal protective equipment (PPE)' gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of 'non-PPE' gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments.One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as 'non-PPE' gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject 'challenge' in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38-87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25-41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5-8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the absorbent cotton gloves it

  10. Evaluating a moving target: Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in hospital settings

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project. Demonstration projects, in this context, push the envelope about what is known about effectiveness in novel settings, and turnover of staff and patient populations can present challenges to gathering optimal data. By using P-PE, we built capacity in the environment while expanding possibilities for data collection. Suggestions are made based on our experience. PMID:24860251

  11. Effect of number of corpora lutea and fetuses on concentrations of progesterone in blood of goats.

    PubMed

    Jarrell, V L; Dziuk, P J

    1991-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess relationships between 1) number of corpora lutea (CL) and concentrations of progesterone (P) in plasma of goats from onset of estrus (d 0) to d 45 of pregnancy and 2) concentration of P and number of fetuses on d 45. Blood from 79 pregnant goats was obtained on d 0 and 1 and at 48-h intervals thereafter to d 25 of gestation. Additional samples were collected every 5 d from d 25 to d 45. Plasma samples were analyzed for P by RIA. Fetuses and CL were counted at laparotomy on d 45 +/- 3. Six does had one CL, 47 had two and 26 had three or four. Concentrations of P were compared for 1) animals with different numbers of CL and 2) animals with the same number of CL but different numbers of fetuses on d 45. Concentration of P increased in all animals from d 3 to a maximum of 8.5 +/- .3 ng/ml on d 13, then P declined to 5 +/- .3 ng/ml by d 35. Goats with multiple CL had higher P than goats with one CL (P less than .01) from d 7 to d 30. Of goats with two CL, those with two fetuses at d 45 had higher P on d 13 than those with one fetus (P less than .01). The number of CL or fetuses did not influence the concentration of P after d 30. PMID:2016202

  12. The ESX-5 System of Pathogenic Mycobacteria Is Involved In Capsule Integrity and Virulence through Its Substrate PPE10

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Louis S.; van der Woude, Aniek D.; Bestebroer, Jovanka; van Stempvoort, Gunny; Musters, René J. P.; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J.; Picavet, Daisy I.; van de Weerd, Robert; Maletta, Massimiliano; Kuijl, Coenraad P.; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Bitter, Wilbert

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria produce a capsule layer, which consists of glycan-like polysaccharides and a number of specific proteins. In this study, we show that, in slow-growing mycobacteria, the type VII secretion system ESX-5 plays a major role in the integrity and stability of the capsule. We have identified PPE10 as the ESX-5 substrate responsible for this effect. Mutants in esx-5 and ppe10 both have impaired capsule integrity as well as reduced surface hydrophobicity. Electron microscopy, immunoblot and flow cytometry analyses demonstrated reduced amounts of surface localized proteins and glycolipids, and morphological differences in the capsular layer. Since capsular proteins secreted by the ESX-1 system are important virulence factors, we tested the effect of the mutations that cause capsular defects on virulence mechanisms. Both esx-5 and ppe10 mutants of Mycobacterium marinum were shown to be impaired in ESX-1-dependent hemolysis. In agreement with this, the ppe10 and esx5 mutants showed reduced recruitment of ubiquitin in early macrophage infection and intermediate attenuation in zebrafish embryos. These results provide a pivotal role for the ESX-5 secretion system and its substrate PPE10, in the capsular integrity of pathogenic mycobacteria. These findings open up new roads for research on the mycobacterial capsule and its role in virulence and immune modulation. PMID:27280885

  13. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs.

  14. Determinants of personal protective equipment (PPE) use in UK motorcyclists: exploratory research applying an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Norris, Emma; Myers, Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Despite evident protective value of motorcycle personal protective equipment (PPE), no research has assessed considerations behind its uptake in UK riders. A cross-sectional online questionnaire design was employed, with riders (n=268) recruited from online motorcycle forums. Principal component analysis found four PPE behavioural outcomes. Theoretical factors of intentions, attitudes, injunctive and descriptive subjective norms, risk perceptions, anticipated regret, benefits and habit were also identified for further analysis. High motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, middling high-visibility wear and low non-Personal Protective Equipment wear were found. Greater intentions, anticipated regret and perceived benefits were significantly associated with increased motorcycle jacket, trousers and boots wear, with habit presence and scooter use significantly associated with increased high-visibility wear. Lower intentions, anticipated regret and risk perceptions, being female, not holding a car licence and urban riding were significantly associated with increased non-PPE wear. A need for freedom of choice and mixed attitudes towards PPE use were evident in additional comments. PPE determinants in this sample provide a preliminary basis for future uptake interventions. Larger scale and qualitative research is needed to further investigate relevant constructs. PMID:24076303

  15. Identifying Cognate Binding Pairs among a Large Set of Paralogs: The Case of PE/PPE Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Pellegrini, Matteo; Eisenberg, David

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of how to detect cognate pairs of proteins that bind when each belongs to a large family of paralogs. To illustrate the problem, we have undertaken a genomewide analysis of interactions of members of the PE and PPE protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our computational method uses structural information, operon organization, and protein coevolution to infer the interaction of PE and PPE proteins. Some 289 PE/PPE complexes were predicted out of a possible 5,590 PE/PPE pairs genomewide. Thirty-five of these predicted complexes were also found to have correlated mRNA expression, providing additional evidence for these interactions. We show that our method is applicable to other protein families, by analyzing interactions of the Esx family of proteins. Our resulting set of predictions is a starting point for genomewide experimental interaction screens of the PE and PPE families, and our method may be generally useful for detecting interactions of proteins within families having many paralogs. PMID:18787688

  16. Frequent Homologous Recombination Events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE/PPE Multigene Families: Potential Role in Antigenic Variability▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Karboul, Anis; Mazza, Alberto; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Ho, John L.; Brousseau, Roland; Mardassi, Helmi

    2008-01-01

    The PE and PPE (PE/PPE) multigene families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are particularly GC-rich and share extensive homologous repetitive sequences. We hypothesized that they may undergo homologous recombination events, a mechanism rarely described in the natural evolution of mycobacteria. To test our hypothesis, we developed a specific oligonucleotide-based microarray targeting nearly all of the PE/PPE genes, aimed at detecting signals for homologous recombination. Such a microarray has never before been reported due to the multiplicity and highly repetitive and homologous nature of these sequences. Application of the microarray to a collection of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (n = 33) representing prevalent spoligotype strain families in Tunisia allowed successful detection of six deleted genomic regions involving a total of two PE and seven PPE genes. Some of these deleted genes are known to be immunodominant or involved in virulence. The four precisely determined deletions were flanked by 400- to 500-bp stretches of nearly identical sequences lying mainly at the conserved N-terminal region of the PE/PPE genes. These highly homologous sequences thus serve as substrates to mediate both intergenic and intragenic homologous recombination events, indicating an important function in generating strain variation. Importantly, all recombination events yielded a new in-frame fusion chimeric gene. Hence, homologous recombination within and between PE/PPE genes likely increased their antigenic variability, which may have profound implications in pathogenicity and/or host adaptation. The finding of high prevalence (∼45% and ∼58%) for at least two of the genomic deletions suggests that they likely confer advantageous biological attributes. PMID:18820012

  17. 5D CNS+ Software for Automatically Imaging Axial, Sagittal, and Coronal Planes of Normal and Abnormal Second-Trimester Fetal Brains.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Capponi, Alessandra; Persico, Nicola; Ghi, Tullio; Nazzaro, Giovanni; Boito, Simona; Pietrolucci, Maria Elena; Arduini, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test new 5D CNS+ software (Samsung Medison Co, Ltd, Seoul, Korea), which is designed to image axial, sagittal, and coronal planes of the fetal brain from volumes obtained by 3-dimensional sonography. The study consisted of 2 different steps. First in a prospective study, 3-dimensional fetal brain volumes were acquired in 183 normal consecutive singleton pregnancies undergoing routine sonographic examinations at 18 to 24 weeks' gestation. The 5D CNS+ software was applied, and the percentage of adequate visualization of brain diagnostic planes was evaluated by 2 independent observers. In the second step, the software was also tested in 22 fetuses with cerebral anomalies. In 180 of 183 fetuses (98.4%), 5D CNS+ successfully reconstructed all of the diagnostic planes. Using the software on healthy fetuses, the observers acknowledged the presence of diagnostic images with visualization rates ranging from 97.7% to 99.4% for axial planes, 94.4% to 97.7% for sagittal planes, and 92.2% to 97.2% for coronal planes. The Cohen κ coefficient was analyzed to evaluate the agreement rates between the observers and resulted in values of 0.96 or greater for axial planes, 0.90 or greater for sagittal planes, and 0.89 or greater for coronal planes. All 22 fetuses with brain anomalies were identified among a series that also included healthy fetuses, and in 21 of the 22 cases, a correct diagnosis was made. 5D CNS+ was efficient in successfully imaging standard axial, sagittal, and coronal planes of the fetal brain. This approach may simplify the examination of the fetal central nervous system and reduce operator dependency.

  18. Evaluating a Moving Target: Lessons Learned from Using Practical Participatory Evaluation (P-PE) in Hospital Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Tracy; Alexander, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned about implementing evaluations in hospital settings. In order to overcome the methodological dilemmas inherent in this environment, we used a practical participatory evaluation (P-PE) strategy to engage as many stakeholders as possible in the process of evaluating a clinical demonstration project.…

  19. Three-body Effects for the p(pe^-, ν_e)d Reaction in Nuclear Astrophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    1996-05-01

    We have investigated three-body effect for p(pe^-, ν_e)d reaction in nuclear astrophysics. Solutions of three-body equation for the initial pep state show that two-proton dynamics does not depend on the electron degrees of freedom and hence the conventional adiabatic approximation is valid for energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) > 10-3 where E_ep and E_pp are the relative kinetic energies between e and p, and between p and p, respectively. For the energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) ≈ 10-3, an exact solution of the three-body equation is required. For the energy sector (E_ep/E_pp) < 10-3, it is shown that a Gamow-factor cancellation (GFC) can occur between two protons. Our estimate of the GFC effect indicates that the previous conventional estimate of the pep solar neutrino flux may be an underestimate at least by a factor of two. Implications of our results for the solar neutrino problem are described. At lower temperatures, the GFC effect becomes more significant, and p(pe^-, ν_e)d may dominate over p(p,e^+ ν_e)d. The enhancement of the reaction rate for p(pe^-, νe )d at lower temperatures due to the GFC effect may offer possible explanations for some of long-standing anomalies in astrophysical and geophysical problems.

  20. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I.; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  1. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens.

  2. CD4+ T Cells Recognizing PE/PPE Antigens Directly or via Cross Reactivity Are Protective against Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Sayes, Fadel; Pawlik, Alexandre; Frigui, Wafa; Gröschel, Matthias I; Crommelynck, Samuel; Fayolle, Catherine; Cia, Felipe; Bancroft, Gregory J; Bottai, Daria; Leclerc, Claude; Brosch, Roland; Majlessi, Laleh

    2016-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), possesses at least three type VII secretion systems, ESX-1, -3 and -5 that are actively involved in pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction. We recently showed that an attenuated Mtb vaccine candidate (Mtb Δppe25-pe19), which lacks the characteristic ESX-5-associated pe/ppe genes, but harbors all other components of the ESX-5 system, induces CD4+ T-cell immune responses against non-esx-5-associated PE/PPE protein homologs. These T cells strongly cross-recognize the missing esx-5-associated PE/PPE proteins. Here, we characterized the fine composition of the functional cross-reactive Th1 effector subsets specific to the shared PE/PPE epitopes in mice immunized with the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate. We provide evidence that the Mtb Δppe25-pe19 strain, despite its significant attenuation, is comparable to the WT Mtb strain with regard to: (i) its antigenic repertoire related to the different ESX systems, (ii) the induced Th1 effector subset composition, (iii) the differentiation status of the Th1 cells induced, and (iv) its particular features at stimulating the innate immune response. Indeed, we found significant contribution of PE/PPE-specific Th1 effector cells in the protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection. These results offer detailed insights into the immune mechanisms underlying the remarkable protective efficacy of the live attenuated Mtb Δppe25-pe19 vaccine candidate, as well as the specific potential of PE/PPE proteins as protective immunogens. PMID:27467705

  3. Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the 5D superconformal index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papageorgakis, Constantinos; Pini, Alessandro; Rodríguez-Gómez, Diego

    2016-08-01

    We consider the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the five-dimensional (5D) superconformal index and propose a novel prescription for selecting the finite contributions. Applying the latter to various examples of U(1) theories, we find that the 5D Nekrasov-Shatashvili index can be reproduced using recent techniques of Córdova and Shao, who related the 4D Schur index to the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) spectrum of the theory on the Coulomb branch. In this picture, the 5D instanton solitons are interpreted as additional flavor nodes in an associated 5D BPS quiver.

  4. [Ontological and ethical status of anencephalic fetus].

    PubMed

    Besio R, Mauricio; Besio H, Francisca

    2008-06-01

    Due to advances in prenatal techniques, it is now possible to diagnose malformations in utero, such as anencephaly, which in the past was only known at birth. Having knowledge of a malformation before birth, the moment in which almost every individual obtains social and legal protection, puts the malformed fetus in a vulnerable situation toward possible actions that lead to the interruption of pregnancy. The aim of this article is to analyze different positions about the quality and reality of the anencephalic fetus, its human condition and the care that the fetus and mother deserve. PMID:18769837

  5. Ultrasound, normal fetus - head measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of a head measurement, indicated by the cross hairs and dotted lines.

  6. Ultrasound, normal fetus - abdomen measurements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many health care providers like to have fetal measurements to verify the size of the fetus and ... any abnormalities. This ultrasound is of an abdominal measurement. It shows a cross-section of the abdomen, ...

  7. Polymorphisms in the PE35 and PPE68 antigens in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains may affect strain virulence and reflect ongoing immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Wei, Jianhao; Liu, Haican; Li, Guilian; Guo, Qian; Qiu, Yan; Zhao, Lili; Li, Machao; Zhao, Xiuqin; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wan, Kanglin

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the Pro‑Glu/Pro‑Pro‑Glu (PE/PPE) genes in strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibit high sequence variation and may be involved in antigenic variation and immune evasion. Region of Difference 1 (RD1), encoding genes from Rv3871 to Rv3879, was observed to be lost during the original derivation of Bacillus Calmette‑Guérin between 1908 and 1921. It has been previously demonstrated that two PE/PPE proteins, PE35 (Rv3872) and PPE68 (Rv3873), are encoded by RD1 and exhibit immunodominance. To explore the genetic diversity of PE35 and PPE68, and to evaluate the impact of sequence variation on the immune recognition of these proteins, 161 clinical M. tuberculosis strains were selected from China and comparative sequence analysis of PE35 and PPE68 was performed. The results indicated that polymorphisms in PE35 and PPE68 may lead to alterations in the function of these proteins, which may potentially affect strain virulence. In addition, the human T‑cell epitopes of PE35 and PPE68 were highly variable, suggesting that the two antigens may be involved in diversifying selection to evade host immunity. The prevalence of strains with PE35 mutations in the non‑Beijing family was significantly greater compared with the Beijing family, indicating that Beijing strains may be more conservative than non‑Beijing strains in this gene.

  8. [Pharmacology for the fetus and the newborn].

    PubMed

    Juárez-Olguín, Hugo; Buendía-Soto, Erick; Lares-Asseff, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    During intrauterine life, the fetus can be exposed to a series of substances ingested by the mother, some of which are necessary for her health but detrimental to fetus. The noxious effects of such exposure could present immediately after exposure in the fetus or be manifested at the time of delivery and sometimes weeks after birth. The passage of drugs or nutrients across the placenta depends on some physicochemicals that have the ability to cross the placenta barrier, and thus get in contact with the fetus and produce harmful effects. Considering the physicochemical properties of the substances, the possibility of such compounds to cross the placenta barrier and thence to the fetus can be predicted. Equally, it is important to consider the characteristics of the newborn as an immature being, different from adults, when carrying out pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. Based on the latter, it is important to know the behavior or characteristics of the fetus and the newborn in the face of drug management and above all consider the advantages and disadvantages of the use of such drugs for the care of a being yet in development, as is described in this work.

  9. Association of Strong Immune Responses to PPE Protein Rv1168c with Active Tuberculosis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nooruddin; Alam, Kaiser; Nair, Shiny; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Murthy, Kolluri J. R.; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2008-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection is critical for the treatment, prevention, and control of TB. Conventional diagnostic tests based on purified protein derivative (PPD) do not achieve the required diagnostic sensitivity. Therefore, in this study, we have evaluated the immunogenic properties of Rv1168c, a member of the PPE family, in comparison with PPD, which is routinely used in the tuberculin test, and Hsp60 and ESAT-6, well-known immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In a conventional enzyme immunoassay, the recombinant Rv1168c protein displayed stronger immunoreactivity against the sera obtained from patients with clinically active TB than did PPD, Hsp60, or ESAT-6 and could distinguish TB patients from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated controls. Interestingly, Rv1168c antigen permits diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary TB as well as extrapulmonary TB cases, which are often difficult to diagnose by conventional tests. The immunodominant nature of Rv1168c makes it a promising candidate to use in serodiagnosis of TB. In addition, our studies also show that Rv1168c is a potent T-cell antigen which elicits a strong gamma interferon response in sensitized peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from TB patients. PMID:18400969

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE protein Rv0256c induces strong B cell response in tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Philip Raj; Latha, Gaddam Suman; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important diseases of humans and major public health problem worldwide. Early and accurate diagnosis of TB is necessary for the treatment, prevention, and control of TB. Therefore, it is important to identify suitable antigens that can differentiate active tuberculosis patients from BCG-vaccinated individuals. In the present study, we have used Rv0256c (PPE2) protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to screen the sera of infected patients belonging to different clinical TB presentations, and BCG-vaccinated clinically healthy individuals by enzyme immunoassay. Our results demonstrated that Rv0256c displayed stronger and specific immunoreactivity against the sera obtained from clinically active tuberculosis patients compared to PPD and ESAT-6 and could differentiate the TB-patients from the BCG-vaccinated controls. Importantly, Rv0256c was also found to detect even the extrapulmonary and smear-negative pulmonary cases which often are tedious and difficult to detect using conventional diagnostic methods. This study suggests that Rv0256c can be used as a potential marker for the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis patients. PMID:23827809

  11. Conservative Management of Fetus Papyraceus: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Dahiya, Pushpa; Bains, Ranjita

    2014-01-01

    The term fetus papyraceus is used to describe a mummified fetus associated with multiple gestations where one fetus dies and is flattened between the membranes of living fetus and uterine wall. Though the maternal and fetal complications in affected cases can be severe, we report of two cases of fetus papyraceus managed conservatively without any complications. Successful outcome is related to careful monitoring during pregnancy. PMID:24715942

  12. F5D-1 on ramp with flight technicians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The big block letters 'TEST' on the upper fuselage of this Douglas F5D-1 Skylancer (Bu. No. 139208/NASA tail number 212) denoted the craft as a test plane which was one of the fleet stabled at NASA Flight Research Center from 1961 to 1963 (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1976). The calibration hangar, with the door partially open, is shown in the background while nearby the flight technicians are preparing the airplane for another research flight. In 1963 the F5D-1, NASA 212, was transferred to Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, where it was flown on miscellaneous research projects including supersonic-transport landing studies. The F5D-1 was used to collect data on sink rates and approach characteristics. This particular F5D-1 was retired after several years, and in December 1975, it was loaned to Victor Valley College.

  13. Ontogeny of the expression of leptin and its receptor in the murine fetus and placenta.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, N; Hunter, L; Lea, R G; Trayhurn, P; Mercer, J G

    2000-03-01

    Leptin is a 167-amino acid protein that is secreted from adipose cells and expressed in placental tissues. It is important nutritionally in the regulation of energy balance, but also has other functions such as a role in reproduction. To investigate the function of the leptin system in fetal development we examined, primarily by in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the expression (both mRNA and protein) of leptin and its receptor (including the signalling splice variant) in tissues from 11.5, 13.5, 16.5 and 18.5 d postcoitus murine fetuses and associated placentas. We detected leptin mRNA (at low levels) and protein predominantly in the cytotrophoblasts of the labyrinth part of the placenta, an area of nutrient exchange between the developing fetus and the placenta, and in the trophoblast giant cells situated in the junctional zone at the maternal interface. In addition, leptin was strongly expressed in the fetal cartilage-bone and at a lower level in the hair follicles, heart, and liver of the murine fetus at differing stages of development. The leptin receptor, including the signalling splice variant, was also identified in specific fetal tissues. The physiological importance of expression of both leptin and the leptin receptor (OB-R and OB-Rb) in the placenta remains to be determined. In addition, the high levels of expression of leptin and its receptor in discrete areas of the murine fetus suggest that leptin has a critical role in fetal development.

  14. Immunoregulatory functions and expression patterns of PE/PPE family members: Roles in pathogenicity and impact on anti-tuberculosis vaccine and drug design.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Asma; Das, Arghya; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2015-06-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome was sequenced more than 15 years ago. It revealed a lot of interesting information, one of which was that 10% of the total coding capacity of the M. tuberculosis genome is dedicated to the PE/PPE family. There is a gradual expansion of these proteins from nonpathogenic to pathogenic mycobacteria, and there is increasing evidence that PE/PPE proteins play important roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss PE/PPE proteins, their close functional association with the ESX clusters, their immunomodulatory functions, and their important roles in mycobacterial virulence. In addition, we have attempted to review and compile information available in the literature detailing the expression patterns of PE/PPE family members in different mycobacterial species and also during infection. Our attempt has been to provide a succinct overview of this interesting family.

  15. The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in fetuses.

    PubMed

    Tachdjian, G; Fondacci, C; Tapia, S; Huten, Y; Blot, P; Nessmann, C

    1992-12-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) with partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4 has been exceptionally diagnosed in fetuses. We report prenatal diagnosis of five cases of monosomy 4p. The fetuses were karyotyped for severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) diagnosed on routine ultrasound (US). In addition, cleft-lip and palate and diaphragmatic hernia respectively were found in two cases. The quantity of amniotic fluid was normal in all cases. At autopsy, the fetuses showed the typical craniofacial dysmorphy but without microcephaly. Major renal hypoplasia was the only constant visceral anomaly. Midline fusion defects were observed in all the fetuses, ranging from minor abnormalities such as scalp defect, hypertelorism, pulmonary isomerism, common mesentery, hypospadias and sacral dimple, to cleft palate, corpus callosum agenesis, ventricular septal defect, and diaphragmatic hernia. On post-mortem X-rays, a delayed bone age was always observed. All the placentae were hypotrophic, and two exhibited vascular lesions, although there was no maternal hypertension. Chromosomal studies showed that the breakpoints were within the 4p16 band in three cases, the 4p15 band in one case, and the 4p14 band in one case. The deletion was de novo in four cases, and resulted from a paternal translocation in one case. This study emphasizes the importance of karyotyping all fetuses with IUGR, especially when the quantity of amniotic fluid is normal, and suggests the possibility of recognizing on US the particular phenotype of WHS in utero.

  16. Cortical overgrowth in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly.

    PubMed

    Kyriakopoulou, Vanessa; Vatansever, Deniz; Elkommos, Samia; Dawson, Sarah; McGuinness, Amy; Allsop, Joanna; Molnár, Zoltán; Hajnal, Joseph; Rutherford, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Mild cerebral ventricular enlargement is associated with schizophrenia, autism, epilepsy, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Fetal ventriculomegaly is the most common central nervous system (CNS) abnormality affecting 1% of fetuses and is associated with cognitive, language, and behavioral impairments in childhood. Neurodevelopmental outcome is partially predictable by the 2-dimensional size of the ventricles in the absence of other abnormalities. We hypothesized that isolated fetal ventriculomegaly is a marker of altered brain development characterized by relative overgrowth and aimed to quantify brain growth using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly. Fetal brain MRI (1.5 T) was performed in 60 normal fetuses and 65 with isolated ventriculomegaly, across a gestational age range of 22-38 weeks. Volumetric analysis of the ventricles and supratentorial brain structures was performed on 3-dimensional reconstructed datasets. Fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly had increased brain parenchyma volumes when compared with the control cohort (9.6%, P < 0.0001) with enlargement restricted to the cortical gray matter (17.2%, P = 0.002). The extracerebral cerebrospinal fluid and third and fourth ventricles were also enlarged. White matter, basal ganglia, and thalamic volumes were not significantly different between cohorts. The presence of relative cortical overgrowth in fetuses with ventriculomegaly may represent the neurobiological substrate for cognitive, language, and behavioral deficits in these children.

  17. Substitutional 4d and 5d impurities in graphene.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Lanza, Tomás; Ayuela, Andrés; Aguilera-Granja, Faustino

    2016-08-21

    We describe the structural and electronic properties of graphene doped with substitutional impurities of 4d and 5d transition metals. The adsorption energies and distances for 4d and 5d metals in graphene show similar trends for the later groups in the periodic table, which are also well-known characteristics of 3d elements. However, along earlier groups the 4d impurities in graphene show very similar adsorption energies, distances and magnetic moments to the 5d ones, which can be related to the influence of the 4d and 5d lanthanide contraction. Surprisingly, within the manganese group, the total magnetic moment of 3 μB for manganese is reduced to 1 μB for technetium and rhenium. We find that compared with 3d elements, the larger size of the 4d and 5d elements causes a high degree of hybridization with the neighbouring carbon atoms, reducing spin splitting in the d levels. It seems that the magnetic adjustment of graphene could be significantly different if 4d or 5d impurities are used instead of 3d impurities.

  18. Substitutional 4d and 5d impurities in graphene.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Lanza, Tomás; Ayuela, Andrés; Aguilera-Granja, Faustino

    2016-08-21

    We describe the structural and electronic properties of graphene doped with substitutional impurities of 4d and 5d transition metals. The adsorption energies and distances for 4d and 5d metals in graphene show similar trends for the later groups in the periodic table, which are also well-known characteristics of 3d elements. However, along earlier groups the 4d impurities in graphene show very similar adsorption energies, distances and magnetic moments to the 5d ones, which can be related to the influence of the 4d and 5d lanthanide contraction. Surprisingly, within the manganese group, the total magnetic moment of 3 μB for manganese is reduced to 1 μB for technetium and rhenium. We find that compared with 3d elements, the larger size of the 4d and 5d elements causes a high degree of hybridization with the neighbouring carbon atoms, reducing spin splitting in the d levels. It seems that the magnetic adjustment of graphene could be significantly different if 4d or 5d impurities are used instead of 3d impurities. PMID:27439363

  19. [Accessory renal arteries in human fetuses].

    PubMed

    Gościcka, D; Szpinda, M; Kochan, J

    1996-12-01

    Using conventional anatomical methods, renal arteries of 140 human fetuses were studied. It was found (21.1%) that the accessory renal arteries occurred in a three-fold manner: 1. as single arteries (19.2%), 2. as double arteries (2.1%) and 3. as triplex arteries (0.7%). More often they originated from the right part of the circumference of the abdominal aorta, mainly in the female fetuses. These arteries penetrated the following segments of the kidney: the inferior (12.9%), the superior (2.3%), the anterior inferior (2.8%), the posterior (2.1%) and the anterior superior (1.5%). They crossed the renal pelvis more often in front (12.2%) than from behind of it (5%). The frequency of the occurrence of the accessory arteries depends not from the age of the fetus. PMID:9082875

  20. Undiagnosed heterotopic pregnancy, maternal hemorrhagic shock, and ischemic stroke in the intrauterine fetus.

    PubMed

    Ezzati, Mohammad; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A; Haeri, Sina

    2015-09-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy occurs rarely following natural conception; however, intrauterine embryo transfer following in vitro fertilization is a known risk factor for its occurrence. A 29-year-old woman presented with acute abdomen at 14w5d gestation following in vitro fertilization-embryo treatment. A ruptured heterotopic gestation in the left fallopian tube was identified at laparoscopy and treated by salpingectomy. Subsequently, at 21-week gestation, routine sonogram demonstrated bilateral ventriculomegaly in the intrauterine fetus. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging was highly suggestive of ischemic brain injury, most likely attributable to the maternal hypovolemic shock because of ruptured heterotopic gestation. The pregnancy was terminated by intracardiac injection and induction of labor. Timely diagnosis of heterotopic pregnancy requires a high index of suspicion as diagnostic delays can have catastrophic consequences for the mother and/or the intrauterine fetus. PMID:26095211

  1. 5D Tempest simulations of kinetic edge turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. Q.; Xiong, Z.; Cohen, B. I.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorr, M. R.; Hittinger, J. A.; Kerbel, G. D.; Nevins, W. M.; Rognlien, T. D.; Umansky, M. V.; Qin, H.

    2006-10-01

    Results are presented from the development and application of TEMPEST, a nonlinear five dimensional (3d2v) gyrokinetic continuum code. The simulation results and theoretical analysis include studies of H-mode edge plasma neoclassical transport and turbulence in real divertor geometry and its relationship to plasma flow generation with zero external momentum input, including the important orbit-squeezing effect due to the large electric field flow-shear in the edge. In order to extend the code to 5D, we have formulated a set of fully nonlinear electrostatic gyrokinetic equations and a fully nonlinear gyrokinetic Poisson's equation which is valid for both neoclassical and turbulence simulations. Our 5D gyrokinetic code is built on 4D version of Tempest neoclassical code with extension to a fifth dimension in binormal direction. The code is able to simulate either a full torus or a toroidal segment. Progress on performing 5D turbulence simulations will be reported.

  2. 2.5D dictionary learning based computed tomography reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiajia; Eri, Haneda; Can, Ali; Ramani, Sathish; Fu, Lin; De Man, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    A computationally efficient 2.5D dictionary learning (DL) algorithm is proposed and implemented in the model- based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) framework for low-dose CT reconstruction. MBIR is based on the minimization of a cost function containing data-fitting and regularization terms to control the trade-off between data-fidelity and image noise. Due to the strong denoising performance of DL, it has previously been considered as a regularizer in MBIR, and both 2D and 3D DL implementations are possible. Compared to the 2D case, 3D DL keeps more spatial information and generates images with better quality although it requires more computation. We propose a novel 2.5D DL scheme, which leverages the computational advantage of 2D-DL, while attempting to maintain reconstruction quality similar to 3D-DL. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new 2.5D DL scheme for MBIR in low-dose CT. By applying the 2D DL method in three different orthogonal planes and calculating the sparse coefficients accordingly, much of the 3D spatial information can be preserved without incurring the computational penalty of the 3D DL method. For performance evaluation, we use baggage phantoms with different number of projection views. In order to quantitatively compare the performance of different algorithms, we use PSNR, SSIM and region based standard deviation to measure the noise level, and use the edge response to calculate the resolution. Experimental results with full view datasets show that the different DL based algorithms have similar performance and 2.5D DL has the best resolution. Results with sparse view datasets show that 2.5D DL outperforms both 2D and 3D DL in terms of noise reduction. We also compare the computational costs, and 2.5D DL shows strong advantage over 3D DL in both full-view and sparse-view cases.

  3. Quantification of RF-exposure of the fetus using anatomical CAD-models in three different gestational stages.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Eugenia; Christ, Andreas; Bühlmann, Barbara; Zefferer, Marcel; Chavannes, Nicolas; Bakker, Jurriaan F; van Rhoon, Gerard C; Kuster, Niels

    2014-11-01

    This study analyzes the exposure of pregnant women and their fetuses in three different gestational stages to electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency range in the near- and the far-field using numerical modeling. For far-field exposure, the power density at which the basic restriction for the whole body SAR is reached is calculated for both the mother and the fetus at whole body resonance and at frequencies between 450 MHz and 2,450 MHz. The near-field exposure is assessed at 450 MHz, 900 MHz, and 2,450 MHz using half wavelength dipoles as generic sources located at different locations around the abdomen of the mother. For the investigated cases, the exposure of the mother is always below or on the order of magnitude of the basic restriction for exposure at the reference level. When applying the reference levels for the general public, the fetus is sufficiently shielded by the mother. However, the basic restrictions for general public exposure can be exceeded in the fetus when the mother is exposed at reference levels for occupational conditions. For plane wave exposure at occupational levels, the whole body SAR in the fetus can exceed the basic restrictions for the general population by at least 1.8 dB, and in the near-field of professional devices, the 10 g SAR can be non-compliant with the product standard for the general public by > 3.5 dB.

  4. The PE-PPE Domain in Mycobacterium Reveals a Serine α/β Hydrolase Fold and Function: An In-Silico Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Rafiya; Tanneeru, Karunakar; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2011-01-01

    The PE and PPE proteins first reported in the genome sequence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv are now identified in all mycobacterial species. The PE-PPE domain (Pfam ID: PF08237) is a 225 amino acid residue conserved region located towards the C-terminus of some PE and PPE proteins and hypothetical proteins. Our in-silico sequence analysis revealed that this domain is present in all Mycobacteria, some Rhodococcus and Nocardia farcinica genomes. This domain comprises a pentapeptide sequence motif GxSxG/S at the N-terminus and conserved amino acid residues Ser, Asp and His that constitute a catalytic triad characteristic of lipase, esterase and cutinase activity. The fold prediction and comparative modeling of the 3-D structure of the PE-PPE domain revealed a “serine α/β hydrolase” structure with a central β-sheet flanked by α-helices on either side. The structure comprises a lid insertion with a closed structure conformation and has a solvent inaccessible active site. The oxyanion hole that stabilizes the negative charge on the tetrahedral intermediate has been identified. Our findings add to the growing list of serine hydrolases in mycobacterium, which are essential for the maintenance of their impermeable cell wall and virulence. These results provide the directions for the design of experiments to establish the function of PE and PPE proteins. PMID:21347309

  5. The first closed genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar intermedius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter fetus venerealis biovar intermedius is a variant of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis, the causative agent of Bovine Genital Campylobacteriosis. In contrast to Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis which is restricted to the genital tract of cattle, Campylobacter fetus subsp. vener...

  6. A Comparison of the Performance of the EQ-5D and the EQ-5D-Y Health-Related Quality of Life Instruments in South African Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelsma, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the recent EQ-5D-Y instrument compared with the standard EQ-5D in assessing the health-related quality of life of high school children in Cape Town. Either the EQ-5D or the EQ-5D-Y was given to high school children. The sample consisted of 521 respondents. The EQ-5D-Y was found to be…

  7. Precursors to glycogen in ovine fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Levitsky, L.L.; Paton, J.B.; Fisher, D.E. )

    1988-11-01

    Postprandial hepatic glycogenesis in the adult animal is now felt to proceed largely through gluconeogenic pathways rather than directly from glucose. The ovine fetus, like the mature sheep, lacks specific hepatic glucokinase. Therefore, the authors examined the role of lactate as a fetal glycogenic precursor in seven chronically catheterized 125-day sheep fetuses. Fetuses were infused with L-(U-{sup 14}C)lactate and D-(3-{sup 3}H)glucose, while maternal glucose was maintained at 50 mg/dl. Mean fetal hepatic glycogen specific activity ({mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}) was 0.82 {plus minus} 0.08 for {sup 14}C and 2.6 {plus minus} 0.4 for {sup 3}H, whereas fetal renal glycogen specific activity was 0.46 {plus minus} 0.22 for {sup 14}C and 0.78 {plus minus} 0.16 for {sup 3}H. In contrast, ({sup 14}C)glucose specific activity was undetectable in blood and mean ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was 8.9 {plus minus} 1.3 {mu}Ci/mg {times} 10{sup 3}. The least detectable specific activity of ({sup 14}C)glucose did not differ significantly from the ({sup 14}C)glycogen enrichment in liver, whereas ({sup 3}H)glucose specific activity was significantly greater than ({sup 3}H)glycogen enrichment. The authors conclude that glycogenesis from glucose is partly through the indirect gluconeogenic route and that lactate may be a glycogenic precursor in the ovine fetus.

  8. Aplasia Cutis Congenita Associated with Fetus Papyraceus.

    PubMed

    Pieretti, María Lía; Alcalá, Rebeca; Boggio, Paula; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Porriño, María Librada; Luna, Paula C; Hernández-Martín, Angela; Schroh, Roberto; Larralde, Margarita; Torrelo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC), or congenital absence of skin, is a heterogeneous condition that may be due to varied mechanisms. ACC has rarely been reported in association with fetus papyraceus, representing a peculiar phenotype of ACC. We present six new cases of neonates born with symmetric ACC associated with intrauterine fetal demise of co-twins during the late first or early second trimester. PMID:26212801

  9. Teratogenic effects of silymarin on mouse fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mahbobe; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Afshar, Mohammad; Amoueian, Sakineh; Etemad, Leila; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Silybum marianum has been used for centuries in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases. Currently, there is no data available on the possible effects of silymarin on fetal development. This study aimed to investigate the teratogenic effect of silymarin on BALB/c mice fetuses. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 pregnant mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 mice each. Three groups received silymarin at three different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day during gestational days (GDs). The control group received normal saline and tween (solvent). Dams were sacrificed on GD 18 and all fetuses were examined for gross malformations, size and body weight. Malformed fetuses were double stained with alizarin red and alcian blue. Results: Silymarin administration at all doses resulted in reduction of the mean fetal body weights. The abnormalities included limb, vertebral column and craniofacial malformations. Craniofacial malformations were the most common abnormalities, but they were not observed in a dose-dependent manner. The percentage of fetal resorption significantly increased (up to 15%) in all treatment groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, silymarin, especially at high doses can lead to fetal resorption, intrauterine growth retardation and limb, vertebral column and craniofacial abnormalities. More precise studies should be conducted about the teratogenic effects of herbal medicine investigating the underlying mechanisms. Thus, caution should be taken when administering S. marianum to pregnant woman. PMID:27761424

  10. Modular properties of full 5D SYM partition function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jian; Tizzano, Luigi; Winding, Jacob; Zabzine, Maxim

    2016-03-01

    We study properties of the full partition function for the U(1) 5D N = {2}^{ast } gauge theory with adjoint hypermultiplet of mass M . This theory is ultimately related to abelian 6D (2,0) theory. We construct the full non-perturbative partition function on toric Sasaki-Einstein manifolds by gluing flat copies of the Nekrasov partition function and we express the full partition function in terms of the generalized double elliptic gamma function G 2 C associated with a certain moment map cone C. The answer exhibits a curious SL(4 , ℤ) modular property. Finally, we propose a set of rules to construct the partition function that resembles the calculation of 5d supersymmetric partition function with the insert ion of defects of various co-dimensions.

  11. A 5-D hyperchaotic Rikitake dynamo system with hidden attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Pham, V.-T.; Volos, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a 5-D hyperchaotic Rikitake dynamo system with three positive Lyapunov exponents which is derived by adding two state feedback controls to the famous 3-D Rikitake two-disk dynamo system. It is noted that the proposed hyperchaotic system has no equilibrium points and hence it exhibits hidden attractors. In addition, the qualitative properties, as well as the adaptive synchronization of the hyperchaotic Rikitake dynamo system with unknown system parameters, are discussed in details. The main results are proved using Lyapunov stability theory and numerical simulations are shown using MATLAB. Moreover, an electronic circuit realization in SPICE has been detailed to confirm the feasibility of the theoretical 5-D hyperchaotic Rikitake dynamo model.

  12. Natural inflation from 5D SUGRA and low reheat temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccetti Correia, Filipe; Schmidt, Michael G.; Tavartkiladze, Zurab

    2015-09-01

    Motivated by recent cosmological observations of a possibly unsuppressed primordial tensor component r of inflationary perturbations, we reanalyze in detail the 5D conformal SUGRA originated natural inflation model of Ref. [1]. The model is a supersymmetric variant of 5D extranatural inflation, also based on a shift symmetry, and leads to the potential of natural inflation. Coupling the bulk fields generating the inflaton potential via a gauge coupling to the inflaton with brane SM states we necessarily obtain a very slow gauge inflaton decay rate and a very low reheating temperature Tr ≲ O (100) GeV. Analysis of the required number of e-foldings (from the CMB observations) leads to values of ns in the lower range of present Planck 2015 results. Some related theoretical issues of the construction, along with phenomenological and cosmological implications, are also discussed.

  13. Time-Dependent 5D Solutions of the Einstein Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, L. A.

    2010-07-12

    In this work are obtained 5D time-dependent solutions of Einstein equations, one is obtained by means of equiping a cylindrically symmetry solution (JEKK) with a scalar field, then lifting it to a fifth dimension. The other is obtained transforming the Myers-Perry solution via Wick rotation. The two solutions can be interpreted as gravitational waves in some cases. The singularities and C-energy are addressed.

  14. 2.5D Cartoon Hair Modeling and Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chih-Kuo; Jayaraman, Pradeep Kumar; Liu, Xiaopei; Fu, Chi-Wing; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2015-03-01

    This paper addresses a challenging single-view modeling and animation problem with cartoon images. Our goal is to model the hairs in a given cartoon image with consistent layering and occlusion, so that we can produce various visual effects from just a single image. We propose a novel 2.5D modeling approach to deal with this problem. Given an input image, we first segment the hairs of the cartoon character into regions of hair strands. Then, we apply our novel layering metric, which is derived from the Gestalt psychology, to automatically optimize the depth ordering among the hair strands. After that, we employ our hair completion method to fill the occluded part of each hair strand, and create a 2.5D model of the cartoon hair. By using this model, we can produce various visual effects, e.g., we develop a simplified fluid simulation model to produce wind blowing animations with the 2.5D hairs. To further demonstrate the applicability and versatility of our method, we compare our results with real cartoon hair animations, and also apply our model to produce a wide variety of hair manipulation effects, including hair editing and hair braiding. PMID:26357063

  15. Immunohistochemical identification of Campylobacter fetus in natural cases of bovine and ovine abortions.

    PubMed

    Campero, C M; Anderson, M L; Walker, R L; Blanchard, P C; Barbano, L; Chiu, P; Martínez, A; Combessies, G; Bardon, J C; Cordeviola, J

    2005-04-01

    An immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedure for the detection of Campylobacter fetus antigens using an avidin-biotin complex technique was performed on formalin fixed bovine and ovine fetal tissues from 26 natural cases of Campylobacter spp. abortion (four ovine and 22 bovine). The species of Campylobacter isolated included C. fetus ssp. venerealis from 13 bovine fetuses, C. fetus ssp. fetus from two ovine and one bovine fetus, Campylobacter jejuni from seven bovine fetuses, Campylobacter lari from two ovine fetuses and an unspeciated Campylobacter species in one bovine fetus. Histologic lesions identified in the aborted fetuses included placentitis, serositis, pneumonia, gastroenteritis, hepatitis and encephalitis. Campylobacter fetus antigens were identified by IHC in 13 of 13 bovine fetuses from which C. fetus ssp. venerealis was isolated and in two of two ovine fetuses from which C. fetus ssp. fetus was isolated. The IHC stains were negative in tissues from seven bovine fetuses from which C. jejuni was isolated, one bovine fetus infected with C. fetus ssp. fetus, one bovine fetus infected with the unspeciated Campylobacter and two ovine fetuses infected with C. lari. In positive cases, the IHC stain most frequently identified bacteria in the lung and gastrointestinal tract. The C. fetus IHC procedure performed on formalin fixed tissues is a practical tool for the diagnosis of natural cases of ovine and bovine abortion caused by C. fetus.

  16. Heterogeneous 2.5D integration on through silicon interposer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowu; Lin, Jong Kai; Wickramanayaka, Sunil; Zhang, Songbai; Weerasekera, Roshan; Dutta, Rahul; Chang, Ka Fai; Chui, King-Jien; Li, Hong Yu; Wee Ho, David Soon; Ding, Liang; Katti, Guruprasad; Bhattacharya, Suryanarayana; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2015-06-01

    Driven by the need to reduce the power consumption of mobile devices, and servers/data centers, and yet continue to deliver improved performance and experience by the end consumer of digital data, the semiconductor industry is looking for new technologies for manufacturing integrated circuits (ICs). In this quest, power consumed in transferring data over copper interconnects is a sizeable portion that needs to be addressed now and continuing over the next few decades. 2.5D Through-Si-Interposer (TSI) is a strong candidate to deliver improved performance while consuming lower power than in previous generations of servers/data centers and mobile devices. These low-power/high-performance advantages are realized through achievement of high interconnect densities on the TSI (higher than ever seen on Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) or organic substrates), and enabling heterogeneous integration on the TSI platform where individual ICs are assembled at close proximity (<1 mm separation) compared with several centimeters on a typical PCB. In this paper, we have outlined the benefits of adopting 2.5D TSI technology and also highlighted the current day approaches to implement this technology in Si fabrication facilities, and in assembly/packaging factories. While the systems and devices that power the mobile society benefit from exploiting advantages of 2.5D integration on TSI, there do exist surmountable challenges that need to be addressed for this relatively new technology to be used in high volume production of next generation semiconductor devices. The key areas of focus and challenges include: Technology planning and design-execution that are necessary for harnessing 2.5D TSI for building systems, processing flow for the fabrication of 100 μm thick TSI at acceptable costs, manufacturing flow for assembling multiple ICs on a 100 μm thick TSI in a repeatable, and reliable manner, thermo-mechanical analysis and optimization for addressing warpage issues, and thermal

  17. The Transcriptional Regulator Rv0485 Modulates the Expression of a pe and ppe Gene Pair and Is Required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence▿ §

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Rachael M.; Goonesekera, Sunali D.; Bloom, Barry R.; Sampson, Samantha L.

    2009-01-01

    The pe and ppe genes are unique to mycobacteria and are widely speculated to play a role in tuberculosis pathogenesis. However, little is known about how expression of these genes is controlled. Elucidating the regulatory control of genes found exclusively in mycobacteria, such as the pe and ppe gene families, may be key to understanding the success of this pathogen. In this study, we used a transposon mutagenesis approach to elucidate pe and ppe regulation. This resulted in the identification of Rv0485, a previously uncharacterized transcriptional regulator. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that disruption of Rv0485 reduced the expression of the pe13 and ppe18 gene pair (Rv1195 and Rv1196), defined the Rv0485 regulon, and emphasized the lack of global regulation of pe and ppe genes. The in vivo phenotype of the Rv0485 transposon mutant strain (Rv0485::Tn) was investigated in the mouse model, where it was demonstrated that the mutation has minimal effect on bacterial organ burden. Despite this, disruption of Rv0485 allowed mice to survive for significantly longer, with substantially reduced lung pathology in comparison with mice infected with wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infection of immune-deficient SCID mice with the Rv0485::Tn strain also resulted in extended survival times, suggesting that Rv0485 plays a role in modulation of innate immune responses. This is further supported by the finding that disruption of Rv0485 resulted in reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by infected murine macrophages. In summary, we have demonstrated that disruption of a previously uncharacterized transcriptional regulator, Rv0485, results in reduced expression of pe13 and ppe18 and attenuation of M. tuberculosis virulence. PMID:19651861

  18. Comparative genomics of Campylobacter fetus from reptiles and mammals reveals divergent evolution in host-associated lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. fetus subsp. venerealis, and C. fetus subsp. testudinum, which display a distinct host association. Both C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are associated with endothermic mammals, primar...

  19. PPE26 induces TLR2-dependent activation of macrophages and drives Th1-type T-cell immunity by triggering the cross-talk of multiple pathways involved in the host response

    PubMed Central

    Su, Haibo; Kong, Cong; Zhu, Lin; Huang, Qi; Luo, Liulin; Wang, Honghai; Xu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiological functions and the underlying molecular basis of PE /PPE proteins of M. tuberculosis remain largely unknown. In this study, we focused on the link between PPE26 and host response. We demonstrated that PPE26 can induce extensive inflammatory responses in macrophages through triggering the cross-talk of multiple pathways involved in the host response, as revealed by iTRAQ-based subcellular quantitative proteomics. We observed that PPE26 is able to specifically bind to TLR2 leading to the subsequent activation of MAPKs and NF-κB signaling. PPE26 functionally stimulates macrophage activation by augmenting pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12 p40) and the expression of cell surface markers (CD80, CD86, MHC class I and II). We observed that PPE26-treated macrophages effectively polarizes naïve CD4+ T cells to up-regulate CXCR3 expression, and to secrete IFN-γ and IL-2, indicating PPE26 contributes to the Th1 polarization during the immune response. Importantly, rBCG::PPE26 induces stronger antigen-specific TNF-α and IFN-γ activity, and higher levels of the Th1 cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ comparable to BCG. Moreover, PPE26 effectively induces the reciprocal expansion of effector/memory CD4+/CD8+ CD44highCD62Llow T cells in the spleens of mice immunized with this strain. These results suggest that PPE26 may be a TLR2 agonist that stimulates innate immunity and adaptive immunity, indicating that PPE26 is a potential antigen for the rational design of an efficient vaccine against M. tuberculosis. PMID:26439698

  20. Electromagnetic energy dispersion in a 5D universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, John G.

    2010-06-15

    Electromagnetism is analyzed in a 5D expanding universe. Compared to the usual 4D description of electrodynamics it can be viewed as adding effective charge and current densities to the universe that are static in time. These lead to effective polarization and magnetization of the vacuum, which is most significant at high redshift. Electromagnetic waves propagate but group and phase velocities are dispersive. This introduces a new energy scale to the cosmos. And as a result electromagnetic waves propagate with superluminal speeds but no energy is transmitted faster than the canonical speed of light c.

  1. Anthropometric measurements in the second trimester fetus.

    PubMed

    Chambers, H M; Knowles, S; Staples, A; Tamblyn, M; Haan, E A

    1993-04-01

    Normal anthropometric measurements, of accepted value for clinicians and pathologists in the assessment of the dysmorphic neonate, have not in the past been available for the second trimester fetus, in which dysmorphic features are often more subtle and objective measurements most needed. In order to establish these values 19 anthropometric measurements, comparable to those published for the larger fetus and neonate, were recorded at autopsy on each of 260 overtly normal non-macerate singleton fetuses between 13 and 26 weeks gestation. Regression lines for each parameter, and growth ratios of potential value for description and assessment of dysmorphic features, were derived. The sex ratio was 1.27 and as there was no statistically significant sex difference for any of the 19 measurements chosen, the data was subsequently pooled. There were linear correlations between gestational age and each growth parameter, all but three exceeding 0.90. The linear correlations between pairs of growth parameter were higher than the correlations between gestational age and individual growth parameters. This suggests that growth parameter pairs, expressed as a ratio, are less affected by errors in gestational age estimation. Ratios enabling the dysmorphologist to more objectively assess common observations such as abnormalities of head shape, relationship between limb and trunk length and gross proportional relationships between major body segments were derived. Collected measurements were compared with established ultrasound reference ranges. While reference ranges for biparietal diameter and head circumference showed close concordance with those derived from ultrasound measurements, the abdominal circumference was consistently lower than that measured by ultrasound possibly because of differing trunk positions in utero compared with after death. The graphs and ratios derived in this study can be rapidly applied to confirm visual impressions at clinical examination and at autopsy

  2. 1.5D Egocentric Dynamic Network Visualization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Chen; Wen, Zhen; Qu, Huamin; Lin, Chuang; Liao, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic network visualization has been a challenging research topic due to the visual and computational complexity introduced by the extra time dimension. Existing solutions are usually good for overview and presentation tasks, but not for the interactive analysis of a large dynamic network. We introduce in this paper a new approach which considers only the dynamic network central to a focus node, also known as the egocentric dynamic network. Our major contribution is a novel 1.5D visualization design which greatly reduces the visual complexity of the dynamic network without sacrificing the topological and temporal context central to the focus node. In our design, the egocentric dynamic network is presented in a single static view, supporting rich analysis through user interactions on both time and network. We propose a general framework for the 1.5D visualization approach, including the data processing pipeline, the visualization algorithm design, and customized interaction methods. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on egocentric dynamic network analysis tasks, through case studies and a controlled user experiment comparing with three baseline dynamic network visualization methods.

  3. Equations on knot polynomials and 3d/5d duality

    SciTech Connect

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2012-09-24

    We briefly review the current situation with various relations between knot/braid polynomials (Chern-Simons correlation functions), ordinary and extended, considered as functions of the representation and of the knot topology. These include linear skein relations, quadratic Plucker relations, as well as 'differential' and (quantum) A-polynomial structures. We pay a special attention to identity between the A-polynomial equations for knots and Baxter equations for quantum relativistic integrable systems, related through Seiberg-Witten theory to 5d super-Yang-Mills models and through the AGT relation to the q-Virasoro algebra. This identity is an important ingredient of emerging a 3d- 5d generalization of the AGT relation. The shape of the Baxter equation (including the values of coefficients) depend on the choice of the knot/braid. Thus, like the case of KP integrability, where (some, so far torus) knots parameterize particular points of the Universal Grassmannian, in this relation they parameterize particular points in the moduli space of many-body integrable systems of relativistic type.

  4. Nearly free electrons in a 5d delafossite oxide metal

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Pallavi; Sunko, Veronika; Moll, Philip J. W.; Bawden, Lewis; Riley, Jonathon M.; Nandi, Nabhanila; Rosner, Helge; Schmidt, Marcus P.; Arnold, Frank; Hassinger, Elena; Kim, Timur K.; Hoesch, Moritz; Mackenzie, Andrew P.; King, Phil D. C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of electron correlations in strong spin-orbit transition-metal oxides is key to the realization of numerous exotic phases including spin-orbit–assisted Mott insulators, correlated topological solids, and prospective new high-temperature superconductors. To date, most attention has been focused on the 5d iridium-based oxides. We instead consider the Pt-based delafossite oxide PtCoO2. Our transport measurements, performed on single-crystal samples etched to well-defined geometries using focused ion beam techniques, yield a room temperature resistivity of only 2.1 microhm·cm (μΩ-cm), establishing PtCoO2 as the most conductive oxide known. From angle-resolved photoemission and density functional theory, we show that the underlying Fermi surface is a single cylinder of nearly hexagonal cross-section, with very weak dispersion along kz. Despite being predominantly composed of d-orbital character, the conduction band is remarkably steep, with an average effective mass of only 1.14me. Moreover, the sharp spectral features observed in photoemission remain well defined with little additional broadening for more than 500 meV below EF, pointing to suppressed electron-electron scattering. Together, our findings establish PtCoO2 as a model nearly-free–electron system in a 5d delafossite transition-metal oxide. PMID:26601308

  5. Selection of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube with Narrow Diameter Distribution by Using a PPE PPV Copolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Kelly A; Chen, Yusheng; Malkovskiy, Andrey; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; Sokolov, Alexei P; More, Karren Leslie; Pang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Electronic and mechanic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are uniquely dependent on the tube's chiralities and diameters. Isolation of different type SWNTs remains one of the fundamental and challenging issues in nanotube science. Herein, we demonstrate that SWNTs can be effectively enriched to a narrow diameter range by sequential treatment of the HiPco sample with nitric acid and a {pi}-conjugated copolymer poly(phenyleneethynylene) (PPE)-co-poly(phenylenevinylene) (PPV). On the basis of Raman, fluorescence, and microscopic evidence, the nitric acid is found to selectively remove the SWNTs of small diameter. The polymer not only effectively dispersed carbon nanotubes but also exhibited a good selectivity toward a few SWNTs. The reported approach thus offers a new methodology to isolate SWNTs, which has the potential to operate in a relatively large scale.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE68 and Rv2626c genes contribute to the host cell necrosis and bacterial escape from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Danelishvili, Lia; Everman, Jamie; Bermudez, Luiz E

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are the main line of innate immune response against M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. However, these cells serve as the major intracellular niche for Mtb enhancing its survival, replication and, later on, cell-to-cell spread. Mtb-associated cytotoxicity of macrophages has been well documented, but limited information exists about mechanisms by which the pathogen induces cell necrosis. To identify virulence factors involved in the induction of necrosis, we screened 5,000 transposon mutants of Mtb for clones that failed to promote the host cell necrosis in a similar manner as the wild-type bacterium. Five Mtb mutants were identified as potential candidates inducing significantly lower levels of THP-1 cell damage in contrast to the H37Rv wild-type infection. Reduced levels of the cell damage by necrosis deficient mutants (NDMs) were also associated with delayed damage of mitochondrial membrane permeability when compared with the wild-type infection over time. Two knockout mutants of the Rv3873 gene, encoding a cell wall PPE68 protein of RD1 region, were identified out of 5 NDMs. Further investigation lead to the observation that PPE68 protein interacts and exports several unknown or known surface/secreted proteins, among them Rv2626c is associated with the host cell necrosis. When the Rv2626c gene is deleted from the genome of Mtb, the bacterium displays significantly less necrosis in THP-1 cells and, conversely, the overexpression of Rv2626c promotes the host cell necrosis at early time points of infections in contrast to the wild-type strain.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis and management in fetuses with cystic hygromata colli.

    PubMed

    Gembruch, U; Hansmann, M; Bald, R; Zerres, K; Schwanitz, G; Födisch, H J

    1988-12-01

    We report on 45 fetuses with prenatally diagnosed bilateral cystic hygromata colli by ultrasound. Two of the 45 cases involved a twin pregnancy with only one fetus showing hygromata colli. In 2 cases there was only isolated hygromata colli. The other 43 cases showed the signs of non-immune hydrops fetalis. The cytogenetic findings were: 9 fetuses with Turner syndrome, 1 fetus with Turner mosaicism, 1 fetus with trisomy 18, 6 fetuses with trisomy 21, 12 fetuses with normal karyotype, and 16 fetuses with a failed chromosome culture. In fetuses with Turner syndrome and normal karyotype the sonographic findings were similar: massive bilateral hygromata colli, substantial fluid accumulations in skin and body cavities, oligohydramnios and intra-uterine growth retardation. In the cases with trisomy 21, the relative size of the hygromata colli was smaller. Intra-uterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios were not observed. The sole survivor of our group (elective pregnancy interruption: 30 cases; intra-uterine death: 14 cases) (karyotype: 46,XY) presented sonographically with massive ascites, a moderate cystic hygroma, and appropriate fetal development, and a normal amniotic fluid quantity. These findings are analysed in order to provide recommendations for prenatal diagnosis, prenatal management and genetic counselling of the couples concerned.

  8. Black hole solutions in 5D Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Koutsoumbas, George; Papantonopoulos, Eletherios; Pasipoularides, Pavlos; Tsoukalas, Minas

    2010-06-15

    We study the full spectrum of spherically symmetric solutions in the five-dimensional nonprojectable Horava-Lifshitz type gravity theories. For appropriate ranges of the coupling parameters, we have found several classes of solutions which are characterized by an AdS{sub 5}, dS{sub 5}, or flat large distance asymptotic behavior, plus the standard 1/r{sup 2} tail of the usual five-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes. In addition we have found solutions with an unconventional short or large distance behavior, and, for a special range of the coupling parameters, solutions which coincide with black hole solutions of conventional relativistic five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity.

  9. The fetus as a patient. Surgical considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, M R; Adzick, N S

    1991-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of human fetal defects has evolved rapidly over the past decade due to improved fetal imaging techniques and better understanding of fetal pathophysiology derived from animal models. The detection of a fetal anomaly may now lead to a change in the timing of delivery, a change in the mode of delivery, or prenatal treatment. Because most therapeutic maneuvers involve some risk to the fetus and mother, there must be a reasonable expectation that the procedure is feasible, safe, and effective before it can be attempted in humans. This requires reliable information about the pathophysiology and natural history of the disease process, the efficacy of fetal surgical intervention in ameliorating the disease, and the feasibility and safety of the proposed intervention. This paper focuses on the rationale and initial clinical experience with fetal surgery for a variety of life-threatening fetal anatomic defects. PMID:2009009

  10. The unique endocrine milieu of the fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, D A

    1986-01-01

    Table II summarizes in tabular form the major features of the fetal endocrine milieu discussed in the foregoing pages. The mammalian fetus develops in an environment where respiration, alimentation, and excretory functions are provided by the placenta. Fetal tissue metabolism is oriented largely to anabolism; body temperature is modulated by maternal metabolism, and fetal tissue thermogenesis is maintained at a basal level. Tissue and organ growth appear to be regulated by growth factors which probably function by autocrine or paracrine mechanisms during most of gestation (72, 146-148). In this milieu conventional endocrine control systems are largely redundant, and other transient systems more appropriate to the intrauterine environment have evolved. We have developed some insights into these systems, but much more information is necessary before we can truly understand this fascinating environment. PMID:3018041

  11. Isolated Complete Heart Block in the Fetus.

    PubMed

    Ho, Andrew; Gordon, Patrick; Rosenthal, Eric; Simpson, John; Miller, Owen; Sharland, Gurleen

    2015-07-01

    Isolated congenital complete heart block (CCHB) is a rare disease with significant associated morbidity and mortality. A diagnosis is often made in fetal life, but data regarding long-term outcomes are limited, and fetal therapy to improve prognosis is controversial. In our institution, 85 fetuses were diagnosed with CCHB from 1981 to 2013 in 80 mothers. There were 37 anti-Ro-positive pregnancies, 36 both anti-Ro and anti-La positive, 10 antibody negative, and 2 of unknown antibody status. Antenatal treatments were given in 14 fetuses, with 8 given fluorinated steroids, 4 beta sympathomimetics, and both in 2. Of the original 85, 74 babies survived to delivery. Fetal hydrops was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with intrauterine death (p <0.001). Four babies died before pacemaker implantation, 56 have had pacemakers implanted, and 14 are pacemaker free. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for median time to pacemaker implantation was 2.6 years, with 15 implanted in the neonatal period. There have been 14 postnatal deaths, with a Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival at 30 years of 76.8% (95% confidence interval 65% to 90%). Dilated cardiomyopathy was uncommon, occurring in 6 patients. Prematurity and hydrops were associated with increased postnatal mortality (p = 0.02 and 0.005, respectively). In conclusion, we present the largest single-unit experience of prenatally diagnosed CCHB in the published literature. Our cohort was conservatively managed, with survival similar to those previously published. These data offer insight into the long-term natural history of CCHB.

  12. Possible homozygous Waardenburg syndrome in a fetus with exencephaly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-06

    This paper describes a pedigree with Waardenburg syndrome and an aborted fetus who had severe congenital malformations but no detected genetic mutations. The authors concluded that despite the fact that no homozygosity of the fetus was demonstrated, the phenotype pointed to homozygous mutations of the PAX3 gene. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Genome-wide epigenetic alterations in cloned bovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Cezar, Gabriela Gebrin; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Forsberg, Erik J; First, Neal L; Bishop, Michael D; Eilertsen, Kenneth J

    2003-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of global methylation differences associated with development of nuclear transfer (NT)-generated cattle, we analyzed the genome-wide methylation status of spontaneously aborted cloned fetuses, cloned fetuses, and adult clones that were derived from transgenic and nontransgenic cumulus, genital ridge, and body cell lines. Cloned fetuses were recovered from ongoing normal pregnancies and were morphologically normal. Fetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI) were used as controls. In vitro fertilization (IVF) fetuses were compared with AI controls to assess effects of in vitro culture on the 5-methylcytosine content of fetal genomes. All of the fetuses were female. Skin biopsies were obtained from cloned and AI-generated adult cows. All of the adult clones were phenotypically normal and lactating and had no history of health or reproductive disorders. Genome-wide cytosine methylation levels were monitored by reverse-phase HPLC, and results indicated reduced levels of methylated cytosine in NT-generated fetuses. In contrast, no differences were observed between adult, lactating clones and similarly aged lactating cows produced by AI. These data imply that survivability of cloned cattle may be closely related to the global DNA methylation status. This is the first report to indicate that global methylation losses may contribute to the developmental failure of cloned bovine fetuses. PMID:12604655

  14. 2.5-D modeling in electromagnetic methods of geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabarovsky, L. A.; Goldman, M. M.; Rabinovich, M. B.; Strack, K.-M.

    1996-10-01

    Understanding, using, or eliminating three-dimensional (3-D) effects in electromagnetic methods of geophysics are critical requirements. Numerous achievements in 3-D modeling sometimes give the impression that they are widely available today in geophysical practice. This is not necessarily true. Existing 3-D modeling packages prove that we know how to perform 3-D modeling. However, the computer resources and costs involved make the practical application of 3-D EM modeling in geophysical applications very limited. A practical compromise, or even alternative, is represented by 2.5-D modeling characterized by the use of a 3-D source in a 2-D medium. This combination allows one to mathematically describe the related boundary value problem as a sequence of independent two-dimensional problems. The typical technique leading to such a split formulation is Fourier analysis. That is why the individual terms of a split solution are often referred to as harmonics. Although each independent problem is two-dimensional, the algorithmic implementation of finite differences or integral equations for the higher harmonics has some specific features not present in the classical 2-D cases. In this paper, a hybrid scheme consisting of a combination of the finite difference technique with the integral equation approach for transient fields is described. Evaluation of algorithm accuracy is presented and a transient logging technique application is considered. The algorithm is fast and easily implemented on a personal computer

  15. Biometry of face and brain in fetuses with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Guihard-Costa, Anne-Marie; Khung, Suonavy; Delbecque, Kathy; Ménez, Françoise; Delezoide, Anne-Lise

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the early setting of the particular craniofacial morphology in Down syndrome during the fetal period from data based on postmortem examinations. The study included 1277 fetuses at 15-38 gestational weeks (GW): 922 control fetuses and 355 fetuses with trisomy 21, selected from fetopathology units in Paris. Body weight (BW) and nine dimensions of the face, skull, and brain were recorded: the outer and inner canthal distances (OCD, ICD), biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), brain weight (BrW), occipitofrontal diameters of left and right hemispheres (lOFD, rOFD), weight of the infratentorial part of the brain (IBW), and maximal transversal diameter of the cerebellum (CTD). Four ratios were computed: BPD/HC, OCD/BPD, BrW/BW, IBW/BrW. Differences between trisomic fetuses and control fetuses were tested by age interval. Results showed that BW, rOFD, and lOFD were lower in trisomic fetuses as early as 15 GW. Cerebellar hypoplasia included lower IBW and CTD in trisomic fetuses. The IBW/BrW ratio was higher in trisomic fetuses, showing that growth restriction affected the infratentorial part of the brain less than the supratentorial part. Early brachycephaly was found in trisomic fetuses, with higher values of BPD and BPD/HC from 15 GW. ICD and OCD were not significantly different in the two groups, but OCD/DBP ratio was lower in trisomic fetuses. These results confirm the early phenotypical expression of trisomy 21 on craniofacial morphology, associated with a marked restriction of brain growth, especially in the supratentorial part. PMID:16326987

  16. Ventricular ejection force in growth-retarded fetuses.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Capponi, A; Rinaldo, D; Arduini, D; Romanini, C

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether in growth-retarded fetuses secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency the cardiac ventricles exert a force different from that of appropriately grown fetuses. Doppler echocardiographic studies were performed in 156 appropriately grown fetuses (gestational age 18-38 weeks) and in 72 growth-retarded fetuses (gestational age 24-36 weeks) free from structural and chromosomal abnormalities and characterized by Doppler changes in the umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery suggesting uteroplacental insufficiency as the most likely etiology of the growth defect. Right and left ventricular ejection force values were calculated from velocity waveforms recorded at the level of aortic and pulmonary valves, according to Newton's second law of motion. In appropriately grown fetuses, left and right ventricular ejection force values significantly increased with advancing gestation and the two ventricles exerted similar force. In growth-retarded fetuses, the ventricular ejection force was significantly and symmetrically decreased in both ventricles. Among growth-retarded fetuses, a poorer perinatal outcome was observed in those fetuses in which the ejection force of both ventricles was below the 5th centile of the normal limits for gestation. In 12 growth-retarded fetuses followed longitudinally during the last week preceding intrauterine death or Cesarean section due to antepartum heart-rate late decelerations, a significant decrease of ejection force was found in both ventricles. Finally, a significant relationship was found between the severity of acidosis and right and left ventricular ejection force values in 22 fetuses in which Doppler recordings were performed immediately before cordocentesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Complete genome sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum type strain 03-427T

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum has been isolated from reptiles and humans. This Campylobacter subspecies is genetically distinct from other C. fetus subspecies. Here we present the first whole genome sequence for this C. fetus subspecies....

  18. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, RBN; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence. PMID:26902658

  19. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, R B N; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-02-23

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence.

  20. PE11, a PE/PPE family protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is involved in cell wall remodeling and virulence.

    PubMed

    Singh, Parul; Rao, Rameshwaram Nagender; Reddy, Jala Ram Chandra; Prasad, R B N; Kotturu, Sandeep Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mukhopadhyay, Sangita

    2016-01-01

    The role of the unique proline-glutamic acid (PE)/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) family of proteins in the pathophysiology and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not clearly understood. One of the PE family proteins, PE11 (LipX or Rv1169c), specific to pathogenic mycobacteria is found to be over-expressed during infection of macrophages and in active TB patients. In this study, we report that M. smegmatis expressing PE11 (Msmeg-PE11) exhibited altered colony morphology and cell wall lipid composition leading to a marked increase in resistance against various environmental stressors and antibiotics. The cell envelope of Msmeg-PE11 also had greater amount of glycolipids and polar lipids. Msmeg-PE11 was found to have better survival rate in infected macrophages. Mice infected with Msmeg-PE11 had higher bacterial load, showed exacerbated organ pathology and mortality. The liver and lung of Msmeg-PE11-infected mice also had higher levels of IL-10, IL-4 and TNF-α cytokines, indicating a potential role of this protein in mycobacterial virulence. PMID:26902658

  1. Conflicting perceptions of the fetus: person, patient, 'nobody', commodity?

    PubMed

    Williams, C; Alderson, P; Farsides, B

    2001-01-01

    Different constructions of the fetus lie at the centre of reproductive, abortion and disability politics. Recent developments mean that, within the same hospital, a fetus may be perceived in contrasting and potentially conflicting ways. It is also argued that the status given to the fetus is directly relevant to the status given to pregnant women. During group discussions facilitated by an ethicist, health-care staff highlighted various perceptions of the fetus which included: person; patient; 'nobody'; commodity. Perhaps not surprisingly in view of the current legal situation, staff tended to claim that it is usually the pregnant women who decides how her fetus will be constructed, and the practitioner who responds to this. However, various ways in which practitioners might influence women's perceptions of their fetus are highlighted, as are some ways in which the perceptions of staff might be influenced. This paper illustrates how sensitive health-care staff will need to be if they are indeed to respond to, rather than shape, women's constructions of their fetus. PMID:15584143

  2. Framing the fetus in medical work: rituals and practices.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clare

    2005-05-01

    What does it mean to investigate the fetus, and what might be the potential consequences? Although a number of feminists have engaged with the debate around the status of the fetus in terms of the possible implications for women, discussion of fetuses has been avoided by many feminists, in response to the politics around the abortion debate. However, there has recently been a move to explore the ways in which the meanings and significance of the fetus can be socially constructed. Set within a United Kingdom context, this paper focuses on two areas which are arguably changing perceptions of the fetus: the recent 'discovery' of fetal 'pain'; and the growing recognition of the fetus as a patient. One of the key concerns of those who support the autonomy of women is that any increasing discourse around the concept of fetal patienthood may promote the notion of fetal personhood, which in turn may affect the status of pregnant women. In exploring perceptions of the fetus, this article firstly cites some of the key policy documents and medical articles which were published during the 1990s, looking at apparent shifts in the ways in which the fetus is discussed in terms of pain and patienthood. It then explores how practitioners from different disciplines talked about fetal pain and patienthood in relation to the clinical setting. Although this paper does not provide conclusive evidence of a wholesale shift in terms of how the fetus is perceived by practitioners, it does point to subtle shifts occurring, which may or may not be significant. It is important to track such shifts closely, primarily because of the potential impact on women, but also for others involved, including practitioners. Such tracking needs to be set within specific cultural and policy contexts. PMID:15743656

  3. High Sequence Variability of the ppE18 Gene of Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains Potentially Impacts Effectivity of Vaccine Candidate M72/AS01E.

    PubMed

    Homolka, Susanne; Ubben, Tanja; Niemann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The development of an effective vaccine is urgently needed to fight tuberculosis (TB) which is still the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide. One of the promising vaccine candidates M72/AS01E consists of two proteins subunits PepA and PPE18 coded by Rv0125 and Rv1196. However, preliminary data indicate a high level of sequence variability among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains that might have an impact on the vaccine efficacy. To further investigate this finding, we determined ppE18 sequence variability in a well-characterized reference collection of 71 MTBC strains from 23 phylogenetic lineages representing the global MTBC diversity. In total, 100 sequence variations consisting of 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three insertions and one deletion were detected resulting in 141 variable positions distributed over the entire gene. The majority of SNPs detected were non-synonymous (n = 68 vs. n = 28 synonymous). Strains from animal adapted lineages, e.g., M. bovis, showed a significant higher diversity than the human pathogens such as M. tuberculosis Haarlem. SNP patterns specific for different lineages as well as for deeper branches in the phylogeny could be identified. The results of our study demonstrate a high variability of the ppE18 gene even in the N-terminal domains that is normally highly conserved in ppe genes. As the N-terminal region interacts with TLR2 receptor inducing a protective anti-inflammatory immune response, genetic heterogeneity has a potential impact on the vaccine efficiency, however, this has to be investigated in future studies.

  4. [Twin pregnancy with intrauterine death of one fetus].

    PubMed

    Jaczewski, B; Krasomski, G; Wilczyński, J

    1993-02-01

    A case of twin pregnancy with congenital malformations and intrauterine death of one fetus in the 27th week of pregnancy has been discussed. The pregnancy was continued with special care of the mother and the alive fetus. During all stay of the pregnant in the clinic no coagulation disturbances were observed. In the 33rd week of pregnancy spontaneous labour occurred, which was conducted by vaginal delivery. Simultaneously a macerated dead fetus and an alive premature newborn were born. The alive one was charged home in good condition in the 38th day of staying in the Neonatal Ward. PMID:8359726

  5. [Scientific ethics of the abortion with anencephalic fetus].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2011-09-01

    author proposes, from the perspective of the Scientific Ethics, to assimilate anencephalic fetuses to non-human fetuses because they have a large deficiency of the brain that is the organ for human specificity. This proposal comes after considering arguments and facts from ontogeny, phylogeny, from the situation of loss of the brain in the adult life and from the organic specificity of the human condition given by the brain. If anencephalic fetuses are not human, the interruption of their pregnancy cannot be considered as abortion, regardless the pregnancy stage.

  6. Transition probabilities for 5s-5p, 5p-5d, 4f-5d, and 5d-5f transitions in Ag-like ions with Z = 50-86

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, E.P.

    2011-01-15

    The wavelengths, electric dipole transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths are calculated for transitions between low-lying states (5s-5p, 5p-5d, 4f-5d, and 5d-5f) in the silver isoelectronic sequence (50 {<=} Z {<=} 86) using relativistic perturbation theory with a zero-approximation model potential. The results are compared with the corresponding data of the relativistic Hartree-Fock theory and the relativistic many-body perturbation theory. The results of these three theoretical approaches are compared with available experimental data for the level lifetimes. Possible reasons for some disagreements are discussed.

  7. A brachytic dwarfism trait (dw) in peach trees is caused by a nonsense mutation within the gibberellic acid receptor PpeGID1c.

    PubMed

    Hollender, Courtney A; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors controlling tree size and shape. Here, we studied the genetic basis for a recessive brachytic dwarfism trait (dw) in peach (Prunus persica) that has little or no effect on fruit development. A sequencing-based mapping strategy positioned dw on the distal end of chromosome 6. Further sequence analysis and fine mapping identified a candidate gene for dw as a non-functional allele of the gibberellic acid receptor GID1c. Expression of the two GID1-like genes found in peach, PpeGID1c and PpeGID1b, was analyzed. GID1c was predominantly expressed in actively growing vegetative tissues, whereas GID1b was more highly expressed in reproductive tissues. Silencing of GID1c in plum via transgenic expression of a hairpin construct led to a dwarf phenotype similar to that of dw/dw peaches. In general, the degree of GID1c silencing corresponded to the degree of dwarfing. The results suggest that PpeGID1c serves a primary role in vegetative growth and elongation, whereas GID1b probably functions to regulate gibberellic acid perception in reproductive organs. Modification of GID1c expression could provide a rational approach to control tree size without impairing fruit development. PMID:26639453

  8. The legal status of the fetus in New South Wales.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Talat; Pickering, A; Erasmus, K; Pardey, J; Beran, Roy G

    2012-09-01

    The issue of how to define the legal status of the fetus is complex. Three clinical cases with fetal losses following motor vehicle accidents raise important issues regarding the legal status of the unborn child. Legislation was submitted to the New South Wales Parliament in the form of the Crimes Amendment (Grievous Bodily Harm) Bill 2005 (NSW) but was subsequently repealed. Medical technological advances make the viability of a fetus a shifting standard and encourage the comparison between newborns and late-term fetuses, offer increased fetal health status information and provide greater capacity to maintain the life of babies born prematurely. In view of the sophisticated state of medical care available in New South Wales, the three cases reviewed highlight the discrepancy between the medical recognition of the fetus as a patient and its lack of legal recognition.

  9. Ultrasonic biparietal diameter of second trimester Pygmy goat fetuses.

    PubMed

    Reichle, J K; Haibel, G K

    1991-04-01

    Four does pregnant with seven Pygmy goat fetuses were scanned transabdominally from Day 36 to Day 102 of gestation using a real-time ultrasound 5 MHz linear-array scanhead. Fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) was measured on symmetrical frozen images using internal electronic calipers. The relationship between gestational age (GA) in days and BPD in millimeters in Pygmy goat fetuses is expressed as: [GA = 23.2 + 2.08 BPD]. This equation can assign GA to Pygmy goat fetuses of unknown conception dates and allow confinement of does near kidding for induced or observed parturition. Mean kid birthweight was 2.0 + 0.45 kg SEM. These observations are consistent with relationships which have been determined for Toggenburg, Nubian and Angora goat fetuses.

  10. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spotlights Media Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida ... opening in the spine. In a new Web video, study author Catherine Y. Spong, M.D., Chief ...

  11. a Biokinetic Model for CESIUM-137 in the Fetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Karen Lynn

    1995-01-01

    Previously, there was no method to determine the dose to the embryo, fetus, fetal organs or placenta from radionuclides within the embryo, fetus, or placenta. In the past, the dose to the fetus was assumed to be equivalent to the dose to the uterus. Watson estimated specific absorbed fractions from various maternal organs to the uterine contents which included the fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid and Sikov estimated the absorbed dose to the embryo/fetus after assuming 1 uCi of radioactivity was made available to the maternal blood.^{1,2} However, this method did not allow for the calculation of a dose to individual fetal organs or the placenta. The radiation dose to the embryo or fetus from Cs-137 in the fetus and placenta due to a chronic ingestion by the mother was determined. The fraction of Cs-137 in the maternal plasma crossing the placenta to the fetal plasma was estimated. The absorbed dose from Cs-137 in each modelled fetal organ was estimated. Since there has been more research regarding potassium in the human body, and particularly in the pregnant woman, a biokinetic model for potassium was developed first and used as a basis and confirmation of the cesium model. Available pertinent information in physiology, embryology, biokinetics, and radiation dosimetry was utilized. Due to the rapid growth of the fetus and placenta, the pregnancy was divided into four gestational periods. The numerous physiological changes that occurred during pregnancy were considered and an appropriate biokinetic model was developed for each of the gestational periods. The amount of cesium in the placenta, embryo, and fetus was estimated for each period. The dose to the fetus from cesium deposited in the embryo or fetus and in the placenta was determined for each period using Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry (MIRD) methodology. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to account for the variability of the parameters in the biokinetic model based on the experimental data

  12. Drug metabolism by the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Juchau, M R; Chao, S T; Omiecinski, C J

    1980-01-01

    A review of the literature that pertains to drug biotransformation in human fetal tissues reveals that, in spite of several publications in this comparatively new area of research, only very limited definitive information is currently available. The large majority of the studies performed have dealt with the cytochrome P-450-dependent microsomal mono-oxygenase systems and for several of the common drug metabolising reactions, very little or no data are available at this time. Some of the more important data that have emerged include observations that important bioactivation reactions can be demonstrated in human fetal tissues obtained during the period of late embryogenesis (high susceptibility to chemical dysmorphogenesis) and that the human fetal adrenal gland possesses considerable capacity to catalyse several important oxidation-reduction reactions. From the data available to date, it would appear that, in most instances, the biotransformation of drugs in the human embryo and fetus would not affect maternal plasma concentrations significantly. From the viewpoint of parameters of the pharmacokinetics of parent drug (or other xenobiotic) substrates under steady-state conditions, human fetal drug metabolism probably is of little consequence in most cases, although exceptions may exist. Pharmacokinetic parameters observed after isolated exposure, however, are very likely to be affected, perhaps markedly, in some instances. The demonstrated capacity of human prenatal tissues and cells to generate reactive intermediary metabolites, including those that produce mutations, has attracted the greatest attention recently. This capacity may be associated with extremely important adverse reactions to drugs and other environmental chemicals. Such adverse responses include transplacental mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, dysmorphogenesis, and perhaps several other undesirable effects. Although far from conclusive, the data tend to suggest that humans and subhuman primates may be

  13. [Must the European fetus be a legal chameleon?].

    PubMed

    Soutoul, J H

    1989-04-01

    Currently a legal "haze" surrounds the problem of the fetus in Europe, and there is a need to set this problem in order as a safety for intervening physicians. Actually, some legislation tends to protect the fetus while others authorize its destruction. Under the French law, the fetus appears quite personalized. For instance, in the jurisprudence of non-assistance to a person in danger, it was suggested that an obstetrician perform an immediate caesarean section after death. Other authors have advocated emergency transfusion of blood or blood products to a pregnant woman who refuses any treatment because of religious beliefs, when a fetal risk was demonstrated. Most jurisdictions indict for voluntary homicide when an obstetrician's or a midwife's fault has resulted in fetal death in utero or during delivery. On the contrary, suppression on intra-uterine life may be considered as legal within the framework of the law on VIG (voluntary interruption of pregnancy), as no date-limit is provided for therapeutic interruption of pregnancy. Therefore, severe maternal distress and the strong probability of a fetal malformation incompatible with life, leave the specialists quite undecided in the face of requests for therapeutic interruptions that some jurists have justifiably advised to name, most of the time, "eugenic". The author mentions the fetus conceived after rape or incest, the fetus presenting a malformation, the fetus with trisomy..., who are not particularly protected from a legal standpoint, as well as the fetus threatened of destruction after a sex selection or if the fetus is among an excessive number resulting from ovarian hyperstimulation.

  14. Secondhand smoke induces hepatic apoptosis and fibrosis in hamster fetus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Horng, Chi-Ting; Huang, Chih-Yang; Cho, Ta-Hsiung; Tsai, Yi-Chang; Chen, Li-Jeng; Hsu, Tsai-Ching; Tzang, Bor-Show

    2016-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is an important health issue worldwide. Inhaling SHS during pregnancy could cause abnormalities in the internal tissues of newborns, which may then impair fetal development and even cause severe intrauterine damage and perinatal death. However, the understanding of cytopathic mechanisms of SHS by maternal passive smoking on fetus liver during pregnancy is still limited. This study analyzed the effects of high-dose SHS (SHSH) on fetus liver using a maternal passive smoking animal model. Experiments showed that hepatic matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling-positive cells were significantly increased in livers from fetuses of hamsters treated with SHSH. Similarly, expressions of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic molecules were significantly higher in livers from fetuses of hamsters exposed to SHSH. Additionally, significantly increased inflammatory proteins, including transforming growth factor β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1β, and fibrotic signaling molecules, including phosphorylated Smad2/3, SP1, and α-smooth muscle actin, were observed in the fetus livers from hamsters treated with SHSH. This study revealed that SHSH not only increased apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the livers of fetuses from hamsters exposed to SHSH but also augmented hepatic fibrosis via Smad2/3 signaling.

  15. Autonomic regulation in fetuses with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Saira; Wilpers, Abigail; Myers, Michael; Nugent, J. David; Fifer, William P.; Williams, Ismée A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to antenatal stressors affects autonomic regulation in fetuses. Whether the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD) alters the developmental trajectory of autonomic regulation is not known. Aims/Study Design This prospective observational cohort study aimed to further characterize autonomic regulation in fetuses with CHD; specifically hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Subjects From 11/2010 – 11/2012, 92 fetuses were enrolled: 41 controls and 51 with CHD consisting of 19 with HLHS, 12 with TGA, and 20 with TOF. Maternal abdominal fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were obtained at 3 gestational ages: 19-27 weeks (F1), 28-33 weeks (F2), and 34-38 weeks (F3). Outcome measures Fetal ECG was analyzed for mean heart rate along with 3 measures of autonomic variability of the fetal heart rate: interquartile range, standard deviation, and root mean square of the standard deviation of the heart rate (RMSSD), a measure of parasympathetic activity. Results During F1 and F2 periods, HLHS fetuses demonstrated significantly lower mean HR than controls (p<0.05). Heart rate variability at F3, as measured by standard deviation, interquartile range, and RMSSD was lower in HLHS than controls (p<0.05). Other CHD subgroups showed a similar, though non-significant trend towards lower variability. Conclusions Autonomic regulation in CHD fetuses differs from controls with HLHS fetuses most markedly affected. PMID:25662702

  16. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  17. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  18. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  19. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  20. Relationships between thyroid status, tissue oxidative metabolism, and muscle differentiation in bovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Cassar-Malek, I; Picard, B; Kahl, S; Hocquette, J F

    2007-07-01

    The temporal relationships between thyroid status and differentiation of liver, heart and different skeletal muscles were examined in 42 bovine fetuses from day 110 to day 260 of development using principal component analysis of the data. Plasma concentrations of reverse-triiodothyronine (rT(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) increased during development from day 110 to day 210 or 260, respectively, whereas concentration of triiodothyronine (T(3)) and hepatic type-1 5'-deiodinase activity (5'D1) increased from day 180 onwards. On day 260, high T(4) and rT(3) and low T(3) concentrations were observed together with a mature 5'D1 activity. Cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity expressed per mg protein increased at day 180 in masseter and near birth in masseter, rectus abdominis and cutaneus trunci muscles (P<0.05). Significant changes in citrate synthase (CS) activity per mg protein were observed between day 110 and day 180 in the liver and between day 210 and day 260 in the liver, the heart and the longissimus thoracis muscle (P<0.05). Muscle contractile differentiation was shown by the disappearance of the fetal myosin heavy chain from day 180 onwards. A positive correlation (r>0.47, P<0.01) was shown between thyroid status parameters (5'D1, concentrations of T(4) and T(3)) and COX activity in muscles known to be oxidative after birth (masseter, rectus abdominis) but not in liver and heart, nor in muscles known to be glycolytic after birth (cutaneus trunci, longissimus thoracis). A similar correlation was found between thyroid parameters and CS activity in liver and masseter. Results indicate that elevation of plasma T(3) concentrations in the last gestational trimester could be involved in the differentiation of oxidative skeletal muscles.

  1. Cryo-imaging in a toxicological study on mouse fetuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debashish; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Sloter, Eddie; Watanabe, Michiko; Wilson, David

    2010-03-01

    We applied the Case cryo-imaging system to detect signals of developmental toxicity in transgenic mouse fetuses resulting from maternal exposure to a developmental environmental toxicant (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD). We utilized a fluorescent transgenic mouse model that expresses Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) exclusively in smooth muscles under the control of the smooth muscle gamma actin (SMGA) promoter (SMGA/EGFP mice kindly provided by J. Lessard, U. Cincinnati). Analysis of cryo-image data volumes, comprising of very high-resolution anatomical brightfield and molecular fluorescence block face images, revealed qualitative and quantitative morphological differences in control versus exposed fetuses. Fetuses randomly chosen from pregnant females euthanized on gestation day (GD) 18 were either manually examined or cryo-imaged. For cryo-imaging, fetuses were embedded, frozen and cryo-sectioned at 20 μm thickness and brightfield color and fluorescent block-face images were acquired with an in-plane resolution of ~15 μm. Automated 3D volume visualization schemes segmented out the black embedding medium and blended fluorescence and brightfield data to produce 3D reconstructions of all fetuses. Comparison of Treatment groups TCDD GD13, TCDD GD14 and control through automated analysis tools highlighted differences not observable by prosectors performing traditional fresh dissection. For example, severe hydronephrosis, suggestive of irreversible kidney damage, was detected by cryoimaging in fetuses exposed to TCDD. Automated quantification of total fluorescence in smooth muscles revealed suppressed fluorescence in TCDD-exposed fetuses. This application demonstrated that cryo-imaging can be utilized as a routine high-throughput screening tool to assess the effects of potential toxins on the developmental biology of small animals.

  2. Conserved Pro-Glu (PE) and Pro-Pro-Glu (PPE) Protein Domains Target LipY Lipases of Pathogenic Mycobacteria to the Cell Surface via the ESX-5 Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Daleke, Maria H.; Cascioferro, Alessandro; de Punder, Karin; Ummels, Roy; Abdallah, Abdallah M.; van der Wel, Nicole; Peters, Peter J.; Luirink, Joen; Manganelli, Riccardo; Bitter, Wilbert

    2011-01-01

    The type VII secretion system ESX-5 is a major pathway for export of PE and PPE proteins in pathogenic mycobacteria. These mycobacteria-specific protein families are characterized by conserved N-terminal domains of 100 and 180 amino acids, which contain the proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) motifs after which they are named. Here we investigated secretion of the triacylglycerol lipase LipY, which in fast-growing mycobacteria contains a signal sequence, but in slow-growing species appears to have replaced the signal peptide with a PE or PPE domain. Selected LipY homologues were expressed in wild-type Mycobacterium marinum and its corresponding ESX-5 mutant, and localization of the proteins was investigated by immunoblotting and electron microscopy. Our study shows that Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE-LipY (LipYtub) and M. marinum PPE-LipY (LipYmar) are both secreted to the bacterial surface in an ESX-5-dependent fashion. After transport, the PE/PPE domains are removed by proteolytic cleavage. In contrast, Mycobacterium gilvum LipY, which has a signal sequence, is not transported to the cell surface. Furthermore, we show that LipYtub and LipYmar require their respective PE and PPE domains for ESX-5-dependent secretion. The role of the PE domain in ESX-5 secretion was confirmed in a whole cell lipase assay, in which wild-type bacteria expressing full-length LipYtub, but not LipYtub lacking its PE domain, were shown to hydrolyze extracellular lipids. In conclusion, both PE and PPE domains contain a signal required for secretion of LipY by the ESX-5 system, and these domains are proteolytically removed upon translocation. PMID:21471225

  3. Lymphopoiesis and lymphocyte recirculation in the sheep fetus

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The production and the circulation of lymphocytes has been examined in the sheep fetus where neither foreign antigen nor immunoglobulins occur. It was found that as the lymphoid organs increased in size during fetal life, the numbers and the output of lymphocytes in the thoracic duct lymph increased. The recirculating pool of lymphocytes was estimated to be 5.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(8) cells in fetal lambs 95-100 days of age, 5.7 +/- 1.2 X 10(9) cells in fetuses 130-135 days of age, and 1.2 +/0 9.3 X 10(10) cells in fetuses near to term. The rate of addition of lymphocytes to the recirculating pool was 3.2 +/- 1.9 X 10(6) cells/h in fetuses of 100 days and 3.4 +/- 0.9 X 10(7) cells/h in fetuses of 130 days of age. Lymphocytes recirculated from blood to lymph in fetuses; labeled cells injected into the blood stream reappeared in the thoracic duct lymph promptly and reached maximum levels around 12-18 h after they were injected. Labeled lymphocytes were detected subsequently in greatest numbers in the lymph nodes, particularly in the mesenteric lymph nodes and in the interfollicular areas of the Peyer's patches. Chronic drainage of thoracic duct lymph from fetuses in utero for periods of up to 36 days had no obvious effects on the growth or development of the fetus and only minimal effects on the content of lymphocytes in the various lymphoid tissues even though the number of cells in the blood and lymph were reduced to between 20-30% of normal levels. Thymectomy done in fetuses about 2 mo befor cannulation of the thoracic duct reduced the output of cells in the thoracic duct to about 25% of normal levels and caused a significant reduction in the content of lymphocytes in the various lymphoid tissues. Thymectomized fetal lambs subjected to thoracic duct drainage for periods up to 2 wk in utero had a similar complement of lymphocytes in their lymphoid tissues to intact thymectomized fetal lambs. Lymphocytes obtained from the thoracic duct lymph of lambs thymectomized 2 mo

  4. Prenatal Ultrasound Screening for External Ear Abnormality in the Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Ran, Suzhen; Yang, Zhengchun; Lin, Yun; Tang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the best time of examination and section chosen of routine prenatal ultrasound screening for external ear abnormalities and evaluate the feasibility of examining the fetal external ear with ultrasonography. Methods. From July 2010 until August 2011, 42118 pregnant women with single fetus during 16–40 weeks of pregnancy were enrolled in the study. Fetal auricles and external auditory canal in the second trimester of pregnancy were evaluated by routine color Doppler ultrasound screening and systematic screening. Ultrasound images of fetal external ears were obtained on transverse-incline view at cervical vertebra level and mandible level and on parasagittal view and coronal view at external ear level. Results. Five fetuses had anomalous ears including bilateral malformed auricles with malformed external auditory canal, unilateral deformed external ear, and unilateral microtia. The detection rate of both auricles was negatively correlated with gestational age. Of the 5843 fetuses undergoing a routine ultrasound screening, 5797 (99.21%) had bilateral auricles. Of the 4955 fetuses following systematic screening, all fetuses (100%) had bilateral auricles. The best time for fetal auricles observation with ultrasonography is 20–24 weeks of pregnancy. Conclusions. Detection of external ear abnormalities may assist in the diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. PMID:25050343

  5. The Potential of N-Rich Plasma-Polymerized Ethylene (PPE:N) Films for Regulating the Phenotype of the Nucleus Pulposus

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Fackson; Petit, Alain; Tian Wang, Hong; Epure, Laura M; Girard-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc; Ouellet, Jean A; Wertheimer, Michael R; Antoniou, John

    2008-01-01

    We recently developed a nitrogen-rich plasma-polymerized biomaterial, designated “PPE:N” (N-doped plasma-polymerized ethylene) that is capable of suppressing cellular hypertrophy while promoting type I collagen and aggrecan expression in mesenchymal stem cells from osteoarthritis patients. We then hypothesized that these surfaces would form an ideal substrate on which the nucleus pulposus (NP) phenotype would be maintained. Recent evidence using microarrays showed that in young rats, the relative mRNA levels of glypican-3 (GPC3) and pleiotrophin binding factor (PTN) were significantly higher in nucleus pulposus (NP) compared to annulus fibrosus (AF) and articular cartilage. Furthermore, vimentin (VIM) mRNA levels were higher in NP versus articular cartilage. In contrast, the levels of expression of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and matrix gla protein precursor (MGP) were lower in NP compared to articular cartilage. The objective of this study was to compare the expression profiles of these genes in NP cells from fetal bovine lumbar discs when cultured on either commercial polystyrene (PS) tissue culture dishes or on PPE:N with time. We found that the expression of these genes varies with the concentration of N ([N]). More specifically, the expression of several genes of NP was sensitive to [N], with a decrease of GPC3, VIM, PTN, and MGP in function of decreasing [N]. The expression of aggrecan, collagen type I, and collagen type II was also studied: no significant differences were observed in the cells on different surfaces with different culture time. The results support the concept that PPE:N may be a suitable scaffold for the culture of NP cells. Further studies are however necessary to better understand their effects on cellular phenotypes. PMID:19478889

  6. Consequences associated with nonnarcotic analgesics in the fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Peterson, R G

    1985-04-01

    Nonnarcotic analgesics include well-known, widely used substances such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and acetaminophen. ASA is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, and this mechanism is responsible for many potential toxicities in the fetus and newborn. These may include bleeding, altered renal function, and constriction of the ductus arteriosus in addition to analgesia. As such, ASA is frequently avoided during gestation and the immediate neonatal period. Acetaminophen is less well recognized as an agent with activity outside the central nervous system. It does not possess antiinflammatory activity like other substances that inhibit prostaglandins but has been shown to be an analgesic with potency comparable to ASA. This is believed to be by inhibition of brain prostaglandin synthetase. We have determined by using the chronically catheterized sheep fetus that acetaminophen has potent activity on the ductus arteriosus and produces a constriction, in therapeutic analgesic quantities, comparable to ASA. Thus, acetaminophen may be a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin function in the fetus.

  7. Chromosome abnormality incidence in fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly.

    PubMed

    Gezer, C; Ekin, A; Ozeren, M; Taner, C E; Ozer, O; Koc, A; Bilgin, M; Gezer, N S

    2014-07-01

    Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a marker of aneuploidy and warrants a detailed examination of fetal anatomy. Chromosomal abnormalities worsen the fetal and neonatal prognosis significantly and karyotyping of fetuses is critically important when accompanying anomalies are detected. Here, we report the genetic results of 140 fetuses with isolated and non-isolated VM detected during a second trimester ultrasound examination followed by invasive in utero diagnostic procedures for karyotyping. VM was diagnosed in seven (5%) fetuses with abnormal karyotype and the chromosomal abnormality incidence was higher in severe VM (6.8%) than mild (4.2%). Higher chromosomal abnormality rates were detected when VM was isolated (8.6%), rather than associated with any anomaly (3.8%). These results suggest that karyotype analysis should be offered to all patients with any degree of VM, regardless of its association with structural anomalies.

  8. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. ); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. ); Nicolaides, K. )

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Investigation of Histone Lysine-Specific Demethylase 5D (KDM5D) Isoform Expression in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines: a System Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jangravi, Zohreh; Najafi, Mohammad; Shabani, Mohammd

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is now well-demonstrated that histone demethylases play an important role in developmental controls, cell-fate decisions, and a variety of diseases such as cancer. Lysine-specific demethylase 5D (KDM5D) is a male-specific histone demethylase that specifically demethylates di- and tri-methyl H3K4 at the start site of active gene. In this light, the aim of this study was to investigate isoform/transcript-specific expression profiles of KDM5D in three prostate cancer cell lines, Du-145, LNCaP, and PC3. Methods: Real-time PCR analysis was performed to determine the expression levels of different KDM5D transcripts in the prostate cell lines. A gene regulatory network was established to analyze the gene expression profile. Results: Significantly different expression levels of both isoforms were found among the three cell lines. Interestingly, isoform I was expressed in three cell lines while isoform III did only in DU-145. The expression levels of both isoforms were higher in DU-145 when compared to other cell lines (P<0.0001). The observed expression profile was determined by using regulatory network analyses. Conclusion: The present study, for the first time, not only showed the expression profiles of KDM5D isoforms in prostate cancer cell lines but also evaluated the effects of the gene regulatory network on the expression profile of this gene. PMID:26728332

  10. 3D imaging of fetus vertebra by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrin, Francoise; Pateyron-Salome, Murielle; Denis, Frederic; Braillon, Pierre; Laval-Jeantet, Anne-Marie; Cloetens, Peter

    1997-10-01

    A synchrotron radiation computed microtomography system allowing high resolution 3D imaging of bone samples has been developed at ESRF. The system uses a high resolution 2D detector based on a CCd camera coupled to a fluorescent screen through light optics. The spatial resolution of the device is particularly well adapted to the imaging of bone structure. In view of studying growth, vertebra samples of fetus with differential gestational ages were imaged. The first results show that fetus vertebra is quite different from adult bone both in terms of density and organization.

  11. Concurrent conjunctivitis and placentitis in aborted bovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Murray, R D

    1991-11-01

    Consistent histopathological lesions were found in 10 out of 136 aborted fetuses examined during a three year period, using a multi-disciplinary diagnostic investigation technique. Fetuses exhibited a generalized mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration, accompanied by distinctive lesions of conjunctival hyperplasia and goblet cell formation, alveolitis, and necrotic placentitis. In two cases where amnion was also examined, a chronic amnionitis was present. No consistent laboratory findings could be related to these cases. The fetal and placental lesions described were similar to those associated with experimental inoculation of Ureaplasma diversum in pregnant cows, and with field isolations of the same organism in aborting cattle.

  12. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  13. Biologically Active Chorionic Gonadotropin: Synthesis by the Human Fetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, W. G.; Kuhn, R. W.; Jaffe, R. B.

    1983-04-01

    The kidney, and to a slight extent the liver, of human fetuses were found to synthesize and secrete the α subunit common to glycoprotein hormones. Fetal lung and muscle did not synthesize this protein. Since fetal kidney and liver were previously found to synthesize β chorionic gonadotropin, their ability to synthesize bioactive chorionic gonadotropin was also determined. The newly synthesized hormone bound to mouse Leydig cells and elicited a biological response: namely, the synthesis of testosterone. These results suggest that the human fetus may participate in metabolic homeostasis during its development.

  14. Whole genome sequence analysis indicates recent diversification of mammal-associated Campylobacter fetus and implicates a genetic factor associated with H2S production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter fetus can cause disease in both humans and animals. C. fetus has been divided into three subspecies: C. fetus subsp. fetus (Cff), C. fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) and C. fetus subsp. testudinum. Subspecies identification of C. fetus strains is crucial in the control of Bovine Genital C...

  15. Antenatal genotyping of the blood groups of the fetus.

    PubMed

    Avent, N D

    1998-01-01

    Antenatal genotyping of the fetus is now in widespread use as an aid to the clinical management in cases where there is the potential of haemolytic disease of the newborn occurring. The rapid diagnosis of an antigen-negative fetus will preclude the requirement for further, potentially risky invasive procedures being performed, whilst the determination of an antigen-positive fetus allows the potential of intensifying obstetric care for this pregnancy. Molecular genotyping is a major clinical application which has led from the determination of the molecular bases of blood group antigens expressed, most of which have been defined at the level of the gene. All assays used are dependent on the Polymerase Chain Reaction amplification of fetal DNA derived from either amniotic fluid or chorionic villi. Recent work has explored the potential of utilising fetal cells found to be present in maternal peripheral blood as a source of nucleic acid for prenatal diagnosis. Using non-invasive methods will preclude exposing mother and fetus to the potential hazards of invasive methods (amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling and cordocentesis) which include miscarriage, fetal malformations and further maternal alloimmunisation.

  16. Effect of maternal ketoacidosis on the ovine fetus

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Kuthiala, Shikha; Liu, Hai L.; Durosier, Daniel L.; Cao, Mingju; Burns, Patrick; Desrochers, André; Fecteau, Gilles; Frasch, Martin G.

    2015-01-01

    Ketoacidosis during pregnancy carries significant risk of intrauterine fetal demise, but little is known about the impact of ketoacids on the ovine fetus. We report a case series of maternal ketoacidosis in ewes. Maternal ketoacidosis may result in biochemical and acid-base fetal abnormalities associated with changes in feto-placental unit perfusion. PMID:26246634

  17. Prenatal Development of Interlimb Motor Learning in the Rat Fetus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Scott R.; Kleven, Gale A.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of sensory feedback in the early ontogeny of motor coordination remains a topic of speculation and debate. On E20 of gestation (the 20th day after conception, 2 days before birth), rat fetuses can alter interlimb coordination after a period of training with an interlimb yoke, which constrains limb movement and promotes synchronized,…

  18. Near-Term Fetuses Process Temporal Features of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granier-Deferre, Carolyn; Ribeiro, Aurelie; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Bassereau, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    The perception of speech and music requires processing of variations in spectra and amplitude over different time intervals. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, but whether they can process complex auditory streams, such as speech sequences and more specifically their temporal variations, fast or…

  19. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110 Section 866.3110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110...

  4. [Tritrichomonas fetus: a new intestinal parasite in Swiss cats].

    PubMed

    Burgener, I; Frey, C; Kook, P; Gottstein, B

    2009-08-01

    Recent reports identified Tritrichomonas fetus, the causative agent of bovine trichomonosis, in cats with large-bowel diarrhea in the US. Between July 2007 and August 2008, a total of 105 Swiss cats were tested for T. fetus with the InPouchTM culture system and/or PCR, whereof 27 (26%) yielded positive results. All positive cats were pedigree cats, whereof 22 (81%) were less than 1 year of age (median 5 months). 25 (93%) of these cats lived in multi-cat households, and all but one were kept indoor. The clinical picture was dominated by large bowel diarrhea with increased frequency of defecation and fresh blood and mucus. Furthermore, inflamed anus and fecal incontinence was common. 52% of the T. fetus-positive cats were tested positive for Giardia before, but the treatment with fenbendazole or metronidazole only temporarily alleviated the clinical signs. The treatment with 30 mg/kg of ronidazole q12h p.o. was successful in all but 1 cat with only minor transient adverse effects in 3 cats. In conclusion, T. fetus has to be considered an important causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in cats in Switzerland, especially in young indoor pedigree cats. PMID:19653162

  5. Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K. ); Fitch, N.; Paradice, B.

    1990-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include a general review of normal embryonic and fetal development; abortion and the basic approach to the examination of aborted embryos and fetuses; and pathologic findings detected on examination of products of conception. The authors illustrate specific morphologic lesions and the variable expression of genetic syndromes in the embryonic and fetal periods.

  6. Evidence for 5d-σ and 5d-π covalency in lanthanide sesquioxides from oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Altman, Alison B; Pacold, Joseph I; Wang, Jian; Lukens, Wayne W; Minasian, Stefan G

    2016-06-14

    The electronic structure in the complete series of stable lanthanide sesquioxides, Ln2O3 (Ln = La to Lu, except radioactive Pm), has been evaluated using oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). The experimental results agree with recent synthetic, spectroscopic and theoretical investigations that provided evidence for 5d orbital involvement in lanthanide bonding, while confirming the traditional viewpoint that there is little Ln 4f and O 2p orbital mixing. However, the results also showed that changes in the energy and occupancy of the 4f orbitals can impact Ln 5d and O 2p mixing, leading to several different bonding modes for seemingly identical Ln2O3 structures. On moving from left to right in the periodic table, abrupt changes were observed for the energy and intensity of transitions associated with Ln 5d and O 2p antibonding states. These changes in peak intensity, which were directly related to the amounts of O 2p and Ln 5d mixing, were closely correlated to the well-established trends in the chemical accessibility of the 4f orbitals towards oxidation or reduction. The unique insight provided by the O K-edge XAS is discussed in the context of several recent theoretical and physical studies on trivalent lanthanide compounds.

  7. Evidence for 5d-σ and 5d-π covalency in lanthanide sesquioxides from oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Altman, Alison B; Pacold, Joseph I; Wang, Jian; Lukens, Wayne W; Minasian, Stefan G

    2016-06-14

    The electronic structure in the complete series of stable lanthanide sesquioxides, Ln2O3 (Ln = La to Lu, except radioactive Pm), has been evaluated using oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). The experimental results agree with recent synthetic, spectroscopic and theoretical investigations that provided evidence for 5d orbital involvement in lanthanide bonding, while confirming the traditional viewpoint that there is little Ln 4f and O 2p orbital mixing. However, the results also showed that changes in the energy and occupancy of the 4f orbitals can impact Ln 5d and O 2p mixing, leading to several different bonding modes for seemingly identical Ln2O3 structures. On moving from left to right in the periodic table, abrupt changes were observed for the energy and intensity of transitions associated with Ln 5d and O 2p antibonding states. These changes in peak intensity, which were directly related to the amounts of O 2p and Ln 5d mixing, were closely correlated to the well-established trends in the chemical accessibility of the 4f orbitals towards oxidation or reduction. The unique insight provided by the O K-edge XAS is discussed in the context of several recent theoretical and physical studies on trivalent lanthanide compounds. PMID:26979662

  8. Competitive PCR for Quantification of BM5d Proviral DNA in Mice with AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Casabianca, Anna; Vallanti, Giuliana; Magnani, Mauro

    1998-01-01

    Murine AIDS in C57BL/6 mice is caused by a unique mixture of murine leukemia viruses. We report the use of a competitive PCR to detect and quantitate BM5d proviral DNA. This assay allowed discrimination among endogenous wild-type murine retroviruses and BM5d sequences. Furthermore, the method was subsequently used to evaluate the amount of BM5d in infected mice and in infected AZT (zidovudine)-treated mice, providing an effective way to quantitatively evaluate drug efficacy in the murine AIDS model. PMID:9666028

  9. Unc5D regulates p53-dependent apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Wu, Qiong; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Bin; Chi, Zuofei; Hao, Liangchun

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of apoptosis via the p53‑dependent pathway remains to be fully understood. In the present study, a novel p53 target gene, Unc5D, was identified and its possible function in human neuroblastoma cells was investigated. The apoptotic effects of Unc5D in SK‑N‑BE (p53‑/‑) and SH‑SY5Y (p53+/+) cells were measured by an 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide solution assay. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR) was also performed to detect the endogenous expression of Unc5D. In H1299 (p53‑/‑) cells, following overexpression of p53, RT‑PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the Unc5D mRNA and protein levels. In order to detect the promoter activity in the Unc5D gene, a luciferase assay was performed. Finally, to confirm the activate site of p53 subsequent to DNA damage, western blot analysis was used to analyze the phosphorylation site of Unc5D stable and mock clones in H1299 cells by co‑expression of p53. Unc5D‑induced apoptosis may be largely dependent on the p53 status. Notably, Unc5D was found to be a direct transcriptional target of p53. During adriamycin‑mediated apoptosis, Unc5D was significantly induced in p53‑proficient SH‑SY5Y cells but not in p53‑deficient SK‑N‑BE cells. Overexpression of p53 resulted in an increase in the expression levels of endogenous Unc5D. Additionally, two elements were identified in the sequence of Unc5D. Notably, Unc5D expression also induced phosphorylation of p53 at serine‑15. Unc5D is thus a newly identified transcriptional target of pro‑apoptotic p53 and may also act upstream of p53 to induce p53‑dependent apoptosis by phosphorylation at ser‑15.

  10. 10 CFR 835.206 - Limits for the embryo/fetus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limits for the embryo/fetus. 835.206 Section 835.206... Exposure § 835.206 Limits for the embryo/fetus. (a) The equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the... provided in § 835.206(a) shall be avoided. (c) If the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined...

  11. 10 CFR 835.206 - Limits for the embryo/fetus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limits for the embryo/fetus. 835.206 Section 835.206... Exposure § 835.206 Limits for the embryo/fetus. (a) The equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the... provided in § 835.206(a) shall be avoided. (c) If the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined...

  12. 10 CFR 835.206 - Limits for the embryo/fetus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits for the embryo/fetus. 835.206 Section 835.206... Exposure § 835.206 Limits for the embryo/fetus. (a) The equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the... provided in § 835.206(a) shall be avoided. (c) If the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined...

  13. 10 CFR 835.206 - Limits for the embryo/fetus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limits for the embryo/fetus. 835.206 Section 835.206... Exposure § 835.206 Limits for the embryo/fetus. (a) The equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the... provided in § 835.206(a) shall be avoided. (c) If the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined...

  14. 10 CFR 835.206 - Limits for the embryo/fetus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Limits for the embryo/fetus. 835.206 Section 835.206... Exposure § 835.206 Limits for the embryo/fetus. (a) The equivalent dose limit for the embryo/fetus from the... provided in § 835.206(a) shall be avoided. (c) If the equivalent dose to the embryo/fetus is determined...

  15. 10 CFR 20.1208 - Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. 20.1208 Section 20... Limits § 20.1208 Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. (a) The licensee shall ensure that the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a...

  16. 10 CFR 20.1208 - Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. 20.1208 Section 20... Limits § 20.1208 Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. (a) The licensee shall ensure that the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a...

  17. 10 CFR 20.1208 - Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. 20.1208 Section 20... Limits § 20.1208 Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. (a) The licensee shall ensure that the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a...

  18. 10 CFR 20.1208 - Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. 20.1208 Section 20... Limits § 20.1208 Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. (a) The licensee shall ensure that the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a...

  19. 10 CFR 20.1208 - Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. 20.1208 Section 20... Limits § 20.1208 Dose equivalent to an embryo/fetus. (a) The licensee shall ensure that the dose equivalent to the embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, due to the occupational exposure of a...

  20. Towards a New Study on Associative Learning in Human Fetuses: Fetal Associative Learning in Primates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed that fetuses can learn from events in their environment. The most convincing evidence for fetal learning is habituation to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in human fetuses and classical conditioning in rat fetuses. However, these two research areas have been independent of each other. There have been few attempts at classical…

  1. Validation of a 2.5D CFD model for cylindrical gas–solids fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen

    2015-09-25

    The 2.5D model recently proposed by Li et al. (Li, T., Benyahia, S., Dietiker, J., Musser, J., and Sun, X., 2015. A 2.5D computational method to simulate cylindrical fluidized beds. Chemical Engineering Science. 123, 236-246.) was validated for two cylindrical gas-solids bubbling fluidized bed systems. Different types of particles tested under various flow conditions were simulated using the traditional 2D model and the 2.5D model. Detailed comparison against the experimental measurements on solid concentration and velocity were conducted. Comparing to the traditional Cartesian 2D flow simulation, the 2.5D model yielded better agreement with the experimental data especially for the solid velocity prediction in the column wall region.

  2. Validation of a 2.5D CFD model for cylindrical gas–solids fluidized beds

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Tingwen

    2015-09-25

    The 2.5D model recently proposed by Li et al. (Li, T., Benyahia, S., Dietiker, J., Musser, J., and Sun, X., 2015. A 2.5D computational method to simulate cylindrical fluidized beds. Chemical Engineering Science. 123, 236-246.) was validated for two cylindrical gas-solids bubbling fluidized bed systems. Different types of particles tested under various flow conditions were simulated using the traditional 2D model and the 2.5D model. Detailed comparison against the experimental measurements on solid concentration and velocity were conducted. Comparing to the traditional Cartesian 2D flow simulation, the 2.5D model yielded better agreement with the experimental data especially for the solidmore » velocity prediction in the column wall region.« less

  3. Health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) before and after orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Population data on mortality and life expectancy are generally available for most countries. However, no longitudinal data based on the health-related quality of life outcome from the EQ-5D instrument have been reported for orthopedic patients. We assessed the effect of orthopedic surgery as measured by EQ-5D. Methods We analyzed EQ-5D data from 2,444 patients who were operated at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery at Karolinska University Hospital, 2001–2005. We also made a comparison between results from this cohort and those from a Swedish EQ-5D population survey. Results The mean EQ-5D index score improved from 0.54 to 0.72. Hip and knee arthroplasty, operations related to previous surgery, trauma-related procedures, and rheumatoid arthritis surgeries had preoperative EQ-5D index scores of 0.48 to 0.52. All of these groups showed substantial improvement in scores (0.63 to 0.80). Patients with tumors or diseases of the elbow/hand showed higher preoperative scores (0.66 to 0.77), which were similar postoperatively. In most patients, the EQ-5D index score improved but did not reach the level reported for an age- and sex-matched population sample (mean difference = 0.11). Interpretation Our results can be used as part of the preoperative patient information to increase the level of patient awareness and cooperation, and to facilitate rehabilitation. In future it will be possible—but not easy—to use the EQ-5D instrument as a complementary consideration in clinical priority assessment. PMID:21189112

  4. Chinese Version of the EQ-5D Preference Weights: Applicability in a Chinese General Population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunmei; Gong, Yanhong; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Shengchao; Yin, Xiaoxv; Dong, Xiaoxin; Li, Wenzhen; Cao, Shiyi; Mkandawire, Naomie; Lu, Zuxun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the reliability, validity and sensitivity of Chinese version of the EQ-5D preference weights in Chinese general people, examine the differences between the China value set and the UK, Japan and Korea value sets, and provide methods for evaluating and comparing the EQ-5D value sets of different countries. Methods A random sample of 2984 community residents (15 years or older) were interviewed using a questionnaire including the EQ-5D scale. Level of agreement, convergent validity, known-groups validity and sensitivity of the EQ-5D China, United Kingdom (UK), Japan and Korea value sets were determined. Results The mean EQ-5D index scores were significantly (P<0.05) different among the UK (0.964), Japan (0.981), Korea (0.987), and China (0.985) weights. High level of agreement (intraclass correlations coefficients > 0.75) and convergent validity (Pearson’s correlation coefficients > 0.95) were found between each paired schemes. The EQ-5D index scores discriminated equally well for the four versions between levels of 10 known-groups (P< 0.05). The effect size and the relative efficiency statistics showed that the China weights had better sensitivity. Conclusions The China EQ-5D preference weights show equivalent psychometric properties with those from the UK, Japan and Korea weights while slightly more sensitive to known group differences than those from the Japan and Korea weights. Considering both psychometric and sociocultural issues, the China scheme should be a priority as an EQ-5D based measure of the health related quality of life in Chinese general population. PMID:27711169

  5. Diagnosis and management of heart failure in the fetus

    PubMed Central

    DAVEY, B.; SZWAST, A.; RYCHIK, J.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure can be defined as the inability of the heart to sufficiently support the circulation. In the fetus, heart failure can be caused by a myriad of factors that include fetal shunting abnormalities, genetic cardiomyopathies, extracardiac malformations, arrhythmias and structural congenital heart disease. With advances in ultrasound has come the ability to characterize many complex conditions, previously poorly understood. Fetal echocardiography provides the tools necessary to evaluate and understand the various physiologies that contribute to heart failure in the fetus. In this review, we will explore the different mechanisms of heart failure in this unique patient population and highlight the role of fetal echocardiography in the current management of these conditions PMID:22992530

  6. Isolation of Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni from zoo animals.

    PubMed

    Luechtefeld, N W; Cambre, R C; Wang, W L

    1981-12-01

    Over a 1-year period, 619 fecal specimens from animals at the Denver Zoo were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni. The organism was isolated from 35 animals, including 12 primates, 2 felids, a red panda, 13 hooved animals, 6 birds, and 1 reptile. Of 44 cultured fecal specimens from diarrheal animals, 31.8% were positive for Campylobacter, whereas only 5.6% of 575 specimens from animals without diarrhea were positive (P less than 0.001). Among 25 isolates tested, 12 serotypes were represented; several of these serotypes are commonly associated with Campylobacter enteritis in human beings. Campylobacter fetus subsp jejuni was isolated from 8% of 75 wild pigeons trapped on the zoo premises during winter months and from 26% of 75 trapped during March and April (P less than 0.01).

  7. Realistic fetus skin color processing for ultrasound volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Tae; Kim, Kyuhong; Park, Sung-Chan; Kang, Jooyoung; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes realistic fetus skin color processing using a 2D color map and a tone mapping function (TMF) for ultrasound volume rendering. The contributions of this paper are a 2D color map generated through a gamut model of skin color and a TMF that depends on the lighting position. First, the gamut model of fetus skin color is calculated by color distribution of baby images. The 2D color map is created using a gamut model for tone mapping of ray casting. For the translucent effect, a 2D color map in which lightness is inverted is generated. Second, to enhance the contrast of rendered images, the luminance, color, and tone curve TMF parameters are changed using 2D Gaussian function that depends on the lighting position. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better realistic skin color reproduction than the conventional method.

  8. Estimate of doses to the fetus during commercial flights.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Mares, Vladimir

    2008-10-01

    This study assesses the radiation exposure from cosmic rays to fetuses of pregnant aircrew and air travelers. Combining the particle fluence spectra of various cosmic radiations at aircraft altitudes with the fetal fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients calculated for different cosmic ray radiations, the doses to the fetal body were estimated for three prenatal ages. From the five major particle types present during commercial flights, neutrons contribute about 54% of the total fetal dose, followed by protons 22%, photons 11%, electrons 7%, and muons 6%. The results indicate that the dose to the fetus can exceed a recommended fetal dose limit of 1 mSv after 10 round trips on commercial flights between Toronto and Frankfurt. PMID:18784513

  9. Ultrasonic recognition of the small-for-gestational-age fetus.

    PubMed

    Brown, H L; Miller, J M; Gabert, H A; Kissling, G

    1987-04-01

    Sonar biparietal diameter, femur length, abdominal circumference, femur length/abdominal circumference ratio, ponderal index, and estimated fetal weight were obtained within ten days of delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (N = 102) and non-SGA (N = 204) newborns. The effectiveness of each ultrasound variable in the antenatal recognition of the SGA fetus was assessed. An abnormal abdominal circumference was the best predictor, confirming SGA in 98% of cases. Other variables (biparietal diameter, femur length, femur length/abdominal circumference ratio, ponderal index, or estimated fetal weight) were less accurate for predicting SGA. When we determined expected results based on a 10% prevalence of SGA, negative predictive value was greater than 92% for all variables studied; however, with the exception of estimated fetal weight and femur length, positive predictive values were disappointing, including abdominal circumference (21%). This report establishes the limits of ultrasound-derived growth variables in the antenatal identification of the SGA fetus.

  10. Site-specific strong ground motion prediction using 2.5-D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, J. P.

    2001-08-01

    An algorithm was developed using the 2.5-D elastodynamic wave equation, based on the displacement-stress relation. One of the most significant advantages of the 2.5-D simulation is that the 3-D radiation pattern can be generated using double-couple point shear-dislocation sources in the 2-D numerical grid. A parsimonious staggered grid scheme was adopted instead of the standard staggered grid scheme, since this is the only scheme suitable for computing the dislocation. This new 2.5-D numerical modelling avoids the extensive computational cost of 3-D modelling. The significance of this exercise is that it makes it possible to simulate the strong ground motion (SGM), taking into account the energy released, 3-D radiation pattern, path effects and local site conditions at any location around the epicentre. The slowness vector (py) was used in the supersonic region for each layer, so that all the components of the inertia coefficient are positive. The double-couple point shear-dislocation source was implemented in the numerical grid using the moment tensor components as the body-force couples. The moment per unit volume was used in both the 3-D and 2.5-D modelling. A good agreement in the 3-D and 2.5-D responses for different grid sizes was obtained when the moment per unit volume was further reduced by a factor equal to the finite-difference grid size in the case of the 2.5-D modelling. The components of the radiation pattern were computed in the xz-plane using 3-D and 2.5-D algorithms for various focal mechanisms, and the results were in good agreement. A comparative study of the amplitude behaviour of the 3-D and 2.5-D wavefronts in a layered medium reveals the spatial and temporal damped nature of the 2.5-D elastodynamic wave equation. 3-D and 2.5-D simulated responses at a site using a different strike direction reveal that strong ground motion (SGM) can be predicted just by rotating the strike of the fault counter-clockwise by the same amount as the azimuth of

  11. Steroid profiling in pregnancy: a focus on the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Hill, Martin; Pašková, Andrea; Kančeva, Radmila; Velíková, Marta; Kubátová, Jana; Kancheva, Lyudmila; Adamcová, Karolína; Mikešová, Michaela; Žižka, Zdeněk; Koucký, Michal; Šarapatková, Hana; Kačer, Viktor; Matucha, Petr; Meloun, Milan; Pařízek, Antonín

    2014-01-01

    In this review we focused on steroid metabolomics in human fetuses and newborns and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of human pregnancy and subsequent stages of human life, and on the physiological relevance of steroids influencing the nervous systems with regards to their concentrations in the fetus. Steroid profiling provides valuable data for the diagnostics of diseases related to altered steroidogenesis in the fetal and maternal compartments and placenta. We outlined a potential use of steroid metabolomics for the prediction of reproductive disorders, misbalance of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and impaired insulin sensitivity in subsequent stages of human life. A possible role of steroids exhibiting a non-genomic effect in the development of gestational diabetes and in the neuroprotection via negative modulation of AMPA/kainate receptors was also indicated. Increasing progesterone synthesis and catabolism, declining production of tocolytic 5β-pregnane steroids, and rising activities of steroid sulfotransferases with the approaching term may be of importance in sustaining pregnancy. An increasing trend was demonstrated with advancing gestation toward the production of ketones (and 3β-hydroxyl groups in the case of 3α-hydroxy-steroids) was demonstrated in the fetus on the expense of 3α-hydroxy-, 17β-hydroxy-, and 20α-hydroxy-groups weakening in the sequence C17, C3, and C20. There was higher production of active progestogen but lower production of active estrogen and GABAergic steroids with the approaching term. Rising activities of placental CYP19A1 and oxidative isoforms of HSD17B, and of fetal CYP3A7 with advancing gestation may protect the fetus from hyperestrogenization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Pregnancy and Steroids'.

  12. Hobi-Like Pestivirus in Aborted Bovine Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-01-01

    An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivirus control/eradication programs in cattle herds. PMID:22162547

  13. Disgust in pregnancy and fetus sex--longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Żelaźniewicz, Agnieszka; Pawłowski, Bogusław

    2015-02-01

    Disgust, an emotion triggering behavioral avoidance of pathogens, serves as a first line of defense against infections. Since behavior related to disgust involves some cost, the aversive reaction should be adjusted to the level of an individual's immunocompetence, and raise only when immunological function is lower (e.g. during pregnancy). We studied changes in disgust sensitivity in pregnant women, and tested if disgust sensitivity is related to a fetus's sex. 92 women participated in a three-stage research, answering the Disgust Scale-Revised questionnaire at each trimester of pregnancy. The result showed that total disgust and disgust sensitivity in the Core Domain were the highest in the first trimester (when maternal immunosuppression is also the highest), and decreased during pregnancy in women bearing daughters. Women bearing sons had relatively high disgust sensitivity persisting in the first and in the second trimester. The elevation in disgust sensitivity during the second trimester for mothers bearing male fetus can be explained by the necessity to protect for a longer time, a more ecologically sensitive fetus, and also herself when bearing a more energetically costly sex. The proximate mechanism may involve the differences in maternal testosterone and cortisol concentrations in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  14. Morphological structure and variations of lumbar plexus in human fetuses.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Soner; Kaya, Serdar; Temiz, Cağlar; Tehli, Ozkan; Kural, Cahit; Izci, Yusuf

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to study the anatomy of lumbar plexus on human fetuses and to establish its morphometric characteristics and differences compared with adults. Twenty lumbar plexus of 10 human fetal cadavers in different gestational ages and genders were dissected. Lumbar spinal nerves, ganglions, and peripheral nerves were exposed. Normal anatomical structure and variations of lumbar plexus were investigated and morphometric analyses were performed. The diameters of lumbar spinal nerves increased from L1 to L4. The thickest nerve forming the plexus was femoral nerve, the thinnest was ilioinguinal nerve, the longest nerve through posterior abdominal wall was iliohypogastric nerve, and the shortest nerve was femoral nerve. Each plexus had a single furcal nerve and this arose from L4 nerve in all fetuses. No prefix or postfix plexus variation was observed. In two plexuses, L1 nerve was in the form of a single branch. Also, in two plexuses, genitofemoral nerve arose only from L2 nerve. Accessory obturator nerve was observed in four plexuses. According to these findings, the morphological pattern of the lumbar plexus in the fetus was found to be very similar to the lumbar plexus in adults. PMID:22696243

  15. Fetus-in-fetu: imaging and pathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junjie; VongPhet, Soulithon; Zhang, Zhichong; Mo, Jiacong

    2012-02-01

    A 3.5-month-old boy was hospitalized because of an abdominal mass found accidentally. On physical examination, a smooth, firm, nontender mass was present in the right upper quadrant. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a large, hyperechoic, heterogenous mass with clear boundaries, and scarce blood flow. Abdominal CT scan showed a bulky right retroperitoneal mass. Three-dimensional CT imaging demonstrated spine, iliac bone, and long bones of limbs. The mass was excised successfully. After opening the sac it was noted to contain an incompletely developed fetus with grossly visible limbs, clearly discernible male genitalia, hairs, and a poorly formed head. The fetus was connected to the sac via an 8 cm cord-like structure. Microscopic examination of the mass revealed the presence of skin, cartilage, bone, intestine, and cysts with simple cuboidal epithelium. The use of CT scans enhanced the accuracy of pre-operative diagnosis. Identification of the vertebral column and the long bones of limbs are important indications for the diagnosis. Pathologically, fetus in fetu has many characteristics different from teratoma.

  16. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium 1.5D modeling of red giant stars

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Mitchell E.; Short, C. Ian

    2014-05-20

    Spectra for two-dimensional (2D) stars in the 1.5D approximation are created from synthetic spectra of one-dimensional (1D) non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) spherical model atmospheres produced by the PHOENIX code. The 1.5D stars have the spatially averaged Rayleigh-Jeans flux of a K3-4 III star while varying the temperature difference between the two 1D component models (ΔT {sub 1.5D}) and the relative surface area covered. Synthetic observable quantities from the 1.5D stars are fitted with quantities from NLTE and local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) 1D models to assess the errors in inferred T {sub eff} values from assuming horizontal homogeneity and LTE. Five different quantities are fit to determine the T {sub eff} of the 1.5D stars: UBVRI photometric colors, absolute surface flux spectral energy distributions (SEDs), relative SEDs, continuum normalized spectra, and TiO band profiles. In all cases except the TiO band profiles, the inferred T {sub eff} value increases with increasing ΔT {sub 1.5D}. In all cases, the inferred T {sub eff} value from fitting 1D LTE quantities is higher than from fitting 1D NLTE quantities and is approximately constant as a function of ΔT {sub 1.5D} within each case. The difference between LTE and NLTE for the TiO bands is caused indirectly by the NLTE temperature structure of the upper atmosphere, as the bands are computed in LTE. We conclude that the difference between T {sub eff} values derived from NLTE and LTE modeling is relatively insensitive to the degree of the horizontal inhomogeneity of the star being modeled and largely depends on the observable quantity being fit.

  17. [The metabolism and conjugation of estrogens in the human fetus].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, K

    1984-09-20

    Although several studies have been reported on the synthesis of steroids in the fetus, the metabolism and conjugation of estrogens in the fetus is not completely known. In this study serum levels of estetrol (E4), estetrol glucosiduronate (E4-G), estriol (E3) and estriol-16-glucosiduronate (E3-16-G) were measured by R.I.A. in maternal peripheral vein blood (MPV), umbilical artery blood (UA) and umbilical vein blood (UV) at delivery. The same steroids were also measured in various fetal organs (liver, kidney, intestine, adrenal, lung and placenta) in the second-trimester. After 4-14C-E2, 4-14C-E3 and 6, 9 (n)-3H-E4 were incubated with homogenates of various human fetal organs, the metabolites were analyzed with an authentic sample. 15, 15-D2-estradiol-17 beta (d2-E2) was incubated with human second-trimester fetal liver and the metabolites were analyzed with GC-MS. It was concluded that: 1) E3-16-G was higher in UA and UV than in MPV, suggesting active glucosiduronation in the fetus. 2) Higher levels of E4 and E4-G in UA and UV than in MPV suggest the production of E3 and E3-16-G in the fetus. 3) Levels of E4 and E4-G were higher than those of E3 and E3-16-G in various fetal organs in the second-trimester. 4) E4 and E4-G were especially high in fetal liver and intestine, and E3 and E3-16-G were high in fetal kidney, liver and intestine. 5) The level of E3-16-G was higher than that of E3 in these organs. 6) The second-trimester fetal liver conjugated E2, E3 and E4 to each glucosiduronate. 7) The second-trimester fetal kidney conjugated E2 and E4 to each sulfate, but E3 to E3-16-G. 8) 15-Hydroxylation of d2-E2 was demonstrated in the incubation with homogenate of second human fetal liver. 9) The active glucosiduronation of E3 in the fetus was thought to inactivate a large amount of E3 transported from the placenta. PMID:6519315

  18. 5d Higgs branch localization, Seiberg-Witten equations and contact geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yiwen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply the idea of Higgs branch localization to 5d supersymmetric theories of vector multiplet and hypermultiplets, obtained as the rigid limit of = 1 supergravity with all auxiliary fields. On supersymmetric K-contact/Sasakian background, the Higgs branch BPS equations can be interpreted as 5d generalizations of the Seiberg-Witten equations. We discuss the properties and local behavior of the solutions near closed Reeb orbits. For U(1) gauge theories, which can be straight-forwardly generalized to theories whose gauge group can be completely broken, we show the suppression of the deformed Coulomb branch, and the partition function is dominated by 5d Seiberg-Witten solutions. For squashed S 5 and Y pq manifolds, we show the matching between poles in the perturbative Coulomb branch matrix model, and the bound on local winding numbers of the BPS solutions.

  19. Comparison between 2.5D and 3D simulations of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, C.; van der Holst, B.; Poedts, S.

    2007-07-01

    Context: The shocks and magnetic clouds related to Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in the solar corona and interplanetary space (IP) play an important role in the study of space weather. In order to study the evolution of these IP shocks, numerical simulations of a simplified CME model were performed. Aims: In an earlier study, the effect of the background wind on the evolution of interplanetary shock waves was investigated, where the computations were carried out under the assumption of axial symmetry. The assumption of axial symmetry might be a good approach for the solar corona under conditions of solar minimum, but for the study of CMEs this assumption is definitely no longer valid as CMEs possess clearly a fully three dimensional (3D) structure. From this perspective, the previous simulations were repeated, but now in a three dimensional set-up in order to point out the differences between the 2.5D and 3D simulations and to check the quality and reliability of the 2.5D simulations. Methods: The computations were performed in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and to advance the ideal MHD equations in time a parallel finite volume code with explicit upwind solver was used. The shock waves are generated in a similar way in both the 3D and 2.5D simulations, namely by a simple density-blob model. The 3D and 2.5D simulations are all performed with the same numerical methods and on comparable grids, such that the differences between the simulations are purely due to the dimensionality of the problem, and/or the initial parameters for the CME generation. Results: Three different axisymmetric simulations of CME propagation are compared with the fully three dimensional computation. The 2.5D simulations differ from each other in the parameters used for CME initiation. In a first simulation, the same initial parameters as for the 3D case were taken, in a second simulation the initial amount of mass in the 2.5D and 3D CME was the same, and in a third

  20. Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Collette; Tu, Zheng Chao; Patrick, Mary; Stiles, Tracy; Lawson, Andy J; Santovenia, Monica; Gilbert, Maarten J; van Bergen, Marcel; Joyce, Kevin; Pruckler, Janet; Stroika, Steven; Duim, Birgitta; Miller, William G; Loparev, Vladimir; Sinnige, Jan C; Fields, Patricia I; Tauxe, Robert V; Blaser, Martin J; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2014-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like strains from humans (n = 8) and reptiles (n = 5). The results of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS and genomic data from sap analysis, 16S rRNA gene and hsp60 sequence comparison, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and whole genome sequencing demonstrated that these strains are closely related to C. fetus but clearly differentiated from recognized subspecies of C. fetus. Therefore, this unique cluster of 13 strains represents a novel subspecies within the species C. fetus, for which the name Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. is proposed, with strain 03-427(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2539(T) = LMG 27499(T)) as the type strain. Although this novel taxon could not be differentiated from C. fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis using conventional phenotypic tests, MALDI-TOF MS revealed the presence of multiple phenotypic biomarkers which distinguish Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov. from recognized subspecies of C. fetus.

  1. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on polydactyly of mouse fetuses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Juan; Liu, Jun-Ye; Wang, Ya-Feng; Lang, Hai-Yang; Miao, Xia; Zhang, Li-Yan; Zeng, Li-Hua; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2013-07-01

    There is an increasing public concern regarding potential health impacts from electromagnetic radiation exposure. Embryonic development is sensitive to the external environment, and limb development is vital for life quality. To determine the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on polydactyly of mouse fetuses, pregnant mice were sham-exposed or exposed to EMP (400 kV/m with 400 pulses) from Days 7 to 10 of pregnancy (Day 0 = day of detection of vaginal plug). As a positive control, mice were treated with 5-bromodeoxyuridine on Days 9 and 10. On Days 11 or 18, the fetuses were isolated. Compared with the sham-exposed group, the group exposed to EMP had increased rates of polydactyly fetuses (5.1% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.05) and abnormal gene expression (22.2% vs. 2.8%, P < 0.05). Ectopic expression of Fgf4 was detected in the apical ectodermal ridge, whereas overexpression and ectopic expression of Shh were detected in the zone of polarizing activity of limbs in the EMP-exposed group and in the positive control group. However, expression of Gli3 decreased in mesenchyme cells in those two groups. The percentages of programmed cell death of limbs in EMP-exposed and positive control group were decreased (3.57% and 2.94%, respectively, P < 0.05, compared with 7.76% in sham-exposed group). In conclusion, polydactyly induced by EMP was accompanied by abnormal expression of the above-mentioned genes and decreased percentage of programmed cell death during limb development.

  2. Vitamin D supply to the rat fetus and neonate.

    PubMed Central

    Clements, M R; Fraser, D R

    1988-01-01

    The prevention of neonatal rickets by oral supplementation with vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) has tended to obscure our ignorance of the natural mechanism by which young mammals receive an adequate supply of vitamin D. To investigate the possibility of specific intrauterine transfer and storage of vitamin D in fetal tissues, vitamin D-deficient female rats were given depot injections of 3H- or 14C-labeled vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) before mating and the 3H-labeled animals were killed at stages during the last third of gestation. Analysis of lipid extracts from whole fetuses revealed a linear increase in the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and D3 itself between days 14 and 19 of gestation. During this period the elimination half-time of 3H-labeled molecules in maternal plasma fell from 27.1 to 4.4 d, suggesting that a specific mechanism was transferring vitamin D molecules into the fetuses. The vitamin was stored predominantly as 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, with the highest concentrations in fetal muscle. Immediately after birth, pups from 3H- and 14C-labeled mothers were exchanged and later killed after 1-3 wk of suckling. Analysis of total lipid extracts for 3H and 14C content determined the relative contributions of vitamin D supplied before birth via the placenta and after birth in the maternal milk. The vitamin D content of the rat milk was relatively high, between 1.0 and 3.5 micrograms/liter. Nevertheless, the supply of vitamin D in utero, rather than from milk, was the main determinant of vitamin D status in early neonatal life. This is the first indication in a mammal of a specific transfer mechanism that allows the fetus to accumulate vitamin D from the mother during the last third of gestation. PMID:2838521

  3. Prenatal smokeless tobacco effects on the rat fetus.

    PubMed

    Paulson, R B; Shanfeld, J; Mullet, D; Cole, J; Paulson, J O

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of an aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (ST) on the development and bone ossification of the Sprague Dawley rat fetus at known nicotine blood levels. Dams were intubated with the ST extract three times daily on gestational days (GD) 6-18 with one of the following: ST equivalent to either 1.33 mg nicotine/kg body weight (STD-1), 6 mg nicotine/kg body weight (STD-2), or equal amounts of distilled water (sham-treated controls). Parallel groups of rats were used for nicotine-blood-level determinations. Dams were killed on GD 19, fetuses and placentas were weighed, and resorptions, deaths, and/or malformations were noted. Two thirds of the fetuses were further examined by Wilson's method, and the remaining one third was stained and cleared for skeletal examinations. Mean plasma nicotine levels, determined in a parallel group of nonpregnant/pregnant rats, were 220.4/283.3 ng/ml in the STD-1 group and 869.1/846.3 ng/ml in the STD-2 group. At these ST dosages, weight gain of dams was reduced in comparison with sham-treated controls (P < .05), but fetal weights were reduced in the STD-2 group only. Placental weights, litter size, resorptions, deaths, and malformations were not significantly affected. Skeletal examinations revealed several dose-related differences between the ST-treated and sham-treated control groups. In the STD-1 group, reductions in ossification were seen in the nasal and femur width measurements only. In the STD-2 group, reductions in ossification were seen in femur length and width, in the number of ossification centers in the forelimb, in the maxillary, mandibular, and nasal bone measurements. We conclude that under these experimental conditions the effects of ST at the low dose are minimal, whereas the high ST dose resulted in significant growth retardation and decreased ossification levels (P < .05).

  4. [A fetus is a person with a right to exist].

    PubMed

    Bischofberger, E

    1989-12-27

    This article is the contribution of a Jesuit priest, a teacher of medical ethics at Uppsala, to a debate inspired by a Swedish official report "The pregnant woman and fetus--2 individuals. On fetal diagnostics. On late abortions." In a society which depends upon a structured consensus as much as Sweden does, the report has been criticized for not making clearer recommendations. The author points out that the ethical dilemmas involved are so complex that they cannot be treated from a simple either/or point of view. Fetal diagnostics, for example, serve the cause of life when the aim is to avoid abortion of a healthy fetus and make it possible to cure, even at the fetal stage, or to strengthen prospective parents' readiness to accept a handicapped child. The use of fetal diagnostic for sorting out damaged and sick fetuses, however, is selective abortion and implies a violation of the principle that all human life is of equal value. The question is no longer if one will have a child or not, but which child will one have. This collision of values has inspired so many polemic statements that it is worthwhile recalling that there is always a tension between the ethically desirable and the politically possible, The report has succeeded in formulating the ethical principles in spite of the impossibility of seeing them presented as concrete recommendations. Even so, Thomas Aquinas wrote in 13th century that one cannot always apply ethical rules to laws of society. That can lead to more evil than good.

  5. Fetus-in-fetu: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Y; Mitomori, T; Matsuura, A; Tanimura, T

    1985-06-01

    A 5 month-old female was brought to our clinic because of diarrhea and abdominal distension. A plain radiograph demonstrated a mass with a vertebral column in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. At operation a mass was found to be retroperitoneal, well encapsulated, and connected to the abdominal aorta of the host by two small vessels; no other connections and adhesions were seen between the mass and the host. The ovaries, uterus, and other pelvic and abdominal viscera of the host were normal. The mass was diagnosed as a fetus-in-fetu. The fetus-in-fetu, encapsulated with an amniotic capsule, was covered with skin and had a top with long hair, two protuberances, an amniotic hernial sac, upper limbs with syndactylic fingers, a gluteal region, and lower limbs with polysyndactylic toes. A brain mass and a spinal cord were identified in the cranial cavity and the vertebral canal. Several spinal ganglia and a nerve plexus were found. A noselike structure, upper lip, maxillalike bone with teeth, tonguelike structure, intestines, ribs, bones of the extremities, and skeletal muscles were also identified. A cloacalike cyst was observed to have an opening in the external female genitalia. Microscopically, a small number of motor neurons were seen in the brain mass and the anterior horn of the spinal cord. In the spinal ganglia, ganglion cells were differentiated. The submucosal and myenteric plexuses were seen in the intestinal wall. Well-differentiated muscle fibers were often accompanied with myelinated nerve fibers. Hematopoiesis was observed in the cranial bone marrow. The presence of the sex chromatin was confirmed in the nuclei of motor neurons and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Thus, the present fetus-in-fetu, which was connected to the abdominal aorta of the host by two vessels, was a monozygotic twin which developed within its own amniotic cavity.

  6. Is a fetus a non-consenting patient?

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Gideon; Selby, Peter; Kapur, Bhushan

    2004-01-01

    QUESTION: In the 1960s, Dr Cameron, a Montreal, Que, psychiatrist, experimented with drug-induced sleep and electroconvulsive therapy for psychiatric patients, believing that this method "wipes them clean of harmful memories." In 1992 the government of Canada settled lawsuits by former patients of Dr Cameron, awarding them large payments. The government rejected a similar claim by Lloyd Schrier, whose mother had been treated by Dr Cameron while she was carrying Lloyd, arguing that Lloyd was not Cameron's patient. Or was he? ANSWER: The fetus was exposed to the medications taken by his mother, (eg, barbiturates) and thus qualifies as an unconsenting patient. PMID:15508369

  7. Giant spin-phonon coupling in a 5d NaOsO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Stuart; Lee, Jun Hee; Stone, Mathew; Lumsden, Mark; Lang, Jonathan; Feygenson, Mikhail; Shi, Youguo; Sun, Ying; Tsugimoto, Yoshihiro; Yamaura, Kazunari; Christianson, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The coupling of distinct properties offers avenues to multifunctional materials. A limiting factor, however, is the degree that one parameter has to be modified to sufficiently alter the coupled property. Through a neutron scattering and first-principles density functional theory study of the 5d perovskite NaOsO3 we reveal that from only a 0.1% lattice change an unprecedentedly large coupling emerges. The manifestation is a ``giant'' spin-phonon coupled mode shift of Δω =40 cm-1, the largest observed in any material. By identifying the dominant phonon as the octahedral breathing mode we show isosymmetric ordering and cooperation between the lattice and the exotic magnetically driven Slater metal-insulator transition in this material. The occurrence of the dramatic spin-phonon-electronic coupling in NaOsO3 is due to a property common to all 5d materials: the large spatial extent of the 5d ion. Consequently examining 5d materials in a new light offers novel routes for multifunctional devices with enhanced coupled phenomena. A portion of this research at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor and Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. Enhanced spin-phonon-electronic coupling in a 5d oxide

    DOE PAGES

    Calder, Stuart A.; Yamaura, K.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Sun, Y. S.; Stone, Matthew B.; Shi, Y. G.; Lang, Jonathan; Christianson, Andrew D.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lee, Jun Hee; et al

    2015-11-26

    Enhanced coupling of material properties offers new fundamental insights and routes to multifunctional devices. In this context 5d oxides provide new paradigms of cooperative interactions that drive novel emergent behaviour. This is exemplified in osmates that host metal insulator transitions where magnetic order appears intimately entwined. Here we consider such a material, the 5d perovskite NaOsO3, and observe a coupling between spin and phonon manifested in a frequency shift of 40 cm 1, the largest measured in any material. The anomalous modes are shown to involve solely Os O interactions and magnetism is revealed as the driving microscopic mechanism formore » the phonon renormalization. The magnitude of the coupling in NaOsO3 is primarily due to a property common to all 5d materials: the large spatial extent of the ion. This allows magnetism to couple to phonons on an unprecedented scale and in general offers multiple new routes to enhanced coupled phenomena in 5d materials.« less

  9. Enhanced spin-phonon-electronic coupling in a 5d oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, Stuart A.; Yamaura, K.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Sun, Y. S.; Stone, Matthew B.; Shi, Y. G.; Lang, Jonathan; Christianson, Andrew D.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lee, Jun Hee; Feygenson, Mikhail; Zhao, Zhiying; Yan, Jiaqiang

    2015-11-26

    Enhanced coupling of material properties offers new fundamental insights and routes to multifunctional devices. In this context 5d oxides provide new paradigms of cooperative interactions that drive novel emergent behaviour. This is exemplified in osmates that host metal insulator transitions where magnetic order appears intimately entwined. Here we consider such a material, the 5d perovskite NaOsO3, and observe a coupling between spin and phonon manifested in a frequency shift of 40 cm 1, the largest measured in any material. The anomalous modes are shown to involve solely Os O interactions and magnetism is revealed as the driving microscopic mechanism for the phonon renormalization. The magnitude of the coupling in NaOsO3 is primarily due to a property common to all 5d materials: the large spatial extent of the ion. This allows magnetism to couple to phonons on an unprecedented scale and in general offers multiple new routes to enhanced coupled phenomena in 5d materials.

  10. Simulation of Laser Wake Field Acceleration using a 2.5D PIC Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, W. M.; Hua, J. F.; Huang, W. H.; Tang, Ch. X.; Lin, Y. Z.

    2006-11-01

    A 2.5D PIC simulation code is developed to study the LWFA( Laser WakeField Acceleration ). The electron self-injection and the generation of mono-energetic electron beam in LWFA is briefly discussed through the simulation. And the experiment of this year at SILEX-I laser facility is also introduced.

  11. Enhanced spin-phonon-electronic coupling in a 5d oxide

    PubMed Central

    Calder, S.; Lee, J. H.; Stone, M. B.; Lumsden, M. D.; Lang, J. C.; Feygenson, M.; Zhao, Z.; Yan, J.-Q.; Shi, Y. G.; Sun, Y. S.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Yamaura, K.; Christianson, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced coupling of material properties offers new fundamental insights and routes to multifunctional devices. In this context 5d oxides provide new paradigms of cooperative interactions that drive novel emergent behaviour. This is exemplified in osmates that host metal–insulator transitions where magnetic order appears intimately entwined. Here we consider such a material, the 5d perovskite NaOsO3, and observe a coupling between spin and phonon manifested in a frequency shift of 40 cm−1, the largest measured in any material. The anomalous modes are shown to involve solely Os–O interactions and magnetism is revealed as the driving microscopic mechanism for the phonon renormalization. The magnitude of the coupling in NaOsO3 is primarily due to a property common to all 5d materials: the large spatial extent of the ion. This allows magnetism to couple to phonons on an unprecedented scale and in general offers multiple new routes to enhanced coupled phenomena in 5d materials. PMID:26608626

  12. Comparison of SF-6D and EQ-5D Scores in Patients With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Mahmood; Najafi, Safa; Ghaffari, Shahram; Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Utility values are a key component of a cost-utility analysis. The EQ-5D and SF-6D are two commonly used measures for deriving utilities. Of particular importance is assessing the performance of these instruments in terms of validity. Objectives This study aimed to compare the performance of the EQ-5D and the SF-6D in different states of breast cancer. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 163 patients with breast cancer who attended the breast cancer subspecialty clinic affiliated with the breast cancer research center (BCRC) at ACECR, in Tehran, Iran, and were consecutively recruited. Patients completed several questionnaires, including the EQ-5D, SF-36, and general questions regarding their demographic characteristics. Utility values for different states of breast cancer were obtained using predetermined algorithms for the EQ-5D and SF-6D. The distribution of the utility values and the differences between the different states for both instruments were statistically assessed. Furthermore, the agreement between the two instruments was evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Results The mean and median EQ-5D utility scores for the total sample were 0.685 and 0.761, respectively. The mean SF-6D utility score for the total sample was 0.653, and the median utility score was 0.640. The mean utility values of the EQ-5D for “state P,” “state R,” “state S,” and “state M” were estimated as 0.674, 0.718, 0.730, and 0.552, respectively. The SF-6D provided mean utility values of 0.638, 0.677, 0.681, and 0.587 for those states. Both instruments assigned statistically significant (P < 0.01) scores for different states. The intra-class correlation for the two measures was 0.677 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.558 - 0.764). The Bland-Altman plot indicated a better agreement on the higher values and that at higher values, the EQ-5D yields a higher score than the SF-6D; this relationship was

  13. On a boundary-localized Higgs boson in 5D theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barceló, Roberto; Mitra, Subhadip; Moreau, Grégory

    2015-11-01

    In the context of a simple five-dimensional (5D) model with bulk matter coupled to a brane-localized Higgs boson, we point out a non-commutativity in the 4D calculation of the mass spectrum for excited fermion towers: the obtained expression depends on the choice in ordering the limits, N → ∞ (infinite Kaluza-Klein tower) and ɛ → 0 (ɛ being the parameter introduced for regularizing the Higgs Dirac peak). This introduces the question of which one is the correct order; we then show that the two possible orders of regularization (called I and II) are experimentally equivalent, as both can typically reproduce the measured observables, but that the one with less degrees of freedom (I) could be uniquely excluded by future experimental constraints. This conclusion is based on the exact matching between the 4D and 5D analytical calculations of the mass spectrum - via regularizations of type I and II. Beyond a deeper insight into the Higgs peak regularizations, this matching brings another confirmation of the validity of the 5D mixed formalism. All the conclusions, deduced from regularizing the Higgs peak through a brane shift or a smoothed square profile, are expected to remain similar in realistic models with a warped extra-dimension. The complementary result of the study is that the non-commutativity disappears, both in the 4D and the 5D calculations, in the presence of higher order derivative operators. For clarity, the 4D and 5D analytical calculations, matching with each other, are presented in the first part of the paper, while the second part is devoted to the interpretation of the results.

  14. Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varsier, N.; Dahdouh, S.; Serrurier, A.; De la Plata, J.-P.; Anquez, J.; Angelini, E. D.; Bloch, I.; Wiart, J.

    2014-09-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the environmental whole-body and local exposure of a fetus in vertical position, head down or head up, in the 2100 MHz frequency band, we concluded that both whole-body and average brain exposures of the fetus decrease during the first pregnancy trimester, while they advance during the pregnancy due to the rapid weight gain of the fetus in these first stages. From the beginning of the second trimester, the whole-body and the average brain exposures are quite stable because the weight gains are quasi proportional to the absorbed power increases. The behavior of the fetus whole-body and local exposures during pregnancy for a fetus in the vertical position with the head up were found to be of a similar level, when compared to the position with the head down they were slightly higher, especially in the brain.

  15. In utero infection of swine fetuses with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (bovine herpesvirus-1).

    PubMed

    Joo, H S; Dee, S A; Molitor, T W; Thacker, B J

    1984-10-01

    The pathogenesis of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus (bovine herpesvirus-1) was studied in porcine fetuses after in utero inoculation. Laparotomies were performed on 8 seronegative pregnant sows at 34 to 86 days of gestation, and all fetuses in 1 uterine horn of each sow were exposed to IBR virus via inoculation into the amniotic sacs. Fetuses in the other horn served as controls. Clinical signs of infection were not observed in the sows, except for 2 sows that aborted at postinoculation days (PID) 11 and 15. Fetuses of the remaining 6 sows were collected at slaughter on PID 15 to 28. Fetuses were examined for gross abnormalities, presence of IBR virus in tissues, and the formation of neutralizing antibodies to IBR virus. Of 33 inoculated fetuses from 6 sows, 10 were mummified, 11 were hemorrhagic and/or edematous, and 12 were alive. Necrotic lesions were observed on the skin and in the liver of dead and live fetuses. Virus was recovered from 29 of 33 inoculated fetuses. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus was isolated from fetal skin, liver, lungs, kidney, spleen, stomach contents, brain, amniotic fluid, and placenta. Virus was isolated from 4 of 11 fetuses recovered from 1 aborting sow. Antibodies to IBR virus were not detected in sera from the sows. However, antibodies were detected in 6 of 15 fetuses inoculated at 63 to 86 days of gestation and collected at slaughter at 86 to 112 days of gestation. The youngest fetus with detectable IBR antibody was estimated to be 74 days of gestation by measuring crown-rump length of the fetus.

  16. Chlorella suppresses methylmercury transfer to the fetus in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Uchikawa, Takuya; Maruyama, Isao; Kumamoto, Shoichiro; Ando, Yotaro; Yasutake, Akira

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effects of chlorella on methylmercury (MeHg) transfer to the fetus during pregnancy, female C57BL/6N mice (aged 10 weeks) were housed for 7 to 8 weeks, from 4 weeks before mating to birth, with diets containing 0% or 10% chlorella powder (CP) and MeHg-containing drinking water (2 µg Hg/ml). The consumption volume of the MeHg-containing water was limited to 15 ml/mouse/week throughout the experiment. Distilled water and a basal diet (0% CP) was given to control mice. Except for the mating period, during the 5(th) week, mice were housed individually until parturition. Two neonates were randomly selected from each mother mouse within 24 hr after parturition for Hg analysis of the blood, brain, liver, and kidneys. Mother mice were sacrificed on the same day as neonates to obtain tissue samples for Hg analysis. The blood and brain Hg levels of both neonates and mothers in the CP diet group were significantly lower than those in the basal diet group. Although the hepatic and renal Hg levels were not significant in mothers between the two dietary groups, in neonates, the CP diet group showed significantly lower Hg levels in these tissues than the basal diet group. The results obtained here revealed that continuous CP intake suppressed MeHg transfer to the fetus, in addition to effective suppressing MeHg accumulation in brains of the mothers.

  17. Quantitative Anatomy of the Growing Lungs in the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Szpinda, Michał; Siedlaczek, Waldemar; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Badura, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Using anatomical, digital, and statistical methods we examined the three-dimensional growth of the lungs in 67 human fetuses aged 16–25 weeks. The lung dimensions revealed no sex differences. The transverse and sagittal diameters and the base circumference were greater in the right lungs while the lengths of anterior and posterior margins and the lung height were greater in the left lungs. The best-fit curves for all the lung parameters were natural logarithmic models. The transverse-to-sagittal diameter ratio remained stable and averaged 0.56 ± 0.08 and 0.52 ± 0.08 for the right and left lungs, respectively. For the right and left lungs, the transverse diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 0.74 ± 0.09 to 0.92 ± 0.08 and from 0.56 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.09, respectively. The sagittal diameter-to-height ratio significantly increased from 1.41 ± 0.23 to 1.66 ± 0.18 in the right lung, and from 1.27 ± 0.17 to 1.48 ± 0.22 in the left lung. In the fetal lungs, their proportionate increase in transverse and sagittal diameters considerably accelerates with relation to the lung height. The lung dimensions in the fetus are relevant in the evaluation of the normative pulmonary growth and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia. PMID:26413517

  18. WT1 Expression in the Human Fetus During Development

    PubMed Central

    Ambu, R.; Vinci, L.; Gerosa, C.; Fanni, D.; Obinu, E.; Faa, A.; Fanos, V.

    2015-01-01

    Wilms’ Tumor 1 (WT1) is a transcription factor involved in the development of the urogenital system. The purpose of this study was to analyze the immunoreactivity for WT1 protein in different tissues and organs in human fetuses in early phases of gestation. To this end, samples from multiple organs were obtained from 4 human fetuses, ranging from 7 up to 12 weeks of gestation. Each sample was formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded and immunostained for WT1. Our data show that WT1 is involved in development of multiple human organs in a more vast series of cells types than previously reported. Immunostaining for WT1 was characterized by a predominant cytoplasmic reactivity in the vast majority of cell types. Mesenchimal progenitors in the fetal lung, ductal plate progenitors in fetal liver, cap mesenchimal cells in the developing kidney, fetal zone cells in adrenal glands, atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes in the fetal heart, radial glial cells in the fetal cerebral cortex and skeletal muscle cell precursors showed the highest levels of WT1 immunoreactivity. Future studies will be needed to detect differences in the expression of WT1 in various organs at different gestational ages, in order to better evaluate the role of WT1 in cell proliferation and differentiation during intrauterine human development. PMID:26150159

  19. Marijuana impairs growth in mid-gestation fetuses.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Y L; Wang, X; Anderson, V; Beck, O; Minkoff, H; Dow-Edwards, D

    2005-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit drug by pregnant women, but information is limited about the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development. The present study evaluated the influence of early maternal marijuana use on fetal growth. Women electing voluntary saline-induced abortions were recruited at a mid-gestational stage of pregnancy (weeks 17-22), and detailed drug use and medical histories were obtained. Toxicological assays (maternal urine and fetal meconium) were used in conjunction with the maternal report to assign groups. Subjects with documented cocaine and opiate use were excluded. Main developmental outcome variables were fetal weight, foot length, body length, and head circumference; ponderal index was also examined. Analyses were adjusted for maternal alcohol and cigarette use. Marijuana (n=44)- and nonmarijuana (n=95)-exposed fetuses had similar rates of growth with increased age. However, there was a 0.08-cm (95% CI -0.15 to -0.01) and 14.53-g (95% CI -28.21 to 0.86) significant reduction of foot length and body weight, respectively, for marijuana-exposed fetuses. Moreover, fetal foot length development was negatively correlated with the amount and frequency of marijuana use reported by the mothers. These findings provide evidence of a negative impact of prenatal marijuana exposure on the mid-gestational fetal growth even when adjusting for maternal use of other substances well known to impair fetal development.

  20. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  1. Changes in body composition of pig fetuses during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Farries, E; Pfeffer, E

    1979-09-01

    40 fetuses taken from 10 litters on day 50, 60 fetuses taken from 15 litters on day 105 of the respective pregnancies and 6 newly born piglets taken from 3 litters were analyzed for dry matter, total N, amino acids, fat, energy and 5 major minerals. As compared to the amounts found at birth, on day 50 about 3 per cent of the Na and K and less than 2 per cent of the other components were found. On day 105th the corresponding percentages were 96 and 95 for Mg and K, 88 and 86 for fat and Na, between 71 and 74 for dry matter, N, energy and P, and 63 for Ca. During the course of pregnancy proportions of alanine tyrosine, phenylalanine and lysine decreased, whereas those of proline and glycine increased. From the information presented in tables 4 and 5 it may be concluded that most of the fetal gain or organic and inorganic matter takes place during the last part of pregnancy. Increased nutrient requirements of the dam should be of quantitative importance only during this relatively short period. Changes in concentrations of protein and mineral elements during the course of pregnancy are not proportional.

  2. On noninvasive assessment of acoustic fields acting on the fetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonets, V. A.; Kazakov, V. V.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to verify a noninvasive technique for assessing the characteristics of acoustic fields in the audible range arising in the uterus under the action of maternal voice, external sounds, and vibrations. This problem is very important in view of actively developed methods for delivery of external sounds to the uterus: music, maternal voice recordings, sounds from outside the mother's body, etc., that supposedly support development of the fetus at the prenatal stage psychologically and cognitively. However, the parameters of acoustic signals have been neither measured nor normalized, which may be dangerous for the fetus and hinder actual assessment of their impact on fetal development. The authors show that at frequencies below 1 kHz, acoustic pressure in the uterus may be measured noninvasively using a hydrophone placed in a soft capsule filled with liquid. It was found that the acoustic field at frequencies up to 1 kHz arising in the uterus under the action of an external sound field has amplitude-frequency parameters close to those of the external field; i.e., the external field penetrates the uterus with hardly any difficulty.

  3. Fluoroscopic study of the birth posture of the sheep fetus.

    PubMed

    Husa, L; Bieger, D; Fraser, A F

    1988-12-17

    Video-taped fluoroscopy was used in a research programme to review the characteristic attitudes of fetal limbs, head, neck and trunk, throughout the course of physiologically normal parturition in sheep. Nine fetuses from eight ewes were monitored during the whole process of natural birth by means of image-intensified X-ray fluoroscopy. All nine births were spontaneous and full term; with one exception they were unassisted. In all examinations the ewes were placed on their left sides on the X-ray table and lightly restrained with loose rope shackles. At parturition the ewes were fully conditioned to the examination procedure and had considerable limb mobility which allowed them to strain naturally during labour. No treatment was given to induce parturition or sedation. The consistency of observations was notable. A major finding was in the postural adaption of the forelimbs, taking the form of carpal extension with extreme flexion of the elbow and shoulder joints. This prepartum posture persisted throughout parturition in all monitored cases and is suggested as normal. The moulding effect of uterine contractions evidently acted on the hindquarters, contributing to their bunched (flexed) posture until mid-expulsion of the fetus. Full extension of all the hind limb joints occurred promptly when the fetal stifle region contacted the maternal pubis at terminal expulsion.

  4. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Maarten J.; Miller, William G.; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L.; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J.; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C. fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C. fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was performed. The genomes of C. fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C. fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C. fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C. fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C. fetus. Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C. fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C. fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  5. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies. PMID:27333878

  6. Comparative Genomics of Campylobacter fetus from Reptiles and Mammals Reveals Divergent Evolution in Host-Associated Lineages.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Zomer, Aldert L; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Fitzgerald, Collette; Forbes, Ken J; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Duim, Birgitta

    2016-07-02

    Campylobacter fetus currently comprises three recognized subspecies, which display distinct host association. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus and C fetus subsp. venerealis are both associated with endothermic mammals, primarily ruminants, whereas C fetus subsp. testudinum is primarily associated with ectothermic reptiles. Both C. fetus subsp. testudinum and C. fetus subsp. fetus have been associated with severe infections, often with a systemic component, in immunocompromised humans. To study the genetic factors associated with the distinct host dichotomy in C. fetus, whole-genome sequencing and comparison of mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was performed. The genomes of C fetus subsp. testudinum isolated from either reptiles or humans were compared with elucidate the genetic factors associated with pathogenicity in humans. Genomic comparisons showed conservation of gene content and organization among C fetus subspecies, but a clear distinction between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus was observed. Several genomic regions appeared to be subspecies specific, including a putative tricarballylate catabolism pathway, exclusively present in C fetus subsp. testudinum strains. Within C fetus subsp. testudinum, sapA, sapB, and sapAB type strains were observed. The recombinant locus iamABC (mlaFED) was exclusively associated with invasive C fetus subsp. testudinum strains isolated from humans. A phylogenetic reconstruction was consistent with divergent evolution in host-associated strains and the existence of a barrier to lateral gene transfer between mammal- and reptile-associated C fetus Overall, this study shows that reptile-associated C fetus subsp. testudinum is genetically divergent from mammal-associated C fetus subspecies.

  7. Campylobacter fetus bacteremia with purulent pleurisy in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Keiko; Miyashita, Tomoko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Shirano, Michinori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kameda, Kazuaki; Nishijima, Masayoshi; Imanishi, Masahiro; Yang, Xi; Kanegane, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old man presented with fever and pleural effusion predominantly containing lymphocytes. Cultures of the pleural effusion and blood revealed Campylobacter fetus, and laboratory studies showed a low serum level of immunoglobulin. The patient was diagnosed with C. fetus pleuritis, bacteremia and primary hypogammaglobulinemia, and subsequent treatment with meropenem and immunoglobulin improved his condition. Although the underlying cause of the primary hypogammaglobulinemia remains unclear, the patient's status improved under immunoglobulin replacement therapy. C. fetus pleuritis is a rare infectious disease usually observed in immunocompromised hosts. We herein describe the first report of C. fetus pleuritis in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.

  8. Residue determination of glufosinate in plant origin foods using modified Quick Polar Pesticides (QuPPe) method and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Han, Yongtao; Song, Le; Zhao, Pengyue; Li, Yanjie; Zou, Nan; Qin, Yuhong; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2016-04-15

    A sensitive and specific method for the determination of glufosinate in plant origin foods was developed. The method involves extraction using modified QuPPe method, clean-up by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) and detection with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was validated on twelve matrices spiked at 10 or 20, 100 and 500 μg/kg. The recovery ranged from 80% to 108% with intra-day RSDs (n=5) of 0.6-9.8% and inter-day RSDs (n=15) of 3.0-9.4%. Good linearities (R(2)⩾0.9991) were obtained for all matrices. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for the selected matrices ranged from 0.3 to 3.3 μg kg(-1) and from 1 to 10 μg kg(-1), respectively. The method was demonstrated to be reliable and sensitive for the routine monitoring of glufosinate in plant origin foods.

  9. Optimal design analysis for thermal performance of high power 2.5D package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyang, Liu; He, Ma; Daquan, Yu; Wenlu, Chen; Xiaolong, Wu

    2016-03-01

    Based on ANSYS and Icepak softwares, the numerical analysis method is used to build up the thermal analysis model of the 2.5D package, which contains a high power CPU chip. The focus of the research is on the determination of the contributing factors and their effects on the thermal resistance and heat distribution of the package. The parametric analysis illustrates that the substrate conductivity, TIM conductivity and fin height are more crucial for heat conduction in the package. Furthermore, these major parameters are compared and analyzed by orthogonal tests, and the optimal solution for 2.5D integration is proposed. The factors' influence patterns on thermal resistance, obtained in this article, could be utilized as a thermal design reference. Project supported by the National S & T Major Projects (No. 2011ZX02709-2) and the China National Science Foundation (No. 61176098).

  10. A 2.5D Computational Method to Simulate Cylindrical Fluidized Beds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane; Dietiker, Jeff; Musser, Jordan; Sun, Xin

    2015-02-17

    In this paper, the limitations of axisymmetric and Cartesian two-dimensional (2D) simulations of cylindrical gas-solid fluidized beds are discussed. A new method has been proposed to carry out pseudo-two-dimensional (2.5D) simulations of a cylindrical fluidized bed by appropriately combining computational domains of Cartesian 2D and axisymmetric simulations. The proposed method was implemented in the open-source code MFIX and applied to the simulation of a lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed with necessary sensitivity study. After a careful grid study to ensure the numerical results are grid independent, detailed comparisons of the flow hydrodynamics were presented against axisymmetric and Cartesian 2D simulations. Furthermore, the 2.5D simulation results have been compared to the three-dimensional (3D) simulation for evaluation. This new approach yields better agreement with the 3D simulation results than with axisymmetric and Cartesian 2D simulations.

  11. [Contribution for the validation of the Portuguese version of EQ-5D].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro Lopes; Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Pereira, Luis Nobre

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O EQ-5D permite a junção de duas componentes essenciais de qualquer medida de qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde a ser usada em avaliações económicas de custo-utilidade: (i) um perfil descrevendo o estado de saúde em termos de domínios ou dimensões; e (ii) um valor numérico associado ao estado de saúde anteriormente descrito.Objectivo: A versão portuguesa do questionário EQ-5D foi finalizada em 1998, com base em normas de orientação definidas pelo Grupo EuroQol, incluindo os procedimentos de tradução e retroversão. Apesar da sua larga utilização em Portugal, até agora ainda não tinham sido publicados os estudos que conduziram inicialmente à versão portuguesa e à garantia de aceitabilidade, fiabilidade e validade. O propósito do presente artigo é, assim, documentar estes primeiros valores referentes à versão portuguesa do EQ-5D.Material e Métodos: Foram utilizadas três amostras diferentes: uma primeira com 1.500 indivíduos representativa da populaçãoportuguesa; uma segunda com 140 indivíduos apenas destinada ao teste da fiabilidade; e uma terceira amostra com 643 indivíduos doentes com cataratas, asma, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica ou artrite reumatoide.Resultados: A aceitabilidade foi avaliada pelo número de respostas em falta. Foi também encontrado um marcado efeito de teto com grande parte da amostra a não reportar quaisquer problemas nas dimensões do EQ-5D.Discussão: A validade de construção foi testada pela análise do grau com que valores baixos de EQ-5D estavam positivamente associados ao aumento da idade, ao ser do sexo feminino, e ao estar doente, assim como a valores de dimensões da escala SF-36v2. A validade convergente foi baseada nas correlações entre valores do EQ-5D e outras escalas específicas de condição de saúde. O EQ-5D apresentou correlações moderadas a altas com outras medidas de estado de saúde e de qualidade de vida relacionada com a saúde, específicas de cada

  12. Area functional relation for 5D-Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-08-01

    We present area (or entropy) functional relation for multi-horizons five dimensional (5D) Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole. It has been observed by exact and explicit calculation that some complicated function of two or three horizons area is mass-independent whereas the entropy product relation is not mass-independent. We also study the local thermodynamic stability of this black hole. The phase transition occurs at certain condition. Smarr mass formula and first law of thermodynamics have been derived. This mass-independent relation suggests they could turn out to be an universal quantity and further helps us to understanding the nature of black hole entropy (both interior and exterior) at the microscopic level. In the "Appendix", we have derived the thermodynamic products for 5D Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet black hole with vanishing cosmological constant.

  13. Efficient 5D excitation of trapped Rb atoms with pulsed diode-laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Supetitz, W.; Duncan, B.C.; Lee, D.I.; Gould, P.L.

    1996-05-01

    The authors have demonstrated that appropriately time-ordered pulses of diode-laser light can provide efficient population transfer in a three-level cascade system. Laser-trapped Rb atoms are excited from the 5S ground state to the highly-excited 5D level (via the 5P intermediate level) with nearly 100% efficiency. Diode-lasers at 780 nm (5S{yields}5P) and 776 nm (5P{yields}5D) are pulsed with acousto-optic modulators to provide the excitation. The variation of transfer efficiency with relative delay between the two pulses is in good agreement with theoretical expectations. Optimum excitation occurs for the counterintuitive pulse ordering, i.e., when the upper transition is driven first.

  14. Flavor-changing decays of the top quark in 5D warped models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Furlong, Alfonso; Frank, Mariana; Pourtolami, Nima; Toharia, Manuel; Xoxocotzi, Reyna

    2016-08-01

    We study flavor-changing neutral current decays of the top quark in the context of general warped extra dimensions, where the five-dimensional (5D) metric is slightly modified from 5D anti-de Sitter (AdS5 ). These models address the Planck-electroweak hierarchies of the Standard Model and can obey all the low-energy flavor bounds and electroweak precision tests, while allowing the scale of new physics to be at the TeV level, and thus within the reach of the LHC at Run II. We perform the calculation of these exotic top decay rates for the case of a bulk Higgs, and thus include in particular the effect of the additional Kaluza-Klein (KK) Higgs modes running in the loops, along with the usual KK fermions and KK gluons.

  15. NORMATIVE VALUES OF EQ-5D-5L FOR DIABETES PATIENTS FROM SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Collado Mateo, Daniel; García Gordillo, Miguel A; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la diabetes es una enfermedad metabólica que puede conllevar una reducción de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. El EQ-5D es un cuestionario genérico de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud basado en preferencias sociales. Este cuestionario ha sido muy utilizado en pacientes con diabetes. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente artículo es informar sobre los valores normativos del cuestionario EQ-5D-5L en personas españolas con diabetes. Métodos: se utilizaron datos de la Encuesta Española de Salud (2011/2012). Un total de 1.857 personas con diabetes participaron en la encuesta. La puntuación del EQ-5D-5L se ha reflejado en función del sexo, región (incluyendo las 17 comunidades autónomas y las 2 ciudades autónomas de España), y 8 grupos de edad. Resultados: la media del índice de utilidad para toda la muestra fue de 0,742. Esta fue mejor para hombres (0,826) que para mujeres (0,673). Resultados similares se observaron en la Escala Visual Analógica. El efecto techo fue mucho mayor en hombres (44,83%) que en mujeres (24,41%). Conclusiones: el presente estudio recoge datos normativos representativos del EQ-5D-5L en España de personas con diabetes.

  16. Palatal shelf elevation in the Wistar rat fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, M W

    1978-01-01

    Palatogenesis in the Wistar rat fetus was studied macroscopically, microscopically, ultrastructurally and experimentally between days 13 and 19. The developmental ages of the fetuses were calculated from the smear age of the litter adjusted for individual variations in crown-rump lengths. Palatal shelf elevation occurs at day 16.4 +/- 0.1. Experimentally induced shelf elevation in freshly delivered fetuses was sluggish at day 14, but by day 16.3 it occurred in less than 1 second. Both shelf elevation and shelf fusion begin anteriorly where the shelves show a marked convexity of their margins, and proceed posteriorly. The extreme posterior part of each shelf (future soft palate) is horizontal from the beginning. The matrix of the shelf mesenchyme (especially in the region of the anterior convexities) shows an increasing accumulation of mucopolysaccharides from day 14 to day 16.3 and becomes increasingly oedematous. The shelf attachment to the main maxillary process is progressively undercut by epithelial invagination, producing a fulcrum for shelf elevation. The maxillary and palatine osteogenic blastemata are present at the base of the shelf prior to elevation and rapidly invade the shelves after the event. The elevated palatal shelves fuse with the nasal septum anteriorly, but posteriorly the palate is not attached to the septum. The posterior septum at first has a free lower edge, but then it develops lateral flanges which fuse with corresponding bulges on the lateral nasal walls. In this way two sphenoethmoidal recesses are formed above the fused flanges, while a common nasal passage is formed above the palate, roofed anteriorly by the septal flanges and posteriorly by the cranial base. The space needed to create (simultaneous with shelf elevation) the common nasal passage is made available by flattening of the tongue and protrusion of its tip out of the oral cavity--this protrusion being facilitated by the sloping bulge of the primary palate and nasal septum

  17. A comparison of the EQ-5D and SF-6D across seven patient groups.

    PubMed

    Brazier, John; Roberts, Jennifer; Tsuchiya, Aki; Busschbach, Jan

    2004-09-01

    As the number of preference-based instruments grows, it becomes increasingly important to compare different preference-based measures of health in order to inform an important debate on the choice of instrument. This paper presents a comparison of two of them, the EQ-5D and the SF-6D (recently developed from the SF-36) across seven patient/population groups (chronic obstructive airways disease, osteoarthritis, irritable bowel syndrome, lower back pain, leg ulcers, post menopausal women and elderly). The mean SF-6D index value was found to exceed the EQ-5D by 0.045 and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.51. Whilst this convergence lends some support for the validity of these measures, the modest difference at the aggregate level masks more significant differences in agreement across the patient groups and over severity of illness, with the SF-6D having a smaller range and lower variance in values. There is evidence for floor effects in the SF-6D and ceiling effects in the EQ-5D. These discrepancies arise from differences in their health state classifications and the methods used to value them. Further research is required to fully understand the respective roles of the descriptive systems and the valuation methods and to examine the implications for estimates of the impact of health care interventions.

  18. Automatic 2.5-D Facial Landmarking and Emotion Annotation for Social Interaction Assistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Zou, Jianhua; Li, Huibin; Dellandrea, Emmanuel; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A; Chen, Liming

    2016-09-01

    People with low vision, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder experience difficulties in perceiving or interpreting facial expression of emotion in their social lives. Though automatic facial expression recognition (FER) methods on 2-D videos have been extensively investigated, their performance was constrained by challenges in head pose and lighting conditions. The shape information in 3-D facial data can reduce or even overcome these challenges. However, high expenses of 3-D cameras prevent their widespread use. Fortunately, 2.5-D facial data from emerging portable RGB-D cameras provide a good balance for this dilemma. In this paper, we propose an automatic emotion annotation solution on 2.5-D facial data collected from RGB-D cameras. The solution consists of a facial landmarking method and a FER method. Specifically, we propose building a deformable partial face model and fit the model to a 2.5-D face for localizing facial landmarks automatically. In FER, a novel action unit (AU) space-based FER method has been proposed. Facial features are extracted using landmarks and further represented as coordinates in the AU space, which are classified into facial expressions. Evaluated on three publicly accessible facial databases, namely EURECOM, FRGC, and Bosphorus databases, the proposed facial landmarking and expression recognition methods have achieved satisfactory results. Possible real-world applications using our algorithms have also been discussed. PMID:26316289

  19. Evidence from Lake Baikal for Siberian glaciation during oxygen-isotope substage 5d

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karabanov, E.B.; Prokopenko, A.A.; Williams, D.F.; Colman, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    The paleoclimatic record from bottom sediments of Lake Baikal (eastern Siberia) reveals new evidence for an abrupt and intense glaciation during the initial part of the last interglacial period (isotope substage 5d). This glaciation lasted about 12 000 yr from 117 000 to 105 000 yr BP according to correlation with the SPEC-MAP isotope chronology. Lithological and biogeochemical evidence of glaciation from Lake Baikal agrees with evidence for the advance of ice sheet in northwestern Siberia during this time period and also with cryogenic features within the strata of Kazantzevo soils in Southern Siberia. The severe 5d glaciation in Siberia was caused by dramatic cooling due to the decrease in solar insolation (as predicted by the model of insulation changes for northern Asia according to Milankovich theory) coupled with western atmospheric transport of moisture from the opea areas of Northern Atlantic and Arctic seas (which became ice-free due to the intense warming during preceeding isotope substage 5e). Other marine and continental records show evidence for cooling during 5d, but not for intense glaciation. Late Pleistocene glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere may have begun in northwestern Siberia.

  20. Simultaneous denoising and reconstruction of 5-D seismic data via damped rank-reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangkang; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Zhaoyu; Chen, Xiaohong; Zu, Shaohuan; Huang, Weilin; Gan, Shuwei

    2016-09-01

    The Cadzow rank-reduction method can be effectively utilized in simultaneously denoising and reconstructing 5-D seismic data that depend on four spatial dimensions. The classic version of Cadzow rank-reduction method arranges the 4-D spatial data into a level-four block Hankel/Toeplitz matrix and then applies truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) for rank reduction. When the observed data are extremely noisy, which is often the feature of real seismic data, traditional TSVD cannot be adequate for attenuating the noise and reconstructing the signals. The reconstructed data tend to contain a significant amount of residual noise using the traditional TSVD method, which can be explained by the fact that the reconstructed data space is a mixture of both signal subspace and noise subspace. In order to better decompose the block Hankel matrix into signal and noise components, we introduced a damping operator into the traditional TSVD formula, which we call the damped rank-reduction method. The damped rank-reduction method can obtain a perfect reconstruction performance even when the observed data have extremely low signal-to-noise ratio. The feasibility of the improved 5-D seismic data reconstruction method was validated via both 5-D synthetic and field data examples. We presented comprehensive analysis of the data examples and obtained valuable experience and guidelines in better utilizing the proposed method in practice. Since the proposed method is convenient to implement and can achieve immediate improvement, we suggest its wide application in the industry.

  1. Use of 2.5-D and 3-D technology to evaluate control room upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, L. F.; Naser, J.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes an Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI) study in which 2.5-D and 3-D visualization technology was applied to evaluate the design of a nuclear power plant control room upgrade. The study involved converting 3-D CAD flies of a planned upgrade into a photo-realistic appearing virtual model, and evaluating the value and usefulness of the model. Nuclear utility and EPRI evaluators viewed and interacted with the control room virtual model with both 2.5-D and 3-D representations. They identified how control room and similar virtual models may be used by utilities for design and evaluation purposes; assessed potential economic and other benefits; and identified limitations, potential problems, and other issues regarding use of visualization technology for this and similar applications. In addition, the Halden CREATE (Control Room Engineering Advanced Tool-kit Environment) Verification Tool was applied to evaluate features of the virtual model against US NRC NUREG 0700 Revision 2 human factors engineering guidelines (NUREG 0700) [1]. The study results are very favorable for applying 2.5-D visualization technology to support upgrading nuclear power plant control rooms and other plant facilities. Results, however, show that today's 3-D immersive viewing systems are difficult to justify based on cost, availability and value of information provided for this application. (authors)

  2. The 4f-5d luminescence transitions in cerium-doped LuF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerbous, L.; Krachni, O.

    Emission and excitation spectra of the Ce3+ ion in LuF3 single crystal were measured at 77 K. The broad bands observed in these spectra were attributed to the parity-allowed electric-dipole 4f ← 5d transitions within Ce3+ ion. No zero-phonon lines were observed, which is indicative of a strong electron-phonon coupling in this host. It is shown that Ce3+ 5d excited configuration splits into five crystal-field components in LuF3. The influence of the crystalline environment on the position of the lowest Ce3+ 5d level is investigated. The energy of the lowest level of the 4fN-15d excited configuration was predicted for all the trivalent rare earth ions embedded in LuF3. Positions of crystal field spitting levels of 4fN-15d configuration relative to the host electronic bands were discussed.

  3. Comparative genomic and proteomic analyses of PE/PPE multigene family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and H37Ra reveal novel and interesting differences with implications in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Sakshi; Singh, Yadvir; Sharma, Khushbu; Mittal, Aditya; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z.; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a leading infectious disease taking one human life every 15 s globally. The two well-characterized strains H37Rv and H37Ra, derived from the same parental strain M. tuberculosis H37, show dramatically different pathogenic phenotypes. PE/PPE gene family, comprising of 176 open reading frames and present exclusively in genus Mycobacterium, accounts for ∼10% of the M. tuberculosis genome. Our comprehensive in silico analyses of PE/PPE family of H37Ra and virulent H37Rv strains revealed genetic differences between these strains in terms of several single nucleotide variations and InDels and these manifested in changes in physico-chemical properties, phosphorylation sites, and protein: protein interacting domains of the corresponding proteomes. Similar comparisons using the 13 sigma factor genes, 36 members of the mammalian cell entry family, 13 mycobacterial membrane protein large family members and 11 two-component signal transduction systems along with 5 orphaned response regulators and 2 orphaned sensor kinases failed to reveal very significant difference between H37Rv and H37Ra, reinforcing the importance of PE/PPE genes. Many of these changes between H37Rv and H37Ra can be correlated to differences in pathogenesis and virulence of the two strains. PMID:22618876

  4. 2.5D complex resistivity modeling and inversion using unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kaijun; Sun, Jie

    2016-04-01

    The characteristic of complex resistivity on rock and ore has been recognized by people for a long time. Generally we have used the Cole-Cole Model(CCM) to describe complex resistivity. It has been proved that the electrical anomaly of geologic body can be quantitative estimated by CCM parameters such as direct resistivity(ρ0), chargeability(m), time constant(τ) and frequency dependence(c). Thus it is very important to obtain the complex parameters of geologic body. It is difficult to approximate complex structures and terrain using traditional rectangular grid. In order to enhance the numerical accuracy and rationality of modeling and inversion, we use an adaptive finite-element algorithm for forward modeling of the frequency-domain 2.5D complex resistivity and implement the conjugate gradient algorithm in the inversion of 2.5D complex resistivity. An adaptive finite element method is applied for solving the 2.5D complex resistivity forward modeling of horizontal electric dipole source. First of all, the CCM is introduced into the Maxwell's equations to calculate the complex resistivity electromagnetic fields. Next, the pseudo delta function is used to distribute electric dipole source. Then the electromagnetic fields can be expressed in terms of the primary fields caused by layered structure and the secondary fields caused by inhomogeneities anomalous conductivity. At last, we calculated the electromagnetic fields response of complex geoelectric structures such as anticline, syncline, fault. The modeling results show that adaptive finite-element methods can automatically improve mesh generation and simulate complex geoelectric models using unstructured grids. The 2.5D complex resistivity invertion is implemented based the conjugate gradient algorithm.The conjugate gradient algorithm doesn't need to compute the sensitivity matrix but directly computes the sensitivity matrix or its transpose multiplying vector. In addition, the inversion target zones are

  5. Comparison study of temporal regularization methods for fully 5D reconstruction of cardiac gated dynamic SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yongyi; King, Michael A.

    2012-09-01

    Temporal regularization plays a critical role in cardiac gated dynamic SPECT reconstruction, of which the goal is to obtain an image sequence from a single acquisition which simultaneously shows both cardiac motion and tracer distribution change over the course of imaging (termed 5D). In our recent work, we explored two different approaches for temporal regularization of the dynamic activities in gated dynamic reconstruction without the use of fast camera rotation: one is the dynamic EM (dEM) approach which is imposed on the temporal trend of the time activity of each voxel, and the other is a B-spline modeling approach in which the time activity is regulated by a set of B-spline basis functions. In this work, we extend the B-spline approach to fully 5D reconstruction and conduct a thorough quantitative comparison with the dEM approach. In the evaluation of the reconstruction results, we apply a number of quantitative measures on two major aspects of the reconstructed dynamic images: (1) the accuracy of the reconstructed activity distribution in the myocardium and (2) the ability of the reconstructed dynamic activities to differentiate perfusion defects from normal myocardial wall uptake. These measures include the mean square error (MSE), bias-variance analysis, accuracy of time-activity curves (TAC), contrast-to-noise ratio of a defect, composite kinetic map of the left ventricle wall and perfusion defect detectability with channelized Hotelling observer. In experiments, we simulated cardiac gated imaging with the NURBS-based cardiac-torso phantom and Tc99m-Teboroxime as the imaging agent, where acquisition with the equivalent of only three full camera rotations was used during the imaging period. The results show that both dEM and B-spline 5D could achieve similar overall accuracy in the myocardium in terms of MSE. However, compared to dEM 5D, the B-spline approach could achieve a more accurate reconstruction of the voxel TACs; in particular, B-spline 5D could

  6. A Fetus with Iniencephaly Delivered at the Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Tanriverdi, Esra Cinar; Delibas, Ilhan Bahri; Kamalak, Zeynep; Kadioglu, Berrin Goktug; Bender, Rukiye Ada

    2015-01-01

    Iniencephaly is an uncommon neural tube defect, having retroflexion of the head without a neck and severe distortion of the spine. Iniencephaly is classified into two groups, iniencephaly apertus (with encephalocele) and iniencephaly clausus (without encephalocele). Incidence ranges from 0.1 to 10 in 10.000 pregnancies and it is seen more frequently in girls. Most of the fetuses with this defect die before birth or soon after birth, while those with the milder forms may live through childhood. Recurrence risk is around 1–5%. Family should be offered termination to reduce maternal risks and counseled for folic acid supplementation before the next planned pregnancy. Here we present a rare case of iniencephaly clausus which was diagnosed at 18th week of gestation by ultrasonography and delivered in the third trimester of pregnancy due to rejection of termination. PMID:26345271

  7. Origin of the styloglossus muscle in the human fetus

    PubMed Central

    Mérida-Velasco, J R; Rodríguez-Vazquez, J F; de la Cuadra Blanco, C; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Mérida-Velasco, J A

    2006-01-01

    The origin of the styloglossus muscle was histologically studied bilaterally in nine human fetuses (18 sides). In all cases, the muscle originated in Reichert's cartilage, which gives rise to the temporal styloid process. We identified three types of variation: type A, an accessory muscle fascicle originating from the mandibular angle, found in 7 cases (12 sides); type B, where the styloglossus muscle was attached to the mandibular angle by fibrous tracts, found in three cases (4 sides); and type C, where an accessory muscle fascicle arose from the fibrous tract connecting Reichert's cartilage to the mandibular angle; found in one case. In all cases (2 sides), the styloglossus muscle was innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. Relationships between the styloglossus muscle and vasculonervous elements of the prestyloid and retrostyloid spaces were analysed. PMID:16637887

  8. Imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants.

    PubMed

    Alamo, Leonor; Vial, Yvan; Gengler, Carole; Meuli, Reto

    2016-03-01

    Congenital lung malformations are increasingly detected before birth. However, bronchial atresia is rarely identified in utero and not always recognized in neonates. There are two types of atresia: 1) proximal, located at the level of the mainstem or the proximal lobar bronchi, which is extremely rare and usually lethal during pregnancy, causing a tremendous volume increase of the distal involved lung with secondary hypoplasia of the normal lung, and 2) peripheral, located at the segmental/subsegmental bronchial level, which may present as an isolated lesion or as part of a complex congenital malformation. Prenatal findings are mostly nonspecific. Postnatal exams show overinflated lung areas and focal bronchial dilations. The typical fluid-filled bronchoceles are not always observed in neonates but develop progressively in the first months of life. This pictorial essay describes the spectrum of imaging findings of bronchial atresia in fetuses, neonates and infants. PMID:26646151

  9. Adrenocortical function and dysfunction in the fetus and neonate.

    PubMed

    Watterberg, Kristi L

    2004-02-01

    Under normal circumstances, the fetus is exposed to very low concentrations of cortisol until late in gestation. Perturbations of the intra-uterine environment resulting in fetal exposure to increased cortisol may have consequences not only in infancy, but also into adult life. In the postnatal period, developmental immaturity and/or the effects of critical illness on adrenal function may result in insufficient cortisol production to maintain homeostasis in the face of acute stress or illness, a situation that has been labelled 'relative adrenal insufficiency' in other acutely ill populations. The definition of inadequate adrenal function in the newborn and its possible relationship to adverse outcomes in both premature and term infants are only beginning to be characterized.

  10. Global detection and identification of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, M A P; Linnane, S; van Putten, J P M; Wagenaar, J A

    2005-12-01

    Bovine genital campylobacteriosis caused by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is a genital infection that threatens the cattle industry. Detection and identification of Cfv are key factors in control programmes. Trade regulations should be based on scientifically and internationally accepted methods of detection and identification of Cfv. Such methods are described in the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. A study was conducted to determine which methods are in use in OIE Member Countries and to get an overview of new or improved tests. A questionnaire was sent to OIE Member Countries, and 26 out of 166 were returned. Globally, a diversity of methods for the detection and identification of Cfv are in use. The authors conclude that there is a lack of harmonisation that may have consequences for the description of the health status of countries and may lead to disputes with respect to trade regulations.

  11. Origin of the styloglossus muscle in the human fetus.

    PubMed

    Mérida-Velasco, J R; Rodríguez-Vazquez, J F; de la Cuadra Blanco, C; Sánchez-Montesinos, I; Mérida-Velasco, J A

    2006-05-01

    The origin of the styloglossus muscle was histologically studied bilaterally in nine human fetuses (18 sides). In all cases, the muscle originated in Reichert's cartilage, which gives rise to the temporal styloid process. We identified three types of variation: type A, an accessory muscle fascicle originating from the mandibular angle, found in 7 cases (12 sides); type B, where the styloglossus muscle was attached to the mandibular angle by fibrous tracts, found in three cases (4 sides); and type C, where an accessory muscle fascicle arose from the fibrous tract connecting Reichert's cartilage to the mandibular angle; found in one case. In all cases (2 sides), the styloglossus muscle was innervated by the hypoglossal nerve. Relationships between the styloglossus muscle and vasculonervous elements of the prestyloid and retrostyloid spaces were analysed.

  12. Stem cell and genetic therapies for the fetus.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Erik G; Flake, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    The prenatal diagnosis and management of congenital disease has made significant progress over the previous decade. Currently, fetal therapy (including open surgery and fetoscopic intervention) provides therapeutic options for a range of congenital anomalies; however, it is restricted to the treatment of fetal pathophysiology. Improvements in prenatal screening and the early diagnosis of genetic disease allow for preemptive treatment of anticipated postnatal disease by stem cell or genetic therapy. While currently awaiting clinical application, in utero stem cell therapy has made significant advances in overcoming the engraftment and immunologic barriers in both murine and pre-clinical large animal models. Likewise, proof in principle for fetal gene therapy has been demonstrated in rodent and large animal systems as a method to prevent the onset of inherited genetic disease; however, safety and ethical risks still need to be addressed prior to human application. In this review, we examine the current status and future direction of stem cell and genetic therapy for the fetus.

  13. Temperature increase in the fetus exposed to UHF RFID readers.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Liorni, Ilaria; Samaras, Theodoros; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has prominently increased during the last decades due to the rapid development of new technologies. Among the various devices emitting EMFs, those based on Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies are used in all aspects of everyday life, and expose people unselectively. This scenario could pose a potential risk for some groups of the general population, such as pregnant women, who are expected to be possibly more sensitive to the thermal effects produced by EMF exposure. This is the first paper that addresses the estimation of temperature rise in two pregnant women models exposed to ultrahigh frequency RFID by computational techniques. Results show that the maximum temperature increase of the fetus and of the pregnancy-related tissues is relatively high (even about 0.7 °C), not too far from the known threshold of biological effects. However, this increase is confined to a small volume in the tissues.

  14. [Evolutionary aspect of spinal ligaments in the human fetus].

    PubMed

    Bourges, M; Vanneuville, G

    1994-06-01

    Preliminary histological observations concerning interspinal ligament, at level T1 T2 and far the 14th, 24th and 37th post-ovulatory (P.O.) weeks, are presented here. In an histological, then biological context, these observation take place into an evolutive study of the muscular and ligamentous material of the human fetus spine. The paraffin included biopsy sections were examined after being colored with Mallory blue and picro-indigo-carmin chlorhydric orcein. After 14 weeks P.O., an heterogeneous structure appears with muscular, mixt and fibrous fascicules in a polygonal cellulo-fibrous network. After 24 weeks P.O., the structure is entirely fibrous, in a long, plexiform web. The evolution become more acute after 37 weeks P.O. After chlorhydric orcein coloration, no elastic fibers were observed in the collagen network, during the first two stages of observation cholorhydric orcein coloration, however, revealed a small quantity of them, 37 weeks after ovulation.

  15. Congenital megaurethra in a fetus with Meckel syndrome and in a fetus with female pseudoermanphroditism. The first report of these occurrences

    PubMed Central

    Di Meglio, Letizia; Mazzarelli, Laura Letizia; Boscaino, Amedeo; Cancemi, Dino; Morelli, Franco; Lonardo, Maria Concetta; Lonardo, Valeria; Friso, Patrizia; Spampanato, Carmine; Urciuoli, Maria; Ventruto, Marialuisa; Ventruto, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Objective the purpose of this paper is to report the first case of megaurethra in a fetus with Meckel syndrome and in a fetus with femal pseudoermaphroditism. Results the former case refers to a fetus of 13 weeks gestation with the three following prominent anomalies, observed by transonic scan and confirmed by autopsy: congenital megaurethra, anal atresia, single umbelical artery. The latter case refers to a fetus of 18 weeks gestation. Autopsy confirmed penile malformation and revealed ovaries in the abdomen. The karyotype was 46,XX with normal molecular karytype. The megaurethra was discovered by sonography at 18 weeks gestation. Autopsy confirmed penile malformation and revealed ovaries in the abdomen. The karyotype was 46,XX with normal molecular karyotype (Array-CGH, 1 Mb of resolution). Methods transonic scan, autopsy, karyotype, array-CGH. Conclusions the first prenatal cases of two genetic syndromes with megaurethra have been reported, concening respectively a fetus with Meckel syndrome and a fetus with femal pseudoermaphroditism. The latter was confirmed by both autopsy and the normal female 46,XX karyotype. PMID:26266000

  16. Meningitis and Endocarditis Caused by Campylobacter fetus after Raw-Liver Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Le Dû, Damien; Roux, Anne-Laure; Hanachi, Mouna; Dinh, Aurélien; Crémieux, Anne-Claude

    2013-01-01

    We report Campylobacter fetus meningitis associated with endocarditis in a 75-year-old diabetic man after he consumed raw liver. C. fetus was isolated from blood samples and cerebrospinal fluid. Cure was obtained with combined intravenous imipenem-gentamicin for 4 weeks; no relapse occurred after 6 months of follow-up. PMID:23824770

  17. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  18. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  19. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  20. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  1. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  2. Description of Campylobacter fetus subsp. testudinum subsp. nov., isolated from humans and reptiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of 13 Campylobacter fetus-like isolates from humans (n=8) and reptiles (n=5). Phenotypic characterization, Genusgenus-specific and sap insertion-PCR initially identified all human isolates as type A Campylobacter fetus. Phylogenet...

  3. Comparison of myelination between large and small pig fetuses during late gestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared myelination of the cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord in the largest and smallest pig fetuses within a litter during late gestation. Gilts were killed on days 92, 100, and 110 of gestation and these neural tissues were obtained from the largest and smallest fetuses in each litter. M...

  4. Aortic Intima-Media Thickness and Aortic Diameter in Small for Gestational Age and Growth Restricted Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Roig, M. Dolores; Mazarico, Edurne; Valladares, Esther; Guirado, Laura; Fernandez-Arias, Mireia; Vela, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to measure aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT) and aortic diameter (AD) in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) fetuses, small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetuses. Methods Case-control study performed between June 2011 and June 2012. Forty-nine AGA fetuses, 40 SGA fetuses, and 35 IUGR fetuses underwent concomitant measurement of aIMT and AD at a mean gestational age of 34.4 weeks. Results Median aIMT was higher in fetuses with IUGR (0.504 mm [95%CI: 0.477-0.530 mm]), than in SGA fetuses (0.466 mm [95% CI: 0.447–0.485 mm]), and AGA fetuses (0.471 mm [95% CI: 0.454-0.488 mm]) (p = 0.023). Mean AD was significantly lower in fetuses with IUGR (4.451 mm [95% CI: 4.258–4.655 mm]), than in AGA fetuses (4.74 mm [95% CI: 4.63-4.843 mm]) (p = 0.028). Conclusions Growth restricted fetuses have a thicker aortic wall than AGA and SGA fetuses, which possibly represents preclinical atherosclerosis and a predisposition to later cardiovascular disease. PMID:26017141

  5. Transfer of Ga-67 from hamster dam to fetus and offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.L.; Byrd, B.L.

    1981-06-01

    We have studied the transfer of Ga-67 from the hamster dam to the fetus and also to the postpartum offspring. During gestation the concentration of Ga-67 in the mammary glands increased by approximately 20-fold, and Ga-67 was transferred across the placenta into the fetus. The concentration of Ga-67 in the fetus decreased during the terminal stages of gestation, partly due to a decreased transfer of Ga-67 itself and partly as the result of the rapid growth of the fetus. One-day-old offspring were able to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract the Ga-67 contained in ingested dam's milk, whereas 9-day-old offspring excrete essentially all such ingested Ga-67. The Ga-67 radiation hazards to the fetus during gestation and that resulting from the transfer of Ga-67 to the newborn through ingestion of the mother's milk should receive further investigation.

  6. Goat fetuses disconnected from the placenta, but reconnected to an artificial placenta, display intermittent breathing movements.

    PubMed

    Kozuma, S; Nishina, H; Unno, N; Kagawa, H; Kikuchi, A; Fujii, T; Baba, K; Okai, T; Kuwabara, Y; Taketani, Y

    1999-01-01

    To investigate whether placental factors are involved in the intermittent breathing movements in goat fetuses, we assessed electrocortical activity (ECoA) and tracheal pressure in 5 fetuses (124-135 days) separated from the placenta and connected for 48 h to an extrauterine fetal incubation system that provided umbilical arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The fetal physiological condition on this system was almost the same as that in utero for at least 48 h after the preparation. All fetuses showed intermittent low-voltage ECoA and breathing movements. The breathing movements occurred almost exclusively during periods of low- voltage ECoA. The proportions of time spent in low-voltage ECoA and breathing movements were 48-57% and 46-56%, respectively. In conclusion, breathing movements of fetuses on the extrauterine incubation system were episodic, suggesting that intermittent breathing movements are intrinsic to fetuses, independent of placenta-derived factors.

  7. New operational technology of intrauterine ventilation the fetus lungs by breathing gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakov, A. L.; Nikityuk, D. B.; Urakova, N. A.; Kasankin, A. A.; Chernova, L. V.; Dementiev, V. B.

    2015-11-01

    New operational technology for elimination intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia of the fetus using endoscopic artificial ventilation lungs by respiratory gas was developed. For intrauterine ventilation of fetal lung it is proposed to enter into the uterus a special breathing mask and wear it on the head of the fetus using the original endoscopic technology. The breathing mask, developed by us is connected with external breathing apparatus with a hose. The device is called "intrauterine aqualung". Intrauterine aqualung includes a ventilator and breathing circuit with a special fold-out breathing mask that is put on inside the uterus on the head of fetus like a mesh hat. Controlled by ultrasound the technology of the introduction of the mask inside of the uterus through the natural opening in the cervix and technology of putting on the respiratory mask on the head of the fetus with its head previa were developed. The technology intrauterine ventilation of the fetus lungs by respiratory gas was developed.

  8. Electronic structure and local magnetism of 3d-5d impurity substituted CeFe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Rakesh; Das, G. P.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    We present here a systematic first-principles study of electronic structure and local magnetic properties of Ce[Fe0.75M0.25]2 compounds, where M is a 3d, 4d or 5d transition or post-transition element, using the generalized gradient approximation of the density functional theory. The d-f band hybridizations existing in CeFe2 get modified by the impurity M in an orderly manner across a period for each impurity series: the hybridization is strongest for the Mn group impurity in the period and gets diminished on either side of it. The weakening of the d-f hybridization strength is also associated with a relative localization of the Ce 4f states with respect to the delocalized 4f states in CeFe2. The above effects are most prominent for 3d impurity series, while for 4d and 5d impurities, the hybridizations and relocalizations are relatively weak due primarily to the relatively extended nature of 4d and 5d wavefunctions. The Ce local moment is found to decrease from the CeFe2 value in proportion to the strength of relocalization, thus following almost the same orderly trend as obeyed by the d-f hybridization. Further, depending on the way the spin-up and spin-down densities of states of an impurity shift relative to the Fermi energy, the impurity local moments are highest for Mn or Fe group, reduce on either side, become zero for Ni to Ga, and are small but negative for V and Ti. The Ce hyperfine field is found to follow the M local moment in a linear fashion, and vice-versa.

  9. Coupling Landform Evolution and Soil Pedogenesis - Initial Results From the SSSPAM5D Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willgoose, G. R.; Welivitiya, W. D. D. P.; Hancock, G. R.; Cohen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Evolution of soil on a dynamic landform is a crucial next step in landscape evolution modelling. Some attempts have been taken such as MILESD by Vanwalleghem et al. to develop a first model which is capable of simultaneously evolving both the soil profile and the landform. In previous work we have presented physically based models for soil pedogenesis, mARM and SSSPAM. In this study we present the results of coupling a landform evolution model with our SSSPAM5D soil pedogenesis model. In previous work the SSSPAM5D soil evolution model was used to identify trends of the soil profile evolution on a static landform. Two pedogenetic processes, namely (1) armouring due to erosion, and (2) physical and chemical weathering were used in those simulations to evolve the soil profile. By incorporating elevation changes (due to erosion and deposition) we have advanced the SSSPAM5D modelling framework into the realm of landscape evolution. Simulations have been run using elevation and soil grading data of the engineered landform (spoil heap) at the Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. The results obtained for the coupled landform-soil evolution simulations predict the erosion of high slope areas, development of rudimentary channel networks in the landform and deposition of sediments in lowland areas, and qualitatively consistent with landform evolution models on their own. Examination of the soil profile characteristics revealed that hill crests are weathering dominated and tend to develop a thick soil layer. The steeper hillslopes at the edge of the landform are erosion dominated with shallow soils while the foot slopes are deposition dominated with thick soil layers. The simulation results of our coupled landform and soil evolution model provide qualitatively correct and timely characterization of the soil evolution on a dynamic landscape. Finally we will compare the characteristics of erosion and deposition predicted by the coupled landform-soil SSSPAM

  10. Symmetry enhancements via 5d instantons, q{W} -algebrae and (1 , 0) superconformal index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuti, Sergio; Bonelli, Giulio; Ronzani, Massimiliano; Tanzini, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    We explore {N}=(1,0) superconformal six-dimensional theories arising from M5 branes probing a transverse A k singularity. Upon circle compactification to 5 dimensions, we describe this system with a dual pq-web of five-branes and propose the spectrum of basic five-dimensional instanton operators driving global symmetry enhancement. For a single M5 brane, we find that the exact partition function of the 5d quiver gauge theory matches the 6d (1, 0) index, which we compute by letter counting. We finally show that S-duality of the pq-web implies new relations among vertex correlators of q{W} algebrae.

  11. Variables that affect the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in fetuses with anemia and intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Farhan; Drennan, Kathrin; Mari, Giancarlo

    2007-09-01

    We have previously reported that the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) increases in anemic fetuses and in fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We hypothesized that the pathophysiology for the increased MCA PSV is different in anemic and IUGR fetuses. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the factor(s) among fetal umbilical vein blood pH, Po2, Pco2, and hemoglobin that might affect the MCA PSV in fetuses with anemia and IUGR. This study included two groups of fetuses. The first group included fetuses at risk for anemia because of red cell alloimmunization, whereas the second group included IUGR fetuses. For both groups of fetuses, we determined hemoglobin, umbilical vein blood gases -- at cordocentesis in anemic fetuses and immediately after cesarean delivery in IUGR fetuses -- and MCA PSV before cordocentesis, or before delivery. The relationship between MCA PSV and the hemoglobin, Po2, Pco2, and pH values for the anemic and the IUGR fetuses were assessed by regression analysis using multiples of the mean. There were 14 fetuses in the first group and 22 fetuses in the second group. In the first group, the only parameter that was related to MCA PSV was the fetal hemoglobin (R2 = 0.34; p < 0.05); in fetuses with IUGR, the Pco2 (R2 = 0.36; p < 0.01) and the PO2 (R2 = 0.30; p < 0.01) correlated well with the MCA PSV, whereas no relationship was found between the MCA PSV and the hemoglobin. The data indicate that the mechanism of high MCA PSV is different in anemic and nonanemic IUGR fetuses, and suggest that the process of cerebral autoregulation is present in the preterm IUGR fetus.

  12. EuroQol 5D Quality of Life in Meniere's Disorder Can Be Explained with Symptoms and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levo, Hilla; Stephens, Dafydd; Poe, Dennis; Kentala, Erna; Rasku, Jyrki; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the factors explaining changes in the generic quality of life among patients with Meniere's disorder (MD) and to evaluate the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) quality-of-life measures. A questionnaire focusing on symptoms and disabilities caused by MD was collected from 726 individuals. General health-related quality…

  13. An Australian discrete choice experiment to value eq-5d health states.

    PubMed

    Viney, Rosalie; Norman, Richard; Brazier, John; Cronin, Paula; King, Madeleine T; Ratcliffe, Julie; Street, Deborah

    2014-06-01

    Conventionally, generic quality-of-life health states, defined within multi-attribute utility instruments, have been valued using a Standard Gamble or a Time Trade-Off. Both are grounded in expected utility theory but impose strong assumptions about the form of the utility function. Preference elicitation tasks for both are complicated, limiting the number of health states that each respondent can value and, therefore, that can be valued overall. The usual approach has been to value a set of the possible health states and impute values for the remainder. Discrete Choice Experiments (DCEs) offer an attractive alternative, allowing investigation of more flexible specifications of the utility function and greater coverage of the response surface. We designed a DCE to obtain values for EQ-5D health states and implemented it in an Australia-representative online panel (n = 1,031). A range of specifications investigating non-linear preferences with respect to time and interactions between EQ-5D levels were estimated using a random-effects probit model. The results provide empirical support for a flexible utility function, including at least some two-factor interactions. We then constructed a preference index such that full health and death were valued at 1 and 0, respectively, to provide a DCE-based algorithm for Australian cost-utility analyses. PMID:23765787

  14. A decomposition of income-related health inequality applied to EQ-5D.

    PubMed

    Gundgaard, Jens; Lauridsen, Jørgen

    2006-12-01

    Income-related inequality in health and its relationship to sociodemographic characteristics have received considerable attention in the health economic literature. Recently a method was suggested for decomposing income-related health inequality to contributions from individual characteristics via additive dimensions, and this was applied to a Finnish case based on 15D health scores, where health is considered to be a sum of 15 individual health dimensions. The present study adds to this literature in several ways. First, we apply the decomposition approach to a Danish case which can be benchmarked to the Finnish. Second, we show how to apply the method to EQ-5D scores, which deviate from 15D scores by expressing health as individual depreciations of an equal endowment of perfect health. Third, we add life-style factors to the determinants of income-related health inequality. The empirical part of the study reveals discrepancies which can be attributed to differences between Finland and Denmark and to differences between the construction of 15D and EQ-5D scores. Finally, evidence of impact of life-style factors on income-related health inequality is found.

  15. First Principles Study of HCN Adsorption on Graphene Doped with 5d Transition Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hai-Kuan; Wang, Yong-Ping; Shi, Li Bin

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) adsorption on graphene doped with 5d transition metal (TM) is investigated by the first principles based on density functional theory. It is observed that Hg atom cannot be doped into graphene due to saturated valence electron configurations of 5d106s2. Three kinds of HCN adsorption configurations are investigated, in which H, C and N in HCN are close to the adsorption site, respectively. The most stable adsorption configuration is obtained by total energy optimization. HCN adsorption can be studied by adsorption energy and electron density difference. HCN can only be physisorbed on Ir, Pt and Au-doped graphenes, while chemisorption is observed for Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re and Os-doped graphenes. The band structure is calculated by B3LYP and Generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals. It is observed from B3LYP method that the conductivity of Lu, Hf, Re and Os-doped graphenes does not obviously change before and after HCN adsorption. Ta and W-doped graphenes change from semiconductor to metal after adsorption of HCN molecule. The results indicate that Ta and W-doped graphenes may be a promising sensor for detecting HCN. This study provides a useful basis for understanding of a wide variety of physical properties on graphene.

  16. Experimental bandstructure of the 5 d transition metal oxide IrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Jason; Nie, Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Schlom, Darrell; Shen, Kyle

    2015-03-01

    In the 5 d iridium oxides the close energy scales of spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron correlations lead to emergent quantum phenomena. Much research has focused on the ternary iridium oxides, e.g. the Ruddlesden-Poppers An + 1BnO3 n + 1 , which exhibit behavior from metal to antiferromagnetic insulator ground states, share common features with the cuprates, and may host a number of topological phases. The binary rutile IrO2 is another important 5 d oxide, which has technological importance for spintronics due to its large spin Hall effect and also applications in catalysis. IrO2 is expected to share similar physics as its perovskite-based cousins; however, due to bond-length distortions of the IrO6 octahedra in the rutile structure, the extent of similarities remains an open question. Here we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to perform momentum-resolved measurements of the electronic structure of IrO2 . IrO2 thin films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on TiO2 (110) substrates using an Ir e-beam source and distilled ozone. Films were subsequently transferred through ultrahigh vacuum to a connected ARPES system. Combined with first-principles calculations we explore the interplay of spin-orbit coupling and correlations in IrO2 .

  17. 2.5-D/3-D resistivity modelling in anisotropic media using Gaussian quadrature grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bing; Greenhalgh, Mark; Greenhalgh, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new numerical scheme for 2.5-D/3-D direct current resistivity modelling in heterogeneous, anisotropic media. This method, named the `Gaussian quadrature grid' (GQG) method, cooperatively combines the solution of the Variational Principle of the partial differential equation, Gaussian quadrature abscissae and local cardinal functions so that it has the main advantages of the spectral element method. The formulation shows that the GQG method is a modification of the spectral element method but does not employ the constant elements or require the mesh generator to match the Earth's surface. This makes it much easier to deal with geological models having a 2-D/3-D complex topography than using traditional numerical methods. The GQG technique can achieve a similar convergence rate to the spectral element method. We show it transforms the 2.5-D/3-D resistivity modelling problem into a sparse and symmetric linear equation system that can be solved by an iterative or matrix inversion method. Comparison with analytic solutions for homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic models shows that the error depends on the Gaussian quadrature order (abscissa number) and the subdomain size. The higher the order or the smaller the subdomain size that is employed, the more accurate are the results obtained. Several other synthetic examples, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous, incorporating sloping, undulating and severe topography, are presented and found to yield results comparable to finite element solutions involving a dense mesh.

  18. Strain hardening in 2D discrete dislocation dynamics simulations: A new '2.5D' algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keralavarma, S. M.; Curtin, W. A.

    2016-10-01

    The two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (2D DD) method, consisting of parallel straight edge dislocations gliding on independent slip systems in a plane strain model of a crystal, is often used to study complicated boundary value problems in crystal plasticity. However, the absence of truly three dimensional mechanisms such as junction formation means that forest hardening cannot be modeled, unless additional so-called '2.5D' constitutive rules are prescribed for short-range dislocation interactions. Here, results from three dimensional dislocation dynamics (3D DD) simulations in an FCC material are used to define new constitutive rules for short-range interactions and junction formation between dislocations on intersecting slip systems in 2D. The mutual strengthening effect of junctions on preexisting obstacles, such as precipitates or grain boundaries, is also accounted for in the model. The new '2.5D' DD model, with no arbitrary adjustable parameters beyond those obtained from lower scale simulation methods, is shown to predict athermal hardening rates, differences in flow behavior for single and multiple slip, and latent hardening ratios. All these phenomena are well-established in the plasticity of crystals and quantitative results predicted by the model are in good agreement with experimental observations.

  19. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  20. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  1. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  2. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  3. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  4. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  5. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  6. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  7. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare Department of Health... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  8. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  9. Pattern of malformations in the axial skeleton in human trisomy 18 fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Kjaer, I.; Hansen, B.F.; Keeling, J.W.

    1996-11-11

    We examined and described the development and abnormalities of the axial skeleton in 10 human trisomy 18 fetuses. Whole-body radiographs and radiographs of midsagittal tissue blocks of the cranial base and the spine were studied. In 3 fetuses no spinal radiographs were available. Seven osseous regions or fields along the body axis were analyzed, four in the spine, and three in the cranial base and nasal bones. Malformations occurred in the occipital field in all fetuses. This was a characteristic notching, either unilateral or bilateral, of the basilar part of the occipital bone. Nasal bones were abnormal in 8 cases, either absent or hypoplastic. Malformations were found in the thoracic and/or lumbosacral field in 7 fetuses. A single abnormality was found in the cervical spine in one fetus. The pattern of axial skeletal malformation in trisomy 18 fetuses recorded in the present study has not been described previously. Axial skeletal radiography should be included in autopsies of fetuses when chromosome disorders are present or suspected. The methods applied here are unaffected by autolysis. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Detection of chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion in fetuses with congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Wang, Shuyu

    2014-11-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities and the 22q11 microdeletion are implicated in congenital heart defects (CHDs). This study was designed to detect these abnormalities in fetuses and determine the effect of genetic factors on CHD etiology. Between January 2010 and December 2011, 113 fetuses with CHD treated at the Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were investigated, using chromosome karyotyping of either amniotic fluid cell or umbilical cord blood cell samples. Fetuses with a normal result were then investigated for the 22q11 microdeletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of the 113 patients, 12 (10.6%) exhibited chromosomal abnormalities, while 6 (5.3%) of the remaining 101 cases presented with a 22q11 microdeletion. The incidence of chromosomal abnormalities was significantly higher in the group of fetuses presenting with extracardiac malformations in addition to CHD (P<0.001), although the detection of the 22q11 microdeletion was not significantly different between the two groups (P=0.583). In addition, all fetuses with the 22q11 microdeletion occurred de novo. In conclusion, genetic factors are important in the etiology of CHD. Where fetuses present with cardiac defects, additional chromosomal analysis is required to detect extracardiac abnormalities. Fetuses with heart defects should also be considered for 22q11 microdeletion detection to evaluate fetal prognosis, particularly prior to surgery.

  11. Endocrine regulation of human fetal growth: the role of the mother, placenta, and fetus.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Vanessa E; Smith, Roger; Giles, Warwick B; Clifton, Vicki L

    2006-04-01

    The environment in which the fetus develops is critical for its survival and long-term health. The regulation of normal human fetal growth involves many multidirectional interactions between the mother, placenta, and fetus. The mother supplies nutrients and oxygen to the fetus via the placenta. The fetus influences the provision of maternal nutrients via the placental production of hormones that regulate maternal metabolism. The placenta is the site of exchange between mother and fetus and regulates fetal growth via the production and metabolism of growth-regulating hormones such as IGFs and glucocorticoids. Adequate trophoblast invasion in early pregnancy and increased uteroplacental blood flow ensure sufficient growth of the uterus, placenta, and fetus. The placenta may respond to fetal endocrine signals to increase transport of maternal nutrients by growth of the placenta, by activation of transport systems, and by production of placental hormones to influence maternal physiology and even behavior. There are consequences of poor fetal growth both in the short term and long term, in the form of increased mortality and morbidity. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth involves interactions between the mother, placenta, and fetus, and these effects may program long-term physiology.

  12. Use of Continuous Electronic Fetal Monitoring in a Preterm Fetus: Clinical Dilemmas and Recommendations for Practice

    PubMed Central

    Afors, Karolina; Chandraharan, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of intrapartum continuous electronic fetal monitoring using a cardiotocograph (CTG) is to identify a fetus exposed to intrapartum hypoxic insults so that timely and appropriate action could be instituted to improve perinatal outcome. Features observed on a CTG trace reflect the functioning of somatic and autonomic nervous systems and the fetal response to hypoxic or mechanical insults during labour. Although, National Guidelines on electronic fetal monitoring exist for term fetuses, there is paucity of recommendations based on scientific evidence for monitoring preterm fetuses during labour. Lack of evidence-based recommendations may pose a clinical dilemma as preterm births account for nearly 8% (1 in 13) live births in England and Wales. 93% of these preterm births occur after 28 weeks, 6% between 22–27 weeks, and 1% before 22 weeks. Physiological control of fetal heart rate and the resultant features observed on the CTG trace differs in the preterm fetus as compared to a fetus at term making interpretation difficult. This review describes the features of normal fetal heart rate patterns at different gestations and the physiological responses of a preterm fetus compared to a fetus at term. We have proposed an algorithm “ACUTE” to aid management. PMID:21922045

  13. Stillbirth Risk Among Fetuses With Ultrasound-Detected Isolated Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Heather A.; Odibo, Anthony O.; Dicke, Jeffrey M.; Shanks, Anthony L.; Macones, George A.; Cahill, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the risk of stillbirth among pregnancies complicated by a major isolated congenital anomaly detected by antenatal ultrasound, and the influence of incidental growth restriction. Methods A retrospective cohort study of all consecutive singleton pregnancies undergoing routine anatomic survey between 1990 and 2009 was performed. Stillbirth rates among fetuses with an ultrasound-detected isolated major congenital anomaly were compared to fetuses without major anomalies. Stillbirth rates were calculated per 1,000 ongoing pregnancies. Exclusion criteria included delivery prior to 24 weeks of gestation, multiple fetal anomalies, minor anomalies and chromosomal abnormalities. Analyses were stratified by gestational age at delivery (prior to 32 weeks vs. 32 weeks of gestation or after) and birth weight less than the 10th percentile. We adjusted for confounders using logistic regression. Results Among 65,308 singleton pregnancies delivered at 24 weeks of gestation or after, 873 pregnancies with an isolated major congenital anomaly (1.3%) were identified. The overall stillbirth rate among fetuses with a major anomaly was 55/1,000 compared to 4/1,000 in nonanomalous fetuses (aOR 15.17, 95% CI 11.03–20.86). Stillbirth risk in anomalous fetuses was similar prior to 32 weeks of gestation (26/1,000) and 32 weeks of gestation or after (31/1,000). Among growth-restricted fetuses, the stillbirth rate increased among anomalous (127/1,000) and nonanomalous fetuses (18/1,000), and congenital anomalies remained associated with higher rates of stillbirth (aOR 8.20, 95% CI 5.27–12.74). Conclusion The stillbirth rate is increased in anomalous fetuses regardless of incidental growth restriction. These risks can assist practitioners designing care plans for anomalous fetuses who have elevated and competing risks of stillbirth and neonatal death. PMID:24901272

  14. Ketone body metabolism in the mother and fetus.

    PubMed

    Shambaugh, G E

    1985-04-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a rapid accumulation of lipid stores during the first half of gestation and a utilization of these stores during the latter half of gestation. Lipogenesis results from dietary intake, an exaggerated insulin response, and an intensified inhibition of glucagon release. Increasing levels of placental lactogen and a heightened response of adipose tissue to additional lipolytic hormones balance lipogenesis in the fed state. Maternal starvation in late gestation lowers insulin, and lipolysis supervenes. The continued glucose drain by the conceptus aids in converting the maternal liver to a ketogenic organ, and ketone bodies produced from incoming fatty acids are not only utilized by the mother but cross the placenta where they are utilized in several ways by the fetus: as a fuel in lieu of glucose; as an inhibitor of glucose and lactate oxidation with sparing of glucose for biosynthetic disposition; and for inhibition of branched-chain ketoacid oxidation, thereby maximizing formation of their parent amino acids. Ketone bodies are widely incorporated into several classes of lipids including structural lipids as well as lipids for energy stores in fetal tissues, and may inhibit protein catabolism. Finally, it has recently been shown that ketone bodies inhibit the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines in fetal rat brain slices. Thus during maternal starvation ketone bodies may maximize chances for survival both in utero and during neonatal life by restraining cell replication and sustaining protein and lipid stores in fetal tissues.

  15. Transplacental teratogenesis and mutagenesis in mouse fetuses treated with cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Porter, A J; Singh, S M

    1988-01-01

    We studied transplacental fetotoxicity, teratogenicity, and mutagenicity in Swiss Webster mice following different doses of cyclophosphamide (CP; 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg), a well-known mutagen/teratogen, on day 12 of gestation. The fetal survival and weight on day 18 of gestation decreased significantly with increasing CP dose (P less than 0.01). The CP-treated fetuses were also dysmorphic (e.g., shortened limbs, digital defects, cleft palate, open eyes, and hydrocephaly) and the percentage of dysmorphology increased with increasing CP doses (P less than 0.01). To evaluate mutagenesis, a separate group of females received 5-bromodeoxyuridine tablet (50-mg) implants on day 12 of gestation and a CP treatment 8 h later. Fetal liver cells were harvested 24 h post-BrdU implant to analyze sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency and micronuclei. CP caused a significant increase in the SCEs per fetal liver cell from 3.4 +/- 0.02 (control) to 90.0 +/- 0.04 (20 mg/kg CP) (P less than 0.01). The increasing CP dose was also related to an increase in micronuclei. The data suggest that CP is transplacentally toxic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. Further analyses of the data suggest that the mutagenic effects of CP may in fact contribute indirectly to the CP-related teratogenic effects. Such conclusions are based on path analysis with directional causations associated with SCEs per cell and the dysmorphic features studied.

  16. The carotid body and arousal in the fetus and neonate.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is a major defense mechanism in infants against hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Arousal failure may be an important contributor to SIDS. Areas of the brainstem that have been found to be abnormal in a majority of SIDS infants are involved in the arousal process. Arousal is sleep state dependent, being depressed during AS in most mammals, but depressed during QS in human infants. Repeated exposure to hypoxia causes a progressive blunting of arousal that may involve medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. Whereas CB chemoreceptors contribute heavily to arousal in response to hypoxia, serotonergic central chemoreceptors have been implicated in the arousal response to CO(2). Pulmonary or chest wall mechanoreceptors also contribute to arousal in proportion to the ventilatory response and decreases in their input may contribute to depressed arousal during AS. Little is known about specific arousal pathways beyond the NTS. Whether CB chemoreceptor stimulation directly stimulates arousal centers or whether this is done indirectly through respiratory networks remains unknown. This review will focus on arousal in response to hypoxia and CO(2) in the fetus and newborn and will outline what we know (and do not know) about the involvement of the carotid body in this process. PMID:22684039

  17. Reduced placental volume and flow in severe growth restricted fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Abulé, Renata Montes Dourado; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein; Doro, Giovana Farina; Miyadahira, Seizo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcinelli Vieira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate placental volume and vascular indices in pregnancies with severe fetal growth restriction and determine their correlations to normal reference ranges and Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. METHODS: Twenty-seven fetuses with estimated weights below the 3rd percentile for gestational age were evaluated. Placental volume and vascular indices, including vascularization, flow, and vascularization flow indices, were measured by three-dimensional ultrasound using a rotational technique and compared to a previously described nomogram. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight were calculated. Placental parameters correlated with the Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. RESULTS: The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was negatively correlated with the observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age, vascularization index and vascularization flow index. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight and vascularization index were significantly lower in the group with a bilateral protodiastolic notch. No placental parameter correlated with the umbilical artery pulsatility index. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancies complicated by severe fetal growth restriction are associated with reduced placental volume and vascularization. These findings are related to changes in uterine artery Doppler velocimetry. Future studies on managing severe fetal growth restriction should focus on combined results of placental three-dimensional ultrasound and Doppler studies of uterine arteries. PMID:27438567

  18. Isolation of bluetongue virus serotype 1 from aborted goat fetuses.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, H C; Biswas, S K; Chand, K; Rehman, W; Das, B; Dadawala, A I; Chandel, B S; Kher, H N; Mondal, B

    2014-12-01

    Abortions and stillbirths were noticed in pregnant goats on a farm in the state of Gujarat, India. About 50% of the pregnant goats aborted or gave birth to dead kids. Bluetongue virus (BTV) antibody in the sera of affected goats was detected using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Viral antigen in the blood of these goats and in the aborted fetal spleens was detected using a sandwich ELISA. Two viruses (SKN-9, SKN-10) were isolated in cell culture from aborted fetal spleens and were confirmed as Orbivirus by demonstration of ten bands in RNA polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified as BTV-1 by sequencing of the VP2 gene. Sequence analyses revealed thatthese isolates were very closely related to a BTV-1 (strain SKN-8) isolated from Culicoides vectors captured on the same farm one month after the occurrence of abortion. Isolation of BTV-1 from fetuses is probably evidence of transplacental transmission of the wild-type strain, because attenuated or laboratory-adapted BTV-1 strains have never been used in this region. This may have important implications in the epidemiology of bluetongue, considering the presence of many BTV serotypes in India.

  19. The effect of irradiation at low doses on human embryos and fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Romanova, L.K.; Zhorova, E.S.

    1994-05-01

    Data about the biological effect of irradiation at low dose on prenatal human development have been reviewed. The effect of irradiation is observed either immediately after it or in the progeny, as consequences of irradiation affecting the embryo or fetus. Human embryos and fetuses are most sensitive to ionizing irradiation during the peaks of proliferative activity and cell differentiation. The concept has been formulated that any dose of irradiation, however low, can inflict damage to the embryo or fetus. Problems and perspectives of studies in this field are discussed.

  20. [Role of twin reversed arterial perfusion syndrome in the development of fetus acardius].

    PubMed

    Nizyaeva, N V; Kostyukov, K V; Gladkova, K A; Kulikova, G V; Shchegolev, A I

    2016-01-01

    Monochorionic multiple pregnancy has a higher risk for obstetric complications, including those due to the development of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome and reversed arterial perfusion syndrome (TRAP sequence). The latter occurs in 0.1% of all monochorionic pregnancies. The basis for TRAP sequence is a relationship between arterial and venous anastomoses from the appropriate placental areas, causing a recipient fetus to develop at the expense of a donor fetus. The presence of abnormal anastomoses is considered to be a main cause of acardia. The prognosis for a donor fetus is also unfavorable: the mortality rates in the absence of intrauterine correction are as high as 55%. PMID:27600783

  1. Initial insights from 2.5D hydraulic modeling of floods in Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyi, L.P.; Denlinger, R.P.; O'Connell, D. R. H.; Burr, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first application of a 2.5D hydraulic model to catastrophic floods on Mars. This model simulates flow over complex topography and incorporates flood dynamics that could not be modeled in the earlier 1D models. We apply this model to Athabasca Valles, the youngest outflow channel on Mars, investigating previous bank-full discharge estimates and utilizing the interpolated Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter elevation map as input. We confirm that the bank-full assumption does not fit the observed landforms. Instead, the channel appears more deeply incised near the source. Flow modeling also identifies several areas of special interest, including a dry cataract that coincides with a region of predicted high erosion. However, artifacts in the elevation data strongly impacted estimated stages and velocities in other areas. More extensive connection between the flood hydraulics and observed landforms awaits improved topographic data.

  2. Complex self-assembly of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine nucleoside supramolecular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hang; Guo, Xiurong; He, Shiliang; Zeng, Xin; Zhou, Xinglong; Zhang, Chaoliang; Hu, Jing; Wu, Xiaohua; Xing, Zhihua; Chu, Liangyin; He, Yang; Chen, Qianming

    2014-01-01

    Supramolecular self-assembly is not only one of the chemical roots of biological structure but is also drawing attention in different industrial fields. Here we study the mechanism of the formation of a complex flower-shaped supramolecular structure of pyrimido[4,5-d]pyrimidine nucleosides by dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray analysis. Upon removing the hydroxyl group of sugars, different flower-shaped superstructures can be produced. These works demonstrate that complex self-assembly can indeed be attained through hierarchical non-covalent interactions of single molecules. Furthermore, chimerical structures built from molecular recognition by these monomers indicate their potential in other fields if combined with other chemical entities.

  3. Mixed Tracking and Projective Synchronization of 5D Hyperchaotic System Using Active Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojo, Kayode; Ogunjo, Samuel T.; Williams, Oluwafemi

    2013-08-01

    This paper examines mixed tracking control and hy- brid synchronization of two identical 5-D hyperchaotic Lorenz systems via active control technique. The de- signed control functions for the mixed tracking enable each of the system state variables to stabilize at differ- ent chosen positions as well as control each state vari- ables of the system to track different desired smooth function of time. Also, the active control technique is used to design control functions which achieve projec- tive synchronization between the slave state variables and the master state variables. We also show that the coupling strength is inversely proportional to the syn- chronization time. Numerical simulations are carried out to validate the effectiveness of the analytical tech- nique.

  4. Non-thermal leptogenesis in a simple 5D SO(10) GUT

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuyama, Takeshi; Okada, Nobuchika E-mail: okadan@ua.edu

    2010-09-01

    We discuss non-thermal leptogenesis in the scheme of 5D orbifold SO(10) GUT with the smooth hybrid inflation. With unambiguously determined Dirac Yukawa couplings and an assumption for the neutrino mixing matrix of the tri-bimaximal from, we analyze baryon asymmetry of the universe via non-thermal leptogenesis in two typical cases for the light neutrino mass spectrum, the normal and inverted hierarchical cases. The resultant baryon asymmetry is obtained as a function of the lightest mass eigenvalue of the light neutrinos, and we find that a suitable amount of baryon asymmetry of the universe can be produced in the normal hierarchical case, while in the inverted hierarchical case the baryon asymmetry is too small to be consistent with the observation.

  5. Inhibition of light emission in a 2.5D photonic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Peretti, Romain; Seassal, Christian; Viktorovich, Pierre; Letartre, Xavier

    2014-07-14

    We analyse inhibition of emission in a 2.5D photonic structures made up of a photonic crystal (PhC) and Bragg mirrors using Finite Differences Time Domaine (FDTD) simulations. A comparison is made between an isolated PhC membrane and the same PhC suspended onto a Bragg mirror or sandwiched between 2 Bragg mirrors. Strong inhibition of the Purcell factor is observed in a broad spectral range, whatever the in-plane orientation and location of the emitting dipole. We analysed these results numerically and theoretically by simulating the experimentally observed lifetime of a collection of randomly distributed emitters, showing that their average emission rate is decreased by more than one decade, both for coupled or isolated emitters.

  6. Electronic and mechanical properties of 5d transition metal mononitrides via first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Erjun; Wu Zhijian

    2008-10-15

    The electronic and mechanical properties of 5d transition metal mononitrides from LaN to AuN are systematically investigated by use of the density-functional theory. For each nitride, six structures are considered, i.e., rocksalt, zinc blende, CsCl, wurtzite, NiAs and WC structures. Among the considered structures, rocksalt structure is the most stable for LaN, HfN and AuN, WC structure for TaN, NiAs structure for WN, wurtzite structure for ReN, OsN, IrN and PtN. The most stable structure for each nitride is mechanically stable. The formation enthalpy increases from LaN to AuN. For LaN, HfN and TaN, the formation enthalpy is negative for all the considered structures, while from WN to AuN, except wurtzite structure in ReN, the formation enthalpy is positive. The calculated density of states shows that they are all metallic. ReN in NiAs structure has the largest bulk modulus, 418 GPa. The largest shear modulus 261 GPa is from TaN in WC structure. Trends are discussed. - Graphical abstract: Formation enthalpy per formula unit {delta}H (eV) for all the considered structures of 5d transition metal mononitrides MN (M=La-Au). It was shown that the formation enthalpy increases from LaN to AuN. The nitrides with negative values indicate that they can be synthesized experimentally at ambient conditions.

  7. 2.5D Finite/infinite Element Approach for Simulating Train-Induced Ground Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. B.; Hung, H. H.; Kao, J. C.

    2010-05-01

    The 2.5D finite/infinite element approach for simulating the ground vibrations by surface or underground moving trains will be briefly summarized in this paper. By assuming the soils to be uniform along the direction of the railway, only a two-dimensional profile of the soil perpendicular to the railway need be considered in the modeling. Besides the two in-plane degrees of freedom (DOFs) per node conventionally used for plane strain elements, an extra DOF is introduced to account for the out-of-plane wave transmission. The profile of the half-space is divided into a near field and a semi-infinite far field. The near field containing the train loads and irregular structures is simulated by the finite elements, while the far field covering the soils with infinite boundary by the infinite elements, by which due account is taken of the radiation effects for the moving loads. Enhanced by the automated mesh expansion procedure proposed previously by the writers, the far field impedances for all the lower frequencies are generated repetitively from the mesh created for the highest frequency considered. Finally, incorporated with a proposed load generation mechanism that takes the rail irregularity and dynamic properties of trains into account, an illustrative case study was performed. This paper investigates the vibration isolation effect of the elastic foundation that separates the concrete slab track from the underlying soil or tunnel structure. In addition, the advantage of the 2.5D approach was clearly demonstrated in that the three-dimensional wave propagation effect can be virtually captured using a two-dimensional finite/infinite element mesh. Compared with the conventional 3D approach, the present approach appears to be simple, efficient and generally accurate.

  8. Prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus detection in aborted fetuses, mummified fetuses and stillborn piglets using quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    OLANRATMANEE, Em-on; WONGYANIN, Piya; THANAWONGNUWECH, Roongroje; TUMMARUK, Padet

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus detection in aborted fetuses (n=32), mummified fetuses (n=30) and stillborn piglets (n=27) from 10 swine herds in Thailand using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Pooled organs and umbilical cord from each fetus/piglet were homogenized and subjected to RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. The qPCR was carried out on the ORF7 of the PRRS viral genome using fluorogenic probes for amplified product detection. The results revealed that 67.4% (60/89) of the specimens contained PRRS virus. The virus was found in 65.6% (21/32) of aborted fetuses, 63.3% (19/30) of mummified fetuses and 74.1% (20/27) of stillborn piglets (P=0.664). Genotype 1, genotype 2 and mixed genotypes of PRRS virus were detected in 19.1% (17/89), 25.8% (23/89) and 22.5% (20/89) of the specimens, respectively (P=0.316). PRRS virus antigen was retrieved from both non-PRRS-vaccinated herds (68.2%, 45/66) and PRRS-vaccinated herds (65.2%, 15/23) (P=0.794). These findings indicated that these specimens are important sources of the PRRS viral load and the viral shedding within the herd. Thus, intensive care on the routine management of dead fetuses and stillborn piglets in PRRS virus-positive herds should be emphasized. PMID:25866409

  9. How to understand a woman's obligations to the fetus in unwanted pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Hine, Kristen

    2013-06-01

    Some have challenged Thomson's case of the famous unconscious violinist (UV) by arguing that in cases of consensual sex a woman is partially morally responsible for the existence of a needy fetus; since she is partially responsible she ought to assist the fetus, and so abortion is morally wrong. Call this the Responsibility Objection (RO) to UV. In this paper, I briefly criticize one of the most widely discussed objections to RO and then suggest a new way to challenge RO. In so doing, I investigate the plausibility of the moral principle that appears to be driving RO: If a woman is partially morally responsible for the existence of a needy fetus, she has a moral obligation to assist the fetus. I argue that this principle is false. I suggest modified versions of this principle but argue that, even on the most plausible version, RO does not persuade.

  10. Survey of porcine parvovirus infection in swine fetuses and their dams at a Minnesota abattoir

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, B.J.; Leman, A.D.; Hurtgen, J.P.; Sauber, T.E.; Joo, H.S.

    1981-05-01

    Reproductive tracts were recovered from 209 sow and 32 gilt carcasses at slaughter; animals had been pregnant not less than 27 days. Of 241 litters examined, 28 (11.6%) contained one or more porcine parvovirus (PPV)-infected fetuses, as determined by immunofluorescent microscopy. The frequencies in sow and gilt litters were 12.0% and 9.4%, respectively. The PPV antigen was detected in 219 of 334 (65.6%) dead or mummified fetuses and in 12 of 2,172 (0.5%) live fetuses examined. The 18 litters which contained only dead or mummified fetuses were infected with PPV. As the percentage of litter mummification increased, the likelihood of finding PPV increased. The PPV antibody was detected in ovarian follicular fluids of 94.3% of the sows and 78.1% of the gilts. These findings indicate that PPV is highly associated with fetal mummification and that some pregnant gilts and sows are susceptible to infection.

  11. A device for daily monitoring of the fetus and the mother in the antenatal period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureev, A. Sh.; Zemlyakov, I. Yu.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Zhdanov, D. S.; Kiseleva, E. Yu.; Khohlova, L. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the principles of operation and design of a specialized device for daily monitoring of the fetus and the mother in the antenatal period of growing. The device consists of a hardware and software system that provides registration and analysis of acoustic data on the condition of the cardiovascular system of the mother and fetus in the mother's abdominal body part. The software is a set of components for analysis, transmission and storage of acoustic data. The results of the analysis can help make a decision about the condition of the cardiovascular system of the fetus and, if necessary, to notify the mother and her physician about the emergency, aiming at preserving the life of the fetus.

  12. What Are the Risks of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia to the Fetus?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preeclampsia affects the flow of blood to the placenta. Risks to the fetus include: Lack of oxygen ... growth due to preeclampsia itself or if the placenta separates from the uterus before birth (placental abruption) ...

  13. Acardius acephalus fetus--report of distinctive anatomical anomalies with regards to pathophysiology of TRAP sequence.

    PubMed

    Lewitowicz, P; Wincewicz, A; Koziel, D; Matykiewicz, J; Horecka-Lewitowicz, A; Koda, M; Kanczuga-Koda, L; Gluszek, S; Sulkowski, S

    2015-01-01

    Acardiac fetuses are consequences of twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP). Here the authors present a case of 40-year-old gravida IX who gave birth to a healthy, 2,900 g female child by a cesarean section. Additionally amorphic 1,020 g maldeveloped fetus was removed. There was a diamnion monochorionic type of twin placenta with incorrect single umbilical arteries (SUA) both in umbilical cord of healthy fetus and in atrophic second umbilical cord. A malformed fetus developed a rather well formed lower leg with four digital foot and oval shape amorphous body mass with omphalocele and eventration of the intestines. X-ray picture showed well visible metatarsal and femur bone and anatomically undefined bones cluster in the central part. A cavity of fetal body contained intestines--the only one well-formed organ, nests of heterotopic pilosebaceous residues, remnants of adrenal glands, well-formed ganglia, and nests of neural tissue covered by neuroepithelium. PMID:26753494

  14. Neonatal circumcision revisited. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assist physicians in providing guidance to parents regarding neonatal circumcision. OPTIONS: Whether to recommend the routine circumcision of newborn male infants. OUTCOMES: Costs and complications of neonatal circumcision, the incidence of urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases and cancer of the penis in circumcised and uncircumcised males, and of cervical cancer in their partners, and the costs of treating these diseases. EVIDENCE: The literature on circumcision was reviewed by the Fetus and Newborn Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society. During extensive discussion at meetings of the committee over a 24-month period, the strength of the evidence was carefully weighed and the perspective of the committee developed. VALUES: The literature was assessed to determine whether neonatal circumcision improves the health of boys and men and is a cost-effective approach to preventing penile problems and associated urinary tract conditions. Religious and personal values were not included in the assessment. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The effect of neonatal circumcision on the incidence of urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted diseases, cancer of the penis, cervical cancer and penile problems; the complications of circumcision; and estimates of the costs of neonatal circumcision and of the treatment of later penile conditions, urinary tract infections and complications of circumcision. RECOMMENDATION: Circumcision of newborns should not be routinely performed. VALIDATION: This recommendation is in keeping with previous statements on neonatal circumcision by the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The statement was reviewed by the Infectious Disease Committee of the Canadian Paediatric Society. The Board of Directors of the Canadian Paediatric Society has reviewed its content and approved it for publication. SPONSOR: This is an official statement of the Canadian Paediatric Society. No external

  15. Sex ratios in fetuses and liveborn infants with autosomal aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Heuther, C.A.; Martin, R.L.M.; Stoppelman, S.M.

    1996-06-14

    Ten data sources were used substantially to increase the available data for estimating fetal and livebirth sex ratios for Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), and Down (trisomy 21) syndromes and controls. The fetal sex ratio estimate was 0.88 (N = 584) for trisomy 13, 0.90 (N = 1702) for trisomy 18, and 1.16 (N = 3154) for trisomy 21. All were significantly different from prenatal controls (1.07). The estimated ratios in prenatal controls were 1.28 (N = 1409) for CVSs and 1.06 (N = 49427) for amniocenteses, indicating a clear differential selection against males, mostly during the first half of fetal development. By contrast, there were no sex ratio differences for any of the trisomies when comparing gestational ages <16 and >16 weeks. The livebirth sex ratio estimate was 0.90 (N = 293) for trisomy 13, 0.63 (N = 497) for trisomy 18, and 1.15 (N = 6424) for trisomy 21, the latter two being statistically different than controls (1.05) (N = 3660707). These ratios for trisomies 13 and 18 were also statistically different than the ratio for trisomy 21. Only in trisomy 18 did the sex ratios in fetuses and livebirths differ, indicating a prenatal selection against males >16 weeks. No effects of maternal age or race were found on these estimates for any of the fetal or livebirth trisomies. Sex ratios for translocations and mosaics were also estimated for these aneuploids. Compared to previous estimates, these results are less extreme, most likely because of larger sample sizes and less sample bias. They support the hypothesis that these trisomy sex ratios are skewed at conception, or become so during embryonic development through differential intrauterine selection. The estimate for Down syndrome livebirths is also consistent with the hypothesis that its higher sex ratio is associated with paternal nondisjunction. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Tongue Growth during Prenatal Development in Korean Fetuses and Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soo Jeong; Cha, Bong Geun; Kim, Yeon Sook; Lee, Suk Keun; Chi, Je Geun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal tongue development may affect oral-craniofacial structures, but this muscular organ has rarely been investigated. Methods: In order to document the physiology of prenatal tongue growth, we histologically examined the facial and cranial base structures of 56 embryos and 106 fetuses. Results: In Streeter’s stages 13–14 (fertilization age [FA], 28 to 32 days), the tongue protruded into the stomodeal cavity from the retrohyoid space to the cartilaginous mesenchyme of the primitive cranial base, and in Streeter’s stage 15 (FA, 33 to 36 days), the tongue rapidly swelled and compressed the cranial base to initiate spheno-occipital synchondrosis and continued to swell laterally to occupy most of the stomodeal cavity in Streeter’s stage 16–17 (FA, 37 to 43 days). In Streeter’s stage 18–20 (FA, 44 to 51 days), the tongue was vertically positioned and filled the posterior nasopharyngeal space. As the growth of the mandible and maxilla advanced, the tongue was pulled down and protruded anteriorly to form the linguomandibular complex. Angulation between the anterior cranial base (ACB) and the posterior cranial base (PCB) was formed by the emerging tongue at FA 4 weeks and became constant at approximately 124°–126° from FA 6 weeks until birth, which was consistent with angulations measured on adult cephalograms. Conclusions: The early clockwise growth of the ACB to the maxillary plane became harmonious with the counter-clockwise growth of the PCB to the tongue axis during the early prenatal period. These observations suggest that human embryonic tongue growth affects ACB and PCB angulation, stimulates maxillary growth, and induces mandibular movement to achieve the essential functions of oral and maxillofacial structures. PMID:26471340

  17. Intrauterine Treatment of a Fetus with Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Secondary to MYH7 Mutation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Meghan G; Sekhon, Mehtab K; Reed, Kathryn L; Anderson, Caroline F; Borjon, Nydia D; Tardiff, Jil C; Barber, Brent J

    2015-12-01

    There is no clear consensus on optimal management of fetuses affected by familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Intrauterine treatment of the condition has not been attempted in any standardized fashion. We report the case of a fetus treated by maternal propranolol during the third trimester after septal hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction was diagnosed on fetal echocardiogram. The pregnancy went successfully to term, and fetal septal hypertrophy was noted to improve prior to delivery. PMID:26337809

  18. Pattern of pulmonary venous blood flow in the hypoplastic left heart syndrome in the fetus

    PubMed Central

    Better, D; Apfel, H; Zidere, V; Allan, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether restriction at the atrial septum in the newborn with hypoplastic left heart syndrome can be predicted accurately by examining the pattern of pulmonary venous flow in the fetus. A restrictive atrial septum can contribute to haemodynamic instability before surgery for this lesion and has been associated with an increased mortality.
DESIGN—Pulmonary venous pulsed Doppler tracings were compared between fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and controls. The size of the atrial septal defect on the postnatal echocardiogram was graded according to the degree of restriction. Pulsed Doppler tracings of pulmonary venous blood flow were obtained in 18 fetuses with left atrial outflow atresia and compared with 77 controls, adjusted for gestational age. Postnatal echocardiograms were available for analysis in 13 of 18 neonates.
SETTING—A tertiary referral centre for fetal cardiology and paediatric cardiac surgery.
RESULTS—Fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome were different from controls in all pulmonary vein indices measured. As assessed from the postnatal echocardiogram, there were seven fetuses with a restrictive atrial septum. In these fetuses, the systolic flow velocity (p < 0.01), S/D ratio (p < 0.01), and peak reversal wave (p < 0.001) in the pulmonary vein tracing showed a good correlation with the degree of restriction.
CONCLUSIONS—The Doppler pattern of pulmonary venous flow in the fetus with hypoplastic left heart syndrome appears to be a reliable predictor of restriction of the atrial septum in the neonate. This may help in the immediate post-delivery management of these infants before surgery.


Keywords: fetus; congenital heart defects; echocardiography; risk factors PMID:10336926

  19. Neutron scattered dose equivalent to a fetus from proton radiotherapy of the mother.

    PubMed

    Mesoloras, Geraldine; Sandison, George A; Stewart, Robert D; Farr, Jonathan B; Hsi, Wen C

    2006-07-01

    Scattered neutron dose equivalent to a representative point for a fetus is evaluated in an anthropomorphic phantom of the mother undergoing proton radiotherapy. The effect on scattered neutron dose equivalent to the fetus of changing the incident proton beam energy, aperture size, beam location, and air gap between the beam delivery snout and skin was studied for both a small field snout and a large field snout. Measurements of the fetus scattered neutron dose equivalent were made by placing a neutron bubble detector 10 cm below the umbilicus of an anthropomorphic Rando phantom enhanced by a wax bolus to simulate a second trimester pregnancy. The neutron dose equivalent in milliSieverts (mSv) per proton treatment Gray increased with incident proton energy and decreased with aperture size, distance of the fetus representative point from the field edge, and increasing air gap. Neutron dose equivalent to the fetus varied from 0.025 to 0.450 mSv per proton Gray for the small field snout and from 0.097 to 0.871 mSv per proton Gray for the large field snout. There is likely to be no excess risk to the fetus of severe mental retardation for a typical proton treatment of 80 Gray to the mother since the scattered neutron dose to the fetus of 69.7 mSv is well below the lower confidence limit for the threshold of 300 mGy observed for the occurrence of severe mental retardation in prenatally exposed Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, based on the linear no threshold hypothesis, and this same typical treatment for the mother, the excess risk to the fetus of radiation induced cancer death in the first 10 years of life is 17.4 per 10,000 children. PMID:16898451

  20. Maternal origin of extra haploid set of chromosomes in third trimester triploid fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzsch, E.; Ramsay, M.; Ravel, T.J.L. de

    1995-09-25

    Twenty-six highly polymorphic markers were used to determine the origin of the extra haploid chromosome set in 6 triploid fetuses of type 11 phenotype. All had reached the third trimester of pregnancy. The extra set was maternal in origin in all cases, supporting previous research indicating longer in utero survival of maternally-derived triploid fetuses. These findings provide evidence for an instance of genomic imprinting in humans. 34 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Ultrasonographic Investigation of Human Fetus Responses to Maternal Communicative and Non-communicative Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Gabriella A; Nicolini, Ylenia; Demuru, Elisa; Tosato, Cecilia; Hussain, Merhi; Scesa, Elena; Romei, Luisa; Boerci, Maria; Iappini, Emanuela; Dalla Rosa Prati, Guido; Palagi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Pier F

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus' mouth movements in response to mothers' speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants' sensitivity to their mother's voice. By means of a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography, we assessed whether fetuses at 25 weeks of gestation, showed a congruent mouthmotor response to maternal acoustic stimulation. Mothers were asked to provide different stimuli, each characterized by a different acoustic output (e.g., chewing, yawning, nursery rhymes, etc.) and we recorded the behavioral responses of 29 fetuses. We found that, when mothers sang the syllable LA in a nursery rhyme, fetuses significantly increased mouth openings. Other stimuli provided by the mother did not produce other significant changes in fetus' behavior. This finding suggests that fetuses are sensitive only to specific maternal vocalizations (LA) and that fetal matched responses are rudimentary signs of early mirroring behaviors that become functional in the postnatal period. In conclusion, fetuses seem to be predisposed to respond selectively to specific maternal stimuli. We propose that such responses may play a role in the development of behavioral and emotional attunement with their mothers long before birth.

  2. Risk of abnormal triple screen for Down syndrome is significantly higher in patients with female fetuses.

    PubMed

    Spong, C Y; Ghidini, A; Stanley-Christian, H; Meck, J M; Seydel, F D; Pezzullo, J C

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that mid-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels are significantly higher and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels significantly lower in women with male compared with female fetuses. We have evaluated whether triple-screen criteria are more likely to identify women with female fetuses as at risk for Down syndrome. From the Georgetown University genetics database we obtained the absolute values and corresponding multiples of the median (MoM) for AFP, hCG and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) in singleton gestations for the period database November 1992 July 1996. A Down syndrome risk of 1/270 or greater at mid-trimester was considered as high risk. A total of 977 patients with triple screen and outcome information were identified, including 502 female and 475 male fetuses. Patients with female fetuses were significantly more likely to have lower serum AFP (p=0.003) and a positive triple screen for Down syndrome (72 (14 per cent) versus 45 (9 per cent), p<0.02) than those with male fetuses. The gestational age at triple screen, maternal serum hCG and uE3, race and diabetes were not significantly different between the two groups. Since Down syndrome is less common in female than male fetuses, and the rates of female and male Down syndrome fetuses detected by triple screen and subsequent amniocentesis are not significantly different, the excess of positive mid-trimester maternal serum triple screen in women with female fetuses is likely due to false-positive results. PMID:10327139

  3. Campylobacter fetus subspecies: comparative genomics and prediction of potential virulence targets.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Soares, Siomar C; Santos, Anderson R; Guimarães, Luis C; Barbosa, Eudes; Almeida, Sintia S; Abreu, Vinícius A C; Carneiro, Adriana R; Ramos, Rommel T J; Bakhtiar, Syeda M; Hassan, Syed S; Ussery, David W; On, Stephen; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Maria P; Lage, Andrey P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-10-25

    The genus Campylobacter contains pathogens causing a wide range of diseases, targeting both humans and animals. Among them, the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis deserve special attention, as they are the etiological agents of human bacterial gastroenteritis and bovine genital campylobacteriosis, respectively. We compare the whole genomes of both subspecies to get insights into genomic architecture, phylogenetic relationships, genome conservation and core virulence factors. Pan-genomic approach was applied to identify the core- and pan-genome for both C. fetus subspecies and members of the genus. The C. fetus subspecies conserved (76%) proteome were then analyzed for their subcellular localization and protein functions in biological processes. Furthermore, with pathogenomic strategies, unique candidate regions in the genomes and several potential core-virulence factors were identified. The potential candidate factors identified for attenuation and/or subunit vaccine development against C. fetus subspecies contain: nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk), type IV secretion systems (T4SS), outer membrane proteins (OMP), substrate binding proteins CjaA and CjaC, surface array proteins, sap gene, and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). Significantly, many of those genes were found in genomic regions with signals of horizontal gene transfer and, therefore, predicted as putative pathogenicity islands. We found CRISPR loci and dam genes in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. fetus, and T4SS and sap genes in an island specific for C. fetus subsp. venerealis. The genomic variations and potential core and unique virulence factors characterized in this study would lead to better insight into the species virulence and to more efficient use of the candidates for antibiotic, drug and vaccine development.

  4. Neutron scattered dose equivalent to a fetus from proton radiotherapy of the mother.

    PubMed

    Mesoloras, Geraldine; Sandison, George A; Stewart, Robert D; Farr, Jonathan B; Hsi, Wen C

    2006-07-01

    Scattered neutron dose equivalent to a representative point for a fetus is evaluated in an anthropomorphic phantom of the mother undergoing proton radiotherapy. The effect on scattered neutron dose equivalent to the fetus of changing the incident proton beam energy, aperture size, beam location, and air gap between the beam delivery snout and skin was studied for both a small field snout and a large field snout. Measurements of the fetus scattered neutron dose equivalent were made by placing a neutron bubble detector 10 cm below the umbilicus of an anthropomorphic Rando phantom enhanced by a wax bolus to simulate a second trimester pregnancy. The neutron dose equivalent in milliSieverts (mSv) per proton treatment Gray increased with incident proton energy and decreased with aperture size, distance of the fetus representative point from the field edge, and increasing air gap. Neutron dose equivalent to the fetus varied from 0.025 to 0.450 mSv per proton Gray for the small field snout and from 0.097 to 0.871 mSv per proton Gray for the large field snout. There is likely to be no excess risk to the fetus of severe mental retardation for a typical proton treatment of 80 Gray to the mother since the scattered neutron dose to the fetus of 69.7 mSv is well below the lower confidence limit for the threshold of 300 mGy observed for the occurrence of severe mental retardation in prenatally exposed Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, based on the linear no threshold hypothesis, and this same typical treatment for the mother, the excess risk to the fetus of radiation induced cancer death in the first 10 years of life is 17.4 per 10,000 children.

  5. Ultrasonographic Investigation of Human Fetus Responses to Maternal Communicative and Non-communicative Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Gabriella A; Nicolini, Ylenia; Demuru, Elisa; Tosato, Cecilia; Hussain, Merhi; Scesa, Elena; Romei, Luisa; Boerci, Maria; Iappini, Emanuela; Dalla Rosa Prati, Guido; Palagi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Pier F

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus' mouth movements in response to mothers' speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants' sensitivity to their mother's voice. By means of a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography, we assessed whether fetuses at 25 weeks of gestation, showed a congruent mouthmotor response to maternal acoustic stimulation. Mothers were asked to provide different stimuli, each characterized by a different acoustic output (e.g., chewing, yawning, nursery rhymes, etc.) and we recorded the behavioral responses of 29 fetuses. We found that, when mothers sang the syllable LA in a nursery rhyme, fetuses significantly increased mouth openings. Other stimuli provided by the mother did not produce other significant changes in fetus' behavior. This finding suggests that fetuses are sensitive only to specific maternal vocalizations (LA) and that fetal matched responses are rudimentary signs of early mirroring behaviors that become functional in the postnatal period. In conclusion, fetuses seem to be predisposed to respond selectively to specific maternal stimuli. We propose that such responses may play a role in the development of behavioral and emotional attunement with their mothers long before birth. PMID:27014160

  6. Neutron scattered dose equivalent to a fetus from proton radiotherapy of the mother

    SciTech Connect

    Mesoloras, Geraldine; Sandison, George A.; Stewart, Robert D.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Hsi, Wen C.

    2006-07-15

    Scattered neutron dose equivalent to a representative point for a fetus is evaluated in an anthropomorphic phantom of the mother undergoing proton radiotherapy. The effect on scattered neutron dose equivalent to the fetus of changing the incident proton beam energy, aperture size, beam location, and air gap between the beam delivery snout and skin was studied for both a small field snout and a large field snout. Measurements of the fetus scattered neutron dose equivalent were made by placing a neutron bubble detector 10 cm below the umbilicus of an anthropomorphic Rando[reg] phantom enhanced by a wax bolus to simulate a second trimester pregnancy. The neutron dose equivalent in milliSieverts (mSv) per proton treatment Gray increased with incident proton energy and decreased with aperture size, distance of the fetus representative point from the field edge, and increasing air gap. Neutron dose equivalent to the fetus varied from 0.025 to 0.450 mSv per proton Gray for the small field snout and from 0.097 to 0.871 mSv per proton Gray for the large field snout. There is likely to be no excess risk to the fetus of severe mental retardation for a typical proton treatment of 80 Gray to the mother since the scattered neutron dose to the fetus of 69.7 mSv is well below the lower confidence limit for the threshold of 300 mGy observed for the occurrence of severe mental retardation in prenatally exposed Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, based on the linear no threshold hypothesis, and this same typical treatment for the mother, the excess risk to the fetus of radiation induced cancer death in the first 10 years of life is 17.4 per 10 000 children.

  7. What matters most? Evidence-based findings of health dimensions affecting the societal preferences for EQ-5D health states.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Monica Viegas; Noronha, Kenya Valeria Micaela de Souza; Maia, Ana Carolina; Kind, Paul

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes how different health dimensions defined by the EQ-5D-3L instrument affect average individual preferences for health states. This analysis is an important benchmark for the incorporation of health technologies as it takes into consideration Brazilian population preferences in health resource allocation decisions. The EQ-5D instrument defines health in terms of five dimensions (mobility, daily activities, self-care activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression) each divided into three levels of severity. Data came from a valuation study with 3,362 literate individuals aged between 18 and 64 living in urban areas of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The main results reveal that health utility decreases as the level of severity increases. With regard to health issues, mobility stands out as the most important EQ-5D dimension. Independently of severity levels of the other EQ-5D-3L dimensions, the highest decrements in utilities are associated with severe mobility problems. PMID:25402251

  8. Plasma from human mothers of fetuses with severe arthrogryposis multiplex congenita causes deformities in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Leslie; Polizzi, Agata; Morriss-Kay, Gillian; Vincent, Angela

    1999-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is characterized by fixed joint contractures and other deformities, sometimes resulting in fetal death. The cause is unknown in most cases, but some women with fetuses affected by severe AMC have serum antibodies that inhibit fetal acetylcholine receptor (AChR) function, and antibodies to fetal antigens might play a pathogenic role in other congenital disorders. To investigate this possibility, we have established a model by injecting pregnant mice with plasma from four anti-AChR antibody–positive women whose fetuses had severe AMC. We found that human antibodies can be transferred efficiently to the mouse fetus during the last few days of fetal life. Many of the fetuses of dams injected with AMC maternal plasmas or Ig were stillborn and showed fixed joints and other deformities. Moreover, similar changes were found in mice after injection of a serum from one anti-AChR antibody–negative mother who had had four AMC fetuses. Thus, we have confirmed the role of maternal antibodies in cases of AMC associated with maternal anti-AChR, and we have demonstrated the existence of pathogenic maternal factors in one other case. Importantly, this approach can be used to look at the effects of other maternal human antibodies on development of the fetus. PMID:10194476

  9. New reproductive technologies, genetic counselling and the standing of the fetus: views from Germany and Israel.

    PubMed

    Hashiloni-Dolev, Yael; Weiner, Noga

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports findings from a comparative study of Israeli and German genetic counsellors' perceptions of the moral standing of the fetus. Data collected through in-depth interviews with counsellors in both countries (N=32) are presented, and their moral practices are analysed. The paper's findings suggest that while German counsellors perceive the fetus as an autonomous being and debate the particular biological stages through which this autonomy is acquired; Israeli counsellors do not consider the moral status of the fetus independently of its relations with its family hence, deploying a 'relational ethics'. It is suggested that these differences are influenced by historical, political, legal, and religious traditions in Germany and Israel regarding abortions and the fetus. It is concluded that the deployment of a 'biological ethics' by German counsellors reproduces the model of fetal developmental stages (in itself a construction), and hence goes hand in hand with perceptions of the fetus as a 'life', and thus as the bearer of autonomous rights which are understood to contradict those of its mother. On the other hand, the rejection of 'biological ethics' by Israeli counsellors enables a perception of fetuses that is first and foremost defined by their relationships with others. PMID:18565149

  10. Doppler velocimetry of ductus venous in preterm fetuses with brain sparing effect: neonatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    Cosmo, Ynesmara Coelho; Júnior, Edward Araujo; de Sá, Renato Augusto Moreira; de Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Nassar; Mattar, Rosiane; Lopes, Laudelino Marques; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; de Souza, Eduardo; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objective to evaluate the relationship between ductus venous (DV) and Doppler velocimetry in neonatal outcome in severe compromised preterm fetuses. Methods the study was designed as an observational and cross-sectional study with 52 premature neonates with brain sparing effect. The criteria of neonatal severe morbidity were: severe intraventricular hemorrhage (grades 3 or 4), retinopathy of prematurity (grade 3 or 4), cystic periventricular leukomalatia, bronchopneumo dysplasia and neonatal mortality. The fetuses were divided in two groups: group 0 - all the fetuses with ventricular systole/atrial contraction (S/A) in DV ratio values less them 3.4; group 1 - fetuses with values of S/A ratio greater than 3.4. Results 42% of fetuses showed abnormal S/A ratio in DV and 48% showed birth weight below percentile 3 for gestational age. There was no statistical significance comparing the 02 groups according to bronchopneumo dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity (grade 3 or 4) and intraventricular hemorrhage (grade 3 or 4). Only one fetus presented cystic periventricular leukomalatia. We found statistically significant association between abnormal DV S/A ratio and neonatal mortality (CI 95%, 1.28 –38.22, p< 0.002). Conclusions our results suggest that abnormal DV blood flow detected by Doppler examination isn’t associated with severe neonatal morbidity but with neonatal mortality. PMID:23181172

  11. Outcome of Fetuses with Diagnosis of Isolated Short Femur in the Second Half of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Roselló, José; Peralta LLorens, Núria

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the outcome of fetuses with isolated short femur detected at 19–41 weeks and determine to what extent this incidental finding should be a cause of concern in fetuses with a normal previous follow-up. Methods. 156 fetuses with isolated short femur were compared with a control group of 637 fetuses with normal femur length. FL values were converted into Z-scores and classified into 4 groups: control group: Z-score over −2, group 1: Z-score between −2 and −3, group 2: Z-score between −3 and −4, and group 3: Z-score below −4. FL values were plotted with the curves representing Z-scores −2, −3, and −4. To assess fetal outcome, the frequency of SGA, IUGR, abnormal umbilical Doppler (AUD), Down's syndrome, and skeletal dysplasia was determined for each group after delivery, and the relative risk in comparison with the control group was obtained. Finally, ROC curves were drawn in order to evaluate the FL diagnostic ability for the conditions appearing with increased frequency. Results. SGA, IUGR, and AUD were more frequent in the fetuses with short femur. Conversely, none of them presented Down's syndrome or skeletal dysplasia. According to ROC analysis, FL measurement behaved as a good diagnostic test for SGA and IUGR. Conclusions. A short femur diagnosis in a fetus with an otherwise normal follow-up determines just a higher risk of being small (SGA or IUGR). PMID:22577572

  12. F5D-1 on ramp with Neil Armstrong preparing to fly a Dyna-Soar simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The Douglas F5D-1 Skylancer being pre-flighted by the pilot while the crew chief prepares to pull the wheel chocks on the 'hot gun' ramp at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The aircraft was one of two prototype F5D-1s obtained by NASA Flight Research Center in 1961. The F5D-1 Skylancer (Bu. No. 142350) had a red and white paint pattern with a NASA identification number of 213 which later became NASA 708. The Douglas F5D-1 Skylancer was built by the Navy as an all-weather fighter interceptor that never made the jump to production. Four test aircraft were developed with the same basic airframe as the Douglas F4D Skyray. With increasing modifications the four aircraft were re-designated F5D-1s before their first flights. Future Astronaut Neil Armstrong was one of the NASA research pilots assigned to support duties for the Dyna-Soar program. In addition to working at the Boeing facility in Washington state, Armstrong also tested the Dyna-Soar launch abort profile using this F5D-1, which had a similar wing shape to the Dyna-Soar. The aircraft arrived at the Flight Research Center on June 15, 1961. After the Dyna-Soar program was cancelled in December 1963, this F5D-1 continued to be used, serving as a flying simulator for the M2-F2 and as a chase plane for lifting-body flights (providing the lifting-body pilot with an extra set of eyes to assist in emergencies and avert potential crashes) This F5D-1 left the Flight Research Center (later designated the Dryden Flight Research Center) on May 19, 1970, and was donated to the Neil A. Armstrong Museum in Wapakoneta, Ohio.

  13. Antenatal steroids and the IUGR fetus: are exposure and physiological effects on the lung and cardiovascular system the same as in normally grown fetuses?

    PubMed

    Morrison, Janna L; Botting, Kimberley J; Soo, Poh Seng; McGillick, Erin V; Hiscock, Jennifer; Zhang, Song; McMillen, I Caroline; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are administered to pregnant women at risk of preterm labour to promote fetal lung surfactant maturation. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with an increased risk of preterm labour. Hence, IUGR babies may be exposed to antenatal glucocorticoids. The ability of the placenta or blood brain barrier to remove glucocorticoids from the fetal compartment or the brain is compromised in the IUGR fetus, which may have implications for lung, brain, and heart development. There is conflicting evidence on the effect of exogenous glucocorticoids on surfactant protein expression in different animal models of IUGR. Furthermore, the IUGR fetus undergoes significant cardiovascular adaptations, including altered blood pressure regulation, which is in conflict with glucocorticoid-induced alterations in blood pressure and flow. Hence, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy in the IUGR fetus may compromise regulation of cardiovascular development. The role of cortisol in cardiomyocyte development is not clear with conflicting evidence in different species and models of IUGR. Further studies are required to study the effects of antenatal glucocorticoids on lung, brain, and heart development in the IUGR fetus. Of specific interest are the aetiology of IUGR and the resultant degree, duration, and severity of hypoxemia.

  14. A Triplet Pregnancy with Spontaneous Delivery of a Fetus at Gestational Age of 20 Weeks and Pregnancy Continuation of Two Other Fetuses until Week 33

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Maryam; Moghadam, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of pregnancies with triplet or more has been increased due to using assisted reproductive treatments. Meanwhile, multiple pregnancies have higher risks and long-term maternal-fetal complications compared to twin and singleton pregnancies. Delayed interval delivery (DID) is a new approach in the management of multiple pregnancies following delivery or abortion. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the benefits of DID and presents a case that used this method. Methods: This paper covers a report on a case of triplet pregnancy resulting from assisted reproductive techniques with spontaneous delivery of a fetus at gestational age of 20 weeks and the use of conservative DID for two other fetuses until the 33rd week. Results: In our case, the delivery of two other fetuses occurred spontaneously at gestational age of 33 weeks after the delivery of the first fetus at week 20. Conclusions: Using DID is a useful and reliable method, but requires careful monitoring, especially in patients with a history of infertility. PMID:26383220

  15. Anisotropic magnetic interactions in 5d iridium oxides by many-body quantum chemistry calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Yushankhai, Viktor; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Hozoi, Liviu; van den Brink, Jeroen

    2014-03-01

    Ir 5d5 oxides are being actively studied due to the realization of novel spin-orbit coupled jeff ~ 1/2 ground states. One remarkable feature in these compounds is the highly anisotropic magnetic interactions, orders of magnitude stronger than in 3d oxides. We address the nature of the anisotropic exchange in the 2D honeycomb (Na/Li)2IrO3 ((Na/Li)213) and square-lattice (Sr/Ba)2IrO4 ((Sr/Ba)213) iridates, by ab initio multireference configuration-interaction calculations on large embedded clusters. For Na213 we find that the Kitaev term is ferromagnetic and defines the dominant energy scale while the nearest-neighbor Heisenberg contribution is antiferromagnetic. Although Li213 is structurally similar, we predict quite different set of interaction parameters in Li213. We further analyze the magnetic order and the essential differences between these two materials by exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization-group calculations that additionally include 2nd and 3rd neighbor couplings. Sizable symmetric anisotropic interactions are also computed for Ba214. From the ab initio data, the relevant in-plane spin model for Ba214 turns out to be a Heisenberg-compass effective model. We finally discuss the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange in Sr214.

  16. A 2.5D Reactive Transport Model for Fracture Alteration Simulation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hang; Molins, Sergi; Steefel, Carl; DePaolo, Donald; Voltolini, Marco; Yang, Li; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    2016-07-19

    Understanding fracture alteration resulting from geochemical reactions is critical in predicting fluid migration in the subsurface and is relevant to multiple environmental challenges. Here, we present a novel 2.5D continuum reactive transport model that captures and predicts the spatial pattern of fracture aperture change and the development of an altered layer in the near-fracture region. The model considers permeability heterogeneity in the fracture plane and updates fracture apertures and flow fields based on local reactions. It tracks the reaction front of each mineral phase and calculates the thickness of the altered layer. Given this treatment, the model is able to account for the diffusion limitation on reaction rates associated with the altered layer. The model results are in good agreement with an experimental study in which a CO2-acidified brine was injected into a fracture in the Duperow Dolomite, causing dissolution of calcite and dolomite that result in the formation of a preferential flow channel and an altered layer. With an effective diffusion coefficient consistent with the experimentally observed porosity of the altered layer, the model captures the progressive decrease in the dissolution rate of the fast-reacting mineral in the altered layer. PMID:27357572

  17. 2.5 D Transrotational Microcrystals and Nanostructures Revealed by TEM in Crystallizing Amorphous Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, Vladimir

    2015-03-01

    Unexpected transrotational microcrystals can be grown in thin 10-100 nm amorphous films. Crystals of different morphology (from nanowhiskers to spherulites, complex textures) and chemical nature (oxides, chalcogenides, metals and alloys) grown in thin films prepared by various methods are studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We use primarily our TEM bend-contour method and SAED (HREM, AFM are also performed). The phenomenon resides in strong (up to 300 degrees/ μm) regular internal bending of crystal lattice planes in a growing crystal. It can be traced inside TEM in situ. Usual translation is complicated by slight regular rotation of the crystal unit cell (transrotation) most prominent at the mesoscale. Different geometries of transrotation of positive and negative curvature are revealed. Transrotational crystal resembles ideal single crystal enclosed in a curved space. It can be also considered similar to hypothetical endless 2.5 D analogy of MW nanotube/nano-onion halves. Transrotation is strongly increasing as the film gets thinner in the range 100-15 nm. Transrotations supplement dislocations and disclinations. New transrotational nanocrystalline model of amorphous state is proposed. Support of Ministry of Higher Education and Science is acknowledged.

  18. Neutrino masses via the Zee mechanism in the 5D split fermion model

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, We-Fu; Chen, I-Ting; Liou, Siao-Cing

    2011-01-15

    We study the original version of the Zee model, where both of the SU(2){sub L} Higgs doublets are allowed to couple to the leptons, in the framework of the split fermion model in M{sub 4}xS{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} space-time. The neutrino masses are generated through 1-loop diagrams without introducing the right-handed neutrinos. By assuming an order one anarchical complex 5D Yukawa couplings, all the effective 4D Yukawa couplings are determined by the wave function overlap between the split fermions and the bulk scalars in the fifth dimension. The predictability of the Yukawa couplings is in sharp contrast to the original Zee model in 4D where the Yukawa couplings are unknown free parameters. This setup exhibits a geometrical alternative to the lepton flavor symmetry. By giving four explicit sets of the split fermion locations, we demonstrate that it is possible to simultaneously fit the lepton masses and neutrino oscillation data by just a handful free parameters without much fine tuning. Moreover, we are able to make definite predictions for the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}, the absolute neutrino masses, and the lepton flavor violation processes for each configuration.

  19. Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia; Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio

    2012-10-01

    We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.

  20. An efficient quadrature for 2.5D boundary element calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasess, Christian H.; Kreuzer, Wolfgang; Waubke, Holger

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, the boundary element method has become a widely used tool for calculating the mitigation effects of noise barriers. However, since for large structures calculations in 3D become very inefficient, most of the standard implementations are only in 2D. This means that the noise source is implicitly assumed to be given by a coherent line source, which is not realistic in most cases. By using a Fourier transform with respect to a spatial coordinate along the length of the structure it is possible to reduce the 3D problem to several 2D problems with distinct wavenumbers which allows the simulation of more realistic noise sources and which is typically referred to as 2.5D BEM. To that end, it is necessary to numerically calculate a Fourier-like integral over all the 2D solutions. In this work, an efficient way to calculate this integral is given building on existing approaches using Clenshaw-Curtis-Filon quadrature and demodulation combined with an adaptive order-selection scheme. As BEM calculations are costly, the main focus of the method introduced lies on avoiding too many of these calculations. The efficiency of the method is illustrated using two different examples: a reflecting cylinder and an L-shaped noise barrier.

  1. On Twisted N = 2 5D Super Yang-Mills Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jian; Zabzine, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    On a five-dimensional simply connected Sasaki-Einstein manifold, one can construct Yang-Mills theories coupled to matter with at least two supersymmetries. The partition function of these theories localises on the contact instantons, however, the contact instanton equations are not elliptic. It turns out that these equations can be embedded into the Haydys-Witten equations (which are elliptic) in the same way the 4D anti-self-dual instanton equations are embedded in the Vafa-Witten equations. We show that under some favourable circumstances, the latter equations will reduce to the former by proving some vanishing theorems. It was also known that the Haydys-Witten equations on product manifolds {M_5 = M_4 × R} arise in the context of twisting the 5D maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. In this paper, we present the construction of twisted N = 2 Yang-Mills theory on Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, and more generally on K-contact manifolds. The localisation locus of this new theory thus provides a covariant version of the Haydys-Witten equation.

  2. I-IMAS: A 1.5D sensor for high-resolution scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fant, A.; Gasiorek, P.; Turchetta, R.; Avset, B.; Bergamaschi, A.; Cavouras, D.; Evangelou, I.; French, M. J.; Galbiati, A.; Georgiou, H.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Longo, R.; Manthos, N.; Metaxas, M. G.; Noy, M.; Ostby, J. M.; Psomadellis, F.; Royle, G. J.; Schulerud, H.; Speller, R. D.; van der Stelt, P. F.; Theodoridis, S.; Triantis, F.; Venanzi, C.

    2007-04-01

    We have developed a 1.5 D CMOS active pixel sensor to be used in conjunction with a scintillator for X-ray imaging. Within the Intelligent Imaging Sensors (I-ImaS) project, multiple sensors will be aligned to form a line-scanning system and its performance evaluated with respect to existing sensors in other digital radiography systems. Each sensor contains a 512×32 array of pixels and the electronics to convert the collected amount of charge to a digital output value. These include programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs) and analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs). The gain of the PGA can be switched between one or two, to increase the sensitivity for smaller collected charge; the ADC is a 14-bit successive approximation with a sampling rate of 1.25 MHz. The ASIC includes a programmable column fixed pattern noise mitigation circuit and a digitally controllable pixel reset mode block. Here we will describe the sensor design and the expected performance.

  3. Pressure-induced crossing of the core levels in 5 d metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal, Alexey A.; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Ekholm, Marcus; Jönsson, H. Johan M.; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Dubrovinskaia, Natalia; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2016-05-01

    A pressure-induced interaction between core electrons, the core-level crossing (CLC) transition, has been observed in hcp Os at P ≈400 GPa [L. Dubrovinsky et al., Nature (London) 525, 226 (2015)], 10.1038/nature14681. By carrying out a systematic theoretical study for all metals of the 5 d series (Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au) we have found that the CLC transition is a general effect for this series of metals. While in Pt it occurs at ≈1500 GPa , at a pressure substantially higher than in Os, in Ir it occurs already at 80 GPa. Moreover, we predict that in Re the CLC transition may take place already at ambient pressure. We explain the effect of the CLC and analyze the shift of the transition pressure across the series within the Thomas-Fermi model. In particular, we show that the effect has many common features with the atomic collapse in rare-earth elements.

  4. Correlation between the spin Hall angle and the structural phases of early 5d transition metals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Ohkubo, Tadakatsu; Mitani, Seiji; Hono, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masamitsu

    2015-12-07

    We have studied the relationship between the structure and the spin Hall angle of the early 5d transition metals in X/CoFeB/MgO (X = Hf, Ta, W, and Re) heterostructures. Spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) is used to characterize the spin Hall angle of the heavy metals. Transmission electron microscopy images show that all underlayers are amorphous-like when their thicknesses are small, however, crystalline phases emerge as the thickness is increased for certain elements. We find that the heavy metal layer thickness dependence of the SMR reflects these changes in structure. The largest spin Hall angle |θ{sub SH}| of Hf, Ta, W, and Re (∼0.11, 0.10, 0.23, and 0.07, respectively) is found when the dominant phase is amorphous-like. We find that the amorphous-like phase not only possesses large resistivity but also exhibits sizeable spin Hall conductivity, which both contribute to the emergence of the large spin Hall angle.

  5. The development of vector based 2.5D print methods for a painting machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2013-02-01

    Through recent trends in the application of digitally printed decorative finishes to products, CAD, 3D additive layer manufacturing and research in material perception, [1, 2] there is a growing interest in the accurate rendering of materials and tangible displays. Although current advances in colour management and inkjet printing has meant that users can take for granted high-quality colour and resolution in their printed images, digital methods for transferring a photographic coloured image from screen to paper is constrained by pixel count, file size, colorimetric conversion between colour spaces and the gamut limits of input and output devices. This paper considers new approaches to applying alternative colour palettes by using a vector-based approach through the application of paint mixtures, towards what could be described as a 2.5D printing method. The objective is to not apply an image to a textured surface, but where texture and colour are integral to the mark, that like a brush, delineates the contours in the image. The paper describes the difference between the way inks and paints are mixed and applied. When transcribing the fluid appearance of a brush stroke, there is a difference between a halftone printed mark and a painted mark. The issue of surface quality is significant to subjective qualities when studying the appearance of ink or paint on paper. The paper provides examples of a range of vector marks that are then transcribed into brush stokes by the painting machine.

  6. High-resolution infrared studies of perdeutero-spiropentane, C5D8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, B. A.; Ju, X.; Nibler, J. W.; Beaudry, C. M.; Blake, T. A.

    2016-07-01

    Perdeutero-spiropentane (C5D8) has been synthesized, and infrared and Raman spectra are reported for the first time. Wavenumber assignments are made for most of the fundamental vibrational states. Gas phase infrared spectra were recorded at a resolution (0.002 cm-1) sufficient to resolve individual rovibrational lines and show evidence of strong Coriolis and/or Fermi resonance interactions for most bands. However a detailed rovibrational analysis of the fundamental ν15 (b2) parallel band proved possible, and a fit of more than 1600 lines yielded a band origin of 1053.84465(10) cm-1 and ground state constants (in units of cm-1): B0 = 0.1120700(9), DJ = 1.51(3) × 10-8, DJK = 3.42(15) × 10-8. We note that the B0 value is significantly less than a value of Ba = 0.1140 cm-1 calculated using structural parameters from an earlier electron diffraction (ED) study, whereas one expects Ba to be lower than B0 because of thermal averaging over higher vibrational levels. A similar discrepancy was noted in an earlier study of C5H8 (Price et al., 2011). The structural and spectroscopic results are in good accord with values computed at the anharmonic level using the B3LYP density functional method with a cc-pVTZ basis set.

  7. Nature of the insulating ground state of the 5d postperovskite CaIrO3

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Sun -Woo; Liu, Chen; Kim, Hyun -Jung; Lee, Jun -Ho; Yao, Yongxin; Ho, Kai -Ming; Cho, Jun -Hyung

    2015-08-26

    In this study, the insulating ground state of the 5d transition metal oxide CaIrO3 has been classified as a Mott-type insulator. Based on a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study with local, semilocal, and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, we reveal that the Ir t2g states exhibit large splittings and one-dimensional electronic states along the c axis due to a tetragonal crystal field. Our hybrid DFT calculation adequately describes the antiferromagnetic (AFM) order along the c direction via a superexchange interaction between Ir4+ spins. Furthermore, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) hybridizes the t2g states to open an insulating gap. These results indicate thatmore » CaIrO3 can be represented as a spin-orbit Slater insulator, driven by the interplay between a long-range AFM order and the SOC. Such a Slater mechanism for the gap formation is also demonstrated by the DFT + dynamical mean field theory calculation, where the metal-insulator transition and the paramagnetic to AFM phase transition are concomitant with each other.« less

  8. Synthesis of new thiazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidines as Corticotropin releasing factor modulators.

    PubMed

    Kuppast, Bhimanna; Spyridaki, Katerina; Lynch, Christophina; Hu, Yueshan; Liapakis, George; Davies, Gareth E; Fahmy, Hesham

    2014-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone that plays a crucial role in integrating the body's overall response to stress. It appears necessary and sufficient for the organism to mount functional, physiological and endocrine responses to stressors. CRF is released in response to various triggers such as chronic stress. The role of CRF and its involvement in these neurological disorders suggest that new drugs that can target the CRF function or bind to its receptors may represent a new development of neuropsychiatric medicines to treat various stress-related disorders including depression, anxiety and addictive disorders. Based on pharmacophore of the CRF1 receptor antagonists, a new series of thiazolo[4,5-d] pyrimidines were synthesized as Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor modulators and the prepared compounds carry groups shown to produce optimum binding affinity to CRF receptors. Twenty two compounds were evaluated for their CRF1 receptor binding affinity in HEK 293 cell lines and two compounds 5o and 5s showed approximately 25% binding affinity to CRF1 receptors. Selected compounds (5c and 5f) were also evaluated for their effect on expression of genes associated with depression and anxiety disorders such as CRF1, CREB1, MAO-A, SERT, NPY, DatSLC6a3, and DBH and significant upregulation of CRF1 mRNA has been observed with compound 5c. PMID:25059547

  9. Frequency-domain Green's functions for radar waves in heterogeneous 2.5D media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Croize, D.; Mazzella, A.T.; McKenna, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Green's functions for radar waves propagating in heterogeneous 2.5D media might be calculated in the frequency domain using a hybrid method. The model is defined in the Cartesian coordinate system, and its electromagnetic properties might vary in the x- and z-directions, but not in the y-direction. Wave propagation in the x- and z-directions is simulated with the finite-difference method, and wave propagation in the y-direction is simulated with an analytic function. The absorbing boundaries on the finite-difference grid are perfectly matched layers that have been modified to make them compatible with the hybrid method. The accuracy of these numerical Greens functions is assessed by comparing them with independently calculated Green's functions. For a homogeneous model, the magnitude errors range from -4.16% through 0.44%, and the phase errors range from -0.06% through 4.86%. For a layered model, the magnitude errors range from -2.60% through 2.06%, and the phase errors range from -0.49% through 2.73%. These numerical Green's functions might be used for forward modeling and full waveform inversion. ?? 2009 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanisms of perinatal cerebral injury in fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M; Mishra, O P

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral hypoxia in the fetus and newborn results in neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as long-term sequelae such as mental retardation, seizure disorders, and cerebral palsy. In the developing brain, determinants of susceptibility to hypoxia should include the lipid composition of the brain cell membrane, the rate of lipid peroxidation, the presence of antioxidant defenses, and the development and modulation of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter receptors such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, the intracellular Ca2+, and the intranuclear Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. In addition to the developmental status of these cellular components, the response of these potential mechanisms to hypoxia determines the fate of the hypoxic brain cell in the developing brain. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone spin adducts, studies from our laboratory demonstrated that tissue hypoxia results in increased free radical generation in the cortex of fetal guinea pigs and newborn piglets. Pretreatment with MgSO4 significantly decreased the hypoxia-induced increase in free radical generation in the term fetal brain. We also showed that brain tissue hypoxia modifies the NMDA receptor ion-channel recognition and modulatory sites. Furthermore, a higher increase in NMDA receptor agonist-dependent Ca2+ in synaptosomes was demonstrated. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ may activate several enzymatic pathways such as phospholipase A2 and metabolism of archidonic acid by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase by proteases, and activation of nitric oxide synthase. Using inhibitors of each of these enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (indomethacin), lipoxygenase (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), xanthine oxidase (allopurinol), and nitric oxide synthase (N-nitro-L-arginine), studies have shown that these enzyme reactions result in oxygen free radical generation, membrane peroxidation, and

  11. Examining the incremental impact of long-standing health conditions on subjective well-being alongside the EQ-5D

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Generic preference-based measures such as the EQ-5D and SF-6D have been criticised for being narrowly focused on a sub-set of dimensions of health. Our study aims to explore whether long-standing health conditions have an incremental impact on subjective well-being alongside the EQ-5D. Methods Using data from the South Yorkshire Cohort study (N = 13,591) collected between 2010 and 2012 on the EQ-5D, long-standing health conditions (self-reported), and subjective well-being measure – life satisfaction using a response scale from 0 (completely dissatisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied), we employed generalised logit regression models. We assessed the impact of EQ-5D and long-standing health conditions together on life satisfaction by examining the size and significance of their estimated odds ratios. Results The EQ-5D had a significant association with life satisfaction, in which anxiety/depression and then self-care had the largest weights. Some long-standing health conditions were significant in some models, but most did not have an independent impact on life satisfaction. Overall, none of the health conditions had a consistent impact on life satisfaction alongside the EQ-5D. Conclusions Out study suggests that the impact of long-standing health conditions on life satisfaction is adequately captured by the EQ-5D, although the findings are limited by reliance on self-reported conditions and a single item life satisfaction measure. PMID:24773705

  12. The effect of bilateral fetal adrenalectomy on fluid balance in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Benson, C A; Wintour, E M

    1995-01-01

    1. Bilaterally adrenalectomized adult sheep, taken off replacement therapy, exhibit decreased plasma sodium, and increased plasma potassium, urinary sodium excretion and urinary sodium:potassium ratio. The hypothesis tested was that these effects would not be seen in adrenalectomized ovine fetuses, due to the mother being the major regulator of fetal fluid balance. 2. The fetuses of seven Merino ewes were bilaterally adrenalectomized at 120 +/- 0.3 days of gestation (term is 150 days) and a bladder cannula inserted. Urine flow and composition were measured six times between 125 and 142 days of gestation, and compared with results in seven control fetuses at the same gestational ages. At between 142 and 145 days of gestation, blood samples were taken from the ewe and fetus, they were killed and the volume and composition of amniotic and allantoic fluids measured. 3. Adrenalectomized fetuses had significantly lower (P < 0.05) plasma aldosterone concentration than that observed in intact fetuses (adrenalectomized, 92 +/- 16 pmol l-1; intact, 224 +/- 46 pmol l-1; P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol level was also lower (adrenalectomized, 8.6 +/- 1.4 nmol l-1; intact, 110.3 +/- 24.8 nmol l-1). Maternal plasma steroids were similar in both groups. 4. There were no significant differences in fetal urine flow rate, osmolality or composition until 139-142 days of gestation. At this time urine sodium:potassium ratio was significantly greater in adrenalectomized (P < 0.05) than intact fetuses. 5. There were no significant differences in maternal or fetal plasma solutes in the two groups and only minor alterations in the volume and composition of amniotic and allantoic fluid. The conclusion is that the major determinant of fetal fluid and electrolyte balance is placental transfer of water and electrolytes from the mother. PMID:8583407

  13. Reducing NPR 7120.5D to Practice: Preparing for a Life-Cycle Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Randall L.

    2008-01-01

    In March 2007, NASA issued revised rules for space flight project management, NPR 7120.5D, 'NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements.' Central to the new rules was the construct of Key Decision Points, maturity gates that the project team must pass in order to continue development. In order that the KDP decision be fully informed, the NPR required, as entrance criteria for the gate, the generation and delivery of specified planning, technical, and cost/schedule documents (gate products) and a life-cycle review, the Preliminary Design Review. Building on JPL experience on the Prometheus and Juno projects, the team successfully organized for and conducted these reviews on an aggressive schedule. Key actions were taken to proactively interact with the SRB, produce high-quality gate products with stakeholder review, generate review presentation materials, and handle a myriad of supporting logistical functions. A review preparation team was established, including a Review Captain and leads for documentation, information systems, and logistics, and their roles, responsibilities and task assignments were identified. Aids were produced, including a detailed review preparation schedule and a comprehensive gate products production table. Institutional support was leveraged early and often. Implementation strategy reflected the needs of a nationally-distributed team, as well as applicable export control and IT security requirements. This paper gives a brief overview of the GRAIL mission and its project management challenges, provides a detailed description of project PMSR and PDR preparation and execution activities, including positive and negative lessons learned, and identifies recommendations for future NASA (and non-NASA) project teams.

  14. 5D model for accurate representation and visualization of dynamic cardiac structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-te; Robb, Richard A.

    2000-05-01

    Accurate cardiac modeling is challenging due to the intricate structure and complex contraction patterns of myocardial tissues. Fast imaging techniques can provide 4D structural information acquired as a sequence of 3D images throughout the cardiac cycle. To mode. The beating heart, we created a physics-based surface model that deforms between successive time point in the cardiac cycle. 3D images of canine hearts were acquired during one complete cardiac cycle using the DSR and the EBCT. The left ventricle of the first time point is reconstructed as a triangular mesh. A mass-spring physics-based deformable mode,, which can expand and shrink with local contraction and stretching forces distributed in an anatomically accurate simulation of cardiac motion, is applied to the initial mesh and allows the initial mesh to deform to fit the left ventricle in successive time increments of the sequence. The resulting 4D model can be interactively transformed and displayed with associated regional electrical activity mapped onto anatomic surfaces, producing a 5D model, which faithfully exhibits regional cardiac contraction and relaxation patterns over the entire heart. The model faithfully represents structural changes throughout the cardiac cycle. Such models provide the framework for minimizing the number of time points required to usefully depict regional motion of myocardium and allow quantitative assessment of regional myocardial motion. The electrical activation mapping provides spatial and temporal correlation within the cardiac cycle. In procedures which as intra-cardiac catheter ablation, visualization of the dynamic model can be used to accurately localize the foci of myocardial arrhythmias and guide positioning of catheters for optimal ablation.

  15. 5D-QSAR for spirocyclic sigma1 receptor ligands by Quasar receptor surface modeling.

    PubMed

    Oberdorf, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas J; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Based on a contiguous and structurally as well as biologically diverse set of 87 sigma(1) ligands, a 5D-QSAR study was conducted in which a quasi-atomistic receptor surface modeling approach (program package Quasar) was applied. The superposition of the ligands was performed with the tool Pharmacophore Elucidation (MOE-package), which takes all conformations of the ligands into account. This procedure led to four pharmacophoric structural elements with aromatic, hydrophobic, cationic and H-bond acceptor properties. Using the aligned structures a 3D-model of the ligand binding site of the sigma(1) receptor was obtained, whose general features are in good agreement with previous assumptions on the receptor structure, but revealed some novel insights since it represents the receptor surface in more detail. Thus, e.g., our model indicates the presence of an H-bond acceptor moiety in the binding site as counterpart to the ligands' cationic ammonium center, rather than a negatively charged carboxylate group. The presented QSAR model is statistically valid and represents the biological data of all tested compounds, including a test set of 21 ligands not used in the modeling process, with very good to excellent accuracy [q(2) (training set, n=66; leave 1/3 out) = 0.84, p(2) (test set, n=21)=0.64]. Moreover, the binding affinities of 13 further spirocyclic sigma(1) ligands were predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean deviation in pK(i) approximately 0.8). Thus, in addition to novel insights into the requirements for binding of spirocyclic piperidines to the sigma(1) receptor, the presented model can be used successfully in the rational design of new sigma(1) ligands.

  16. Modeling plasticity of MgO at the mesoscale using 2.5D Dislocation Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reali, R.; Cordier, P.; Carrez, P.; Gouriet, K.; Boioli, F.

    2015-12-01

    In the lower mantle, viscosity results from the rheological behavior of the two main constituent minerals, namely (Mg,Fe,Al)SiO3bridgmanite and (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase. Understanding how these phases deform is thus of primary importance in geophysics. This is also a very challenging task, since the extreme conditions to which the lower mantle aggregate is subjected are not reachable in laboratory experiments. In this study, the contribution of dislocations to the deformation of periclase at the mesoscale is investigated by Dislocation Dynamics (DD) simulations, a modeling tool which considers the collective motion and interaction of dislocations. Dislocations are expected to be one of the most efficient strain producing mechanisms. To model their behavior a so-called 2.5D DD approach is employed. Within this method, dislocations are considered as straight segments perpendicular to a 2D reference plane and local rules are added to mimic 3D behavior [1]. Furthermore, both the glide and climb mechanisms can be taken into account [2]. Before simulating the deformation of MgO under P, T and strain rate conditions of the lower mantle, it is necessary to benchmark the model at ambient pressure, in order to compare the simulated behavior with experiments performed in the same conditions. At high temperatures (1500-1900 K) the strain-controlling mechanism results from the interactions between dislocations. In this regime the influence of climb may be important: to investigate the competition between glide and climb mechanisms, creep simulations in pure glide conditions were performed in a wide range of temperatures and applied stresses and compared to simulations where climb is explicitly included. Power law creep parameters are evaluated and compared with experimental data. [1] D. Ǵomez-Garćıa, B. Devincre, and L. P. Kubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 125503 (2006). [2] F. Boioli, P. Carrez, P. Cordier, B. Devincre, and , M. Marquille, accepted Phys. Rev. B (2015).

  17. 1.5D quasilinear model and its application on beams interacting with Alfven eigenmodes in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Berk, H. L.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2012-09-15

    We propose a model, denoted here by 1.5D, to study energetic particle (EP) interaction with toroidal Alfvenic eigenmodes (TAE) in the case where the local EP drive for TAE exceeds the stability limit. Based on quasilinear theory, the proposed 1.5D model assumes that the particles diffuse in phase space, flattening the pressure profile until its gradient reaches a critical value where the modes stabilize. Using local theories and NOVA-K simulations of TAE damping and growth rates, the 1.5D model calculates the critical gradient and reconstructs the relaxed EP pressure profile. Local theory is improved from previous study by including more sophisticated damping and drive mechanisms such as the numerical computation of the effect of the EP finite orbit width on the growth rate. The 1.5D model is applied on the well-diagnosed DIII-D discharges no. 142111 [M. A. Van Zeeland et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 135001 (2011)] and no. 127112 [W. W. Heidbrink et al., Nucl. Fusion. 48, 084001 (2008)]. We achieved a very satisfactory agreement with the experimental results on the EP pressure profiles redistribution and measured losses. This agreement of the 1.5D model with experimental results allows the use of this code as a guide for ITER plasma operation where it is desired to have no more than 5% loss of fusion alpha particles as limited by the design.

  18. A comparison of United States and United Kingdom EQ-5D health states valuations using a nonparametric Bayesian method.

    PubMed

    Kharroubi, Samer A; O'Hagan, Anthony; Brazier, John E

    2010-07-10

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative medical treatments relies on having a measure of effectiveness, and many regard the quality adjusted life year (QALY) to be the current 'gold standard.' In order to compute QALYs, we require a suitable system for describing a person's health state, and a utility measure to value the quality of life associated with each possible state. There are a number of different health state descriptive systems, and we focus here on one known as the EQ-5D. Data for estimating utilities for different health states have a number of features that mean care is necessary in statistical modelling.There is interest in the extent to which valuations of health may differ between different countries and cultures, but few studies have compared preference values of health states obtained from different countries. This article applies a nonparametric model to estimate and compare EQ-5D health state valuation data obtained from two countries using Bayesian methods. The data set is the US and UK EQ-5D valuation studies where a sample of 42 states defined by the EQ-5D was valued by representative samples of the general population from each country using the time trade-off technique. We estimate a utility function across both countries which explicitly accounts for the differences between them, and is estimated using the data from both countries. The article discusses the implications of these results for future applications of the EQ-5D and for further work in this field. PMID:20209481

  19. Aberrant expression of Xist in aborted porcine fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lin; Wang, Anfeng; Yao, Chaogang; Huang, Yongye; Duan, Feifei; Lv, Qinyan; Wang, Dongxu; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Li, Zhanjun; Lai, Liangxue

    2014-01-01

    Cloned pigs generated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) show a greater ratio of early abortion during mid-gestation than normal controls. X-linked genes have been demonstrated to be important for the development of cloned embryos. To determine the relationship between the expression of X-linked genes and abortion of cloned porcine fetuses, the expression of X-linked genes were investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) and the methylation status of Xist DMR was performed by bisulfate-specific PCR (BSP). q-PCR analysis indicated that there was aberrant expression of X-linked genes, especially the upregulated expression of Xist in both female and male aborted fetuses compared to control fetuses. Results of BSP suggested that hypomethylation of Xist occurred in aborted fetuses, whether male or female. These results suggest that the abnormal expression of Xist may be associated with the abortion of fetuses derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. PMID:25429426

  20. Effects of low-density feeding on elk–fetus contact rates on Wyoming feedgrounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creech, Tyler G.; Cross, Paul C.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Maichak, Eric J.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Henningsen, John C.; Creel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    High seroprevalance for Brucella abortus among elk on Wyoming feedgrounds suggests that supplemental feeding may influence parasite transmission and disease dynamics by altering the rate at which elk contact infectious materials in their environment. We used proximity loggers and video cameras to estimate rates of elk-to-fetus contact (the primary source of brucellosis transmission) during winter supplemental feeding. We compared contact rates during high-density and low-density (LD) feeding treatments that provided the same total amount of food distributed over different areas. Low-density feeding led to >70% reductions in total number of contacts and number of individuals contacting a fetus. Proximity loggers and video cameras provided similar estimates of elk–fetus contact rates. Elk contacted fetuses and random control points equally, suggesting that elk were not attracted to fetuses but encountered them incidentally while feeding. The modeled relationship between contact rate and disease prevalence is nonlinear and LD feeding may result in large reductions in brucellosis prevalence, but this depends on the amount of transmission that occurs on and off feedgrounds.

  1. Radiation dose to the embryo/fetus: Draft Regulatory Guide DG-8011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Section 20.1208 of 10 CFR Part 20, ``Standards for Protection Against Radiation,`` requires that each licensee ensure that the dose to an embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, from occupational exposure of a declared pregnant woman, does not exceed 0.5 rem (5 mSv). Paragraph 20.1208(b) requires the licensee to make efforts to avoid substantial variation above a uniform monthly exposure rate to a declared pregnant woman that would satisfy the 0.5 rem limit. The dose to the embryo/fetus is to be the sum of (1) the deep-dose equivalent to the declared pregnant woman (10 CFR 10.1208(c)(1)) and (2) the dose to the embryo/fetus from radionuclides in the embryo/fetus and radionuclides in the declared pregnant woman (10 CFR 20.1208(c)(2)). This guide is being developed to provide guidance on calculating the radiation dose to the embryo/fetus.

  2. Radiation dose to the embryo/fetus: Draft Regulatory Guide DG-8011

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Section 20.1208 of 10 CFR Part 20, Standards for Protection Against Radiation,'' requires that each licensee ensure that the dose to an embryo/fetus during the entire pregnancy, from occupational exposure of a declared pregnant woman, does not exceed 0.5 rem (5 mSv). Paragraph 20.1208(b) requires the licensee to make efforts to avoid substantial variation above a uniform monthly exposure rate to a declared pregnant woman that would satisfy the 0.5 rem limit. The dose to the embryo/fetus is to be the sum of (1) the deep-dose equivalent to the declared pregnant woman (10 CFR 10.1208(c)(1)) and (2) the dose to the embryo/fetus from radionuclides in the embryo/fetus and radionuclides in the declared pregnant woman (10 CFR 20.1208(c)(2)). This guide is being developed to provide guidance on calculating the radiation dose to the embryo/fetus.

  3. [Efficiency of bacteriological culture and the immunofluorescent assay to detect Campylobacter fetus in bovine genital fluids].

    PubMed

    Marcellino, Romanela B; Morsella, Claudia G; Cano, Dora; Paolicchi, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a reproductive disease that affects cattle production. It is caused by Campylobacter fetus subspecies, C. fetus fetus (Cff) and C. fetus venerealis (Cfv). The aim of this study was to identify the presence of C. fetus in genital fluids by bacteriological culture and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and to compare the results. Two groups of 6 heifers and 5 bulls, one infected with Cff (Cff group) and the other with Cfv (Cfv group) were formed. Two heifers and 2 bulls, all of them uninfected, made up the control group. Samples of cervicovaginal mucus and preputial fluid were processed by culture and DIF. In the Cff group, 100% of the heifers and 80% of the bulls were infected, while in the Cfv group, 50% of the heifers and 60% of the bulls were infected. The degree of agreement (Kappa values) from benchmarking diagnostic techniques were 0.57 for heifers in the Cff group and 0.52 for heifers in the Cfv group, whereas the values for bulls were 0.17 and 0.27, respectively. Heifers yielded more positive results in the DIF assay than in the culture, exhibiting 5.6% increase in the Cff group and 7.4% in the Cfv group. The lowest percentage of positive results for DIF in bulls, 40% less for the Cff group and 5.2% for the Cfv group, could be due to improper sampling. Kappa values showed moderate agreement for the heifers and low for the bulls.

  4. Fetus in fetu: a case with complete umbilical cord and fetal sac.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y K; Suh, Y L; Kim, C W; Chi, J G

    1994-01-01

    The authors present a retroperitoneal fetus in fetus in a 3-month-old girl. A 15-cm cystic mass with a monstrous fetuslike structure surrounded by a complete sac containing serous fluid was removed from the left retroperitoneal space. The draining vessel of the cystic mass was connected to the right renal vein of the host. The included fetus weighed 380 g. It had a well-developed umbilical cord, four extremities, head, buttock, and vertebral bodies with a meningomyelocele. The thoracic cavity of the included fetus had only a saclike foregut structure, but the abdominal cavity revealed a full length of intestine with a Meckel diverticulum, bilateral ovaries, urinary bladder, and cloaca with external opening. The cephalic end was composed of well-developed tooth germs, tongue and buccopharynx, mandible, maxilla, sphenoid bone, and salivary glands. Chromosomal study showed 46,XX with a normal G banding pattern. We report this case as an example of fetus in fetu with a complete umbilical cord and fetal membrane.

  5. Structural and ultrastructural studies of GH, PRL and SMT cells in goat fetus (Capra hircus) using immunocytochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, F A; Gómez, M A; Serrano, J; Bernabé, A

    2000-10-01

    The first data based on immunolabeling techniques of goat fetus adenohypophysis show that the structure and ultrastructure of growth hormone (GH)-, prolactin (PRL)-, and GH- plus PRL-secreting cells (SMT cells) in fetuses aged 100 days differ from those in the adult. Both cell number and cell size are smaller in the fetus, and the percentage of dark cells decreases with development. The data do not support the hypothesis that SMT cells represent the common origin of GH- and PRL-cells.

  6. 5D-intravital tomography as a novel tool for non-invasive in-vivo analysis of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans G.; Gregory, Axel; Fischer, Peter; Kellner-Höfer, Marcel; Bückle, Rainer; Schwarz, Martin; Riemann, Iris; Stracke, Frank; Huck, Volker; Gorzelanny, Christian; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2010-02-01

    Some years ago, CE-marked clinical multiphoton systems for 3D imaging of human skin with subcellular resolution have been launched. These tomographs provide optical biopsies with submicron resolution based on two-photon excited autofluorescence (NAD(P)H, flavoproteins, keratin, elastin, melanin, porphyrins) and second harmonic generation by collagen. The 3D tomograph was now transferred into a 5D imaging system by the additional detection of the emission spectrum and the fluorescence lifetime based on spatially and spectrally resolved time-resolved single photon counting. The novel 5D intravital tomograph (5D-IVT) was employed for the early detection of atopic dermatitis and the analysis of treatment effects.

  7. The continuous measurement of tissue pH in the human fetus during labour using a new application technique.

    PubMed

    Flynn, A M; Kelly, J

    1980-08-01

    The subcutaneous tissue pH (tpH) of 61 fetuses has been measured continuously during labour using the tissue pH electrode designed by Stamm (Stamm et al, 1976) and adapted for use by Roche Medical and Laboratory Systems. These 61 fetuses fell chronologically into two groups: Group 1 comprised 31 fetuses in whom the original method of fixation to the fetal scalp was used, and Group 2 comprised 30 fetuses in whom the fixation apparatus incorporated the latest technical developments of the double spiral electrocardiograph (ECG) electrode and the fetal tpH Applicator Tool Set Model 678449. Better results were obtained with Model 678449.

  8. DEEP Study: does EQ-5D-5L measure the impacts of persistent oro-facial pain?

    PubMed

    Durham, J; Steele, J G; Breckons, M; Story, W; Vale, L

    2015-09-01

    The EQ-5D-5L is a generic quality of life (QOL) measure widely used throughout the world, which has the advantage that it allows health-state preferences to be elicited. The aim of this study was to examine whether: a) variation in the standardised reference period for EQ-5D-5L from 'today' to 'the last month' had a minimal clinically meaningful difference; (b) EQ-5D-5L had convergent validity with a multidimensional pain measure in quantifying the impacts of pain. As part of a larger study into the effectiveness and efficiency of care pathways for persistent orofacial pain (POFP) (http://research.ncl.ac.uk/deepstudy), participants with POFP (n = 100) completed two versions of the EQ-5D-5L at the same time with different reference periods ('today' vs. 'last month'). Participants also completed the first section of the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (v3) to assess convergent validity. Two-tailed nonparametric inferential statistics, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and within-subject change scores were used to compare the two EQ-5D-5L versions. Convergent validity was assessed using Spearman's rho correlation coefficients. Health-state valuations were significantly different (P < 0.01), and there was good similarity between the two versions' ICC 0.86 (95% CI 0.79-0.91). The within-subject mean change was 0.03 (95% CI 0.01-0.06). For convergent validity, all relationships were significant (P < 0.05) and in the expected directions. EQ-5D-5L demonstrates sufficient convergent validity to be used with POFP, and a change in the standard reference period may be unnecessary if a multidimensional pain measure is also used.

  9. 5D Modelling: An Efficient Approach for Creating Spatiotemporal Predictive 3D Maps of Large-Scale Cultural Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulamis, A.; Doulamis, N.; Ioannidis, C.; Chrysouli, C.; Grammalidis, N.; Dimitropoulos, K.; Potsiou, C.; Stathopoulou, E.-K.; Ioannides, M.

    2015-08-01

    Outdoor large-scale cultural sites are mostly sensitive to environmental, natural and human made factors, implying an imminent need for a spatio-temporal assessment to identify regions of potential cultural interest (material degradation, structuring, conservation). On the other hand, in Cultural Heritage research quite different actors are involved (archaeologists, curators, conservators, simple users) each of diverse needs. All these statements advocate that a 5D modelling (3D geometry plus time plus levels of details) is ideally required for preservation and assessment of outdoor large scale cultural sites, which is currently implemented as a simple aggregation of 3D digital models at different time and levels of details. The main bottleneck of such an approach is its complexity, making 5D modelling impossible to be validated in real life conditions. In this paper, a cost effective and affordable framework for 5D modelling is proposed based on a spatial-temporal dependent aggregation of 3D digital models, by incorporating a predictive assessment procedure to indicate which regions (surfaces) of an object should be reconstructed at higher levels of details at next time instances and which at lower ones. In this way, dynamic change history maps are created, indicating spatial probabilities of regions needed further 3D modelling at forthcoming instances. Using these maps, predictive assessment can be made, that is, to localize surfaces within the objects where a high accuracy reconstruction process needs to be activated at the forthcoming time instances. The proposed 5D Digital Cultural Heritage Model (5D-DCHM) is implemented using open interoperable standards based on the CityGML framework, which also allows the description of additional semantic metadata information. Visualization aspects are also supported to allow easy manipulation, interaction and representation of the 5D-DCHM geometry and the respective semantic information. The open source 3DCity

  10. The Na(+) transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na(+) accumulation in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan; Xu, Bo; Krishnan, Mahima; Lightfoot, Damien James; Athman, Asmini; Jacobs, Andrew Keith; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Plett, Darren; Munns, Rana; Tester, Mark; Gilliham, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na(+) -selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na(+) concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na(+) from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na(+) from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na(+) exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes. PMID:25158883

  11. The Na(+) transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na(+) accumulation in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan; Xu, Bo; Krishnan, Mahima; Lightfoot, Damien James; Athman, Asmini; Jacobs, Andrew Keith; Watson-Haigh, Nathan S; Plett, Darren; Munns, Rana; Tester, Mark; Gilliham, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na(+) -selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na(+) concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na(+) from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na(+) from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na(+) exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K(+) /Na(+) ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  12. DEEP Study: does EQ-5D-5L measure the impacts of persistent oro-facial pain?

    PubMed

    Durham, J; Steele, J G; Breckons, M; Story, W; Vale, L

    2015-09-01

    The EQ-5D-5L is a generic quality of life (QOL) measure widely used throughout the world, which has the advantage that it allows health-state preferences to be elicited. The aim of this study was to examine whether: a) variation in the standardised reference period for EQ-5D-5L from 'today' to 'the last month' had a minimal clinically meaningful difference; (b) EQ-5D-5L had convergent validity with a multidimensional pain measure in quantifying the impacts of pain. As part of a larger study into the effectiveness and efficiency of care pathways for persistent orofacial pain (POFP) (http://research.ncl.ac.uk/deepstudy), participants with POFP (n = 100) completed two versions of the EQ-5D-5L at the same time with different reference periods ('today' vs. 'last month'). Participants also completed the first section of the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (v3) to assess convergent validity. Two-tailed nonparametric inferential statistics, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and within-subject change scores were used to compare the two EQ-5D-5L versions. Convergent validity was assessed using Spearman's rho correlation coefficients. Health-state valuations were significantly different (P < 0.01), and there was good similarity between the two versions' ICC 0.86 (95% CI 0.79-0.91). The within-subject mean change was 0.03 (95% CI 0.01-0.06). For convergent validity, all relationships were significant (P < 0.05) and in the expected directions. EQ-5D-5L demonstrates sufficient convergent validity to be used with POFP, and a change in the standard reference period may be unnecessary if a multidimensional pain measure is also used. PMID:25818477

  13. 2.5d teleseismic waveform tomography with application to the tien shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Benjamin Ian

    The analysis of passive source seismic data recorded by quasi-linear deployments of broadband stations at teleseismic distances has proven to be an effective means of probing the subsurface of the Earth. However, current methodologies are far from being able to exploit all the interpretable signal in these data sets. In this thesis, I describe a 2.5D, frequency domain, visco-elastic waveform tomography algorithm for imaging with this type of data. To compute synthetic seismograms (the forward problem), the general equations of motion are discretized with p-adaptive finite elements. This approach allows for geometric flexibility and accurate solutions as a function of wavelength. Artificial force distributions manifesting Huygen's principle for the teleseismic events are introduced locally through a Bielak layer. Because of the relatively low frequency content of teleseismic data, regional scale tectonic settings can be parameterized with a modest number of variables and perturbations can be determined directly from a regularized Gauss-Newton system of equations. Waveforms generated by the forward problem compare well with analytic solutions for simple 1D media and with those generated in heterogeneous structures by a finite difference technique. It is demonstrated through examples that the regularized approximate Hessian is particularly effective at focusing backpropagated residuals to their true location. It is observed that full waveform inversion can provide significantly better vertical resolution than arrival time tomography and significantly better lateral resolution than standard surface wave tomography. Used in tandem in a multi-scale approach, surface wave tomography followed by joint surface wave/body wave tomography is shown to be an effective strategy for image reconstruction from a simple starting model. This inversion strategy is then applied to body and surface wave teleseismic waves recorded in the Tien Shan. The work of previous investigators is

  14. Structures of the dehydrogenation products of methane activation by 5d transition metal cations.

    PubMed

    Lapoutre, V J F; Redlich, B; van der Meer, A F G; Oomens, J; Bakker, J M; Sweeney, A; Mookherjee, A; Armentrout, P B

    2013-05-23

    The activation of methane by gas-phase transition metal cations (M(+)) has been studied extensively, both experimentally and using density functional theory (DFT). Methane is exothermically dehydrogenated by several 5d metal ions to form [M,C,2H](+) and H2. However, the structure of the dehydrogenation product has not been established unambiguously. Two types of structures have been considered: a carbene structure where an intact CH2 fragment is bound to the metal (M(+)-CH2) and a carbyne (hydrido-methylidyne) structure with both a CH and a hydrogen bound to the metal separately (H-M(+)-CH). For metal ions with empty d-orbitals, an agostic interaction can occur that could influence the competition between carbene and carbyne structures. In this work, the gas phase [M,C,2H](+) (M = Ta, W, Ir, Pt) products are investigated by infrared multiple-photon dissociation (IR-MPD) spectroscopy using the Free-Electron Laser for IntraCavity Experiments (FELICE). Metal cations are formed in a laser ablation source and react with methane pulsed into a reaction channel downstream. IR-MPD spectra of the [M,C,2H](+) species are measured in the 300-3500 cm(-1) spectral range by monitoring the loss of H (2H in the case of [Ir,C,2H](+)). For each system, the experimental spectrum closely resembles the calculated spectrum of the lowest energy structure calculated using DFT: for Pt, a classic C(2v) carbene structure; for Ta and W, carbene structures that are distorted by agostic interactions; and a carbyne structure for the Ir complex. The Ir carbyne structure was not considered previously. To obtain this agreement, the calculated harmonic frequencies are scaled with a scaling factor of 0.939, which is fairly low and can be attributed to the strong redshift induced by the IR multiple-photon excitation process of these small molecules. These four-atomic species are among the smallest systems studied by IR-FEL based IR-MPD spectroscopy, and their spectra demonstrate the power of IR

  15. The ν17 band of C2H5D from 770 to 880 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Adam M.; Drouin, Brian J.; Pearson, John C.; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, Linda R.; Mantz, Arlan; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2015-10-01

    Atmospheric investigations rely heavily on the availability of accurate spectral information of hydrocarbons. To extend the ethane database we recorded a 0.0028 cm-1 resolution spectrum of 12C2H5D from 650 to 1500 cm-1 using a Bruker Fourier Transform spectrometer IFS-125HR at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The 98% deuterium-enriched sample was contained in a 0.2038 m absorption cell; one spectrum was obtained with the sample cryogenically cooled to 130.5 K and another at room temperature. From the cold data, we retrieved line positions and intensities of 8704 individual absorption features from 770 to 880 cm-1 using a least squares curve fitting algorithm. From this set of measurements, we assigned 5035 transitions to the v17 fundamental at 805.342729(27) cm-1; this band is a c-type vibration, with often-resolved A and E components arising from internal rotation. The positions were modeled to a 22 term torsional Hamiltonian using SPFIT to fit the spectrum to a standard deviation of 7 × 10-4 cm-1 (21 MHz). The prediction of the 5035 line intensities at 130.5 K agreed with observed intensities, but a small centrifugal distortion type correction to the transition dipole was needed to model the intensity of high Ka R and P transitions. The integrated band intensities of 3.6628 × 10-19 cm-1/(molecule cm-2) at 296 K in the 770-880 cm-1 region was obtained. To predict line intensities at different temperatures, the partition function values were determined at nine temperatures between 9.8 and 300 K by summing individual energy levels up to J = 99 and Ka = 99 for the six states up through ν17 at 805 cm-1. We found the energy of A and E are inverted as compared to ground state (with the E state lower than the A state) and the splitting, -241.8(10) MHz, lies between the ground state value of +74.167(18) MHz and the first torsional state (ν18 = 271.1 cm-1) value of -3382.23(34) MHz. The proximity of the energy splitting to the ground state suggests that the ν17 state

  16. Paleoclimate variability during the Blake geomagnetic excursion (MIS 5d) deduced from a speleothem record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Carlos; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Osete, María-Luisa

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate possible connections between climate and the Earth's magnetic field, we examine paleoclimate proxies in a stalagmite (PA-8) recording the Blake excursion (˜112-˜116.4 ka) from Cobre cave (N Spain). Trace element, δ13C, δ18O, δ234U, fluorescent lamination, growth rate, and paleomagnetic records were synchronized using a floating lamina-counted chronology constrained by U-Th dates, providing a high-resolution multi-proxy paleoclimate record for MIS 5d. The alpine cave setting and the combination of proxies contributed to improve the confidence of the paleoclimatic interpretation. Periods of relatively warm and humid climate likely favored forest development and resulted in high speleothem growth rates, arguably annual fluorescent laminae, low δ13C and [Mg], and increased [Sr] and [Ba]. Colder periods limited soil activity and drip water availability, leading to reduced speleothem growth, poor development of fluorescent lamination, enhanced water-rock interaction leading to increased [Mg], δ13C, and δ234U, and episodic flooding. In the coldest and driest period recorded, evaporation caused simultaneous 18O and 13C enrichments and perturbed the trace element patterns. The Blake took place in a relatively warm interestadial at the inception of the Last Glacial period, but during a global cooling trend recorded in PA-8 by an overall decrease of δ18O and growth rate and increasing [Mg]. That trend culminated in the cessation of growth between ˜112 and ˜101 ka likely due to the onset of local glaciation correlated with Greenland stadial 25. That trend is consistent with a link between low geomagnetic intensity and climate cooling, but it does not prove it. Shorter term changes in relative paleointensity (RPI) relate to climate changes recorded in PA-8, particularly a prominent RPI low from ˜114.5 to ˜113 ka coincident with a significant cooling indicated by all proxy records, suggesting a link between geomagnetic intensity and climate at millennial

  17. Simulation of transport in the ignited ITER with 1.5-D predictive code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.

    1995-01-01

    The confinement in the bulk and scrape-off layer plasmas of the ITER EDA and CDA is investigated with special versions of the 1.5-D BALDUR predictive transport code for the case of peaked density profiles (Cu=1.0). The code self-consistently computes 2-D equilibria and solves 1-D transport equations with empirical transport coefficients for the ohmic, L and ELMy H mode regimes. Self-sustained steady state thermonuclear burn is demonstrated for up to 500 s. It is shown to be compatible with the strong radiation losses for divertor heat load reduction caused by the seeded impurities iron, neon and argon. The corresponding global and local energy and particle transport are presented. The required radiation corrected energy confinement times of the EDA and CDA are found to be close to 4 s, which is attainable according to the ITER ELMy H mode scalings. In the reference cases, the steady state helium fraction is 7%, which already causes significant dilution of the DT fuel. The fractions of iron, neon and argon needed for the prescribed radiative power loss are given. It is shown that high radiative losses from the confinement zone, mainly by bremsstrahlung, cannot be avoided. The radiation profiles of iron and argon are found to be the same, with two thirds of the total radiation being emitted from closed flux surfaces. Fuel dilution due to iron and argon is small. The neon radiation is more peripheral, since only half of the total radiative power is lost within the separatrix. But neon is found to cause high fuel. Dilution. The combined dilution effect by helium and neon conflicts with burn control, self-sustained burn and divertor power reduction. Raising the helium fraction above 10% leads to the same difficulties owing to fuel dilution. The high helium levels of the present EDA design are thus unacceptable. For the reference EDA case, the self-consistent electron density and temperature at the separatrix are 5.6*1019 m-3 and 130 eV, respectively. The bootstrap

  18. Equations of motion with respect to the (1+1+3) threading of a 5 D universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejancu, Aurel

    2016-01-01

    We continue our research work started in Bejancu (Eur Phys J C 75:346, 2015), and obtain in a covariant form the equations of motion with respect to the (1+1+3) threading of a 5 D universe (bar{M}, bar{g}). The natural splitting of the tangent bundle of bar{M} leads to the study of three categories of geodesics: spatial geodesics, temporal geodesics, and vertical geodesics. As an application of the general theory, we introduce and study what we call the 5 D Robertson-Walker universe.

  19. 1.5D Quasilinear Model for Alpha Particle-TAE Interaction in ARIES ACT-I

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ghantous, N.N. Gorelenkov, C. Kessel, F. Poli

    2013-01-30

    We study the TAE interaction with alpha particle fusion products in ARIES ACT-I using the 1.5D quasilinear model. 1.5D uses linear analytic expressions for growth and damping rates of TAE modes evaluated using TRANSP pro les to calculates the relaxation of pressure pro les. NOVA- K simulations are conducted to validate the analytic dependancies of the rates, and to normalize their absolute value. The low dimensionality of the model permits calculating loss diagrams in large parameter spaces.

  20. A Comparison between the EQ-5D and the SF-6D in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Wong, Carlos K. H.; McGhee, Sarah M.; Pang, Polly K. P.; Yu, Wai-Cho

    2014-01-01

    Background The appropriate use of generic preference-based measures determines the accuracy of disease assessment and further decision on healthcare policy using quality adjusted life years. The discriminative capacity of different instruments would differ across disease groups. Our study was to examine the difference in utility scores for COPD patients measured by EQ-5D and SF-6D and to assist the choice of a proper instrument in this disease group. Methods Differences of mean utility scores of EQ-5D and SF-6D in groups defined by socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidities, health service utilisation and severity of illness were tested using Mann-Whitney test, t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and ANOVA, as appropriate. The discriminative properties of the two instruments were compared against indicators of quality of life using receiver operating characteristic curves. The statistical significance of the area under the curves (AUC) was tested by ANOVA and F-statistics used to compare the efficiency with which each instrument discriminated between disease severity groups. Results Mean utility scores of EQ-5D and SF-6D were 0.644 and 0.629 respectively in the 154 subjects included in the analysis. EQ-5D scores were significantly higher than SF-6D in groups less severe and these differences corresponded to a minimally important difference of greater than 0.03 (p<0.001). EQ-5D and SF-6D scores were strongly correlated across the whole sample (r = 0.677, p<0.001) and in pre-defined groups (r>0.5 and p<0.05 for all correlation coefficients). AUCs were above 0.5 against the indicators of health-related quality of life for both instruments. F-ratios suggested SF-6D was more efficient in discriminating cases of different disease severity than EQ-5D. Conclusions Both EQ-5D and SF-6D appeared to be valid preference-based measures in Chinese COPD patients. SF-6D was more efficient in detecting differences among subgroups with

  1. EQ-5D-3L Derived Population Norms for Health Related Quality of Life in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Whitty, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Newell W.; Jayasinghe, Ruwan; Scuffham, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure in health economic evaluation that guides health resource allocations. Population norms for HRQoL are an essential ingredient in health economics and in the evaluation of population health. The aim of this study was to produce EQ-5D-3L-derived population norms for Sri Lanka. Method A population sample (n =  780) was selected from four districts of Sri Lanka. A stratified cluster sampling approach with probability proportionate to size was employed. Twenty six clusters of 30 participants each were selected; each participant completed the EQ-5D-3L in a face-to-face interview. Utility weights for their EQ-5D-3L health states were assigned using the Sri Lankan EQ-5D-3L algorithm. The population norms are reported by age and socio-economic variables. Results The EQ-5D-3L was completed by 736 people, representing a 94% response rate. Sixty per cent of the sample reported being in full health. The percentage of people responding to any problems in the five EQ-5D-3L dimensions increased with age. The mean EQ-5D-3L weight was 0.85 (SD 0.008; 95%CI 0.84-0.87). The mean EQ-5D-3L weight was significantly associated with age, housing type, disease experience and religiosity. People above 70 years of age were 7.5 times more likely to report mobility problems and 3.7 times more likely to report pain/discomfort than those aged 18-29 years. Those with a tertiary education were five times less likely to report any HRQoL problems than those without a tertiary education. A person living in a shanty was 4.3 more likely to have problems in usual activities than a person living in a single house. Conclusion The population norms in Sri Lanka vary with socio-demographic characteristics. The socioeconomically disadvantaged have a lower HRQoL. The trends of population norms observed in this lower middle income country were generally similar to those previously reported in high income countries. PMID

  2. Metabolic and structural consequences of ethanol and chloroquin administration during gestation on the developing fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A.; Rawat, A.K.

    1987-05-01

    In the present study the effects of ethanol and chloroquin administration during gestation have been investigated on the developing rat fetus. Ethanol was given in liquid Sustacal diet as 30% of calories and controls were fed isocaloric sucrose-diet. Chloroquin was given intragastrically corresponding controls received saline. Chloroquin resulted in prenatal growth retardation leading to maximum decrease of 46% in body weight of the fetus. It also resulted in 30% higher incidence of hepatomegaly; 15% higher incidence of liquification of visceral organs; 34% decrease in the ossification of sternum; 9% higher defects of cleft palate, wrist drop, clubbed foot and brain liquification compared to the corresponding controls. Ethanol resulted in pre and post-natal growth retardation, cleft palate, still births and lowered brain weights. Fetuses from the ethanol-fed group also showed inhibited protein synthesis, RNA and DNA synthesis in the brain compared to the controls.

  3. The juridical status of the fetus: a proposal for legal protection of the unborn.

    PubMed

    King, P A

    1979-08-01

    This article investigates the juridical status of the fetus. It assesses what this status should be in the light of recent developments in case law, legislation, medicine, and technology (particularly in vitro fertilization). The article is presented in 5 sections: Section 1 deals with the supreme court's landmark decision in Roe vs. Wade, which relied on biological stages of fetal development rather than philosophical determination of when life begins. Section 2 examines the historical reliance on birth as the point at which legal protection vests in the developing human. Section 3 compares fetuses with newborn children, identifying relevant similarities and differences. Section 4 studies whether the fetus at all stages of development should have the same protection (the author concludes they should not). Section 5 examines the practical implications of choosing viability as a developmental stage of special significance for legal protection.

  4. Butyrate Infusions in the Ovine Fetus Delay the Biologic Clock for Globin Gene Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrine, Susan P.; Rudolph, Abraham; Faller, Douglas V.; Roman, Christine; Cohen, Ruth A.; Chen, Shao-Jing; Kan, Yuet Wai

    1988-11-01

    The switch from fetal to adult hemoglobin expression is regulated in many mammalian species by a developmental clock-like mechanism and determined by the gestational age of the fetus. Prolonging fetal globin gene expression is of considerable interest for therapeutic potential in diseases caused by abnormal β -globin genes. Butyric acid, which is found in increased plasma concentrations in infants of diabetic mothers who have delayed globin gene switching, was infused into catheterized fetal lambs in utero during the time of the normal globin gene switch period. The globin gene switch was significantly delayed in three of four butyrate-treated fetuses compared with controls and was entirely prevented in one fetus in whom the infusion was begun before the globin switch was under way. These data provide a model for investigating and arresting the biologic clock of hemoglobin switching.

  5. Ontogeny of hormonal and excretory function of the meso- and metanephros in the ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Wintour, E M; Alcorn, D; Butkus, A; Congiu, M; Earnest, L; Pompolo, S; Potocnik, S J

    1996-11-01

    Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry we investigated the ontogeny of renin, angiotensinogen and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the mesonephros at 27 and 41 days of gestation, and the metanephros at 41 and 64 days of gestation in ovine fetuses (term is 145 to 150 days). The volume and composition of fetal urine, stored as allantoic fluid were measured in 12 fetuses at 27 days, and 13 fetuses at 41 days. Renin, angiotensinogen and ACE were identified in both meso- and metanephroi at 41 days but not in the mesonephros at 27 to 30 days. Allantoic fluid volumes were 21 +/- 3 and 45 +/- 5 ml at 27 to 30 days and 41 days, respectively. This fluid was significantly different in composition to that of amniotic fluid or maternal plasma. The results suggest that the mesonephros can substantially modify its glomerular filtrate by 27 days of gestation, and can produce local angiotensin II by 41 days.

  6. Lack of teratogenic and mutagenic effects of nitrite on mouse fetuses

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Takamichi )

    1988-10-01

    To assess embryotoxic effects of sodium nitrite, pregnant ICR mice were given drinking water containing sodium nitrite at a concentration of either 100 or 1,000 mg/L on days 7-18 of gestation. There were no significant differences between treated and control groups in measures of developmental toxicity, e.g., litter size, fetal weight, and number of resorbed or dead fetuses. The incidences of external and skeletal malformations in fetuses of treated groups were not significantly different from those in the controls. No significant increase was observed in the frequency of gaps and breaks of liver cell chromosomes in fetuses exposed in utero to sodium nitrite. Teratogenic and mutagenic effects of sodium nitrite were absent in mice at the doses used.

  7. Differentiation of AFS cells derived from the EGFP gene transgenic porcine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Mao; Dang, Yong-Hui; Xu, Yong-Ping; Sai, Wu-Jia-Fu; An, Zhi-Xing

    2011-08-01

    We have obtained the EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) gene transgenic porcine fetuses before. The aims of this study were (i) to determine whether stem cells could be isolated from amniotic fluid of the transgenic porcine fetuses, and (ii) to determine if these stem cells could express EGFP and differentiate in vitro. The results demonstrated that stem cells could be isolated from amniotic fluid of the EGFP gene transgenic porcine fetuses and could express EGFP and differentiate in vitro. Undifferentiated AFSs (amniotic fluid-derived stem cells) expressed POU5F1, THY1 and SOX2, while the following differentiation cells expressed markers for chondrogenic (COL2A1), osteogenic (osteocalcin and osteonectin) and neurogenic cells such as astrocyte (GFAP), oligodendrocyte (GALC) and neuron (NF, ENO2 and MAP).

  8. An anatomical and biometrical study of the femoral trochlear groove in the human fetus

    PubMed Central

    Glard, Yann; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Panuel, Michel; Adalian, Pascal; Tardieu, Christine; Bollini, Gérard

    2005-01-01

    We performed a biometric analysis of the femoral trochlear groove in the fetus and compared our findings with those observed in adults. We studied 44 formalin-preserved fetuses (13–38 weeks) and used digitized images to obtain measurements (α angle of the groove, trochlear slopes θL and θM). A comparison of means between our series and adults was achieved. For each angle of the distal epiphysis (α, θL, θM) there was no significant difference between our fetal series and adults. This is the first biometric study of fetal trochlea. The morphology of the lower femur appears to be the same in the fetus and the adult. PMID:15817109

  9. Mutational analysis of the DTDST gene in a fetus with achondrogenesis type 1B.

    PubMed

    Cai, G; Nakayama, M; Hiraki, Y; Ozono, K

    1998-06-16

    We describe a diastrophic dysplasia (DTDST) gene mutation in a Japanese male fetus with achondrogenesis type 1B and his relatives. Diagnosis in the fetus was based on roentgenographic data and pathological findings of bones and cartilage. Nucleotide sequencing of the DTDST gene demonstrated that the fetus was homozygous for both delVal340 and Thr689Ser and his parents and a healthy brother were heterozygous for the mutations. The former mutation was reported previously in patients with achondrogenesis type 1B, and the latter was detected in 5 alleles of 26 healthy Japanese individuals. These data suggest that delVal340 is associated with achondrogenesis type 1B in the Japanese, whereas a serine to threonine substitution is most likely polymorphic. PMID:9637425

  10. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in buffaloes aborted fetuses by IS111 DNA amplification: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Perugini, A G; Capuano, F; Esposito, A; Marianelli, C; Martucciello, A; Iovane, G; Galiero, G

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate by PCR analyses the presence of Coxiella burnetii infection in fetuses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Campania region (Southern Italy). Samples were collected only from aborted fetuses and C. burnetii presence was evaluated by one-tube nested PCR amplification of the IS111 repetitive element. Of the 164 fetuses examined 14 (17.5%) were positive after DNA amplification, showing that C. burnetii occurs in this population of water buffaloes. However, more extensive prevalence studies need to be carried out to define the role of buffaloes as reservoirs for this pathogen and also the role of C. burnetii as an abortive agent in this animal.

  11. Comparison of myelination between large and small pig fetuses during late gestation.

    PubMed

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R

    2012-05-01

    We compared myelination of the cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord in the largest and smallest pig fetuses within a litter during late gestation. Gilts were killed on Days 92, 100, and 110 of gestation and these neural tissues were obtained from the largest and smallest fetuses in each litter. Myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA was quantified in each tissue using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). Myelin was recovered from each tissue and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to measure MBP and lipids, respectively. MBP mRNA increased with advancing gestation in all three tissues examined (P≤0.05) and was less in brain stem of small piglets compared to large piglets (P<0.01). Two coomassie stained protein bands (HMBP and LMBP) were observed by SDS-PAGE. Six prominent lipid bands were obtained by TLC (cholesterol, hydroxy(h)-cerebroside, nonhydroxy(nh)-cerebroside, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin). Significant day by fetal size interactions for cerebellar MBP and lipids indicated that cerebellar myelination in the smallest fetuses was less compared to the largest fetuses on Days 100 and 110 of gestation. Myelin MBP and lipid obtained from brain stem increased with advancing gestation and LMBP and lipids were less in small piglets compared to large piglets. In contrast, myelination in spinal cord increased with day of gestation but was not different between smallest and largest fetuses. These results confirm that myelination of the cerebellum and brain stem, but not spinal cord, is reduced in small fetuses during late gestation.

  12. Stress-related gene expression in brain and adrenal gland of porcine fetuses and neonates.

    PubMed

    Schwerin, Manfred; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Nürnberg, Gerd; Otten, Winfried

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine stress-induced effects on gene expression of specific markers for HPA axis and neuronal activity in fetuses and neonatal pigs. Brain, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland were obtained to determine the mRNA levels for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), ACTH receptor (MC2R), c-jun and c-fos. The suitability of these molecular markers was determined in neonatal pigs which were maternally deprived for two hours. It was found that maternal deprivation caused significantly higher transcript levels of c-fos and CRH in brain accompanied by a down-regulation of CRHR1 mRNA and an up-regulation of c-jun in the pituitary gland. To determine the effect of elevated maternal cortisol levels on gene expression of these molecular markers in fetuses, pregnant sows were treated with 100 IU ACTH (Synacthen Depot) s.c. every two days between Day 49 and Day 75 of gestation (normal gestation length 114 days). Animals were killed 48 hours after the last ACTH administration and fetuses of each sow were isolated. The ACTH treatment of sows significantly increased mRNA expression of c-fos but not of CRH in the fetal brain, and significantly decreased MC2R mRNA expression in the adrenal gland. However, HPA axis seems not to be fully developed in Day 77-fetuses because fetal pituitary CRHR1 and POMC mRNA expression was low in most of the fetuses. Although the expression of endocrine regulatory factors was partially incomplete in fetuses at the beginning of the third-trimester, ACTH dependent activation of c-fos mRNA in brain indicates a stress-related increase of neuronal activity. Based on these results it is assumed that prenatal stress in pigs may also have effects on the activity of the HPA axis in the offspring.

  13. Neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for embryo and fetus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Meyerhof, Dorothy; Vlahovich, Slavica

    2004-01-01

    A problem of concern in radiation protection is the exposure of pregnant women to ionising radiation, because of the high radiosensitivity of the embryo and fetus. External neutron exposure is of concern when pregnant women travel by aeroplane. Dose assessments for neutrons frequently rely on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. While neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for adults are recommended in International Commission on Radiological Protection publications and International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements reports, conversion coefficients for embryos and fetuses are not given in the publications. This study undertakes Monte Carlo calculations to determine the mean absorbed doses to the embryo and fetus when the mother is exposed to neutron fields. A new set of mathematical models for the embryo and fetus has been developed at Health Canada and is used together with mathematical phantoms of a pregnant female developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Monoenergetic neutrons from 1 eV to 10 MeV are considered in this study. The irradiation geometries include antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO) geometries. At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the fetal brain and body are calculated; for the embryo at 8 weeks and the fetus at 3, 6 or 9 months. Neutron fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients are derived for the four age groups. Neutron fluence-to-equivalent dose conversion coefficients are given for the AP irradiations which yield the highest radiation dose to the fetal body in the neutron energy range considered here. The results indicate that for neutrons <10 MeV more protection should be given to pregnant women in the first trimester due to the higher absorbed dose per unit neutron fluence to the fetus. PMID:15353732

  14. Adrenergic and vasopressinergic contributions to the cardiovascular response to acute hypoxaemia in the llama fetus

    PubMed Central

    Giussani, D A; Riquelme, R A; Sanhueza, E M; Hanson, M A; Blanco, C E; Llanos, A J

    1999-01-01

    The effects of fetal intravenous treatment with phentolamine or a vasopressinergic V1-receptor antagonist on the fetal cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxaemia in the llama were investigated. Six llama fetuses were surgically prepared between 60 and 70% of gestation under general halothane anaesthesia with vascular catheters and transit-time ultrasonic flow probes around a carotid artery and a femoral artery. At least 4 days after surgery all fetuses were subjected to a 3 h experiment: 1 h of normoxia, 1 h of hypoxaemia and 1 h of recovery while on slow i.v. infusion with saline. On separate days this experiment was repeated with fetal i.v. treatment with either phentolamine or a V1-receptor antagonist dissolved in saline. During saline infusion all llama fetuses responded to acute hypoxaemia with intense femoral vasoconstriction. Phentolamine during normoxia produced hypotension, tachycardia and vasodilatation in both the carotid and the femoral circulations. During hypoxaemia, fetuses treated with phentolamine did not elicit the pronounced femoral vasoconstriction and all died within 20 min of the onset of hypoxaemia. A V1-receptor antagonist produced a femoral vasodilatation during normoxia but did not affect the fetal cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxaemia. In conclusion, α-adrenergic and V1-vasopressinergic mechanisms contribute to a basal vasoconstrictor tone in the femoral circulation in the llama fetus. The enhanced femoral vasoconstriction during acute hypoxaemia in the llama fetus is not mediated by stimulation of V1-vasopressin receptors, but is dependent on α-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Such α-adrenergic efferent mechanisms are indispensable to fetal survival during hypoxaemia in the llama since their abolition leads to cardiovascular collapse and death. PMID:9925892

  15. Ultrasonographic Investigation of Human Fetus Responses to Maternal Communicative and Non-communicative Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Gabriella A.; Nicolini, Ylenia; Demuru, Elisa; Tosato, Cecilia; Hussain, Merhi; Scesa, Elena; Romei, Luisa; Boerci, Maria; Iappini, Emanuela; Dalla Rosa Prati, Guido; Palagi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy fetuses are responsive to the external environment, specifically to maternal stimulation. During this period, brain circuits develop to prepare neonates to respond appropriately. The detailed behavioral analysis of fetus’ mouth movements in response to mothers’ speech may reveal important aspects of their sensorimotor and affective skills; however, to date, no studies have investigated this response. Given that newborns at birth are capable of responding with matched behaviors to the social signals emitted by the caregiver, we hypothesize that such precocious responses could emerge in the prenatal period by exploiting infants’ sensitivity to their mother’s voice. By means of a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography, we assessed whether fetuses at 25 weeks of gestation, showed a congruent mouthmotor response to maternal acoustic stimulation. Mothers were asked to provide different stimuli, each characterized by a different acoustic output (e.g., chewing, yawning, nursery rhymes, etc.) and we recorded the behavioral responses of 29 fetuses. We found that, when mothers sang the syllable LA in a nursery rhyme, fetuses significantly increased mouth openings. Other stimuli provided by the mother did not produce other significant changes in fetus’ behavior. This finding suggests that fetuses are sensitive only to specific maternal vocalizations (LA) and that fetal matched responses are rudimentary signs of early mirroring behaviors that become functional in the postnatal period. In conclusion, fetuses seem to be predisposed to respond selectively to specific maternal stimuli. We propose that such responses may play a role in the development of behavioral and emotional attunement with their mothers long before birth. PMID:27014160

  16. [The unclear status of the fetus is an ethical dilemma. Neonatal care can save the fetus when abortion is still legally possible].

    PubMed

    Persson, I

    1990-05-01

    A striking situation occasionally occurs in Swedish hospitals: a fetus survives late abortion and then all available intensive care resources are employed to keep it alive. The law permits free abortion through the 18th week of pregnancy, but with permission from the social service authorities, the limit for abortion can be stretched to the end of the 22nd week. At the same time it is possible to save the life of a premature birth down to the 23rd or 24th week. The development of a neonatal advanced care is based upon the assumption that it is desirable to save the life of a human fetus no matter how young it may be. At the same time, legislation which legitimizes free abortion up to a certain period of time expresses the view that the life of the fetus up through that time possesses little or no real value. A recent report by a government commission on the individuality of the pregnant woman and the fetus should have dealt with this ambivalence but did not. One possible way out of this dilemma is for society to take an active role in offering the woman economic compensation for bearing the child to term with a view toward giving it up for adoption. The commission's report compromised in not presenting this alternative as an official suggestion because it is too unpopular politically. The result is that tens of thousands of humans in Sweden every year are denied a chance for normal life because the public allows itself to be represented by politicians who lack the courage or the insight to accept the moral consequences of this decision.

  17. Mechanisms of optical losses in the {sup 5}D{sub 4} and {sup 5}D{sub 3} levels in Tb{sup 3+} doped low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, J. F. M. dos; Terra, I. A. A.; Nunes, L. A. O.; Catunda, T.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Guimarães, F. B.; Baesso, M. L.

    2015-02-07

    Trivalent Tb-doped materials exhibit strong emission in the green and weak emission in the UV-blue levels. Usually, this behavior is attributed to the cross relaxation (CR) process. In this paper, the luminescence properties of Tb{sup 3+}-doped low silica calcium aluminosilicate glasses are analyzed for UV (λ{sub exc} = 325 nm) and visible (488 nm) excitations. Under 325 nm excitation, the intensity of green luminescence increases proportionally to Tb{sup 3+} concentration. However, the blue luminescence intensity is strongly reduced with the increase of concentration from 0.5–15.0 wt. %. In the case of 488 nm excitation, a saturation behavior of the green emission is observed at intensities two orders of magnitude smaller than expected for bleaching of the ground state population. Using a rate equation model, we showed that this behavior can be explained by an excited state absorption cross section two orders of magnitude larger than the ground state absorption. The blue emission is much weaker than expected from our rate equations (325 nm and 488 nm excitation). We concluded that only the CR process cannot explain the overall feature of measured luminescence quenching in the wide range of Tb{sup 3+} concentrations. Cooperative upconversion from a pair of excited ions ({sup 5}D{sub 3}:{sup 5}D{sub 3} or {sup 5}D{sub 3}:{sup 5}D{sub 4}) and other mechanisms involving upper lying states (4f5d, charge transfer, host matrix, defects, etc.) may play a significant role.

  18. Fetus absorbed dose evaluation in head and neck radiotherapy procedures of pregnant patients.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Etieli C; da Rosa, Luiz Antonio R; Batista, Delano Valdivino S

    2015-06-01

    In this work the head and neck cancer treatment of a pregnant patient was experimentally simulated. A female anthropomorphic Alderson phantom was used and the absorbed dose to the fetus was evaluated protecting the patient's abdomen with a 7cm lead layer and using no abdomen shielding. The target volume dose was 50Gy. The fetus doses evaluated with and without the lead shielding were, respectively, 0.52±0.039 and 0.88±0.052cGy. PMID:25620113

  19. Severe hypercalcemia in a dog with a retained fetus and endometritis.

    PubMed

    Hirt, R A; Kneissl, S; Teinfalt, M

    2000-05-01

    A 10-month-old sexually intact female German Shorthaired Pointer examined because of lethargy, episodes of fever, inappetence, and vomiting was found to have severe hypercalcemia. Results of laboratory testing, radiography, and ultrasonography excluded previously recognized causes of hypercalcemia in dogs. Instead, the dog was found to have purulent endometritis and an incompletely resorbed fetus. Treatment with fluids i.v., diuretics, and calcitonin failed to adequately reduce serum calcium concentration, but serum calcium concentration was normal within 4 days after the dog underwent an ovariohysterectomy. Retention of one or more fetuses and endometritis should be included in the differential diagnosis for dogs with hypercalcemia.

  20. Late termination of pregnancy in cases of severe abnormalities in the fetus.

    PubMed

    Gevers, S

    1998-01-01

    Developments in medical technology have increased the possibility of diagnosing severe structural abnormalities in the fetus. In such circumstances, the woman may request termination of her pregnancy. This raises serious ethical and legal questions, in particular if the abnormalities are discovered after 24 weeks of gestation, when the fetus is considered viable. This article discusses the legal aspects of this problem, with particular reference to the Netherlands. If one accepts that, in exceptional circumstances, third trimester abortion may be justified on medical grounds, the law should make provision for it. However, the general protection provided by the law to fetal life-especially in the third trimester--should remain firmly in place.

  1. Development of Synovial Membrane in the Temporomandibular Joint of the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, R.C.; Arraéz-Aybar, L.A.; Klein, O.; Mérida-Velasco, J.R.; Alonso, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of the synovial membrane was analyzed in serial sections of 21 temporomandibular joints of human fetuses at 9 to 13 weeks of gestation. Sections of two fetuses at 12 weeks of development were used to perform immunohistochemical expression of the markers CD68 and Hsp27 on the synovial lining. Macrophage-like type A and fibroblast-like type B cells, which express CD68 and Hsp27, respectively, were observed at the twelfth week of development. Our results suggest that the development of the synovial membrane is related to the vascularization of the joint and the formation of the articular cavities. PMID:26708184

  2. Magneto-structural variety of new 3d-4f-4(5)d heterotrimetallic complexes.

    PubMed

    Visinescu, Diana; Alexandru, Maria-Gabriela; Madalan, Augustin M; Pichon, Céline; Duhayon, Carine; Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Andruh, Marius

    2015-10-14

    also observed in the type 2 series (compounds 8-10 and 12-14) as a result of the magnetic coupling between copper(ii) and lanthanide(iii) ions via the phenoxo-bridge. The magnetic behavior for the La(III) derivatives reveals that weak ferromagnetic interactions are also operative between the Cu(II) and the 4d/5d centers.

  3. Spin-orbit-driven magnetic structure and excitation in the 5d pyrochlore Cd2Os2O7.

    PubMed

    Calder, S; Vale, J G; Bogdanov, N A; Liu, X; Donnerer, C; Upton, M H; Casa, D; Said, A H; Lumsden, M D; Zhao, Z; Yan, J-Q; Mandrus, D; Nishimoto, S; van den Brink, J; Hill, J P; McMorrow, D F; Christianson, A D

    2016-01-01

    Much consideration has been given to the role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in 5d oxides, particularly on the formation of novel electronic states and manifested metal-insulator transitions (MITs). SOC plays a dominant role in 5d(5) iridates (Ir(4+)), undergoing MITs both concurrent (pyrochlores) and separated (perovskites) from the onset of magnetic order. However, the role of SOC for other 5d configurations is less clear. For example, 5d(3) (Os(5+)) systems are expected to have an orbital singlet with reduced effective SOC. The pyrochlore Cd2Os2O7 nonetheless exhibits a MIT entwined with magnetic order phenomenologically similar to pyrochlore iridates. Here, we resolve the magnetic structure in Cd2Os2O7 with neutron diffraction and then via resonant inelastic X-ray scattering determine the salient electronic and magnetic energy scales controlling the MIT. In particular, SOC plays a subtle role in creating the electronic ground state but drives the magnetic order and emergence of a multiple spin-flip magnetic excitation. PMID:27273216

  4. Spin-orbit-driven magnetic structure and excitation in the 5d pyrochlore Cd2Os2O7

    PubMed Central

    Calder, S.; Vale, J. G.; Bogdanov, N. A.; Liu, X.; Donnerer, C.; Upton, M. H.; Casa, D.; Said, A. H.; Lumsden, M. D.; Zhao, Z.; Yan, J. -Q.; Mandrus, D.; Nishimoto, S.; van den Brink, J.; Hill, J. P.; McMorrow, D. F.; Christianson, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Much consideration has been given to the role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in 5d oxides, particularly on the formation of novel electronic states and manifested metal-insulator transitions (MITs). SOC plays a dominant role in 5d5 iridates (Ir4+), undergoing MITs both concurrent (pyrochlores) and separated (perovskites) from the onset of magnetic order. However, the role of SOC for other 5d configurations is less clear. For example, 5d3 (Os5+) systems are expected to have an orbital singlet with reduced effective SOC. The pyrochlore Cd2Os2O7 nonetheless exhibits a MIT entwined with magnetic order phenomenologically similar to pyrochlore iridates. Here, we resolve the magnetic structure in Cd2Os2O7 with neutron diffraction and then via resonant inelastic X-ray scattering determine the salient electronic and magnetic energy scales controlling the MIT. In particular, SOC plays a subtle role in creating the electronic ground state but drives the magnetic order and emergence of a multiple spin-flip magnetic excitation. PMID:27273216

  5. New Insights in 4f(12)5d(1) Excited States of Tm(2+) through Excited State Excitation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mathijs; Biner, Daniel; Krämer, Karl W; Barandiarán, Zoila; Seijo, Luis; Meijerink, Andries

    2016-07-21

    Optical excitation of ions or molecules typically leads to an expansion of the equilibrium bond lengths in the excited electronic state. However, for 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states in lanthanide ions both expansion and contraction relative to the 4f(n) ground state have been reported, depending on the crystal field and nature of the 5d state. To probe the equilibrium distance offset between different 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states, we report excited state excitation (ESE) spectra for Tm(2+) doped in CsCaBr3 and CsCaCl3 using two-color excited state excitation spectroscopy. The ESE spectra reveal sharp lines at low energies, confirming a similar distance offset for 4f(n-1)5d(t2g)(1) states. At higher energies, broader bands are observed, which indicate the presence of excited states with a different offset. On the basis of ab initio embedded-cluster calculations, the broad bands are assigned to two-photon d-d absorption from the excited state. In this work, we demonstrate that ESE is a powerful spectroscopic tool, giving access to information which cannot be obtained through regular one-photon spectroscopy. PMID:27347766

  6. Spin-orbit-driven magnetic structure and excitation in the 5d pyrochlore Cd2Os2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, S.; Vale, J. G.; Bogdanov, N. A.; Liu, X.; Donnerer, C.; Upton, M. H.; Casa, D.; Said, A. H.; Lumsden, M. D.; Zhao, Z.; Yan, J.-Q.; Mandrus, D.; Nishimoto, S.; van den Brink, J.; Hill, J. P.; McMorrow, D. F.; Christianson, A. D.

    2016-06-01

    Much consideration has been given to the role of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in 5d oxides, particularly on the formation of novel electronic states and manifested metal-insulator transitions (MITs). SOC plays a dominant role in 5d5 iridates (Ir4+), undergoing MITs both concurrent (pyrochlores) and separated (perovskites) from the onset of magnetic order. However, the role of SOC for other 5d configurations is less clear. For example, 5d3 (Os5+) systems are expected to have an orbital singlet with reduced effective SOC. The pyrochlore Cd2Os2O7 nonetheless exhibits a MIT entwined with magnetic order phenomenologically similar to pyrochlore iridates. Here, we resolve the magnetic structure in Cd2Os2O7 with neutron diffraction and then via resonant inelastic X-ray scattering determine the salient electronic and magnetic energy scales controlling the MIT. In particular, SOC plays a subtle role in creating the electronic ground state but drives the magnetic order and emergence of a multiple spin-flip magnetic excitation.

  7. New Insights in 4f(12)5d(1) Excited States of Tm(2+) through Excited State Excitation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Mathijs; Biner, Daniel; Krämer, Karl W; Barandiarán, Zoila; Seijo, Luis; Meijerink, Andries

    2016-07-21

    Optical excitation of ions or molecules typically leads to an expansion of the equilibrium bond lengths in the excited electronic state. However, for 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states in lanthanide ions both expansion and contraction relative to the 4f(n) ground state have been reported, depending on the crystal field and nature of the 5d state. To probe the equilibrium distance offset between different 4f(n-1)5d(1) excited states, we report excited state excitation (ESE) spectra for Tm(2+) doped in CsCaBr3 and CsCaCl3 using two-color excited state excitation spectroscopy. The ESE spectra reveal sharp lines at low energies, confirming a similar distance offset for 4f(n-1)5d(t2g)(1) states. At higher energies, broader bands are observed, which indicate the presence of excited states with a different offset. On the basis of ab initio embedded-cluster calculations, the broad bands are assigned to two-photon d-d absorption from the excited state. In this work, we demonstrate that ESE is a powerful spectroscopic tool, giving access to information which cannot be obtained through regular one-photon spectroscopy.

  8. The Scavenger Receptor SSc5D Physically Interacts with Bacteria through the SRCR-Containing N-Terminal Domain

    PubMed Central

    Bessa Pereira, Catarina; Bocková, Markéta; Santos, Rita F.; Santos, Ana Mafalda; Martins de Araújo, Mafalda; Oliveira, Liliana; Homola, Jiří; Carmo, Alexandre M.

    2016-01-01

    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) family comprises a group of membrane-attached or secreted proteins that contain one or more modules/domains structurally similar to the membrane distal domain of type I macrophage scavenger receptor. Although no all-inclusive biological function has been ascribed to the SRCR family, some of these receptors have been shown to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) of bacteria, fungi, or other microbes. SSc5D is a recently described soluble SRCR receptor produced by monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes, consisting of an N-terminal portion, which contains five SRCR modules, and a large C-terminal mucin-like domain. Toward establishing a global common role for SRCR domains, we interrogated whether the set of five SRCR domains of SSc5D displayed pattern recognition receptor (PRR) properties. For that purpose, we have expressed in a mammalian expression system the N-terminal SRCR-containing moiety of SSc5D (N-SSc5D), thus excluding the mucin-like domain likely by nature to bind microorganisms, and tested the capacity of the SRCR functional groups to physically interact with bacteria. Using conventional protein–bacteria binding assays, we showed that N-SSc5D had a superior capacity to bind to Escherichia coli strains RS218 and IHE3034 compared with that of the extracellular domains of the SRCR proteins CD5 and CD6 (sCD5 and sCD6, respectively), and similar E. coli-binding properties as Spα, a proven PRR of the SRCR family. We have further designed a more sensitive, real-time, and label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based assay and examined the capacity of N-SSc5D, Spα, sCD5, and sCD6 to bind to different bacteria. We demonstrated that N-SSc5D compares with Spα in the capacity to bind to E. coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and further that it can distinguish between pathogenic E. coli RS218 and IHE3034 strains and the non-pathogenic laboratory E. coli strain BL21(DE3). Our work thus advocates the

  9. Performance and applicability of a 2.5-D ice-flow model in the vicinity of a dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passalacqua, Olivier; Gagliardini, Olivier; Parrenin, Frédéric; Todd, Joe; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Ritz, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional ice flow modelling requires a large number of computing resources and observation data, such that 2-D simulations are often preferable. However, when there is significant lateral divergence, this must be accounted for (2.5-D models), and a flow tube is considered (volume between two horizontal flowlines). In the absence of velocity observations, this flow tube can be derived assuming that the flowlines follow the steepest slope of the surface, under a few flow assumptions. This method typically consists of scanning a digital elevation model (DEM) with a moving window and computing the curvature at the centre of this window. The ability of the 2.5-D models to account properly for a 3-D state of strain and stress has not clearly been established, nor their sensitivity to the size of the scanning window and to the geometry of the ice surface, for example in the cases of sharp ridges. Here, we study the applicability of a 2.5-D ice flow model around a dome, typical of the East Antarctic plateau conditions. A twin experiment is carried out, comparing 3-D and 2.5-D computed velocities, on three dome geometries, for several scanning windows and thermal conditions. The chosen scanning window used to evaluate the ice surface curvature should be comparable to the typical radius of this curvature. For isothermal ice, the error made by the 2.5-D model is in the range 0-10 % for weakly diverging flows, but is 2 or 3 times higher for highly diverging flows and could lead to a non-physical ice surface at the dome. For non-isothermal ice, assuming a linear temperature profile, the presence of a sharp ridge makes the 2.5-D velocity field unrealistic. In such cases, the basal ice is warmer and more easily laterally strained than the upper one, the walls of the flow tube are not vertical, and the assumptions of the 2.5-D model are no longer valid.

  10. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Bala A; Lucas, Stuart J; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-08-01

    Flow cytometric sorting of individual chromosomes and chromosome-based sequencing reduces the complexity of large, repetitive Triticeae genomes. We flow-sorted chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat and sequenced it by Roche 454 GS FLX platform to approximately 2.2x coverage. Repetitive sequences represent 81.09% of the survey sequences of this chromosome, and Class I retroelements are the prominent type, with a particular abundance of LTR/Gypsy superfamily. Nonrepetitive sequences were assembled to cover 17.76% of the total chromosome regions. Up to 6188 nonrepetitive gene loci were predicted to be encoded by the 5D chromosome. The numbers and chromosomal distribution patterns of tRNA genes suggest abundance in tRNA(L) (ys) and tRNA(M) (et) species, while the nonrepetitive assembly reveals tRNA(A) (la) species as the most abundant type. A comparative analysis of the genomic sequences of bread wheat and Aegilops chromosome 5D indicates conservation of gene content. Orthologous unique genes, matching Aegilops 5D sequences, numbered 3730 in barley, 5063 in Brachypodium, 4872 in sorghum and 4209 in rice. In this study, we provide a chromosome-specific view into the structure and organization of the 5D chromosome of Ae. tauschii, the D genome ancestor of bread wheat. This study contributes to our understanding of the chromosome-level evolution of the wheat genome and presents a valuable resource in wheat genomics due to the recent hybridization of Ae. tauschii genome with its tetraploid ancestor.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis Biovar Intermedius, Isolated from the Prepuce of a Bull

    PubMed Central

    Iraola, Gregorio; Pérez, Ruben; Naya, Hugo; Paolicchi, Fernando; Harris, David; Lawley, Trevor D.; Rego, Natalia; Hernández, Martín; Calleros, Lucía; Carretto, Luis; Velilla, Alejandra; Morsella, Claudia; Méndez, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is the causative agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a sexually transmitted disease distributed worldwide. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis biovar Intermedius strains differ in their biochemical behavior and are prevalent in some countries. We report the first genome sequence for this biovar, isolated from bull prepuce. PMID:23908278

  12. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  13. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  14. Inconsistency of phenotypic and genomic characteristics of Campylobacter fetus subspecies requires re-evaluation of current diagnostics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classification of the Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus and venerealis was first described in 1959 and was based on the source of isolation (intestinal vs genital) and the ability of the strains to proliferate in cows. Two phenotypic assays (1% glycine tolerance and H2S production) were described...

  15. Draft Genome Sequences of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis Strain B6 and bv. intermedius Strain 642-21

    PubMed Central

    Barrero, Roberto A.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Indjein, Léa; Venus, Bronwyn; Keeble-Gagnère, Gabriel; Power, John

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis is an important venereal pathogen. We sequenced the genomes of Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis bv. venerealis strain B6 and bv. intermedius strain 642-21. The genetic variability of these Australian strains will facilitate the study of mechanisms of geographical adaptation of these pathogens that impact livestock. PMID:25278524

  16. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  17. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  18. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  19. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  20. 45 CFR 46.206 - Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving, after delivery, the placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. 46.206 Section 46.206 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... placenta, the dead fetus or fetal material. (a) Research involving, after delivery, the placenta; the...

  1. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  2. 40 CFR 26.305 - Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Supported by EPA § 26.305 Protections applicable, after delivery, to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.206 are applicable to this section. ..., to the placenta, the dead fetus, or fetal material. 26.305 Section 26.305 Protection of...

  3. Detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera by a Dot-ELISA using acid extracts from c. fetus ssp. fetus and c. jejuni strains and comparison with a complement fixation test.

    PubMed

    Gürtürk, K; Ekin, I H; Aksakal, A; Solmaz, H

    2002-04-01

    In this study, a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA) was evaluated in comparison with a complement fixation test (CFT) for the detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera. Acid glycine extracts (AGE) of both Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains that had been isolated from the gall-bladder of slaughtered sheep was used as antigen in both tests. A total of 153 sheep sera from aborted (74) and slaughtered (79) sheep were examined by both Dot-ELISA and CFT. Twenty-two sera showed anti-complementary activity were not suitable for CFT. Of the 22 sera showing anti-complementary activity, two sera were found to be positive in Dot-ELISA. Eighty-eight (67.2%) of the remaining 131 sera were negative by both Dot-ELISA and CFT using AGE of both Campylobacter strains whereas 43 sera (32.8%) gave different reaction patterns in Dot-ELISA and CFT with the extracts of both Campylobacter strains. Twelve sera were positive by both tests using AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus but CFT failed to detect antibodies in nine of these sera when AGE of C. jejuni was used. Twelve sera were positive by both tests only when AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus was used. Eleven sera were positive only by CFT. Seven of these reacted only with the AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus and four sera were positive by using AGE of both Campylobacter strains. The remaining eight sera were found to be positive only by dot-immunobinding assay either with the AGE of both Campylobacter strains or with the AGE of one of the Campylobacter strains. It is concluded that Dot-ELISA using AGE from C. fetus ssp. fetus could be employed for the detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera and the additional use of AGE from C. jejuni as antigen appeared not to be profitable for this purpose.

  4. The development of hepatic stellate cells in normal and abnormal human fetuses – an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Christine K C; Pereira, Tamara N; Pozniak, Katarzyna N; Ramsing, Mette; Vogel, Ida; Ramm, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    The precise embryological origin and development of hepatic stellate cells is not established. Animal studies and observations on human fetuses suggest that they derive from posterior mesodermal cells that migrate via the septum transversum and developing diaphragm to form submesothelial cells beneath the liver capsule, which give rise to mesenchymal cells including hepatic stellate cells. However, it is unclear if these are similar to hepatic stellate cells in adults or if this is the only source of stellate cells. We have studied hepatic stellate cells by immunohistochemistry, in developing human liver from autopsies of fetuses with and without malformations and growth restriction, using cellular Retinol Binding Protein-1 (cRBP-1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and α-Smooth Muscle Actin (αSMA) antibodies, to identify factors that influence their development. We found that hepatic stellate cells expressing cRBP-1 are present from the end of the first trimester of gestation and reduce in density throughout gestation. They appear abnormally formed and variably reduced in number in fetuses with abnormal mesothelial Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) function, diaphragmatic hernia and in ectopic liver nodules without mesothelium. Stellate cells showed similarities to intravascular cells and their presence in a fetus with diaphragm agenesis suggests they may be derived from circulating stem cells. Our observations suggest circulating stem cells as well as mesothelium can give rise to hepatic stellate cells, and that they require normal mesothelial function for their development. PMID:26265759

  5. Effects of cadmium on the placental uptake and transport to the fetus of nutrients.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, B R; Dencker, L

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to produce malformations, growth inhibition of the fetus, and placental necrosis in rodents at higher doses (3-4 mg/kg body wt). We studied the influence of Cd in various doses (0.5-4 mg/kg body wt) and at different survival intervals on the placental uptake and transfer to the fetus of vitamin B12 (vit. B12), zinc (Zn), alpha-aminobutyric acid (AIB), and deoxyglucose (DOX). These were chosen to represent various mechanisms of membrane transport. We show that vit. B12, which is accumulated in the placenta by a presumed receptor-mediated mechanism, is most easily disturbed by Cd. Thus, a significant decrease in transfer to the fetus was seen already 1 h after a high dose (4 mg/kg body wt) of Cd, and also at longer intervals (24 h) after low doses (0.5 mg/kg body wt). The transport of Zn (chemically similar to Cd) was also disturbed, but its inhibition was probably due in part to a decreased maternal serum concentration. The transport of AIB and DOX was largely unaffected. We conclude that inhibition of nutrient transfer to the fetus may be the underlying mechanism of growth retardation and possibly of the malformations produced by Cd. Vitamin B12 may be a sensitive indicator of early and subtle disturbances of placental function, not only for Cd but also for other chemicals suspected of causing placental disturbances. PMID:6478011

  6. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prospect of direct benefit for the woman or the fetus; or, if there is no such prospect of benefit, the... possible for achieving the objectives of the research; (d) If the research holds out the prospect of direct benefit to the pregnant woman, the prospect of a direct benefit both to the pregnant woman and the...

  7. The Relationship between Gentle Tactile Stimulation on the Fetus and Its Temperament 3 Months after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe-Wei; Hua, Jing; Xu, Yu-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gentle tactile stimulation on the fetus in its temperament 3 months after birth. Method. A total of 302 mother-3-month-infant dyads enrolled the retrospective cohort study. 76 mothers had regular gentle tactile stimulation on the fetus in their pregnancy; 62 mothers had irregular tactile stimulation on the fetus, and the rest of 164 mothers who had no tactile stimulation served as nonexposure group. Temperament was assessed using the EITS (a nine-dimensional scale of temperament). Results. Significant difference in temperament type was found among infants in 3 groups at 3 months of age. In the regular practice group, the babies with easy type temperament accounted for 73.7%, which was higher than that in irregular practice group (53.2%, P = 0.012) and that in the control group (42.1%, P < 0.001). Compared to infants in no practice group, the infants who had received regular gentle tactile stimulation before birth were lower in negative mood (P = 0.047) while higher in adaptability (P < 0.001), approach (P = 0.001), and persistence (P = 0.001), respectively. Conclusion. Regular gentle tactile stimulation on fetus may promote the formation of easy type infant temperament. PMID:26180374

  8. Bilateral renal agenesis and Mullerian anomalies in a 47,XXX fetus.

    PubMed

    Hogge, W A; Vick, D J; Schnatterly, P A; MacMillan, R H

    1989-06-01

    Congenital absence of the kidneys (bilateral renal agenesis, BRA) is a genetically heterogeneous condition, and all modes of inheritance have been suggested as causes. The finding of a 47,XXX chromosome constitution in a fetus with BRA and developmental arrest of the mesonephric and paramesonephric systems raises the possibility that X chromosome trisomy also may cause the urogenital adysplasia sequence.

  9. SULF 1 gene polymorphism, rs6990375 is in significant association with fetus failure in IVF technique

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Eskandar; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Mahdian, Reza; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan; Farashahi-Yazd, Ehsan; Ghasemi, Saeed; Shahbazi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sulfatase 1 (SULF1) function is to remove the 6-O-sulphate group from heparan sulfate. This action changes the binding sites of extracellular growth factors. SULF1 expression has been reported to be changed in angiogenesis. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SULF1 would impact clinicopathologic characteristics. Objective: Study of SULF1 gene polymorphism with fetus failure in in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique. Materials and Methods: We studied one common (minor allele frequency >0.05) regulatory SNP, rs6990375, with polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method, in 53 infertile women with fetus failure in IVF technique and 53 women with at least one healthy child as controls. Results: We found that rs6990375 is significantly associated with an early failure in IVF and frequency of G allele is high in women with fetus failure in IVF technique (p<0.001). Conclusion: These findings suggest that SULF1genetic variations may play a role in IVF technique fetus failure. Further studies with large sample sizes on SULF1 SNPs may be useful in support of this claim. PMID:26131010

  10. Study of the association between the incidences of congenital anomalies and hydrocephalus in Sudanese fetuses.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z; Dinar, Hussien A; Abdulla, Alsafi A; Babikir, Esameldeen; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2014-04-27

    This study was designed with an aim to detect the congenital anomalies appear to be linked to and in conjunction with hydrocephalus fetuses in Sudan, when ultrasound is used to exam fetuses in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. This prospective cohort study was performed from December 2011 to December 2013, in a group consists of 5000 single gestation pregnant Sudanese women. In all cases, maternal ages were 35 years up to 48 years; mean age of 42.5 years. Pelvic; obstetric ultrasound scanning protocol used should meet the standards established by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) for scanning in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the results. Diagnosed hydrocephalus cases (0.4%) were found to be associated with other fetal anomalies as aqueduct stenosis (45%), spina bifida (30%), Arnold-Chiari malformation (20%) and Dandy-Walker malformation (5%). The incidence of congenital anomalies and hydrocephalus in Sudanese fetuses showed considerable variation among different regions of Sudan. Hydrocephalus is associated with certain congenital anomalies. In agreement with previous studies, hydrocephalus is predominantly in male rather than female fetuses. The prevalence of fetal anomalies and hydrocephalus are within previously reported ranges.

  11. The Role of Genetic Counseling in the Elective Termination of Pregnancies Involving Fetuses with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Christy D.; Stough, Laura M.; Parrish, Linda H.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 69 women at risk for carrying a fetus with a disability found most would choose to terminate a pregnancy that tested positive for a disability regardless of type of disability (either Down syndrome or spina bifida). The decision was not related to knowledge about disabilities but was negatively related to knowledge of…

  12. A BBDR-HPT Axis Model for the Pregnant Rat and Fetus: Evaluation of Iodide Deficiency

    EPA Science Inventory

    A biologically based dose response (BBDR) model for the hypothalamic-pituitarythyroid (HPT) axis for the pregnant rat and fetus is being developed to advance understanding of thyroid hormone disruptions and developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The model for the pregnant rat and fet...

  13. Auditory Habituation in the Fetus and Neonate: An fMEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muenssinger, Jana; Matuz, Tamara; Schleger, Franziska; Kiefer-Schmidt, Isabelle; Goelz, Rangmar; Wacker-Gussmann, Annette; Birbaumer, Niels; Preissl, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Habituation--the most basic form of learning--is used to evaluate central nervous system (CNS) maturation and to detect abnormalities in fetal brain development. In the current study, habituation, stimulus specificity and dishabituation of auditory evoked responses were measured in fetuses and newborns using fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG). An…

  14. Complete genome sequence of Brucella melitensis biovar 3 strain NI, isolated from an aborted bovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxiao; Jing, Zhigang; Ou, Qixing; Cui, Buyun; He, Yongqun; Wu, Qingmin

    2012-11-01

    From an aborted bovine fetus in China, a bacterial strain named NI was isolated and identified as Brucella melitensis by a PCR assay. Strain NI was further characterized as B. melitensis biovar 3 using biochemical assays. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain NI.

  15. The prognostic role of prenatal MRI volumetric assessment in fetuses with isolated ventriculomegaly.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Güleryüz, Handan; Gezer, Cenk; Koçyiğit, Ali; Yeşilırmak, Didem; Ekin, Atalay; Bilgin, Muzaffer; Ertaş, İbrahim Egemen

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective study, we aimed to establish the value of volumetric assessment by prenatal brain MRI in determining the prognosis of fetuses with isolated VM. A total of 23 fetuses with isolated VM were included in the study. Supratentorial cerebral parenchyma volume (PV) and ventricular volume (VV) were measured, and supratentorial ventricular/parenchymal volume (VV/PV) ratios were calculated. Pregnancy and postnatal neurodevelopmental outcomes up to two years of age were obtained and correlated with the volumetric measurements. VV was found to be strongly and positively correlated with ventricular dimension. There was a statistically significant difference between the VV/ PV ratios of the good and poor prognosis groups into which the cases had been categorized. The fetuses with a poor prognosis had a significantly higher VV/PV ratio. Volumetric parenchymal and ventricular measurements obtained by fetal brain MRI may contribute to future clinical studies concerning the evaluation of fetuses with VM and provide an important indicator in cases where management dilemmas arise.

  16. Pregnancy outcomes in two growth restricted fetuses with in utero cerebral lactate.

    PubMed

    Andescavage, N; Limperopoulos, C; Evangelou, I; Murnick, J; du Plessis, A

    2015-01-01

    Elevated cerebral lactate is increasingly detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the human fetus diagnosed with various pathologic conditions. However, the significance of detectable cerebral lactate remains uncertain. We present two cases of fetal cerebral lactate with adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26518409

  17. Types of coronary vasculature in the human fetus: an autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Dariusz; Gielecki, Jerzy; Rzeszowska, Mariola; Kiestrzyn-Wójcik, Alina

    2008-01-01

    The heart receives blood from 2 vessels: the right and the left coronary arteries. Depending on the relationship between these 2 vessels, types with the right, the left or with neither coronary artery predominating can be distinguished. The incidence of particular types varies according to different reports. All available data regarding this issue come from studies where adult subjects were examined. There is no research in this field involving human fetuses. We examined 199 fetuses of both sexes (101 males and 98 females), 3-8 months of intrauterine life. All cases were derived from the Department of Histology and Embryology, Nicolaus Copernicus University. Prior to examination, all fetuses had been conserved in a 9% formaldehyde solution for over 3 months. We obtained the following results: type I vasculature, having equally developed coronary arteries, was found in 59 cases (29.5%); type II, with the right coronary artery predominating, was found in 65 cases (32.5%), and type III, with the left coronary artery predominating, occurred in 76 cases (38%). The subtypes IIIA and IIIB were described in 50 (25%) and 26 (13%) of the type III subjects, respectively. These data differ from the adult material incidence of dominant left coronary artery. While it is the most frequently occurring type in human fetuses, it is the least common in adult subjects.

  18. Abortion decisions as inclusion and exclusion criteria in research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carson

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of investigators conducting research involving pregnant women and fetuses, a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion can sometimes be relevant to the suitability of the woman and fetus as research subjects. However, prominent ethicists disagree over whether it is permissible for a woman's decision about abortion to be an inclusion or exclusion criterion for participation in research. A widely held view is that fetuses to be aborted and fetuses to be carried to term should be treated equally as research subjects. Some hold that this principle implies that a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion should not be an inclusion or exclusion criterion. This paper identifies types of research in which investigators might want to have inclusion or exclusion criteria based on decisions about abortion. It examines the arguments for and against having the woman's decision about abortion included in such criteria. It is argued that there are types of research in which such criteria are ethically permissible. PMID:21685147

  19. Campylobacter fetus subspecies contain conserved type IV secretion systems on multiple genomic islands and plasmids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The features contributing to the differences in pathogenicity of the C. fetus subspecies are unknown. Putative factors involved in pathogenesis are located in genomic islands that encode type IV secretion system (T4SS) and fic-domain (filamentation induced by cyclic AMP) proteins. In the genomes of ...

  20. Surface array proteins of Campylobacter fetus block lectin-mediated binding to type A lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, G C; Yang, L Y; Wang, E; Blaser, M J

    1990-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus strains with type A lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a surface array protein layer (S+) have been found to be pathogenic in humans and animals. Spontaneous laboratory mutants that lack surface array proteins (S-) are sensitive to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum. The ability of lectins to determine the presence of the S-layer and differentiate LPS type was assessed. We screened 14 lectins and found 3 (wheat germ agglutinin, Bandeiraea simplicifolia II, and Helix pomatia agglutinin) that agglutinated S- C. fetus strains with type A LPS but not S- strains with type B or type C LPS or S+ strains. However, the S+ type A strains were agglutinated after sequential water extraction, heat, or pronase treatment, all of which remove the S-layer, whereas there was no effect on the control strains. Specific carbohydrates for each lectin and purified LPS from a type A C. fetus strain specifically inhibited agglutination of an S- type A strain. In a direct enzyme-linked lectin assay, binding to the S- type A LPS strain was significantly greater than binding to the S+ strain (P = 0.01) or to a Campylobacter jejuni strain (P = 0.008). Consequently, these results indicate that the three lectins bind to the O side chains of C. fetus type A LPS but that the presence of the S-layer on intact cells blocks binding. Images PMID:2387622

  1. Study of the Association between the Incidences of Congenital Anomalies and Hydrocephalus in Sudanese Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z.; Dinar, Hussien A.; Abdulla, Alsafi A.; Babikir, Esameldeen; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed with an aim to detect the congenital anomalies appear to be linked to and in conjunction with hydrocephalus fetuses in Sudan, when ultrasound is used to exam fetuses in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. This prospective cohort study was performed from December 2011 to December 2013, in a group consists of 5000 single gestation pregnant Sudanese women. In all cases, maternal ages were 35 years up to 48 years; mean age of 42.5 years. Pelvic; obstetric ultrasound scanning protocol used should meet the standards established by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) for scanning in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze the results. Diagnosed hydrocephalus cases (0.4%) were found to be associated with other fetal anomalies as aqueduct stenosis (45%), spina bifida (30%), Arnold-Chiari malformation (20%) and Dandy-Walker malformation (5%). The incidence of congenital anomalies and hydrocephalus in Sudanese fetuses showed considerable variation among different regions of Sudan. Hydrocephalus is associated with certain congenital anomalies. In agreement with previous studies, hydrocephalus is predominantly in male rather than female fetuses. The prevalence of fetal anomalies and hydrocephalus are within previously reported ranges. PMID:25168985

  2. A model for estimating ultrasound attenuation along the propagation path to the fetus from backscattered waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy A.; O'Brien, William D.

    2005-08-01

    Accurate estimates of the ultrasound pressure and/or intensity incident on the developing fetus on a patient-specific basis could improve the diagnostic potential of medical ultrasound by allowing the clinician to increase the transmit power while still avoiding the potential for harmful bioeffects. Neglecting nonlinear effects, the pressure/intensity can be estimated if an accurate estimate of the attenuation along the propagation path (i.e., total attenuation) can be obtained. Herein, a method for determining the total attenuation from the backscattered power spectrum from the developing fetus is proposed. The boundaries between amnion and either the fetus' skull or soft tissue are each modeled as planar impedance boundaries at an unknown orientation with respect to the sound beam. A mathematical analysis demonstrates that the normalized returned voltage spectrum from this model is independent of the planes orientation. Hence, the total attenuation can be estimated by comparing the location of the spectral peak in the reflection from the fetus to the location of the spectral peak in a reflection obtained from a rigid plane in a water bath. The independence of the attenuation estimate and plane orientation is then demonstrated experimentally using a Plexiglas plate, a rat's skull, and a tissue-mimicking phantom.

  3. Description of a Well Preserved Fetus of the European Eocene Equoid Eurohippus messelensis

    PubMed Central

    Franzen, Jens Lorenz; Aurich, Christine; Habersetzer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The early Middle Eocene locality of Grube Messel, near Darmstadt (Germany), is famous for its complete vertebrate skeletons. The degree of preservation of soft tissues, such as body silhouettes, internal organs and gut contents, is frequently remarkable. The present specimen was analyzed for remnants of the reproductive system. Classic anatomy and osteology and high-resolution micro-x-ray were applied to describe the fetus of the European Eocene equoid Eurohippus messelensis. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used for determination of soft tissue remnants. The fetus is the earliest and best-preserved fossil specimen of its kind. The postcranial fetal skeleton is almost complete and largely articulated, allowing the conclusion that the pregnant mare was in late gestation. The apparent intrauterine position of the fetus is normal for the phase of pregnancy. Death of mare and fetus were probably not related to problems associated with parturition. Soft tissue interpreted as the uteroplacenta and a broad uterine ligament are preserved due to bacterial activity and allow considerations on the evolutionary development of the structures. PMID:26445456

  4. Stability of bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen in ear punch samples collected from bovine fetuses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen first calf heifers were tested free of BVDV antibodies by serum neutralization and free of BVDV by PCR. Twelve of the heifers were exposed to BVDV1b strain CA0401186a between 84-86 days of gestation. Two of the heifers were exposed to mock inoculum and served as negative controls. Fetuse...

  5. Prenatal diagnosis and fetopathological findings in five fetuses with trisomy 9

    SciTech Connect

    Chitayat, D.; Hodgkinson, K.; Luke, A.

    1995-04-10

    Five male fetuses with trisomy 9 are discussed. Three were detected prenatally and terminated, 1 aborted spontaneously, and the fifth delivered prematurely and died soon after. Multiple congenital abnormalities characteristic of trisomy 9 were detected in all 5 cases and are compared to those of previous reports. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Ethical and Legal Issues Regarding Selective Abortion of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Noreen M.; Glover, Samuel J.

    1996-01-01

    Selective abortion of fetuses with Down syndrome is discussed in terms of abortion perspectives, genetic testing, legislation, and ethical principles. The ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, fidelity, and justice are offered as guidelines for the examination of legal standards imposed by legislation. (Author/PB)

  7. Abortion decisions as inclusion and exclusion criteria in research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carson

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of investigators conducting research involving pregnant women and fetuses, a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion can sometimes be relevant to the suitability of the woman and fetus as research subjects. However, prominent ethicists disagree over whether it is permissible for a woman's decision about abortion to be an inclusion or exclusion criterion for participation in research. A widely held view is that fetuses to be aborted and fetuses to be carried to term should be treated equally as research subjects. Some hold that this principle implies that a woman's decision about whether to have an abortion should not be an inclusion or exclusion criterion. This paper identifies types of research in which investigators might want to have inclusion or exclusion criteria based on decisions about abortion. It examines the arguments for and against having the woman's decision about abortion included in such criteria. It is argued that there are types of research in which such criteria are ethically permissible.

  8. Ethical Considerations Relating to Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetuses with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.

    1991-01-01

    Prenatal diagnostic procedures that can determine the existence of genetic diseases or chromosome disorders such as Down's syndrome are described, and legal considerations are outlined. Arguments for and against aborting fetuses with Down's syndrome are presented, and the need for genetic counseling for prospective parents is emphasized.…

  9. AB022. Validity of the five-level new version of the EQ-5D in asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Gimena Hernandez, Hernandez; Pont, Àngels; Garin, Olatz; Martí, Marc; Alonso, Jordi; Van Ganse, Eric; Laforest, Laurent; Dima, Alexandra L.; de Bruin, Marijn; Ferrer, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Background A previous study evaluating the psychometric properties of the traditional EQ-5D in asthmatic patients showed a high ceiling effect (59% of patients with perfect health) questioning its usefulness in these patients. Therefore, the EuroQol Group developed a new EQ-5D version increasing the number of responses from 3 to 5 levels. This new version, the EQ-5D-5L, has never been tested in asthmatic patients. The aim of this study is to examine the distribution and construct validity of the new EQ-5D-5L in a European cohort of asthmatic adolescents and adults. Methods A subgroup of 316 patients between 12–40 years included in the ASTROLAB cohort who completed EQ-5D-5L in the online questionnaire were analysed. It is a brief, multi-attribute, generic, preference-based health status measure consisting of five dimensions of health-five response options. The index value ranges from 1 (best health possible) to −0.594 (negative values indicate health states worse than death), where 0 is the value assigned to death. Index values were calculated using the preference values from the Rasch Model developed from EQ-5D-3L French. To examine the distribution of the index measures of central tendency, dispersion, ceiling and floor effect, and observed range were calculated. Construct validity was examined by their ability to differentiate between known groups defined by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-5) by ANOVA. ACQ-5 measures the presence of asthma symptoms during the previous week in 7 Likert scale response options, with a score ranging from 0 to 6 (lower score better asthma control). Three groups of asthma control were defined according to tertiles: good (ACQ-5 <0.4), intermediate (ACQ-5 0.4–1.2) and bad (ACQ-5 >1.2). Results Mean EQ-5D-5L index was 0.80 (SD=0.17). The observed range was from −0.03 to 1, floor and ceiling effects were 0% and 22.8%, respectively. Mean EQ-5D-5L index for patients with well-controlled asthma was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89–0.93); 0

  10. Teratogenic study of phenobarbital and levamisole on mouse fetus liver tissue using biospectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ashtarinezhad, Azadeh; Panahyab, Ataollah; Shaterzadeh-Oskouei, Shahrzad; Khoshniat, Hessam; Mohamadzadehasl, Baharak; Shirazi, Farshad H

    2016-09-01

    Biospectroscopic investigations have attracted attention of both the clinicians and basic sciences researchers in recent years. Scientists are discovering new areas for FTIR biospectroscopy applications in medicine. The aim of this study was to measure the possibility of FTIR-MSP application for the recognition and detection of fetus abnormalities after exposure of pregnant mouse to phenobarbital (PB) and levamisole (LEV) alone or in combination. PB is one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), with sedative and hypnotic effects. When used by pregnant women, it is known to be a teratogenic agent. LEV is an antihelminthic drug with some applications in immune-deficiency as well as colon cancer therapy. Four groups of ten pregnant mice were selected for the experiments as follows: one control group received only standard diet, one group was injected with 120mg/kg of BP, one group was injected with 10mg/kg of LEV, and the last group was treated simultaneously with both BP and LEV at the above mentioned doses. Drugs administration was performed on gestation day 9 and fetuses were dissected on pregnancy day 15. Each dissected fetus was fixed, dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Sections of liver (10μm) were prepared from control and treated groups by microtome and deparaffinized with xylene. The spectra were taken by FTIR-MSP in the region of 4000-400cm(-1). All the spectra were normalized based on amide II band (1545cm(-1)) after baseline correction of the entire spectrum, followed by classification using PCA, ANN and SVM. Both morphological and spectral changes were shown in the treated fetuses as compared to the fetuses in the control group. While cleft palate and C-R elongation were seen in PB injected fetuses, developmental retardation was mostly seen in the LEV injected group. Biospectroscopy revealed that both drugs mainly affected the cellular lipids and proteins, with LEV causing more changes in amide I and lipid regions than PB. Application of

  11. Is maternal serum triple screening a better predictor of Down syndrome in female than in male fetuses?

    PubMed

    Ghidini, A; Spong, C Y; Grier, R E; Walker, C N; Pezzullo, J C

    1998-02-01

    Among euploid gestations, female fetuses have been reported to have significantly lower maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and higher human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels than male fetuses. Since in maternal serum triple screening, low MSAFP and high hCG MOM independently confer greater risk of a Down syndrome fetus, we investigated the hypothesis that maternal serum triple screening is more efficacious at detecting female than male Down syndrome fetuses. A database containing all karyotypes from amniocentesis performed between August 1994 and August 1996 was accessed. All trisomy 21 cases were identified. The male-to-female ratio among trisomy 21 fetuses detected at amniocentesis after abnormal maternal serum triple screening was compared with that among trisomy 21 fetuses detected at amniocentesis for advanced maternal age (AMA), which served as the control group. Statistical analysis utilized chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-test. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Forty-nine trisomy 21 fetuses were detected in the women who underwent amniocentesis because of abnormal triple screening and 311 were detected in the control group. The proportion of male fetuses among the triple screening group was not significantly different from that of the AMA group (55 per cent vs. 57 per cent; P=0.9). Our study had a power of 80 per cent to detect a difference of 25 per cent in the male-to-female ratio (alpha=0.05, beta=0.20). The reported differences in MSAFP and hCG levels between male and female euploid fetuses do not appear to affect the sex ratio among Down syndrome fetuses detected because of an abnormal maternal serum triple screening. PMID:9516012

  12. What British women say matters to them about donating an aborted fetus to stem cell research: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Naomi

    2008-06-01

    This is the first investigation into what matters to British women when they think about donating an aborted fetus to research, and how stem cell research and therapies might influence their views. Tissue derived from the aborted fetus is considered "the right tool for the job" in some stem cell laboratories. Research using tissue derived from aborted fetuses is permitted in Britain, while deliberate abortion to provide fetal tissue for research is illegal. Investigators are advised to seek women's agreement to donate the fetus after they have signed the consent form for the abortion, and stem cell researchers seek fetuses aborted under the 'social' grounds of the Abortion Act 1967. This research was based on focus groups with women who had both had a termination and had not had a termination. It found that initial enthusiasm for the donation of the aborted fetus for medical research, which was understood as a good thing, diminished as participants gained information and thought more carefully about the implications of such a decision. Lack of knowledge about how aborted fetuses are treated as scientific objects in the stem cell laboratory provoked concerns about mishandling, and invoked in some participants what we have called the duty of care which women feel towards babies and children. The duty of care might apply to other research using aborted fetuses. But what makes stem cell research more troubling is its association with renewal, regeneration, and immortality which participants understood as somehow reinstating and even developing the fetus' physical existence and social biography, the very thing abortion is meant to eliminate. By the end of the focus groups, participants had co-produced a tendency to refuse to donate aborted fetuses.

  13. L-triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) enhances lung surfactant phospholipid flux in rabbit fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, B.; Datta, S.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Steinberg, H.; Das, D.K.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of thyroid hormone on surfactant phospholipid production in fetal lung was studied by simultaneously measuring the surfactant phosphatidylcholine (PC) content and its turnover in lamellar body and alveolar lavage fractions. Pregnant New Zealand white rabbits of 27 days' gestation were properly anesthetized and the uterus opened by a midline incision. Each fetus in each litter was injected with T/sub 3/ along with (/sup 14/C)-palmitate and (/sup 3/H)-choline. Control fetuses were injected with saline instead of T/sub 3/. PC was isolated from lamellar body and lung lavage from each fetus. Zilversmit equations for a two-compartment precursor-product model was used to analyze specific activity versus time curves and the turnover times for surfactant PC. Fluxes of surfactant PC were then calculated from its turnover times and pool sizes. The biological half-life for (/sup 14/C)-palmitate and (/sup 3/H)-choline labeled PC did not change by T/sub 3/ treatment. Turnover times for labeled palmitate and choline were 9.2 hr and 10.0 hr, respectively, for normal fetus and 6.0 hr and 5.8 hr, respectively, for T/sub 3/-treated fetus. While the pool size of PC recovered by the alveolar wash did not change significantly, T/sub 3/ enhanced the flux of this phospholipid from the lamellar bodies into alveolar space by 1.7 times within 4 hr. These results suggest that thyroid hormone may promote fetal lung development by enhancing the release of surfactant into the alveolar space.

  14. Electronic and magnetic behaviors of graphene with 5d series transition metal atom substitutions: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Minglei; Tang, Wencheng; Ren, Qingqiang; Zhao, Yiming; Wang, Sake; Yu, Jin; Du, Yanhui; Hao, Yitong

    2016-06-01

    The electronic structures and magnetic behaviors of graphene with 5d series transition metal atom substitutions are investigated by performing first-principles calculations. All the impurities are tightly bonded to single vacancy in a graphene sheet. The substitutions of La and Ta lead to Fermi level shifting to valence and conduction band, respectively. Both the two substitutions result in metallic properties. Moreover, the Hf, Os and Pt-substituted systems exhibit semiconductor properties, while the Re and Ir-substituted ones exhibit robust half-metallic properties. Interestingly, W-substituted system shows dilute magnetic semiconductor property. On the other hand, the substitution of Ta, W, Re and Ir induce 0.86 μB, 2 μB, 1 μB and 0.99 μB magnetic moment, respectively. Our studies demonstrate that the 5d series transition metal substituted graphene have potential applications in nanoelectronics, spintronics and magnetic storage devices.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of the 5d2 double perovskites Sr2BReO6 (B = Y, In)

    DOE PAGES

    Aczel, A. A.; Zhao, Z.; Calder, S.; Adroja, D. T.; Baker, P. J.; Yan, J. -Q.

    2016-06-01

    With this study, we have performed magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity, neutron powder diffraction, and muon spin relaxation experiments to investigate the magnetic ground states of the 5$d^2$ double perovskites Sr$_2$YReO$_6$ and Sr$_2$InReO$_6$. We find that Sr$_2$YReO$_6$ is a spin glass, while Sr$_2$InReO$_6$ hosts a non-magnetic singlet state. By making detailed comparisons with other 5$d^2$ double perovskites, we argue that a delicate interplay between spin-orbit coupling, non-cubic crystal fields, and exchange interactions plays a key role in the great variation of magnetic ground states observed for this family of materials.

  16. Uniqueness theorem for black holes with Kaluza-Klein asymptotic in 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2010-07-15

    In the present paper, we prove a uniqueness theorem for stationary multi-black hole configurations with Kaluza-Klein asymptotic in a certain sector of 5D Einstein-Maxwell gravity. As a part of the technical assumptions in the theorem, we assume that the Killing vector associated with the compact dimension is orthogonal to the other Killing vectors and that it is also hypersurface orthogonal. About the Maxwell field, we assume that it is invariant under the Killing symmetries and has a nonzero component only along the Killing vector associated with the compact dimension. We show that such multi-black hole configurations are uniquely specified by the interval structure, angular momenta of the horizons, magnetic charges, and the magnetic flux. A straightforward generalization of the uniqueness theorem for 5D Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity is also given.

  17. Finite Element Analysis of 2.5D Woven Composites, Part II: Damage Behavior Simulation and Strength Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian; Wen, Weidong; Cui, Haitao; Zhang, Hongjian; Xu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    In the first part of the work, a new 2.5D woven composites finite element model (2.5D WCFEM) which took into consideration the impact of face structures and can accurately predict the main elastic performances has been established. In this part, the stress-strain behavior and the damage characteristic of this material under uniaxial tension are simulated using nonlinear progressive damage analysis based on damage mechanics. Meanwhile, experimental investigation and fracture analysis are conducted to evaluate the validity of the proposed method. Finally, the influence of woven parameters on the mechanical behavior is discussed. Compared with the test results, a good agreement between the computational and experimental results has been obtained. The progressive damage characteristic and main failure modes are also revealed.

  18. Spectroscopic analysis of the ν17 band of C2H5D at 770 - 850 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Adam; Drouin, Brian J.; Brown, Linda R.; Pearson, John C.; Sung, Keeyoon; Groner, Peter; Mantz, Arlan W.; Smith, Mary Ann H.

    2014-11-01

    To support planetary investigations of hydrocarbons, we analyzed the high resolution spectrum of C2H5D from 680 to 880 cm-1 in order to enable its detection in the atmospheres of Titan, Neptune and Uranus. Ethane, methane and acetylene are regarded as important organic molecules in the analysis of atmospheres and have been observed by ground based and satellite observations. The isotopes of ethane contain strong bands within the commonly viewed window of ethane’s ν9 band at 800 cm-1. Detailed analyses of d1-ethane and 13C-ethane provide unique insight into the isotopic fractionation and can be used to refine models of hydrocarbons in organic rich atmospheres. We present the analyses of the strong ν17 band of C2H5D at 805 cm-1 which lies within the often-measured "12 micron" window utilized by many present and past surveys of planetary atmospheres. Using the FTIR Bruker IFS 125HR at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the spectrum of 98% deuterium-enriched sample of C2H5D at high resolution (Resolving power ~ 320,000) was recorded at 130 K using a 0.20 m absorption cell. Over 10000 individual line frequencies and intensities were retrieved between 690 and 870 cm-1. Improved quantum mechanical models permitted over 4700 quantum assignments to be determined for the ν17 band at 805 cm-1, and the corresponding measured line positions were reproduced with a standard deviation of 4 x 10-4 cm-1. We will describe the resulting linelist for the ν17 band of C2H5D that enable this species to be identified in planetary atmospheres.Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Connecticut College, and NASA Langley under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. 5D respiratory motion model based image reconstruction algorithm for 4D cone-beam computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiulong; Zhang, Xue; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhao, Hongkai; Gao, Yu; Thomas, David; Low, Daniel A.; Gao, Hao

    2015-11-01

    4D cone-beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) reconstructs a temporal sequence of CBCT images for the purpose of motion management or 4D treatment in radiotherapy. However the image reconstruction often involves the binning of projection data to each temporal phase, and therefore suffers from deteriorated image quality due to inaccurate or uneven binning in phase, e.g., under the non-periodic breathing. A 5D model has been developed as an accurate model of (periodic and non-periodic) respiratory motion. That is, given the measurements of breathing amplitude and its time derivative, the 5D model parametrizes the respiratory motion by three time-independent variables, i.e., one reference image and two vector fields. In this work we aim to develop a new 4DCBCT reconstruction method based on 5D model. Instead of reconstructing a temporal sequence of images after the projection binning, the new method reconstructs time-independent reference image and vector fields with no requirement of binning. The image reconstruction is formulated as a optimization problem with total-variation regularization on both reference image and vector fields, and the problem is solved by the proximal alternating minimization algorithm, during which the split Bregman method is used to reconstruct the reference image, and the Chambolle's duality-based algorithm is used to reconstruct the vector fields. The convergence analysis of the proposed algorithm is provided for this nonconvex problem. Validated by the simulation studies, the new method has significantly improved image reconstruction accuracy due to no binning and reduced number of unknowns via the use of the 5D model.

  20. Population-Based Preference Weights for the EQ-5D Health States Using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Reza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Akbari Sari, Ali; Rashidian, Arash; Mohammad, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is used as a measure to valuate healthcare interventions and guide policy making. The EuroQol EQ-5D is a widely used generic preference-based instrument to measure Health-related quality of life. Objectives The objective of this study was to develop a value set of the EQ-5D health states for an Iranian population. Patients and Methods This study is a cross-sectional study of Iranian populations. Our sample from Iranian populations consists out of 869 participants, who were selected for this study using a stratified probability sampling method. The sample was taken from individuals living in the city of Tehran and was stratified by age and gender from July to November 2013. Respondents valued 13 health states using the visual analogue scale (VAS) of the EQ-5D. Several fixed effects regression models were tested to predict the full set of health states. We selected the final model based on the logical consistency of the estimates, the sign and magnitude of the regression coefficients, goodness of fit, and parsimony. We also compared predicted values with a value set from similar studies in the UK and other countries. Results Our results show that the HRQoL does not vary among socioeconomic groups. Models at the individual level resulted in an additive model with all coefficients being statistically significant, R2 = 0.55, a value of 0.75 for the best health state (11112), and a value of -0.074 for the worst health state (33333). The value set obtained for the study sample remarkably differs from those elicited in developed countries. Conclusions This study is the first estimate for the EQ-5D value set based on the VAS in Iran. Given the importance of locally adapted value set the use of this value set can be recommended for future studies in Iran and In the EMRO regions. PMID:27186384

  1. Orbital-selective singlet dimer formation and suppression of double exchange in 4d and 5d systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, Sergey; Cao, Gang; Khomskii, Daniel

    One of the main mechanisms of ferromagnetic ordering in conducting materials is the double exchange (DE). It is usually supposed in DE model that the Hund's coupling JH is much larger than electron hopping t; in this case one stabilizes the state with maximum spin per pair of ions, which finally leads to ferromagnetism in bulk systems. We show that in the dimerized 4 d / 5 d transition metal oxides for which JH is reduced and t is in contrast enhanced, another situation is possible, when formation of the spin-singlets on delocalized orbitals is more favorable. This leads to suppression of the DE and to a strong decrease of the total spin. The model calculations using the dynamical mean-field theory show that this effect survives even in the extended systems, not only for dimers. Such a situation is realized, e.g., in Y5Mo2O12, CrO2 under pressure and in many other 4 d / 5 d based materials. Another mechanism, which may suppress DE and which is also typical for 4 d / 5 d compounds is the spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We show on the example of Ba5AlIr2O11, that in this system it is the combination of molecular-orbital formation and SOC that strongly decreases magnetic moment on Ir. Civil Research and Development Foundation via FSCX-14-61025-0.

  2. Professor Wheeler and the crack of doom: Closed cosmologies in the 5-d Kaluza-Klein theory

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, R.A.; Mezzacappa, A.

    1986-03-01

    We study the classical and the quantum structures of certain 5-d Kaluza-Klein cosmologies. These models were chosen because their 4-d restriction is a closed, radiation-dominated, homogeneous, isotropic cosmology in the usual sense. The extra (field) dimension is taken to be a circle. In these models the solution starts from a 5-d curvature singularity with infinite circumference for the circle and zero volume for the 3-space. It evolves in finite proper time to a solution with zero dimension for the extra field direction. In the 5-vacuum case this is not a curvature singularity, but is a singularity of the congruence describing the physics, and in particular, the solution cannot causally be extended to the future of this point. In the 5-vacuum case this event coincides with the maximum of expansion of the 5-space. In the 5-dust cases, this point is a real 5-d curvature singularity. By adjustment it can be made to occur before or after the maximum of 3-expansion. The solution stops at that instant, but the 4-cosmology reveals no pathology up to the crack of doom. The quantum behavior is identical in these respects to the classical one.

  3. Dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phosphole: a highly luminescent electron-accepting building block.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoming; Woo, Alva Y Y; Borau-Garcia, Javier; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    A family of highly emissive dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phospholes has been designed and synthesized. The structures of two trivalent P species, as well as their corresponding P oxides, have been confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The parent dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phosphole oxide exhibits strong blue photoluminescence at λem = 442 nm, with an excellent quantum yield efficiency of ϕPL = 0.81. The photophysical properties of these compounds can be easily tuned by extension of the conjugation and modification of the phosphorus center. Compared with the established dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]phosphole system, the incorporation of electronegative nitrogen atoms leads to significantly lowered frontier orbital energy levels, as validated by both electrochemistry and theoretical calculations, thus suggesting that the dithiazolo[5,4-b:4',5'-d]phospholes are valuable, air-stable, n-type conjugated materials. These new building blocks have been further applied to the construction of an extended oligomer with fluorene. Extension of the dithiazolophosphole core with triazole units through click reactions also provides a suitable N,N-chelating moiety for metal binding and a representative molecular species was successfully used as a selective colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for Cu(II) ions.

  4. De Novo Missense Variants in PPP2R5D Are Associated with Intellectual Disability, Macrocephaly, Hypotonia, and Autism

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Linshan; Henderson, Lindsay B.; Cho, Megan T.; Petrey, Donald S.; Fong, Chin-To; Haude, Katrina M.; Shur, Natasha; Lundberg, Julie; Hauser, Natalie; Carmichael, Jason; Innis, Jeffrey; Schuette, Jane; Wu, Yvonne W.; Asaikar, Shailesh; Pearson, Margaret; Folk, Leandra; Retterer, Kyle; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric protein serine/threonine phosphatase and is involved in a broad range of cellular processes. PPP2R5D is a regulatory B subunit of PP2A and plays an important role in regulating key neuronal and developmental regulation processes such as PI3K/AKT and GSK3β-mediated cell growth, chromatin remodeling and gene transcriptional regulation. Using WES, we identified four de novo variants in PPP2R5D in a total of seven unrelated individuals with ID and other shared clinical characteristics, including autism spectrum disorder, macrocephaly, hypotonia, seizures and dysmorphic features. Among the four variant, two have been previously reported, and two are novel. All four amino acids are highly conserved among the PP2A subunit family, and all change a negatively charged acidic glutamic acid (E) to a positively charged basic lysine (K), and are predicted to disrupt the PP2A subunits binding and impair the dephosphorylation capacity. Our data provides further support for PPP2R5D as a genetic cause of ID. PMID:26576547

  5. Study of Thermally Enhanced 2.5D Packages with Multi-chips Molded on Silicon Interposer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, X. W.

    2015-07-01

    The 2.5D package with distributed vias on silicon interposer has received great attention due to its potential for heterogeneous integration. The overmolded 2.5D package protects the silicon die and interposer from environmental damage, which, on the other hand, induces undesirable thermal resistance due to low thermal conductivity of the molding compound. In this paper, a thermally enhanced 2.5D package with exposed die is proposed, fabricated and examined from the thermal enhancement viewpoint. The high power thermal test die was first assembled on a silicon interposer with through silicon vias and connected to the substrate, which was followed by the overmolding and back-grinding processes to form the partially molded (PM) package with exposed die for direct heat sink attachments. Experiments were conducted to examine the thermal performance under different thermal conditions. Under natural convection without thermal enhancement, there was no performance difference between the PM package and the overmolded package. However, when the package top was mounted with a thermally enhanced structure such as a pin fin heat sink, the thermal resistance of PM package was significantly reduced. The advantage was more prominent with the attachment of a high performance liquid cooling heat sink. Thermal simulation models were also constructed to examine the thermal performances under different test conditions, and the realistic thermal interface resistance of 0.5 Kcm2/W was estimated based on the package warpage. The computed thermal resistances agreed with measurement results.

  6. De novo missense variants in PPP2R5D are associated with intellectual disability, macrocephaly, hypotonia, and autism.

    PubMed

    Shang, Linshan; Henderson, Lindsay B; Cho, Megan T; Petrey, Donald S; Fong, Chin-To; Haude, Katrina M; Shur, Natasha; Lundberg, Julie; Hauser, Natalie; Carmichael, Jason; Innis, Jeffrey; Schuette, Jane; Wu, Yvonne W; Asaikar, Shailesh; Pearson, Margaret; Folk, Leandra; Retterer, Kyle; Monaghan, Kristin G; Chung, Wendy K

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric protein serine/threonine phosphatase and is involved in a broad range of cellular processes. PPP2R5D is a regulatory B subunit of PP2A and plays an important role in regulating key neuronal and developmental regulation processes such as PI3K/AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β)-mediated cell growth, chromatin remodeling, and gene transcriptional regulation. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES), we identified four de novo variants in PPP2R5D in a total of seven unrelated individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and other shared clinical characteristics, including autism spectrum disorder, macrocephaly, hypotonia, seizures, and dysmorphic features. Among the four variants, two have been previously reported and two are novel. All four amino acids are highly conserved among the PP2A subunit family, and all change a negatively charged acidic glutamic acid (E) to a positively charged basic lysine (K) and are predicted to disrupt the PP2A subunit binding and impair the dephosphorylation capacity. Our data provides further support for PPP2R5D as a genetic cause of ID.

  7. Acute non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces pronounced type I interferon response in pregnant cows and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Austin, Kathleen J; Han, Hyungchul; Montgomery, Donald L; Shoemaker, Megan L; van Olphen, Alberto L; Hansen, Thomas R

    2008-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection occurs in the cattle population worldwide. Non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV strains cause transient infection (TI) or persistent infection (PI) depending on the host's immune status. Immunocompetent adult animals and fetuses in late gestation resolve the infection. Fetal infection in early gestation results in PI with chronic viremia and life-long viral shedding, ensuring virus perpetuation in the population. Eighteen pregnant heifers, divided into three groups, were intranasally inoculated with ncp BVDV2 virus early (day 75) and late (day 175) in gestation, or kept BVDV-naïve. Fetuses were retrieved on day 190. Antiviral activity in blood of dams and fetuses, maternal expression of interferon (IFN) stimulated gene 15kDa (ISG15), virological and serological status of heifers and fetuses, and fetal growth were studied. A pronounced antiviral activity in blood of heifers and TI fetuses during acute BVDV infection was accompanied by drastic up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in maternal blood. Only one PI fetus expressed low IFN response 115 days post inoculation despite high BVDV antigen and RNA levels. PI fetuses presented with growth retardation. Infection of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV2 early in gestation adversely affects fetal development and antiviral responses, despite protective immune responses in the dam.

  8. Acute non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces pronounced type I interferon response in pregnant cows and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Austin, Kathleen J; Han, Hyungchul; Montgomery, Donald L; Shoemaker, Megan L; van Olphen, Alberto L; Hansen, Thomas R

    2008-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection occurs in the cattle population worldwide. Non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV strains cause transient infection (TI) or persistent infection (PI) depending on the host's immune status. Immunocompetent adult animals and fetuses in late gestation resolve the infection. Fetal infection in early gestation results in PI with chronic viremia and life-long viral shedding, ensuring virus perpetuation in the population. Eighteen pregnant heifers, divided into three groups, were intranasally inoculated with ncp BVDV2 virus early (day 75) and late (day 175) in gestation, or kept BVDV-naïve. Fetuses were retrieved on day 190. Antiviral activity in blood of dams and fetuses, maternal expression of interferon (IFN) stimulated gene 15kDa (ISG15), virological and serological status of heifers and fetuses, and fetal growth were studied. A pronounced antiviral activity in blood of heifers and TI fetuses during acute BVDV infection was accompanied by drastic up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in maternal blood. Only one PI fetus expressed low IFN response 115 days post inoculation despite high BVDV antigen and RNA levels. PI fetuses presented with growth retardation. Infection of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV2 early in gestation adversely affects fetal development and antiviral responses, despite protective immune responses in the dam. PMID:18053605

  9. Increased maternal T cell microchimerism in the allogeneic fetus during LPS-induced preterm labor in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wegorzewska, Marta; Le, Tom; Tang, Qizhi; MacKenzie, Tippi C

    2014-01-01

    Fetal surgery is a promising strategy to treat fetuses with severe congenital abnormalities but its clinical applications are often limited by preterm labor. In normal pregnancy, multiple mechanisms protect the semi-allogeneic fetus from attack by maternal T cells. Maternal microchimerism (the presence of maternal cells in the fetus) has been suggested to be one mechanism of maternal-fetal tolerance in that it exposes the fetus to non-inherited maternal antigens and leads to the generation of fetal regulatory T cells that can suppress a maternal T cell response. Preterm labor may represent a breakdown of this robust tolerance network. We hypothesized that during inflammation-associated preterm labor, maternal leukocytes cross the maternal-fetal interface and enter the fetal circulation. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that during preterm labor in mice, the percentage of maternal microchimerism in fetal blood increased and the frequency of fetuses with high levels of trafficking (greater than 0.5%) also increased. Finally, we showed that the maternal leukocytes trafficking into the fetus are primarily Gr-1+ cells in both syngeneic and allogeneic pregnancy, while T cell trafficking into the fetus specifically increases during allogeneic pregnancies. Our results demonstrate that trafficking of maternal leukocytes during pregnancy is altered during preterm labor. Such alterations may be clinically significant in affecting maternal-fetal tolerance. PMID:25779065

  10. Structure, electronic and magnetic properties of hexagonal boron nitride sheets doped by 5d transition metal atoms: First-principles calculations and molecular orbital analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaofu; Geng, Zhaohui; Cai, Danyun; Pan, Tongxi; Chen, Yixin; Dong, Liyuan; Zhou, Tiege

    2015-01-01

    A first-principles calculation based on density functional theory is carried out to reveal the geometry, electronic structures and magnetic properties of hexagonal boron nitride sheets (h-BNSs) doped by 5d transitional mental atoms (Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au and Hg) at boron-site (B5d) and nitrogen-site (N5d). Results of pure h-BNS, h-BNS with B vacancy (VB) and N vacancy (VN) are also given for comparison. It is shown that all the h-BNSs doped with 5d atoms possess a C3v local symmetry except for NLu and NHg which have a clear deviation. For the same 5d dopant, the binding energy of B5d is larger than that of N5d, which indicates the substitution of a 5d atom for B is preferred. The total densities of states are presented, where impurity energy levels exist. Besides, the total magnetic moments (TMMs) change regularly with the increment of the 5d atomic number. Theoretical analyses by molecular orbital under C3v symmetry explain the impurity energy levels and TMMs.

  11. Number of fetuses and conceptus growth throughout gestation in lines of pigs selected for ovulation rate or uterine capacity.

    PubMed

    Freking, B A; Leymaster, K A; Vallet, J L; Christenson, R K

    2007-09-01

    Selection for 11 generations in swine for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in 19.6% greater prenatal survival at term in UC compared with OR. Our objective was to characterize the number of fetuses throughout gestation in each line, including an unselected control (CO) line. Five hundred ninety-three gilts produced over 4 farrowing seasons were subjected to unilateral-hysterectomy-ovariectomy at 160 d of age and mated within line at 280 d of age. Gilts were assigned within sire family to be slaughtered (+/- 2 d) at d 25, 45, 65, 85, or 105 of gestation. Ovulation rate and number of live and dead fetuses were recorded for each pregnant gilt (n = 402). Fetal and placental weights were also recorded. Ovulation rate of OR line gilts (18.0 +/- 0.3 ova) exceeded (P < 0.001) CO and UC lines (15.0 +/- 0.3 and 14.0 +/- 0.3 ova, respectively). Line and gestational age interacted to affect number of live fetuses (P < 0.001). Least squares means for CO were 10.1, 8.3, 7.2, 6.7, and 7.3 live fetuses for d 25, 45, 65, 85, and 105, respectively (average SE = 0.46 fetuses). Corresponding means for OR were 13.4, 8.3, 7.9, 6.5, and 6.7 live fetuses, respectively (average SE = 0.44 fetuses). Means for UC were 10.2, 9.0, 8.5, 7.5, and 8.0 live fetuses, respectively (average SE = 0.47 fetuses). In each line, number of live fetuses at d 25 was approximately 72% of ovulation rate. Mortality to d 45 was greatest in OR, intermediate in CO, and least in UC. Reductions in live fetuses continued to occur from d 45 to 105, but line differences at d 45 were essentially maintained to d 105. Number of live fetuses in gilts at d 114 was estimated from each of the survival curves and predicted values of 7.0, 5.9, and 7.8 per uterine horn for CO, OR, and UC lines, respectively. Selection for uterine capacity improved fetal survival primarily during the time period between d 25 and 45. Relative growth rate coefficients throughout gestation for placental tissue indicated a change

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Campylobacter fetus MMM01, Isolated from a Chronic Kidney Disease Patient with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Rohit, Anusha; Kumar, Ballamoole Krishna; Deekshit, Vijay Kumar; Rai, Praveen; Kumar, Ramanathan Vijay; Jayaprakash, Jayapalan; Madhushankara, Bhat; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus is a Gram-negative bacterium that has caused several cases of human and animal disease. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of C. fetus MMM01, isolated from the blood of a 60-year-old patient with type II diabetes and chronic kidney disease. The sequence has a total length of 1,740,393 bp and an average G+C content of 33.1%. The availability of the draft genome sequence of C. fetus MMM01 isolated from a case of chronic kidney disease will contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this organism. PMID:26450717

  13. Fetuses respond to father's voice but prefer mother's voice after birth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Grace Y; Kisilevsky, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Fetal and newborn responding to audio-recordings of their father's versus mother's reading a story were examined. At home, fathers read a different story to the fetus each day for 7 days. Subsequently, in the laboratory, continuous fetal heart rate was recorded during a 9 min protocol, including three, 3 min periods: baseline no-sound, voice (mother or father), postvoice no-sound. Following a 20 min delay, the opposite voice was delivered. Newborn head-turning was observed on 20 s trials: three no-sound, three voice (mother or father), three opposite voice, three no-sound trials with the same segment of each parent's recording. Fetuses showed a heart rate increase to both voices which was sustained over the voice period. Consistent with prior reports, newborns showed a preference for their mother's but not their father's voice. The characteristics of voice stimuli that capture fetal attention and elicit a response are yet to be identified. PMID:23817883

  14. A true cornual pregnancy with placenta percreta resulting in a viable fetus

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Setu; Samal, Sunil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cornual pregnancy is uncommon among ectopic pregnancies. A diagnosis of cornual pregnancy remains challenging, and rupture of a cornual pregnancy causes catastrophic consequence due to massive bleeding. In very rare circumstances, cornual pregnancies can result in a viable fetus. We report a case of a 24-year-old primigravida who presented to us with complaints of decrease fetal movements at 37+5 weeks. Ultrasound revealed a single live intrauterine fetus with anterior low lying placenta with severe oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid index = 1.8). Emergency cesarean section was done and intraoperatively it was diagnosed as a case of placenta percreta with pregnancy in right noncommunicating horn of uterus. Right cornual resection with right salpingectomy done. Uterus, left fallopian tube and bilateral ovary were healthy. Postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:26539372

  15. [Pancreas structure in fetuses and newborn infants who died in the perinatal period].

    PubMed

    Uliyanovskaya, S A; Tiukhtina, T G; Stukov, N V; Ankudinov, V V

    2014-01-01

    In the pancreas of fetuses at weeks 22-40 of prenatal development (n = 111) and of newborn infants who died during the first week of postnatal life (n = 38) the changes were detected that were characterized by exocrine part hypoplasia, retardation of acinar pancreatocyte differentiation, connective tissue outgrowth, pancreatic (Langerhans) islet hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The results of the study have shown that with the increase of the total risk sum of the perinatal period pathology development (expressed in balls), the relative content of the insular part of the organ and the number of large pancreatic islets (larger than 100 microm in diameter) decreased. The morphological features detected in this study indirectly reflect endo-ecologically discomfortable conditions of fetus development within the fetoplacental unit which increase the risk of polyendocrinopathy development and fetal intrauterine growth retardation. These polyendocrinopathies increase further the risk of endocrine disturbance occurence in childhood.

  16. The choice of amniotic fluid in metabolomics for the monitoring of fetus health.

    PubMed

    Palmas, Francesco; Fattuoni, Claudia; Noto, Antonio; Barberini, Luigi; Dessì, Angelica; Fanos, Vassilios

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid (AF) is a biological fluid in which metabolite transport is regulated by the placenta, the permeable skin, fetal lung egress and gastric fluid. During pregnancy, the composition of AF changes from similar to the interstitial fluid of the mother, to a more complex system, influenced by the fetus's urine. Since AF reflects the mother's and the fetus's health status at the same time, it may be an important diagnostic tool for a wider spectrum of clinical conditions. Indeed, the metabolic characterization of AF in relation to pathological occurrences may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers for a better clinical practice. For this reason, metabolomics may be the most suitable strategy for this task. In this review, research works on metabolomic AF analysis are discussed according to the morbidity of interest, being preterm birth/labor, gestational age and diabetes and fetal malformations, along with a number of other important studies.

  17. Disruption of imprinted gene expression and DNA methylation status in porcine parthenogenetic fetuses and placentas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxu; Chen, Xianju; Song, Yuning; Lv, Qinyan; Lai, Liangxue; Li, Zhanjun

    2014-09-01

    Parthenogenetically activated oocytes cannot develop to term in mammals due to the lack of paternal gene expression and failed X chromosome inactivation (XCI). To further characterize porcine parthenogenesis, the expression of 18 imprinted genes was compared between parthenogenetic (PA) and normally fertilized embryos (Con) using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results revealed that maternally expressed genes were over-expressed, whereas paternally expressed genes were significantly reduced in PA fetuses and placentas. The results of bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) demonstrated that PRE-1 and Satellite were hypermethylated in both Con and PA fetuses and placentas, while XIST DMRs were hypomethylated only in PA samples. Taken together, these results suggest that the aberrant methylation profile of XIST DMRs and abnormal imprinted gene expression may be responsible for developmental failure and impaired growth in porcine parthenogenesis.

  18. Ultrasonographic approach to diagnosis of fetal inflammatory response syndrome: a tool for at-risk fetuses?

    PubMed

    Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Erez, Offer; Loverro, Giuseppe; Di Naro, Edoardo; Weintraub, Adi Yehuda; Tirosh, Dan; Baron, Joel; Hershkovitz, Reli

    2016-07-01

    Preterm parturition is a syndrome that may result from many underlying mechanisms. Infection and inflammation are the prominent ones. Intrauterine infection and inflammation have an effect akin to sepsis, and that is similar to systemic inflammatory response in adults. Indeed, there is evidence to support the association of a fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) to systemic infection and inflammation. The utilization of invasive procedures for the prenatal diagnosis of FIRS is associated with a risk for complications resulting from the invasive method. The progress in the imaging quality of obstetrical ultrasound and the development of novel methods for functional anatomical assessment of the fetal organs may help to identify, noninvasively, fetuses at risk for FIRS in patients presenting with preterm labor. We review the studies describing advanced sonographic modalities and the imaging findings in the heart, thymus, kidney, adrenal glands, and spleen of these fetuses. PMID:26821337

  19. Airway compromise in the fetus and neonate: Prenatal assessment and perinatal management.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg; Somme, Stig; Crombleholme, Timothy M

    2016-08-01

    The fetus with a potentially obstructed airway can be identified on routine antenatal imaging. These cases should be referred to fetal care centers, which have the necessary expertise to fully evaluate and manage these fetuses and neonates appropriately. Complete airway obstruction may result in fetal hydrops and intrauterine demise. If a newborn infant has a compromised airway at delivery, the inability to secure its airway quickly may result in a hypoxic cerebral insult or death. In the most severely affected cases, prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal surgical intervention may be necessary. The timing of such an intervention will depend on the exact cause of the airway obstruction, other associated findings and the anticipated difficulty in establishing an airway at delivery. Fetal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging can differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic airway obstruction, which allows for the optimal planning and management of the delivery and neonatal resuscitation. PMID:27084444

  20. Vesico-amniotic shunting for lower urinary tract obstruction in a fetus with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Kanasugi, Tomonobu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Haba, Gen; Sasaki, Yuri; Isurugi, Chizuko; Oyama, Rie; Sugiyama, Toru

    2016-09-01

    Newborn cases of VACTERL association with lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) are rare and there have been no reports on those patients undergoing fetal therapy in English literature. We successfully performed vesico-amniotic shunting in a fetus having LUTO caused by abnormality of the external genitalia at 16 weeks' gestation. Although fetal karyotype was normal 46XY, follow-up fetal ultrasound examinations revealed ventriculomegaly in the brain, a small stomach and a right multicystic dysplastic kidney. MRI at 31 weeks' gestation suggested lobar type holoprosencephaly. Diagnosis of VACTERL association was confirmed postnatally. We consider that vesico-amniotic shunting is indicated for a fetus of VACTERL association with LUTO if the parents wish the procedure after genetic counseling and explanations about the fetal conditions.

  1. SAR Computation inside Fetus by RF Coil during MR Imaging Employing Realistic Numerical Pregnant Woman Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Saito, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Masaharu; Ito, Koichi; Ikehira, Hiroo

    This paper presents the computational electromagnetic dosimetry inside an anatomically based pregnant woman models exposed to electromagnetic wave during magnetic resonance imaging. The two types of pregnant woman models corresponding to early gestation and 26 weeks gestation were used for this study. The specific absorption rate (SAR) in and around a fetus were calculated by radiated electromagnetic wave from highpass and lowpass birdcage coil. Numerical calculation results showed that high SAR region is observed at the body in the vicinity of gaps of the coil, and is related to concentrated electric field in the gaps of human body such as armpit and thigh. Moreover, it has confirmed that the SAR in the fetus is less than International Electrotechnical Commission limit of 10W/kg, when whole-body average SARs are 2W/kg and 4W/kg, which are the normal operating mode and first level controlled operating mode, respectively.

  2. Effect of afobazole administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis on prenatal development of fetuses.

    PubMed

    Bugayova, L I; Denisova, T D; Morozova, Yu A; Sergeeva, S A; Kharlamov, I V

    2014-11-01

    Experiments on pregnant rats have demonstrated the absence of damaging effect of Afobazole administered during the antenatal period on organogenesis in fetuses. Afobazole in a dose of 5 mg/kg given to pregnant rats on gestation days 6-16 reduced pre- and post-implantation fetal mortality and improved fertility; 20-day-old embryos had no developmental abnormalities and did not differ from controls by craniocaudal size, body weight, and skeleton ossification. Afobazole in a dose of 100 mg/kg reduced pre- and post-implantation fetal mortality, but had no effect on fertility. No congenital malformations were found in the fetuses, but they were characterized by lower craniocaudal size, body weight, and number of ossification foci in the sternum and spine. PMID:25403398

  3. Vesico-amniotic shunting for lower urinary tract obstruction in a fetus with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Kanasugi, Tomonobu; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Haba, Gen; Sasaki, Yuri; Isurugi, Chizuko; Oyama, Rie; Sugiyama, Toru

    2016-09-01

    Newborn cases of VACTERL association with lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) are rare and there have been no reports on those patients undergoing fetal therapy in English literature. We successfully performed vesico-amniotic shunting in a fetus having LUTO caused by abnormality of the external genitalia at 16 weeks' gestation. Although fetal karyotype was normal 46XY, follow-up fetal ultrasound examinations revealed ventriculomegaly in the brain, a small stomach and a right multicystic dysplastic kidney. MRI at 31 weeks' gestation suggested lobar type holoprosencephaly. Diagnosis of VACTERL association was confirmed postnatally. We consider that vesico-amniotic shunting is indicated for a fetus of VACTERL association with LUTO if the parents wish the procedure after genetic counseling and explanations about the fetal conditions. PMID:27061706

  4. Fetus in fetu removal in a 47-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Dagradi, A D; Mangiante, G L; Serio, G E; Musajo, F G; Menestrina, F V

    1992-09-01

    A case of removal of a fetus in fetu in a 47-year-old man is reported. The patient had an upper abdominal mass since birth that had never caused any subjective symptoms. A preoperative computed tomographic scan was useful to confirm the diagnosis. The operative specimen consisted of a cystic mass about 20 cm in diameter, situated in the upper retroperitoneal space. The cyst was full of a yellowish fluid and hairs. A bony structure, about 10 cm in diameter, contained a vertebral axis connected to the ribs and was adherent to the cystic wall. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of fetus in fetu described in an adult man. The tumor, present for 47 years, did not grow or cause any complications and did not show any sign of malignancy.

  5. Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway.

    PubMed

    Kapperud, G; Rosef, O

    1983-02-01

    Cloacal swabs from 540 wild-living birds were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. The carrier rates detected were as follows: C. fetus subsp. jejuni, 28.4%; Yersinia spp., 1.2%; and Salmonella spp., 0.8%. All birds were apparently healthy when captured. C. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from 11 of the 40 bird species examined. Among birds inhabiting the city of Oslo, the highest isolation rate was found in crows (Corvus corone cornix) (89.8%), followed by gulls (Larus spp.) (50.0%) and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domesticus) (4.2%). The gulls and crows scavenge on refuse dumps. High carrier rates were also detected among the following birds from nonurban, coastal areas: puffin (Fratercula arctica) (51.3%), common tern (Sterna hirundo) (5.6%), common gull (Larus canus) (18.9%), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) (13.2%), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) (4.2%). The list of species harboring C. fetus subsp. jejuni also includes the Ural owl (Strix uralensis), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus). The following five Yersinia strains were isolated: Y. kristensenii (two strains), Y. intermedia (two strains), and "Yersinia X2" (one strain). Four strains belonging to the genus Salmonella were isolated from three different species of gulls. These isolates were identified as S. typhimurium, S. indiana, and S. djugu. The results indicate that campylobacters are a normal component of the intestinal flora in several bird species, whereas Salmonella and Yersinia carriers are more sporadic. PMID:6338824

  6. Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom injected to dams during pregnancy affects some cytokines of fetuses.

    PubMed

    Dorce, Ana L C; Frare, Eduardo O; Paulo, Maria E F V; Dorce, Valquiria A C; Nencioni, Ana L A

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high incidence of scorpion stings in Brazil, pregnant women are among the possible victims. Cytokines are important during the pregnancy, and scorpion venoms can change their release. We evaluated the levels of some cytokines in the fetuses after the treatment of pregnant rats with the Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom. The concentration of some of them is altered and can be responsible for the effects previously observed on innate reflexes, and the physical and behavioral development of the offspring.

  7. Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom injected to dams during pregnancy affects some cytokines of fetuses.

    PubMed

    Dorce, Ana L C; Frare, Eduardo O; Paulo, Maria E F V; Dorce, Valquiria A C; Nencioni, Ana L A

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high incidence of scorpion stings in Brazil, pregnant women are among the possible victims. Cytokines are important during the pregnancy, and scorpion venoms can change their release. We evaluated the levels of some cytokines in the fetuses after the treatment of pregnant rats with the Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom. The concentration of some of them is altered and can be responsible for the effects previously observed on innate reflexes, and the physical and behavioral development of the offspring. PMID:26140840

  8. Umbilical cyst due to patent urachus in a fetus with complete urorectal septum malformation sequence

    PubMed Central

    Kodandapani, Sreelakshmi; Shetty, Jyothi; Kumar, Pratap; Girisha, Katta M.

    2012-01-01

    Urorectal septum malformation sequence is a sporadic malformation due to failure of septation of primitive cloaca with no anal opening. Umbilical cyst can be associated with chromosomal aneuploidy such as trisomy 18 or trisomy 13. We report on a fetus with complete urorectal septum malformation sequence with an umbilical cyst resulting from a patent urachus and with meconium as its content. This report adds to the variety of the causes of umbilical cyst and the spectrum of consequences of urorectal septal defect.

  9. Isolation and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Strains in Ovine Aborted Fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Danehchin, Leila; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease that can cause abortion in humans and animals. The aim of this study was isolation and subsequent genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in ovine aborted fetuses. During 2012-2013, 39 ovine aborted fetuses were collected from sheep flocks in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The brain samples were screened for detection of the parasite DNA by nested PCR. The positive brain samples were bioassayed in Webster Swiss mice. The serum samples of mice were examined for T. gondii antibodies by IFAT at 6 weeks post inoculation, and T. gondii cysts were searched in brain tissue samples of seropositive mice. The positive samples were genotyped by using a PCR-RLFP method. Subsequently, GRA6 sequences of isolates were analyzed using a phylogenetic method. The results revealed that T. gondii DNA was detected in 54% (20/37, 95% CI 38.4-69.0%) brain samples of ovine aborted fetuses. In bioassay of mice, only 2 samples were virulent and the mice were killed at 30 days post inoculation, while the others were non-virulent to mice. The size of cysts ranged 7-22 µm. Complete genotyping data for GRA6 locus were observed in 5 of the 20 samples. PCR-RLFP results and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the isolated samples were closely related to type I. For the first time, we could genotype and report T. gondii isolates from ovine aborted fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The results indicate that the T. gondii isolates are genetically related to type I, although most of them were non-virulent for mice. PMID:26951974

  10. Identification of Symptomatic Fetuses Infected with Cytomegalovirus Using Amniotic Fluid Peptide Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Ramirez-Torres, Adela; Lacroix, Chrystelle; Breuil, Benjamin; Froment, Carine; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Ville, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital infection, and is a major cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurological disabilities. Evaluating the risk for a CMV infected fetus to develop severe clinical symptoms after birth is crucial to provide appropriate guidance to pregnant women who might have to consider termination of pregnancy or experimental prenatal medical therapies. However, establishing the prognosis before birth remains a challenge. This evaluation is currently based upon fetal imaging and fetal biological parameters, but the positive and negative predictive values of these parameters are not optimal, leaving room for the development of new prognostic factors. Here, we compared the amniotic fluid peptidome between asymptomatic fetuses who were born as asymptomatic neonates and symptomatic fetuses who were either terminated in view of severe cerebral lesions or born as severely symptomatic neonates. This comparison allowed us to identify a 34-peptide classifier in a discovery cohort of 13 symptomatic and 13 asymptomatic neonates. This classifier further yielded 89% sensitivity, 75% specificity and an area under the curve of 0.90 to segregate 9 severely symptomatic from 12 asymptomatic neonates in a validation cohort, showing an overall better performance than that of classical fetal laboratory parameters. Pathway analysis of the 34 peptides underlined the role of viral entry in fetuses with severe brain disease as well as the potential importance of both beta-2-microglobulin and adiponectin to protect the injured fetal brain infected with CMV. The results also suggested the mechanistic implication of the T calcium channel alpha-1G (CACNA1G) protein in the development of seizures in severely CMV infected children. These results open a new field for potential therapeutic options. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amniotic fluid peptidome analysis can effectively predict the severity of congenital CMV infection. This

  11. Avian wildlife reservoir of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. in Norway.

    PubMed

    Kapperud, G; Rosef, O

    1983-02-01

    Cloacal swabs from 540 wild-living birds were cultured for Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni, Yersinia spp., and Salmonella spp. The carrier rates detected were as follows: C. fetus subsp. jejuni, 28.4%; Yersinia spp., 1.2%; and Salmonella spp., 0.8%. All birds were apparently healthy when captured. C. fetus subsp. jejuni was isolated from 11 of the 40 bird species examined. Among birds inhabiting the city of Oslo, the highest isolation rate was found in crows (Corvus corone cornix) (89.8%), followed by gulls (Larus spp.) (50.0%) and domestic pigeons (Columba livia domesticus) (4.2%). The gulls and crows scavenge on refuse dumps. High carrier rates were also detected among the following birds from nonurban, coastal areas: puffin (Fratercula arctica) (51.3%), common tern (Sterna hirundo) (5.6%), common gull (Larus canus) (18.9%), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus) (13.2%), and herring gull (Larus argentatus) (4.2%). The list of species harboring C. fetus subsp. jejuni also includes the Ural owl (Strix uralensis), goldeneye (Bucephala clangula), and reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus). The following five Yersinia strains were isolated: Y. kristensenii (two strains), Y. intermedia (two strains), and "Yersinia X2" (one strain). Four strains belonging to the genus Salmonella were isolated from three different species of gulls. These isolates were identified as S. typhimurium, S. indiana, and S. djugu. The results indicate that campylobacters are a normal component of the intestinal flora in several bird species, whereas Salmonella and Yersinia carriers are more sporadic.

  12. Protective effect of quercetin on skeletal and neural tube teratogenicity induced by cyclophosphamide in rat fetuses.

    PubMed

    Khaksary Mahabady, Mahmood; Gholami, Mohammad Reza; Najafzadeh Varzi, Hossein; Zendedel, Abolfazl; Doostizadeh, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a drug commonly used to treat neoplastic disease and some autoimmune diseases. It is also a well-known and well-studied teratogen causing a variety of birth defects in fetuses of pregnant women treated with the drug. There are many reports that show the adverse effects of CP can be decreased by use of antioxidant drugs. It appears that, quercetin has antioxidant effect. The aim of this study was prevention or decrease of teratogenicity of CP in fetuses of rats by quercetin. This study was performed on 35 pregnant rats divided into six groups. Control group was received normal saline (5 mL kg(-1), intraperitoneally) and 2-6 groups received a single dose of CP (15 mg kg(-1)), a single dose of quercetin (75 or 200 mg kg(-1)), CP plus quercetin (75 or 200 mg kg(-1)) intraperitoneally at 9(th) day of gestation, respectively. Fetuses were collected at 20(th) day of gestation and after determination of weight and crown rump length were stained by alizarin red - alcian blue method and skeletal system were examined by stereomicroscope. The results showed that the cleft palate, exencephaly, spina bifida and omphalocele incidence were 55.56%, 27.77%, 33.34% and 11.11%, in fetuses of rat that received only CP, respectively. However, it decreased to 16.00%, 16.00%, 16.00% and 8.00% by quercetin (75 mg kg(-1)) and so to 12.90%, 12.90%, 6.45% and 3.28% by quercetin (200 mg kg(-1)), respectively. On the basis of results, quercetin significantly can decrease teratogenicity induced by CP. PMID:27482358

  13. Isolation and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii Strains in Ovine Aborted Fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Danehchin, Leila; Razmi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonotic disease that can cause abortion in humans and animals. The aim of this study was isolation and subsequent genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in ovine aborted fetuses. During 2012-2013, 39 ovine aborted fetuses were collected from sheep flocks in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The brain samples were screened for detection of the parasite DNA by nested PCR. The positive brain samples were bioassayed in Webster Swiss mice. The serum samples of mice were examined for T. gondii antibodies by IFAT at 6 weeks post inoculation, and T. gondii cysts were searched in brain tissue samples of seropositive mice. The positive samples were genotyped by using a PCR-RLFP method. Subsequently, GRA6 sequences of isolates were analyzed using a phylogenetic method. The results revealed that T. gondii DNA was detected in 54% (20/37, 95% CI 38.4-69.0%) brain samples of ovine aborted fetuses. In bioassay of mice, only 2 samples were virulent and the mice were killed at 30 days post inoculation, while the others were non-virulent to mice. The size of cysts ranged 7-22 µm. Complete genotyping data for GRA6 locus were observed in 5 of the 20 samples. PCR-RLFP results and phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the isolated samples were closely related to type I. For the first time, we could genotype and report T. gondii isolates from ovine aborted fetuses in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. The results indicate that the T. gondii isolates are genetically related to type I, although most of them were non-virulent for mice. PMID:26951974

  14. Protective effect of quercetin on skeletal and neural tube teratogenicity induced by cyclophosphamide in rat fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Khaksary Mahabady, Mahmood; Gholami, Mohammad Reza; Najafzadeh Varzi, Hossein; Zendedel, Abolfazl; Doostizadeh, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a drug commonly used to treat neoplastic disease and some autoimmune diseases. It is also a well-known and well-studied teratogen causing a variety of birth defects in fetuses of pregnant women treated with the drug. There are many reports that show the adverse effects of CP can be decreased by use of antioxidant drugs. It appears that, quercetin has antioxidant effect. The aim of this study was prevention or decrease of teratogenicity of CP in fetuses of rats by quercetin. This study was performed on 35 pregnant rats divided into six groups. Control group was received normal saline (5 mL kg-1, intraperitoneally) and 2-6 groups received a single dose of CP (15 mg kg-1), a single dose of quercetin (75 or 200 mg kg-1), CP plus quercetin (75 or 200 mg kg-1) intraperitoneally at 9th day of gestation, respectively. Fetuses were collected at 20th day of gestation and after determination of weight and crown rump length were stained by alizarin red – alcian blue method and skeletal system were examined by stereomicroscope. The results showed that the cleft palate, exencephaly, spina bifida and omphalocele incidence were 55.56%, 27.77%, 33.34% and 11.11%, in fetuses of rat that received only CP, respectively. However, it decreased to 16.00%, 16.00%, 16.00% and 8.00% by quercetin (75 mg kg-1) and so to 12.90%, 12.90%, 6.45% and 3.28% by quercetin (200 mg kg-1), respectively. On the basis of results, quercetin significantly can decrease teratogenicity induced by CP. PMID:27482358

  15. Prenatal substance abuse: short- and long-term effects on the exposed fetus.

    PubMed

    Behnke, Marylou; Smith, Vincent C

    2013-03-01

    Prenatal substance abuse continues to be a significant problem in this country and poses important health risks for the developing fetus. The primary care pediatrician's role in addressing prenatal substance exposure includes prevention, identification of exposure, recognition of medical issues for the exposed newborn infant, protection of the infant, and follow-up of the exposed infant. This report will provide information for the most common drugs involved in prenatal exposure: nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, opiates, cocaine, and methamphetamine.

  16. [Virulence and biochemical activity of Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated from cow fetuses].

    PubMed

    Venev, S

    1977-01-01

    Tested was the virulence of 20 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from cow fetuses. All laboratory mice injected with them died, and the pregnant guinea pigs aborted. It was demonstrated that these strains contain exogenic and endotoxic substances which are extracted effectively with alcohol and ether. The mould cultures showed proteolytic, amylolytic, cellulose, and organic acid activity. The biochemical and pathogenic potential of the strains were of great importance for causing abortion. PMID:339512

  17. Mechanisms involved in the selective transfer of long chain polyunsaturated Fatty acids to the fetus.

    PubMed

    Gil-Sánchez, Alfonso; Demmelmair, Hans; Parrilla, J J; Koletzko, Berthold; Larqué, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) in the fetal brain increases dramatically from the third trimester until 18 months of life. Several studies have shown an association between the percentage of maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during gestation and development of cognitive functions in the neonate. Since only very low levels of LCPUFA are synthesized in the fetus and placenta, their primary source for the fetus is the maternal circulation. Both in vitro and human in vivo studies using labeled fatty acids have shown preferential transfer of LCPUFA from the placenta to the fetus compared with other fatty acids, although the mechanisms involved are still uncertain. The placenta takes up circulating maternal non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and fatty acids released mainly by maternal lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase. These NEFA may enter the cell by passive diffusion or by means of membrane carrier proteins. Once in the cytosol, NEFA bind to cytosolic fatty acid-binding proteins for transfer to the fetal circulation or can be oxidized within the trophoblasts, and even re-esterified and stored in lipid droplets. Although trophoblast cells are not specialized for lipid storage, LCPUFA may up-regulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and hence the gene expression of fatty acid transport carriers, fatty acid acyl-CoA-synthetases and adipophilin or other enzymes involved in lipolysis, modifying the rate of placental transfer, and metabolism. The placental transfer of LCPUFA during pregnancy seems to be a key factor in the neurological development of the fetus. Increased knowledge of the factors that modify placental transfer of fatty acids would contribute to our understanding of this complex process. PMID:22303352

  18. Copper transport from mother to fetus, at the end of gestation, in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.; Madani, N.; Linder, M.C. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have followed the fate of {sup 67}Cu in pregnant rats, from 1-4 days before the end of gestation, after its intravenous infusion in the form of in vivo labeled ceruloplasmin (Cp) or {sup 67}Cu(II)-treated rat serum. One and 4 hours after administration, radioactivity administered as Cp was still with Cp in the maternal circulation and that of ionic copper was still associated with transcuprein and albumin (Tc and Alb). On the basis of % dose, Cp appeared to be more effective than Tc + Alb as a source of copper for the placenta and fetus. In contrast, maternal liver took up less {sup 67}Cu from Cp than from Tc + Alb. Four hours after administration, about 8% of the {sup 67}Cu administered as Cp had been taken up by the placenta and fetuses compared with about 2% in the case of {sup 67}Cu from Tc + Alb. The amounts of {sup 67}Cu in fetuses and fetal liver increased with time. Initial trials indicated that Cu administered as Cp became attached mainly to Tc in the fetal circulation, but was also associated with Alb and with Cp, at least by 4 hours. mRNA for ceruloplasmin was detected in maternal liver, placenta, and fetal liver, where it was present primarily on ER-bound (rather than free) polyribosomes. They conclude that normally ceruloplasmin is probably the main source of copper for the fetus, at least in the rat, although transcuprein and albumin can substitute as sources; and after entering the placenta, copper from ceruloplasmin may be transferred to transcuprein and albumin in the fetal circulation, from whence it enters the liver for storage and incorporation into fetal ceruloplasmin.

  19. Comparing the performance of the SF-6D and the EQ-5D in different patient groups.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lara N; Ferreira, Pedro L; Pereira, Luis N

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O objectivo geral deste artigo consiste em comparar o desempenho do EQ-5D e do SF-6D em quatro grupos de doentes que sofrem de asma, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica, cataratas e artrite reumatóide. Em particular, este artigo tem dois objectivos específicos: 1) estudar o nível de concordância entre os índices e os sistemas descritivos das dimensões do SF-6D e EQ-5D, e 2) analisar a capacidade de discriminação dos instrumentos.Material e Métodos: Uma amostra de 643 doentes respondeu ao SF-36v2 e ao EQ-5D. Foram analisados a capacidade de discriminação dos instrumentos, bem como o nível de concordância entre os índices e os sistemas descritivos das dimensões do SF-6D e EQ-5D. O nível de concordância entre os instrumentos foi estudado com base em coeficientes de correlação e nos gráficos de Bland-Altman, enquanto a influência da condição médica e de outras variáveis de natureza sociodemográfica nos índices foi analisada com o recurso a testes não paramétricos. Utilizaram-se também testes para amostras emparelhadas para identificar diferenças entre osscores finais dos instrumentos.Resultados e Discussão: Verificou-se a existência de uma correlação forte e de uma concordância elevada entre os dois índices. Em termos globais, os índices diferem por condição médica e por grupo sociodemográfico e ambos os instrumentos demonstraram uma capacidade discriminativa semelhante entre grupos sociodemográficosConclusão: Confirmou-se a hipótese de que o SF-6D gera valores de utilidade superiores em populações com doenças. O SF-6D e o EQ-5D parecem comportar-se de forma diferente em cada uma das doenças analisadas, uma vez que as medidas descritivas diferem entre instrumentos e os coeficientes de correlação não são uniformes. Os resultados demonstraram que o EQ-5D e o SF-6D geram valores de utilidade diferentes, mas que existe uma concordância elevada entre os dois instrumentos. Pode-se concluir que os resultados

  20. A 2.5D boundary element formulation for modeling damped waves in arbitrary cross-section waveguides and cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzotti, M.; Bartoli, I.; Marzani, A.; Viola, E.

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: •Dispersive properties of viscoelastic waveguides and cavities are computed using a regularized 2.5D BEM. •Linear viscoelasticity is introduced at the constitutive level by means of frequency dependent complex moduli. •A contour integral algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear eigenvalue problem. •The Sommerfeld radiation condition is used to select the permissible Riemann sheets. •Attenuation of surface waves in cavities approaches the attenuation of Rayleigh waves. -- Abstract: A regularized 2.5D boundary element method (BEM) is proposed to predict the dispersion properties of damped stress guided waves in waveguides and cavities of arbitrary cross-section. The wave attenuation, induced by material damping, is introduced using linear viscoelastic constitutive relations and described in a spatial manner by the imaginary component of the axial wavenumber. The discretized dispersive wave equation results in a nonlinear eigenvalue problem, which is solved obtaining complex axial wavenumbers for a fixed frequency using a contour integral algorithm. Due to the singular characteristics and the multivalued feature of the wave equation, the requirement of holomorphicity inside the contour region over the complex wavenumber plane is fulfilled by the introduction of the Sommerfeld branch cuts and by the choice of the permissible Riemann sheets. A post processing analysis is developed for the extraction of the energy velocity of propagative guided waves. The reliability of the method is demonstrated by comparing the results obtained for a rail and a bar with square cross-section with those obtained from a 2.5D Finite Element formulation also known in literature as Semi Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method. Next, to show the potential of the proposed numerical framework, dispersion properties are predicted for surface waves propagating along cylindrical cavities of arbitrary cross-section. It is demonstrated that the attenuation of surface waves

  1. Amino acid metabolism in the human fetus at term: leucine, valine, and methionine kinetics.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Chris H P; Schierbeek, Henk; Minderman, Gardi; Vermes, Andras; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M; Duvekot, Johannes J; Steegers, Eric A P; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2011-12-01

    Human fetal metabolism is largely unexplored. Understanding how a healthy fetus achieves its fast growth rates could eventually play a pivotal role in improving future nutritional strategies for premature infants. To quantify specific fetal amino acid kinetics, eight healthy pregnant women received before elective cesarean section at term, continuous stable isotope infusions of the essential amino acids [1-13C,15N]leucine, [U-13C5]valine, and [1-13C]methionine. Umbilical blood was collected after birth and analyzed for enrichments and concentrations using mass spectrometry techniques. Fetuses showed considerable leucine, valine, and methionine uptake and high turnover rates. α-Ketoisocaproate, but not α-ketoisovalerate (the leucine and valine ketoacids, respectively), was transported at net rate from the fetus to the placenta. Especially, leucine and valine data suggested high oxidation rates, up to half of net uptake. This was supported by relatively low α-ketoisocaproate reamination rates to leucine. Our data suggest high protein breakdown and synthesis rates, comparable with, or even slightly higher than in premature infants. The relatively large uptakes of total leucine and valine carbon also suggest high fetal oxidation rates of these essential branched chain amino acids.

  2. Radiation dosimetry for the adult female and fetus from iodine-131 administration in hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Marcus, C.S.; Salk, R.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Through a study of the iodine kinetics of 127 patients, we have developed radiation dose estimates to major organs and the fetus for patients with varying degrees of hyperthyroidism. We observed a negative correlation between maximum thyroid uptake and biologic half-time of iodine in the thyroid and used this correlation to predict the biologic half-time at fixed values of maximum thyroid uptake. Dose estimates to the bladder, gonads, marrow, thyroid, uterus, and whole body were estimated for maximum thyroid uptakes from 20% to 100%. Bladder dose varied from 0.6 to 1.0 mGy/MBq and dose to the uterus varied from 0.036 to 0.063 mGy/MBq under different model assumptions. Dose estimates to the fetus and fetal thyroid were approximated at all stages of pregnancy. Average fetal dose was a maximum between 0 and 2 mo of pregnancy, with the maximum ranging from 0.048 mGy/MBq to 0.083 mGy/MBq, depending on model assumptions. Some radiation risks for irradiation of the fetus and the fetal thyroid are discussed.

  3. Toxic effects of glibenclamide in fetuses of normoglycemic rats: an alternative therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Aguillar-Gomes, L.; Lopes, C.M.; Barbieri, D.S.; Rocha, T.; Randazzo-Moura, P.

    2014-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first diagnosed during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The treatment aims at glycemic control through changes in the patient’s diet with or without exercise, but some patients need insulin therapy. An alternative would be to use oral hypoglycemic agents such as glibenclamide (GLIB). The present study aims to analyze the toxic effects of GLIB in fetuses of pregnant rats which received 5 or 20mg/kg doses of GLIB. Glycemic dosage reveals no significant difference between control (deionized water) and treated groups, showing that these concentrations of GLIB were not effective to cause hypoglycemia in rats. The vitality of the fetuses in all groups was 100%. GLIB administration promoted increase in weight and significant changes in measures of external morphological parameters of treated fetuses. Histological analysis revealed that liver lobes, lobules and central lobular veins were well defined for all treatments. However, GLIB animals presented a light brownish precipitate into the center-lobular veins and in the liver parenchyma among the hepatocytes. These results indicated a possible passage of the drug through the blood-placental membrane, without serious changes that impair the development of neither bone tissue, nor the liver of these animals. PMID:26623340

  4. Developmental analysis of cardiovascular system of 45,X fetuses with cystic hygroma

    SciTech Connect

    Miyabara, Shinichi; Yonemitsu, Nobuhisa; Sugihara, Hajime

    1997-01-20

    There have been few pathological investigations of 45,X embryos and fetuses from a developmental point of view. Since most 45,X embryos and fetuses are lost prenatally, it is important to investigate them morphologically in order to elucidate the pathogenesis of the abnormalities. In this study, 13 45,X fetuses with cervical cystic hygroma were examined between 12 and 23 weeks of pregnancy. Every case had a hypoplastic thymus. The aortic valve was bicuspid in 11 cases and unicuspid in 2 cases. The aortic arch showed tubular hypoplasia between the left carotid artery and the left subclavian artery in 12 cases and type B interruption in one case. Smooth muscle cells and elastic fibers were reduced in number in the hypoplastic aortic arch. These results suggest hypoplastic development of the fourth bronchial arch. Combined abnormalities between the aortic arch and aortic valve are not infrequently observed in DiGeorge anomaly. A similar developmental mechanism apparently underlies the pathogenesis of 45,X embryos. Possible genes causing the abnormalities are discussed. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Oximeter for reliable clinical determination of blood oxygen saturation in a fetus

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Mark R.; Haaland, David M.; Ward, Kenneth J.

    1996-01-01

    With the crude instrumentation now in use to continuously monitor the status of the fetus at delivery, the obstetrician and labor room staff not only over-recognize the possibility of fetal distress with the resultant rise in operative deliveries, but at times do not identify fetal distress which may result in preventable fetal neurological harm. The invention, which addresses these two basic problems, comprises a method and apparatus for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation in the fetus. The apparatus includes a multiple frequency light source which is coupled to an optical fiber. The output of the fiber is used to illuminate blood containing tissue of the fetus. In the preferred embodiment, the reflected light is transmitted back to the apparatus where the light intensities are simultaneously detected at multiple frequencies. The resulting spectrum is then analyzed for determination of oxygen saturation. The analysis method uses multivariate calibration techniques that compensate for nonlinear spectral response, model interfering spectral responses and detect outlier data with high sensitivity.

  6. Leptin and leptin receptor mRNA and protein expression in the murine fetus and placenta.

    PubMed

    Hoggard, N; Hunter, L; Duncan, J S; Williams, L M; Trayhurn, P; Mercer, J G

    1997-09-30

    Leptin is a 167-aa protein that is secreted from adipose tissue and is important in the regulation of energy balance. It also functions in hematopoiesis and reproduction. To assess whether leptin is involved in fetal growth and development we have examined the distribution of mRNAs encoding leptin and the leptin receptor (which has at least six splice variants) in the 14.5-day postcoitus mouse fetus and in the placenta using reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization. High levels of gene expression for leptin, the leptin receptor, and the long splice variant of the leptin receptor with an intracellular signaling domain were observed in the placenta, fetal cartilage/bone, and hair follicles. Receptor expression also was detected in the lung, as well as the leptomeninges and choroid plexus of the fetal brain. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry, using specific antibodies, demonstrated the presence of leptin and leptin receptor protein in these tissues. These results suggest that leptin may play a role in the growth and development of the fetus, both through placental and fetal expression of the leptin and leptin receptor genes. In the fetus, leptin may be multifunctional and have both paracrine and endocrine effects.

  7. Cervical vertebrae, cranial base, and mandibular retrognathia in human triploid fetuses.

    PubMed

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Nolting, Dorrit; Engel, Ulla; Kjaer, Inger

    2009-02-01

    On profile radiographs of adults, an association between fusions of cervical vertebrae, deviations in the cranial base and mandibular retrognathia has been documented radiographically. An elaboration of this association on a histological level is needed. In human triploid fetuses severe mandibular retrognathia and deviations in the cranial base have previously been described radiographically (without cephalometry) and cervical column fusions radiographically as well as histologically. Therefore, triploid fetuses were chosen to elucidate the cranial base cephalomterically and histologically. In the present study, eight triploid fetuses were analyzed radiographically and histologically focusing especially on the cranial base, which borders to the spine and to which the jaws are attached. A histological analysis of the cranial base has not previously been performed in triploid cases. An enlarged cranial base angle and a retrognathic position of the mandible were documented cephalometrically on radiographs of all cases. Histologically, malformations were observed in the cranial base as well as in the spine. These are new findings indicating the association between the occipital bone and the uppermost vertebra in the body axis. As the notochord connects the cervical column and the cranial base in early prenatal life, molecular signaling from the notochord may in future studies support the notochord as the developmental link between abnormal development in the spine and the cranial base.

  8. Evolving in thin air--lessons from the llama fetus in the altiplano.

    PubMed

    Llanos, Aníbal J; Riquelme, Raquel A; Herrera, Emilio A; Ebensperger, Germán; Krause, Bernardo; Reyes, Roberto V; Sanhueza, Emilia M; Pulgar, Víctor M; Behn, Claus; Cabello, Gertrudis; Parer, Julian T; Giussani, Dino A; Blanco, Carlos E; Hanson, Mark A

    2007-09-30

    Compared with lowland species, fetal life for mammalian species whose mothers live in high altitude is demanding. For instance, fetal llamas have to cope with the low fetal arterial PO2 of all species, but also the likely superimposition of hypoxia as a result of the decreased oxygen environment in which the mother lives in the Andean altiplano. When subjected to acute hypoxia the llama fetus responds with an intense peripheral vasoconstriction mediated by alpha-adrenergic mechanisms plus high plasma concentrations of catecholamines and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Endothelial factors such as NO and endothelin-1 also play a role in the regulation of local blood flows. Unlike fetuses of lowland species such as the sheep, the llama fetus shows a profound cerebral hypometabolic response to hypoxia, decreasing cerebral oxygen consumption, Na-K-ATPase activity and temperature, and resulting in an absence of seizures and apoptosis in neural cells. These strategies may have evolved to prevent hypoxic injury to the brain or other organs in the face of the persistent hypobaric hypoxia of life in the Andean altiplano.

  9. Three-dimensional display of human fetus image by holographic stereogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Koki; Akiyama, Iwaki; Ishizuka, Takao; Odani, Makoto; Itoh, Koichi; Ishikawa, Jun

    1993-03-01

    Three-dimensional image display technique is becoming very important in the field of diagnosis of human fetus by ultrasound B-mode image. We apply the technique of holographic stereogram (HS) to the ultrasound B-mode human fetus images and display a 3-D image which is the real stereoscopic image. In this case each sectional diagram of the human body is measured by the ultrasound B-mode method and the human fetus image is extracted and then a 3-D surface image is reconstructed with the digital image processing. Then the 3-D image is projected to a plane and films which are composed of the various viewpoints are taken. Next, HS is constructed using these films. Then we make clear the condition of making HS. The rainbow hologram is made using the HS as the master hologram and we consider the characteristics of the reconstructed image. Also, the special image reconstructing lamp house is developed for medical application, and we discuss the possibility of this method for the medical diagnosis.

  10. Anococcygeal Raphe Revisited: A Histological Study Using Mid-Term Human Fetuses and Elderly Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinichi; Cho, Baik Hwan; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We recently demonstrated the morphology of the anococcygeal ligament. As the anococcygeal ligament and raphe are often confused, the concept of the anococcygeal raphe needs to be re-examined from the perspective of fetal development, as well as in terms of adult morphology. Materials and Methods We examined the horizontal sections of 15 fetuses as well as adult histology. From cadavers, we obtained an almost cubic tissue mass containing the dorsal wall of the anorectum, the coccyx and the covering skin. Most sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or Masson-trichrome solution. Results The adult ligament contained both smooth and striated muscle fibers. A similar band-like structure was seen in fetuses, containing: 1) smooth muscle fibers originating from the longitudinal muscle coat of the anal canal and 2) striated muscle fibers from the external anal sphincter (EAS). However, in fetuses, the levator ani muscle did not attach to either the band or the coccyx. Along and around the anococcygeal ligament, we did not find any aponeurotic tissue with transversely oriented fibers connecting bilateral levator ani slings. Instead, in adults, a fibrous tissue mass was located at a gap between bilateral levator ani slings; this site corresponded to the dorsal side of the ligament and the EAS in the immediately deep side of the natal skin cleft. Conclusion We hypothesize that a classically described raphe corresponds to the specific subcutaneous tissue on the superficial or dorsal side of the anococcygeal ligament. PMID:22665356

  11. Morphometric characteristics of caudal cranial nerves at petroclival region in fetuses.

    PubMed

    Ozdogmus, Omer; Saban, Enis; Ozkan, Mazhar; Yildiz, Sercan Dogukan; Verimli, Ural; Cakmak, Ozgur; Arifoglu, Yasin; Sehirli, Umit

    2016-06-01

    Morphometric measurements of cranial nerves in posterior cranial fossa of fetus cadavers were carried out in an attempt to identify any asymmetry in their openings into the cranium. Twenty-two fetus cadavers (8 females, 14 males) with gestational age ranging between 22 and 38 weeks (mean 30 weeks) were included in this study. The calvaria were removed, the brains were lifted, and the cranial nerves were identified. The distance of each cranial nerve opening to midline and the distances between different cranial nerve openings were measured on the left and right side and compared. The mean clivus length and width were 21.2 ± 4.4 and 13.2 ± 1.5 mm, respectively. The distance of the twelfth cranial nerve opening from midline was shorter on the right side when compared with the left side (6.6 ± 1.1 versus 7.1 ± 0.8 mm, p = 0.038). Openings of other cranial nerves did not show such asymmetry with regard to their distance from midline, and the distances between different cranial nerves were similar on the left and right side. Cranial nerves at petroclival region seem to show minimal asymmetry in fetuses.

  12. The Male Fetal Biomarker INSL3 Reveals Substantial Hormone Exchange between Fetuses in Early Pig Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Vernunft, Andreas; Ivell, Richard; Heng, Kee; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The peptide hormone INSL3 is uniquely produced by the fetal testis to promote the transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Because it is fetal sex specific, and is present in only very low amounts in the maternal circulation, INSL3 acts as an ideal biomarker with which to monitor the movement of fetal hormones within the pregnant uterus of a polytocous species, the pig. INSL3 production by the fetal testis begins at around GD30. At GD45 of the ca. 114 day gestation, a time at which testicular descent is promoted, INSL3 evidently moves from male to female allantoic compartments, presumably impacting also on the female fetal circulation. At later time-points (GD63, GD92) there is less inter-fetal transfer, although there still appears to be significant INSL3, presumably of male origin, in the plasma of female fetuses. This study thus provides evidence for substantial transfer of a peptide hormone between fetuses, and probably also across the placenta, emphasizing the vulnerability of the fetus to extrinsic hormonal influences within the uterus. PMID:27031644

  13. Mycotic Abdominal Aneurysm Caused by Campylobacter Fetus: A Case Report for Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Yukihiro; Sawada, Ko-ichiro; Yoshida, Syu-hei; Nishida, Satoru; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Otake, Yuji; Watanabe, Go

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare case of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with Campylobacter fetus. A 72-year-old male admitted to the hospital because of pain in the right lower quadrant with pyrexia. The enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) examination showed abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) measuring 50 mm in maximum diameter and a high-density area of soft tissue density from the right lateral wall to the anterior wall of the aorta. However, since the patient showed no significant signs of defervescence after antibiotics administration, so we performed emergency surgery on the patient based on the diagnosis of impending rupture of mycotic AAA. The aneurysm was resected in situ reconstruction using a bifurcated albumin-coated knitted Dacron graft was performed. The cultures of blood and aneurysmal wall grew Campylobacter fetus, allowing early diagnosis and appropriate surgical management in this case, and the patient is making satisfactory progress. This is the fifth report of mycotic AAA characterizing culture positive for Campylobacter fetus in blood and tissue culture of the aortic aneurysm wall. PMID:23555431

  14. First principle study of AlX (X=3d, 4d, 5d elements and Lu) dimer.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yifang; Wang, Jianchuan; Hou, Yuhua; Zhong, Xiaping; Du, Yong; Feng, Yuanping

    2008-02-21

    The ground state equilibrium bond length, harmonic vibrational frequency, and dissociation energy of AlX (X=3d,4d,5d elements and Lu) dimers are investigated by density functional method B3LYP. The present results are in good agreement with the available experimental and other theoretical values except the dissociation energy of AlCr. The present calculations show that the late transition metal can combine strongly with aluminum compared with the former transition metal. The present calculation also indicates that it is more reasonable to replace La with Lu in the Periodic Table and that the bonding strengths of zinc, cadmium, and mercury with aluminum are very weak.

  15. Primordial SdS universe from a 5D vacuum: scalar field fluctuations on Schwarzschild and Hubble horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, José Edgar Madriz; Bellini, Mauricio E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar

    2010-11-01

    We study scalar field fluctuations of the inflaton field in an early inflationary universe on an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) metric, which is obtained after make a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) static metric. We obtain the important result that the spectrum of fluctuations at zeroth order is independent of the scalar field mass M on Schwarzschild scales, while on cosmological scales it exhibits a mass dependence. However, in the first-order expansion, the spectrum depends of the inflaton mass and the amplitude is linear with the Black-Hole (BH) mass m.

  16. A systematic study of thermodynamic and transport properties of layered 4d and 5d correlated electron systemsph.d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikara, Shalinee

    Correlated electron materials have been at the forefront of condensed matter research in the past couple of decades. Correlation in materials, especially, with open d and f electronic shells often lead to very exciting and intriguing phenomenon like high temperature superconductivity, Mott metal-insulator transition, colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). This thesis focuses on triple-layered Sr4Ru3O10, Sr substituted double layered (Ca1 - xAx) 3Ru2O7 (A = Ba, Sr) and 5d system Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7. Triple-layered Sr4Ru3O10 displays interesting phenomena ranging from quantum oscillations, tunneling magnetoresistance, unusual low temperature specific heat, strong spin-lattice coupling to switching behavior. The central feature, however, is the unique borderline magnetism: along the c-axis. Sr4Ru3O10 shows spontaneous ferromagnetism, indicating a strong Coulomb exchange interaction, U and a large density of states at the Fermi surface, g( EF), hence Ug(EF) ≥ 1 (Stoner criterion). But within the ab-plane it features a pronounced peak in magnetization and a first-order metamagnetic transition. The coexistence of the interlayer ferromagnetism and the intralayer metamagnetism makes Sr4Ru3O10 a really unique system. Also, in this thesis the spin-valve behavior exhibited by impurity doping at the Ca site by Ba and Sr in the double layered Ca3Ru2O 7 is reported. Spin valve effect is a phenomenon only realized in multilayer thin films. Here, spin valve is observed in bulk single crystals of impurity doped Ca3Ru2O7, Ca3(Ru 1-xCrx) 2O7 and (Ca1 - xAx) 3Ru2O7 (A = Ba, Sr). 5d Iridates are expected to be more metallic and less magnetic than their 3d and 4f counterparts because of the extended 5d orbitals. In marked contrast, many iridates are magnetic insulators with exotic properties. The focus in this thesis is on Sr2IrO4 which diplays a novel Jeff = 1=2 Mott state. Magnetic, electrical, and thermal measurements on single-crystals of Sr2IrO4, reveal a novel giant magneto

  17. Role of magnetism in superconductivity of BaFe2As2: Study of 5d Au-doped crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Li; Cao, Huibo; McGuire, Michael A.; Kim, J. S.; Stewart, G. R.; Sefat, Athena Safa

    2015-09-09

    We investigate properties of BaFe2As2 (122) single crystals upon gold doping, which is the transition metal with the highest atomic weight. The Au substitution into the FeAs-planes of 122 crystal structure (Au-122) is only possible up to a small amount of ~3%. We find that 5d is more effective in reducing magnetism in 122 than its counter 3d Cu, and this relates to superconductivity. We provide evidence of short-range magnetic fluctuations and local lattice inhomogeneities that may prevent strong percolative superconductivity in Ba(Fe1-xAux)2As2.

  18. Compatible operation of the power system for steady state and pulse modes in a magnetic torus KT-5D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Zhi-jiang; Xu, Min; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Lu, Rong-hua; Wen, Yi-zhi; Yu, Chang-xuan; Wan, Shu-de; Liu, Wan-dong; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiao-yuan; Hu, Ling-ying

    2006-12-01

    Compatible operation of steady state mode and pulse mode is realized in the KT-5D device. New power supplies with the operation control systems for the steady state toroidal magnetic field as well as for the vertical field are added, and the rf wave injection systems for sustaining steady state plasmas are upgraded. After the modification, the device now can work not only as a tokomak with pulsed plasma currents as it was but also as a simple magnetized torus with steady state plasma discharges. It allows more flexible and efficient experimental researches on the magnetically confined plasmas to be carried on in the same device.

  19. Compatible operation of the power system for steady state and pulse modes in a magnetic torus KT-5D

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yi; Wang Zhijiang; Xu Min; Zhu Zhenhua; Lu Ronghua; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Wang Jun; Xu Xiaoyuan; Hu Lingying

    2006-12-15

    Compatible operation of steady state mode and pulse mode is realized in the KT-5D device. New power supplies with the operation control systems for the steady state toroidal magnetic field as well as for the vertical field are added, and the rf wave injection systems for sustaining steady state plasmas are upgraded. After the modification, the device now can work not only as a tokomak with pulsed plasma currents as it was but also as a simple magnetized torus with steady state plasma discharges. It allows more flexible and efficient experimental researches on the magnetically confined plasmas to be carried on in the same device.

  20. A 5D gyrokinetic full- f global semi-Lagrangian code for flux-driven ion turbulence simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandgirard, V.; Abiteboul, J.; Bigot, J.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Crouseilles, N.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ehrlacher, Ch.; Esteve, D.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Latu, G.; Mehrenberger, M.; Norscini, C.; Passeron, Ch.; Rozar, F.; Sarazin, Y.; Sonnendrücker, E.; Strugarek, A.; Zarzoso, D.

    2016-10-01

    This paper addresses non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence in tokamak plasmas. The electrostatic GYSELA code is one of the few international 5D gyrokinetic codes able to perform global, full- f and flux-driven simulations. Its has also the numerical originality of being based on a semi-Lagrangian (SL) method. This reference paper for the GYSELA code presents a complete description of its multi-ion species version including: (i) numerical scheme, (ii) high level of parallelism up to 500k cores and (iii) conservation law properties.