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Sample records for 5e learning cycle

  1. Cell Inquiry: A 5E Learning Cycle Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Melinda; Shuttleworth, Phyllis

    2004-01-01

    One dilemma science teachers face every day is balancing the content demands of state and federal testing requirements while providing opportunities for inquiry. Using the 5E learning cycle is a realistic, constructivist way to address this dilemma. The 5E learning cycle leads students through a sequence of learning in which they become engaged in…

  2. Cell Inquiry: A 5E Learning Cycle Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Melinda; Shuttleworth, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    One dilemma science teachers face every day is balancing the content demands of state and federal testing requirements while providing opportunities for inquiry. Using the 5E learning cycle is a realistic, constructivist way to address this dilemma. The 5E learning cycle leads students through a sequence of learning in which they become engaged in…

  3. Incorporating Young Adult Literature into the 5E Learning Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederberger, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Since the U.S.S.R. released Sputnik I into space in 1957, American science teachers have been focused on preparing scientifically literate students. New instructional approaches have emerged, with the 5E learning cycle being one of the more popular methods used. The 5E learning cycle gets its name from its five stages: Engage, Explore, Explain,…

  4. Using the 5E Learning Cycle Sequence with Carbon Dioxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Blanke, Regina; Mecca, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The authors used the 5E learning cycle (engage, explore, explain, extend, and evaluate) and a pulmonary carbon dioxide mystery to introduce eighth grade students to the study of chemistry. The activity engages students in measurement, data collection, data analysis, media and internet research, research design, and report writing as they search…

  5. A New Learning Model on Physical Education: 5E Learning Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senturk, Halil Evren; Camliyer, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Many fields of education at the moment, especially in physical and technological educations, use 5E learning cycle. The process is defined as five "E"s. These represent the verbs engage, explore, explain, elaborate and evaluate. The literature has been systematically reviewed and the results show that the 5E learning cycle is an untested…

  6. Psychometric Analysis of a 5E Learning Cycle Lesson Plan Assessment Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Day, Jeanelle Bland; Sundberg, Cheryl; Dantzler, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the procedures and the analysis of an instrument designed to measure preservice teachers' ability to develop appropriate 5E learning cycle lesson plans. The 5E "inquiry lesson plan" (ILP) rubric is comprised of 12 items with a scoring range of zero to four points per item. Content validity was determined…

  7. Use of the 5E learning cycle model combined with problem-based learning for a fundamentals of nursing course.

    PubMed

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Park, Han Jong; Chang, Ae Kyung; Kim, Mi Ja

    2013-12-01

    The 5E learning cycle model has shown a positive effect on student learning in science education, particularly in courses with theory and practice components. Combining problem-based learning (PBL) with the 5E learning cycle was suggested as a better option for students' learning of theory and practice. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the traditional learning method with the 5E learning cycle model with PBL. The control group (n = 78) was subjected to a learning method that consisted of lecture and practice. The experimental group (n = 83) learned by using the 5E learning cycle model with PBL. The results showed that the experimental group had significantly improved self-efficacy, critical thinking, learning attitude, and learning satisfaction. Such an approach could be used in other countries to enhance students' learning of fundamental nursing.

  8. The Effects of Mobile Natural-Science Learning Based on the 5E Learning Cycle: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Tzu-Chien; Peng, Hsinyi; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Lin, Ming-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This study has three major purposes, including designing mobile natural-science learning activities that rest on the 5E Learning Cycle, examining the effects of these learning activities on students' performances of learning aquatic plants, and exploring students' perceptions toward these learning activities. A case-study method is utilized and…

  9. Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, and Evaluation (5E) Learning Cycle and Conceptual Change Text as Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balci, Sibel; Cakiroglu, Jale; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, and Evaluation (5E) learning cycle, conceptual change texts, and traditional instructions on 8th grade students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Students' understanding of photosynthesis and respiration in…

  10. Effectiveness of 5E Learning Cycle Instruction on Students' Achievement in Cell Concept and Scientific Epistemological Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaynar, Devrim; Tekkaya, Ceren; Cakiroglu, Jale

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of 5E learning cycle on 6th-grade students' achievement of cell concepts, and their scientific epistemological beliefs. Epistemological Belief Questionnaire and the Cell Concept Test were administered as pre-test and post-test to a total of 153 sixth grade students in four intact classes of an elementary…

  11. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Understanding State of Matter and Solubility Concepts by Using 5E Learning Cycle Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceylan, Eren; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of 5E learning cycle model based instruction and traditionally designed chemistry instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of state of matter and solubility concepts. In this study, 119 tenth grade students from chemistry courses instructed by same teacher from an Anatolian…

  12. Measuring "g" by Using Trajectory Projectile Motion: 5E Learning Cycle and Low-Cost Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda; Zziwa, Byansi Jude

    2011-01-01

    In some countries physics lessons are limited in many cases due to different constraints to lecturing and rote learning with in short supply use of teaching materials and other practical activities. These limitations can make physics abstract and difficult for students to understand. This paper presents one of activities, which can be done by…

  13. A 5E Learning Cycle Approach-Based, Multimedia-Supplemented Instructional Unit for Structured Query Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piyayodilokchai, Hongsiri; Panjaburee, Patcharin; Laosinchai, Parames; Ketpichainarong, Watcharee; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2013-01-01

    With the benefit of multimedia and the learning cycle approach in promoting effective active learning, this paper proposed a learning cycle approach-based, multimedia-supplemented instructional unit for Structured Query Language (SQL) for second-year undergraduate students with the aim of enhancing their basic knowledge of SQL and ability to apply…

  14. Developing a Mobile Learning Management System for Outdoors Nature Science Activities Based on 5E Learning Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ah-Fur; Lai, Horng-Yih; Chuang, Wei-Hsiang; Wu, Zih-Heng

    2015-01-01

    Traditional outdoor learning activities such as inquiry-based learning in nature science encounter many dilemmas. Due to prompt development of mobile computing and widespread of mobile devices, mobile learning becomes a big trend on education. The main purpose of this study is to develop a mobile-learning management system for overcoming the…

  15. The EDP-5E

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottero-Perdue, Pamela; Bolotin, Sonja; Benyameen, Ruth; Brock, Erin; Metzger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Many preservice and practicing elementary teachers are familiar with the 5E learning cycle. This cycle provides a relatively simple, alliteratively memorable framework for teaching science in which lessons (or even entire units of instruction) consist of five distinct phases: Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration/Extension (hereafter,…

  16. Embedding Analogical Reasoning into 5E Learning Model: A Study of the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devecioglu-Kaymakci, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the 5E learning model affects learning about the Solar System when an analogical model is utilized in teaching. The data were gathered in an urban middle school 7th grade science course while teaching relevant astronomy topics. The analogical model developed by the researchers was administered to 20…

  17. Mining the Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemler, Debra; King, Hobart

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach that uses the learning cycle to meaningfully teach students about mineral properties while alleviating the tedious nature of identifying mineral specimens. Discusses mineral properties, cooperative learning, and mineral identification. (JRH)

  18. The Development of SCORM-Conformant Learning Content Based on the Learning Cycle Using Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, C. Y.; Chiu, C. H.; Wang, T. I.

    2010-01-01

    This study incorporates the 5E learning cycle strategy to design and develop Sharable Content Object Reference Model-conformant materials for elementary science education. The 5E learning cycle that supports the constructivist approach has been widely applied in science education. The strategy consists of five phases: engagement, exploration,…

  19. The Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisenherz, Paul C.; Dantonio, Marylou; Richardson, Lon

    2000-01-01

    The Learning Cycle contains three phases. In the exploration phase, students construct shared understanding of critical characteristics of a concept. The teacher introduces a concept in the concept introduction phase. The application phase introduces activities to extend the concept. Includes five concept activities. (SAH)

  20. The Learning Cycle: A Reintroduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Steven J.; Marek, Edmund A.

    2006-02-01

    The learning cycle is an inquiry approach to instruction that continues to demonstrate significant effectiveness in the classroom.1-3 Rooted in Piaget's theory of intellectual development, learning cycles provide a structured means for students to construct concepts from direct experiences with science phenomena. Learning cycles have been the subject of numerous articles in science practitioner periodicals as well as the focus of much research in science education journals.4 This paper reintroduces the learning cycle by giving a brief description, followed by an example suitable for a range of physics classrooms.

  1. A 5E Nature of Science Introduction: Preparing Students to Learn about Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilica, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often struggle with controversy when teaching biological evolution in American schools. Research indicates that curriculum with a nature of science (NOS) focus quells controversy (McComas 2004; Scharmann 2005; Staver 2003). This article presents a 5E NOS series that is a first step in a NOS curriculum that situates student understanding…

  2. Extended Worksheet Developed According to 5E Model Based on Constructivist Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Töman, Ufuk; Akdeniz, Ali Riza; Odabasi Çimer, Sabiha; Gürbüz, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve the targeted objectives desired level of education and modern learning theories for learner centered methods are recommended. In this context the use of worksheets developed and that student participation is considered to be one of the methods. This research is one of the ethyl alcohol fermentation biology issues and prepare…

  3. Raphanus sativus, Germination, and Inquiry: A Learning Cycle Approach for Novice Experimenters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Describes open-ended experiments with seeds from the common garden radish (Raphanus sativus). The phases of the 5-E learning cycle--Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, and Evaluation--guide this activity series. (Author/MM)

  4. Implementation of 5E Inquiry Incorporated with Analogy Learning Approach to Enhance Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Reaction Rate for Grade 11 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supasorn, Saksri; Promarak, Vinich

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to enhance student understanding of the scientific concepts of chemical reaction rate. Forty-four grade 11 students were the target group. The treatment tools were seven learning plans of 5E inquiry incorporated with an analogy learning approach during 15 hours of class time. In each learning plan, the students…

  5. Learning Cycles in the General Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, David M.

    1983-01-01

    Three-phased learning cycles (exploration, invention, application) were introduced into general chemistry laboratories at Northland College (Wisconsin). Discusses each phase and its use in a learning cycle on the functional groups of organic compounds. (JN)

  6. Learning Activities That Combine Science Magic Activities with the 5E Instructional Model to Influence Secondary-School Students' Attitudes to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jang-Long; Cheng, Meng-Fei; Chang, Ying-Chi; Li, Hsiao-Wen; Chang, Jih-Yuan; Lin, Deng-Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how learning materials based on Science Magic activities affect student attitudes to science. A quasi-experimental design was conducted to explore the combination of Science Magic with the 5E Instructional Model to develop learning materials for teaching a science unit about friction. The participants…

  7. The 5E Instructional Model: A Learning Cycle Approach for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Lena Ballone; Duran, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of inquiry-based teaching is a major theme in national science education reform documents such as "Project 2061: Science for All Americans" (Rutherford & Alhgren, 1990) and the "National Science Education Standards" (NRC, 1996). These reports argue that inquiry needs to be a central strategy of all…

  8. A Laboratory Learning Cycle: Hot Stuff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Robert G.

    1982-01-01

    A series of learning cycle laboratory experiments for general chemistry was developed. The exploration, invention, and application phases of one cycle related to calorimetric measurements are described. (Author/SK)

  9. Behind and Beyond Kolb's Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vince, Russ

    1998-01-01

    Expands on the propositions of Kolb's learning-cycle model by adding psychodynamic and political aspects. Illustrates the complexity of experiential learning when unconscious forces and power aspects are considered. (SK)

  10. Teaching Significant Figures Using a Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guymon, E. Park; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an instructional strategy based on the learning cycle for teaching the use of significant figures. Provides explanations of teaching activities for each phase of the learning cycle (exploration, invention, application). Compares this approach to teaching significant figures with the traditional textbook approach. (TW)

  11. Removing Preconceptions with a "Learning Cycle."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gang, Su

    1995-01-01

    Describes a teaching experiment that uses the Learning Cycle to achieve the reorientation of physics' students conceptual frameworks away from commonsense perspectives toward scientifically rigorous outlooks. Uses Archimedes' principle as the content topic while using the Learning Cycle to remove students' nonscientific preconceptions. (JRH)

  12. A Learning Cycle Approach To Introducing Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an inquiry activity with a learning cycle approach to engage students in testing their own hypotheses about how molecules move through cell membranes. Offers student materials and teacher materials, including teaching tips for each phase of the learning cycle. (Contains 11 references.) (ASK)

  13. The Experiential Learning Cycle in Visual Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsoy, Aysu; Özad, Bahire Efe

    2004-01-01

    Experiential Learning Cycle has been applied to the Layout and Graphics Design in Computer Course provided by the Faculty of Communication and Media Studies to the students studying at the Public Relations and Advertising Department. It is hoped that by applying the Experiential Learning Cycle, the creativity and problem solving strategies of the…

  14. Promoting Students' Learning in Genetics with the Learning Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru-Atay, Pinar; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the comparative effect of the learning cycle and expository instruction on 8th-grade students' achievement in genetics. They adopted the nonequivalent control group design as a type of quasiexperimental design. The experimental group (N = 104) received learning cycle instruction, and the control group (N = 109) received…

  15. To Tan or Not to Tan?: Students Learn About Sunscreens through an Inquiry Activity Based on the Learning Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen-Rocha, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Science instructors sometimes avoid inquiry-based activities due to limited classroom time. Inquiry takes time, as students choose problems, design experiments, obtain materials, conduct investigations, gather data, communicate results, and discuss their experiments. While there are no quick solutions to time concerns, the 5E learning cycle seeks…

  16. The Organizational Learning Cycle. How We Can Learn Collectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Nancy

    This book, which is designed for individuals interested in changing and developing their organizations, examines the organizational learning cycle and ways of learning collectively. Among the topics discussed in the book's nine chapters are the following: (1) changing nature of work and organizational learning; (2) theoretical framework of…

  17. A Learning Cycle Inquiry into Plant Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cherin A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an investigation on plant nutrition that was developed in the form of a guided inquiry learning cycle and can be implemented in a wide range of grade levels from middle school through college. Investigates the needs of plants to live. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  18. Newton's First Law: A Learning Cycle Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate how Newton's first law of motion applies to students' everyday lives, the author developed a learning cycle series of activities on inertia. The discrepant event at the heart of these activities is sure to elicit wide-eyed stares and puzzled looks from students, but also promote critical thinking and help bring an abstract concept…

  19. The sequence of learning cycle activities in high school chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Michael R.; Renner, John W.

    The sequence of the three phases of two high school learning cycles in chemistry was altered in order to: (I ) give insights into the factors which account for the success of the learning cycle, (2) serve as an indirect test of the association between Piaget's theory and the learning cycle, and (3) to compare the learning cycle with traditional instruction. Each of the six sequences (one n o d and five altered) was studied with content and atritudc measures. The outcomes of the study supported the contention that the normal learning cycle sequence is the optimum sequence for achievement of content knowledge.

  20. A Piagetian Learning Cycle for Introductory Chemical Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Russell H.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a Piagetian learning cycle based on Monte Carlo modeling of several simple reaction mechanisms. Included are descriptions of learning cycle phases (exploration, invention, and discovery) and four BASIC-PLUS computer programs to be used in the explanation of chemical reacting systems. (Author/DS)

  1. A Classroom Learning Cycle: Using Diagrams to Classify Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Helen J.; Nelson, Samuel L.

    1981-01-01

    A learning cycle involves the active participation of students in exploration, invention, and application phases. Describes one such learning cycle dealing with classification of matter and designed to provide students with an understanding of the terms: atom, molecule, element, compound, solution, and heterogeneous matter. (Author/JN)

  2. The Molar Concept: A Piagetian-Oriented Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; Perry, Constance M.

    1983-01-01

    The Mole Concept is a learning cycle (patterned after University of Nebraska-Lincoln's ADAPT model) for the chemical unit "mole." Discusses objectives and activities involved in each phase of the cycle: exploration, invention, and application. Indicates the cycle is superior to traditional lecture-demonstration for teaching the abstract mole…

  3. Research of the Learning Cycle with the Anthropological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heard, Suzanne Bryan; Marek, Edmund A.

    Relationships between an inquiry-oriented science inservice education program and teacher implementation of workshop-developed materials were investigated. Workshop topics included Piagetian learning theory, creating classrooms conducive to implementing inquiry-oriented science programs, use of the learning cycle, and matching learning activities…

  4. Assessing Understanding of the Learning Cycle: The ULC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Edmund A.; Maier, Steven J.; McCann, Florence

    2008-08-01

    An 18-item, multiple choice, 2-tiered instrument designed to measure understanding of the learning cycle (ULC) was developed and field-tested from the learning cycle test (LCT) of Odom and Settlage ( Journal of Science Teacher Education, 7, 123 142, 1996). All question sets of the LCT were modified to some degree and 5 new sets were added, resulting in the ULC. The ULC measures (a) understandings and misunderstandings of the learning cycle, (b) the learning cycle’s association with Piaget’s ( Biology and knowledge theory: An essay on the relations between organic regulations and cognitive processes, 1975) theory of mental functioning, and (c) applications of the learning cycle. The resulting ULC instrument was evaluated for internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha, yielding a coefficient of .791.

  5. The Learning Research Cycle: Bridging Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuessy, Carol L.; Metty, Jane S.

    2007-01-01

    A science teacher and her mentor reflect on their participation in the Learning Research Cycle, a professional learning model that bridges research and practice in both university and public school contexts. Teachers do scientific research in scientists' laboratories, then bridge their scientific experiences with the design of new classroom…

  6. Teaching Diverse Students: Focus on the Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erb, Thomas O.

    1994-01-01

    Young adolescents have diverse learning needs. If teachers accommodated the complete learning cycle by designing instructional units that began with romance activities, led to precision opportunities, and culminated in generalization projects, students could develop their diverse talents while avoiding boredom with uninspiring precision…

  7. Methods and Strategies: Literacy in the Learning Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Susan; Moyer, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Trade books can be used in all phases of the learning cycle to support effective teaching and learning. Romance and Vitale (1992) found that texts and other nonfiction science books can be effective tools for teaching reading, as the science activities give learners a purpose for their reading. In this article, the authors share ways to…

  8. Teachers' understanding and the use of the learning cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Edmund A.; Eubanks, Carol; Gallaher, Thomas H.

    1990-12-01

    This study examined the relationships that exist between high school science teachers' understanding of the Piagetian developmental model of intelligence, its inherent teaching procedure - the learning cycle - and classroom teaching practices. The teachers observed in this study had expressed dissatisfaction with the teaching methods they used, and, subsequently, attended a National Science Foundation sponsored in-service program designed to examine laboratory-centered science curricula and the educational and scientific theories upon which the curricula were based. The teachers who exhibited a sound understanding of the Piagetian model of intelligence and the learning cycle were more likely to effectively implement learning cycle curricula. They were able to successfully integrate their students' laboratory experiences with class discussions to construct science concepts. The teachers who exhibited misunderstandings of the Piagetian developmental model of intelligence and the learning cycle also engaged their students in laboratory activities, but these activities were weakly related to learning cycles. For example, the data gathered by their students were typically not used in class discussions to construct science concepts. Therefore, these teachers apparently did not discern the necessity of using the data and experiences from laboratory activities as the impetus for science concept attainment. Additional results comparing degrees of understanding, teaching behaviors and questioning strategies are discussed.

  9. The Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, Arctic Russia: a synthesis of glacial history and palaeo-environmental change during the Last Glacial cycle (MIS 5e-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Per; Alexanderson, Helena; Funder, Svend; Hjort, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We here suggest a glacial and climate history of the Taimyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in arctic Siberia for the last about 150 000 years (ka). Primarily it is based on results from seven field seasons between 1996 and 2012, to a large extent already published in papers referred to in the text - and on data presented by Russian workers from the 1930s to our days and by German colleagues working there since the 1990s. Although glaciations even up here often started in the local mountains, their culminations in this region invariably seems to have centred on the shallow Kara Sea continental shelf - most likely due to expanding marine ice-shelves grounding there, as a combined effect of thickening ice and eustatically lowered sea-levels. The most extensive glaciation so far identified in this region (named the Taz glaciation) took place during Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6), i.e. being an equivalent to the late Saale/Illinoian glaciations. It reached c. 400 km southeast of the Kara Sea coast, across and well beyond the Byrranga Mountain range and ended c. 130 ka. It was followed by the MIS 5e (Karginsky/Eemian) interglacial, with an extensive marine transgression to 140 m above present sea level - facilitated by strong isostatic downloading during the preceding glaciation. During the latest (Zyryankan/Weichselian/Wisconsinan) glacial cycle followed a series of major glacial advances. The earliest and most extensive, culminating c. 110-100 ka (MIS 5d-5e), also reached south of the Byrranga mountains and its post-glacial marine limit there was c. 100 m a.s.l. The later glacial phases (around 70-60 ka and 20 ka) terminated at the North Taimyr Ice Marginal Zone (NTZ), along or some distance inland from the present northwest coast of Taimyr. They dammed glacial lakes, which caused the Taimyr River to flow southwards where to-day it flows northwards into the Kara Sea. The c. 20 ka glacial phase, contemporary with the maximum (LGM) glaciation in NW Europe

  10. Cycles of cooperation and defection in imperfect learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galla, Tobias

    2011-08-01

    We investigate a model of learning the iterated prisoner's dilemma game. Players have the choice between three strategies: always defect (ALLD), always cooperate (ALLC) and tit-for-tat (TFT). The only strict Nash equilibrium in this situation is ALLD. When players learn to play this game convergence to the equilibrium is not guaranteed, for example we find cooperative behaviour if players discount observations in the distant past. When agents use small samples of observed moves to estimate their opponent's strategy the learning process is stochastic, and sustained oscillations between cooperation and defection can emerge. These cycles are similar to those found in stochastic evolutionary processes, but the origin of the noise sustaining the oscillations is different and lies in the imperfect sampling of the opponent's strategy. Based on a systematic expansion technique, we are able to predict the properties of these learning cycles, providing an analytical tool with which the outcome of more general stochastic adaptation processes can be characterised.

  11. Teaching Angiosperm Reproduction by Means of the Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharmann, Lawrence C.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is an alternative teaching strategy to uncover and assess a common misconception in the life sciences and to articulate its use in teaching a unit on angiosperm reproduction. The learning cycle is described, and a concept map on reproduction on angiosperms is included. (KR)

  12. Renewing Urban Education: Learning Cycles and the Pedagogy of Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naiditch, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Learning cycles were developed in Brazil as an innovative project in order to address the needs and characteristics of the country's growing heterogeneous urban population. This new school model aims at reducing dropout rates and student failure as well as providing a non-interrupted school experience for diverse learners. In this article, the…

  13. The Assessment Cycle: A Model for Learning through Peer Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinholz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances a model describing how peer assessment supports self-assessment. Although prior research demonstrates that peer assessment promotes self-assessment, the connection between these two activities is underspecified. This model, the assessment cycle, draws from theories of self-assessment to elaborate how learning takes place…

  14. Exploring Growth (and Mitosis) through a Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a learning cycle lesson plan in which students investigate the question of how cells divide. Students use microscopes to explore actual plant root and stem tissues to generate and test hypotheses to answer the question. Includes teacher material, student material, and teaching tips. (MDH)

  15. Analysis of the Effect of Student Cognizance of the Learning Cycle in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czapla, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    While the benefits of the using the Learning Cycle have been well researched, one area that has received surprisingly little investigation is the effect that student cognizance of the learning cycle has on student performance in chemistry. The Learning Cycle, with its strong theoretical roots in scientific practice and learning theory, offers a…

  16. Application of the Experiential Learning Cycle in Learning from a Business Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Jung-Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of engaging students in Kolb's experiential learning cycle on facilitating students' simulation game performance and knowledge application skills in learning with a business simulation game. A sample was drawn from a population of business-major undergraduate students at the School of…

  17. Using a Learning Cycle to Deepen Chinese Primary Students' Concept Learning of the "Phases of the Moon"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the internal conditions of students' concept learning and builds a learning cycle' based on the "phases of the Moon" (MP) to, deepen students' understanding. The learning cycle of MP developed in this study includes three basic learning links, which are: cognitive conflict, abstraction and generalization, and…

  18. Lessons Learned From Dynamic Simulations of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen E. Matthern; David E. Shropshire

    2009-04-01

    Years of performing dynamic simulations of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options provide insights into how they could work and how one might transition from the current once-through fuel cycle. This paper summarizes those insights from the context of the 2005 objectives and goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Our intent is not to compare options, assess options versus those objectives and goals, nor recommend changes to those objectives and goals. Rather, we organize what we have learned from dynamic simulations in the context of the AFCI objectives for waste management, proliferation resistance, uranium utilization, and economics. Thus, we do not merely describe “lessons learned” from dynamic simulations but attempt to answer the “so what” question by using this context. The analyses have been performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics (VISION). We observe that the 2005 objectives and goals do not address many of the inherently dynamic discriminators among advanced fuel cycle options and transitions thereof.

  19. Integrating Research on Misconceptions, Reasoning Patterns and Three Types of Learning Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    This paper describes how the learning cycle leads students to become more skilled reasoners. The three phases of the learning cycle are described and examples and goals of each are provided. Information is also offered on the three types of learning cycles: the descriptive; the empirical-inductive; and the hypothetical-deductive. Each is described…

  20. Why Do Athletes Drink Sports Drinks? A Learning Cycle to Explore the Concept of Osmosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen, Brook; Marek, Edmund A.

    2010-01-01

    Why does an athlete reach for a sports drink after a tough game or practice? The learning cycle presented in this article helps students answer this question. Learning cycles (Marek 2009) are designed to guide students through direct experiences with a particular concept. In this article, students learn about "osmosis," or the moving of water into…

  1. A Study Investigating the Effect of Treatment Developed by Integrating the 5E and Simulation on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Achievement in Photoelectric Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taslidere, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    The Current study investigated the effect of the 5E learning cycle in which the simulations were integrated on pre-service science teachers' achievement in photoelectric subject. Four sophomore level classes with their 140 students participated in the research and a quasi-experimental design was used. The classes were randomly assigned into one of…

  2. Master and novice secondary science teachers' understandings and use of the learning cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reap, Melanie Ann

    2000-09-01

    The learning cycle paradigm had been used in science classrooms for nearly four decades. This investigation seeks to reveal how the 1earning cycle, as originally designed, is currently understood and implemented by teachers in authentic classroom settings. The specific purposes of this study were: (1) to describe teachers who use the learning cycle and compare their understandings and perceptions of the learning cycle procedure in instruction; (2) to elicit novice and master teacher perspectives on their instruction and determine their perception of the process by which learning cycles are implemented in the science classroom; (3) to describe the context of science instruction in the novice and master teacher's classroom to ascertain how the teacher facilitates implementation of the learning cycle paradigm in their authentic classroom setting. The study used a learning cycle survey, interviews and classroom observations using the Learning Cycle Teacher Behavior Instruments and the Verbal Interaction Category System to explore these features of learning cycle instruction. The learning cycle survey was administered to a sample of teachers who use the learning cycle, including master and novice learning cycle teachers. One master and one novice learning cycle teacher were selected from this sample for further study. Analysis of the surveys showed no significant differences in master and novice teacher understandings of the learning cycle as assessed by the instrument. However, interviews and observations of the selected master and novice learning cycle teachers showed several differences in how the paradigm is understood and implemented in the classroom. The master learning cycle teacher showed a more developed teaching philosophy and had more engaged, extensive interactions with students. The novice learning cycle teacher held a more naive teaching philosophy and had fewer, less developed interactions with students. The most significant difference was seen in the use

  3. The necessity of each phase of the learning cycle in teaching high school physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, John W.; Abraham, Michael R.; Birnie, Howard H.

    The learning cycle is a method of teaching - it is also a curriculum organization principle and is derived directly from the mental functioning model invented by Piaget. Although Jean Piaget contributed to the formation of the learning cycle (Piaget, 1973), its present structure has to be attributed to Dr. Robert Karplus and the persons who developed the materials of the Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS). It was through the SCIS activities that many of us learned how to develop curricula and teach with the learning cycle. The learning cycle is built upon the premise that three distinct phases are necessary in developing understanding of a concept, that those phases have a definite sequence, and each phase has a definite structure or form. The research done in testing the form variable has already been reported in this journal (Renner, Abraham, & Birnie, 1985). This report explores whether or not each learning-cycle phase is necessary in learning a concept.

  4. The Effect of 7E Learning Cycle on Learning in Science Teaching: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balta, Nuri; Sarac, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of 7E learning cycle in science teaching. Totally 35 different effect sizes from 24 experimental studies, comprising 2918 students were included in the meta-analysis. The results confirmed that 7E learning cycle have a positive effect on students' achievement. The overall…

  5. Analysis of the effect of student cognizance of the learning cycle in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla, Matthew

    While the benefits of the using the Learning Cycle have been well researched, one area that has received surprisingly little investigation is the effect that student cognizance of the learning cycle has on student performance in chemistry. The Learning Cycle, with its strong theoretical roots in scientific practice and learning theory, offers a logical opportunity to educate students in the nature of science and metacognition. In addition, by examining the class holistically, students will have the opportunity to better link the lab and lecture components of the course. We hypothesized that since a keen understanding of the nature of science, strong metacognitive ability, and a holistic view of Learning Cycle classes have all been shown to increase student comprehension in general chemistry, students who were taught to understand the Learning Cycle would perform better than students who were not. Statistical analysis of survey and grade data will be presented.

  6. Evaluating Online CPD Using Educational Criteria Derived from the Experiential Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Andrew; Watts, David; Croston, Judith; Durkin, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Develops a set of educational evaluation criteria for online continuing professional development (CPD) courses using Kolb's experiential learning cycle theory. Evaluates five courses provided by online CPD Web sites, concludes that these online courses neglect parts of the learning cycle, and suggests improvements. (Author/LRW)

  7. Students' Understanding of Analogy after a Core (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) Learning Cycle, General Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avargil, Shirly; Bruce, Mitchell R. M.; Amar, Franc¸ois G.; Bruce, Alice E.

    2015-01-01

    Students' understanding about analogy was investigated after a CORE learning cycle general chemistry experiment. CORE (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation) is a new three-phase learning cycle that involves (phase 1) guiding students through chemical observations while they consider a series of open-ended questions, (phase 2)…

  8. The Twin-Cycle Experiential Learning Model: Reconceptualising Kolb's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsteiner, Harald; Avery, Gayle C.

    2014-01-01

    Experiential learning styles remain popular despite criticisms about their validity, usefulness, fragmentation and poor definitions and categorisation. After examining four prominent models and building on Bergsteiner, Avery, and Neumann's suggestion of a dual cycle, this paper proposes a twin-cycle experiential learning model to overcome…

  9. The importance of the form of student acquisition of data in physics learning cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, John W.; Abraham, Michael R.; Birnie, Howard H.

    The learning cycle is a method of teaching-it is also a curriculum organization principle. Although Jean Piaget contributed to its formation (Piaget, 1973), its present structure has to be attributed to Dr. Robert Karplus and the persons who developed the materials of the Science Curriculum Improvement Study. It was through the SCIS activities that many of us learned how to develop curricula and teach with the learning cycle.

  10. Learning at Every Age? Life Cycle Dynamics of Adult Education in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beblavy, Miroslav; Thum, Anna-Elisabeth; Potjagailo, Galina

    2014-01-01

    Adult learning is seen as a key factor for enhancing employment, innovation and growth. The aim of this paper is to understand the points in the life cycle at which adult learning takes place and whether it leads to reaching a medium or high level of educational attainment. We perform a synthetic panel analysis of adult learning for cohorts aged…

  11. A learning process of water cycle as complex system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Tassin, B.; Thevenot, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water cycle is a very good example of a complex geosystem which has many societal impacts and drivers. A permanent and ubiquitous question is how to increase public awareness and understanding of its extreme behaviours, as well as of the related uncertainties. For instance, CEREVE is highly solicited to help the general public, particularly the youth, and the local politicians to get better acquainted with the new water culture in general and with flood risks in particular, in the nearby county Val-de-Marne. Since 2001, May is the month of the "Festival de l'Oh"(which sounds like "Festival de l'Eau", i.e. the water festival co-organized by the county council and city of Paris. "Oh » at the same time partly displays the chemical composition of water and is an exclamation for atonishment). This festival starts with the Scientific Days of Environment that involve researchers and students of the county, as well as collaborators of all around the world. This conference is open to the public who can be informed from the latest research developments, in particular with the help of some general synthesis and panel discussions. On the other hand, (young) researchers can present their own works to a large public. This conference is followed by a Professional Forum where students, heads of water public services or private operators can meet. In the framework of the water festival preparation, there are several water forums for the secondary schools. All along the year, there are regular pedagogical activities for secondary schools, in particular in the framework of Water Houses scattered across the county. We will discuss the importance to better evaluate the effective impact of these pedagogical events on the public awareness and understanding, and to make the learning process more adaptive and interactive, as well as to better address the underlying fundamental problems, e.g. the present limitations of current modelling and data processing.

  12. Using the Learning Cycle To Teach Physical Science: A Hands-on Approach for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisenherz, Paul; Dantonio, Marylou

    The Learning Cycle Strategy enables students themselves to construct discrete science concepts and includes an exploration phase, introduction phase, and application phase. This book focuses on the use of the Learning Cycle to teach physical sciences and is divided into three sections. Section I develops a rationale for the Learning Cycle as an…

  13. Integrating Concept Mapping and the Learning Cycle To Teach Diffusion and Osmosis Concepts to High School Biology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur L.; Kelly, Paul V.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the effectiveness of concept mapping, the learning cycle, expository instruction, and a combination of concept mapping/learning cycle in promoting conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis. Concludes that the concept mapping/learning cycle and concept mapping treatment groups significantly outperformed the expository treatment…

  14. The Workplace Learning Cycle: A Problem-Based Curriculum Model for the Preparation of Workplace Learning Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Bridget N.

    2004-01-01

    Building on the conceptual foundations suggested in the previous two papers in this issue, this article describes the application of a workplace learning cycle theory to the construction of a curriculum for a graduate-level course of study in workplace education. As a way to prepare chief learning officers and heads of corporate universities, the…

  15. Nimble Navigation: A Constant Cycle Assessment Keeps Learning on Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Wendy; Johanson, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Just like in a classroom, a professional learning facilitator needs to base planning and instruction on assessment. Adult learners need the learning experience to be as focused as possible on their questions and their teaching circumstances. Whether the professional learning is a half-day session or extends over multiple school years, leaders can…

  16. Descriptive Chemistry in the General Chemistry Laboratory: A Learning Cycle Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, David M.

    1982-01-01

    Learning cycles (exploration, invention, application) are used to introduce general chemistry principles while giving students concrete experiences with descriptive chemistry. Principles taught in the laboratory, laboratory experiments, instructional strategies, and evaluation of the approach are discussed. (Author/JN)

  17. Learning, Unlearning and Relearning--Knowledge Life Cycles in Library and Information Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedford, Denise A. D.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge life cycle is applied to two core capabilities of library and information science (LIS) education--teaching, and research and development. The knowledge claim validation, invalidation and integration steps of the knowledge life cycle are translated to learning, unlearning and relearning processes. Mixed methods are used to determine…

  18. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Life Cycle Cost Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; Rhodes, Russell E.; Robinson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will review lessons learned for space transportation systems from the viewpoint of the NASA, Industry and academia Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST). The paper provides the basic idea and history of "lessons learned". Recommendations that are extremely relevant to NASA's future investments in research, program development and operations are"'provided. Lastly, a novel and useful approach to documenting lessons learned is recommended, so as to most effectively guide future NASA investments. Applying lessons learned can significantly improve access to space for cargo or people by focusing limited funds on the right areas and needs for improvement. Many NASA human space flight initiatives have faltered, been re-directed or been outright canceled since the birth of the Space Shuttle program. The reasons given at the time have been seemingly unique. It will be shown that there are common threads as lessons learned in many a past initiative.

  19. Comparing American and Chinese Students' Learning Progression on Carbon Cycling in Socio-Ecological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Anderson, C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies identified a learning progression on the concept of carbon cycling that was typically followed by American students when they progress from elementary to high school. This study examines the validity of this previously identified learning progression for a different group of learners--Chinese students. The results indicate that…

  20. Developing Pre-service Elementary Teachers' Pedagogical Practices While Planning Using the Learning Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Danielle K.; Cartier, Jennifer L.

    2015-10-01

    Without the science content knowledge required to effectively teach this discipline, many elementary teachers struggle without the support of curriculum materials. Curriculum materials are often the main means by which these science practices and canonical knowledge are incorporated into lessons. As part of a 5-year longitudinal research and design project at a large university in the USA, faculty developed an elementary science methods course for pre-service elementary teachers. As a result the pre-service elementary teachers come to understand the Learning Cycle framework as support mechanism for science instruction. This study examined pre-service elementary teachers' use of curriculum materials in lesson planning by identifying types of instructional tools used during the Learning Cycle. Findings highlight the importance of providing pre-service elementary teachers with supportive frameworks and opportunities to learn to critique and adapt curriculum materials in order to begin the development of their pedagogical design capacity for Learning Cycle lessons.

  1. Piaget and Organic Chemistry: Teaching Introductory Organic Chemistry through Learning Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libby, R. Daniel

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the first application of the Piaget-based learning cycle technique (Atkin & Karplus, Sci. Teach. 1962, 29, 45-51) to an introductory organic chemistry course. It also presents the step-by-step process used to convert a lecture course into a discussion-based active learning course. The course is taught in a series of learning cycles. A learning cycle is a three phase process that provides opportunities for students to explore new material and work with an instructor to recognize logical patterns in data, and devise and test hypotheses. In this application, the first phase, exploration, involves out-of-class student evaluation of data in attempts to identify significant trends and develop hypotheses that might explain the trends in terms of fundamental scientific principles. In the second phase, concept invention, the students and instructor work together in-class to evaluate student hypotheses and find concepts that work best in explaining the data. The third phase, application, is an out-of-class application of the concept to new situations. The development of learning cycles from lecture notes is presented as an 8 step procedure. The process involves revaluation and restructuring of the course material to maintain a continuity of concept development according to the instructor's logic, dividing topics into individual concepts or techniques, and refocusing the presentation in terms of large numbers of examples that can serve as data for students in their exploration and application activities. A sample learning cycle and suggestions for ways of limited implementation of learning cycles into existing courses are also provided.

  2. Liquid Motion Lamp: A Learning-Cycle Approach to Solubility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sherri L.; Votaw, Nikki L.

    2008-01-01

    The abstract concepts of density and solubility are often difficult for middle-grade students and should be taught within several contexts to provide multiple experiences with the phenomena. To authenticate the learning of these concepts, this article provides instructional guidelines for constructing a liquid motion lamp to engage students in…

  3. Personalized Mobile English Vocabulary Learning System Based on Item Response Theory and Learning Memory Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C. M.; Chung, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    Since learning English is very popular in non-English speaking countries, developing modern assisted-learning tools that support effective English learning is a critical issue in the English-language education field. Learning English involves memorization and practice of a large number of vocabulary words and numerous grammatical structures.…

  4. The effects of traditional learning and a learning cycle inquiry learning strategy on students' science achievement and attitudes toward elementary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim, Ali

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of two instructional methods on students' academic achievement and attitudes toward elementary science in the State of Kuwait: traditional teaching method and the 4-E learning cycle inquiry teaching method. The subjects were 111 students from four intact 4th grade classes. The experiment group (n = 56) received the learning cycle instruction while the control group (n = 55) received a more traditional approach over a four week period. The same female teacher taught the experimental and control groups for boys and a different female teacher taught experimental and control groups for girls. The dependent variables were measured through the use of: (1) a science achievement test to assess student achievement; and (2) an attitude survey to measure students' attitudes toward science. Quantitative data were collected on students' pre- and post-treatment achievement and attitudes measures. The two way MANOVA reveals that: the 4-E learning cycle instructional method produces significantly greater achievement and attitudes among fourth grade science students than the traditional teaching approach F (2, 93) = 19.765, (P = .000), corresponding to Wilks' Lambda = .702 with an effect size of .298 and a power of 1. In light of these findings, it is therefore suggested that students can achieve greater and have higher science attitudes when the 4-E learning cycle is used. In addition, these findings support the notion that effective instruction in teaching science, such as the 4-E learning cycle instruction, should be proposed and implemented in elementary schools.

  5. A Learning-Cycle-Based Organic Chemistry Laboratory Program for Students in Dietetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, William J.

    1982-01-01

    The laboratory of an organic chemistry course for dietetics students is based on the learning cycle approach (exploration, invention-concept introduction, and concept application). The laboratory program is divided into four sections: lab techniques, compound types, reaction types, and reaction characteristics. (SK)

  6. Organisational Learning and the Organisational Life Cycle: The Differential Aspects of an Integrated Relationship in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Steven; Gray, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to relate the practice of organisational learning in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to the organisational life cycle (OLC), contextualising the differential aspects of an integrated relationship between them. Design/methodology/approach: It is a mixed-method study with two consecutive phases. In…

  7. Life-Cycle Analysis and Inquiry-Based Learning in Chemistry Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juntunen, Marianne; Aksela, Maija

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this design research is to improve the quality of environmental literacy and sustainability education in chemistry teaching through combining a socio-scientific issue, life-cycle analysis (LCA), with inquiry-based learning (IBL). This first phase of the cyclic design research involved 20 inservice trained chemistry teachers from…

  8. Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

    2009-01-01

    How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

  9. Developing a Multi-Year Learning Progression for Carbon Cycling in Socio-Ecological Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Lindsey; Chen, Jing; Anderson, Charles W.

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on our steps toward achieving a conceptually coherent and empirically validated learning progression for carbon cycling in socio-ecological systems. It describes an iterative process of designing and analyzing assessment and interview data from students in upper elementary through high school. The product of our development…

  10. A Little TLC (Technology Learning Cycle) as a Means to Technology Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Rose M.; Howland, Jane; Wedman, Judy; Diggs, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need for elementary and secondary school teachers to integrate technology into the classroom and explains the University of Missouri's (Columbia, MO) technology-focused development program, the Technology Learning Cycle (TLC), for faculty who teach undergraduate teacher methods courses. Examines the application of the TLC to two…

  11. Effect of Learning Cycle Approach-Based Science Teaching on Academic Achievement, Attitude, Motivation and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning cycle approach-based teaching on academic achievement, attitude, motivation and retention at primary school 4th grade science lesson. It was conducted pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design in this study. The study was conducted on a total of 65 students studying in two different…

  12. Effectiveness and Student Perceptions of an Active Learning Activity Using a Headline News Story to Enhance In-Class Learning of Cell Cycle Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.

    2016-01-01

    An active learning activity was used to engage students and enhance in-class learning of cell cycle regulation in a PharmD level integrated biological sciences course. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness and perception of the in-class activity. After completion of a lecture on the topic of cell cycle regulation,…

  13. Storing cycles in Hopfield-type networks with pseudoinverse learning rule: admissibility and network topology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Dangelmayr, Gerhard; Oprea, Iuliana

    2013-10-01

    Cyclic patterns of neuronal activity are ubiquitous in animal nervous systems, and partially responsible for generating and controlling rhythmic movements such as locomotion, respiration, swallowing and so on. Clarifying the role of the network connectivities for generating cyclic patterns is fundamental for understanding the generation of rhythmic movements. In this paper, the storage of binary cycles in Hopfield-type and other neural networks is investigated. We call a cycle defined by a binary matrix Σ admissible if a connectivity matrix satisfying the cycle's transition conditions exists, and if so construct it using the pseudoinverse learning rule. Our main focus is on the structural features of admissible cycles and the topology of the corresponding networks. We show that Σ is admissible if and only if its discrete Fourier transform contains exactly r=rank(Σ) nonzero columns. Based on the decomposition of the rows of Σ into disjoint subsets corresponding to loops, where a loop is defined by the set of all cyclic permutations of a row, cycles are classified as simple cycles, and separable or inseparable composite cycles. Simple cycles contain rows from one loop only, and the network topology is a feedforward chain with feedback to one neuron if the loop-vectors in Σ are cyclic permutations of each other. For special cases this topology simplifies to a ring with only one feedback. Composite cycles contain rows from at least two disjoint loops, and the neurons corresponding to the loop-vectors in Σ from the same loop are identified with a cluster. Networks constructed from separable composite cycles decompose into completely isolated clusters. For inseparable composite cycles at least two clusters are connected, and the cluster-connectivity is related to the intersections of the spaces spanned by the loop-vectors of the clusters. Simulations showing successfully retrieved cycles in continuous-time Hopfield-type networks and in networks of spiking neurons

  14. A Comparative Meta-Analysis of 5E and Traditional Approaches in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anil, Özgür; Batdi, Veli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the 5E learning model with traditional learning methods in terms of their effect on students' academic achievement, retention and attitude scores. In this context, the meta-analytic method known as the "analysis of analyses" was used and a review undertaken of the studies and theses (N = 14) executed…

  15. The influence of gender and the estrous cycle on learned helplessness in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J A; Williams, P; Kramer, G L; Davis, L L; Petty, F

    2001-11-01

    Although the etiology of clinical depression is unknown, women are more likely to suffer from major depressive disorder than men. In addition, in some women, there is a clear association between depression and specific phases of the menstrual cycle. Surprisingly little research has examined gender differences and the influences of the estrous cycle in this and other animal behavioral models of clinical depression. Learned helplessness is a valid animal model of stress-induced behavioral depression in which prior exposure to inescapable stress produces deficits in escape testing. Learned helplessness was studied in rats using an inescapable tail shock stress followed by a shuttle box test to determine escape latencies. Animals with mean escape latencies of >or=20 s after shuttle-box testing are defined as learned helpless. Males and normal cycling female rats in the estrus and diestrus II phases were studied. Female rats in the diestrus II phase had significantly higher escape latencies and exhibited a more helpless behavior than female rats in the estrus phase. Male rat escape latencies were intermediate between the two female phases. These results suggest a role for gonadal hormones in the development of stress-induced behavioral depression or 'learned helplessness.'

  16. Identifying Students' Difficulties When Learning Technical Skills via a Wireless Sensor Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jingying; Wen, Ming-Lee; Jou, Min

    2016-01-01

    Practical training and actual application of acquired knowledge and techniques are crucial for the learning of technical skills. We established a wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on the 5E learning cycle in a practical learning environment to improve students' reflective abilities and to reduce difficulties for the learning of technical…

  17. Reflections on Discourse Practices During Professional Development on the Learning Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Clare Valerie; Odom, Arthur Louis

    2012-10-01

    While much is known about K-12 teachers' participation in professional development (PD) on inquiry-based science instruction, how professors facilitate such PD is not as well documented. This reflective, descriptive study documents the pedagogical practices of three professors during a two-week summer PD program on inquiry-based science instruction. Twenty teachers of fourth- through ninth-grade students in a Midwestern city engaged in lessons based on the learning cycle (Lawson in Science teaching and the development of thinking. Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, Lawson 1995). Data sources included video-recorded observations with transcripts, video-recorded post-observation interviews with transcripts, and audio-recorded follow-up interviews with transcripts. Data were analyzed to create descriptive narratives around excerpts of discourse from PD sessions and interviews. Analyses indicated that implementation of the learning cycle lessons varied among the professors. These findings led to further questions concerning the professors' beliefs about the learning cycle and the ways that teachers were positioned as learners during PD.

  18. Learning to Teach Elementary Science Through Iterative Cycles of Enactment in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottoms, SueAnn I.; Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.; Hartman, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Iterative cycles of enactment embedded in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts provide rich opportunities for preservice teachers (PSTs) to enact core practices of science. This study is situated in the larger Families Involved in Sociocultural Teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (FIESTAS) project, which weaves together cycles of enactment, core practices in science education and culturally relevant pedagogies. The theoretical foundation draws upon situated learning theory and communities of practice. Using video analysis by PSTs and course artifacts, the authors studied how the iterative process of these cycles guided PSTs development as teachers of elementary science. Findings demonstrate how PSTs were drawing on resources to inform practice, purposefully noticing their practice, renegotiating their roles in teaching, and reconsidering "professional blindness" through cultural practice.

  19. The MOOC and Learning Analytics Innovation Cycle (MOLAC): A Reflective Summary of Ongoing Research and Its Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drachsler, H.; Kalz, M.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the interplay between learning analytics and massive open online courses (MOOCs) and provides a conceptual framework to situate ongoing research in the MOOC and learning analytics innovation cycle (MOLAC framework). The MOLAC framework is organized on three levels: On the micro-level, the data collection and analytics…

  20. Relations of Cognitive and Motivational Variables with Students' Human Circulatory System Achievement in Traditional and Learning Cycle Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadi, Özlem; Çakiroglu, Jale

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the relationships among students' relevant prior knowledge, meaningful learning orientation, reasoning ability, self-efficacy, locus of control, attitudes toward biology and achievement with the human circulatory system (HCS) using the learning cycle (LC) and the traditional classroom setting. The study…

  1. Effect of 5E Teaching Model on Student Teachers' Understanding of Weightlessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tural, Guner; Akdeniz, Ali Riza; Alev, Nedim

    2010-01-01

    Weight is one of the basic concepts of physics. Its gravitational definition accommodates difficulties for students to understand the state of weightlessness. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of materials based on 5E teaching model and related to weightlessness on science student teachers' learning. The sample of the study was 9…

  2. Observation, Assisting, Apprenticeship: Cycles of Visual and Kinesthetic Learning in Dental Education

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Jeremy A.; Clark, Matthew D.; Lee, Andrew H.

    2009-01-01

    Dentists are self-selected for visual and kinesthetic learning preferences. Watching another practitioner perform treatment can be incredibly didactic, both before and after learning the procedure. This missing part of dental education has the capacity to play a tremendous role in dental education for all levels of practitioner. Dental students in their clinical years begin to realize the meaning of dentistry as a practice, a set of skills that are never perfected. Abundant evidence demonstrates that cycling between observation and practice enhances procedural learning and retention, yet this mechanism is vastly underused in dental education. Collaborative treatment paradigms, wherein the able student assists a more experienced practitioner, can create mentorship. Learning potentially esoteric information or subtle nuances of clinical acumen is facilitated by the contextual framework of the clinical environment and is strengthened by emotional attachments through interpersonal interactions. In this article, we explore the evidence surrounding mentorship and clinical observation both before and after students are given the responsibilities of patient care, which together recapitulate clinical apprenticeship. Finally, we present examples of how apprenticeship can be brought back to dental education, including evaluation of a clinical assisting program that we implemented and explanation of a hypothetical faculty-student practice partnership model. PMID:19648563

  3. The evolution of the Krebs cycle: A promising subject for meaningful learning of biochemistry.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Caetano; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Evolution has been recognized as a key concept for biologists. To enhance comprehension and motivate biology undergraduates for the contents of central energetic metabolism, we addressed the Krebs cycle structure and functions in an evolutionary view. To this end, we created a study guide that contextualizes the emergence of the cyclic pathway, in light of the prokaryotic influence since the early anaerobic condition of the Earth to increase oxygen in the atmosphere. The study guide is composed of three interrelated sections: (1) a problem, designed to arouse curiosity, inform and motivate students, (2) a text about life evolution, including early microorganisms and the emergence of the Krebs cycle, and (3) questions for debate. The activity consisted on individual reading and peer discussion based on this written material, under the guidance of the instructors. The questions were designed to foster debate in an ever-increasing level of complexity and to strengthen the main contextual aspects leading to emergence, evolving, and permanency of a complex metabolic pathway. Based on classroom observation, analysis of student's written responses, and individual interviews, we noticed they were engaged and motivated by the task, especially during group discussion. The whole experience suggests that the study guide was a stimulus to broaden the comprehension of the Krebs cycle, reinforcing the evolutionary approach as an important subject for learning purposes. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:288-296, 2016.

  4. The evolution of the Krebs cycle: A promising subject for meaningful learning of biochemistry.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Caetano; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Evolution has been recognized as a key concept for biologists. To enhance comprehension and motivate biology undergraduates for the contents of central energetic metabolism, we addressed the Krebs cycle structure and functions in an evolutionary view. To this end, we created a study guide that contextualizes the emergence of the cyclic pathway, in light of the prokaryotic influence since the early anaerobic condition of the Earth to increase oxygen in the atmosphere. The study guide is composed of three interrelated sections: (1) a problem, designed to arouse curiosity, inform and motivate students, (2) a text about life evolution, including early microorganisms and the emergence of the Krebs cycle, and (3) questions for debate. The activity consisted on individual reading and peer discussion based on this written material, under the guidance of the instructors. The questions were designed to foster debate in an ever-increasing level of complexity and to strengthen the main contextual aspects leading to emergence, evolving, and permanency of a complex metabolic pathway. Based on classroom observation, analysis of student's written responses, and individual interviews, we noticed they were engaged and motivated by the task, especially during group discussion. The whole experience suggests that the study guide was a stimulus to broaden the comprehension of the Krebs cycle, reinforcing the evolutionary approach as an important subject for learning purposes. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:288-296, 2016. PMID:26952386

  5. NT5E Mutations That Cause Human Disease Are Associated with Intracellular Mistrafficking of NT5E Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fausther, Michel; Lavoie, Elise G.; Goree, Jessica R.; Baldini, Giulia; Dranoff, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Ecto-5′-nucleotidase/CD73/NT5E, the product of the NT5E gene, is the dominant enzyme in the generation of adenosine from degradation of AMP in the extracellular environment. Nonsense (c.662C→A, p.S221X designated F1, c.1609dupA, p.V537fsX7 designated F3) and missense (c.1073G→A, p.C358Y designated F2) NT5E gene mutations in three distinct families have been shown recently to cause premature arterial calcification disease in human patients. However, the underlying mechanisms by which loss-of-function NT5E mutations cause human disease are unknown. We hypothesized that human NT5E gene mutations cause mistrafficking of the defective proteins within cells, ultimately blocking NT5E catalytic function. To test this hypothesis, plasmids encoding cDNAs of wild type and mutant human NT5E tagged with the fluorescent probe DsRed were generated and used for transfection and heterologous expression in immortalized monkey COS-7 kidney cells that lack native NT5E protein. Enzyme histochemistry and Malachite green assays were performed to assess the biochemical activities of wild type and mutant fusion NT5E proteins. Subcellular trafficking of fusion NT5E proteins was monitored by confocal microscopy and western blot analysis of fractionated cell constituents. All 3 F1, F2, and F3 mutations result in a protein with significantly reduced trafficking to the plasma membrane and reduced ER retention as compared to wild type protein. Confocal immunofluorescence demonstrates vesicles containing DsRed-tagged NT5E proteins (F1, F2 and F3) in the cell synthetic apparatus. All 3 mutations resulted in absent NT5E enzymatic activity at the cell surface. In conclusion, three familial NT5E mutations (F1, F2, F3) result in novel trafficking defects associated with human disease. These novel genetic causes of human disease suggest that the syndrome of premature arterial calcification due to NT5E mutations may also involve a novel “trafficking-opathy”. PMID:24887587

  6. Barriers and Facilitators for Generalizing Cycling Skills Learned at Camp to Home.

    PubMed

    Temple, Viviene A; Purves, P Lynn; Misovic, Robyn; Lewis, Coral J; DeBoer, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Many children with disabling conditions do not acquire the skills to successfully ride a 2-wheeled bicycle. The aim was to describe cycling patterns before and after an innovative learn-to-ride bike camp and factors that facilitate or hinder the generalization of skills developed at camp to home. Parents and children participated in semistructured interviews 3-4 mo postcamp. Transcripts were examined deductively for participation and contextual influences using a template of codes approach. None of the children were successfully riding a 2-wheeled bicycle before camp. Two patterns of participation were evident from narrative descriptions of postcamp riding: "riders" and "not there yet." Major facilitating factors were the camp itself, the interaction between the camp and the health service, and continued parent involvement. The program transferred well to home for children who were riding independently on the last day of camp. Ongoing support is needed for children "not there yet."

  7. The impact of discovery learning on middle grade students' conceptions of the water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, John D.

    This study examined the use of discovery learning in science and how it affects students' academic performance as well as their self-efficacy in science. It also used a diagnostic tool to identify students' misconceptions about processes in the water cycle and where the misconceptions originated. While the study showed that the treatment group had a statistically significant greater academic gain from the pre-test to the post- test than did the no-treatment comparison group, from a teachers view point the gain would not be enough to benefit a student's performance on high stakes tests. Because the study was able to identify eight common misconceptions, it suggests that the misconceptions that students possess are difficult to uproot even using teaching methods that have been proven successful.

  8. Inspiring future scientists in middle-schools through synergy between classroom learning and water cycle research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noone, D. C.; Kellagher, E.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Kaushik, A.

    2012-12-01

    Water is at the core of many issues in environmental change from local to global scales, and learning about the water cycle offers students an opportunity to explore core scientific concepts and their local environment. In climate research, there are significant uncertainties in the role water plays in the climate system. Water also acts as a central theme that provides opportunities for experiential science education at all levels. The "Water Spotters" program underway at University of Colorado exploits the synergy between needs for enrichment of middle-school science education and the needs for water sample collection to provide primary data for climate research. The program takes advantage of the prominent agricultural landscape of the region in eastern Colorado, which is a poignant example of how society influences the climate through irrigation, evaporation/transpiration and run-off and whose productivity is influenced by the climate system. Both natural grasslands and alpine ecosystems in the surrounding regions serve as examples of the native landscape. In coordination with the St. Vrain Valley School District MESA (Math Engineering Science Achievement) program, middle-school students collect rain water samples that are analyzed and used as a core component of the research goals. In concert, new lessons have been developed in coordination with science teachers that emphasize both core scientific standards and application learning about the water cycle. We present the new curriculum modules developed for the program and that are distributed to middle-school teachers. The modules include original lessons and lessons with expanded original material to teach about water and water isotopes. Curriculum packages that include media resources are increasingly important to teachers. The Water Spotters program uses video to teach collection protocols and give background on the project. Weather station data from schools are disseminated online alongside the rainwater

  9. What Belongs in Your 15-Bean Soup? Using the Learning Cycle to Address Misconceptions about Construction of Taxonomic Keys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Ann; Vanderspool, Staria

    2004-01-01

    Students can use seed characteristics to discriminate between the different kinds of legumes using taxonomic classification processes of sorting and ranking, followed by construction of taxonomic keys. The application of the Learning Cycle process to taxonomic principles, hierarchical classification, and construction of keys presents the…

  10. Effect of the Four-Step Learning Cycle Model on Students' Understanding of Concepts Related to Simple Harmonic Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the efficacy of four-step (4-E) learning cycle approach on students understanding of concepts related to Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). 124 students (63 for experimental group and 61 for control group) participated in the study. The students' views and ideas in simple Harmonic Achievement test were analyzed qualitatively. The…

  11. The Effectiveness of the Learning-Cycle Method on Teaching DC Circuits to Prospective Female and Male Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ates, Salih

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the effectiveness of the learning-cycle method when teaching direct current (DC) circuits to university students. Four Physics II classes participated in the study, which lasted approximately two and a half weeks in the middle of the spring semester of 2003. Participants were 120 freshmen (55 females and 65…

  12. Students' Performance at Tutorial Online of Social Studies through the Use of Learning Cycle Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farisi, Mohammad Imam

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe student's performance in tutorial online (tuton) of Social Studies through developing the 5Es--Engage Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate--Learning Cycle Model (the 5Es-LCM). The study conducted at UT-Online portal uses the Research and Development (R&D) method. The research subjects consisted…

  13. 47 CFR 9.5 - E911 Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false E911 Service. 9.5 Section 9.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.5 E911 Service. (a) Scope of Section. The following requirements are only applicable to providers...

  14. 47 CFR 9.5 - E911 Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false E911 Service. 9.5 Section 9.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.5 E911 Service. (a) Scope of Section. The following requirements are only applicable to providers...

  15. 47 CFR 9.5 - E911 Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false E911 Service. 9.5 Section 9.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.5 E911 Service. (a) Scope of Section. The following requirements are only applicable to providers...

  16. 47 CFR 9.5 - E911 Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false E911 Service. 9.5 Section 9.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.5 E911 Service. (a) Scope of Section. The following requirements are only applicable to providers...

  17. 47 CFR 9.5 - E911 Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false E911 Service. 9.5 Section 9.5 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INTERCONNECTED VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL SERVICES § 9.5 E911 Service. (a) Scope of Section. The following requirements are only applicable to providers...

  18. Red Sea circulation during marine isotope stage 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siccha, Michael; Biton, Eli; Gildor, Hezi

    2015-04-01

    We have employed a regional Massachusetts Institute of Technology oceanic general circulation model of the Red Sea to investigate its circulation during marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, the peak of the last interglacial, approximately 125 ka before present. Compared to present-day conditions, MIS 5e was characterized by higher Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, accompanied by increases in air temperature of more than 2°C and global sea level approximately 8 m higher than today. As a consequence of the increased seasonality, intensified monsoonal conditions with increased winds, rainfall, and humidity in the Red Sea region are evident in speleothem records and supported by model simulations. To assess the dominant factors responsible for the observed changes, we conducted several sensitivity experiments in which the MIS 5 boundary conditions or forcing parameters were used individually. Overall, our model simulation for the last interglacial maximum reconstructs a Red Sea that is colder, less ventilated and probably more oligotrophic than at present day. The largest alteration in Red Sea circulation and properties was found for the simulation of the northward displacement and intensification of the African tropical rain belt during MIS 5e, leading to a notable increase in the fresh water flux into the Red Sea. Such an increase significantly reduced the Red Sea salinity and exchange volume of the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden. The Red Sea reacted to the MIS 5e insolation forcing by the expected increase in seasonal sea surface temperature amplitude and overall cooling caused by lower temperatures during deep water formation in winter.

  19. RESEARCH REPORT: Eliciting students' understandings of chemical reactions using two forms of essay questions during a learning cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Ann M. L.

    2003-05-01

    We examined ninth-grade students' explanations of chemical reactions using two forms of an open-ended essay question during a learning cycle. One form provided students with key terms to be used as 'anchors' upon which to base their essay, whereas the second form did not. The essays were administered at three points: pre-learning cycle, post-concept application, and after additional concept application activities. Students' explanations were qualitatively examined and grouped according to common patterns representing their understandings or misunderstandings. Findings indicated that more misunderstandings were elicited by the use of key terms as compared to the non-use of key terms in the pre-test. Misunderstandings in the key term essay responses generally involved the misuse of these terms and their association with the concept. Findings also indicated significant positive shifts in students' understanding over the learning cycle. No perceptible increase in understanding occurred after additional application activities. Differences in gender were observed, with females showing equal or greater understanding compared to males, contradicting reports that males typically outperform females in the physical sciences and supporting the need to reconstruct assessment techniques to better reveal the conceptual understandings of all students.

  20. Paper 8775 - Integrating Natural Resources and Ecological Science into the Disaster Risk CYCLE: Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosnan, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Familiar to disaster risk reduction (DRR) scientists and professionals, the disaster cycle is an adaptive approach that involves planning, response and learning for the next event. It has proven effective in saving lives and helping communities around the world deal with natural and other hazards. But it has rarely been applied to natural resource and ecological science, despite the fact that many communities are dependent on these resources. This presentation will include lessons learned from applying science to tackle ecological consequences in several disasters in the US and globally, including the Colorado Floods, the SE Asia tsunami, the Montserrat volcanic eruption, and US SAFRR tsunami scenario. The presentation discusses the role that science and scientists can play at each phase of the disaster cycle. The consequences of not including disaster cycles in the management of natural systems leaves these resources and the huge investments made to protect highly vulnerable. The presentation discusses how The presentation discusses how science can help government and communities in planning and responding to these events. It concludes with a set of lessons learned and guidlines for moving forward.

  1. Reinterpreting the learning cycle from a social constructivist perspective: A qualitative study of teachers' beliefs and practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasson, George E.; Lalik, Rosary V.

    The purpose of this study was to learn whether Science Curriculum Improvement Study (SCIS) or more recent interpretations of the learning cycle could be used by teachers to engage students in social constructivist learning. To accomplish this purpose, two university researchers and six science teachers planned, implemented, and reflected upon instruction based on the reciprocal use of language and action within the learning cycle framework. The study examined teachers' changing beliefs and practices as well as issues and problems that emerged. Discrepant case analysis was used to analyze the data, which included transcriptions of instruction, reflection sessions, and teacher and student interviews as well as copies of teachers' written plans and instructional materials. In this paper, we present a case study of one teacher and profiles of five others. The case is organized chronologically and describes Martha, a high school physics teacher, in terms of her instruction and concerns at the beginning, middle, and end of the school year. Analysis revealed that several of Martha's beliefs and practices gradually changed across the year. Martha initially expressed the positivistic view that the goal of science instmction was for students to arrive at scientifically acceptable conclusions. As Martha explored social constructivist teaching, she gave her students increasingly more opportunities to test and discuss their ideas during problem solving. Along with this change in practice, Martha experienced a tension between her efforts to give her students opportunities to develop their own understandings and her efforts to present scientific information. As Martha' perspective changed, she became dissatisfied with her existing grading system. Like Martha, each of the other five teachers gave their students more opportunities to explore their own ideas and each experienced tensions in the process. We interpreted these findings within a social constructivist theoretical

  2. Cycles of Exploration, Reflection, and Consolidation in Model-Based Learning of Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Beaumie; Pathak, Suneeta A.; Jacobson, Michael J.; Zhang, Baohui; Gobert, Janice D.

    2015-01-01

    Model-based reasoning has been introduced as an authentic way of learning science, and many researchers have developed technological tools for learning with models. This paper describes how a model-based tool, "BioLogica"™, was used to facilitate genetics learning in secondary 3-level biology in Singapore. The research team co-designed…

  3. Learner-Focused Evaluation Cycles: Facilitating Learning Using Feedforward, Concurrent and Feedback Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathcart, Abby; Greer, Dominique; Neale, Larry

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing trend to offer students learning opportunities that are flexible, innovative and engaging. As educators embrace student-centred agile teaching and learning methodologies, which require continuous reflection and adaptation, the need to evaluate students' learning in a timely manner has become more pressing. Conventional…

  4. Beliefs, Practical Knowledge, and Context: A Longitudinal Study of a Beginning Biology Teacher's 5E Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Friedrichsen, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this three-year case study was to understand how a beginning biology teacher (Alice) designed and taught a 5E unit on natural selection, how the unit changed when she took a position in a different school district, and why the changes occurred. We examined Alice's developing beliefs about science teaching and learning,…

  5. Developing an Instructional Material Using a Concept Cartoon Adapted to the 5E Model: A Sample of Teaching Erosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birisci, Salih; Metin, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Using different instructional materials adapted within the constructivist learning theory will enhance students' conceptual understanding. From this point of view, an instructional instrument using a concept cartoon adapted with 5E model has developed and introduced in this study. The study has some deficiencies in investigating students'…

  6. Effectiveness and student perceptions of an active learning activity using a headline news story to enhance in-class learning of cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2016-06-01

    An active learning activity was used to engage students and enhance in-class learning of cell cycle regulation in a PharmD level integrated biological sciences course. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness and perception of the in-class activity. After completion of a lecture on the topic of cell cycle regulation, students completed a 10-question multiple-choice quiz before and after engaging in the activity. The activity involved reading of a headline news article published by ScienceDaily.com entitled "One Gene Lost Equals One limb Regained." The name of the gene was deleted from the article and, thus, the end goal of the activity was to determine the gene of interest by the description in the story. The activity included compiling a list of all potential gene candidates before sufficient information was given to identify the gene of interest (p21). A survey was completed to determine student perceptions of the activity. Quiz scores improved by an average of 20% after the activity (40.1 ± 1.95 vs. 59.9 ± 2.14,P< 0.0001,n= 96). Students enjoyed the activity, found the news article interesting, and believed that the activity improved their understanding of cell cycle regulation. The majority of students agreed that the in-class activity piqued their interest for learning the subject matter and also agreed that if they understand a concept during class, they are more likely to want to study that concept outside of class. In conclusion, the activity improved in-class understanding and enhanced interest in cell cycle regulation.

  7. Effectiveness and student perceptions of an active learning activity using a headline news story to enhance in-class learning of cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2016-06-01

    An active learning activity was used to engage students and enhance in-class learning of cell cycle regulation in a PharmD level integrated biological sciences course. The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness and perception of the in-class activity. After completion of a lecture on the topic of cell cycle regulation, students completed a 10-question multiple-choice quiz before and after engaging in the activity. The activity involved reading of a headline news article published by ScienceDaily.com entitled "One Gene Lost Equals One limb Regained." The name of the gene was deleted from the article and, thus, the end goal of the activity was to determine the gene of interest by the description in the story. The activity included compiling a list of all potential gene candidates before sufficient information was given to identify the gene of interest (p21). A survey was completed to determine student perceptions of the activity. Quiz scores improved by an average of 20% after the activity (40.1 ± 1.95 vs. 59.9 ± 2.14,P< 0.0001,n= 96). Students enjoyed the activity, found the news article interesting, and believed that the activity improved their understanding of cell cycle regulation. The majority of students agreed that the in-class activity piqued their interest for learning the subject matter and also agreed that if they understand a concept during class, they are more likely to want to study that concept outside of class. In conclusion, the activity improved in-class understanding and enhanced interest in cell cycle regulation. PMID:27068993

  8. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  9. Effect of 5E Teaching Model on Student Teachers' Understanding of Weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tural, Güner; Akdeniz, Ali Rıza; Alev, Nedim

    2010-10-01

    Weight is one of the basic concepts of physics. Its gravitational definition accommodates difficulties for students to understand the state of weightlessness. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of materials based on 5E teaching model and related to weightlessness on science student teachers' learning. The sample of the study was 9 volunteer student teachers who were in their first grade in Science Teaching Program in Fatih Faculty of Education, Karadeniz Technical University. Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered to find answers to the research questions. Findings revealed that all physics textbooks reviewed gave gravitational definition of weight. Also the concept of weightlessness hasn't been covered in high school and some university textbooks. It was determined that before the implementation student teachers had non-scientific explanations about weightlessness. The implementation of the 5E teaching model and materials developed are effective on learning the weightlessness. It is suggested that similar applications can also be used in other physics subjects or in other fields of science.

  10. A Psychometric Reexamination of Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle Construct: A Separation of Level, Style, and Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ciantis, Steven M.; Kirton, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    An examination of the Experiential Learning Theory of D. Kolb (1974) and a revision of the Learning Style Questionnaire of P. Honey and A. Mumford (1992) using results from 185 middle managers from the United Kingdom and Ireland suggests that no 1 measure can represent all of Kolb's constructs, although Kolb's theoretical structure does emerge.…

  11. An Active, Reflective Learning Cycle for E-Commerce Classes: Learning about E-Commerce by Doing and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Alan S.; Singh, Tirna

    2010-01-01

    Active, experiential learning is an important component in information systems education, ensuring that students gain an appreciation for both practical and theoretical information systems concepts. Typically, students in active, experiential classes engage in real world projects for commercial companies or not-for-profit organizations. In the…

  12. A Evaluation of a Learning Cycle Intervention Method in Introductory Physical Science Laboratories in Order to Promote Formal Operational thought Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadburn, Randy Glen

    Jean Piaget describes the formal level of reasoning as the most complex. The dissertation examines the Learning Cycle Intervention effectiveness in transferring students from the concrete to the formal level of reasoning required in most science courses. Four major hypotheses were developed to guide the study. The study consisted of 67 physical science students at a two-year community college divided into a control and experimental group. Data were collected in a pretest-posttest format using four different data gathering instruments. Data were then analyzed with t-tests on those four hypotheses. Findings and conclusions of this study were: (1) the learning cycle did not cause a significant difference between groups on the improvement of formal reasoning ability at the established level of significance (alpha =.05), however, there was a difference that was worthy to note; (2) there was a significant difference between groups on the amount of physics content learned with the experimental group achieving better; (3) there was no significant difference between groups in their attitude toward science; and (4) there was a significant difference between groups in their attitude and value of their laboratory experience. The learning cycle showed promise in promoting the transition to the formal level of reasoning. However, the formal reasoning level is difficult to measure and may be a reason for further study. Overall, the students in the experimental group had a better attitude toward the laboratory experience, achieving better on physics content learned. This was attributed to the learning cycle since all other variables were controlled by learning in the classroom. Recommendations include the need for studies of prolonged length to investigate the effects of the learning cycle, particularly on formal reasoning abilities. This study should be replicated using a different subject area to examine the effectiveness of the learning cycle on other disciplines. In addition

  13. Cuckoo Search Algorithm Based on Repeat-Cycle Asymptotic Self-Learning and Self-Evolving Disturbance for Function Optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Li, Shu-xia; Song, Jiang-di

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve convergence velocity and optimization accuracy of the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm for solving the function optimization problems, a new improved cuckoo search algorithm based on the repeat-cycle asymptotic self-learning and self-evolving disturbance (RC-SSCS) is proposed. A disturbance operation is added into the algorithm by constructing a disturbance factor to make a more careful and thorough search near the bird's nests location. In order to select a reasonable repeat-cycled disturbance number, a further study on the choice of disturbance times is made. Finally, six typical test functions are adopted to carry out simulation experiments, meanwhile, compare algorithms of this paper with two typical swarm intelligence algorithms particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. The results show that the improved cuckoo search algorithm has better convergence velocity and optimization accuracy.

  14. Cuckoo Search Algorithm Based on Repeat-Cycle Asymptotic Self-Learning and Self-Evolving Disturbance for Function Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Li, Shu-xia; Song, Jiang-di

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve convergence velocity and optimization accuracy of the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm for solving the function optimization problems, a new improved cuckoo search algorithm based on the repeat-cycle asymptotic self-learning and self-evolving disturbance (RC-SSCS) is proposed. A disturbance operation is added into the algorithm by constructing a disturbance factor to make a more careful and thorough search near the bird's nests location. In order to select a reasonable repeat-cycled disturbance number, a further study on the choice of disturbance times is made. Finally, six typical test functions are adopted to carry out simulation experiments, meanwhile, compare algorithms of this paper with two typical swarm intelligence algorithms particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. The results show that the improved cuckoo search algorithm has better convergence velocity and optimization accuracy. PMID:26366164

  15. Cuckoo Search Algorithm Based on Repeat-Cycle Asymptotic Self-Learning and Self-Evolving Disturbance for Function Optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Li, Shu-xia; Song, Jiang-di

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve convergence velocity and optimization accuracy of the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm for solving the function optimization problems, a new improved cuckoo search algorithm based on the repeat-cycle asymptotic self-learning and self-evolving disturbance (RC-SSCS) is proposed. A disturbance operation is added into the algorithm by constructing a disturbance factor to make a more careful and thorough search near the bird's nests location. In order to select a reasonable repeat-cycled disturbance number, a further study on the choice of disturbance times is made. Finally, six typical test functions are adopted to carry out simulation experiments, meanwhile, compare algorithms of this paper with two typical swarm intelligence algorithms particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. The results show that the improved cuckoo search algorithm has better convergence velocity and optimization accuracy. PMID:26366164

  16. Last Interglacial (MIS5e) hydrographic shifts linked to meltwater discharges from the East Greenland margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Bauch, Henning A.; Van Nieuwenhove, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    The East Greenland Current (EGC) plays a key role in transporting polar water from the Arctic to convectional sites of the Iceland and Labrador seas. Ongoing melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) as well as the Arctic sea ice prompts freshening of the EGC and accumulation of low-density water in the subpolar North Atlantic, thus affecting the stabilities of water mass overturning and subsequent northward heat transfer. To assess natural eastern GIS dynamics and possible freshwater-induced regional oceanic reorganizations we analyzed several sediment sequences from the poorly investigated area along the eastern Greenland margin and the western Nordic Seas. Records span the last interglacial (LIG, MIS5e) cycle, including deglacial Termination 2 and the LIG climatic optimum. On a global scale, the latter is believed to have been warmer than present, with a higher sea level, and may, therefore, serve as a promising analogue for future hydrographic changes. Based on various proxy data (stable isotopes, planktic foraminiferal assemblages, ice-rafted debris) our reconstructions support the notion of a "two-step development" of Termination 2 which underwent severe surface freshening in the subpolar North Atlantic. This is shown in extremely light oxygen isotopic values registered all along the eastern Greenland margin during early MIS5e, which are indicative for pronounced eastern/central GIS retreat and a further propagation of the resulting meltwater southward via the EGC. In addition, we find compelling evidence for at least two separate meltwater episodes in proximity of the eastern GIS during early MIS5e. The climatic episode in between is correlated with an early LIG warm peak, which may be linked to enhanced presence of Atlantic water in the central Nordic Seas (Bauch et al., 2012) and further downstream along southern Greenland (Hillaire-Marcel et al., 1994, Irvali et al., 2012). Our data, therefore, reveal a complex and variable dynamic of the EGC during MIS5e

  17. How regional climate models reproduce annual cycle and what we can learn from it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halenka, Tomas; Skalak, Petr; Huszar, Peter; Belda, Michal

    2010-05-01

    The annual cycle is analyzed by means of Taylor score to assess the ability to reproduce annual cycle in regional climate models (RCMs) used in EC FP6 project ENSEMBLES. The objective of this effort is to provide rather simple, but still convenient method with one figure output for further weighting of the RCMs ensemble simulations. The application of Taylor score directly to the original results averaged to monthly time series for individual so-called PRUDENCE regions can provide first guess of this annual cycle performance, especially for temperature where annual cycle is a main source of variation and correlation, although for precipitation there are clear deficiencies in this assumption. More comprehensive technique applying multiple linear regression analysis on the time series to extract a pure annual cycle is used to assess the differences in the both method of evaluation. It is shown that the results of both methods coincide reasonably well. However, as the original technique provides basically the overall performance of the model, the quality of annual cycle description in the models can be one of the important factors affecting its precision on monthly scale.

  18. How can RCMs reproduce the annual cycle and what we can learn from it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halenka, T.; Skalak, P.; Huszar, P.; Belda, M.

    2010-09-01

    The annual cycle is analyzed by means of Taylor score to assess the ability to reproduce annual cycle in 15 regional climate models (RCMs) used in EC FP6 project ENSEMBLES. The objective of this effort is to provide rather simple, but still convenient method with one figure output for further weighting of the RCMs ensemble simulations. The application of Taylor score directly to the original results averaged to monthly time series for individual so-called PRUDENCE regions can provide first guess of this annual cycle performance, especially for temperature where annual cycle is a main source of variation and correlation, although for precipitation there are clear deficiencies in this assumption. More comprehensive technique applying multiple linear regression analysis on the time series to extract a pure annual cycle is used to assess the differences in the both method of evaluation. It is shown that the results of both methods coincide reasonably well. However, as the original technique provides basically the overall performance of the model, the quality of annual cycle description in the models can be one of the important factors affecting its precision on monthly scale. Comparison to E-OBS as well as to ERA 40 data is provided and impact of driving GCMs is also analysed.

  19. Coordinating cell polarity and cell cycle progression: what can we learn from flies and worms?

    PubMed Central

    Noatynska, Anna; Tavernier, Nicolas; Gotta, Monica; Pintard, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    Spatio-temporal coordination of events during cell division is crucial for animal development. In recent years, emerging data have strengthened the notion that tight coupling of cell cycle progression and cell polarity in dividing cells is crucial for asymmetric cell division and ultimately for metazoan development. Although it is acknowledged that such coupling exists, the molecular mechanisms linking the cell cycle and cell polarity machineries are still under investigation. Key cell cycle regulators control cell polarity, and thus influence cell fate determination and/or differentiation, whereas some factors involved in cell polarity regulate cell cycle timing and proliferation potential. The scope of this review is to discuss the data linking cell polarity and cell cycle progression, and the importance of such coupling for asymmetric cell division. Because studies in model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster have started to reveal the molecular mechanisms of this coordination, we will concentrate on these two systems. We review examples of molecular mechanisms suggesting a coupling between cell polarity and cell cycle progression. PMID:23926048

  20. Strategic Decision Making Cycle in Higher Education: Case Study of E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divjak, Blaženka; Redep, Nina Begicevic

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology for strategic decision making in higher education (HE). The methodology is structured as a cycle of strategic decision making with four phases, and it is focused on institutional and national perspective, i.e. on decision making that takes place at institutions of HE and relevant national authorities, in case…

  1. Learning the Cardiac Cycle: Simultaneous Observations of Electrical and Mechanical Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Richard Alec; Frey, Mary Anne Bassett

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method for integrating electrical and mechanical events of the cardiac cycle by measuring systolic time intervals, which involves simultaneous recording of the ECG, a phonocardiogram, and the contour of the carotid pulse. Both resting and stress change data are provided as bases for class discussion. (CS)

  2. The Evolution of the Krebs Cycle: A Promising Subject for Meaningful Learning of Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Caetano; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has been recognized as a key concept for biologists. To enhance comprehension and motivate biology undergraduates for the contents of central energetic metabolism, we addressed the Krebs cycle structure and functions in an evolutionary view. To this end, we created a study guide that contextualizes the emergence of the cyclic pathway, in…

  3. Learning to Teach Elementary Science through Iterative Cycles of Enactment in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, SueAnn I.; Ciechanowski, Kathryn M.; Hartman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Iterative cycles of enactment embedded in culturally and linguistically diverse contexts provide rich opportunities for preservice teachers (PSTs) to enact core practices of science. This study is situated in the larger Families Involved in Sociocultural Teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (FIESTAS) project, which weaves…

  4. Use of Adapted Bicycles on the Learning of Conventional Cycling by Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Tammy L.; Porretta, David L.; Klein, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the use of adapted bicycles on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of conventional cycling by seven children with mild mental retardation. Feedback was used in addition to the adapted bicycles and consisted of pedal rate, head position, and steering participation. A multiple probe design was used. Participants…

  5. Cycle of Success: Learning Sequence Melds Disjointed Activities into a Streamlined Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broderick, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on how educators could design professional development to empower the learning of individuals to serve the growth of an organization that was all about student success. The leadership team at Mapleton Expeditionary School for the Arts (MESA) in Thornton, Colorado, responded to this with its version of a teaching and learning…

  6. Using Ants, Animal Behavior & the Learning Cycle to Investigate Scientific Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Russell A.; Dolezal, Adam G.; Hicks, Michael R.; Butler, Michael W.; Morehouse, Nathan I.; Ganesh, Tirupalavanam G.

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of animals is an intrinsically fascinating topic for students from a wide array of backgrounds. We describe a learning experience using animal behavior that we created for middle school students as part of a graduate-student outreach program, Graduate Partners in Science Education, at Arizona State University in collaboration with a…

  7. The Evaluation Consultant's Life Cycle: Theory, Practice, and Implications for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrington, Gail V.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this chapter was to determine if senior evaluation consultants experienced stages of growth in their practice similar to the small business development stages described by Bruce and Scott, to identify the stimuli that led to those changes, to determine what the consultants learned from these incidents, and to…

  8. The Experiential Learning Cycle in Undergraduate Diversity and Social Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching for diversity and social justice is the teaching of complex abstract ideas about privilege and oppression, such as the social construction of social groups and identity. An effective way to teach this material is with experiential learning, but this approach requires much more than exercises and activities. Courses must be consciously…

  9. Technology and Cognition Merge with Challenge-Based Learning Cycles Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbett, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning in Web-based courses has become a global phenomenon. Educators are grappling with merging cognition and technology to offer students quality, relevant online courses. The development of social presence in the online environment is of paramount importance and requires individuals to engage in meaningful interactions about, and…

  10. Learning from One's Own Teaching: New Science Teachers Analyzing Their Practice through Classroom Observation Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceven McNally, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The first three years of science teachers' careers is an especially formative period, yet there remains only a limited literature base to support teacher educators who work with this population. Teachers in the induction phase benefit from professional development experiences that support them as they continue to learn about teaching by analyzing…

  11. Cycles of Exploration, Reflection, and Consolidation in Model-Based Learning of Genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beaumie; Pathak, Suneeta A.; Jacobson, Michael J.; Zhang, Baohui; Gobert, Janice D.

    2015-12-01

    Model-based reasoning has been introduced as an authentic way of learning science, and many researchers have developed technological tools for learning with models. This paper describes how a model-based tool, BioLogica™, was used to facilitate genetics learning in secondary 3-level biology in Singapore. The research team co-designed two different pedagogical approaches with teachers, both of which involved learner-centered "exploration and reflection" with BioLogica and teacher-led "telling" or "consolidation." One group went through the stand-alone BioLogica units for all topics prior to a series of teacher-led instructions, whereas the other group was engaged in teacher-led activities after using BioLogica for each topic. Based on the results of a series of tests on genetics, the groups performed differently from what the teacher had expected. We explore how the design of the two approaches and interactions among students might have contributed to the results.

  12. The negative cell cycle regulator, Tob (transducer of ErbB-2), is involved in motor skill learning

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xinming; Gao Xiang; Zhang Xuehan; Tu Yanyang; Jin Meilei; Zhao Guoping; Yu Lei; Jing Naihe; Li Baoming . E-mail: bmli@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-02-24

    Tob (transducer of ErbB-2) is a negative cell cycle regulator with anti-proliferative activity in peripheral tissues. Our previous study identified Tob as a protein involved in hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation (M.L. Jin, X.M. Wang, Y.Y. Tu, X.H. Zhang, X. Gao, N. Guo, Z.Q. Xie, G.P. Zhao, N.H. Jing, B.M. Li, Y.Yu, The negative cell cycle regulator, Tob (Transducer of ErbB-2), is a multifunctional protein involved in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, Neuroscience 131 (2005) 647-659). Here, we provide evidence that Tob in the central nervous system is engaged in acquisition of motor skill. Tob has a relatively high expression in the cerebellum. Tob expression is up-regulated in the cerebellum after rats receive training on a rotarod-running task. Rats infused with Tob antisense oligonucleotides into the 4th ventricle exhibit a severe deficit in running on a rotating rod or walking across a horizontally elevated beam.

  13. Two-Year Community College Chemistry: Joules. An Application of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development in Teaching Chemistry: The Learning Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the learning cycle, a strategy developed by Karplus for incorporating Piaget's concepts into a pragmatic method for use in any classroom. The three facets to this strategy, exploration, invention, and application, are described. Includes an exercise that can be used for high school and college classrooms. (CS)

  14. Sulfur cycling in contaminated aquifers: What can we learn from oxygen isotopes in sulfate? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoeller, K.; Vogt, C.; Hoth, N.

    2009-12-01

    Bacterial reduction of dissolved sulfate (BSR) is a key process determining the natural attenuation in many contaminated aquifers. For example, in groundwater bodies affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) BSR reduces the contaminant load by producing alkalinity and facilitating a sustainable fixation of sulfur in the sediment. In aquifers contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons sulfate may act as a terminal electron acceptor for the anaerobic oxidation of the organic contaminants to carbon dioxide and water. Due to the isotope selectivity of sulfate reducing bacteria, BSR shows the most pronounced isotope fractionation within the sulfur cycle. While sulfur displays a straightforward kinetic enrichment in the residual sulfate described by the enrichment factor epsilon (ɛ), the mechanism of oxygen isotope fractionation is still being discussed controversially. Nevertheless, it is agreed on that oxygen isotope exchange between ambient water and residual sulfate occurs during BSR in natural environments. With respect to this potential isotope exchange, the fractionation parameter theta (θ) is introduced instead of the kinetic enrichment factor epsilon (ɛ). The dual isotope system considering both sulfate-sulfur and sulfate-oxygen isotope fractionation and the respective fractionation parameters ɛ and θ provides an excellent tool for the recognition and quantification of BSR. Beyond that, the dual isotope approach may help identify and estimate interfering sulfur transformations such as re-oxidation and disproportionation processes which is especially vital for the understanding of the overall natural attenuation potential of the investigated aquifers. We present two examples from different field studies showing the benefits of applying the combination of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in dissolved sulfate to reveal the details of the sulfur cycle. The first case study is concerned with the evaluation of the potential for BSR in an AMD-affected aquifer close to an

  15. What Have We Learned About Arctic Carbon Since The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuur, E.

    2015-12-01

    Large pools of organic carbon were reported in The First State of the Carbon Cycle Report, but measurements from high latitude ecosystems, in particular for deeper soils >1m depth, remained scarce. A newly enlarged soil carbon database with an order of magnitude more numerous deep sampling sites has verified the widespread pattern of large quantities of carbon accumulated deep in permafrost (perennially frozen) soils. The known pool of permafrost carbon across the northern circumpolar permafrost zone is now estimated to be 1330-1580 Pg C, with the potential for an additional ~400 Pg C in deep permafrost sediments. In addition, an uncertainty estimate of plus/minus 15% has now been calculated for the soil carbon pool in the surface 0-3m. Laboratory incubations of these permafrost soils reveal that a significant fraction can be mineralized by microbes upon thaw and converted to carbon dioxide and methane on time scales of years to decades, with decade-long average losses from aerobic incubations ranging from 6-34% of initial carbon. Carbon emissions from the same soils incubated in an anaerobic environment are, on average, 78-85% lower than aerobic soils. But, the more potent greenhouse gas methane released under anaerobic conditions in part increases the climate impact of these emissions. While mean quantities of methane are only 3% to 7% that of carbon dioxide emitted from anaerobic incubations (by weight of C), these mean methane values represent 25% to 45% of the overall potential impact on climate when accounting for the higher global warming potential of methane. Taken together though, in spite of the more potent greenhouse gas methane, a unit of newly thawed permafrost carbon could have a greater impact on climate over a century if it thaws and decomposes within a drier, aerobic soil as compared to an equivalent amount of carbon within a waterlogged soil or sediment. Model projections tend to estimate losses of carbon in line with empirical measurements, but

  16. An Evaluation of the Instruction Carried out with Printed Laboratory Materials Designed in Accordance with 5E Model: Reflection of Light and Image on a Plane Mirror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayvaci, Hakan Sevki; Yildiz, Mehmet; Bakirci, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This study employed a print laboratory material based on 5E model of constructivist learning approach to teach reflection of light and Image on a Plane Mirror. The effect of the instruction which conducted with the designed print laboratory material on academic achievements of prospective science and technology teachers and their attitudes towards…

  17. 26 CFR 5e.274-8 - Travel expenses of Members of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Travel expenses of Members of Congress. 5e.274-8... TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS, TRAVEL EXPENSES OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS § 5e.274-8 Travel expenses of Members of Congress. (a) In general. Members of Congress (including any Delegate...

  18. 26 CFR 5e.274-8 - Travel expenses of Members of Congress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Travel expenses of Members of Congress. 5e.274...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS, TRAVEL EXPENSES OF MEMBERS OF CONGRESS § 5e.274-8 Travel expenses of Members of Congress. (a) In general. Members of Congress (including...

  19. INPP5E interacts with AURKA, linking phosphoinositide signaling to primary cilium stability

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikova, Olga V.; Seo, Seongjin; Cottle, Denny L.; Conduit, Sarah; Hakim, Sandra; Dyson, Jennifer M.; Mitchell, Christina A.; Smyth, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E (INPP5E) cause the ciliopathies known as Joubert and MORM syndromes; however, the role of INPP5E in ciliary biology is not well understood. Here, we describe an interaction between INPP5E and AURKA, a centrosomal kinase that regulates mitosis and ciliary disassembly, and we show that this interaction is important for the stability of primary cilia. Furthermore, AURKA phosphorylates INPP5E and thereby increases its 5-phosphatase activity, which in turn promotes transcriptional downregulation of AURKA, partly through an AKT-dependent mechanism. These findings establish the first direct link between AURKA and phosphoinositide signaling and suggest that the function of INPP5E in cilia is at least partly mediated by its interactions with AURKA. PMID:25395580

  20. 65. VIEW OF TAINTER VALVE FOR MONOLITH NUMBER 5E WELDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. VIEW OF TAINTER VALVE FOR MONOLITH NUMBER 5-E WELDED OUTSIDE CULVERT. Photograph No. 9311. March 28, 1950 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  1. A reappraisal of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle: what can we learn by extracting concepts from Gaia theory?

    PubMed

    Cresser, Malcolm S; Aitkenhead, Matthew J; Mian, Ishaq A

    2008-08-01

    Although soil scientists and most environmental scientists are acutely aware of the interactions between the cycling of carbon and nitrogen, for conceptual convenience when portraying the nitrogen cycle in text books the N cycle tends to be considered in isolation from its interactions with the cycling of other elements and water, usually as a snap shot at the current time; the origins of dinitrogen are rarely considered, for example. The authors suggest that Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis provides a useful and stimulating framework for consideration of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle. If it is used, it suggests that urbanization and management of sewage, and intensive animal rearing are probably bigger global issues than nitrogen deposition from fossil fuel combustion, and that plant evolution may be driven by the requirement of locally sustainable and near optimal soil mineral N supply dynamics. This may, in turn, be partially regulating global carbon and oxygen cycles. It is suggested that pollutant N deposition may disrupt this essential natural plant and terrestrial ecosystem evolutionary process, causing biodiversity change. Interactions between the Earth and other bodies in the solar system, and possibly beyond, also need to be considered in the context of the global N cycle over geological time scales. This is because of direct potential impacts on the nitrogen content of the atmosphere, potential long-term impacts of past boloid collisions on plate tectonics and thus on global N cycling via subduction and volcanic emissions, and indirect effects upon C, O and water cycling that all may impact upon the N cycle in the long term.

  2. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates learning after stress in masculinized but not cycling females.

    PubMed

    Bangasser, Debbie A; Shors, Tracey J

    2008-06-18

    Exposure to an acute stressful event enhances classical eyeblink conditioning in male rats, but severely impairs conditioning in female rats. Previous studies have demonstrated that the hippocampus and amygdala critically mediate this effect in both sexes. Thus, although stress affects learning in opposite ways, the structures involved are similar. Previously, we found that the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is also necessary for the enhanced learning after stress in male rats. Here we used BNST inactivation to determine whether the BNST, a sexually dimorphic brain region, is required in female rats for the impaired learning after stress. Interestingly, inactivation of the BNST did not prevent the stress-induced impairment of conditioning in females. Thus, unlike the hippocampus and amygdala, the BNST is critically involved in the modulation of learning by stress in males, but not in females. This exclusive involvement in males may be caused by the sex differences within the BNST. These sex differences result from early testosterone exposure, which masculinizes brain regions including the BNST. Previously, we reported that, like males, females with brains that are masculinized at birth learn better after stressful experience. Here we found that the enhanced learning after stress in masculinized females was prevented by BNST inactivation, just like in males. These data suggest that a masculinized BNST is required for the enhanced learning after a stressful experience. Importantly, together these studies indicate that males and females can engage different brain structures to modulate learning after a stressful experience.

  3. Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Robert

    A report on learning psychology and its relationship to the study of school learning emphasizes the increasing interaction between theorists and educational practitioners, particularly in attempting to learn which variables influence the instructional process and to find an appropriate methodology to measure and evaluate learning. "Learning…

  4. Using Targeted Active-Learning Exercises and Diagnostic Question Clusters to Improve Students' Understanding of Carbon Cycling in Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non–biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal. PMID:22383618

  5. Class and Home Problems. Lifelong Learning: A "Life Cycle" Approach to Education and Training for the Biopharmaceutical Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilleskie, Gary L.; Reeves, Baley; van Zanten, John H.; Balchunas, John; Carbonell, Ruben G.

    2016-01-01

    The Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center (BTEC) at North Carolina State University is an instructional center that offers education and training programs in the area of biopharmaceutical process development and manufacturing. Our programs are designed to provide educational opportunities throughout the "life cycle" of a…

  6. Recognition of cycle mechanisms from study of single section: Lessons learned in Madera Formation, Sandia Mountains, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Eustasy, tectonics, and autogenic shoreline-related processes contribute to generation of transgressive-regressive (T-R) depositional cycles. Understanding the origin of a transgressive surface or a progradational sequence is critical for reconstructing paleogeography and predicting facies geometries. Knowledge of lateral extent and character of a cycle package provides the least ambiguous interpretation of the mechanism for changing shoreline position. In cases of poor exposure, low density of well data, or structural complexity, such interpretations must come from examination of single sections. This has been attempted during study of 300 m of cyclic carbonate/clastic sediments of the Pennsylvanian Madera Formation. There are 27 complete T-R cycles in the section, 15 in the lowest 120 m. The implied high frequency of the cycles (fourth order) implies that tectonism is less important than eustasy or autogenic processes in generating the cycles. Upward-coarsening delta-progradation sequences are rare. Most regressive sequences feature placement of delta-plain clastics on subtidal limestone without intervening delta-front or prodelta clastics. The uppermost meter of limestone shows evidence of abrupt shoaling; regressive grainstones underwent pervasive early cementation by meteoric waters. These relationships require that sea level fall. Most transgressive sequences exhibit ravinement surfaces with phosphate-bearing lags that truncate delta-plain facies and pass upward through thin transgressive grainstones to offshore lime mudstones. These may be of autogenic or eustatic origin. Few transgressive sequences show transitions from fluvial to shoreface clastics; transgression without diminished clastic input and accommodation of transgressive clastics would be favored by sea level rise. Most regressions appear to be eustatic, whereas the origin of most transgressions is ambiguous.

  7. Using Targeted Active-Learning Exercises and Diagnostic Question Clusters to Improve Students' Understanding of Carbon Cycling in Ecosystems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and…

  8. Data Use Practices for Improved Mathematics Teaching and Learning: The Importance of Productive Dissonance and Recurring Feedback Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Jolley Bruce; Ebby, Caroline B.; Edmunds, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A growing number of studies argue that data use practices in schools have not sufficiently attended to teachers' learning about students, subject matter, and instruction. The result has been changes in instructional management (e.g., student grouping, assignment of students to tutoring) rather than instructional improvement. Further,…

  9. Project-Based Science Instruction: A Primer--An Introduction and Learning Cycle for Implementing Project-Based Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Kabba

    2008-01-01

    Project-based science (PBS) instruction can simply be defined as a student-centered science teaching approach, in which students produce tangible learning outcomes by posing and answering research questions that are relevant to their own lives and communities. In a PBS classroom, students are encouraged to take responsibility for their own…

  10. The Nature of Discourse throughout 5E Lessons in a Large Enrolment College Biology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Vanmali, Binaben H.; Abell, Sandra K.

    2013-04-01

    Large enrolment science courses play a significant role in educating undergraduate students. The discourse in these classes usually involves an instructor lecturing with little or no student participation, despite calls from current science education reform documents to elicit and utilize students' ideas in teaching. In this study, we used the 5E instructional model to develop and implement four lessons in a large enrolment introductory biology course with multiple opportunities for teacher-student and student-student interaction. Data consisted of video and audio recordings of whole-class and small-group discussions that took place throughout the study. We then used a science classroom discourse framework developed by Mortimer and Scott (2003) to characterize the discursive interactions in each 5E lesson phase. Analysis of the data resulted in two assertions. First, the purpose, communicative approach, patterns of discourse, and teaching interventions were unique to each 5E lesson phase. Second, the type of lesson topic influenced the content of the discourse. We discuss how the findings help characterize the discourse of each phase in a 5E college science lesson and propose a model to understand internalization through discursive interaction using this reform-based approach. We conclude with implications for facilitating discourse in college science lessons and future research. This study provides support for using the discourse framework to characterize discursive interaction in college science courses.

  11. 9. Tempe Canal, Section 17 (TIN, R5E), looking east towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Tempe Canal, Section 17 (TIN, R5E), looking east towards the mesa. This is the oldest part of the canal still in use. Photographer: Mark Durben, June 1989. Source: SRPA - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. A Psychometric Approach to the Development of a 5E Lesson Plan Scoring Instrument for Inquiry-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Dantzler, John; Day, Jeanelle; Webb, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This research centers on the psychometric examination of the structure of an instrument, known as the 5E Lesson Plan (5E ILPv2) rubric for inquiry-based teaching. The instrument is intended to measure an individual's skill in developing written 5E lesson plans for inquiry teaching. In stage one of the instrument's development, an exploratory…

  13. Thermochemical cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, J. E.; Soliman, M. A.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Cox, K. E.; Lawson, D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermochemical production of hydrogen is described along with the HYDRGN computer program which attempts to rate the various thermochemical cycles. Specific thermochemical cycles discussed include: iron sulfur cycle; iron chloride cycle; and hybrid sulfuric acid cycle.

  14. Photic zone changes in the north-west Pacific Ocean from MIS 4-5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, G. E. A.; Snelling, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to other sectors of the marine system, the palaeoceanography of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean is poorly constrained. New diatom isotope records of δ13C, δ18O, δ30Si (δ13Cdiatom, δ18Odiatom, and δ30Sidiatom) are presented alongside existing geochemical and isotope records to document changes in photic zone conditions, including nutrient supply and the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump, between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 and MIS 5e. Peaks in opal productivity in MIS 5b/c and MIS 5e are both associated with the breakdown of the regional halocline stratification and increased nutrient supply to the photic zone. Whereas the MIS 5e peak is associated with low rates of nutrient utilisation, the MIS 5b/c peak is associated with significantly higher rates of nutrient utilisation. Both peaks, together with other smaller increases in productivity in MIS 4 and 5a, culminate with a significant increase in freshwater input which strengthens/re-establishes the halocline and limits further upwelling of sub-surface waters to the photic zone. Whilst δ30Sidiatom and previously published records of diatom δ15N (δ15Ndiatom) (Brunelle et al., 2007, 2010) show similar trends until the latter half of MIS 5a, the records become anti-correlated after this juncture and into MIS 4, suggesting a possible change in photic zone state such as may occur with a shift to iron or silicon limitation.

  15. Photic zone changes in the North West Pacific Ocean from MIS 4-5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, G. E. A.; Snelling, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    In comparison to other sectors of the marine system, the palaeoceanography of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean is poorly constrained. New diatom isotope records of δ13C, δ18O, δ30Si (δ13Cdiatom, δ18Odiatom, δ30Sidiatom), are presented alongside existing geochemical and isotope records to document changes in photic zone conditions, including nutrient supply and the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump, between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 and MIS 5e. Peaks in opal productivity in MIS 5b/c and MIS 5e are both associated with the breakdown of the regional halocline stratification and increased nutrient supply to the photic zone. Whereas the MIS 5e peak is associated with low rates of nutrient utilisation, the MIS 5b/c peak is associated with significantly higher rates of nutrient utilisation. Both peaks, together with other smaller increases in productivity in MIS 4 and 5a culminate with a~significant increase in freshwater input which strengthens/re-establishes the halocline and limits further upwelling of sub-surface waters to the photic zone. Whilst δ30Sidiatom and previously published records of diatom δ15N (δ15Ndiatom) (Brunelle et al., 2007, 2010) show similar trends until the latter half of MIS 5a, the records become anti-correlated after this juncture and into MIS 4, suggesting a possible change in photic zone state such as may occur with a shift to iron or silicon limitation.

  16. Changes in the North Pacific Ocean biological pump from MIS 5e to MIS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, G.

    2009-12-01

    Diatom isotope records from the North Pacific Ocean provide an important means by which to further investigate past climatic and oceanographic changes in a region marked by depleted concentrations of foraminifera and other carbonates within the sedimentary record. Combined measurements of diatom oxygen (δ18Odiatom) and silicon (δ30Sidiatom) from ODP Site 882 indicate significant changes in both freshwater input to the region and the biological pump between MIS 5e and MIS 3. Unchanging values of δ18Odiatom and low/moderate values of δ30Sidiatom suggest relatively stable oceanographic conditions during MIS 5e until a marked, freshwater induced, decrease in δ18Odiatom at the MIS 5e/d boundary. Increases in opal concentrations and δ30Sidiatom to values of 1.2-1.3‰ between MIS 5d and MIS 5b indicate a subsequent increase in nutrient utilisation and export production. With these changes coinciding with a progressive long-term decrease in atmospheric pCO2, the North West Pacific Ocean may have assisted in lowering pCO2 and driving the climatic system into the glacial conditions that prevailed during the last glacial. Subsequent changes in δ30Sidiatom/nutrient utilisation from MIS 5a to MIS 3 covary with δ18Odiatom inferred changes in freshwater input to the region, indicating a long-term regulation of the regional biological pump via a strengthening/weakening of the halocline stratification.

  17. Southwest Pacific Ocean response to a warmer world: Insights from Marine Isotope Stage 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, G.; Dunbar, G. B.; Carter, L.; Scott, G.; Bostock, H.; Bowen, M.; Crundwell, M.; Hayward, B. W.; Howard, W.; Martínez, J. I.; Moy, A.; Neil, H.; Sabaa, A.; Sturm, A.

    2013-09-01

    Paleoceanographic archives derived from 17 marine sediment cores reconstruct the response of the Southwest Pacific Ocean to the peak interglacial, Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e (ca. 125 ka). Paleo-Sea Surface Temperature (SST) estimates were obtained from the Random Forest model—an ensemble decision tree tool—applied to core-top planktonic foraminiferal faunas calibrated to modern SSTs. The reconstructed geographic pattern of the SST anomaly (maximum SST between 120 and 132 ka minus mean modern SST) seems to indicate how MIS 5e conditions were generally warmer in the Southwest Pacific, especially in the western Tasman Sea where a strengthened East Australian Current (EAC) likely extended subtropical influence to ca. 45°S off Tasmania. In contrast, the eastern Tasman Sea may have had a modest cooling except around 45°S. The observed pattern resembles that developing under the present warming trend in the region. An increase in wind stress curl over the modern South Pacific is hypothesized to have spun-up the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, with concurrent increase in subtropical flow in the western boundary currents that include the EAC. However, warmer temperatures along the Subtropical Front and Campbell Plateau to the south suggest that the relative influence of the boundary inflows to eastern New Zealand may have differed in MIS 5e, and these currents may have followed different paths compared to today.

  18. The pH probe CypHer™5E is effectively quenched by FM dyes.

    PubMed

    Welzel, Oliver; Loy, Kristina; Tischbirek, Carsten H; Tabor, Alina; Gmeiner, Peter; Kornhuber, Johannes; Groemer, Teja W

    2013-05-01

    Concurrent imaging of spectrally distinct fluorescence probes has become an important method for live-cell microscopy experiments in many biological disciplines. The technique enables the identification of a multitude of causal relationships. However, interactions between fluorescent dyes beyond an obvious overlap of their fluorescent spectra are often neglected. Here we present the effects of the well-established fluorescent dyes FM®2-10 or FM®1-43 on the recently introduced pH-dependent probe CypHer™5E. Spectrophotometry as well as live-cell fluorescence microscopy revealed that both FM dyes are effective quenchers of CypHer™5E. Control experiments indicated that this effect is reversible and not due to bleaching. We conclude that, in general, parallel measurements of both dyes are possible, with low FM dye concentrations. Nevertheless, our results implicate that special care has to be taken in such dual colour experiments especially when analysing dynamic CypHer™5E signals in live-cell microscopy.

  19. MoS2 interactions with 1.5 eV atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. A.; Cross, J. B.; Pope, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    Exposures of MoS2 to 1.5-eV atomic oxygen in an anhydrous environment reveal that the degree of oxidation is essentially independent of crystallite orientation, and that the surface-adsorbed reaction products are MoO3 and MoO2. A mixture of oxides and sulfide exists over a depth of about 90 A, and this layer has a low diffusion rate for oxygen. It is concluded that a protective oxide layer forms on MoS2 on exposure to the atomic-oxygen-rich environment of LEO.

  20. Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Peggy, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Selected college and university programs established to assist adults in continuing their education, earning their degrees, and learning about whatever interests them are described, and an essay on lifelong learning is presented. In "Curriculum Development for Lifelong Learning," Charles S. Claxton describes how life cycle research, adult…

  1. Sea-level highstands during the Last interglacial (MIS 5e) in Mallorca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorscheid, T.; Stocchi, P.; Rovere, A.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Mann, T.; Fornos, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Last Intergalcial in the island of Mallorca (NW Mediterranean) have been the subject of research since the early 60's (Butzer & Cuerda 1960). Despite both the location and stratigraphy of MIS 5e outcrops in the island are well known, the elevation of relative sea level (RSL) markers around the island has never been measured with high-accuracy topographic techniques (e.g. DGPS) and the interpretation of the paleo RSL has never been carried out using standardized definition of the indicative meaning of each RSL marker. In this study we present the results of two field trips aimed at measuring last interglacial deposits in Mallorca with high-accuracy GPS and at establishing, surveying modern shorelines as analogs, indicative ranges and reference water level values for RSL markers across the island. Using an earth-ice coupled GIA-model we performed several model-runs for investigating isostatic adjustment since MIS 5e in the island. These results are compared with the elevation of our deposits in the field and discussed in terms of tectonics and eustasy.

  2. A Pleistocene (MIS 5e) mollusk assemblage from Ezeiza (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Sergio; Julia del Río, Claudia; Rojas, Alejandra

    2016-10-01

    A fossil assemblage collected around 3.5 m amsl from Ezeiza, Buenos Aires province, have AMS 14C ages of ca. 33,000 to ca. 40,000 yr BP, whereas in the literature is a report of a conventional 14C age of >43,000 yr BP. An OSL age from the overlying deposit corresponds to ca. 22,000 yr. The samples contain marine fossils: mollusks, balanids and corals (Astrangia). La Coronilla (Uruguay, attributed to MIS 5e) is the locality most related to Ezeiza faunistically, despite is not the nearest one. In consequence, the relationship should be addressed to a more similar age and environment than others. The fauna indicates a higher water temperature than today. In Ezeiza exclusively cold water taxa are absent, and we found seven warm taxa with their southern distribution limit displaced northwards today, plus other six at their southern distribution limit. Around 60% of all the species and more than 70% of the individuals are of warm-temperate waters. In sum, although prima facie the numerical ages would locate the deposit in MIS3, faunistic, temperature, and height evidences show that the Ezeiza mollusk assemblage belong to MIS5e. A stronger than presently Brazil warm current, reaching Southern latitudes, may explain the changes in geographical ranges.

  3. Differential Effects of Dopamine Receptor D1-Type and D2-Type Antagonists and Phase of the Estrous Cycle on Social Learning of Food Preferences, Feeding, and Social Interactions in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choleris, Elena; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Gray, Durene G; Diaz-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Welsman, Robert G

    2011-01-01

    The neurobiological bases of social learning, by which an animal can ‘exploit the expertise of others' and avoid the disadvantages of individual learning, are only partially understood. We examined the involvement of the dopaminergic system in social learning by administering a dopamine D1-type receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg), or a D2-type receptor antagonist, raclopride (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mg/kg), to adult female mice prior to socially learning a food preference. We found that while SCH23390 dose-dependently inhibited social learning without affecting feeding behavior or the ability of mice to discriminate between differently flavored diets, raclopride had the opposite effects, inhibiting feeding but leaving social learning unaffected. We showed that food odor, alone or in a social context, was insufficient to induce a food preference, proving the specifically social nature of this paradigm. The estrous cycle also affected social learning, with mice in proestrus expressing the socially acquired food preference longer than estrous and diestrous mice. This suggests gonadal hormone involvement, which is consistent with known estrogenic regulation of female social behavior and estrogen receptor involvement in social learning. Furthermore, a detailed ethological analysis of the social interactions during which social learning occurs showed raclopride- and estrous phase-induced changes in agonistic behavior, which were not directly related to effects on social learning. Overall, these results suggest a differential involvement of the D1-type and D2-type receptors in the regulation of social learning, feeding, and agonistic behaviors that are likely mediated by different underlying states. PMID:21525863

  4. Characterization of a 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Linton, R. C.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Whitaker, A. F.; Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental effort to characterize an existing 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is described. This characterization effort includes atomic oxygen flux and flux distribution measurements using a catalytic probe, energy determination using a commercially designed quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and the exposure of oxygen-sensitive materials in this beam facility. Also, comparisons were drawn between the reaction efficiencies of materials exposed in plasma ashers, and the reaction efficiencies previously estimated from space flight experiments. The results of this study show that the beam facility is capable of producing a directional beam of neutral atomic oxygen atoms with the needed flux and energy to simulate low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions for real time accelerated testing. The flux distribution in this facility is uniform to +/- 6 percent of the peak flux over a beam diameter of 6 cm.

  5. Multimedia Learning Design Pedagogy: A Hybrid Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoi, Mun Fie; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides insights on a hybrid learning model for multimedia learning design conceptualized from the Piagetian science learning cycle model and the Kolb's experiential learning model. This model represents learning as a cognitive process in a cycle of four phases, namely, Translating, Sculpting, Operationalizing, and Integrating and is…

  6. Analysis of Attitude and Achievement Using the 5E Instructional Model in an Interactive Television Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Gamaliel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine attitude and achievement among fifth grade students participating in inquiry and lecture-based forms of instruction through interactive television. Participants (N = 260) were drawn from registered users of NASA's Digital Learning Network[TM]. The first three levels of Bloom's Revised…

  7. Le Schwyzertutsch 5e langue nationale? (Is Swiss German a Fifth National Language?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redard, Francoise, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These papers on the subject of the Swiss German language examine the status and attitudes of the Swiss German speaker, the reaction of other linguistic communities to Swiss German, and the necessity and/or possibility of learning Swiss German. The following articles are included: (1) "Le 'Schwyzertutsch': ecran ou lien? (Is Swiss German a Screen…

  8. Intranuclear location of the adenovirus type 5 E1B 55-kilodalton protein.

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, J K; Young, M A; Flint, S J

    1990-01-01

    The intracellular location of the adenovirus type 5 E1B 55-kilodalton (kDa) protein, particularly the question of whether it is associated with nuclear pore complexes, was examined. Fractionation of adenovirus type 5-infected HeLa cell nuclei by an established procedure (N. Dwyer and G. Blobel, J. Cell. Biol. 70:581-591, 1976) yielded one population of E1B 55-kDa protein molecules released by digestion of nuclei with RNase A and a second population recovered in the pore complex-lamina fraction. Free and E1B 55-kDa protein-bound forms of the E4 34-kDa protein (P. Sarnow, C. A. Sullivan, and A. J. Levine, Virology 120:387-394, 1982) were largely recovered in the pore complex-lamina fraction. Nevertheless, the association of E1B 55-kDa protein molecules with this nuclear envelope fraction did not depend on interaction of the E1B 55-kDa protein with the E4 34-kDa protein. Comparison of the immunofluorescence patterns observed with antibodies recognizing the E1B 55-kDa protein or cellular pore complex proteins and of the behavior of these viral and cellular proteins during in situ fractionation suggests that the E1B 55-kDa protein does not become intimately or stably associated with pore complexes in adenovirus-infected cells. Images PMID:2143545

  9. A Psychometric Approach to the Development of a 5E Lesson Plan Scoring Instrument for Inquiry-Based Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Dantzler, John; Day, Jeanelle; Webb, Brenda

    2013-04-01

    This research centers on the psychometric examination of the structure of an instrument, known as the 5E Lesson Plan (5E ILPv2) rubric for inquiry-based teaching. The instrument is intended to measure an individual's skill in developing written 5E lesson plans for inquiry teaching. In stage one of the instrument's development, an exploratory factor analysis on a fifteen-item 5E ILP instrument revealed only three factor loadings instead of the expected five factors, which led to its subsequent revision. Modifications in the original instrument led to a revised 5E ILPv2 instrument comprised of twenty-one items. This instrument, like its precursor, has a scoring scale that ranges from zero to four points per item. Content validity of the 5E ILPv2 was determined through the expertise of a panel of science educators. Over the course of five semesters, three elementary science methods instructors in three different universities collected post lesson plan data from 224 pre-service teachers enrolled in their courses. Each instructor scored their students' post 5E inquiry lesson plans using the 5E ILPv2 instrument recording a score for each item on the instrument. A factor analysis with maximum likelihood extraction and promax oblique rotation provided evidence of construct validity for five factors and explained 85.5 % of the variability in the total instrument. All items loaded with their theoretical factors exhibiting high ordinal alpha reliability estimates of .94, .99, .96, .97, and .95 for the engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate subscales respectively. The total instrument reliability estimate was 0.98 indicating strong evidence of total scale reliability.

  10. Connections: Life Cycle Kinesthetic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Office, Grand Junction, CO.

    An understanding of the environment and peoples' role in its preservation and destruction must be acquired in order to circumvent the current threat of environmental deterioration. This document provides lessons developed to help students and others reconnect with the natural systems which sustain life. The following activities are provided for…

  11. The Science of Cycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Zoe; Daniels, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Children are engaged by finding out about science in the real world (Harlen, 2010). Many children will be cyclists or will have seen or heard about the success of British cyclists in the Olympics and the Tour de France. This makes cycling a good hook to draw children into learning science. It is also a good cross-curricular topic, with strong…

  12. New evidence for two highstands of the sea during the last interglacial, oxygen isotope substage 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, C. E.; Glenn, C. R.; Jones, A. T.; Burnett, W. C.; Schwarcz, H. P.

    1993-12-01

    Sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochronologic analyses of a previously undescribed carbonate section on Oahu, Hawaii, provide new evidence for two distinct sea-level highstands on Oahu during the last interglacial period (oxygen isotope substage 5e). Whereas electron-spin-resonance and uranium-series ages (122 ±8 ka to 152 ±25 ka, and 115 ±10 ka to 160 ±15 ka, respectively) of in situ corals place the age of the deposits within substage 5e, it is the unique sequence of strata found in these exposures that reveals the two transgressions. A highstand lagoonal deposit of coral-algal bafflestone is overlain by large seaward-dipping slabs of beach-rock. The beachrock, deposited during a mid-5e regression, is in turn overlain by a second highstand lagoonal deposit. This sequence was deposited in a broad, shallow, back-reef embayment that was very sensitive to fluctuations in sea level. Elsewhere, along much of the shoreline of Oahu, an in situ coral-algal framestone (Waimanalo Formation), representing the initial 5e highstand, is erosionally truncated on its upper surface. This erosional unconformity represents the mid-5e lowstand and separates the framestone from overlying, seaward-dipping, planar-bedded grainstone and rudstone (Leahi Formation) that accumulated during the second 5e highstand.

  13. Our World: The Rock Cycle

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out how rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts have helped NASA learn more about the rock cycle. Compare igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks found on Earth to three types of ro...

  14. A White Light Megaflare on the dM4.5e Star YZ CMi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Wisniewski, John P.; Hilton, Eric J.

    2010-05-01

    On UT 2009 January 16, we observed a white light megaflare on the dM4.5e star YZ CMi as part of a long-term spectroscopic flare-monitoring campaign to constrain the spectral shape of optical flare continuum emission. Simultaneous U-band photometric and 3350-9260 Å spectroscopic observations were obtained during 1.3 hr of the flare decay. The event persisted for more than 7 hr and at flare peak, the U-band flux was almost 6 mag brighter than in the quiescent state. The properties of this flare mark it as one of the most energetic and longest-lasting white light flares ever to be observed on an isolated low-mass star. We present the U-band flare energetics and a flare continuum analysis. For the first time, we show convincingly with spectra that the shape of the blue continuum from 3350 Å to 4800 Å can be represented as a sum of two components: a Balmer continuum as predicted by the Allred et al. radiative hydrodynamic flare models and a T~ 10,000 K blackbody emission component as suggested by many previous studies of the broadband colors and spectral distributions of flares. The areal coverage of the Balmer continuum and blackbody emission regions vary during the flare decay, with the Balmer continuum emitting region always being significantly (~3-16 times) larger. These data will provide critical constraints for understanding the physics underlying the mysterious blue continuum radiation in stellar flares. Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m Telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  15. Menstrual Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy This information in Spanish ( en español ) The menstrual cycle Day 1 starts with the first day of ... drop around Day 25 . This signals the next menstrual cycle to begin. The egg will break apart and ...

  16. Biogeochemical Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bebout, Brad; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This lecture will introduce the concept of biogeochemical cycling. The roles of microbes in the cycling of nutrients, production and consumption of trace gases, and mineralization will be briefly introduced.

  17. Effects of Adenovirus Type 5 E1A Isoforms on Viral Replication in Arrested Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Radko, Sandi; Jung, Richard; Olanubi, Oladunni; Pelka, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human adenovirus has evolved to infect and replicate in terminally differentiated human epithelial cells, predominantly those within the airway, the gut, or the eye. To overcome the block to viral DNA replication present in these cells, the virus expresses the Early 1A proteins (E1A). These immediate early proteins drive cells into S-phase and induce expression of all other viral early genes. During infection, several E1A isoforms are expressed with proteins of 289, 243, 217, 171, and 55 residues being present for human adenovirus type 5. Here we examine the contribution that the two largest E1A isoforms make to the viral life cycle in growth-arrested normal human fibroblasts. Viruses that express E1A289R were found to replicate better than those that do not express this isoform. Importantly, induction of several viral genes was delayed in a virus expressing E1A243R, with several viral structural proteins undetectable by western blot. We also highlight the changes in E1A isoforms detected during the course of viral infection. Furthermore, we show that viral DNA replication occurs more efficiently, leading to higher number of viral genomes in cells infected with viruses that express E1A289R. Finally, induction of S-phase specific genes differs between viruses expressing different E1A isoforms, with those having E1A289R leading to, generally, earlier activation of these genes. Overall, we provide an overview of adenovirus replication using modern molecular biology approaches and further insights into the contribution that E1A isoforms make to the life cycle of human adenovirus in arrested human fibroblasts. PMID:26448631

  18. High-Resolution Chandra Spectroscopy of γ Cassiopeiae (B0.5e)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Myron A.; Cohen, David H.; Gu, Ming Feng; Robinson, Richard D.; Evans, Nancy Remage; Schran, Prudence G.

    2004-01-01

    γ Cas is the prototypical classical B0.5e star and is now known to be the primary in a wide binary system. It has long been famous for its unique hard X-ray characteristics, among which are variations that correlate with changes in a number of optical light and UV line and continuum properties. These peculiarities have led to a picture in which processes on or near the Be star produce the observed X-ray emission. In this paper we report on a 53 ks Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer observation of this target. An inspection of our spectrum shows that it is quite atypical for a massive star. The emission lines appear weak because of a strong short-wavelength continuum that arises from a hot plasma with kT=11-12 keV. The spectrum exhibits many lines, the strongest of which are Lyα features of H-like species from Fe through the even-Z intermediate elements (S, Si, Mg, and Ne), down to O and N. Line ratios of the ``rif triplet'' for a variety of He-like ions and of Fe XVII are consistent with the dominance of collisional atomic processes. However, the presence of Fe and Si fluorescence K features indicates that photoionization also occurs in nearby cold gas. The line profiles indicate a mean velocity at rest with an rms line broadening of 500 km s-1 and little or no asymmetry. An empirical global-fitting analysis of the line and continuum spectrum suggests that there are actually three or four plasma emission components. The first is the dominant hot (12 keV) component, of which some fraction (10%-30%) is heavily absorbed, while the remainder is affected by a much lower column density of only 3×1021 cm-2. The hot component has a Fe abundance of only 0.22+/-0.05 solar. The other two or three major emission components are ``warm'' and are responsible for most other emission lines. These components are dominated by plasma having temperatures near 0.1, 0.4, and 3 keV. Altogether, the warm components have an emission measure of about 14% of the hot

  19. Making Learning Meaningful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, A. Louis; Kelly, Paul V.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses two theories of cognitive development, Ausubel's theory of verbal learning and Piaget's development theory. Illustrates that both concept mapping and the learning cycle are rooted in these two theories. (DDR)

  20. Questions, Curiosity and the Inquiry Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Leo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…

  1. Adults Learning. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jenny

    Aimed at anyone who wants to know how to teach adults, this guide aims to build confidence, offer practical advice, and give the real-life flavor of helping fellow adults develop. Chapter 1 addresses adult learners: mindsets, motivation, and learning (learning cycle, learning styles, relevance, reinforcement and practice, experience, learning to…

  2. Analysis of attitude and achievement using the 5E instructional model in an interactive television environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Gamaliel R.

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine attitude and achievement among fifth grade students participating in inquiry and lecture-based forms of instruction through interactive television. Participants (N = 260) were drawn from registered users of NASA's Digital Learning Network(TM). The first three levels of Bloom's Revised Taxonomy were used to measure levels of achievement while the Science Attitude Inventory II was used to measure science attitudes. Results indicated a significant interaction between inquiry and topic area, as well as achievement for remember, understand, and apply levels of Bloom's Revised Taxonomy. Differences between mean scores were in favor of the treatment group on both topic and achievement levels. Findings echo research that encourages the use of inquiry-based instruction to improve achievement. This study also serves as a reference for supplemental content providers searching for an effective instructional strategy when delivering instruction through interactive television. Recommendations for future research include the examination of: development time between inquiry-based and lecture-based strategies, a longitudinal study of attitude and achievement from elementary through middle school, differences between interactive television sessions and asynchronous sessions, and types of inquiry-based instruction related to student achievement and retention through interactive television.

  3. FES cycling.

    PubMed

    Newham, D J; Donaldson, N de N

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a partial or complete disruption of motor, sensory, and autonomic nerve pathways below the level of the lesion. In paraplegic patients, functional electrical stimulation (FES) was originally widely considered as a means to restore walking function but this was proved technically very difficult because of the numerous degrees of freedom involved in walking. FES cycling was developed for people with SCI and has the advantages that cycling can be maintained for reasonably long periods in trained muscles and the risk of falls is low. In the article, we review research findings relevant to the successful application of FES cycling including the effects on muscle size, strength and function, and the cardiovascular and bone changes. We also describe important practical considerations in FES cycling regarding the application of surface electrodes, training and setting up the stimulator limitations, implanted stimulators and FES cycling including FES cycling in groups and other FES exercises such as FES rowing.

  4. Using Different Conceptual Change Methods Embedded within 5E Model: A Sample Teaching of Endothermic-Exothermic Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Fatma; Calik, Muammer

    2008-01-01

    Since Widodo, Duit and Muller (2002) addressed that there is a gap between teacher's theoretical knowledge and their practical classroom constructivist behavior, we presented a sample teaching activity about Endothermic-Exothermic Reactions for teacher usage. Therein, the aim of this study is to design a 5E model to include students' alternative…

  5. Combining Different Conceptual Change Methods within 5E Model: A Sample Teaching Design of "Cell" Concept and its Organelles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urey, Mustafa; Calik, Muammer

    2008-01-01

    Since students' misconceptions are not completely remedied by means of only one conceptual change method, the authors assume that using different conceptual methods embedded within the 5E model will not only be more effective in enhancing students' conceptual understanding, but also may eliminate all students' misconceptions. The aim of this study…

  6. Effect of the 5E Model on Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Diffusion and Osmosis: A Mixed Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artun, Huseyin; Costu, Bayram

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore a group of prospective primary teachers' conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis as they implemented a 5E constructivist model and related materials in a science methods course. Fifty prospective primary teachers' ideas were elicited using a pre- and post-test and delayed post-test survey consisting…

  7. Effect of 5E Instructional Model in Student Success in Primary School 6th Year Circulatory System Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman; Dikmenli, Musa; Saritas, Ozge

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to research the effect of the 5E instructional model on primary (sixth grade) student success during the circulatory system unit. This study was conducted with 38 students in two different classes by the same researcher in 2006-2007. One of the classes was assigned as the control group and the other as the experimental…

  8. Improvements from a flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jamie L; Kummer, Tyler A; d M Godoy, Patricia D

    2015-03-01

    The "flipped classroom" is a learning model in which content attainment is shifted forward to outside of class, then followed by instructor-facilitated concept application activities in class. Current studies on the flipped model are limited. Our goal was to provide quantitative and controlled data about the effectiveness of this model. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared an active nonflipped classroom with an active flipped classroom, both using the 5-E learning cycle, in an effort to vary only the role of the instructor and control for as many of the other potentially influential variables as possible. Results showed that both low-level and deep conceptual learning were equivalent between the conditions. Attitudinal data revealed equal student satisfaction with the course. Interestingly, both treatments ranked their contact time with the instructor as more influential to their learning than what they did at home. We conclude that the flipped classroom does not result in higher learning gains or better attitudes compared with the nonflipped classroom when both utilize an active-learning, constructivist approach and propose that learning gains in either condition are most likely a result of the active-learning style of instruction rather than the order in which the instructor participated in the learning process.

  9. Improvements from a flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jamie L; Kummer, Tyler A; d M Godoy, Patricia D

    2015-03-01

    The "flipped classroom" is a learning model in which content attainment is shifted forward to outside of class, then followed by instructor-facilitated concept application activities in class. Current studies on the flipped model are limited. Our goal was to provide quantitative and controlled data about the effectiveness of this model. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared an active nonflipped classroom with an active flipped classroom, both using the 5-E learning cycle, in an effort to vary only the role of the instructor and control for as many of the other potentially influential variables as possible. Results showed that both low-level and deep conceptual learning were equivalent between the conditions. Attitudinal data revealed equal student satisfaction with the course. Interestingly, both treatments ranked their contact time with the instructor as more influential to their learning than what they did at home. We conclude that the flipped classroom does not result in higher learning gains or better attitudes compared with the nonflipped classroom when both utilize an active-learning, constructivist approach and propose that learning gains in either condition are most likely a result of the active-learning style of instruction rather than the order in which the instructor participated in the learning process. PMID:25699543

  10. Improvements from a Flipped Classroom May Simply Be the Fruits of Active Learning

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie L.; Kummer, Tyler A.; Godoy, Patricia D. d. M.

    2015-01-01

    The “flipped classroom” is a learning model in which content attainment is shifted forward to outside of class, then followed by instructor-facilitated concept application activities in class. Current studies on the flipped model are limited. Our goal was to provide quantitative and controlled data about the effectiveness of this model. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared an active nonflipped classroom with an active flipped classroom, both using the 5-E learning cycle, in an effort to vary only the role of the instructor and control for as many of the other potentially influential variables as possible. Results showed that both low-level and deep conceptual learning were equivalent between the conditions. Attitudinal data revealed equal student satisfaction with the course. Interestingly, both treatments ranked their contact time with the instructor as more influential to their learning than what they did at home. We conclude that the flipped classroom does not result in higher learning gains or better attitudes compared with the nonflipped classroom when both utilize an active-learning, constructivist approach and propose that learning gains in either condition are most likely a result of the active-learning style of instruction rather than the order in which the instructor participated in the learning process. PMID:25699543

  11. Does It Have a Life Cycle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2010-01-01

    If life continues from generation to generation, then all plants and animals must go through a life cycle, even though it may be different from organism to organism. Is this what students have "learned," or do they have their own private conceptions about life cycles? The formative assessment probe "Does It Have a Life Cycle?" reveals some…

  12. Fluoresence Detection of Cosmic Ray Air Showers Between 10 16 . 5 eV and 10 18 . 5 eV with the Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zundel, Zachary; Smith, Jeremy; Thomas, Stan; Abuzayyad, Tareq; Ivanov, Dmitri; Matthews, John; Jui, Charles; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Telescope Array Experiment has been observing cosmic ray air showers at energies above 1018 eV since 2008. TA operates three Fluorescence Detector (FD) sites, with telescopes that observe 3-31 deg in elevation. The FD sites are located at the periphery of a surface array of 507 scintillation counters covering 700 km2 , with 1.2 km spacing. The TA Collaboration has completed building a low-energy extension at its Middle drum FD site. Ten new telescopes currently observe between 33 and 59 degrees in elevation. A graded ground array of between 400 and 600 m will be placed in front of the TALE FD. With these upgrades, the physics threshold of TA will be lowered to 10 16 . 5 eV. The TA Low Energy Extension(TALE) will explore the energy regime corresponding to that of the LHC in center-of-mass frame. This is also the range where the transition from galactic to extra- galactic cosmic ray flux is suspected to occur. We will give a brief overview of the physics, and report on the progress of TALE toward measuring the cosmic ray spectrum between 10 16 . 5 eV and 10 18 . 5 eV.

  13. Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.

    2012-03-20

    1. The Cycle Analysis code is an Microsoft Excel code that performs many different types of thermodynamic cycle analysis for power producing systems. The code will calculate the temperature and pressure and all other thermodynamic properties at the inlet and outlet of each component. The code also calculates the power that is produced, the efficiency, and the heat transported in the heater, gas chiller and recuperators. The code provides a schematic of the loop and provides the temperature and pressure at each location in the loop. The code also provides a T-S (temperature-entropy) diagram of the loop and often it provides an pressure enthalpy plot as well. 2. This version of the code concentrates on supercritical CO2 power cycles, but by simply changing the name of the working fluid many other types of fluids can be analyzed. The Cycle Analysis code provided here contains 18 different types of power cycles. Each cycle is contained in one worksheet or tab that the user can select. The user can change the yellow highlighted regions to perform different thermodynamic cycle analysis.

  14. Cycle Analysis

    2012-03-20

    1. The Cycle Analysis code is an Microsoft Excel code that performs many different types of thermodynamic cycle analysis for power producing systems. The code will calculate the temperature and pressure and all other thermodynamic properties at the inlet and outlet of each component. The code also calculates the power that is produced, the efficiency, and the heat transported in the heater, gas chiller and recuperators. The code provides a schematic of the loop andmore » provides the temperature and pressure at each location in the loop. The code also provides a T-S (temperature-entropy) diagram of the loop and often it provides an pressure enthalpy plot as well. 2. This version of the code concentrates on supercritical CO2 power cycles, but by simply changing the name of the working fluid many other types of fluids can be analyzed. The Cycle Analysis code provided here contains 18 different types of power cycles. Each cycle is contained in one worksheet or tab that the user can select. The user can change the yellow highlighted regions to perform different thermodynamic cycle analysis.« less

  15. Recombination reactions of 5-eV O(3P) atoms on a MgF2 surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Chutjian, A.; Murad, E.

    1990-01-01

    A source of hyperthermal, ground-state, impurity-free, atomic oxygen of an energy variable in the range 2-100 eV has been developed. Experimental results are presented of emission spectra in the wavelength range 250-850 nm produced by collisions of 5-eV O(3P) atoms with adsorbed NO and CO molecules on a MgF2 surface.

  16. The Life Cycles of Stars: An Information & Activity Booklet Grades K-8, 1997-1998. Star-Child--A Learning Center for Young Astronomers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truelove, Elizabeth; Dejoie, Joyce

    This booklet contains information and activities on the life cycle of stars. Materials can be adapted for kindergarten through grade 8 classrooms. Background information on massive stars and medium stars and activities with subjects such as star life, constellation shapes, nebula terminology, astronomical distances, and pulsars is included. The 12…

  17. Moving and Learning: Expanding Style and Increasing Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Kay; DeCato, Lisa; Kolb, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces ways in which movement can enhance one's understanding of how to learn using Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) concepts of the Learning Cycle, Learning Styles, and Learning Flexibility. The theoretical correspondence between the dialectic dimensions of the Learning Cycle and the dimensions of the Laban Movement Analysis…

  18. Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 49 NIST Vapor Compression Cycle Design Program (CYCLE_D) (PC database for purchase)   The CYCLE_D database package simulates the vapor compression refrigeration cycles. It is fully compatible with REFPROP 9.0 and covers the 62 single-compound refrigerants . Fluids can be used in mixtures comprising up to five components.

  19. A review of the MIS 5e highstand deposits from Santa Maria Island (Azores, NE Atlantic): palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Sérgio P.; Melo, Carlos; Silva, Luís; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Quartau, Rui; Hipólito, Ana; Cordeiro, Ricardo; Rebelo, Ana Cristina; Madeira, Patrícia; Rovere, Alessio; Hearty, Paul J.; Henriques, Diamantino; Silva, Carlos Marques da; Martins, António M. de Frias; Zazo, Caridad

    2015-04-01

    The privileged location of Santa Maria Island (Azores archipelago) in the middle of the North Atlantic makes the fossiliferous outcrops on this island of utmost importance to gain a better understanding of how coeval living communities relate to the broader evolutionary and biogeographic history of the Atlantic basin during the late Neogene and the Quaternary. Here we focus on this island's MIS 5e fossil record, offering a comprehensive review on the palaeobiodiversity, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the biota living in the mid North Atlantic during this interglacial. Several studies in oceanic islands stress the huge impact of sea level changes on insular communities. Pleistocene sea-level changes occur during the short-time events known as "Terminations" (associated to glacial/interglacial shifts) as well as with the onset of glaciations (associated to interglacial/glacial shifts). Both are responsible for extinctions and local disappearance of species, bottleneck effects and formation of new species, resulting in community structure changes. This work increases the number of fossil marine taxa reported from the Last Interglacial deposits of Santa Maria to 143 species. All the 19 new records are molluscs (13 gastropods and 6 bivalves), thus increasing the number of fossil molluscs to 136 species. Although thermophilic members of the "Senegalese" tropical fauna were found in these deposits, many of the most emblematic species (e.g., Persististrombus latus (=Strombus bubonius), Cymbula safiana, Harpa doris, Cardita senegalensis, Barbatia plicata, Ctena eburnea or Hyotissa hyotis) are absent, suggesting that they did not reach the Azores. Our results indicate that the main differences between the species composition of the MIS 5e and the present-day shallow-water Azorean communities are probably due to the dropping of sea surface temperature associated with the onset of the last glaciation, which had both direct and indirect effects on species ecology. A

  20. π-π stacking motifs in dialkylbis{5-[(E)-2-aryldiazen-1-yl]-2-hydroxybenzoato}tin(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Linden, Anthony; Basu Baul, Tushar S

    2016-04-01

    The diorganotin(IV) complexes of 5-[(E)-2-aryldiazen-1-yl]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are of interest because of their structural diversity in the crystalline state and their interesting biological activity. The structures of dimethylbis{2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-2-(4-methylphenyl)diazen-1-yl]benzoato}tin(IV), [Sn(CH3)2(C14H11N2O3)2], and di-n-butylbis{2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-2-(4-methylphenyl)diazen-1-yl]benzoato}tin(IV) benzene hemisolvate, [Sn(C4H9)2(C14H11N2O3)2]·0.5C6H6, exhibit the usual skew-trapezoidal bipyramidal coordination geometry observed for related complexes of this class. Each structure has two independent molecules of the Sn(IV) complex in the asymmetric unit. In the dimethyltin structure, intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds and a very weak Sn...O interaction link the independent molecules into dimers. The planar carboxylate ligands lend themselves to π-π stacking interactions and the diversity of supramolecular structural motifs formed by these interactions has been examined in detail for these two structures and four closely related analogues. While there are some recurring basic motifs amongst the observed stacking arrangements, such as dimers and step-like chains, variations through longitudinal slipping and inversion of the direction of the overlay add complexity. The π-π stacking motifs in the two title complexes are combinations of some of those observed in the other structures and are the most complex of the structures examined.

  1. Contrasted ocean conditions in the northwest North Atlantic during marine isotope stages (MIS) 11, 5e and 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vernal, Anne; Fréchette, Bianca; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2014-05-01

    Cores raised during the IODP Expedition 303 in the north Atlantic were analysed to document paleoceanographical conditions during recent interglacials (cf. Hillaire-Marcel et al., Marine Geol. 2011). Two key sites illustrate conditions in the inner vs outer Labrador Sea, respectively at the southwest Greenland margin (Eirik Ridge Site 1305; 57° N-48° W) and the southern Labrador rise (Orphan Knoll Site 1302/1303; 50° N-45° W). Special attention was paid to marine isotope stages (MIS) 11 (ca. 424-324 ka), 5e (ca. 128-117 ka) and the Holocene (last 11,000 years). The microfossil content of sediments (dinocyst notably) and the isotopic composition of foraminifers indicate significant differences in the conditions that prevailed during these 3 interglacial stages. Optimal conditions with regard to sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) prevailed during MIS 5e (anomalies of about + 5° C) at both sites. However, occurrence of ice rafted debris (IRD) and variations in salinity suggest meltwater discharge along the Greenland and Labrador margins during the last interglacial. On the contrary, during MIS 11, SSTs were similar to modern off Greenland or slightly lower at Orphan Knoll, but salinity was higher at both sites and IRD close to nil, whereas both sites are presently under iceberg routes. Stable oxygen isotope values in the mesopelagic Neogloboquadrina pachyderma left coiled (Npl), are generally not unlike values observed during MIS 9 or 7, i.e., slightly higher than those which characterized MIS 5e and the present interglacial, particularly in the outer Labrador Sea. This points to either a higher salinity and or a lower temperature in the subsurface water layer occupied by Npl. Low IRD, high salinity together with relatively high 18O values in foraminifers suggest limited influence of meltwater from ice cap and sea ice during MIS 11, especially the first part of the interglacial.

  2. Highly ionized stellar winds in Be stars. II - Winds in B6-B9.5e stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Sonneborn, George; Bjorkman, K. S.; Snow, T. P.; Shore, Steven N.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a UV survey of stellar winds and circumstellar shells in 40 B6-B9.5e stars covering luminosity classes V-III are presented. A graph is presented of the region from 1520-1560 A, which includes both the Si II UV multiplet 2 transitions and the C IV resonance transition for selected Be stars in the sample. The detection of shortward-shifted discrete component absorption features in nine of the program stars suggests that the material is produced in a stellar wind, which attains velocities of at least a few hundred km/s.

  3. Spin-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Northrop F-5E Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scher, Stanley H.; White, William L.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley spin tunnel to determine the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/20-scale model of the Northrop F-5E airplane. The investigation included erect and inverted spins, a range of center-of- gravity locations and moments of inertia, symmetric and asymmetric store loadings, and a determination of the parachute size required for emergency spin recovery. The effects of increased elevator trailing-edge-up deflections, of leading-edge and trailing-edge flap deflections, and of simulating the geometry of large external stores were also determined.

  4. Surface interaction mechanisms of 5eV atomic oxygen: Data analysis from the UAH experiment on STS-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) experiment which flew on the STS-8 mission had several objectives which were mostly of a speculative nature since so little was known of the processes of interest. The experiment provided original, if limited, data on: (1) oxidation of metal surfaces, (2) reaction rates of atomic oxygen with carbon and other surfaces and the dependence of these rates on temperature, and (3) the angular distribution of 5eV atoms scattered off a solid surface. Provided is a review of the results, with reference given to fuller published accounts where these are available.

  5. A global perspective on the timing and nature of sub-orbital sea level oscillations during MIS 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, A.; Webster, J.

    2015-12-01

    Although multiple, sub-orbital peaks in sea level during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e have a long history in the literature, there is still debate regarding the number, timing, and magnitude of sea-level peaks. A wide range of competing scenarios have been proposed based on observations from individual field sites including: (i) a stable sea level, (ii) a stable sea level punctuated by an ephemeral drop in sea level (2 peaks), (iii) a stable sea level followed by a rapid rise (2 peaks), or (iv) several (3-4) peaks in sea level that define an oscillating trend during the highstand. While some field sites appear to have conflicting evidence regarding the timing and nature of relative sea-level changes that cannot be reconciled through glacial isostatic processes alone, clearly there must be one global mean sea level (GMSL) reconstruction that gave rise to the evidence that is presently observed in the geologic record. We take a holistic approach to understanding the evolution of sea level during the MIS 5e highstand by integrating sedimentary, floral, faunal, and geochemical evidence from coral reef sites around the globe. Our aim is to develop a scenario for sea-level change during the MIS 5e highstand that satisfies the global observational dataset. Several conclusions emerge from this analysis: (1) there are many sites that preserve clear sedimentary evidence for two distinct sub-orbital peaks in sea level, and fewer that have possible evidence for more than two peaks; (2) there is conflicting evidence as to whether these two peaks are separated by an ephemeral sea-level fall, or whether they are defined by a stable sea level followed by a rapid rise; (3) multiple sites demonstrate significantly different geochemical signatures associated with distinct generations of reef growth as defined by their U-series geochemistry, indicating different post-depositional histories that may be related to differences in post-depositional marine submergence and exposure

  6. Neurosteroid effects at α4βδ GABAA receptors alter spatial learning and synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampus across the estrous cycle of the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Sabaliauskas, Nicole; Shen, Hui; Molla, Jonela; Gong, Qi Hua; Kuver, Aarti; Aoki, Chiye; Smith, Sheryl S.

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations in circulating levels of ovarian hormones have been shown to regulate cognition (Sherwin and Grigorova, 2011. Fertil. Steril. 96, 399–403; Shumaker et al., 2004. JAMA. 291, 2947–2958), but increases in estradiol on the day of proestrus yield diverse outcomes: In vivo induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), a model of learning, is reduced in the morning, but optimal in the afternoon (Warren et al., 1995. Brain Res. 703, 26–30). The mechanism underlying this discrepancy is not known. Here, we show that impairments in both CA1 hippocampal LTP and spatial learning observed on the morning of proestrus are due to increased dendritic expression of α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs) on CA1 pyramidal cells, as assessed by electron microscopic (EM) techniques, compared with estrus and diestrus. LTP induction and spatial learning were robust, however, when assessed on the morning of proestrus in α4−/− mice, implicating these receptors in mediating impaired plasticity. Although α4βδ expression remained elevated on the afternoon of proestrus, increases in 3α-OH-THP (3α-OH-5α-pregnan-20-one) decreased inhibition by reducing outward current through α4βδ GABARs (Shen et al., 2007. Nat. Neurosci. 10, 469–477), in contrast to the usual effect of this steroid to enhance inhibition. Proestrous levels of 3α-OH-THP reversed the deficits in LTP and spatial learning, an effect prevented by the inactive metabolite 3β-OH-THP (10 mg/kg, i.p.), which antagonizes actions of 3α-OH-THP. In contrast, administration of 3α-OH-THP (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on the morning of proestrus improved spatial learning scores 150–300%. These findings suggest that cyclic fluctuations in ovarian steroids can induce changes in cognition via α4βδ GABARs that are dependent upon 3α-OH-THP. PMID:25542386

  7. Menu Cycles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Alfred; Almony, John

    The curriculum guide for commercial foods instruction is designed to aid the teacher in communicating the importance of menu cycles in commercial food production. It also provides information about the necessary steps in getting food from the raw form to the finished product, and then to the consumer. In addition to providing information on how to…

  8. PDE6δ-mediated sorting of INPP5E into the cilium is determined by cargo-carrier affinity.

    PubMed

    Fansa, Eyad Kalawy; Kösling, Stefanie Kristine; Zent, Eldar; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Ismail, Shehab

    2016-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase 6 delta subunit (PDE6δ) shuttles several farnesylated cargos between membranes. The cargo sorting mechanism between cilia and other compartments is not understood. Here we show using the inositol polyphosphate 5'-phosphatase E (INPP5E) and the GTP-binding protein (Rheb) that cargo sorting depends on the affinity towards PDE6δ and the specificity of cargo release. High-affinity cargo is exclusively released by the ciliary transport regulator Arl3, while low-affinity cargo is released by Arl3 and its non-ciliary homologue Arl2. Structures of PDE6δ/cargo complexes reveal the molecular basis of the sorting signal which depends on the residues at the -1 and -3 positions relative to farnesylated cysteine. Structure-guided mutation allows the generation of a low-affinity INPP5E mutant which loses exclusive ciliary localization. We postulate that the affinity to PDE6δ and the release by Arl2/3 in addition to a retention signal are the determinants for cargo sorting and enrichment at its destination. PMID:27063844

  9. Effect of the 5E Model on Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Diffusion and Osmosis: A Mixed Method Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artun, Hüseyin; Coştu, Bayram

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore a group of prospective primary teachers' conceptual understanding of diffusion and osmosis as they implemented a 5E constructivist model and related materials in a science methods course. Fifty prospective primary teachers' ideas were elicited using a pre- and post-test and delayed post-test survey consisting of ten two-tier questions of which an explanatory part was integral. Individual interviews were conducted with six prospective teachers at the end of the implementation of the unit using four questions. Test scores were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Post-instructional interviews were analyzed qualitatively. Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA of student test scores pointed to statistically significant differences between pre- and post- and delayed post-test ( p < 0.05). A qualitative analysis of the prospective teachers' explanations in the two-tier questions revealed changes in their ideas overtime. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses suggest that the teaching activities promoted students' conceptual understanding. No statistically significant differences were found between post-test and delayed post-test scores, suggesting that the teaching activities based on 5E model enabled students to retain their new conceptual understanding.

  10. Krebs Cycle Wordsearch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helser, Terry L.

    2001-04-01

    This puzzle embeds 46 names, terms, abbreviations, and acronyms about the citric acid (Krebs) cycle in a 14- x 17-letter matrix. A descriptive narrative beside it describes important features of the pathway. All the terms a student needs to find are embedded there with the first letter followed by underlined blanks to be completed. Therefore, the students usually must find the terms to know how to spell them, correctly fill in the blanks in the narrative with the terms, and then find and highlight the terms in the letter matrix. When all are found, the 24 unused letters complete a sentence that describes a major feature of this central pathway. The puzzle may be used as homework, an extra-credit project, or a group project in the classroom in any course where basic metabolism is learned. It disguises as fun the hard work needed to learn the names of the intermediates, enzymes, and cofactors.

  11. Autoradiography and the Cell Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, C. Weldon

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the stages of a cell biology "pulse-chase" experiment in which the students apply autoradiography techniques to learn about the concept of the cell cycle. Includes (1) seed germination and plant growth; (2) radioactive labeling and fixation of root tips; (3) feulgen staining of root tips; (4) preparation of autoradiograms; and (5)…

  12. Developing mathematical practices through reflection cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper focuses on reflection in learning mathematical practices. While there is a long history of research on reflection in mathematics, it has focused primarily on the development of conceptual understanding. Building on notion of learning as participation in social practices, this paper broadens the theory of reflection in mathematics learning. To do so, it introduces the concept of reflection cycles. Each cycle begins with prospective reflection, which guides one's actions during an experience, and ends with retrospective reflection, which consolidates the experience and informs the next reflection cycle. Using reflection cycles as an organizing framework, this paper synthesizes the literature on reflective practices at a variety of levels: (1) metacognition, (2) self-assessment, (3) noticing, and (4) lifelong learning. These practices represent a spectrum of reflection, ranging from the micro level (1) to macro level (4).

  13. Last interglacial (MIS5e) sea-levels and uplift along the north-east Gulf of Aqaba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BAR (KOHN), N.; Stein, M.; Agnon, A.; Yehudai, M.; Lazar, B.; Shaked, Y.

    2014-12-01

    An uplifted flight of coral reef terraces, extending along the north-east margin of the Gulf of Aqaba (GOA), provides evidence for uplift rates and sea level high stands. GOA fills a narrow and deep tectonic depression lying along the southern sector of the Dead Sea Transform where it meets the Red Sea. This special configuration of the GOA and its latitude turn it into a dependable paleo-sea level monitor, sensitive only to global eustatic changes and local tectonic movements. A sequence of five uplifted coral reef terraces were mapped and characterized on basis of morphology and reef-facies, and their elevation above the present sea level was determined. The fossil reefs studied comprise fringing reefs, some with clear reef-structure that includes a reef flat and a shallow back lagoon. Most outcrops in the study area represent a transgressive sequence in which, during its highest stand, formed fringing reef terraces. We use U-Th ages of fossil corals samples found in growth position at various terraces. Corals from three uplifted reef terraces, R1, R2, and R3 were dated to the last interglacial period particularly to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e. These ages were achieved from mainly calcitic corals (recrystallized in a freshwater phreatic environment). A few ages were derived from aragonite corals. The three terraces represent three sub-stages within MIS5e: R3 formed during a short standstill at ~130 ka BP; R2 formed during a long and steady standstill between ~128 to ~121 ka BP; and R1 represents a short standstill at ~117 ka BP. Assuming that terrace reef flats represent past sea level high stands, we calculated the coast average uplift rate and constrained the original terraces elevations. The reconstructed eustatic sea level variation during MIS 5e at GOA resembles observations from reef terraces in other locations. Combined, all indicate a significant sea-level rise from the MIS 6 low stand at ~134-130 ka and followed by a long and stable sea level high

  14. Creating an Innovative Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to create an innovative learning (iLearning) organization. It begins by discussing the life cycle of knowledge in an organization, followed by a description of the theoretical foundation for iLearning. Next, the article presents an example of iLearning, followed by a description of the distributed nature of work, the…

  15. The Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-based vector: a new and versatile gene delivery platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Frank R.; Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Balint, Joseph P.

    2015-05-01

    Based upon advances in gene sequencing and construction, it is now possible to identify specific genes or sequences thereof for gene delivery applications. Recombinant adenovirus serotype-5 (Ad5) viral vectors have been utilized in the settings of gene therapy, vaccination, and immunotherapy but have encountered clinical challenges because they are recognized as foreign entities to the host. This recognition leads to an immunologic clearance of the vector that contains the inserted gene of interest and prevents effective immunization(s). We have reported on a new Ad5-based viral vector technology that can be utilized as an immunization modality to induce immune responses even in the presence of Ad5 vector immunity. We have reported successful immunization and immunotherapy results to infectious diseases and cancers. This improved recombinant viral platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) can now be utilized in the development of multiple vaccines and immunotherapies.

  16. Biostratigraphical distinction of interglacial coleopteran assemblages from southern Britain attributed to Oxygen Isotope Stages 5e and 7*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coope, G. R.

    2001-10-01

    Beetle assemblages are described from 14 interglacial sites in southern England, all of which post-date the Hoxnian Interglacial (in the broad sense) and which can safely be attributed to Oxygen Isotope Stages 5e and 7. The beetle faunas from these interglacial deposits are large and complex and together include at least 387 named species many of which are no longer found living in the British Isles. Almost all of the latter have modern geographical distributions exclusively to the south of Britain and some are predominantly Mediterranean. A few have their nearest relatives living today in North Africa or as far away as northern India. Some of these temperate beetle assemblages are remarkably similar to one another especially in their inclusion of diagnostic exotic species. Others, though indicative of a temperate climate, exhibit consistent differences so that the 14 assemblages clearly divide themselves into two groups; Group (a) and Group (b), based on differences in their species composition and abundance. Group (a) beetle faunas, from seven sites, may be termed "classic" Ipswichian (Eemian) since they closely resemble the assemblage from the type site at Bobbitshole near Ipswich and have unimpeachable stratigraphical contexts. All of these faunas can with confidence be attributed to an early phase of Oxygen Isotope Sub-Stage 5e. Group (b) beetle faunas, also from seven sites, are very different in their specific composition and are more of a puzzle because they include some fossil assemblages from deposits that have, in the past, been attributed to the latter part of the Ipswichian Interglacial and others that are undoubtedly from stratigraphical deposits that are earlier than the Ipswichian and which have been correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage 7. It is with the deposits yielding Group (b) faunas that the greatest controversy arises. On-line appendix available at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/quascirev

  17. Life cycle assessment as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment. Lessons learned from a case study on municipal energy planning in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerklund, Anna

    2012-01-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is explored as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment (SEA), illustrated by case where a previously developed SEA process was applied to municipal energy planning in Sweden. The process integrated decision-making tools for scenario planning, public participation and environmental assessment. This article describes the use of LCA for environmental assessment in this context, with focus on methodology and practical experiences. While LCA provides a systematic framework for the environmental assessment and a wider systems perspective than what is required in SEA, LCA cannot address all aspects of environmental impact required, and therefore needs to be complemented by other tools. The integration of LCA with tools for public participation and scenario planning posed certain methodological challenges, but provided an innovative approach to designing the scope of the environmental assessment and defining and assessing alternatives. - Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LCA was explored as analytical tool in an SEA process of municipal energy planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The process also integrated LCA with scenario planning and public participation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Benefits of using LCA were a systematic framework and wider systems perspective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integration of tools required some methodological challenges to be solved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This proved an innovative approach to define alternatives and scope of assessment.

  18. A novel chloroplast localized Rab GTPase protein CPRabA5e is involved in stress, development, thylakoid biogenesis and vesicle transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Karim, Sazzad; Alezzawi, Mohamed; Garcia-Petit, Christel; Solymosi, Katalin; Khan, Nadir Zaman; Lindquist, Emelie; Dahl, Peter; Hohmann, Stefan; Aronsson, Henrik

    2014-04-01

    A novel Rab GTPase protein in Arabidopsis thaliana, CPRabA5e (CP = chloroplast localized) is located in chloroplasts and has a role in transport. Transient expression of CPRabA5e:EGFP fusion protein in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves, and immunoblotting using Arabidopsis showed localization of CPRabA5e in chloroplasts (stroma and thylakoids). Ypt31/32 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved in regulating vesicle transport, and CPRabA5e a close homolog of Ypt31/32, restores the growth of the ypt31Δ ypt32(ts) mutant at 37 °C in yeast complementation. Knockout mutants of CPRabA5e displayed delayed seed germination and growth arrest during oxidative stress. Ultrastructural studies revealed that after preincubation at 4 °C mutant chloroplasts contained larger plastoglobules, lower grana, and more vesicles close to the envelopes compared to wild type, and vesicle formation being enhanced under oxidative stress. This indicated altered thylakoid development and organization of the mutants. A yeast-two-hybrid screen with CPRabA5e as bait revealed 13 interacting partner proteins, mainly located in thylakoids and plastoglobules. These proteins are known or predicted to be involved in development, stress responses, and photosynthesis related processes, consistent with the stress phenotypes observed. The results observed suggest a role of CPRabA5e in transport to and from thylakoids, similar to cytosolic Rab proteins involved in vesicle transport.

  19. Cloning and characterization of 5E6(Ly-49C), a receptor molecule expressed on a subset of murine natural killer cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    5E6 is a cell surface molecule expressed on a subpopulation of murine natural killer (NK) cells that are involved in the specific rejection of H-2d or H-2f (hemopoietic histocompatibility determinant 2) bone marrow cell grafts. Here, we isolated and cloned the gene encoding 5E6 and determined the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA. 5E6 is nearly identical to Ly-49C; the deduced amino acid sequence reveals a polypeptide of 266 amino acids with a molecular weight of 31,284 that contains multiple cysteine residues to explain its disulfide-linked homodimer structure and five potential N-linked glycosylation sites. 5E6 is a type II integral membrane protein with an extracellular carbohydrate recognition domain characteristic of C-type (Ca(2+)- dependent) animal lectins. Chromosomal mapping indicates that 5E6 is located within the NK gene complex on chromosome 6. The sequence of 5E6 mRNA and the degree of glycosylation of 5E6 protein are under genetic control. Immunoprecipitation before removal of N-linked sugars reveals different size molecules. There are several nucleotide differences among BALB/c, B6, and NZB mRNAs; however, none of them would be expected to affect N-glycosylation. Of particular interest are two findings: (a) BALB/c, B6, and (BALB/c x B6)F1 5E6 reduced molecules are approximately 65, 54, and 54 kD, and (b) the cDNA sequence of (BALB/c x B6)F1 is identical to B6. Thus, there appears to be allelic exclusion of 5E6 expression that may be related to the ability of F1 hybrid mice to reject parental H-2d bone marrow cell grafts. PMID:7629496

  20. NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft flies in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E as par

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft recently flew in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E in support of the F-5 Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) project, part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Quiet Supersonic Platform (QSP) program. The flights originated from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. Four flights were flown in order to measure the F-5E's near-field (close-up) sonic boom signature at Mach 1.4, during which more than 50 shockwave patterns were measured at distances as close as 100 feet below the F-5E.

  1. Coral Reef Response to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e Sea Level Changes in the Granitic Seychelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyverberg, K.; Dechnik, B.; Dutton, A.; Webster, J.; Zwartz, D.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-level position has a direct control on coral reef morphology and composition. Examining changes in these parameters in fossil reefs can inform reconstructions of past sea-level behavior and, indirectly, ice sheet dynamics. Here we provide a detailed examination of fossil reefs from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e. These fossil reefs are located in the granitic Seychelles, which is tectonically stable site and far-field from the former margins of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. To reconstruct relative sea level (RSL), we combine RTK and Total Station elevation surveys with sedimentary and taxonomic evaluations of eight fossil reef sites. Carbonate coralgal reef buildups of the shallowest portion of the reef are preserved in limestone outcrops that are protected by granite boulder overhangs. Two primary outcrop morphologies were observed at these sites: plastering and massive. Plastering outcrops manifest as thin (~ 1 m height x 1 m width x 0.5 m depth) vertical successions of reef framework and detritus, while massive outcrops are larger (~ 2-6 m height x 2-6 m width x 1-2 m depth). The base of these limestone outcrops consistently record a period of reef growth, characterized by corals or coralline algae colonizing the surface or face of a granite boulder and building upwards. This lower reefal unit is capped by a disconformity that is commonly overlain by coral rubble or a ~10 cm thick layer of micrite. Rubble units contain coarse fragments of the coralgal reef buildups while micrite layers consist of a relatively homogeneous fine-grained carbonate, bearing coral-dwelling, Pyrgomatid barnacles. In many of the outcrops, this succession is repeated upsection with another unit of coralgal reef framework capped by a disconformity that is recognized by the sharp transition to coral rubble or micrite with barnacles. We identified four distinct fossil coralgal assemblages in the limestone outcrops. These assemblages are consistent with modern assemblages which

  2. Infusing BSCS 5E Instructional Model with Multimedia: A Promising Approach to Develop 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senan, Divya C.

    2013-01-01

    The full promise of class room learning is dependent on its ability to incorporate 21st century skills in its instructional design, delivery and implementation. In this increasingly competitive global economy, it is not enough for students to acquire subject-level mastery alone. Skills like creative thinking, problem-solving, communication and…

  3. The divergence characteristics of constrained-sheath optics systems for use with 5-eV atomic oxygen sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John R.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    The potential usefulness of the constrained sheath optics concept as a means of controlling the divergence of low energy, high current density ion beams is examined numerically and experimentally. Numerical results demonstrate that some control of the divergence of typical ion beamlets can be achieved at perveance levels of interest by contouring the surface of the constrained sheath properly. Experimental results demonstrate that a sheath can be constrained by a wire mesh attached to the screen plate of the ion optics system. The numerically predicted beamlet divergence characteristics are shown to depart from those measured experimentally, and additional numerical analysis is used to demonstrate that this departure is probably due to distortions of the sheath caused by the fact that it attempts to conform to the individual wires that make up the sheath constraining mesh. The concept is considered potentially useful in controlling the divergence of ion beamlets in applications where low divergence, low energy, high current density beamlets are being sought, but more work is required to demonstrate this for net beam ion energies as low as 5 eV.

  4. Biochemical investigation of a human pathogenic mutation in the nuclear ATP5E gene using yeast as a model

    PubMed Central

    Sardin, Elodie; Donadello, Stéphanie; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Tetaud, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    F1F0-ATP synthase is a key enzyme of the mitochondrial energetic metabolism responsible for the production of most cellular ATP in humans. Mayr et al. (2010) recently described a patient with a homozygote (Y12C) mutation in the nuclear gene ATP5E encoding the ε-subunit of ATP synthase. To better define how it affects ATP synthase, we have modeled this mutation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A yeast equivalent of this mutation (Y11C) had no significant effect on the growth of yeast on non-fermentable carbon sources (glycerol/ethanol or lactate), conditions under which the activity of the mitochondrial energy transducing system is absolutely essential. In addition, similar to what was observed in patient, this mutation in yeast has a minimal effect on the ATPase/synthase activities. On the contrary, this mutation which has been shown to have a strong impact on the assembly of the ATP synthase complex in humans, shows no significant impact on the assembly/stability of this complex in yeast, suggesting that biogenesis of this complex differs significantly. PMID:25954304

  5. The photospheric magnetic field of the dM3.5e flare star AD Leonis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saar, S. H.; Linsky, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    A high-resolution infrared spectrum of the dM3.5e flare star AD Leo, obtained with the Kitt Peak 4 m Fourier Transform Spectrometer, clearly shows the presence of strong magnetic fields. Five absorption lines in the 4400-4600 per cm region have been modeled, and it is inferred that 73 percent + or - 6 percent of the surface of AD Leo is covered by active regions outside of dark spots containing a mean field strength of 3800 + or - 260 G. If these active regions are brighter than the quiet photosphere, the surface filling factor will be somewhat smaller. Since simultaneous H-alpha observations exhibited no evidence of flares, the observations probably represent the quiescent magnetic flux level. The inferred field strength is consistent with equipartition of magnetic and thermal pressures in the photosphere and is similar to values derived using the scaling laws of Golub. The large observed filling factor is consistent with efficient dynamo generation of magnetic flux in this rapidly rotating star.

  6. 5'-(E)-Vinylphosphonate: A Stable Phosphate Mimic Can Improve the RNAi Activity of siRNA-GalNAc Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Rubina; Willoughby, Jennifer L S; Liu, Jingxuan; Foster, Donald J; Brigham, Benjamin; Theile, Christopher S; Charisse, Klaus; Akinc, Akin; Guidry, Erin; Pei, Yi; Strapps, Walter; Cancilla, Mark; Stanton, Matthew G; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G; Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura; Manoharan, Muthiah; Meyers, Rachel; Maier, Martin A; Jadhav, Vasant

    2016-06-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing requires siRNA loading into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Presence of 5'-phosphate (5'-P) is reported to be critical for efficient RISC loading of the antisense strand (AS) by anchoring it to the mid-domain of the Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein. Phosphorylation of exogenous duplex siRNAs is thought to be accomplished by cytosolic Clp1 kinase. However, although extensive chemical modifications are essential for siRNA-GalNAc conjugate activity, they can significantly impair Clp1 kinase activity. Here, we further elucidated the effect of 5'-P on the activity of siRNA-GalNAc conjugates. Our results demonstrate that a subset of sequences benefit from the presence of exogenous 5'-P. For those that do, incorporation of 5'-(E)-vinylphosphonate (5'-VP), a metabolically stable phosphate mimic, results in up to 20-fold improved in vitro potency and up to a threefold benefit in in vivo activity by promoting Ago2 loading and enhancing metabolic stability.

  7. Rapid sea-level changes at the close of the last interglacial (substage 5e) recorded in Bahamian island geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, A. Conrad; Hearty, Paul J.

    1996-09-01

    Rapid and abrupt relative sea-level changes within the last interglacial (substage 5e) are recorded in the island geology of the tectonically stable Bahamas. From 132 to 118 ka, reef growth reached a maximum elevation near +2 m, as indicated by fossil reef elevation across the platform, whereas bioeroded notches are incised in coastal cliffs as high as +6 m. The end of the interval is characterized by voluminous eolianites exhibiting palm tree and frond impressions. It is inferred that sea level for most of the interval remained near +2 m, restraining reef growth, and that the notch at +6 m represents a rapid and brief excursion just before the close of the substage. The subsequent fall must have been rapid in order to leave the notch profile intact and mobilize windward lagoon ooids into dunes before cementation could anchor them. In order to explain the rapid rise to +6 m, glacial surging is invoked. The subsequent fall, also rapid, may be a consequence of the surge flooding high latitudes and providing enough moisture to initiate reglaciation and drawdown.

  8. Angular distributions of 5eV atomic oxygen scattered from solid surfaces on the LDEF satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Peters, Palmer N.

    1992-01-01

    The angular distribution of 5eV atomic oxygen scattered off several smooth solid surfaces was measured by experiment A0114 which flew on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Target surfaces were silver, vitreous carbon, and lithium fluoride crystal. The apparatus was entirely passive. It used the property of silver surfaces to absorb oxygen atoms with high efficiency; the silver is converted to optically transmissive silver oxide. A collimated beam of oxygen atoms is allowed to fall on the target surface at some pre-set angle. Reflected atoms are then intercepted by a silver film placed so that it subtends a considerable solid angle from the primary beam impact on the target surface. The silver films are evaporated onto flexible optically-clear polycarbonate sheets which are scanned later to determine oxygen uptake. While the silver detector cannot measure atom velocity or energy, its physical configuration allows easy coverage of large angular space both in the beam-plane (that which includes the incident beam and the surface normal), and in the azimuthal plane of the target surface.

  9. Your Menstrual Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    ... during your menstrual cycle What happens during your menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle includes not just your period, but the rise ... tool is based on a sample 28-day menstrual cycle, but every woman is different in how long ...

  10. The Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) Project - Did the Ross Ice Shelf Collapse During MIS 5e?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertler, N. A. N.; Conway, H.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Blunier, T.; Brook, E.; Dadic, R.; Delmonte, B.; Dongqi, Z.; Edwards, R.; Emanuelsson, D. B.; Fudge, T. J.; Golledge, N.; Hindmarsh, R. C. A.; Hawley, R. L.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kurbatov, A.; Lee, J.; Mayewski, P. A.; Naish, T.; Neff, P. D.; Scherer, R. P.; Severinghaus, J. P.; Simonsen, M. F.; Steig, E. J.; Tuohy, A.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Waddington, E. D.

    2014-12-01

    Geological evidence and modelling experiments suggest that the removal of ice shelves from marine based ice sheets can lead to catastrophic collapse. Roosevelt and Ross Islands are thought to be key stabilization anchors for the Ross Ice Shelf and thus the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. As part of the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project, a 763m deep ice core was recovered during 2011-2013 from Roosevelt Island, at the northern edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. The ice at Roosevelt Island is grounded 210m below sea level and accumulates in situ, with the Ross Ice Shelf flowing around the rise. High resolution radar surveys show a well developed Raymond Bump at the divide of the ice dome. With the conclusion of the RICE core processing campaign in July 2014, a preliminary age model is developed using annual layer count, volcanic ash layers; and high resolution methane data tied to the WAIS Divide ice core record, and a glacial flow model. Here we show preliminary data spanning over 100 ka including evidence of ice from the Eemian period (MIS 5e) at the base of the core. The presence of Eemian ice in the RICE record raises the question: how much of the Ross Ice Shelf and West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapsed during the last interglacial, when global sea level was 4-8m higher than today? We discuss reconstructions of sea surface and air temperature, sea ice extent, atmospheric circulation patterns, and ice shelf retreat. An ensemble of sensitivity modelling experiments is used to determine thresholds for the removal of ice on Roosevelt Island and correlated grounding line and ice volume changes of the Ross Ice Shelf and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  11. Millennial/submillennial-scale sea-level fluctuations in western Mediterranean during the second highstand of MIS 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrio, C. J.; Zazo, C.; Cabero, A.; Goy, J. L.; Bardají, T.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; González-Delgado, J. A.; Lario, J.; Silva, P. G.; Borja, F.; García-Blázquez, A. M.

    2011-02-01

    This paper investigates a series of small-scale, short-lived fluctuations of sea level registered in a prograding barrier spit that grew during the MIS 5e. This interglacial includes three highstands ( Zazo et al., 2003) and we focus on the second highstand, of assumed duration ˜10 ± 2 ka, given that U-Th ages do not provide more accurate data. Geometry and 3D architecture of beach facies, and thin-section petrography were used to investigate eight exposed offlapping subunits separated by seven conspicuous erosion surfaces, all interpreted as the result of repeated small-scale fluctuations of sea level. Each subunit records a relatively rapid rise of sea level that generated a gravelly shoreface with algal bioherms and a sandy uppermost shoreface and foreshore where most sand accumulated. A second range of still smaller-scaled oscillations of sea level has been deduced in this phase of sea-level fluctuation from lateral and vertical shifts of the foreshore-plunge-step-uppermost shoreface facies. Eventually, progradation with gently falling sea level took place and foreshore deposits underwent successive vadose cementation and subaerial dissolution, owing to relatively prolonged exposure. Later recovery of sea level re-established the highstand with sea level at approximately the same elevation, and there began deposition of a new subunit. The minimum sea-level variation (fall and subsequent rise) required to generate the observed features is 4 m. The time span available for the whole succession of events, and comparison with the Holocene prograding beach ridge complex in the nearby Roquetas (Almería) were used to calculate the periodicity of events. A millennial-suborbital time scale is suggested for fluctuations separating subunits and a decadal scale for the minor oscillations inside each subunit.

  12. Hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water. PMID:21537597

  13. Climate and vegetation since the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) in a putative glacial refugium, northern Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, Erin M.; Gavin, Daniel G.

    2015-06-01

    There are very few terrestrial sediment records from North America that contain a nearly continuous sequence spanning from the Last Interglacial period to the present. We present stratigraphic records of pollen and several other proxies from a Carex-dominated wetland, Star Meadows, located 140 km south of the maximum extent of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and near the current southern extent of interior mesic forests in northern Idaho. Many species in this region are disjunct by 160 km of arid steppe and dry forest from their more extensive distribution along the Pacific Northwest coast and may have survived in an interior refugium. The chronology for the upper 251 cm was determined by six radiocarbon dates and one tephra deposit, and the age of the remainder of the core (251-809 cm) was estimated by correlation with SPECMAP δ18O. Fluctuating water levels were inferred from alternating peat, biogenic silica, and aquatic pollen types. During MIS 5e the region was warmer and drier than today and was dominated by Pinus (likely Pinus contorta) mixed conifer forest surrounding a Carex meadow. A cool-moist climate (MIS 5b-5d) soon developed, and the site was inundated with deep water. Pollen indicated wetland vegetation (Betula glandulosa, Typhaceae, and Salix) developed around a lake with a Pseudotsuga/Larix and Picea forest on the surrounding slopes. During MIS 5a, a warmer climate supported a Pseudotsuga/Larix, Abies, and Picea forest on the surrounding hillsides and a Carex-dominated environment within a dry meadow. From MIS 4 to MIS 3, a cool and wet Pinus and Picea forest predominated. Water levels rose, enabling Nuphar to persist within a perennial lake while a sedge fen established along the lake margin. As climate transitioned into MIS 2, a cooler and drier climate supported a Pinus and Picea subalpine parkland, though water levels remained high enough to support Nuphar. During the Last Glacial Maximum the sediment was mainly silt and clay with high Artemisia and

  14. The Menstrual Cycle and Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    1991-01-01

    Research indicates the process of menstruation has no effect on female college students' academic performance when measured by quantitative tests, and it appears subjective complaints of paramenstrual dysfunction originate in socially mediated beliefs and expectations. Implications for academic assessment, student counseling, employment policy,…

  15. Systems and Cycles: Learning about Aquatic Ecosystems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Rugaber, Spencer; Goel, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    In this research, the authors present both the design and preliminary testing of a technology-intensive classroom intervention designed to support middle schools students' understanding of an aquatic ecosystem. The goals of their intervention are to help learners develop deep understanding of ecosystems and to use tools that make the relationships…

  16. Conceptualizing Ecology: A Learning Cycle Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Thomas E.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a teaching strategy to teach ecological concepts and terminology through the use of games and simulations. Includes examples from physiological ecology, population ecology, and ecosystem ecology. (Author/SOE)

  17. Learning Cycle Model of a Science Lesson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, Jim; Nelson, Jane

    2006-09-01

    Editor's note: One of the goals of AAPT is to provide support and encouragement to those new to teaching physics by sharing ideas that experienced physics teachers have found helpful. I hope you will look to this column throughout the year to find help with lesson planning, ideas for classroom management, and opportunities for professional growth. This month's contributing authors, Jane and Jim Nelson, are award-winning physics teachers with years of experience in the classroom, conducting PTRA workshops, and serving as leaders for local, state, and national AAPT organizations. Their contributions to physics teaching are much too numerous to list here, but their joy in sharing ideas with you is typical of the support you will find from AAPT.

  18. Learning to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Everyone learns in a different way--for some, learning comes naturally, but for others it can be a real struggle. Many negative experiences of education are a result of individuals not knowing how they learn most effectively, or believing that they do not have the capacity to learn well. Addressing the issues of how individuals learn can help…

  19. Maximising Students' Progress and Engagement in Science through the Use of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) 5E Instructional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E Instructional Model (often referred to as the 5Es) consists of five phases. Each phase has a specific function and contributes both to teachers' coherent instruction and to students' formulation of a better understanding of scientific knowledge, attitudes and skills. Evidence indicates…

  20. Using an Animated Case Scenario Based on Constructivist 5E Model to Enhance Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness of Electrical Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirca, Necati

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to get pre-service teachers to develop an awareness of first aid knowledge and skills related to electrical shocking and safety within a scenario based animation based on a Constructivist 5E model. The sample of the study was composed of 78 (46 girls and 32 boys) pre-service classroom teachers from two faculties of…

  1. Paired microfossil evidence for a delayed development of fully marine surface water conditions in the Nordic seas during the Last interglacial (MIS 5e)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nieuwenhove, N.; Bauch, H. A.; Kandiano, E. S.

    2010-12-01

    Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) and foraminiferal records of sediment cores from The Vøring and Iceland Plateau and south of the Fram Strait were used to reconstruct the evolution of the surface circulation in the Nordic seas during the last interglacial (Marine Isotopic Stage or MIS 5e). The location of the cores, under the modern pathway of the warm Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) and within the mixing zone of the NwAC and the cold East Greenland Current (EGC), allows to reconstruct the spreading of inflowing North Atlantic surface waters across the Nordic seas during the climate progression of MIS 5e. The microfossil records, supported by stable isotope and IRD data, reveal that during the first ~6000 years of MIS 5e a more pronounced stratification and seasonality existed in the eastern Nordic seas, presumably as a result of long-lasting deglacial effects. Thus, the northward heat flux was reduced during this time in this area. It was only during late MIS 5e, and when IRD-input into the eastern Nordic seas had come to a halt, that the northward flow of warm Atlantic water masses intensified so that interglacial conditions became also eminent in the surface waters south of the Fram Strait. Our data further suggest that the stronger NwAC of late MIS 5e entailed an intensification of the EGC. While this brought comparatively colder conditions towards the Iceland Plateau it was also the only time when proper, that is fully marine, warm interglacial surface conditions co-existed in the eastern Nordic seas.

  2. A possible activity cycle in Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincunegui, C.; Díaz, R. F.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    Several late-type stars (stars with a radiative core and an outer convective layer) present activity cycles resembling the Solar one. This work aims at studying whether an activity cycle can be detected in the dM5.5e star Proxima Centauri, which is supposed to be completely convective. We present periodical medium-resolution echelle observations covering the complete visual range, which were taken at the CASLEO Argentinean Observatory. These observations are distributed along 7 years. We analize the activity levels to look for a period of activity. We find strong evidence of a cyclic activity, with a period of ˜442 days. We also estimated that the Ca II S index varies around 130% due to activity variations outside of flares.

  3. A possible activity cycle in Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincunegui, C.; Díaz, R. F.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Several late-type stars present activity cycles resembling the Solar one. This fact has been observed mostly in stars ranging from F to K, i.e., in stars with a radiative core and an outer convective layer. Aims: This work aims at studying whether an activity cycle can be detected in the dM5.5e star Proxima Centauri, which is supposed to be completely convective. Methods: We present periodical medium-resolution echelle observations covering the complete visual range, which were taken at the CASLEO Argentinean Observatory. These observations are distributed over 7 years. We discarded the spectra that present flare activity, and analyze the remaining activity levels using four different statistical techniques to look for a period of activity. Results: We find strong evidence of a cyclic activity, with a period of ~442 days. We also estimate that the Ca ~II S index varies around 130% due to activity variations outside of flares.

  4. Heteroclinic Cycles in Hopfield Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chossat, Pascal; Krupa, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    It is widely believed that information is stored in the brain by means of the varying strength of synaptic connections between neurons. Stored patterns can be replayed upon the arrival of an appropriate stimulus. Hence, it is interesting to understand how an information pattern can be represented by the dynamics of the system. In this work, we consider a class of network neuron models, known as Hopfield networks, with a learning rule which consists of transforming an information string to a coupling pattern. Within this class of models, we study dynamic patterns, known as robust heteroclinic cycles, and establish a tight connection between their existence and the structure of the coupling.

  5. JGI's Carbon Cycling Studies on Restored Marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, Susannah; Theroux, Susanna

    2015-06-02

    DOE Joint Genome Institute Metagenome Program Head, Susannah Tringe, and postdoc, Susie Theroux, discuss the lessons to be learned from studying the microbial diversity of marshes that have been converted to other uses, and are now being restored, as well as the potential impacts on the global carbon cycle.

  6. Learning How To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Demian

    2000-01-01

    In one California high school, learning to learn is a measurable outcome assessed by all students' participation in graduation by exhibition. Students must meet state requirements and demonstrate learning prowess by publicly exhibiting their skills in math, science, language arts, social science, service learning, and postgraduation planning. (MLH)

  7. Fluorescence Detection of Cosmic Ray Air Showers Between 1016.5 and 1018.5 eV with the Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zundel, Zachary

    The Telescope Array (TA) Collaboration has completed construction of a low-energy extension to its Middle Drum telescope station. Ten new telescopes were added observing 32-59 degrees in elevation above the original telescopes. A graded array of scintillator detectors (SDs) with spacings of 400-600-1200 m is being installed in front of the telescope station. With these upgrades, the physics threshold will be lowered below 1016.5 eV. The TA Low Energy Extension (TALE) will explore the regime corresponding to the LHC center-of-mass energy. This is also the region where the transition from galactic to extra-galactic cosmic ray flux is suspected to occur. A brief overview of the physics is presented as well as a report on the progress toward measuring the cosmic ray spectrum between 1016.5 and 1018.5 eV.

  8. Astrophysical data on 5 eV to 1 keV radiation from the radiative decay of fundamental particles - Current limits and prospects for improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, Stuart; Malina, Roger F.

    1986-01-01

    Line emission from the decay of fundamental particles, integrated over cosmological distances, can give rise to detectable spectral features in the diffuse astronomical background between 5 eV and 1 keV. Spectroscopic observations may allow these features to be separated from line emission from the numerous local sources of radiation. The current observational status and existing evidence for such features are reviewed. No definitive detections of nongalactic line features have been made. Several local sources of background mask the features at many wavelengths and confuse the interpretation of the data. No systematic spectral observations have been carried out to date. Upcoming experiments which can be expected to provide significantly better constraints on the presence of spectral features in the diffuse background from 5 eV to 1 keV are reviewed.

  9. The Training of Student-Teachers in Discovery Methods of Instruction and Learning [and] Comparing Guided Discovery and Expository Methods: Teaching the Water Cycle in Geography. Research in Teacher Education Monograph Series No. 1/92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heywood, John; And Others

    This monographic series volume contains two separate monographs. "The Training of Student Teachers in Discovery Methods of Instruction and Learning," (John Heywood, Sarah Heywood) discusses the polarization of discovery learning and expository teaching. It describes a unit in the applied psychology of instruction, commonly known as "the student…

  10. Solar Cycle 25: Another Moderate Cycle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, R. H.; Jiang, J.; Schüssler, M.

    2016-06-01

    Surface flux transport simulations for the descending phase of Cycle 24 using random sources (emerging bipolar magnetic regions) with empirically determined scatter of their properties provide a prediction of the axial dipole moment during the upcoming activity minimum together with a realistic uncertainty range. The expectation value for the dipole moment around 2020 (2.5 ± 1.1 G) is comparable to that observed at the end of Cycle 23 (about 2 G). The empirical correlation between the dipole moment during solar minimum and the strength of the subsequent cycle thus suggests that Cycle 25 will be of moderate amplitude, not much higher than that of the current cycle. However, the intrinsic uncertainty of such predictions resulting from the random scatter of the source properties is considerable and fundamentally limits the reliability with which such predictions can be made before activity minimum is reached.

  11. What Is It that Entrepreneurs Learn from Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Frank; Smith, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether or not entrepreneurs really learn from experience has been one of the key themes of entrepreneurship research. If they do learn from experience, what do they learn? The importance of knowledge and learning to the performance of a business has been highlighted by many authors, who emphasize the role of life cycle, learning from…

  12. Phytoplankton assemblages and lipid biomarkers indicate sea-surface warming and sea-ice decline in the Ross Sea during Marine Isotope sub-Stage 5e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Julian D.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Peterse, Francien; Barcena, Maria A.; Albertazzi, Sonia; Asioli, Alessandra; Giglio, Federico; Langone, Leonardo; Tateo, Fabio; Trincardi, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The Marine Isotope sub-Stage 5e (~ 125 - 119 kyrs BP), the last interglacial period before the present, is believed to have been globally warmer (~ 2°C) than today. Studying this time interval might therefore provide insights into near future climate state given the ongoing climate change and global temperature increase. Of particular interest are the expected changes in polar ice cover. One important aspect of the cryosphere is sea-ice, which influences albedo, deep and surface water currents, and phytoplankton production, and thus affects the global climate system. To investigate whether changes in sea-ice cover occurred in the Southern Ocean close to Antarctica during Marine Isotope sub-Stage 5e dinoflagellate and diatom assemblages have been analyzed in core AS05-10, drilled in the continental slope off the Drygalski basin (Ross Sea) at a water depth of 2377 m. The core was drilled within the frame of the PNRA 2009/A2.01 project, an Italian project with a multidisciplinary approach, and covers the interval from Present to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 7. The core stratigraphy is based on diatom bioevents and on the climate cyclicity provided by the variations of the diatom assemblages. For this study we focused on the interval from MIS7 to MIS5. A strong reduction of sea-ice-loving diatom taxa with respect to open water-loving diatom taxa is observed during MIS5. In general the production of phytoplankton increases at the base of MIS5 and then slowly decreases. Dinoflagellate cysts, particularly heterotrophic species, are abundant during MIS5e only. The sea surface temperature reconstruction based on the TEX86L, a proxy based on lipid biomarkers produced by Thaumarcheota, shows a 4°C temperature increase from MIS6 to MIS5e. A slightly smaller temperature increase is observed at the onset of MIS7, but this stage is barren of heterotrophic dinoflagellates. All proxies together seem to indicate that the retreat of the summer sea-ice in the Ross Sea during MIS5e was

  13. MIS 5e sea level: up to what point can we use literature reviews to answer the most pressing questions on the Last Interglacial ice sheets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Raymo, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    During MIS 5e (between ~128 and 116 kyr BP) greenhouse gas concentrations were comparable to pre-industrial levels, summer insolation was higher by ~10% at high latitudes and polar temperatures in both hemispheres were about 3-5 °C warmer than today. Sea level (SL) at this time has been a subject of numerous studies (and some debate) with ~1000 sites with MIS 5e sea level markers recognized worldwide. Recently, Kopp et al. (Nature, 2009) and Dutton & Lambeck (Science, 2012) analyzed worldwide datasets of sea level markers pertaining to the last interglacial. After accounting for GIA, they reached similar conclusions that eustatic (i.e., globally averaged) sea level (ESL) was between +5 and +9.4 m above modern during MIS 5e. Furthermore, Kopp et al. (Nature, 2009; GJI, 2013) suggest that sea level was not uniform during the LIG, but instead underwent at least two rapid oscillations including a rapid late 5e rise first proposed by Hearty et al. (QSR, 2007) and later by O'Leary et al. (Nat. Geo., 2013). Investigating the temporal and geographic variability of MIS 5e sea level opens new lines of research, in particular the possibility to fingerprint (Hay et al., QSR, 2014) the source of the proposed rapid ice sheet collapse near the end of the Last Interglacial. In this presentation we ask: can we use a database of published sea level estimates for this purpose? To answer this question, we built a relative sea level (RSL) database using RSLcalc 2.0; this is a relational database specifically designed to review relative sea level data points while keeping all the relevant information contained in the original publications. RSlcalc allows to estimate the measurement error (on the actual elevation of the SL feature), the error on the indicative range (the elevation range occupied by a sea level indicator) as well as the reference water level (the relationship between the marker and the former sea level). We show that the majority of published data have an accuracy of few

  14. Improvement of Learning Process and Learning Outcomes in Physics Learning by Using Collaborative Learning Model of Group Investigation at High School (Grade X, SMAN 14 Jakarta)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astra, I. Made; Wahyuni, Citra; Nasbey, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to improve the quality of physics learning through application of collaborative learning of group investigation at grade X MIPA 2 SMAN 14 Jakarta. The method used in this research is classroom action research. This research consisted of three cycles was conducted from April to May in 2014. Each cycle consists of…

  15. Problem Finding in Professional Learning Communities: A Learning Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Caleon, Imelda Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study marries collaborative problem solving and learning study in understanding the onset of a cycle of teacher professional development process within school-based professional learning communities (PLCs). It aimed to explore how a PLC carried out collaborative problem finding--a key process involved in collaborative problem solving--that…

  16. Learning Families: Intergenerational Approach to Literacy Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanemann, Ulrike, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Within a learning family, every member is a lifelong learner. A family literacy and learning approach is more likely to break the intergenerational cycle of low education and inadequate literacy skills, particularly among disadvantaged families and communities. The selection of case studies presented in this compilation show that for an…

  17. Cycling To Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Stan

    1999-01-01

    Encourages environmental and outdoor educators to promote bicycling. In the community and the curriculum, cycling connects environmental issues, health and fitness, law and citizenship, appropriate technology, and the joy of being outdoors. Describes the Ontario Cycling Association's cycling strategy and its four components: school cycling…

  18. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/8/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  19. Pedagogical Framework for Online Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majumdar, Shyamal

    2003-01-01

    Suggests a concept framework for online learning based on collaborative/cooperative strategies and course designs that enhance creative and critical thinking. Urges a shift to project- and problem-based learning and action-reflection cycles. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  20. Teaching and Learning in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P., Ed.; LeTendre, Gerald K., Ed.

    The essays gathered in this volume are united by the common goal of understanding teaching and learning in Japan as it actually occurs. The essays seek to answer questions about the actual conduct of learning in different settings and at different points in the life cycle. This volume explores the expectations and associations found in specific…

  1. Team Learning in Large Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Information and suggestions are provided on the use of team learning in large college classes. Introductory material discusses the negative cycle of student-teacher interaction that may be provoked by large classes, and the use of permanent, heterogeneous, six- or seven-member student learning groups as the central focus of class activity as a…

  2. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of sequential three-photon triple ionization of neon at 90.5 eV photon energy

    SciTech Connect

    Rouzee, A.; Siu, W.; Huismans, Y.; Johnsson, P.; Gryzlova, E. V.; Fukuzawa, H.; Yamada, A.; Ueda, K.; Louis, E.; Bijkerk, F.; Holland, D. M. P.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Vrakking, M. J. J.

    2011-03-15

    Multiple photoionization of neon atoms by a strong 13.7 nm (90.5 eV) laser pulse has been studied at the FLASH free electron laser in Hamburg. A velocity map imaging spectrometer was used to record angle-resolved photoelectron spectra on a single-shot basis. Analysis of the evolution of the spectra with the FEL pulse energy in combination with extensive theoretical calculations allows the ionization pathways that contribute to be assigned, revealing the occurrence of sequential three-photon triple ionization.

  3. Introduction to combined cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. J.

    Ideas and concepts underlying the technology of combined cycles including the scientific principles involved and the reasons these cycles are in fashion at the present time, are presented. A cycle is a steady flow process for conversion of heat energy into work, in which a working medium passes through a range of states, returning to its original state. Cycles for power production are the steam cycle, which is a closed cycle, and the gas turbine, which represents an open cycle. Combined cycle thermodynamic parameters, are discussed. The general arrangement of the plant is outlined and important features of their component parts described. The scope for future development is discussed. It is concluded that for the next few years the natural gas fired combined cycle will be the main type of plant installed for electricity generation and cogeneration. Whilst gas turbines may not increase substantially in unit size, there remains scope for further increase in firing temperature with consequent increase in cycle performance. However the larger global reserves of coal are providing an incentive to the development of plant for clean coal combustion using the inherent advantage of the combined cycle to attain high efficiencies.

  4. Fluoresence Detection of Cosmic Ray Air Showers Between 10 16 . 5 eV and 1019 eV with the Telescope Array Low Energy Extension (TALE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zundel, Zachary; Smith, Jeremy; Thomas, Stan; Abuzayyad, Tareq; Ivanov, Dmitri; Matthews, John; Jui, Charlie

    2014-03-01

    The Telescope Array Experiment has been observing cosmic ray air showers at energies above 1018 eV since 2008. TA operates three Fluorescence Detector (FD) sites, with telescopes that observe 3-31 deg in elevation. The FD sites are located at the periphery of a surface array of 507 scintillation counters covering 700 km2 , with 1.2 km spacing. The TA Collaboration has completed building a low-energy extension at its Middle drum FD site. Ten new telescopes currently observe between 33 and 51 degrees in elevation. A graded ground array of between 400 and 600m will be placed in front of the TALE FD. With these upgrades, the physics threshold of TA will be lowered to 10 16 . 5 eV. The TA Low Energy Extension (TALE) will explore the energy regime corresponding to that of the LHC in center-of-mass frame. This is also the range where the transition from galactic to extra- galactic cosmic ray flux is suspected to occur. We will give a brief overview of the physics, and report on the progress of TALE toward measuring the cosmic ray spectrum between 10 16 . 5 eV and 1019 eV.

  5. An Ontological Representation of Learning Objects and Learning Designs as Codified Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Alonso, Salvador; Frosch-Wilke, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is discussing about the similarities between the life cycle of knowledge management and the processes in which learning objects are created, evaluated and used. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes LO and learning designs and depicts their integration into the knowledge life cycle (KLC) of the KMCI,…

  6. 3 Steps to Great Coaching: A Simple but Powerful Instructional Coaching Cycle Nets Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jim; Elford, Marti; Hock, Michael; Dunekack, Devona; Bradley, Barbara; Deshler, Donald D.; Knight, David

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors describe a three-step instructional coaching cycle that can helps coaches become more effective. The article provides the steps and related components to: (1) Identify; (2) Learn; and (3) Improve. While the instructional coaching cycle is only one effective coaching program, coaches also need professional learning that…

  7. Experiential Learning: From Discourse Model to Conversation. Interview with David Kolb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamalainen, Kauko; Siirala, Eeva

    1998-01-01

    In this interview, Kolb, developer of the experiential learning cycle model, explores learning motivation, aspects of conversation (as experiential learning and as evaluation), and standardization versus diversity in education. (SK)

  8. Low cycle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. D. (Editor); Kaisand, L. R. (Editor); Halford, G. R. (Editor); Leis, B. N. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume focus on various aspects of low cycle fatigue, including cyclic deformation, crack propagation, high-temperature low cycle fatigue, microstructural defects, multiaxial and variable amplitude loading, and life prediction. Papers are presented on the low cycle fatigue of some aluminum alloys, prediction of crack growth under creep-fatigue loading conditions, high-temperature low cycle fatigue behavior and lifetime prediction of a nickel-base ODS alloy, and an integrated approach to creep-fatigue life prediction. Other topics discussed include thermal fatigue testing of coated monocrystalline superalloys, low cycle fatigue of Al-Mg-Si alloys, and the effect of superimposed stresses at high frequency on low cycle fatigue.

  9. Solar activity secular cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramynin, A. P.; Mordvinov, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term variations in solar activity secular cycles have been studied using a method for the expansion of reconstructed sunspot number series Sn( t) for 11400 years in terms of natural orthogonal functions. It has been established that three expansion components describe more than 98% of all Sn( t) variations. In this case, the contribution of the first expansion component is about 92%. The averaged form of the 88year secular cycle has been determined based on the form of the first expansion coordinate function. The quasi-periodicities modulating the secular cycle have been revealed based on the time function conjugate to the first function. The quasi-periodicities modulating the secular cycle coincide with those observed in the Sn( t) series spectrum. A change in the secular cycle form and the time variations in this form are described by the second and third expansion components, the contributions of which are about 4 and 2%, respectively. The variations in the steepness of the secular cycle branches are more pronounced in the 200-year cycle, and the secular cycle amplitude varies more evidently in the 2300-year cycle.

  10. Search for a ''3.5-eV isomer'' in {sup 229}Th in a hollow-cathode electric discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Inamura, T. T.; Haba, H.

    2009-03-15

    A hollow-cathode electric discharge, a well-established source in optical spectroscopy, was used to populate the ''3.5-eV isomer'' in {sup 229}Th with use of nuclear excitation by electron transition (NEET). The radiochemically purest {sup 229}Th sample was loaded into the hollow cathode in which the electric discharge excited the {sup 229}Th to atomic states some of which could be expected to lie close to the excitation energy of the sought isomer. Although there remain some uncertainties, our experiments indicate that the isomer was populated by NEET and its {alpha} decay observed after switching off the electric discharge with a corresponding isomer half-life 1 min < or approx. T{sub 1/2}{sup m} < or approx. 3 min. From the present NEET condition, the isomer appears to lie between 3 eV and 7 eV. The probability of the isomer population by NEET is discussed.

  11. Recombination of 5-eV O(3P) atoms with surface-adsorbed NO - Spectra and their dependence on surface material and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orient, O. J.; Martus, K. E.; Chutjian, A.; Murad, E.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements have been conducted of the 300-850 nm recombination spectra associated with 5-eV collisions of O(3P) atoms with NO adsorbed on surfaces of MgF2, Ni, and Ti. Attention is given to the dependence of chemiluminescence intensity on surface temperature over the 240-340 K range. While all three materials tend to emit at the lower temperatures, MgF2 exhibits the greatest tendency to chemiluminescence. Both results are reflective of the greater packing density of surface-adsorbed NO at the lower temperatures for each surface. The activation energy for each surface is independent of emission wavelength, so that the same species is emitting throughout the wavelength range.

  12. Bioactive (3Z,5E)-11,20-epoxybriara-3,5-dien-7,18-olide diterpenoids from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea.

    PubMed

    Li, Cui; La, Ming-Ping; Sun, Peng; Kurtan, Tibor; Mandi, Attila; Tang, Hua; Liu, Bao-Shu; Yi, Yang-Hua; Li, Ling; Zhang, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Six new (3Z,5E)-11,20-epoxybriara-3,5-dien-7,18-olide diterpenoids, gemmacolides N-S (1-6), were isolated together with four known analogues, juncenolide D, and juncins R, S and U (7-10), from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by the detailed analysis of spectroscopic data in combination with the comparison with reported data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by a TDDFT calculation of its solution ECD spectrum, affording the determination of absolute configuration of other analogues by simply comparing their ECD spectra with that of 1. The cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of these compounds were evaluated. In preliminary in vitro bioassays, compounds 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed cytotoxicity against A549 and MG63, while compounds 1, 2, 4, 7-10 showed antimicrobial activity against the fungus Septoria tritici and the bacterium Escherichia coli.

  13. Multiproxy record of the last interglacial (MIS 5e) off central and northern California, U.S.A., from Ocean Drilling Program sites 1018 and 1020

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, Richard Z.; Dowsett, H.J.; Barron, J.A.; Heusser, L.; Ravelo, A.C.; Mix, A.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and climatic conditions during the last interglacial (about 125,000 years ago) along the Central and Northern California coastal region are interpreted from study of marine cores recovered by the Ocean Drilling Program at sites 1018 and 1020. Marine microfossil and pollen assemblages, oxygen isotopes in benthic foraminifers, physical properties, and calcium carbonate contents of cored sediments are proxies indicating strong links between the marine and terrestrial environments during marine isotope stage 5 (MIS 5). At the beginning of the last interglacial (MIS 5e), reduction in global ice volume, increase in surface temperature, and warming of air temperature along the Central and Northern California coast were synchronous within the resolution of our sampling record.

  14. Evaluation of cross sections for neutron-induced reactions in sodium. [10/sup -5/ eV to 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.C.

    1980-09-01

    An evaluation of the neutron-induced cross sections of /sup 23/Na has been done for the energy range from 10/sup -5/ eV to 20 MeV. All significant cross sections are given, including differential cross sections for production of gamma rays. The recommended values are based on experimental data where available, and use results of a consistent model code analysis of available data to predict cross sections where there are no experimental data. This report describes the evaluation that was submitted to the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) for consideration as a part of the Evaluated Nuclear Data File, Version V, and subsequently issued as MAT 1311. 126 references, 130 figures, 14 tables.

  15. Electron photoemission from charged films: absolute cross section for trapping 0-5 eV electrons in condensed CO2.

    PubMed

    Michaud, M; Hébert, E M; Cloutier, P; Sanche, L

    2007-01-14

    The electron trapping or attachment cross section of carbon dioxide (CO2) condensed as thin films on a spacer of Ar is obtained using a simple model for electron trapping in a molecular film and then charge releasing from the same film by photon absorption. The measurements are presented for different electron exposures and impact energies, film thicknesses, and probing photon energies. The cross section for trapping an electron of incident energy between 0 and 5 eV reveals three different attachment processes characterized by a maximum at about 0.75 eV, a structured feature around 2.25 eV, and a shoulder around 3.75 eV. From the measurement of their dependence with the probing photon energy, the two lowest processes produce traps having a vertical electron binding energy of approximately 3.5 eV, whereas the highest one yields a slightly higher value of approximately 3.7 eV. The 0.75 eV maximum corresponds to the formation of vibrational Feshbach resonances in (CO2)n- anion clusters. The 2.25 eV feature is attributed to the formation of a vibrationally excited 2Piu anion in (CO2)n- clusters, followed by fast decay into its vibrational ground state without undergoing autodetachment. Finally, 3.75 eV shoulder is assigned to the well-known dissociative electron attachment process from 2Piu anion state producing the O- anion in the gas phase and the (CO2)nO- anions in clusters.

  16. Resistance to UV-induced apoptosis by β-HPV5 E6 involves targeting of activated BAK for proteolysis by recruitment of the HERC1 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Amy; Simmonds, Mark; Azad, Abul; Fox, Joanna L; Storey, Alan

    2015-06-15

    UV exposure is the main etiological agent in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), but mounting evidence suggests a co-factorial role for β-genus HPV types early in tumor initiation or progression. UV damage initiates an apoptotic response, driven at the mitochondrial level by BCL-2 family proteins, that eliminates damaged cells that may accumulate deleterious mutations and acquire tumorigenic properties. BAK is a pro-apoptotic BCL-2 protein that functions ultimately to form pores that permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane, thereby committing a cell to death, a process involving changes in BAK phosphorylation and conformation. The E6 protein of β-type HPV5 signals BAK for proteasomal degradation, a function that confers protection from UV-induced apoptosis. We find that HPV5 E6 does not constitutively target BAK for proteolysis, but targets the latter stages of BAK activation, following changes in phosphorylation and conformation. A mutational analysis identified the lysine residue on BAK required for proteolysis, and a functional siRNA screen identified the HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC1 as being required for E6-mediated BAK degradation. We show that HERC1 interacts with BAK in E6-expressing cells that have been damaged by UV, and provide evidence that the interaction of HERC1 with BAK requires access to a hydrophobic surface on BAK that binds BH3 domains of BCL-2 proteins. We also show that HERC1 contains a putative BH3 domain that can bind to BAK. These findings reveal a specific and unique mechanism used by the HPV5 E6 protein to target BAK.

  17. Dynamic Simulations of Advanced Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen E. Matthern; David E. Shropshire

    2011-03-01

    Years of performing dynamic simulations of advanced nuclear fuel cycle options provide insights into how they could work and how one might transition from the current once-through fuel cycle. This paper summarizes those insights from the context of the 2005 objectives and goals of the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). Our intent is not to compare options, assess options versus those objectives and goals, nor recommend changes to those objectives and goals. Rather, we organize what we have learned from dynamic simulations in the context of the AFCI objectives for waste management, proliferation resistance, uranium utilization, and economics. Thus, we do not merely describe “lessons learned” from dynamic simulations but attempt to answer the “so what” question by using this context. The analyses have been performed using the Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Dynamics (VISION). We observe that the 2005 objectives and goals do not address many of the inherently dynamic discriminators among advanced fuel cycle options and transitions thereof.

  18. Mobile Learning vs. Traditional Classroom Lessons: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furió, D.; Juan, M.-C.; Seguí, I.; Vivó, R.

    2015-01-01

    Different methods can be used for learning, and they can be compared in several aspects, especially those related to learning outcomes. In this paper, we present a study in order to compare the learning effectiveness and satisfaction of children using an iPhone game for learning the water cycle vs. the traditional classroom lesson. The iPhone game…

  19. Measuring Cycling Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the basic mechanics of cycling with a simple reckoning of how much effort is needed from the cyclist. The work done by the cyclist is quantified when the ride is on the flat and also when pedaling uphill. Proves that by making use of the available gears on a mountain bike, cycling uphill can be accomplished without pain. (Author/ASK)

  20. The carbon cycle revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolin, Bert; Fung, Inez

    1992-01-01

    Discussions during the Global Change Institute indicated a need to present, in some detail and as accurately as possible, our present knowledge about the carbon cycle, the uncertainties in this knowledge, and the reasons for these uncertainties. We discuss basic issues of internal consistency within the carbon cycle, and end by summarizing the key unknowns.

  1. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  2. Teaching the Krebs Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a simple but rigorous treatment of the Krebs Cycle suitable for A-level Biology students. The importance of the addition of water molecules in various stages of the cycle is stressed as well as the removal of hydrogen atoms by the oxidizing enzymes. (JN)

  3. The Oxygen Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swant, Gary D.

    Produced for primary grades, this booklet provides study of the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle in nature. Line drawings, a minimum amount of narrative, and a glossary of terms make up its content. The booklet is designed to be used as reading material, a coloring book, or for dramatic arts with students acting out parts of the cycle. This work was…

  4. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  5. Seeing the Carbon Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drouin, Pamela; Welty, David J.; Repeta, Daniel; Engle-Belknap, Cheryl A.; Cramer, Catherine; Frashure, Kim; Chen, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom experiment that was developed to introduce middle school learners to the carbon cycle. The experiment deals with transfer of CO[subscript 2] between liquid reservoirs and the effect CO[subscript 2] has on algae growth. It allows students to observe the influence of the carbon cycle on algae growth,…

  6. Reusable thermal cycling clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debnam, W. J., Jr.; Fripp, A. L.; Crouch, R. K. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A reusable metal clamp for retaining a fused quartz ampoule during temperature cycling in the range of 20 deg C to 1000 deg C is described. A compressible graphite foil having a high radial coefficient of thermal expansion is interposed between the fused quartz ampoule and metal clamp to maintain a snug fit between these components at all temperature levels in the cycle.

  7. Know your RO from your AE? Learning styles in practice.

    PubMed

    Woods, Helen Buckley

    2012-06-01

    In this article, Kolb's cycle of learning is put forward as a useful theory to consult when planning information literacy or other teaching sessions. The learning cycle is contextualised and Kolb's and other theories are briefly explored. The author then considers how learning style theories can be utilised when planning teaching and learning activities. The use of planning tools is advocated and ideas for sessions are suggested. HS.

  8. Predicting the Sunspot Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    The 11-year sunspot cycle was discovered by an amateur astronomer in 1844. Visual and photographic observations of sunspots have been made by both amateurs and professionals over the last 400 years. These observations provide key statistical information about the sunspot cycle that do allow for predictions of future activity. However, sunspots and the sunspot cycle are magnetic in nature. For the last 100 years these magnetic measurements have been acquired and used exclusively by professional astronomers to gain new information about the nature of the solar activity cycle. Recently, magnetic dynamo models have evolved to the stage where they can assimilate past data and provide predictions. With the advent of the Internet and open data policies, amateurs now have equal access to the same data used by professionals and equal opportunities to contribute (but, alas, without pay). This talk will describe some of the more useful prediction techniques and reveal what they say about the intensity of the upcoming sunspot cycle.

  9. The Chlamydomonas cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Cross, Frederick R; Umen, James G

    2015-05-01

    The position of Chlamydomonas within the eukaryotic phylogeny makes it a unique model in at least two important ways: as a representative of the critically important, early-diverging lineage leading to plants; and as a microbe retaining important features of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that has been lost in the highly studied yeast lineages. Its cell biology has been studied for many decades and it has well-developed experimental genetic tools, both classical (Mendelian) and molecular. Unlike land plants, it is a haploid with very few gene duplicates, making it ideal for loss-of-function genetic studies. The Chlamydomonas cell cycle has a striking temporal and functional separation between cell growth and rapid cell division, probably connected to the interplay between diurnal cycles that drive photosynthetic cell growth and the cell division cycle; it also exhibits a highly choreographed interaction between the cell cycle and its centriole-basal body-flagellar cycle. Here, we review the current status of studies of the Chlamydomonas cell cycle. We begin with an overview of cell-cycle control in the well-studied yeast and animal systems, which has yielded a canonical, well-supported model. We discuss briefly what is known about similarities and differences in plant cell-cycle control, compared with this model. We next review the cytology and cell biology of the multiple-fission cell cycle of Chlamydomonas. Lastly, we review recent genetic approaches and insights into Chlamydomonas cell-cycle regulation that have been enabled by a new generation of genomics-based tools.

  10. Learning to Learn Cooperatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Anne Hammond

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative learning, put quite simply, is a type of instruction whereby students work together in small groups to achieve a common goal. Cooperative learning has become increasingly popular as a feature of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) with benefits that include increased student interest due to the quick pace of cooperative tasks,…

  11. Learning about Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    The field of children's learning was thriving when the Merrill-Palmer Quarterly was launched; the field later went into eclipse and now is in the midst of a resurgence. This commentary examines reasons for these trends, and describes the emerging field of children's learning. In particular, the new field is seen as differing from the old in its…

  12. Cycles, Cycles Everywhere - Corals, Coccoliths, and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgwell, A.

    2004-05-01

    Critical to our understanding of both past and future climate change is the biogeochemcial cycle of carbon on Earth. This is popularly recognized in the context of the creation and destruction of solid organic matter such as vegetation and fossil fuels, which has a clear and intuitive relationship to the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Less widely recognized is the cycling which involves solid inorganic carbon as carbonate minerals - the most abundant form of carbon present at or near the surface of the Earth, and one with a distinctly counter-intuitive relationship with atmospheric CO2. For instance, changes in the rate of production of coral skeletons may have played a role in Holocene climate change, but with increased carbonate carbon removal driving atmospheric CO2 higher and not lower. The carbonate skeletons produced by some species of plankton in the open ocean are also critical to the climate system. The sinking of these skeletal parts is currently suspected to be important in helping to transport organic matter to depth and thus temporarily isolating this carbon from the atmosphere. The deposition of plankton-derived carbonate to the sediments of the deep-sea also helps regulate atmospheric CO2 but on thousand year time-scales, and will play a key role in the eventual removal of fossil fuel carbon from the atmosphere. However, there is a growing awareness that carbonate production by plankton may be severely diminished in the future. Maybe the cycle of carbonate on Earth could be re-set to how it operated over two hundred million years ago. Here I review some of the current areas of interest in global carbonate cycling, particularly its relationship to climate change and to fundamental moments in the evolution of life.

  13. Learning to aid learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development.

  14. Learning to aid learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) is one of the largest employers in the world and, with 1.3 million staff, the biggest employer in Europe. With over three hundred different careers on offer (NHS 2015), the acquisition of skills and qualifications, through academic and clinical training, is an integral part of day-to-day life in the health service. As such, mentoring has become a significant feature in the preparation of healthcare professionals, to support students and ensure learning needs and experiences are appropriate to competency. This article examines the mentor's role, in relation to a teaching innovation designed to address students' identified learning needs to meet the requirements of the multi-professional learning and assessment in practice course NM6156. The effectiveness of the aids to learning will be assessed through an online quiz, and its usefulness will be analysed with reference to educational theories of learning and development. PMID:26975128

  15. Learning Achievement Improvement Efforts Course Learn and Learning Using the Jigsaw Method and Card Media in STKIP PGRI Ngawi 2014/2015 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haryono

    2015-01-01

    Subject Teaching and Learning is a basic educational courses that must be taken by all student teachers. Class Action Research aims to improve student achievement Teaching and Learning course by applying Jigsaw and media cards. Research procedures using Classroom Action Research (CAR) with multiple cycles. Each cycle includes four phases:…

  16. The Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  17. Cycle isolation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Svensen, L.M. III; Zeigler, J.R.; Todd, F.D.; Alder, G.C.

    2009-07-15

    There are many factors to monitor in power plants, but one that is frequently overlooked is cycle isolation. Often this is an area where plant personnel can find 'low hanging fruit' with great return on investment, especially high energy valve leakage. This type of leakage leads to increased heat rate, potential valve damage and lost generation. The fundamental question to ask is 'What is 100 Btu/kW-hr of heat rate worth to your plant? On a 600 MW coal-fired power plant, a 1% leakage can lead to an 81 Btu/kW-hr impact on the main steam cycle and a 64 Btu/kW-hr impact on the hot reheat cycle. The article gives advice on methods to assist in detecting leaking valves and to monitor cycle isolation. A software product, TP. Plus-CIM was designed to estimate flow rates of potentially leaking valves.

  18. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  19. IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E.; Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1992-04-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation.

  20. IFR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Battles, J.E.; Miller, W.E. ); Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase, which includes completion of facility modifications and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the development of the electrorefining pyroprocess, the design and construction of the facility for the hot demonstration, the design and fabrication of the equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation.

  1. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    PubMed

    Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Gunderson, Lance H; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26716453

  2. Solar Cycle Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, William Dean

    2012-01-01

    Solar cycle predictions are needed to plan long-term space missions; just like weather predictions are needed to plan the launch. Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting many types of science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to solar cycle effects. Predictions of drag on LEO spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less propellant can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory as you consume the reduced propellant load more rapidly. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms that endanger all assets in space. Solar cycle predictions also anticipate the shortwave emissions that cause degradation of solar panels. Testing solar dynamo theories by quantitative predictions of what will happen in 5-20 years is the next arena for solar cycle predictions. A summary and analysis of 75 predictions of the amplitude of the upcoming Solar Cycle 24 is presented. The current state of solar cycle predictions and some anticipations how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future will be discussed.

  3. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  4. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26716453

  5. Water Cycle Missions for the Next Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    The global water cycle describes the circulation of water as a vital and dynamic substance in its liquid, solid, and vapor phases as it moves through the atmosphere, oceans and land. Life in its many forms exists because of water, and modern civilization depends on learning how to live within the constraints imposed by the availability of water. The scientific challenge posed by the need to observe the global water cycle is to integrate in situ and space-borne observations to quantify the key water-cycle state variables and fluxes. The vision to address that challenge is a series of Earth observation missions that will measure the states, stocks, flows, and residence times of water on regional to global scales followed by a series of coordinated missions that will address the processes, on a global scale, that underlie variability and changes in water in all its three phases. The accompanying societal challenge is to foster the improved use of water data and information as a basis for enlightened management of water resources, to protect life and property from effects of extremes in the water cycle. A major change in thinking about water science that goes beyond its physics to include its role in ecosystems and society is also required. Better water-cycle observations, especially on the continental and global scales, will be essential. Water-cycle predictions need to be readily available globally to reduce loss of life and property caused by water-related natural hazards. Building on the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, NASA's Plan for a Climate-Centric Architecture for Earth Observations and Applications from Space , and the 2012 Chapman Conference on Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle, a workshop was held in April 2013 to gather wisdom and determine how to prepare for the next generation of water cycle missions in support of the second Earth Science Decadal Survey. This talk will present the outcomes of the workshop including the intersection between

  6. Physics and Fluorescence Detection of Cosmic Ray Air Showers with Energies Between 10^16.5 eV and 10^19 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zundel, Zachary

    2012-10-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) Experiment has been observing cosmic ray air showers at energies above 10^18 eV since 2008. The TA detectors include fluorescence telescopes that look between 3and 33in elevation and a surface array consisting of 507 plastic scintillators layed out on a 1.2km square grid. The TA collaboration is currently installing fluorescence telescopes that look between 33and 59in elevation and starting the construction of a graded infill array of surface detectors spaced at 400m and 600m. With these upgrades, the physics threshold of TA will be lowered to 10^16.5 eV. The TA Low Energy Extension (TALE) will explore the energy regime corresponding to that of the LHC in center-of-mass frame. This is also the range where the transition from galactic to extra- galactic cosmic ray flux is suspected to occur. We will give a brief overview of the physics of TALE, and report on the progress of the new fluorescence telescopes.

  7. The Multiple Continuum Components in the White-Light Flare of 16 January 2009 on the dM4.5e Star YZ CMi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, A. F.; Hawley, S. L.; Holtzman, J. A.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Hilton, E. J.

    2012-03-01

    The white light during M dwarf flares has long been known to exhibit the broadband shape of a T≈10 000 K blackbody, and the white light in solar-flares is thought to arise primarily from hydrogen recombination. Yet, a current lack of broad-wavelength coverage solar flare spectra in the optical/near-UV region prohibits a direct comparison of the continuum properties to determine if they are indeed so different. New spectroscopic observations of a secondary flare during the decay of a megaflare on the dM4.5e star YZ CMi have revealed multiple components in the white-light continuum of stellar flares, including both a blackbody-like spectrum and a hydrogen-recombination spectrum. One of the most surprising findings is that these two components are anti-correlated in their temporal evolution. We combine initial phenomenological modeling of the continuum components with spectra from radiative hydrodynamic models to show that continuum veiling causes the measured anti-correlation. This modeling allows us to use the components' inferred properties to predict how a similar spatially resolved, multiple-component, white-light continuum might appear using analogies to several solar-flare phenomena. We also compare the properties of the optical stellar flare white light to Ellerman bombs on the Sun.

  8. Photochemistry of oxygenated and deoxygenated solutions of the photosensitizer (2E,5E)-2,5-bis(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-cyclopentanone, a ketocyanine dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoto, Christopher A.; Ucak-Astarlioglu, Mine G.; Connors, Robert E.

    2016-02-01

    Photochemical studies of (2E,5E)-2,5-bis(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-cyclopentanone (I) have been carried out. Compound I has been shown to sensitize the production of singlet oxygen (1O2) in deuterated toluene (C7D8), chloroform (CDCl3), and methanol (CD3OD). Tetramethylethylene (TME) was used as the indicator for 1O2 production. Photobleaching of solutions of the dye was observed, which led to an investigation of the chemical reactivity of I with 1O2. Based on 1H NMR, UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, and HPLC/MS experimental data, it is proposed that the self-sensitized photooxidation of I with 1O2 yields 4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and (E)-3-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)-1,2-cyclopentadione as products. Photooxidation of I was not detected in CH3OH but was found in CD3OD. The absence of photooxidation in CH3OH is attributed to the short lifetime of singlet oxygen in this solvent (τΔ = 9.5 μs), compared to its lifetime in CD3OD (τΔ = 270 μs). UV-Visible absorption spectra of irradiated solutions of I in deoxygenated solvents demonstrate that (E,E) → (E,Z) photoisomerization of the dye takes place under these conditions.

  9. Binding sites of HeLa cell nuclear proteins on the upstream region of adenovirus type 5 E1A gene.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, K; Narita, M; Fujinaga, K

    1989-01-01

    Twenty one binding sites of HeLa cell nuclear proteins were identified on the upstream region of adenovirus type 5 E1A gene using DNase I footprint assay. The proximal promoter region contained five binding sites that overlapped the cap site, TATA box, TATA-like sequence, CCAAT box, and -100 region relative to the E1A cap site(+1). The -190 region was a potential site for octamer-motif binding proteins, such as NFIII and OBP100. An upstream copy of the E1A enhancer element 1 was the site for a factor (E1A-F) with the binding specificity of XGGAYGT (X = A, C; Y = A, T). E1A-F factor also bound to three other sites, one of which coincided with the distal E1A enhancer element. The distal element also contained a potential site for ATF factor. The adenovirus minimal origin of DNA replication competed for DNA-protein complex formation on the CCAAT and TATA box region and the -190 region, suggesting that these regions interacted with a common or related factor. Images PMID:2532319

  10. Spectral Optical Properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film Between 0.73 and 6.5 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Du, H.; Yarbrough, J.; Norman, A.; Jones, K.; Teeter, G.; Terry, F. L.; Levi, D.

    2012-03-12

    A polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film was deposited on fused quartz by co-evaporation. The selected thickness was {approx}100 nm to avoid artifacts in its optical properties caused by thicker as-grown films. The composition and phase of the film were checked with x-ray fluorescence, Raman shift spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. An improved spectroscopic ellipsometry methodology with two-side measurement geometries was applied to extract the complex dielectric function {var_epsilon} = {var_epsilon}{sub 1} + i{var_epsilon}{sub 2} of the Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film between 0.73 and 6.5 eV. Five critical points were observed, at 1.32 (fundamental band gap), 2.92, 3.92, 4.96, and 5.62 eV, respectively. The {var_epsilon} spectra are in reasonable agreement with those from theoretical calculations.

  11. Absolute intensity measurements of the optical second-harmonic response of metals from 0.9 to 2.5 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matranga, Christopher; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2001-11-01

    The absolute intensity of the optical second-harmonic response and its spectral (ωfund≈0.9-2.5 eV) dependence has been measured for Ag(111), polycrystalline Ag, 4-Aminothiophenol/Ag (4-ATP/Ag) and decanethiol/Ag (DT/Ag) surfaces in contact with a liquid electrolyte. Preliminary spectra are also reported for polycrystalline Au and Cu(111) samples. For second-harmonic energies below the plasmon resonance, the magnitude of the nonlinear optical response of clean Ag samples increases as electrode potentials are made more positive. This trend reverses itself for energies above the plasmon resonance. The adsorbate-covered surfaces show a weak or nonexistent potential dependence. A unique feature is found in the 4-ATP/Ag spectra which could possibly be due to a surface charge-transfer state. The Ag results are discussed in the context of a free-electron response from which the spectral and potential dependence of the complex microscopic parameter, a(ω), are extracted. The features in the Au and Cu(111) spectra are not adequately described by this free-electron model and must be related to the effects of interband transitions on the nonlinear optical response.

  12. Understanding the Carbon Cycle : A Jigsaw Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, D. W.

    2006-12-01

    A thorough understanding of the carbon cycle is fundamental to understanding the eventual fate of CO2. To achieve this, students must understand individual processes, such as photosynthesis and respiration, as well as an integrated knowledge of how these processes relate to each other. In this "jigsaw" exercise, each student is assigned one five fundamental geochemical processes in the short- term carbon cycle to research and fully understand. In class, students first meet with others who have studied the same process to strengthen and deepen their understanding of this process. They then form teams of five students and explain to other students their particular process. In exchange, other students explain the other aspects of the carbon cycle. At the end of class all students will know about each of the five processes, and thus develop an integrated understanding of the entire carbon cycle. This approach is an efficient method for students to learn the material. As in a jigsaw puzzle, each student's part is essential for the full understanding of the carbon cycle. Since each student's part is essential, then each student is essential, which is what makes this strategy effective The jigsaw approach encourages listening, engagement, and collaboration by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in the academic activity.

  13. Self-organizing maps based on limit cycle attractors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di-Wei; Gentili, Rodolphe J; Reggia, James A

    2015-03-01

    Recent efforts to develop large-scale brain and neurocognitive architectures have paid relatively little attention to the use of self-organizing maps (SOMs). Part of the reason for this is that most conventional SOMs use a static encoding representation: each input pattern or sequence is effectively represented as a fixed point activation pattern in the map layer, something that is inconsistent with the rhythmic oscillatory activity observed in the brain. Here we develop and study an alternative encoding scheme that instead uses sparsely-coded limit cycles to represent external input patterns/sequences. We establish conditions under which learned limit cycle representations arise reliably and dominate the dynamics in a SOM. These limit cycles tend to be relatively unique for different inputs, robust to perturbations, and fairly insensitive to timing. In spite of the continually changing activity in the map layer when a limit cycle representation is used, map formation continues to occur reliably. In a two-SOM architecture where each SOM represents a different sensory modality, we also show that after learning, limit cycles in one SOM can correctly evoke corresponding limit cycles in the other, and thus there is the potential for multi-SOM systems using limit cycles to work effectively as hetero-associative memories. While the results presented here are only first steps, they establish the viability of SOM models based on limit cycle activity patterns, and suggest that such models merit further study.

  14. Learning Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Learning Disabilities Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities are disorders that affect the ability ...

  15. The Usability Analysis of an E-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torun, Fulya; Tekedere, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    In this research, an E-learning environment is developed for the teacher candidates taking the course on Scientific Research Methods. The course contents were adapted to one of the constructivist approach models referred to as 5E, and an expert opinion was received for the compliance of this model. An usability analysis was also performed to…

  16. Implementing Inquiry-Based Learning in Teaching Serial Dilutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Candace L.; McGill, Michael T.; Buikema, Arthur L., Jr.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The 5E model of inquiry-based learning was incorporated into a sophomore-level microbiology laboratory to increase student understanding of serial dilutions, a concept that is often difficult for most students to comprehend. Quantitative and qualitative assessments were conducted during the semester to determine the value of this approach for…

  17. What can we learn about an early human influence on the global methane cycle from bipolar atmospheric CH4, δD(CH4) and δ13CH4 measurements during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Jonas; Bock, Michael; Schmitt, Jochen; Seth, Barbara; Blunier, Thomas; Fischer, Hubertus

    2015-04-01

    The past variation of the concentration of atmospheric methane (CH4) is observed to be generally in phase with the northern summer insolation cycle driven by the precession of the rotation axis of the Earth. However, in the mid-Holocene this regularity breaks down, and atmospheric CH4 starts to rise while the northern summer insolation continues to decline. Despite different attempts to explain this feature (e.g. contrasting hypotheses on early human influences or enhanced natural emissions in the southern tropics), an unambiguous explanation of the evolution of the atmospheric methane concentration has not yet been found. In addition to the inter-polar difference (IPD) of methane, allowing us to draw conclusions about the hemispheric imbalance of the source and sink distribution, the isotopic composition (δD and δ13C) of atmospheric CH4 provides further information about the methane cycle. Each source emits methane of a typical isotope signature, and each sink process leads to a certain isotopic fractionation and, thus, influences the isotopic composition of atmospheric methane. To exploit the full parameter set, we measured the methane isotopes on ice cores from both polar regions (NGRIP from Greenland; EDML and Talos Dome from Antarctica) and are able to calculate the inter-polar difference of δD (IPDδD) and δ13C (IPDδ13C) of methane over the Holocene. To avoid systematic errors, the samples from both hemispheres have been measured on the same system and during the same measurement campaign for each parameter. The NGRIP δD data show a clear covariation with the long-term changes in CH4 concentrations during the Holocene. The δD variations of 8-10 o are significantly larger than our measurement error of 2.3 o. However, the resulting IPDδD is constant within the measurement error at approximately -16.5 o (north-south) during the entire Holocene. The δ13C records (with a measurement precision of 0.13 o) show a clear decrease in δ13C of about 1.9 o and an

  18. A puzzle used to teach the cardiac cycle.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Fernanda K; Moura, Maria J C S; Sanches, Andrea; Costa, Rafaela; de Lima, Patricia Oliveira; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Amaral, Maria E C; Zeni, Paula; Gaviao, Kelly Cristina; Montrezor, Luís H

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present article is to describe a puzzle developed for use in teaching cardiac physiology classes. The puzzle presents figures of phases of the cardiac cycle and a table with five columns: phases of cardiac cycle, atrial state, ventricular state, state of atrioventricular valves, and pulmonary and aortic valves. Chips are provided for use to complete the table. Students are requested to discuss which is the correct sequence of figures indicating the phases of cardiac cycle. Afterward, they should complete the table with the chips. Students of biology, dentistry, medicine, pharmacy, and nursing graduation courses from seven institutions performed the puzzle evaluation. They were invited to indicate whether the puzzle had been useful for learning about the subject by filling one of four alternatives. Of the students, 4.6% answered that it was not necessary but helped them to confirm what they had learned, 64.5% reported that although they had previously understood the cardiac cycle, the puzzle helped them to solve doubts and promoted a better understanding of it, and 30.9% said that they needed the puzzle to understand the cardiac cycle, without differences among courses, institutions, and course semesters. The results of the present study suggest that a simple and inexpensive puzzle may be useful as an active learning methodology applied after the theoretical lecture, as a complementary tool for studying cardiac cycle physiology.

  19. Kalina cycle application to gas turbine combined cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorge, R.W.; Corman, J.C.; Smith, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Gas turbine-based combined cycles have gained broad market acceptance due to their favorable economics, high efficiency and excellent environmental performance. Combined-cycle performance improvements have tracked the rapid advance of gas turbine technology. The introduction of the steam-cooled STAG 107H and 109H combined-cycle systems with their 60% net plant efficiency capability is the latest step in this trend. High-efficiency steam bottoming cycles have also advanced, with the current state-of-the-art being the three-pressure reheat cycle. The Kalina Cycle utilizing a mixture of ammonia and water as the working fluid promises to further continue these combined cycle-performance improvements with dramatic changes in the bottoming cycle. These improvements are due to non-isothermal heat acquisition and heat rejection, as well as internal heat recuperation, which reduce losses of thermodynamic availability, or exergy, in the cycle. This paper discusses the application of the Kalina Cycle to gas turbine-based combined cycles, including system design and performance characteristics. It compares Kalina Cycle performance and economics with that of a state-of-the-art steam bottoming cycle, showing the potential economic advantages of this innovative cycle in combined-cycle applications. Several variants of the Kalina Cycle system and the Distillation Condensation Subsystem (DCSS), which replaces the condenser as the heat rejection and recuperation system of the Kalina Cycle, have been studied. Results show that the Kalina Cycle can enhance the gas turbine bottoming cycle power output by over 15% when compared with a three-pressure reheat Rankine bottoming cycle. This yields an efficiency improvement of 2-3 percentage points, a significant advance in the state-of-the-art. Based on these substantial performance gains, GE is pursuing the commercialization of the Kalina Cycle for combined-cycle applications under a worldwide exclusive license from Exergy, Inc.

  20. The Remedial Effect of a Biological Learning Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of a structured learning game in overcoming learning difficulties encountered by Israeli students when studying the life cycles of fungi because of lack of structural conceptualization. The Fungi Life Cycle Game (FLCG) was used by undergraduate students enrolled in a phytopathology course. (HM)

  1. Teaching and Learning International Survey TALIS 2013: Conceptual Framework. Final

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutkowski, David; Rutkowski, Leslie; Bélanger, Julie; Knoll, Steffen; Weatherby, Kristen; Prusinski, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the initial cycle of the OECD's Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS 2008) established, for the first time, an international, large-scale survey of the teaching workforce, the conditions of teaching, and the learning environments of schools in participating countries. The second cycle of TALIS (TALIS 2013) aims to continue…

  2. Helium process cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  3. Helium process cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  4. Molecular variants of human papilloma virus 16 E2, E4, E5, E6 and E7 genes associated with cervical neoplasia in Romanian patients.

    PubMed

    Plesa, Adriana; Anton, Gabriela; Iancu, Iulia V; Diaconu, Carmen C; Huica, Irina; Stanescu, Anca D; Socolov, Demetra; Nistor, Elena; Popa, Elena; Stoian, Mihai; Botezatu, Anca

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and associate the sequence variations of human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) genes from women who live in two different areas of Romania and associate them with malignant progression. One hundred twenty-four HPV16-positive cervical isolates were collected, and the E2, E4, E5, E6 and E7 viral genes were sequenced. Two new missense mutations in the E6 gene (C279G and A305C) were found (together or alone, in association with other mutations) in 44 of 124 cases. The most frequently simultaneously mutated genes were E4/E2 hinge, E5 and E6 (p = 0.0004) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) samples. Also, for SCC patients, the best-correlated mutation patterns were obtained for E4/E2 hinge-E5 (r = 0.7984; p < 0.0001). No sample was found to have all of the investigated viral genes concurrently mutated. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to characterize the viral variants. Similar results were found for SCC and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III (CINIII) cases. After all of the target gene sequences were assembled, all patients were found to be infected with viruses of the HPV16- European-German (EG) lineage, and two clusters were identified, the first (55/96 variants) from Moldavia and the second (41/96 variants) from Bucharest. The distinct cluster derived from EG in Moldavia could partially explain the increased frequency of SCC in this area. This study has generated a comprehensive set of sequence variation data on HPV16 circulating in Romania to join the existing data and highlight the important role of HPV16 variants during cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:25143263

  5. The global sulfur cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, D. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The results of the planetary biology microbial ecology's 1984 Summer Research Program, which examined various aspects of the global sulfur cycle are summarized. Ways in which sulfur flows through the many living and chemical species that inhabit the surface of the Earth were investigated. Major topics studied include: (1) sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototropic and filamentous sulfur bacteria; (2) sulfur reduction in sediments of marine and evaporite environments; (3) recent cyanobacterial mats; (4) microanalysis of community metabolism in proximity to the photic zone in potential stromatolites; and (5) formation and activity of microbial biofilms on metal sulfides and other mineral surfaces. Relationships between the global sulfur cycle and the understanding of the early evolution of the Earth and biosphere and current processes that affect global habitability are stressed.

  6. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Kotsubo, Vincent Y.

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  7. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  8. The urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Helman, Guy; Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-07-01

    The urea cycle is the primary nitrogen-disposal pathway in humans. It requires the coordinated function of six enzymes and two mitochondrial transporters to catalyze the conversion of a molecule of ammonia, the α-nitrogen of aspartate, and bicarbonate into urea. Whereas ammonia is toxic, urea is relatively inert, soluble in water, and readily excreted by the kidney in the urine. Accumulation of ammonia and other toxic intermediates of the cycle lead to predominantly neurologic sequelae. The disorders may present at any age from the neonatal period to adulthood, with the more severely affected patients presenting earlier in life. Patients are at risk for metabolic decompensation throughout life, often triggered by illness, fasting, surgery and postoperative states, peripartum, stress, and increased exogenous protein load. Here the authors address neurologic presentations of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in detail, the most common of the urea cycle disorders, neuropathology, neurophysiology, and our studies in neuroimaging. Special attention to late-onset presentations is given.

  9. Breaking a vicious cycle.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Daniel F; Allen, Jeff; Compton, Carolyn; Gustavsen, Gary; Leonard, Debra G B; McCormack, Robert; Newcomer, Lee; Pothier, Kristin; Ransohoff, David; Schilsky, Richard L; Sigal, Ellen; Taube, Sheila E; Tunis, Sean R

    2013-07-31

    Despite prodigious advances in tumor biology research, few tumor-biomarker tests have been adopted as standard clinical practice. This lack of reliable tests stems from a vicious cycle of undervaluation, resulting from inconsistent regulatory standards and reimbursement, as well as insufficient investment in research and development, scrutiny of biomarker publications by journals, and evidence of analytical validity and clinical utility. We offer recommendations designed to serve as a roadmap to break this vicious cycle and call for a national dialogue, as changes in regulation, reimbursement, investment, peer review, and guidelines development require the participation of all stakeholders. PMID:23903752

  10. Revenue cycle management.

    PubMed

    Manley, Ray; Satiani, Bhagwan

    2009-11-01

    With the widening gap between overhead expenses and reimbursement, management of the revenue cycle is a critical part of a successful vascular surgery practice. It is important to review the data on all the components of the revenue cycle: payer contracting, appointment scheduling, preregistration, registration process, coding and capturing charges, proper billing of patients and insurers, follow-up of accounts receivable, and finally using appropriate benchmarking. The industry benchmarks used should be those of peers in identical groups. Warning signs of poor performance are discussed enabling the practice to formulate a performance improvement plan.

  11. Cycles in fossil diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  12. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Christy, John R.; Goodman, Steven J.; Miller, Tim L.; Fitzjarrald, Dan; Lapenta, Bill; Wang, Shouping

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates changes on both global and regional scales. The following subject areas are covered: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) diabatic heating; (4) MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) temperature analysis; (5) Optimal precipitation and streamflow analysis; (6) CCM (Community Climate Model) hydrological cycle; (7) CCM1 climate sensitivity to lower boundary forcing; and (8) mesoscale modeling of atmosphere/surface interaction.

  13. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  14. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the fast growing capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system. The group of techniques that as a class have been referred to as Synthetic Battery Cycling is developed in part to try to bridge the gap of understanding that exists between single cell characteristics and battery system behavior.

  15. Understanding the petrochemical cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, W.

    1996-10-01

    The presentation will examine the nature of the supply, demand and profitability cycles that appear to be endemic in the petrochemical industry. The focus will be on the underlying factors that cause cyclicality. Data for ethylene and first line derivatives will be used both to provide quantitative illustrations of the magnitude of the cyclical effects and to give an improved perspective on the forces that drive cylicality. We will also examine to what extent cycle timing may be predictable, and present some scenario based projections.

  16. Life Developmental Tasks and Related Learning Needs and Outcomes. NSIEE Occasional Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupp, Judy-Arin

    Major life developmental tasks are identified, along with the learning outcomes necessary to fulfill those tasks for adults from age 17 to retirement. Attention is directed to the important connection between life cycle change and adult learning as well as seven assumptions underlying life cycle theory. Developmental tasks and learning needs are…

  17. Cycling/dispatching power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.

    1994-02-01

    This article examines the effect cycling capability has on a power systems plants and the tradeoffs in performance that may occur. The topics of this article include cycling capability, control and training tools, combined cycles, steam turbine selection, protection against water induction, plant staffing, boiler/steam turbines, full turbine bypasses, cycling of CFB boilers, generators, and environmental control system uses to monitor performance.

  18. The SCF-FBXW5 E3-ubiquitin ligase is regulated by PLK4 and targets HsSAS-6 to control centrosome duplication.

    PubMed

    Puklowski, Anja; Homsi, Yahya; Keller, Debora; May, Martin; Chauhan, Sangeeta; Kossatz, Uta; Grünwald, Viktor; Kubicka, Stefan; Pich, Andreas; Manns, Michael P; Hoffmann, Ingrid; Gönczy, Pierre; Malek, Nisar P

    2011-08-01

    Deregulated centrosome duplication can result in genetic instability and contribute to tumorigenesis. Here, we show that centrosome duplication is regulated by the activity of an E3-ubiquitin ligase that employs the F-box protein FBXW5 (ref. 3) as its targeting subunit. Depletion of endogenous FBXW5 or overexpression of an F-box-deleted mutant version results in centrosome overduplication and formation of multipolar spindles. We identify the centriolar protein HsSAS-6 (refs 4,5) as a critical substrate of the SCF-FBXW5 complex. FBXW5 binds HsSAS-6 and promotes its ubiquitylation in vivo. The activity of SCF-FBXW5 is in turn negatively regulated by Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4), which phosphorylates FBXW5 at Ser 151 to suppress its ability to ubiquitylate HsSAS-6. FBXW5 is a cell-cycle-regulated protein with expression levels peaking at the G1/S transition. We show that FBXW5 levels are controlled by the anaphase-promoting (APC/C) complex, which targets FBXW5 for degradation during mitosis and G1, thereby helping to reset the centrosome duplication machinery. In summary, we show that a cell-cycle-regulated SCF complex is regulated by the kinase PLK4, and that this in turn restricts centrosome re-duplication through degradation of the centriolar protein HsSAS-6. PMID:21725316

  19. Stellar magnetic cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baliunas, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Is hope for understanding the solar magnetic cycle to be found in stars? Observations of stars with significant sub-surface convective zones -- masses smaller than about 1.5 solar masses on the lower main sequence and many types of cool, post-main-sequence stars -- indicate the presence of surface and atmospheric inhomogeneities analogous to solar magnetic features, making stellar magnetic activity a cosmically widespread phenomenon. Observations have been made primarily in visible wavelengths, and important information has also been derived from the ultraviolet and x-ray spectrum regions. Interannual to interdecadal variability of spectrum indicators of stellar magnetic features is common, and in some cases similar in appearance to the 11-year sunspot cycle. Successful models of the physical processes responsible for stellar magnetic cycles, typically cast as a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo, require advances in understanding not only convection but also the magnetic field's interaction with it. The observed facts that underpin the hope for models will be summarized. Properties of stellar magnetic cycles will be compared and contrasted with those of the sun, including inferences from paleo-environmental reservoirs that contain information on solar century- to millennial-scale magnetic variability. Partial support of this research came from NASA NAG5-7635, NRC COBASE, CRDF 322, MIT-MSG 5710001241, JPL 1236821, AF 49620-02-1-0194, Richard Lounsberry Foundation, Langley-Abbot, Rollins, Scholarly Studies and James Arthur Funds (Smithsonian Institution) and several generous individuals.

  20. Assisted Cycling Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses Assisted Cycling Tours (ACT), a Westminster, Colorado based 501(c)3, non-profit that is offering the joy of bicycle tours in breathtaking, scenic locations to children and adults with developmental and physical disabilities and their families. ACT was founded by Bob Matter and his son David with a goal of opening up the…

  1. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  2. Re-Cycling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert W.; Covault, Corbin E.

    2015-01-01

    An old comedy routine on Saturday Night Live by Father Guido Sarducci introduced a "Five-Minute University," because five minutes is all that's remembered after graduation anyway. In counterpoint, we discuss "cycling," a teaching method for memory enhancement. Our principal implementation consists of offering a simple version…

  3. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  4. Rapid cycling superconducting magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbricatore, P.; Farinon, S.; Gambardella, U.; Greco, M.; Volpini, G.

    2006-04-01

    The paper deals with the general problematic related to the development of fast cycled superconducting magnets for application in particle accelerator machines. Starting from the requirements of SIS300 synchrotron under design at GSI and an envisaged future Super-SPS injector at CERN, it is shown which developments are mandatory in the superconducting wire technology and in the magnet design field.

  5. Stirling cycle piston engine

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, G. R.

    1985-02-12

    This device is an improvement over the conventional type of Stirling cycle engine where the expander piston is connected to a crankshaft and the displacer piston is connected to the same or another crankshaft for operation. The improvement is based on both the expansion and displacer pistons being an integral unit having regenerating means which eliminate the mechanisms that synchronize the regeneration mode.

  6. Enabling Creative Learning Design through Semantic Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Patricia; Magoulas, George; Laurillard, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The paper advocates an approach to learning design that considers it as creating digital artefacts that can be extended, modified and used for different purposes. This is realised through an "act becoming artefact" cycle, where users' actions in the authors' software environment, named Learning Designer, are automatically interpreted on the basis…

  7. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  8. The Human Adenovirus Type 5 E4orf6/E1B55K E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Enhances E1A Functional Activity.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Frédéric; Schreiner, Sabrina; Blair, G Eric; Dobner, Thomas; Branton, Philip E; Blanchette, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus (Ad) E1A proteins have long been known as the central regulators of virus infection as well as the major source of adenovirus oncogenic potential. Not only do they activate expression of other early viral genes, they make viral replication possible in terminally differentiated cells, at least in part, by binding to the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor family of proteins to activate E2F transcription factors and thus viral and cellular DNA synthesis. We demonstrate in an accompanying article (F. Dallaire et al., mSphere 1:00014-15, 2016) that the human adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by the E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic E1A activation of E2F transactivation factors. Acting alone in the absence of E1A, the Ad5 E4orf6 protein in complex with E1B55K was shown to bind E2F, disrupt E2F/Rb complexes, and induce hyperphosphorylation of Rb, leading to induction of viral and cellular DNA synthesis, as well as stimulation of early and late viral gene expression and production of viral progeny. While these activities were significantly lower than those exhibited by E1A, we report here that this ligase complex appeared to enhance E1A activity in two ways. First, the E4orf6/E1B55K complex was shown to stabilize E1A proteins, leading to higher levels in infected cells. Second, the complex was demonstrated to enhance the activation of E2F by E1A products. These findings indicated a new role of the E4orf6/E1B55K ligase complex in promoting adenovirus replication. IMPORTANCE Following our demonstration that adenovirus E3 ubiquitin ligase formed by the viral E4orf6 and E1B55K proteins is able to mimic the activation of E2F by E1A, we conducted a series of studies to determine if this complex might also promote the ability of E1A to do so. We found that the complex both significantly stabilizes E1A proteins and also enhances their ability to activate E2F. This finding is of significance because it represents an entirely new function for

  9. Parabolic maneuvers of the Swiss Air Force fighter jet F-5E as a research platform for cell culture experiments in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studer, Marc; Bradacs, Gesine; Hilliger, Andre; Hürlimann, Eva; Engeli, Stephanie; Thiel, Cora S.; Zeitner, Peter; Denier, Beat; Binggeli, Markus; Syburra, Thomas; Egli, Marcel; Engelmann, Frank; Ullrich, Oliver

    2011-06-01

    Long-term sensitivity of human cells to reduced gravity has been supposed since the first Apollo missions and was demonstrated during several space missions in the past. However, little information is available on primary and rapid gravi-responsive elements in mammalian cells. In search of rapid-responsive molecular alterations in mammalian cells, short-term microgravity provided by parabolic flight maneuvers is an ideal way to elucidate such initial and primary effects. Modern biomedical research at the cellular and molecular level requires frequent repetition of experiments that are usually performed in sequences of experiments and analyses. Therefore, a research platform on Earth providing frequent, easy and repeated access to real microgravity for cell culture experiments is strongly desired. For this reason, we developed a research platform onboard the military fighter jet aircraft Northrop F-5E "Tiger II". The experimental system consists of a programmable and automatically operated system composed of six individual experiment modules, placed in the front compartment, which work completely independent of the aircraft systems. Signal transduction pathways in cultured human cells can be investigated after the addition of an activator solution at the onset of microgravity and a fixative or lysis buffer after termination of microgravity. Before the beginning of a regular military training flight, a parabolic maneuver was executed. After a 1 g control phase, the parabolic maneuver starts at 13,000 ft and at Mach 0.99 airspeed, where a 22 s climb with an acceleration of 2.5 g is initiated, following a free-fall ballistic Keplerian trajectory lasting 45 s with an apogee of 27,000 ft at Mach 0.4 airspeed. Temperature, pressure and acceleration are monitored constantly during the entire flight. Cells and activator solutions are kept at 37 °C during the entire experiment until the fixative has been added. The parabolic flight profile provides up to 45 s of

  10. The global water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oki, Taikan; Entekhabi, Dara; Harrold, Timothy Ives

    The global water cycle consists of the oceans, water in the atmosphere, and water in the landscape. The cycle is closed by the fluxes between these reservoirs. Although the amounts of water in the atmosphere and river channels are relatively small, the fluxes are high, and this water plays a critical role in society, which is dependent on water as a renewable resource. On a global scale, the meridional component of river runoff is shown to be about 10% of the corresponding atmospheric and oceanic meridional fluxes. Artificial storages and water withdrawals for irrigation have significant impacts on river runoff and hence on the overall global water cycle. Fully coupled atmosphere-land-river-ocean models of the world's climate are essential to assess the future water resources and scarcities in relation to climate change. An assessment of future water scarcity suggests that water shortages will worsen, with a very significant increase in water stress in Africa. The impact of population growth on water stress is shown to be higher than that of climate change. The virtual water trade, which should be taken into account when discussing the global water cycle and water scarcity, is also considered. The movement of virtual water from North America, Oceania, and Europe to the Middle East, North West Africa, and East Asia represents significant global savings of water. The anticipated world water crisis widens the opportunities for the study of the global water cycle to contribute to the development of sustainability within society and to the solution of practical social problems.

  11. Novel 2-phenyl-5-[(E)-2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 3-phenyl-5-[(E)-2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethenyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives as dengue virus inhibitors targeting NS5 polymerase.

    PubMed

    Benmansour, Fatiha; Eydoux, Cécilia; Querat, Gilles; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Canard, Bruno; Alvarez, Karine; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Barral, Karine

    2016-02-15

    Using a functional high-throughput screening (HTS) and subsequent SAR studies, we have discovered a novel series of non-nucleoside dengue viral polymerase inhibitors. We report the elaboration of SAR around hit compound 1 as well as the synthesis and antiviral evaluation of 3-phenyl-5-[(E)-2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethenyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazole and 5-phenyl-2-[2-(2-thienyl)ethenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues derived from a rapid and easily accessible chemical pathway. A large number of compounds prepared by this method were shown to possess in vitro activity against the polymerase of dengue virus. The most potent inhibitors were tested against Dengue virus clinical isolates on infected cells model and exhibit submicromolar activity on the four dengue virus serotypes. PMID:26774922

  12. Novel 2-phenyl-5-[(E)-2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 3-phenyl-5-[(E)-2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethenyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives as dengue virus inhibitors targeting NS5 polymerase.

    PubMed

    Benmansour, Fatiha; Eydoux, Cécilia; Querat, Gilles; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Canard, Bruno; Alvarez, Karine; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Barral, Karine

    2016-02-15

    Using a functional high-throughput screening (HTS) and subsequent SAR studies, we have discovered a novel series of non-nucleoside dengue viral polymerase inhibitors. We report the elaboration of SAR around hit compound 1 as well as the synthesis and antiviral evaluation of 3-phenyl-5-[(E)-2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethenyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazole and 5-phenyl-2-[2-(2-thienyl)ethenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole analogues derived from a rapid and easily accessible chemical pathway. A large number of compounds prepared by this method were shown to possess in vitro activity against the polymerase of dengue virus. The most potent inhibitors were tested against Dengue virus clinical isolates on infected cells model and exhibit submicromolar activity on the four dengue virus serotypes.

  13. Learning to Love Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Ben; Littky, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Too often, teachers in public schools do not have the time to get to know their students or tailor their instruction to students' interests. As a result, many students lose interest in school. The Met School, a public high school in Providence, Rhode Island, is designed to help students enjoy school while learning real-world skills. Castleman and…

  14. Learning English, Learning Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Using science notebooks effectively in the classroom can encourage students who are learning English to keep up and keep interested. English language proficiency might head the list of content areas that schools can teach properly and effectively through science. Amaral, Garrison, and Klentschy (2002) reported that a successful inquiry-based…

  15. Learning How to Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.; Gowin, D. Bob

    This eight-chapter book clearly presents a theory of how children learn and, therefore, how teachers and others can help children think about science as well as other topics. Its ideas and techniques may be adopted for preschoolers when objects are conceptually ordered, or for theoretical physicists when findings are conceptually organized. In…

  16. Adopting Technology: Using Student Qualitative Data and Gartner's Hype Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundmeyer, Trent

    2014-01-01

    Technology is changing education. School leaders are charged with purchasing and leveraging technology to maximize an ever-changing landscape of teaching and learning. They have many factors to consider as they make decisions about what specific technologies to purchase for their schools. Gartner's Hype Cycle is an annually published report that…

  17. All about Animal Life Cycles. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    While watching the development from tadpole to frog, caterpillar to butterfly, and pup to wolf, children learn about the life cycles of animals, the different stages of development, and the average life spans of a variety of creatures. This videotape correlates to the following National Science Education Standards for Life Science: characteristics…

  18. Your Elementary Pupil and the Writer's Cycle of Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Donald M.

    1969-01-01

    Pupils can learn to write more effectively if they go through the cycle of prewriting, writing, and rewriting practiced by the publishing author. The writing class should not be hampered through studying writing backward, from the process of reading, or through the restrictive efforts of a too-precise teacher. By becoming aware of his world and…

  19. Service Learning and Learning Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, Kimberly

    This paper argues that service learning and learning communities can be key to student retention. Anderson (1998) argues that service learning reflects the belief that education should develop social responsibility and prepare students to be involved citizens in democratic life. Service learning blends service activities with the academic…

  20. Professional Learning Drives Common Core and Educator Evaluation, Knowledge Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen; Hirsh, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate key to successful integration and implementation of college- and career-ready standards and educator evaluation systems is the quality of the professional learning that educators engage in every day. Effective professional learning at the school level occurs among a team of teachers learning in a cycle of continuous improvement.…

  1. Implementation of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Elliot P.; Chiu, Chu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes implementation and testing of an active learning, team-based pedagogical approach to instruction in engineering. This pedagogy has been termed Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL), and is based upon the learning cycle model. Rather than sitting in traditional lectures, students work in teams to complete worksheets…

  2. Chemical Energy: A Learning Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ita; Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive teaching/learning chemical energy package was developed to overcome conceptual/experimental difficulties and time required for calculation of enthalpy changes. The package consists of five types of activities occuring in repeated cycles: group activities, laboratory experiments, inquiry questionnaires, teacher-led class…

  3. Learn, how to learn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2002-12-01

    Ernest L. Boyer, in his 1990 book, "Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate" cites some ground breaking studies and offers a new paradigm that identifies the need to recognize the growing conversation about teaching, scholarship and research in the Universities. The use of `ACORN' model suggested by Hawkins and Winter to conquer and mastering change, may offer some helpful hints for the novice professor, whose primary objective might be to teach students to `learn how to learn'. Action : It is possible to effectively change things only when a teaching professor actually tries out a new idea. Communication : Changes are successful only when the new ideas effectively communicated and implemented. Ownership : Support for change is extremely important and is critical. Only strong commitment for accepting changes demonstrates genuine leadership. Reflection : Feedback helps towards thoughtful evaluation of the changes implemented. Only reflection can provide a tool for continuous improvement. Nurture : Implemented changes deliver results only when nurtured and promoted with necessary support systems, documentation and infrastructures. Inspired by the ACORN model, the author experimented on implementing certain principles of `Total Quality Management' in the classroom. The author believes that observing the following twenty principles would indeed help the student learners how to learn, on their own towards achieving the goal of `Lifelong Learning'. The author uses an acronym : QUOTES : Quality Underscored On Teaching Excellence Strategy, to describe his methods for improving classroom teacher-learner participation. 1. Break down all barriers. 2. Create consistency of purpose with a plan. 3. Adopt the new philosophy of quality. 4. Establish high Standards. 5. Establish Targets / Goals. 6. Reduce dependence on Lectures. 7. Employ Modern Methods. 8. Control the Process. 9. Organize to reach goals. 10. Prevention vs. Correction. 11. Periodic Improvements. 12

  4. The microbial nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Jetten, Mike S M

    2008-11-01

    This special issue highlights several recent discoveries in the microbial nitrogen cycle including the diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in special habitats, distribution and contribution of aerobic ammonium oxidation by bacteria and crenarchaea in various aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, regulation of metabolism in nitrifying bacteria, the molecular diversity of denitrifying microorganisms and their enzymes, the functional diversity of freshwater and marine anammox bacteria, the physiology of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation and the degradation of recalcitrant organic nitrogen compounds. Simultaneously the articles in this issue show that many questions still need to be addressed, and that the microbes involved in catalyzing the nitrogen conversions still harbour many secrets that need to be disclosed to fully understand the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, and make future predictions and global modelling possible.

  5. Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, M. G.; Sherman, A.; Studer, P. A.; Daniels, A.; Goldowsky, M. P.

    1983-06-01

    A long lifetime Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler particularly adapted for space applications is described. It consists of a compressor section centrally aligned end to end with an expansion section, and respectively includes a reciprocating compressor piston and displacer radially suspended in interconnecting cylindrical housings by active magnetic bearings and has adjacent reduced clearance regions so as to be in noncontacting relationship therewith and wherein one or more of these regions operate as clearance seals. The piston and displacer are reciprocated in their housings by linear drive motors to vary the volume of respectively adjacent compression and expansion spaces which contain a gaseous working fluid and a thermal regenerator to effect Stirling cycle cryogenic cooling.

  6. Archaea in biogeochemical cycles.

    PubMed

    Offre, Pierre; Spang, Anja; Schleper, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Archaea constitute a considerable fraction of the microbial biomass on Earth. Like Bacteria they have evolved a variety of energy metabolisms using organic and/or inorganic electron donors and acceptors, and many of them are able to fix carbon from inorganic sources. Archaea thus play crucial roles in the Earth's global geochemical cycles and influence greenhouse gas emissions. Methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation are important steps in the carbon cycle; both are performed exclusively by anaerobic archaea. Oxidation of ammonia to nitrite is performed by Thaumarchaeota. They represent the only archaeal group that resides in large numbers in the global aerobic terrestrial and marine environments on Earth. Sulfur-dependent archaea are confined mostly to hot environments, but metal leaching by acidophiles and reduction of sulfate by anaerobic, nonthermophilic methane oxidizers have a potential impact on the environment. The metabolisms of a large number of archaea, in particular those dominating the subsurface, remain to be explored.

  7. Gondwanaland's seasonal cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.; Short, David A.; Mengel, John G.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional energy balance climate model has been used to simulate the seasonal temperature cycle on a supercontinent-sized land mass. Experiments with idealized and realistic geography indicate that the land-sea configuration in high latitudes exerts a strong influence on the magnitude of summer warming. These simulations provide significant insight into the evolution of climate during the Palaeozoic, and raise questions about the presumed pre-eminent role of carbon dioxide in explaining long-term climate change.

  8. Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Deborah J.

    2014-10-28

    These slides will be presented at the training course “International Training Course on Implementing State Systems of Accounting for and Control (SSAC) of Nuclear Material for States with Small Quantity Protocols (SQP),” on November 3-7, 2014 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The slides provide a basic overview of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. This is a joint training course provided by NNSA and IAEA.

  9. Stirling cycle engine

    DOEpatents

    Lundholm, Gunnar

    1983-01-01

    In a Stirling cycle engine having a plurality of working gas charges separated by pistons reciprocating in cylinders, the total gas content is minimized and the mean pressure equalization among the serial cylinders is improved by using two piston rings axially spaced at least as much as the piston stroke and by providing a duct in the cylinder wall opening in the space between the two piston rings and leading to a source of minimum or maximum working gas pressure.

  10. The carbon dioxide cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, P.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Titus, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal CO2 cycle on Mars refers to the exchange of carbon dioxide between dry ice in the seasonal polar caps and gaseous carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This review focuses on breakthroughs in understanding the process involving seasonal carbon dioxide phase changes that have occurred as a result of observations by Mars Global Surveyor. ?? 2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    PubMed

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  12. Cycling around a Curve: The Effect of Cycling Speed on Steering and Gaze Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Van Hamme, David; Veelaert, Peter; Philippaerts, Renaat; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that visual information guides steering, it is still unclear whether a curvature matching strategy or a ‘look where you are going’ strategy is used while steering through a curved road. The current experiment investigated to what extent the existing models for curve driving also apply to cycling around a curve, and tested the influence of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. Twenty-five participants were asked to cycle through a semicircular lane three consecutive times at three different speeds while staying in the center of the lane. The observed steering behavior suggests that an anticipatory steering strategy was used at curve entrance and a compensatory strategy was used to steer through the actual bend of the curve. A shift of gaze from the center to the inside edge of the lane indicates that at low cycling speed, the ‘look where you are going’ strategy was preferred, while at higher cycling speeds participants seemed to prefer the curvature matching strategy. Authors suggest that visual information from both steering strategies contributes to the steering system and can be used in a flexible way. Based on a familiarization effect, it can be assumed that steering is not only guided by vision but that a short-term learning component should also be taken into account. PMID:25068380

  13. Cycling around a curve: the effect of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior.

    PubMed

    Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Van Hamme, David; Veelaert, Peter; Philippaerts, Renaat; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that visual information guides steering, it is still unclear whether a curvature matching strategy or a 'look where you are going' strategy is used while steering through a curved road. The current experiment investigated to what extent the existing models for curve driving also apply to cycling around a curve, and tested the influence of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. Twenty-five participants were asked to cycle through a semicircular lane three consecutive times at three different speeds while staying in the center of the lane. The observed steering behavior suggests that an anticipatory steering strategy was used at curve entrance and a compensatory strategy was used to steer through the actual bend of the curve. A shift of gaze from the center to the inside edge of the lane indicates that at low cycling speed, the 'look where you are going' strategy was preferred, while at higher cycling speeds participants seemed to prefer the curvature matching strategy. Authors suggest that visual information from both steering strategies contributes to the steering system and can be used in a flexible way. Based on a familiarization effect, it can be assumed that steering is not only guided by vision but that a short-term learning component should also be taken into account. PMID:25068380

  14. Getting to the Root of the Problem in Experiential Learning: Using Problem Solving and Collective Reflection to Improve Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard J.; Maellaro, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Experiential learning alone does not guarantee that students will accurately conceptualize content, or meet course outcomes in subsequent active experimentation stages. In an effort to more effectively meet learning objectives, the experiential learning cycle was modified with a unique combination of the 5 Whys root cause problem-solving tool and…

  15. The papillomavirus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Doorbar, John

    2005-03-01

    Papillomaviruses infect epithelial cells, and depend on epithelial differentiation for completion of their life cycle. The expression of viral gene products is closely regulated as the infected basal cell migrates towards the epithelial surface. Expression of E6 and E7 in the lower epithelial layers drives cells into S-phase, which creates an environment that is conducive for viral genome replication and cell proliferation. Genome amplification, which is necessary for the production of infectious virions, is prevented until the levels of viral replication proteins rise, and depends on the co-expression of several viral proteins. Virus capsid proteins are expressed in cells that also express E4 as the infected cell enters the upper epithelial layers. The timing of these events varies depending on the infecting papillomavirus, and in the case of the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), on the severity of neoplasia. Viruses that are evolutionarily related, such as HPV1 and canine oral papillomavirus (COPV), generally organize their productive cycle in a similar way, despite infecting different hosts and epithelial sites. In some instances, such as following HPV16 infection of the cervix or cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) infection of domestic rabbits, papillomaviruses can undergo abortive infections in which the productive cycle of the virus is not completed. As with other DNA tumour viruses, such abortive infections can predispose to cancer. PMID:15753007

  16. Gap Cycling for SWIFT

    PubMed Central

    Corum, Curtis A.; Idiyatullin, Djaudat; Snyder, Carl J.; Garwood, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose SWIFT (SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation) is a non-Cartesian MRI method with unique features and capabilities. In SWIFT, radiofrequency (RF) excitation and reception are performed nearly simultaneously, by rapidly switching between transmit and receive during a frequency-swept RF pulse. Because both the transmitted pulse and data acquisition are simultaneously amplitude-modulated in SWIFT (in contrast to continuous RF excitation and uninterrupted data acquisition in more familiar MRI sequences), crosstalk between different frequency bands occurs in the data. This crosstalk leads to a “bulls-eye” artifact in SWIFT images. We present a method to cancel this inter-band crosstalk by cycling the pulse and receive gap positions relative to the un-gapped pulse shape. We call this strategy “gap cycling.” Methods We carry out theoretical analysis, simulation and experiments to characterize the signal chain, resulting artifacts, and their elimination for SWIFT. Results Theoretical analysis reveals the mechanism for gap-cycling’s effectiveness in canceling inter-band crosstalk in the received data. We show phantom and in-vivo results demonstrating bulls-eye artifact free images. Conclusion Gap cycling is an effective method to remove bulls-eye artifact resulting from inter-band crosstalk in SWIFT data. PMID:24604286

  17. Episodic Tremor and Slip: Cycles Within Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creager, K. C.; Wech, A.; Vidale, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events, each with geodetically determined moment magnitudes in the mid-6 range, repeat about every 15 months under the Olympic Peninsula/southern Vancouver Island region. We have automatically searched for non-volcanic tremor in all 5-minute time windows both during the past five ETS events and during the two inter-ETS periods from February, 2007 through April, 2008 and June 2008 through April 2009. Inter-ETS tremor was detected in 5000 windows, which overlap by 50%, so tremor was seen 2% of the time. The catalog of 5-minute tremor locations cluster in time and space into groups we call tremor swarms, revealing 50 inter-ETS tremor swarms. The number of hours of tremor per swarm ranged from about 1 to 68, totaling 374 hours. The inter-ETS tremor swarms generally locate along the downdip side of the major ETS events, and account for approximately 45% of the time that tremor has been detected during the last two entire ETS cycles. Many of the inter-ETS events are near-carbon copies in duration, spatial extent and propagation direction, as is seen for the larger 15-month-interval events. These 50 inter-ETS swarms plus two major ETS episodes follow a power law relationship such that the number of swarms, N, exceeding duration τ is given by N ˜ τ-0.7. If we assume that seismic moment is proportional to τ as proposed by Ide et al. [Nature, 2007], we find that the tremor swarms follow a standard Gutenberg-Richter logarithmic frequency-magnitude relation, N ˜ 10-bMw, with b = 1.0, which lies in the range for normal earthquake catalogs. Furthermore, the major ETS events fall on the curve defined by the inter-ETS swarms, suggesting that the inter-ETS swarms are just smaller versions of the major 15-month ETS events. Only the largest events coincide with geodetically observed slip, suggesting that current geodetic observations may be missing nearly half of the total slip. Finally, crude estimates of the spatial dimensions of tremor swarms L

  18. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability

    PubMed Central

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2, temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1), and

  19. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The global carbon cycle refers to the exchanges of carbon within and between four major reservoirs: the atmosphere, the oceans, land, and fossil fuels. Carbon may be transferred from one reservoir to another in seconds (e.g., the fixation of atmospheric CO2 into sugar through photosynthesis) or over millennia (e.g., the accumulation of fossil carbon (coal, oil, gas) through deposition and diagenesis of organic matter). This chapter emphasizes the exchanges that are important over years to decades and includes those occurring over the scale of months to a few centuries. The focus will be on the years 1980-2000 but our considerations will broadly include the years ˜1850-2100. Chapter 8.09, deals with longer-term processes that involve rates of carbon exchange that are small on an annual timescale (weathering, vulcanism, sedimentation, and diagenesis).The carbon cycle is important for at least three reasons. First, carbon forms the structure of all life on the planet, making up ˜50% of the dry weight of living things. Second, the cycling of carbon approximates the flows of energy around the Earth, the metabolism of natural, human, and industrial systems. Plants transform radiant energy into chemical energy in the form of sugars, starches, and other forms of organic matter; this energy, whether in living organisms or dead organic matter, supports food chains in natural ecosystems as well as human ecosystems, not the least of which are industrial societies habituated (addicted?) to fossil forms of energy for heating, transportation, and generation of electricity. The increased use of fossil fuels has led to a third reason for interest in the carbon cycle. Carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), forms two of the most important greenhouse gases. These gases contribute to a natural greenhouse effect that has kept the planet warm enough to evolve and support life (without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average temperature would be -33

  20. Neurological implications of urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Gropman, A L; Summar, M; Leonard, J V

    2007-11-01

    The urea cycle disorders constitute a group of rare congenital disorders caused by a deficiency of the enzymes or transport proteins required to remove ammonia from the body. Via a series of biochemical steps, nitrogen, the waste product of protein metabolism, is removed from the blood and converted into urea. A consequence of these disorders is hyperammonaemia, resulting in central nervous system dysfunction with mental status changes, brain oedema, seizures, coma, and potentially death. Both acute and chronic hyperammonaemia result in alterations of neurotransmitter systems. In acute hyperammonaemia, activation of the NMDA receptor leads to excitotoxic cell death, changes in energy metabolism and alterations in protein expression of the astrocyte that affect volume regulation and contribute to oedema. Neuropathological evaluation demonstrates alterations in the astrocyte morphology. Imaging studies, in particular (1)H MRS, can reveal markers of impaired metabolism such as elevations of glutamine and reduction of myoinositol. In contrast, chronic hyperammonaemia leads to adaptive responses in the NMDA receptor and impairments in the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, leading to alterations in cognition and learning. Therapy of acute hyperammonaemia has relied on ammonia-lowering agents but in recent years there has been considerable interest in neuroprotective strategies. Recent studies have suggested restoration of learning abilities by pharmacological manipulation of brain cGMP with phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Thus, both strategies are intriguing areas for potential investigation in human urea cycle disorders.

  1. Sustainable Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Joel

    2001-01-01

    Shows how architectural design can merge ecological living and learning as illustrated by the Wolf Ridge's new Environmental Learning Center in Finland, Minnesota. Photos and design details are provided. (GR)

  2. Chapter 5: Tertiary Short-Cycle Education in Bulgaria--In Search of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slantcheva-Durst, Snejana; Ivanov, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    This chapter traces the development of short-cycle higher education in Bulgaria. An emphasis is placed on (a) the evolution of nonuniversity short-cycle institutes and (b) the challenges of bridging the gap between secondary and higher education and creating links between vocational and academic learning pathways. The case study of Bulgaria may…

  3. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be rapid, ultra-rapid or ultradian cycling. Biological rhythm disturbances: This theory proposes that people with rapid cycling have daily biological rhythms that are out of sync with typical “ ...

  4. Fictitious Supercontinent Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    "Supercontinent cycles" or "Wilson cycles" is the idea that before Pangaea there were a series of supercontinents that each formed and then broke apart and separated before colliding again, re-aggregating, and suturing into a new supercontinent in a continuing sequence. I suggest that "supercontinent cycles" are artificial constructs, like planetary orbit epicycles, attempts to describe geological phenomena within the framework of problematic paradigms, namely, planetesimal Earth formation and plate tectonics' mantle convection. The so-called 'standard model of solar system formation' is problematic as it would lead to insufficiently massive planetary cores and necessitates additional ad hoc hypotheses such as the 'frost line' between Mars and Jupiter to explain planetary differences and whole-planet melting to explain core formation from essentially undifferentiated matter. The assumption of mantle convection is crucial for plate tectonics, not only for seafloor spreading, but also for continental movement; continent masses are assumed to ride atop convection cells. In plate tectonics, plate collisions are thought to be the sole mechanism for fold-mountain formation. Indeed, the occurrence of mountain chains characterized by folding which significantly predate the breakup of Pangaea is the primary basis for assuming the existence of supercontinent cycles with their respective periods of ancient mountain-forming plate collisions. Mantle convection is physically impossible. Rayleigh Number justification has been misapplied. The mantle bottom is too dense to float to the surface by thermal expansion. Sometimes attempts are made to obviate the 'bottom heavy' prohibition by adopting the tacit assumption that the mantle behaves as an ideal gas with no viscous losses, i.e., 'adiabatic'. But the mantle is a solid that does not behave as an ideal gas as evidenced by earthquakes occurring at depths as great as 660 km. Absent mantle convection, plate tectonics is not valid

  5. GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Toshio; Lawford, Richard; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    It is critically important to recognize and co-manage the fundamental linkages across the water-dependent domains; land use, including deforestation; ecosystem services; and food-, energy- and health-securities. Sharing coordinated, comprehensive and sustained observations and information for sound decision-making is a first step; however, to take full advantage of these opportunities, we need to develop an effective collaboration mechanism for working together across different disciplines, sectors and agencies, and thereby gain a holistic view of the continuity between environmentally sustainable development, climate change adaptation and enhanced resilience. To promote effective multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary collaboration based on coordinated and integrated efforts, the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). A component of GEOSS now under development is the "GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator (WCI)", which integrates Earth observations, modeling, data and information, management systems and education systems. GEOSS/WCI sets up "work benches" by which partners can share data, information and applications in an interoperable way, exchange knowledge and experiences, deepen mutual understanding and work together effectively to ultimately respond to issues of both mitigation and adaptation. (A work bench is a virtual geographical or phenomenological space where experts and managers collaborate to use information to address a problem within that space). GEOSS/WCI enhances the coordination of efforts to strengthen individual, institutional and infrastructure capacities, especially for effective interdisciplinary coordination and integration. GEO has established the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI) and GEOSS African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). Through regional, inter-disciplinary, multi-sectoral integration and inter-agency coordination in Asia and Africa, GEOSS

  6. GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, T.; Lawford, R. G.; Cripe, D.

    2012-12-01

    It is critically important to recognize and co-manage the fundamental linkages across the water-dependent domains; land use, including deforestation; ecosystem services; and food-, energy- and health-securities. Sharing coordinated, comprehensive and sustained observations and information for sound decision-making is a first step; however, to take full advantage of these opportunities, we need to develop an effective collaboration mechanism for working together across different disciplines, sectors and agencies, and thereby gain a holistic view of the continuity between environmentally sustainable development, climate change adaptation and enhanced resilience. To promote effective multi-sectoral, interdisciplinary collaboration based on coordinated and integrated efforts, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is now developing a "GEOSS Water Cycle Integrator (WCI)", which integrates "Earth observations", "modeling", "data and information", "management systems" and "education systems". GEOSS/WCI sets up "work benches" by which partners can share data, information and applications in an interoperable way, exchange knowledge and experiences, deepen mutual understanding and work together effectively to ultimately respond to issues of both mitigation and adaptation. (A work bench is a virtual geographical or phenomenological space where experts and managers collaborate to use information to address a problem within that space). GEOSS/WCI enhances the coordination of efforts to strengthen individual, institutional and infrastructure capacities, especially for effective interdisciplinary coordination and integration. GEO has established the GEOSS Asian Water Cycle Initiative (AWCI) and GEOSS African Water Cycle Coordination Initiative (AfWCCI). Through regional, inter-disciplinary, multi-sectoral integration and inter-agency coordination in Asia and Africa, GEOSS/WCI is now leading to effective actions and public awareness in support of water security and

  7. The Global Phosphorus Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttenberg, K. C.

    2003-12-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for all life forms. It is a key player in fundamental biochemical reactions (Westheimer, 1987) involving genetic material (DNA, RNA) and energy transfer (ATP), and in structural support of organisms provided by membranes (phospholipids) and bone (the biomineral hydroxyapatite). Photosynthetic organisms utilize dissolved phosphorus, carbon, and other essential nutrients to build their tissues using energy from the Sun. Biological productivity is contingent upon the availability of phosphorus to these simple organisms that constitute the base of the food web in both terrestrial and aquatic systems. (For reviews of P-utilization, P-biochemicals, and pathways in aquatic plants, see Fogg (1973), Bieleski and Ferguson (1983), and Cembella et al. (1984a, 1984b).)Phosphorus locked up in bedrock, soils, and sediments is not directly available to organisms. Conversion of unavailable forms to dissolved orthophosphate, which can be directly assimilated, occurs through geochemical and biochemical reactions at various stages in the global phosphorus cycle. Production of biomass fueled by P-bioavailability results in the deposition of organic matter in soils and sediments, where it acts as a source of fuel and nutrients to microbial communities. Microbial activity in soils and sediments, in turn, strongly influences the concentration and chemical form of phosphorus incorporated into the geological record.The global phosphorus cycle has four major components: (i) tectonic uplift and exposure of phosphorus-bearing rocks to the forces of weathering; (ii) physical erosion and chemical weathering of rocks producing soils and providing dissolved and particulate phosphorus to rivers; (iii) riverine transport of phosphorus to lakes and the ocean; and (iv) sedimentation of phosphorus associated with organic and mineral matter and burial in sediments (Figure 1). The cycle begins anew with uplift of sediments into the weathering regime.

  8. On the Importance of Cycle Minimum in Sunspot Cycle Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of the minima between sunspot cycles are found to provide important information for predicting the amplitude and timing of the following cycle. For example, the time of the occurrence of sunspot minimum sets the length of the previous cycle, which is correlated by the amplitude-period effect to the amplitude of the next cycle, with cycles of shorter (longer) than average length usually being followed by cycles of larger (smaller) than average size (true for 16 of 21 sunspot cycles). Likewise, the size of the minimum at cycle onset is correlated with the size of the cycle's maximum amplitude, with cycles of larger (smaller) than average size minima usually being associated with larger (smaller) than average size maxima (true for 16 of 22 sunspot cycles). Also, it was found that the size of the previous cycle's minimum and maximum relates to the size of the following cycle's minimum and maximum with an even-odd cycle number dependency. The latter effect suggests that cycle 23 will have a minimum and maximum amplitude probably larger than average in size (in particular, minimum smoothed sunspot number Rm = 12.3 +/- 7.5 and maximum smoothed sunspot number RM = 198.8 +/- 36.5, at the 95-percent level of confidence), further suggesting (by the Waldmeier effect) that it will have a faster than average rise to maximum (fast-rising cycles have ascent durations of about 41 +/- 7 months). Thus, if, as expected, onset for cycle 23 will be December 1996 +/- 3 months, based on smoothed sunspot number, then the length of cycle 22 will be about 123 +/- 3 months, inferring that it is a short-period cycle and that cycle 23 maximum amplitude probably will be larger than average in size (from the amplitude-period effect), having an RM of about 133 +/- 39 (based on the usual +/- 30 percent spread that has been seen between observed and predicted values), with maximum amplitude occurrence likely sometime between July 1999 and October 2000.

  9. Collaborative Learning: Group Interaction in an Intelligent Mobile-Assisted Multiple Language Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troussas, Christos; Virvou, Maria; Alepis, Efthimios

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a student-oriented approach tailored to effective collaboration between students using mobile phones for language learning within the life cycle of an intelligent tutoring system. For this reason, in this research, a prototype mobile application has been developed for multiple language learning that incorporates intelligence in…

  10. Re-Cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert W.; Covault, Corbin E.

    2015-11-01

    An old comedy routine on Saturday Night Live by Father Guido Sarducci introduced a "Five-Minute University," because five minutes is all that's remembered after graduation anyway. In counterpoint, we discuss "cycling," a teaching method for memory enhancement. Our principal implementation consists of offering a simple version of a given course in the first third of the semester, a deeper and more integrated version in the second third, and the final, targeted version in the last third. We describe the benefits and challenges in this tale from the trenches.

  11. Geomicrobiological cycling of antimony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, T. R.; Terry, L.; Dovick, M. A.; Braiotta, F.

    2013-12-01

    Microbiologically catalyzed oxidation and reduction of toxic metalloids (e.g., As, Se, and Te) generally proceeds much faster than corresponding abiotic reactions. These microbial transformations constitute biogeochemical cycles that control chemical speciation and environmental behavior of metalloids in aqueous environments. Particular progress has been made over the past two decades in documenting microbiological biotransformations of As, which include anaerobic respiratory reduction of As(V) to As(III), oxidation of As(III) to As(V) linked to chemoautotrophy or photoautotrophy, and cellular detoxification pathways. By contrast, microbial interactions with Sb, As's group 15 neighbor and a toxic element of emerging global concern, are poorly understood. Our work with sediment microcosms, enrichment cultures, and bacterial isolates suggests that prokaryotic metabolisms may be similarly important to environmental Sb cycling. Enrichment cultures and isolates from a Sb-contaminated mine site in Idaho exhibited Sb(V)-dependent heterotrophic respiration under anaerobic conditions and Sb(III)-dependent autotrophic growth in the presence of air. Live, anoxic cultures reduced 2 mM Sb(V) to Sb(III) within 5 d, while no activity occurred in killed controls. Sb(V) reduction was stimulated by lactate or acetate and was quantitatively coupled to the oxidation of lactate. The oxidation of radiolabeled 14C-acetate (monitored by GC-GPC) demonstrated Sb(V)-dependent oxidation to 14CO2, suggesting a dissimilatory process. Sb(V) dependent growth in cultures was demonstrated by direct counting. Microbiological reduction of Sb(V) also occurred in anerobic sediment microcosms from an uncontaminated suburban lake, but did not appear to be linked to growth and is interpreted as a mechanism of biological detoxification. Aerobic microcosms and cultures from the Idaho mine oxidized 2 mM Sb(III) to Sb(V) within 7 d and coupled this reaction to cell growth quantified by direct counting. An

  12. Natural Cycles, Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.; Rood, R. B.; Aikin, A. C.; Stolarski, R. S.; Mccormick, M. P.; Fahey, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The major gaseous components of the exhaust of stratospheric aircraft are expected to be the products of combustion (CO2 and H2O), odd nitrogen (NO, NO2 HNO3), and products indicating combustion inefficiencies (CO and total unburned hydrocarbons). The species distributions are produced by a balance of photochemical and transport processes. A necessary element in evaluating the impact of aircraft exhaust on the lower stratospheric composition is to place the aircraft emissions in perspective within the natural cycles of stratospheric species. Following are a description of mass transport in the lower stratosphere and a discussion of the natural behavior of the major gaseous components of the stratospheric aircraft exhaust.

  13. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  14. Liquid air cycle engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosevear, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    Given here is a definition of Liquid Air Cycle Engines (LACE) and existing relevant technologies. Heat exchanger design and fabrication techniques, the handling of liquid hydrogen to achieve the greatest heat sink capabilities, and air decontamination to prevent heat exchanger fouling are discussed. It was concluded that technology needs to be extended in the areas of design and fabrication of heat exchangers to improve reliability along with weight and volume reductions. Catalysts need to be improved so that conversion can be achieved with lower quantities and lower volumes. Packaging studies need to be investigated both analytically and experimentally. Recycling with slush hydrogen needs further evaluation with experimental testing.

  15. Combating Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvensivu, Anu; Koski, Pasi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look at workplace learning through research into sociology of work. It explores the "learning discourse" at work place level looking for possibilities to oppose learning. Design/methodology/approach: This paper is based on case studies conducted at six workplaces. The data on the cases include interviews…

  16. Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnanakan, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This book upholds the idea of learning and education as a means to individual development and social empowerment. It presents a holistic picture, looking at learning as an integral part of one's social and physical life. Strongly differing from existing classroom perspectives, the book analyses integrated learning at its broadest possible…

  17. Collaborative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Reiner, Sherry, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Descriptions of 10 college programs involving collaborative learning are presented, along with Karen T. Romer's essay, "Collaboration: New Forms of Learning, New Ways of Thinking." The essay identifies various kinds of collaborative learning as well as the benefits of collaborative models. The following programs and schools are described: the…

  18. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Catlin; Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Catlin Tucker, author of "Blended Learning in Grades 4-12," is an English language arts teacher at Windsor High School in Sonoma County, CA. In this conversation with "Principal Leadership," she defines blended learning as a formal education program in which a student is engaged in active learning in part online where they…

  19. Lifeworthy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David N.

    2016-01-01

    What learning really matters for today's learners? In this article, David N. Perkins promises not to provide the answer, but rather to consider how we might think about the question. Learning that matters--which he calls lifeworthy learning--is characterized by four earmarks: opportunity, insight, action, and ethics. Educators should ask…

  20. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  1. Assessing Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Heidi; Huff, Kristen; Brooke, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Assessing student learning often promotes anxiety among students--and among teachers--not only because they worry about the results but because the items tested do not seem to reflect what students have learned. When assessment is student centered, however, it can promote learning and even motivation. Student-centered assessment shares many…

  2. Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imbriale, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Teachers always have been and always will be the essential element in the classroom. They can create magic inside four walls, but they have never been able to create learning environments outside the classroom like they can today, thanks to blended learning. Blended learning allows students and teachers to break free of the isolation of the…

  3. Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sittiprapaporn, Wichian, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Learning disability is a classification that includes several disorders in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner. Depending on the type and severity of the disability, interventions may be used to help the individual learn strategies that will foster future success. Some interventions can be quite simplistic, while others are…

  4. Cell cycle effects of drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Dethlefsen, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Cell Growth and Division Cycle; Cell Cycle Effects of Alkylating Agents; Biological Effects of Folic Acid Antagonists with Antineoplastic Activity; and Bleomycin-Mode of Action with Particular Reference to the Cell Cycle.

  5. Revenue cycle management: part I.

    PubMed

    Crew, Matt

    2006-01-01

    The revenue cycle starts long before a patient is seen and continues until a claim is completely resolved. Each step in the revenue cycle must be clearly defined and easy to follow. Use of various tools such as templates, forms, reports, spreadsheets, and components of your practice management system will help to provide the consistency you need for profitable revenue cycle management.

  6. Developing a Safe Cycling Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Amy Backus

    1983-01-01

    A cycling course can take advantage of students' interests, teach safe cycling, and give students a fuller appreciation of a lifetime sport. Suggestions for planning and scheduling a cycling course, covering safety procedures, and considering other elements necessary for a successful course are given. (PP)

  7. Sometimes "Newton's Method" Always "Cycles"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latulippe, Joe; Switkes, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Are there functions for which Newton's method cycles for all non-trivial initial guesses? We construct and solve a differential equation whose solution is a real-valued function that two-cycles under Newton iteration. Higher-order cycles of Newton's method iterates are explored in the complex plane using complex powers of "x." We find a class of…

  8. Culture in cycles: considering H.T. Odum's 'information cycle'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    'Culture' remains a conundrum in anthropology. When recast in the mold of 'information cycles,' culture is transformed. New fault lines appear. Information is splintered into parallel or nested forms. Dynamics becomes cycling. Energy is essential. And culture has function in a directional universe. The 'information cycle' is the crowning component of H.T. Odum's theory of general systems. What follows is an application of the information cycle to the cultural domains of discourse, social media, ritual, education, journalism, technology, academia, and law, which were never attempted by Odum. In information cycles, cultural information is perpetuated - maintained against Second Law depreciation. Conclusions are that culture is in fact a nested hierarchy of cultural forms. Each scale of information production is semi-autonomous, with its own evolutionary dynamics of production and selection in an information cycle. Simultaneously, each information cycle is channeled or entrained by its larger scale of information and ultimately human-ecosystem structuring.

  9. Science Illiteracy: Breaking the Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2003-12-01

    At the University of Arizona, as at many state universities and colleges, the introductory science classes for non-science majors may be the only science classes that future K--8 teachers will take. The design of the UA's General Education program requires all future non-science certified teachers to take the General Education science classes. These classes are therefore an ideal venue for the training of the state's future teachers. Many students, often including future teachers, are ill-prepared for college, i.e., they lack basic science content knowledge, basic mathematics skills, and reading and writing skills. They also lack basic critical thinking skills and study skills. It is within this context that our future teachers are trained. How do we break the cycle of science illiteracy? There is no simple solution, and certainly not a one-size-fits-all panacea that complements every professor's style of instruction. However, there are several programs at the University of Arizona, and also principles that I apply in my own classes, that may be adaptable in other classrooms. Assessment of K--12 students' learning supports the use of inquiry-based science instruction. This approach can be incorporated in college classes. Modeling proven and productive teaching methods for the future teachers provides far more than ``just the facts,'' and all students gain from the inquiry approach. Providing authentic research opportunities employs an inquiry-based approach. Reading (outside the textbook) and writing provide feedback to students with poor writing and critical thinking skills. Using peer tutors and an instant messaging hot line gives experience to the tutors and offers "comfortable" assistance to students.

  10. Enculturating Seamless Language Learning through Artifact Creation and Social Interaction Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chai, Ching Sing; Aw, Guat Poh; King, Ronnel B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a design-based research (DBR) cycle of MyCLOUD (My Chinese ubiquitOUs learning Days). MyCLOUD is a seamless language learning model that addresses identified limitations of conventional Chinese language teaching, such as the decontextualized and unauthentic learning processes that usually hinder reflection and deep learning.…

  11. The Substance Beneath the Labels of Experiential Learning: The Importance of John Dewey for Outdoor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ord, Jon; Leather, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper recommends a reconceptualisation of "experience learning". It is premised on a belief that the simplistic learning cycle is problematic and moreover is an oversimplified interpretation of Kolb's original model of experiential learning. We argue that to understand experiential learning fully a return to the original theoretical…

  12. Following the Water Cycle to Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    systems learning model based on feedback and limits to perception. I focus on a part of the course that builds on connections that start in the hydrosphere and that includes some basic experiential learning about the water cycle and students' reliance on it. We measure and visualize aspects of the water cycle in nearby areas of campus (designated as an outdoor classroom and demonstration garden). The evapotranspiration flow is used to introduce notions of what can happen when flows are not sensed (e.g., invisible to us). Students use an online water footprint calculator to discover how large their water reliance is, particularly through energy generation, food consumption and food waste; and how far their water reach extends (virtual water trade). They consider the ethical implications of their water use in a world in which it is becoming a more rare resource and in some cases a valued commodity. They learn about non-utilitarian values of water based on an activity on the values of nature. They look at local, community-based efforts to improve water quality and to re-localize water dependence. A reading from Aldo Leopold puts the water cycle in a historical and cultural perspective. The water cycle is strongly interwoven with natural and human energy systems, the climate system, the carbon cycle, nutrient cycles, the rock cycle, and serves as a starting point to reach many other topics.

  13. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burn for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  14. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  15. The centriole duplication cycle.

    PubMed

    Fırat-Karalar, Elif Nur; Stearns, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centre of animal cells and are important for many critical cellular and developmental processes from cell polarization to cell division. At the core of the centrosome are centrioles, which recruit pericentriolar material to form the centrosome and act as basal bodies to nucleate formation of cilia and flagella. Defects in centriole structure, function and number are associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer, brain diseases and ciliopathies. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how new centrioles are assembled and how centriole number is controlled. We propose a general model for centriole duplication control in which cooperative binding of duplication factors defines a centriole 'origin of duplication' that initiates duplication, and passage through mitosis effects changes that license the centriole for a new round of duplication in the next cell cycle. We also focus on variations on the general theme in which many centrioles are created in a single cell cycle, including the specialized structures associated with these variations, the deuterosome in animal cells and the blepharoplast in lower plant cells.

  16. The centriole duplication cycle

    PubMed Central

    Fırat-Karalar, Elif Nur; Stearns, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centre of animal cells and are important for many critical cellular and developmental processes from cell polarization to cell division. At the core of the centrosome are centrioles, which recruit pericentriolar material to form the centrosome and act as basal bodies to nucleate formation of cilia and flagella. Defects in centriole structure, function and number are associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer, brain diseases and ciliopathies. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how new centrioles are assembled and how centriole number is controlled. We propose a general model for centriole duplication control in which cooperative binding of duplication factors defines a centriole ‘origin of duplication’ that initiates duplication, and passage through mitosis effects changes that license the centriole for a new round of duplication in the next cell cycle. We also focus on variations on the general theme in which many centrioles are created in a single cell cycle, including the specialized structures associated with these variations, the deuterosome in animal cells and the blepharoplast in lower plant cells. PMID:25047614

  17. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. As part of the NASA Technical Standards Program activities, engineering lessons learned datasets have been identified from a number of sources. These are being searched and screened for those having a relation to Technical Standards. This paper will address some of these Systems Engineering Lessons Learned and how they are being related to Technical Standards within the NASA Technical Standards Program, including linking to the Agency's Interactive Engineering Discipline Training Courses and the life cycle for a flight vehicle development program.

  18. Learning to Learn through Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Observational learning is theoretically conceptualized as a skill that can be developed along a learning hierarchy from acquisition and fluency development to generalization of imitative behavior. This review characterizes these levels of observational learning and details differential teaching strategies that have been attempted at each level…

  19. Learning, Culture, and Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge about a culture is best understood as situated cognition, that is, contexts are inseparable from cognitive processes. Learning about a culture is similar to learning about a practice; both require new ways of perceiving, interpreting, and communicating experience. Successful learning depends both on individual factors and on access to…

  20. Open cycle thermoacoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Robert Stowers

    2000-01-01

    A new type of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process is discussed and experimentally demonstrated. The gas flowing through this device can be heated or cooled in a series of semi-open cyclic steps. The combination of open and cyclic flows makes possible the elimination of some or all of the heat exchangers (with their associated irreversibility). Heat is directly exchanged with the process fluid as it flows through the device when operating as a refrigerator, producing a staging effect that tends to increase First Law thermodynamic efficiency. An open-flow thermoacoustic refrigerator was built to demonstrate this concept. Several approaches are presented that describe the physical characteristics of this device. Tests have been conducted on this refrigerator with good agreement with a proposed theory.

  1. Sulphur geodynamic cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kagoshima, Takanori; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Fischer, Tobias P.; Hattori, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes to the surface environments is important to elucidate the geochemical cycle of sulphur and the evolution of ocean chemistry. This paper presents S/3He ratios of vesicles in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalt glass together with the ratios of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids to calculate the sulphur flux of 100 Gmol/y at MOR. The S/3He ratios of high-temperature volcanic gases show sulphur flux of 720 Gmol/y at arc volcanoes (ARC) with a contribution from the mantle of 2.9%, which is calculated as 21 Gmol/y. The C/S flux ratio of 12 from the mantle at MOR and ARC is comparable to the C/S ratio in the surface inventory, which suggests that these elements in the surface environments originated from the upper mantle. PMID:25660256

  2. Deep sulfur cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, N.; Mandeville, C. W.

    2009-12-01

    Geochemical cycle of sulfur in near-surface reservoirs has been a subject of intense studies for decades. It has been shown that sulfur isotopic compositions of sedimentary sulfides and sulfates record interactions of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and lithosphere, with δ34S of sedimentary sulfides continuously decreasing from 0‰ toward present-day values of ~-30 to -40‰ over the Phanerozoic (e.g., Canfield, 2004). It has also been shown that microbial reduction of the present-day seawater sulfate (δ34S=+21‰) results in large shifts in isotopic compositions of secondary pyrites in altered oceanic crust (to δ34S=-70‰: Rouxel et al., 2009). How much of these near surface isotopic variations survive during deep geochemical cycle of sulfur interacting with the mantle infinite reservoir with δ34S=0‰? Could extent of their survival be used as a tracer of processes and dynamics involved in deep geochemical cycle? As a first step toward answering these questions, δ34S was determined in-situ using a Cameca IMS 1280 ion microprobe at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in materials representing various domains of deep geochemical cycle. They include pyrites in altered MORB as potential subducting materials and pyrites in UHP eclogites as samples that have experienced subduction zone processes, and mantle-derived melts are represented by olivine-hosted melt inclusions in MORB and those in IAB, and undegassed submarine OIB glasses. Salient features of the results include: (1) pyrites in altered MORB (with O. Rouxel; from ODP site 801 and ODP Hole 1301B) range from -70 to +19‰, (2) pyrites in UHP eclogites from the Western Gneiss Region, Norway (with B. Hacker and A. Kylander-Clark) show a limited overall range from -3.4 to + 2.8‰ among five samples, with one of them covering almost the entire range, indicating limited scale lengths of isotopic equilibration during subduction, (3) olivine-hosted melt inclusions in arc basalts from Galunggung (-2

  3. The supercontinent cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Nance, R.D.; Worsley, T.R.; Moody, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This paper discusses a new theory of plate tectonics which proposes that Pangaea was only the most recent in a series of supercontinents that have been breaking up and reassembling every 500 million years or so. The cycle, driven by heat percolating up from the mantle, splits continents and drives interrelated processes that shape the earth's geology and climate and play a role in biological evolution. The framework of the supercontinent theory makes it possible to understand the timing of changes in sea level that have taken place in the past 570 million years, and also helps to explain periods of intense mountain building, episodes of glaciation, and changes in the nature of life on the earth.

  4. The Pyrogenic Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Michael I.; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Saiz, Gustavo; Wurster, Christopher M.; McBeath, Anna

    2015-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC; includes soot, char, black carbon, and biochar) is produced by the incomplete combustion of organic matter accompanying biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption. PyC is pervasive in the environment, distributed throughout the atmosphere as well as soils, sediments, and water in both the marine and terrestrial environment. The physicochemical characteristics of PyC are complex and highly variable, dependent on the organic precursor and the conditions of formation. A component of PyC is highly recalcitrant and persists in the environment for millennia. However, it is now clear that a significant proportion of PyC undergoes transformation, translocation, and remineralization by a range of biotic and abiotic processes on comparatively short timescales. Here we synthesize current knowledge of the production, stocks, and fluxes of PyC as well as the physical and chemical processes through which it interacts as a dynamic component of the global carbon cycle.

  5. Nutrient Cycling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The particular goal of this study is to develop measurement techniques for understanding how consortia of organisms from geothermal facilities utilize sulfur and iron for metabolic activity; and in turn, what role that activity plays in initiating or promoting the development of a biofilm on plant substrates. Sulfur cycling is of interest because sulfur is produced in the resource. Iron is found in some of the steel formulations used in plant components and is also added as chemical treatment for reducing sulfide emissions from the plants. This report describes the set-up and operation of a bioreactor for evaluating the response of colonies of geothermal organisms to changes in nutrient and environmental conditions. Data from initial experiments are presented and plans for future testing is discussed.

  6. Sulphur geodynamic cycle.

    PubMed

    Kagoshima, Takanori; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; Maruoka, Teruyuki; Fischer, Tobias P; Hattori, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of volcanic and hydrothermal fluxes to the surface environments is important to elucidate the geochemical cycle of sulphur and the evolution of ocean chemistry. This paper presents S/(3)He ratios of vesicles in mid-ocean ridge (MOR) basalt glass together with the ratios of high-temperature hydrothermal fluids to calculate the sulphur flux of 100 Gmol/y at MOR. The S/(3)He ratios of high-temperature volcanic gases show sulphur flux of 720 Gmol/y at arc volcanoes (ARC) with a contribution from the mantle of 2.9%, which is calculated as 21 Gmol/y. The C/S flux ratio of 12 from the mantle at MOR and ARC is comparable to the C/S ratio in the surface inventory, which suggests that these elements in the surface environments originated from the upper mantle. PMID:25660256

  7. Coupled quantum Otto cycle.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; Johal, Ramandeep S

    2011-03-01

    We study the one-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg model of two spin-1/2 systems as a quantum heat engine. The engine undergoes a four-step Otto cycle where the two adiabatic branches involve changing the external magnetic field at a fixed value of the coupling constant. We find conditions for the engine efficiency to be higher than in the uncoupled model; in particular, we find an upper bound which is tighter than the Carnot bound. A domain of parameter values is pointed out which was not feasible in the interaction-free model. Locally, each spin seems to cause a flow of heat in a direction opposite to the global temperature gradient. This feature is explained by an analysis of the local effective temperature of the spins.

  8. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  9. Prediction of Solar Cycle Maximum Using Solar Cycle Lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    2008-03-01

    If the rise time RT, fall time FT, and total time TT ( i.e., RT+FT) of a solar cycle are compared against the maximum amplitude Rz(max ) for the following cycle, then only the association between TT and Rz(max ) is inferred to be well anticorrelated, inferring that the larger (smaller) the value of Rz(max ) for the following cycle, the shorter (longer) the TT of the preceding cycle. Although the inferred correlation (-0.68) is statistically significant, the inferred standard error of estimate is quite large, so predictions using the inferred correlation are not very precise. Removal of cycle pairs 15/16, 19/20, and 20/21 (statistical outliers) yields a regression that is highly statistically significant (-0.85) and reduces the standard error of estimate by 18%. On the basis of the adjusted regression and presuming TT=140 months for cycle 23, the present ongoing cycle, cycle 24’s 90% prediction interval for Rz(max ) is estimated to be about 94±44, inferring only a 5% probability that its Rz(max ) will be larger than about 140, unless of course cycle pair 23/24 is a statistical outlier.

  10. Searching for a Stellar Cycle and Spin in Proxima Cen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wargelin, Bradford J.; Saar, S. H.; Kashyap, V. L.; Drake, J. J.

    2010-03-01

    Although hundreds of stars have been optically monitored to look for analogs of the solar 11-year activity cycle, almost no M stars have been examined because of their optical faintness, particularly in the CaII H and K lines that are the basis of most studies. Proxima Cen (dM5.5e) has been monitored somewhat regularly in the optical and UV and there have have been tentative reports of stellar periods ranging from 1.2 to 7 years. Any cyclicity would be surprising since Prox Cen is fully convective and should not have an αΩ dynamo. Several rotation periods have also been suggested, with 83 days currently favored. We present preliminary results on variability and rotation period after monitoring Prox Cen for nearly a year using Swift. Support for this work was provided by NASA through Swift Grant Number NNX09AR09G.

  11. Enhanced Student Learning with Problem Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, James

    2008-01-01

    Science educators define a learning environment in which the problem drives the learning as problem based learning (PBL). Problem based learning can be a learning methodology/process or a curriculum based on its application by the teacher. This paper discusses the basic premise of Problem base learning and successful applications of such learning.…

  12. Student Learning and the Menstrual Cycle: Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    1988-01-01

    Available research evidence indicates that the process of menstruation has no effect on academic performance as measured by quantitative tests, and that subjective complaints of paramenstrual dysfunction originate in socially mediated beliefs rather than any objective impairment. The consequences for higher education institutions and student…

  13. Learning Cycle: What Is the Biological Definition of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley

    2006-01-01

    For many biology classes, the year begins with the study of characteristics of life. Many biology teachers have their students read lists from biology books and then have examinations about those characteristics. However, it is doubtful if students really understand what those characteristics mean "in terms of the life of an organism." They may…

  14. Making It Better: Research, Assessment, and Recursive Learning Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookover, Robert; Timmerman, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This article provides case study examples of how assessment efforts led to and have been enhanced by the creation of integrated curriculum delivery models in parks, recreation, and tourism programs at Clemson University and the University of Utah.

  15. Using Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle in Chapter Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes-Eley, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Student-led chapter presentations provide an excellent opportunity for instructors to evaluate a student's comprehension of the assigned chapter, as well as the student's ability to present and convey information in a public forum. Although several instructors realize the benefits of requiring students to complete chapter presentations either as…

  16. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17β are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving

  17. Reproductive cycles of buffalo.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2011-04-01

    The domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) has an important role in the agricultural economy of many developing countries in Asia, providing milk, meat and draught power. It is also used in some Mediterranean and Latin American countries as a source of milk and meat for specialized markets. Although the buffalo can adapt to harsh environments and live on poor quality forage, reproductive efficiency is often compromised by such conditions, resulting in late sexual maturity, long postpartum anoestrus, poor expression of oestrus, poor conception rates and long calving intervals. The age at puberty is influenced by genotype, nutrition, management and climate, and under favourable conditions occurs at 15-18 months in river buffalo and 21-24 months in swamp buffalo. The ovaries are smaller than in cattle and contain fewer primordial follicles. Buffalo are capable of breeding throughout the year, but in many countries a seasonal pattern of ovarian activity occurs. This is attributed in tropical regions to changes in rainfall resulting in feed availability or to temperature stress resulting in elevated prolactin secretion, and in temperate regions to changes in photoperiod and melatonin secretion. The mean length of the oestrous cycle is 21 days, with greater variation than observed in cattle. The signs of oestrus in buffalo are less overt than in cattle and homosexual behaviour between females is rare. The duration of oestrus is 5-27 h, with ovulation occurring 24-48 h (mean 34 h) after the onset of oestrus. The hormonal changes occurring in peripheral circulation are similar to those observed in cattle, but the peak concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol-17β are less. The number of follicular waves during an oestrous cycle varies from one to three and influences the length of the luteal phase as well as the inter-ovulatory interval. Under optimal conditions, dairy types managed with limited or no suckling resume oestrus cyclicity by 30-60 days after calving

  18. The Global Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, J. N.

    2003-12-01

    Once upon a time nitrogen did not exist. Today it does. In the intervening time the universe was formed, nitrogen was created, the Earth came into existence, and its atmosphere and oceans were formed! In this analysis of the Earth's nitrogen cycle, I start with an overview of these important events relative to nitrogen and then move on to the more traditional analysis of the nitrogen cycle itself and the role of humans in its alteration.The universe is ˜15 Gyr old. Even after its formation, there was still a period when nitrogen did not exist. It took ˜300 thousand years after the big bang for the Universe to cool enough to create atoms; hydrogen and helium formed first. Nitrogen was formed in the stars through the process of nucleosynthesis. When a star's helium mass becomes great enough to reach the necessary pressure and temperature, helium begins to fuse into still heavier elements, including nitrogen.Approximately 10 Gyr elapsed before Earth was formed (˜4.5 Ga (billion years ago)) by the accumulation of pre-assembled materials in a multistage process. Assuming that N2 was the predominate nitrogen species in these materials and given that the temperature of space is -270 °C, N2 was probably a solid when the Earth was formed since its boiling point (b.p.) and melting point (m.p.) are -196 °C and -210 °C, respectively. Towards the end of the accumulation period, temperatures were probably high enough for significant melting of some of the accumulated material. The volcanic gases emitted by the resulting volcanism strongly influenced the surface environment. Nitrogen was converted from a solid to a gas and emitted as N2. Carbon and sulfur were probably emitted as CO and H2S (Holland, 1984). N2 is still the most common nitrogen volcanic gas emitted today at a rate of ˜2 TgN yr-1 (Jaffee, 1992).Once emitted, the gases either remained in the atmosphere or were deposited to the Earth's surface, thus continuing the process of biogeochemical cycling. The rate of

  19. Advanced regenerative absorption refrigeration cycles

    DOEpatents

    Dao, Kim

    1990-01-01

    Multi-effect regenerative absorption cycles which provide a high coefficient of performance (COP) at relatively high input temperatures. An absorber-coupled double-effect regenerative cycle (ADR cycle) (10) is provided having a single-effect absorption cycle (SEA cycle) (11) as a topping subcycle and a single-effect regenerative absorption cycle (1R cycle) (12) as a bottoming subcycle. The SEA cycle (11) includes a boiler (13), a condenser (21), an expansion device (28), an evaporator (31), and an absorber (40), all operatively connected together. The 1R cycle (12) includes a multistage boiler (48), a multi-stage resorber (51), a multisection regenerator (49) and also uses the condenser (21), expansion device (28) and evaporator (31) of the SEA topping subcycle (11), all operatively connected together. External heat is applied to the SEA boiler (13) for operation up to about 500 degrees F., with most of the high pressure vapor going to the condenser (21) and evaporator (31) being generated by the regenerator (49). The substantially adiabatic and isothermal functioning of the SER subcycle (12) provides a high COP. For higher input temperatures of up to 700 degrees F., another SEA cycle (111) is used as a topping subcycle, with the absorber (140) of the topping subcycle being heat coupled to the boiler (13) of an ADR cycle (10). The 1R cycle (12) itself is an improvement in that all resorber stages (50b-f) have a portion of their output pumped to boiling conduits (71a-f) through the regenerator (49), which conduits are connected to and at the same pressure as the highest pressure stage (48a) of the 1R multistage boiler (48).

  20. Model for learning global properties

    SciTech Connect

    Eitner, P.; Kochen, M.

    1981-01-01

    The authors report developments in a mathematical model of cognitive learning. The model describes the processes of formation, testing and revision of hypotheses held by a learner attempting to understand an environment. The fundamental assumption is that learning proceeds by a feedback cycle where hypotheses are tested for validity against external reality and reweighted according to the outcome. A particular application of this model to the case of mechanical beetle, mapping a geometrical environment, yields results of interest in artificial intelligence and robot design including results on the computability of several geometrical predicates. 11 references.

  1. The Cycles of Math and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Rock, David

    2002-01-01

    Introduces lesson plans on cycles designed for middle school students. Activities include: (1) "Boiling and Evaporation"; (2) "Experimenting with Evaporation"; (3) "Condensation and the Water Cycle"; and (4) "Understanding Cycles". Explains the mathematical applications of cycles. (YDS)

  2. How do prokaryotic cells cycle?

    PubMed

    Margolin, William; Bernander, Rolf

    2004-09-21

    This issue of Current Biology features five reviews covering various key aspects of the eukaryotic cell cycle. The topics include initiation of chromosome replication, assembly of the mitotic spindle, cytokinesis, the regulation of cell-cycle progression, and cell-cycle modeling, focusing mainly on budding yeast, fission yeast and animal cell model systems. The reviews underscore common themes as well as key differences in the way these processes are carried out and regulated among the different model organisms. Consequently, an important question is how cell-cycle mechanisms and controls have evolved, particularly in the broader perspective of the three domains of life.

  3. Regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, L. C.; Stovall, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    PRESTO computer program was developed to analyze performance of wide range of steam turbine cycles with special attention given to regenerative superheated steam turbine cycles. It can be used to model standard turbine cycles, including such features as process steam extraction, induction and feedwater heating by external sources, peaking, and high back pressure. Expansion line efficiencies, exhaust loss, leakages, mechanical losses, and generator losses are used to calculate cycle heat rate and generator output. Program provides power engineer with flexible aid for design and analysis of steam turbine systems.

  4. Self-organizing biochemical cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    I examine the plausibility of theories that postulate the development of complex chemical organization without requiring the replication of genetic polymers such as RNA. One conclusion is that theories that involve the organization of complex, small-molecule metabolic cycles such as the reductive citric acid cycle on mineral surfaces make unreasonable assumptions about the catalytic properties of minerals and the ability of minerals to organize sequences of disparate reactions. Another conclusion is that data in the Beilstein Handbook of Organic Chemistry that have been claimed to support the hypothesis that the reductive citric acid cycle originated as a self-organized cycle can more plausibly be interpreted in a different way.

  5. Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.A.; MacDonald, G.J.

    1997-07-11

    Narrow spectral features in ocean sediment records offer strong evidence that the cycles of glaciation were driven by astronomical forces. Two million years ago, the cycles match the 41,000-year period of Earth`s obliquity. This supports the Croll/Milankovitch theory, which attributes the cycles to variations in insolation. But for the past million years, the spectrum is dominated by a single 100,000-year feature and is a poor match to the predictions of insolation models. The spectrum can be accounted for by a theory that derives the cycles of glaciation from variations in the inclination of Earth`s orbital plane.

  6. The nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen is the fourth most abundant element in cellular biomass, and it comprises the majority of Earth's atmosphere. The interchange between inert dinitrogen gas (N2) in the extant atmosphere and 'reactive nitrogen' (those nitrogen compounds that support, or are products of, cellular metabolism and growth) is entirely controlled by microbial activities. This was not the case, however, in the primordial atmosphere, when abiotic reactions likely played a significant role in the inter-transformation of nitrogen oxides. Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions. Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process (the industrial fixation of N2 into ammonia, NH3) in 1909, nearly all of the reactive nitrogen in the biosphere was generated and recycled by microorganisms. Although the Haber-Bosch process more than quadrupled the productivity of agricultural crops, chemical fertilizers and other anthropogenic sources of fixed nitrogen now far exceed natural contributions, leading to unprecedented environmental degradation.

  7. The closed fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Froment, Antoine; Gillet, Philippe

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The fast growth of the world's economy coupled with the need for optimizing use of natural resources, for energy security and for climate change mitigation make energy supply one of the 21. century most daring challenges. The high reliability and efficiency of nuclear energy, its competitiveness in an energy market undergoing a new oil shock are as many factors in favor of the 'renaissance' of this greenhouse gas free energy. Over 160,000 tHM of LWR1 and AGR2 Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) have already been unloaded from the reactor cores corresponding to 7,000 tons discharged per year worldwide. By 2030, this amount could exceed 400,000 tHM and annual unloading 14,000 tHM/year. AREVA believes that closing the nuclear fuel cycle through the treatment and recycling of Used Nuclear Fuel sustains the worldwide nuclear power expansion. It is an economically sound and environmentally responsible choice, based on the preservation of natural resources through the recycling of used fuel. It furthermore provides a safe and secure management of wastes while significantly minimizing the burden left to future generations. (authors)

  8. Wilson Cycle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    The main activity relating to the study during this half year was a three week field trip to study Chinese sedimentary basins (June 10 to July 3, 1986) at no cost to the project. This study, while of a reconnaissance character, permitted progress in understanding how the processes of island arc-collision and micro-continental collision operated during the Paleozoic in far western China (especially the Junggar and Tarim basins and in the intervening Tien Shan Mountains). These effects of the continuing collision of India and Asia on the area were also studied. Most specifically, these result in the elevation of the Tien Shan to more than 4 km above sea level and the depression of Turfan to move 150m below sea level. Both thrusting and large-scale strike-slip motion are important in producing these elevation changes. Some effort during the half year was also devoted to the study of greenstone-belts in terms of the Wilson Cycle.

  9. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  10. Organic rankine cycle fluid

    DOEpatents

    Brasz, Joost J.; Jonsson, Ulf J.

    2006-09-05

    A method of operating an organic rankine cycle system wherein a liquid refrigerant is circulated to an evaporator where heat is introduced to the refrigerant to convert it to vapor. The vapor is then passed through a turbine, with the resulting cooled vapor then passing through a condenser for condensing the vapor to a liquid. The refrigerant is one of CF.sub.3CF.sub.2C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CFC(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.2C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.3C(O)CF(CG.sub.3).sub.2, CF.sub.3(CF.sub.2).sub.5C(O)CF.sub.3, CF.sub.3CF.sub.2C(O)CF.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3, CF.sub.3C(O)CF(CF.sub.3).sub.2.

  11. The Photosynthetic Cycle

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Calvin, Melvin

    1955-03-21

    A cyclic sequence of transformations, including the carboxylation of RuDP (ribulose diphosphate) and its re-formation, has been deduced as the route for the creation of reduced carbon compounds in photosynthetic organisms. With the demonstration of RuDP as substrate for the carboxylation in a cell-free system, each of the reactions has now been carried out independently in vitro. Further purification of this last enzyme system has confirmed the deduction that the carboxylation of RuDP leads directly to the two molecules of PGA (phosphoglyceric acid) involving an internal dismutation and suggesting the name "carboxydismutase" for the enzyme. As a consequence of this knowledge of each of the steps in the photosynthetic CO{sub 2} reduction cycle, it is possible to define the reagent requirements to maintain it. The net requirement for the reduction of one molecule of CO{sub 2} is four equivalents of [H]and three molecules of ATP (adenine triphosphate). These must ultimately be supplied by the photochemical reaction. Some possible ways in which this may be accomplished are discussed.

  12. The nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Stein, Lisa Y; Klotz, Martin G

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen is the fourth most abundant element in cellular biomass, and it comprises the majority of Earth's atmosphere. The interchange between inert dinitrogen gas (N2) in the extant atmosphere and 'reactive nitrogen' (those nitrogen compounds that support, or are products of, cellular metabolism and growth) is entirely controlled by microbial activities. This was not the case, however, in the primordial atmosphere, when abiotic reactions likely played a significant role in the inter-transformation of nitrogen oxides. Although such abiotic reactions are still important, the extant nitrogen cycle is driven by reductive fixation of dinitrogen and an enzyme inventory that facilitates dinitrogen-producing reactions. Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process (the industrial fixation of N2 into ammonia, NH3) in 1909, nearly all of the reactive nitrogen in the biosphere was generated and recycled by microorganisms. Although the Haber-Bosch process more than quadrupled the productivity of agricultural crops, chemical fertilizers and other anthropogenic sources of fixed nitrogen now far exceed natural contributions, leading to unprecedented environmental degradation. PMID:26859274

  13. Specific cell cycle synchronization with butyrate and cell cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Congjun

    2011-01-01

    Synchronized cells have been invaluable in many kinds of cell cycle and cell proliferation studies. Butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. We explore the possibility of using butyrate-blocked cells to obtain synchronized cells and we characterize the properties of butyrate-induced cell cycle arrest. The site of growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest was analyzed using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and flow cytometry analyses. Exposure of MDBK cells to 10 mM butyrate caused growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest in a reversible manner. Butyrate affected the cell cycle at a specific point both immediately after mitosis and at a very early stage of the G1 phase. After release from butyrate arrest, MDBK cells underwent synchronous cycles of DNA synthesis and transited through the S phase. It takes at least 8 h for butyrate-induced G1-synchronized cells to begin the progression into the S phase. One cycle of cell division for MDBK cells is about 20 h. By combining BrdU incorporation and DNA content analysis, not only can the overlapping of different cell populations be eliminated, but the frequency and nature of individual cells that have synthesized DNA can also be determined.

  14. GCS component development cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti

    2012-09-01

    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  15. Life cycle analysis and sewer solids.

    PubMed

    Gouda, H; Ashley, R M; Gilmour, D; Smith, H

    2003-01-01

    The search for sustainable ways of living has necessitated a new look at the way in which water services are provided. The new paradigm includes whole-system perspectives for each of the primary criteria groups: social, environmental and economic. Whilst Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) techniques have been used successfully for products, they are much less used to assess processes. Nonetheless there is much to learn from the use of LCA for a much wider range of applications. An application is described whereby LCA has been used to determine energy, mass flows and environmental impacts for a number of sewer-related options for handling sewer solids, using the SimaPro software. This work has been part of a wider study to provide enhanced decision support systems for water utilities. PMID:12666816

  16. Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Quarterly, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The theme of this issue is lifelong learning. Contents include a message introducing the publisher's Chief Executive Officer, Devron Gaber, and letters to the editor. A guest editorial, "Lifelong Learning For All: A National, Social, Corporate, and Personal Imperative for the Knowledge-Based 21st Century" (Ron Faris), considers how several nations…

  17. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  18. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  19. Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockly, Nicky

    2013-01-01

    In this series, we explore current technology-related themes and topics. The series aims to discuss and demystify what may be new areas for some readers and to consider their relevance to English language teachers. In future articles, we will be covering topics such as learning technologies in low-resource environments, personal learning networks,…

  20. Learning Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Lyn; Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Considers the school library media center as an information learning laboratory. Topics include information literacy; Kuhlthau's Information Search Process model; inquiry theory and approach; discovery learning; process skills of laboratory science; the information scientist; attitudes of media specialists, teachers, and students; displays and Web…

  1. Embodied Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that psychological discourse fails miserably to provide an account of learning that can explain how humans come to understand, particularly understanding that has been grasped meaningfully. Part of the problem with psychological approaches to learning is that they are disconnected from the integral role embodiment plays in how…

  2. Learning Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noyes, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the metaphor of learning landscapes, a tool developed in order to map children's experiences of, and attitudes to, learning (mathematics) before and after the transfer from primary to secondary school. Firstly, the continuing problems surrounding school transfer and why a re-examination of this is required are considered.…

  3. Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Government budget constraints had forced the Emergency Dispatch Center (EDC) at a military installation to work with less than the normal number of staff. A Program Proposal was developed previously that had determined that a learning gap existed in the researcher's work environment at a military installation. To counter this gap, Learning Tasks…

  4. Advanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hijon-Neira, Raquel, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The education industry has obviously been influenced by the Internet revolution. Teaching and learning methods have changed significantly since the coming of the Web and it is very likely they will keep evolving many years to come thanks to it. A good example of this changing reality is the spectacular development of e-Learning. In a more…

  5. Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  6. Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Small-group cooperative learning methods have improved achievement, low and high level cognitive learning, race relations and mutual student concern. Most of the research focuses on four approaches: Teams Games Tournament (DeVries), Student Teams Achievement Divisions (Slavin), Jigsaw (Aronson) and Small Group Teaching (Sharan). (Author/CP)

  7. Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Edward H.; Pilati, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Distance education, which began as correspondence courses in the nineteenth century and grew into educational television during the twentieth century, evolved into learning on the Web by the mid-1990s. Accompanying the rise in online learning has been a similar rise in organizations and publications dedicated to serving the needs of online…

  8. Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, James J.; McCarthy, Joan F.

    An attempt to collate basic knowledge concerning learning disabilities, the text discusses the background and definition of learning disabilities, and its identification, etiology, and epidemiology. Guidelines for diagnostic evaluation are presented as are approaches from perceptual motor, developmental, visual, neurophysiological, linguistic, and…

  9. Time-lapse imaging of cell cycle dynamics during development in living cardiomyocyte.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Tabata, Hidenori; Tohyama, Shugo; Hayashiji, Nozomi; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Muraoka, Naoto; Egashira, Toru; Okata, Shinichiro; Yae, Kojiro; Seki, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Takahiko; Nakajima, Kazunori; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2014-07-01

    Mammalian cardiomyocytes withdraw from the cell cycle shortly after birth, although it remains unclear how cardiomyocyte cell cycles behave during development. Compared to conventional immunohistochemistry in static observation, time-lapse imaging can reveal comprehensive data in hard-to-understand biological phenomenon. However, there are no reports of an established protocol of successful time-lapse imaging in mammalian heart. Thus, it is valuable to establish a time-lapse imaging system to enable the observation of cell cycle dynamics in living murine cardiomyocytes. This study sought to establish time-lapse imaging of murine heart to study cardiomyocyte cell cycle behavior. The Fucci (fluorescent ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator) system can effectively label individual G1, S/G2/M, and G1/S-transition phase nuclei red, green and yellow, respectively, in living mammalian cells, and could therefore be useful to visualize the real-time cell cycle transitions in living murine heart. To establish a similar system for time-lapse imaging of murine heart, we first developed an ex vivo culture system, with the culture conditions determined in terms of sample state, serum concentration, and oxygen concentration. The optimal condition (slice culture, oxygen concentration 20%, serum concentration 10%) successfully mimicked physiological cardiomyocyte proliferation in vivo. Time-lapse imaging of cardiac slices from E11.5, E14.5, E18.5, and P1 Fucci-expressing transgenic mice revealed an elongated S/G2/M phase in cardiomyocytes during development. Our time-lapse imaging of murine heart revealed a gradual elongation of the S/G2/M phase during development in living cardiomyocytes.

  10. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  11. Forecasting decadal and shorter time-scale solar cycle features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikpati, Mausumi

    2016-07-01

    Solar energetic particles and magnetic fields reach the Earth through the interplanetary medium and affect it in various ways, producing beautiful aurorae, but also electrical blackouts and damage to our technology-dependent economy. The root of energetic solar outputs is the solar activity cycle, which is most likely caused by dynamo processes inside the Sun. It is a formidable task to accurately predict the amplitude, onset and peak timings of a solar cycle. After reviewing all solar cycle prediction methods, including empirical as well as physical model-based schemes, I will describe what we have learned from both validation and nonvalidation of cycle 24 forecasts, and how to refine the model-based schemes for upcoming cycle 25 forecasts. Recent observations indicate that within a solar cycle there are shorter time-scale 'space weather' features, such as bursts of various forms of activity with approximately one year periodicity. I will demonstrate how global tachocline dynamics could play a crucial role in producing such space weather. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

  12. Blended Learning as Transformational Institutional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDerLinden, Kim

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews institutional approaches to blended learning and the ways in which institutions support faculty in the intentional redesign of courses to produce optimal learning. The chapter positions blended learning as a strategic opportunity to engage in organizational learning.

  13. Seclusion and the lunar cycles.

    PubMed

    Mason, T

    1997-06-01

    1. The lunar cycle's influence over psychological disturbances in the human being is known as the Transylvanian effect. 2. Seclusion is used predominantly for the control and management of violence and aggression in patients. 3. If the Transylvanian effect is supported, a relationship between lunar cycles and the use of seclusion should exist; no such correlation, however, was found in this study. PMID:9189846

  14. The water cycle for kids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neno, Stephanie; Morgan, Jim; Zonolli, Gabriele; Perlman, Howard; Gonthier, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have created a water-cycle diagram for use in elementary and middle schools. The diagram is available in many languages. This diagram is part of the USGS's Water Science School, in which the water cycle is described in detail.

  15. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roodvoets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  16. Variations on the Zilch Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, P.-M.; Tanoue, C. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Thermo dynamic cycles in introductory physics courses are usually made up from a small number of permutations of isothermal, adiabatic, and constant-pressure and volume quasistatic strokes, with the working fluid usually being an ideal gas. Among them we find the Carnot, Stirling, Otto, Diesel, and Joule-Brayton cycles; in more advanced courses,…

  17. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  18. Fuel cycle cost uncertainty from nuclear fuel cycle comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; McNelis, D.; Yim, M.S.

    2013-07-01

    This paper examined the uncertainty in fuel cycle cost (FCC) calculation by considering both model and parameter uncertainty. Four different fuel cycle options were compared in the analysis including the once-through cycle (OT), the DUPIC cycle, the MOX cycle and a closed fuel cycle with fast reactors (FR). The model uncertainty was addressed by using three different FCC modeling approaches with and without the time value of money consideration. The relative ratios of FCC in comparison to OT did not change much by using different modeling approaches. This observation was consistent with the results of the sensitivity study for the discount rate. Two different sets of data with uncertainty range of unit costs were used to address the parameter uncertainty of the FCC calculation. The sensitivity study showed that the dominating contributor to the total variance of FCC is the uranium price. In general, the FCC of OT was found to be the lowest followed by FR, MOX, and DUPIC. But depending on the uranium price, the FR cycle was found to have lower FCC over OT. The reprocessing cost was also found to have a major impact on FCC.

  19. Generation of Single-Cycle Light Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B C; Jovanovic, I; Armstrong, J P; Pyke, B; Crane, J K; Shuttlesworth, R

    2004-02-13

    Most optical pulses, even at the 10-femtosecond timescale, consist of several oscillations of the electric field. By producing and amplifying an ultra-broadband continuum, single cycle (e 3 fs) or shorter optical pulses may be generated. This requires a very challenging pulse-compression with sub-femtosecond accuracy. Production of these single-cycle pulses will lead to new generations of experiments in the areas of coherent control of chemical excitations and reactions, 0.1-fs high-order harmonic (XUV) generation for probing of materials and fast processes, and selective 3-D micron-scale material removal and modification. We activated the first stage of a planned three-stage optical parametric amplifier (OPA) that would ultimately produce sub-3 fs pulses. Active control with a learning algorithm was implemented to optimize the continuum generated in an argon-filled capillary and to control and optimize the final compressed pulse temporal shape. A collaboration was initiated to coherently control the population of different states upon dissociation of Rb{sub 2}. Except for one final optic, a pulse compressor and diagnostics were constructed to produce and characterize pulses in the 5-fs range from the first OPA stage.

  20. Learning, Learning Organisations and the Global Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikutty, Sankaran

    2009-01-01

    The steadily increasing degree of globalisation of enterprises implies development of many skills, among which the skills to learn are among the most important. Learning takes place at the individual level, but collective learning and organisational learning are also important. Learning styles of individuals are different and learning styles are…