Science.gov

Sample records for 5f composite samples

  1. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARATERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2007-08-30

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  5. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-03-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured

  6. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Guidance for selecting a plan to tomposite environmental or biological samples is provided in the form of models, equations, tables, and criteria. Composite sampling procedures can increase sensitivity, reduce sampling variance, and dramatically reduce analytical costs, depending...

  7. 40 CFR 761.289 - Compositing samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... porous surface from nearby locations for a single chemical analysis. There are two procedures for... sampling site locations in § 761.283(b) and (c). The single chemical analysis of a composite sample results... following procedures. (a) Compositing in the field or in a laboratory. Compositing may occur either in...

  8. 40 CFR 761.289 - Compositing samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS Sampling To Verify Completion of Self-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB.... Compositing is a method of combining several samples of a specific type of bulk PCB remediation waste or... compositing bulk PCB remediation waste samples. These procedures are based on the method for...

  9. 40 CFR 761.289 - Compositing samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS Sampling To Verify Completion of Self-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB.... Compositing is a method of combining several samples of a specific type of bulk PCB remediation waste or... compositing bulk PCB remediation waste samples. These procedures are based on the method for...

  10. 40 CFR 761.289 - Compositing samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS Sampling To Verify Completion of Self-Implementing Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB.... Compositing is a method of combining several samples of a specific type of bulk PCB remediation waste or... compositing bulk PCB remediation waste samples. These procedures are based on the method for...

  11. 40 CFR 761.289 - Compositing samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling site locations in § 761.283(b) and (c). The single chemical analysis of a composite sample results in an averaging of the concentrations of its component samples. The area of inference of a composite... porous surface from nearby locations for a single chemical analysis. There are two procedures...

  12. Thermal diffusivity measurements on composite porosity samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.

    1990-01-01

    A phase lag technique is used to make quantitative measurements of diffusivity in composite porosity samples. Changes in through-ply diffusivity in a graphite composite due to varying porosity levels are examined. The relationship between the amount of porosity and the change in diffusivity is analyzed using an electrical analog for modeling heat flow in the composite.

  13. Analysis of the Tank 5F Feed and Bleed Residual Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Diprete, D.: Coleman, C.; Washington, A.

    2011-07-07

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. As part of Tank 5F Closure Mechanical Cleaning, SRR conducted a 'Feed and Bleed' process in Tank 5F. Following this 'Feed and Bleed' Mechanical Cleaning in Tank 5F, SRR collected two tank heel samples (referred to as sample 1 and sample 2) under Riser 5 to determine the composition of the material remaining in the tanks. This document describes sample analysis results. The conclusions from this analysis follow. (1) The anions measured all had a concentration less than 250 mg/kg, except for oxalate, which had a concentration of 2100-2400 mg/kg. (2) The measured cations with the highest concentration were iron (432,000-519,000 mg/kg), nickel (54,600-69,300 mg/kg), and manganese (35,200-42,100 mg/kg). All other cations measured less than 13,000 mg/kg. (3) The radionuclides present in the highest concentration are {sup 90}Sr (3.0 x 10{sup 10} dpm/g), {sup 137}Cs (6.8 x 10{sup 8} dpm/g), and {sup 241}Am (1.4 x 10{sup 8} - 1.8 x 10{sup 8} dpm/g). (4) The particle size analysis shows a large fraction of particles greater than 100 {micro}.

  14. Lamb Wave Response of Fatigued Composite Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seale, Michael; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, William H.; Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    composite samples using strain gage measurements as well as Lamb wave velocity measurements. A description of the test samples is followed by the results of two different measurements of Lamb wave velocity. The first technique is a contact measurement done at a single frequency, while the second involves an immersion study of Lamb waves in which dispersion curves are obtained. The results of the Lamb wave monitoring of fatigue damage is compared to the damage progression measured by strain gages. The final section discusses the results and conclusions.

  15. Critically sampled wavelets with composite dilations.

    PubMed

    Easley, Glenn R; Labate, Demetrio

    2012-02-01

    Wavelets with composite dilations provide a general framework for the construction of waveforms defined not only at various scales and locations, as traditional wavelets, but also at various orientations and with different scaling factors in each coordinate. As a result, they are useful to analyze the geometric information that often dominate multidimensional data much more efficiently than traditional wavelets. The shearlet system, for example, is a particular well-known realization of this framework, which provides optimally sparse representations of images with edges. In this paper, we further investigate the constructions derived from this approach to develop critically sampled wavelets with composite dilations for the purpose of image coding. Not only do we show that many nonredundant directional constructions recently introduced in the literature can be derived within this setting, but we also introduce new critically sampled discrete transforms that achieve much better nonlinear approximation rates than traditional discrete wavelet transforms and outperform the other critically sampled multiscale transforms recently proposed. PMID:21843993

  16. A BASIS FOR MODIFYING THE TANK 12 COMPOSITE SAMPLING DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Shine, G.

    2014-11-25

    The SRR sampling campaign to obtain residual solids material from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank Farm Tank 12 primary vessel resulted in obtaining appreciable material in all 6 planned source samples from the mound strata but only in 5 of the 6 planned source samples from the floor stratum. Consequently, the design of the compositing scheme presented in the Tank 12 Sampling and Analysis Plan, Pavletich (2014a), must be revised. Analytical Development of SRNL statistically evaluated the sampling uncertainty associated with using various compositing arrays and splitting one or more samples for compositing. The variance of the simple mean of composite sample concentrations is a reasonable standard to investigate the impact of the following sampling options. Composite Sample Design Option (a). Assign only 1 source sample from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each of the composite samples. Each source sample contributes material to only 1 composite sample. Two source samples from the floor stratum would not be used. Composite Sample Design Option (b). Assign 2 source samples from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each composite sample. This infers that one source sample from the floor must be used twice, with 2 composite samples sharing material from this particular source sample. All five source samples from the floor would be used. Composite Sample Design Option (c). Assign 3 source samples from the floor stratum and 1 source sample from each of the mound strata to each composite sample. This infers that several of the source samples from the floor stratum must be assigned to more than one composite sample. All 5 source samples from the floor would be used. Using fewer than 12 source samples will increase the sampling variability over that of the Basic Composite Sample Design, Pavletich (2013). Considering the impact to the variance of the simple mean of the composite sample concentrations

  17. Determining the Optimum Number of Increments in Composite Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, John E.; Schaalje, G Bruce; Gilbert, Richard O.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2008-09-30

    Composite sampling can be more cost effective than simple random sampling. This paper considers how to determine the optimum number of increments to use in composite sampling. Composite sampling can be more cost effective than simple random sampling. This paper considers how to determine the optimum number of increments to use in composite sampling. Composite sampling terminology and theory are outlined and a method is developed which accounts for different sources of variation in compositing and data analysis. This method is used to define and understand the process of determining the optimum number of increments that should be used in forming a composite. The blending variance is shown to have a smaller range of possible values than previously reported when estimating the number of increments in a composite sample. Accounting for differing levels of the blending variance significantly affects the estimated number of increments.

  18. Northrop F-5F shark nose development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, O. R.

    1978-01-01

    During spin susceptibility testing of the Northrop F-5F airplane, two erect spin entries were obtained from purely longitudinal control inputs at low speed. Post flight analysis of the data showed that the initial yaw departure occurred at zero sideslip, and review of wind tunnel data showed significant yawing moments present at angles of attack well above stall. Further analysis of this wind tunnel data indicated that the yawing moments were being generated by the long slender nose of the airplane. Redesign of the nose was accomplished, resulting in a nose configuration which completely alleviated the asymmetric yawing moments.

  19. Procedures for formation of composite samples from segmented populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Frank, Anthony M.; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1995-01-01

    We used a simulation approach to investigate the implication of two methods of forming composite samples to characterize segmented populations. We illustrate the case where the weight of individual segments varies randomly, a situation common with fish samples. Composite samples from segments such as whole fish or muscle tissue should be formed by homogenizing each segment separately and combining equal-sized portions randomly drawn from each homogenate. This approach permits unbiased estimation of the mean concentration per fish. Estimates of mean contaminant concentration varied little with variation in the number of composite samples analyzed or with composite size (number of segments in a composite sample). However, for a fixed number of composite samples, the precision of the variance estimate increases as composite size increased. In addition, for a fixed number of composites, the estimate of the variance stabilized as more segments were included in the composite samples. Estimates of the variance among fish or other population segments can be recovered using appropriate compositing procedures and specially-designed studies.

  20. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  1. A probabilistic strategy for compositing samples for waste analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1989-12-31

    A probabilistic strategy for sample compositing was developed to minimize the volume of waste sample analyses. Disposable waste must have a contaminant concentration below an acceptance Limit L. A composite of N different samples must have a contaminant concentration below L/N, to assure that no individual sample is unacceptable. Unacceptable samples are eventually identified by analyses of successive splits composited with N/2, N/4,... of the original samples. The probable number of such analyses is derived using conservative log-Normal distributions to model the concentration probabilities. A minimum number of analyses result when N = L/a, where a is the average contaminant concentration expected for the sample. The approximation is useful for L/a {ge} 5. Experimental composites from 880 samples with L/a = 41.8 are consistent with the calculated predictions.

  2. DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE BEVERAGE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research to measure the exposure of individuals to chemical pollutants through the diet, as well as other media. In support of this research, methods are being evaluated for determination of pesticides in composite dietary s...

  3. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil

    PubMed Central

    France, Brian; Bell, William; Chang, Emily; Scholten, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping) and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling). Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil) were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation. PMID:26714315

  4. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    PubMed

    France, Brian; Bell, William; Chang, Emily; Scholten, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping) and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling). Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil) were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation. PMID:26714315

  5. Giant magnetoresistance effects in 5f-materials

    SciTech Connect

    Havela, L.; Sechovsky, V.; Prokes, K. |

    1995-09-01

    Very large magnetoresistance effects related to reorientation of magnetic moments were observed in a number of U-intermetallics. The resemblance to magnetic multilayers is a basis of discussion of possible mechanisms of these phenomena, in background of which is probably the strong hybridization of 5f- and conduction-electron states. A clear cut evidence of relative contributions of varied scattering rate on one side and carrier concentration on the other side can be presumably obtained from experiments on samples with controlled disorder.

  6. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR SOIL VOC ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data published by numerous researchers over the last decade demonstrate that there is a high degree of spatial variability in the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soil at contaminated waste sites. This phenomenon is confounded by the use of a small sample aliqu...

  7. Sampling the composition of cirrus ice residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cziczo, Daniel J.; Froyd, Karl D.

    2014-06-01

    Cirrus are high altitude clouds composed of ice crystals. They are the first tropospheric clouds that can scatter incoming solar radiation and the last which can trap outgoing terrestrial heat. Considering their extensive global coverage, estimated at between 25 and 33% of the Earth's surface, cirrus exert a measurable climate forcing. The global radiative influence depends on a number of properties including their altitude, ice crystal size and number density, and vertical extent. These properties in turn depend on the ability of upper tropospheric aerosol particles to initiate ice formation. Because aerosol populations, and therefore cirrus formation mechanisms, may change due to human activities, the sign of cirrus forcing (a net warming or cooling) due to anthropogenic effects is not universally agreed upon although most modeling studies suggest a positive effect. Cirrus also play a major role in the water cycle in the tropopause region, affecting not only redistribution in the troposphere but also the abundance of vapor entering the stratosphere. Both the current lack of understanding of cirrus properties and the need to improve our ability to project changes due to human activities in the future highlight the critical need to determine the aerosol particles on which cirrus form. This review addresses what is currently known about the abundance, size and composition of cirrus-forming particles. We review aircraft-based field studies which have either collected cirrus ice residuals for off-line analysis or determined their size, composition and other properties in situ by capturing ice crystals and sublimating/removing the condensed phase water. This review is predominantly restricted to cirrus clouds. Limited comparisons are made to other ice-containing (e.g., mixed-phase) cloud types. The findings of recent reviews on laboratory measurements that mimic upper tropospheric cirrus formation are briefly summarized. The limitations of the current state of the art

  8. 40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761... individual and composite samples of PCB remediation waste. Use Method 8082 from SW-846, or a method...

  9. 40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761... individual and composite samples of PCB remediation waste. Use Method 8082 from SW-846, or a method...

  10. 40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761... individual and composite samples of PCB remediation waste. Use Method 8082 from SW-846, or a method...

  11. 40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cleanup and On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761... individual and composite samples of PCB remediation waste. Use Method 8082 from SW-846, or a method...

  12. Validation of a sampling plan to generate food composition data.

    PubMed

    Sammán, N C; Gimenez, M A; Bassett, N; Lobo, M O; Marcoleri, M E

    2016-02-15

    A methodology to develop systematic plans for food sampling was proposed. Long life whole and skimmed milk, and sunflower oil were selected to validate the methodology in Argentina. Fatty acid profile in all foods, proximal composition, and calcium's content in milk were determined with AOAC methods. The number of samples (n) was calculated applying Cochran's formula with variation coefficients ⩽12% and an estimate error (r) maximum permissible ⩽5% for calcium content in milks and unsaturated fatty acids in oil. n were 9, 11 and 21 for long life whole and skimmed milk, and sunflower oil respectively. Sample units were randomly collected from production sites and sent to labs. Calculated r with experimental data was ⩽10%, indicating high accuracy in the determination of analyte content of greater variability and reliability of the proposed sampling plan. The methodology is an adequate and useful tool to develop sampling plans for food composition analysis. PMID:26433300

  13. Compositing water samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fallon, J.D.; Maluk, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can easily and economically be obtained from a single VOC analysis by using proven methods of collecting representative, discrete water samples and compositing them with a gas-tight syringe. The technique can be used in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. The type of mean concentration desired depends on the objectives of monitoring. For example, flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations can be used to estimate mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm water, and spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations can be used to assess sources of drinking water (e.g., reservoirs and rivers). The mean error in a discrete sample due to compositing is about 2% for most VOC concentrations greater than 0.1 ??g/L. The total error depends on the number of discrete samples comprising the composite sample and precision of the chemical analysis.Accurate mean concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can easily and economically be obtained from a single VOC analysis by using proven methods of collecting representative, discrete water samples and compositing them with a gas-tight syringe. The technique can be used in conjunction with chemical analysis by a conventional laboratory, field-portable equipment, or a mobile laboratory. The type of mean concentration desired depends on the objectives of monitoring. For example, flow-weighted mean VOC concentrations can be used to estimate mass loadings in wastewater and urban storm water, and spatially integrated mean VOC concentrations can be used to assess sources of drinking water (e.g., reservoirs and rivers). The mean error in a discrete sample due to compositing is about 2% for most VOC concentrations greater than 0.1 ??g/L. The total error depends on the number of discrete samples comprising the composite sample and precision of the chemical analysis.Researchers are able to derive

  14. 40 CFR 761.292 - Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical extraction and analysis of individual samples and composite samples. 761.292 Section 761.292 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN...

  15. DETERMINATION OF PYRETHROID PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETARY SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts aggregate exposure studies for determining an individual's exposure to a broad range of target analytes in composite dietary samples. The objective of this work is to develop an anal...

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J Eide,I Zielinska, B Lawson, D

    2003-08-24

    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  17. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  18. 5f3 --> 5f 26d1 absorption spectrum analysis of U3+-SrCl2.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Mirosław

    2005-04-28

    The 5f3--> 5f26d1 absorption spectra of the U3+ ions incorporated in SrCl2 single crystals were recorded at 4.2 K in the 15,000-50,000 cm(-1) spectral range. From an analysis of the vibronic structure, 32 zero-phonon lines corresponding to transitions from the 4I9/2 ground multiplet of the 5f3 configuration to the 5f26d(eg)1 excited levels were assigned. A theoretical model proposed by Reid et al. (Reid, H. F.; van Pieterson, L.; Wegh, R. T.; Meijerink, A. Phys. Rev. B 2000, 62, 14744) that extends the established model for energy-level calculations of nf N states has been applied for analysis of the spectrum. The Fk(ff) (k = 2, 4), zeta(5f)(ff), B0(4)(ff), B0(6)(ff), Fk(fd) (k = 2, 4), and Gj(fd) (j = 1, 3) Hamiltonian parameters were determined by a least-squares fitting of the calculated energies to the experimental data. A good overall agreement between the calculated and experimentally observed energy levels has been achieved, with the root-mean-square (rms) deviation equal to 95 cm(-1) for 32 fitted levels and 9 varied parameters. Adjusted values of Fk(ff) and zeta(5f)(ff) parameters for the 5f2 core electrons are closer to the values characteristic of the 5f2 (U4+) configuration than to those of the 5f3 (U3+) configuration. For the U3+ ion, the f-d Coulomb interaction parameters are significantly more reduced from the values calculated using Cowan's computer code than they are for lanthanide ions. Moreover, because of weaker f-d Coulomb interactions for the U3+ ion than for the isoelectronic Nd3+ lanthanide ion, the very simple model assuming the coupling of crystal-field levels of the 6d1 electron with the lattice and the multiplet structure of the 5f2 configuration may be employed for the qualitative description of the general structure of the U3+ ion f-d spectrum. PMID:16839023

  19. Fermi energy 5f spectral weight variation in uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Denlinger, J.D.; Clack, J.; Allen, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Uranium materials display a wide range of thermal, electrical and magnetic properties, often exotic. For more than a decade there have been efforts to use photoemission spectroscopy to develop a systematic and unified understanding of the 5f electron states giving rise to this behavior. These efforts have been hampered by a paucity of systems where changes in transport properties are accompanied by substantial spectral changes, so as to allow an attempt to correlate the two kinds of properties within some model. The authors have made resonant photoemission measurements to extract the 5f spectral weight in three systems which show varying degrees of promise of permitting such an attempt, Y{sub 1{minus}x}U{sub x}Pd{sub 3}, U(Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} and U(Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 5}. They have also measured U 4f core level spectra. The 4f spectra can be modeled with some success by the impurity Anderson model (IAM), and the 5f spectra are currently being analyzed in that framework. The IAM characterizes the 5f-electrons of a single site by an f binding energy {epsilon}{sub f}, an f Coulomb interaction and a hybridization V to conduction electrons. Latent in the model are the phenomena of 5f mixed valence and the Kondo effect.

  20. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education. PMID:26610557

  1. Surface compositional and structural aspects of Martian samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadenhead, D. A.

    There are many excellent reasons to examine the surface composition of a wide range of Martian samples. The existing spectral data indicate that many dust and soil particles have a thin Fe(+3) layer with a typical particle size in the 10 micrometer to 400 micrometer range. In view of the high CO2 content of the atmosphere, one might expect that surface carbonates should be present. In addition to chemisorbed material there will probably exist physisorbed atmospheric components of the atmosphere including oxygen, nitrogen and water vapor. The latter could possibly give rise to some hydrated minerals. Using ultra-high-vacuum/mass spectrographic techniques it should be possible to detect physisorbed and moderately strong chemisorbed species on the particle surfaces with a temperature programmed degassing procedure. In some instances such an approach is capable of helping distinguish between volcanic and impact generated materials by detecting the presence of fumerolic gases. Such gases typically condense on the exterior of the ejected particles. Additionally surface atomic and chemical compositions should be examined by a combination of modern surface analytical techniques. The combination we currently have in Buffalo at SUNY would appear to be one of the best available including ESCA (150 micrometer spot capability) Auger (SAM) with 300 A focussing for surface compositional surveys, SIMS for high sensitivity trace element detection and ISS for immediate surface layer analysis.

  2. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-01

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education. PMID:26610557

  3. Surface compositional and structural aspects of Martian samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadenhead, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    There are many excellent reasons to examine the surface composition of a wide range of Martian samples. The existing spectral data indicate that many dust and soil particles have a thin Fe(+3) layer with a typical particle size in the 10 micrometer to 400 micrometer range. In view of the high CO2 content of the atmosphere, one might expect that surface carbonates should be present. In addition to chemisorbed material there will probably exist physisorbed atmospheric components of the atmosphere including oxygen, nitrogen and water vapor. The latter could possibly give rise to some hydrated minerals. Using ultra-high-vacuum/mass spectrographic techniques it should be possible to detect physisorbed and moderately strong chemisorbed species on the particle surfaces with a temperature programmed degassing procedure. In some instances such an approach is capable of helping distinguish between volcanic and impact generated materials by detecting the presence of fumerolic gases. Such gases typically condense on the exterior of the ejected particles. Additionally surface atomic and chemical compositions should be examined by a combination of modern surface analytical techniques. The combination we currently have in Buffalo at SUNY would appear to be one of the best available including ESCA (150 micrometer spot capability) Auger (SAM) with 300 A focussing for surface compositional surveys, SIMS for high sensitivity trace element detection and ISS for immediate surface layer analysis.

  4. Relationship between Composition and Toxicity of Motor Vehicle Emission Samples

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jacob D.; Eide, Ingvar; Seagrave, JeanClare; Zielinska, Barbara; Whitney, Kevin; Lawson, Douglas R.; Mauderly, Joe L.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated the statistical relationship between particle and semivolatile organic chemical constituents in gasoline and diesel vehicle exhaust samples, and toxicity as measured by inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. Exhaust samples were collected from “normal” and “high-emitting” gasoline and diesel light-duty vehicles. We employed a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS; also known as projection to latent structures) to evaluate the relationships between chemical composition of vehicle exhaust and toxicity. The PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents covarying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The specific nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons important for mutagenicity were the same chemicals that have been implicated by decades of bioassay-directed fractionation. These chemicals were not related to lung toxicity, which was associated with organic carbon and select organic compounds that are present in lubricating oil. The results demonstrate the utility of the PCA/PLS approach for evaluating composition–response relationships in complex mixture exposures and also provide a starting point for confirming causality and determining the mechanisms of the lung effects. PMID:15531438

  5. Four Postmortem Case Reports with Quantitative Detection of the Synthetic Cannabinoid, 5F-PB-22

    PubMed Central

    Behonick, George; Shanks, Kevin G.; Firchau, Dennis J.; Mathur, Gagan; Lynch, Charles F.; Nashelsky, Marcus; Jaskierny, David J.; Meroueh, Chady

    2014-01-01

    In January 2014, the US government temporarily designated 5F-PB-22, along with three other synthetic cannabinoids (AB-FUBINACA, ADB-PINACA and PB-22), into Schedule I. Over the course of a 4-month time period (July–October 2013), our laboratory quantitatively identified 5F-PB-22 in specimens obtained from four postmortem cases. We describe the four cases, to include pertinent autopsy findings and decedent histories, together with quantitative results for 5F-PB-22 determined in postmortem blood and antemortem serum. Samples were prepared via a liquid–liquid extraction at pH 10.2 into hexane : ethyl acetate. Instrumental analysis was achieved with liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two ion transitions were monitored for the analyte of interest, and one ion transition was monitored for the internal standard. The observed concentration range of 5F-PB-22 is 1.1–1.5 ng/mL for three postmortem blood specimens and one antemortem serum specimen. Three of the decedents experienced abrupt, sudden death; however, one decedent expired after a rapidly deteriorating hospital course. PMID:24876364

  6. Four postmortem case reports with quantitative detection of the synthetic cannabinoid, 5F-PB-22.

    PubMed

    Behonick, George; Shanks, Kevin G; Firchau, Dennis J; Mathur, Gagan; Lynch, Charles F; Nashelsky, Marcus; Jaskierny, David J; Meroueh, Chady

    2014-10-01

    In January 2014, the US government temporarily designated 5F-PB-22, along with three other synthetic cannabinoids (AB-FUBINACA, ADB-PINACA and PB-22), into Schedule I. Over the course of a 4-month time period (July-October 2013), our laboratory quantitatively identified 5F-PB-22 in specimens obtained from four postmortem cases. We describe the four cases, to include pertinent autopsy findings and decedent histories, together with quantitative results for 5F-PB-22 determined in postmortem blood and antemortem serum. Samples were prepared via a liquid-liquid extraction at pH 10.2 into hexane : ethyl acetate. Instrumental analysis was achieved with liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two ion transitions were monitored for the analyte of interest, and one ion transition was monitored for the internal standard. The observed concentration range of 5F-PB-22 is 1.1-1.5 ng/mL for three postmortem blood specimens and one antemortem serum specimen. Three of the decedents experienced abrupt, sudden death; however, one decedent expired after a rapidly deteriorating hospital course. PMID:24876364

  7. Composition of ready cooked foods sampled in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kajadphai-Taungbodhitham, Anocha

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the nutrient composition of ready cooked foods commonly consumed in southern Thailand. Four samples of fourteen types; eight curry dishes, one sweet and sour curry, a soup dish, one stir-fried curry, one stir-fried dish and two single plate dishes were each purchased from 4 different shops around Hat Yai district. The edible part was blended and analysed for its nutrients content per 100 g edible portion. Cassia curry, Thai noodle salad, Ark shell curry and Fermented fish gut dish were a good source of vitamin B1 (145 microg), vitamin C (2.20 mg), calcium (0.23 g) and iron (6.07 mg), respectively. Moisture, ash, fat, protein and carbohydrate were high in Mungbean noodle soup (92.6 g), Fermented fish gut dish (4.1 g), Cassia curry (9.9 g), Stingray stir-fried curry (16.7 g) and Thai noodle salad (24.2 g). Results also showed that the main ingredients and cooking process determined the nutritional values of the foods. A new set of 4 samples of Round noodle in southern curry was purchased, each separated into its edible components and nutrient values estimated using the Thai single ingredient databases. Their nutrient content was also calculated using the data of similar food obtained from this study. Considerable differences amongst the values from the 2 sets of calculation were observed. Problems inherent in using the single ingredient databases were highlighted. This work demonstrates a need to create a food composition database of whole cooked meals ready for serving that reflects real life consumption. PMID:17392077

  8. Building of a composite virtual slide from contiguous tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently available microscope slide scanners produce whole slide images at various resolutions from histological sections. Nevertheless, acquisition area and so visualization of large tissue samples are limited by the standardized size of glass slides, used daily in pathology departments. The proposed solution has been developed to build composite virtual slides from images of large tumor fragments. Materials and methods Images of HES or immunostained histological sections of carefully labeled fragments from a representative slice of breast carcinoma were acquired with a digital slide scanner at a magnification of 20×. The tiling program involves three steps: the straightening of tissue fragment images using polynomial interpolation method, and the building and assembling of strips of contiguous tissue sample whole slide images in × and y directions. The final image is saved in a pyramidal BigTiff file format. The program has been tested on several tumor slices. A correlation quality control has been done on five images artificially cut. Results Sixty tumor slices from twenty surgical specimens, cut into two to twenty six pieces, were reconstructed. A median of 98.71% is obtained by computing the correlation coefficients between native and reconstructed images for quality control. Conclusions The proposed method is efficient and able to adapt itself to daily work conditions of classical pathology laboratories. PMID:25565295

  9. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples.

  10. F-5F Shark Nose radome lightning test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A unique F-5F radome wtih a geometry similar to a Shark Nose profile was tested with a high voltage Marx generator, 1,200,000 volts in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the lightning protection system with currents from 5,000 amperes or greater. An edge discontinuity configuration is a characteristic feature in the forward region of the radome and occasionally serves as an attachment point. The results of nineteen attachment tests at various aspect angles with an air gap of one meter indicated that no damage occurred to the dielectric material of the radom. The test proved the effectiveness of the lightning protection system.

  11. 40 CFR 761.350 - Subsampling from composite samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  12. 40 CFR 761.350 - Subsampling from composite samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  13. 40 CFR 761.350 - Subsampling from composite samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  14. 40 CFR 761.350 - Subsampling from composite samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of Characterization for PCB Disposal in Accordance With § 761.62, and Sampling PCB Remediation Waste Destined for...

  15. 40 CFR 761.350 - Subsampling from composite samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes...

  16. 40 CFR 761.312 - Compositing of samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE... surface originally contaminated by a single source of PCBs with a uniform concentration, it is permissible... a single source of PCBs with a uniform concentration, composite a maximum of three adjacent...

  17. Structure and phase composition of samples in the Nb-C system

    SciTech Connect

    Markhasev, B.I.; Dzhamarov, S.S.; Klyugvant, V.V.; Pioro, N.C.; Smirnov, V.P.

    1985-09-01

    The structure and phase composition of samples in the Nb-C system have been repeatedly studied over a wide interval of carbon concentrations, yet many questions remain. To define more accurately the formation conditions of Nb/sub 4/C/sub 3/ and to ascertain the structure and phase composition of materials based on niobium carbide, the authors studied samples of compositions between NbCo /SUB .58/ and NbCo /SUB .98/ .

  18. 5f band dispersion in epitaxial films of UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Jia, Quanxi; Roy, Lindsay E; Martin, Richard L; Joyce, John J

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-assisted deposition of epitaxial films utilizes lattice pinning to produce films of very high stability and properties identical with bulk crystal. Dispersion of the 5f band is shown for the first time in a actinide Mott insulator system, which suggestes hybridization as a leading process in establishing the electronic structure. Hybrid density functional is succesfully employed to calculate the electronic structure of UO{sub 2} in agreement with experiments. UO{sub 2} continues to be a mysterious and elusive compound in terms of understanding the physical properties of a material. Most actinide oxides, including UO{sub 2} are predicted to be metallic. However, UO{sub 2} is an antiferromagnetic insulator with a relatively large gap of about 2eV. The f orbital charater of the excitations across the gap places UO{sub 2} in a Mott insulator category, but no states at the gap center have ever been measured directly, in spite of intensive efforts. In this work we present the first results of the electronic structure investigation of a epitaxial film of UO{sub 2}, where we find even more unexpected properties, like the dispersive nature of 5f bands. We also demonstrate the unexpected, very high stability of the epitaxial film of UO{sub 2}. In the lattice-pinning scheme, the crystalline nature of the film is preserved all the way up to the topmost layers even after prolonged exposure to atmospheric conditions. Hybridized, dispersive bands are common in the itinerant uranium compounds. One usually finds hybridization of f-orbitals with conduction band to be quite common in f-electron systems at low temperatures. Such bands may reside in the vicinity of the Fermi level and participate in the construction of the Fermi surface. However, in the insulator like UO{sub 2}, one expects a more atomic band nature, where f-bands are relatively flat and shifted away from the Fermi level by the gap energy scale. Precise location of UO{sub 2} on the localization

  19. Gradual Localization of 5f States in Orthorhombic UTX Ferromagnets:Polarized Neutron Diffraction Study of Ru Substituted UCoGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vališka, Michal; Pospíšil, Jiří; Stunault, Anne; Takeda, Yukiharu; Gillon, Béatrice; Haga, Yoshinori; Prokeš, Karel; Abd-Elmeguid, Mohsen M.; Nénert, Gwilherm; Okane, Tetsuo; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Chapon, Laurent; Gukasov, Arsene; Cousson, Alain; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Sechovský, Vladimír

    2015-08-01

    We report on a microscopic study of the evolution of ferromagnetism in the Ru substituted ferromagnetic superconductor (FM SC) UCoGe crystallizing in the orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure. For that purpose, two single crystals with composition UCo0.97Ru0.03Ge and UCo0.88Ru0.12Ge have been prepared and characterized by magnetization, AC susceptibility, specific heat and electrical resistivity measurements. Both compounds have been found to order ferromagnetically below TC = 6.5 and 7.5 K, respectively, which is considerably higher than the TC = 3 K of the parent compound UCoGe. The higher values of TC are accompanied by enhanced values of the spontaneous moment μspont = 0.11 μB/f.u. and μspont = 0.21 μB/f.u., respectively in comparison to the tiny spontaneous moment of UCoGe (about 0.07 μB/f.u.). No sign of superconductivity was detected in either compound. The magnetic moments of the samples were investigated on the microscopic scale using polarized neutron diffraction (PND) and for UCo0.88Ru0.12Ge also by soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The analysis of the PND results indicates that the observed enhancement of ferromagnetism is mainly due to the growth of the orbital part of the uranium 5f moment μ LU, reflecting a gradual localization of the 5f electrons with Ru substitution. In addition, the parallel orientation of the U and Co moments has been established in both substituted compounds. The results are discussed and compared with related isostructural ferromagnetic UTX compounds (T: transition metals, X: Si, Ge) in the context of a varying degree of the 5f-ligand hybridization.

  20. Diagnosing intramammary infections: evaluation of composite milk samples to detect intramammary infections.

    PubMed

    Reyher, K K; Dohoo, I R

    2011-07-01

    Composite milk samples, in which milk from all 4 bovine quarters is collected in a single vial, are widely used in many developed dairy industries for detection of intramammary infections (IMI). These samples are more economical for use in culturing protocols than individual quarter samples, and may be useful when considering management options at the cow and herd level. The dilution effect may be problematic, however, resulting in lower sensitivity (Se) in IMI detection on composite samples. Relative Se and specificity (Sp) in composite samples have previously been described for some major pathogens, but because the causative organism for IMI is initially unknown, it is beneficial to investigate the reliability of composite samples for detection of all types of mastitis-causing bacteria. The Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network has a large data collection platform-the National Cohort of Dairy Farms-containing a vast amount of data on mastitis in Canada. These data have been used to further investigate the Se and Sp of composite samples in detecting IMI caused by specific mastitis pathogens. Milk samplings of selected cows before dry-off, after calving, and during lactation (n=48,835 samples) were employed to this end. Composite samples showed moderately high Se for Staphylococcus aureus (77.1%, 95% CI=73.3-80.5) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (73.4%, 95% CI=60.9-83.7), with moderate Se for Streptococcus uberis (62.1%, 95% CI=49.3-73.8) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.8%, 95% CI=58.4-61.2). Sensitivities always increased as the number of affected quarters increased. Composite samples also showed high Sp (>97%) for most organisms. Factors such as lactation number and stage of lactation were evaluated for their influence on the Se and Sp of composite sampling, but were only found to be significant for coagulase-negative staphylococci. Predictive values using the herd prevalences found across Canada were calculated and can be useful in field scenarios

  1. Composition analysis of large samples with PGNAA using a fixed point iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, Hatice

    2002-09-01

    The composition problem in large sample prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a nonlinear inverse problem. The basic form of the nonlinear inverse composition problem is presented. This problem is then formulated in a general way, as a fixed point problem, without addressing any specific application or sample type or linearization approach. This approach of formulating the problem as a fixed point problem suggested a natural fixed point iteration. The algorithm of the fixed point iteration solves the nonlinear composition problem using a combination of measured and computed data. The effectiveness of the fixed point iteration for composition analysis is demonstrated using purely numerical experiments. These numerical experiments showed that the fixed point iteration can be successfully applied to find the bulk composition of large samples, with excellent agreement between the estimated and true composition of the samples, in a few iterations, independent of the initial guess. In order to test the fixed point iteration using real experimental data, a series of large sample PGNAA measurements were performed at ANL-W. These experiments are described and the measured spectra for the samples are presented. Then, the fixed point iteration is applied for these real experiments to find the composition of the samples. In all of the cases, except borated polyethylene, the composition of the large samples are found in a few iterations with errors less than +/-1.3%. The effectiveness of the fixed point iteration is thus demonstrated with many proof-of-principle measurements. While testing the fixed point iteration algorithm, published values of the source spectrum and relative detector efficiencies are used. The sensitivity of the fixed point iteration to source spectrum is investigated and it is shown that the estimated composition results are not very sensitive to the change in the source spectrum. The reason behind the slow convergence for the borated

  2. A sample compositing strategy for classifying non-radioactive hazardous waste for transport

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1990-06-01

    A probabilistic strategy for sample compositing is developed to minimize the radiometric analyses required for classifying non-radioactive waste for transport. Such waste must have concentrations of total radioactivity that are below an acceptance limit of L = 2 nCi/g. A composite of N different samples must have a radioactive concentration below L/N to assure that no individual sample is unacceptable. Unacceptable samples are eventually identified by analyses of successive splits composited with N/2, N/4, {hor ellipsis} of the original samples. The probable number of such analyses is derived using Gaussian distributions for the composite concentrations, per invoking the Central Limit Theorem. A preliminary compositing strategy, based only on the average concentration {mu}, uses N = L/{mu} to yield a minimum fraction of {approx}2{mu}/L analyses per total samples. These approximations are useful for L/{mu} > 4. Refined strategies, based on both the {mu} and {sigma} for the concentration distribution, define the optimization more precisely. Experimental data from composites of 880 samples of low-level radiometric waste are consistent with the calculated predictions. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. TCLP Preparation and Analysis of K East Basin Composite Sludge Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Silvers, Kurt L.

    2000-08-15

    This report contains results from TCLP preparation and analysis of K East Basin floor and canister composite sludge samples. Analyses were performed in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (PNNL, 325 Building).

  4. Composite Sampling of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate with Cellulose Sponge Surface Samplers from a Nonporous Surface

    PubMed Central

    Tufts, Jenia A. M.; Meyer, Kathryn M.; Calfee, Michael Worth; Lee, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to explore the utility of composite-based collection of surface samples for the detection of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate using cellulose sponge samplers on a nonporous stainless steel surface. Two composite-based collection approaches were evaluated over a surface area of 3716 cm2 (four separate 929 cm2 areas), larger than the 645 cm2 prescribed by the standard Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention cellulose sponge sampling protocol for use on nonporous surfaces. The CDC method was also compared to a modified protocol where only one surface of the sponge sampler was used for each of the four areas composited. Differences in collection efficiency compared to positive controls and the potential for contaminant transfer for each protocol were assessed. The impact of the loss of wetting buffer from the sponge sampler onto additional surface areas sampled was evaluated. Statistical tests of the results using ANOVA indicate that the collection of composite samples using the modified sampling protocol is comparable to the collection of composite samples using the standard CDC protocol (p  =  0.261). Most of the surface-bound spores are collected on the first sampling pass, suggesting that multiple passes with the sponge sampler over the same surface may be unnecessary. The effect of moisture loss from the sponge sampler on collection efficiency was not significant (p  =  0.720) for both methods. Contaminant transfer occurs with both sampling protocols, but the magnitude of transfer is significantly greater when using the standard protocol than when the modified protocol is used (p<0.001). The results of this study suggest that composite surface sampling, by either method presented here, could successfully be used to increase the surface area sampled per sponge sampler, resulting in reduced sampling times in the field and decreased laboratory processing cost and turn-around times. PMID:25470365

  5. Laboratory measurements of electric properties of composite mine dump samples from Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Anita L.; Campbell, David L.; Beanland, Shay

    2001-01-01

    Individual mine waste samples were collected and combined to form one composite sample at each of eight mine dump sites in Colorado and New Mexico. The samples were air-dried and sieved to determine the geochemical composition of their <2mm size fraction. Splits of the samples were then rehydrated and their electrical properties were measured in the US Geological Survey Petrophysical Laboratory, Denver, Colorado (PetLab). The PetLab measurements were done twice: in 1999, using convenient amounts of rehydration water ranging from 5% to 8%; and in 2000, using carefully controlled rehydrations to 5% and 10% water. This report gives geochemical analyses of the <2mm size fraction of the composite samples (Appendix A), PetLab graphs of the 1999 measurements (Appendix B), Petlab graphs of the 2000 measurements (Appendix C), and Cole-Cole models of the PetLab data from the 2000 measurements (Appendix D).

  6. Ectopic POU5F1 in the male germ lineage disrupts differentiation and spermatogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Phillips, LeAnna J; Hartman, Rachel; An, Junhui; Dann, Christina T

    2016-10-01

    Expression levels of the pluripotency determinant, POU5F1, are tightly regulated to ensure appropriate differentiation during early embryogenesis. POU5F1 is also present in the spermatogonial stem cell/progenitor cell population in mice and it is downregulated as spermatogenesis progresses. To test if POU5F1 downregulation is required for SSCs to differentiate, we produced transgenic mice that ubiquitously express POU5F1 in Cre-expressing lineages. Using a Vasa-Cre driver to produce ectopic POU5F1 in all postnatal germ cells, we found that POU5F1 downregulation was necessary for spermatogonial expansion during the first wave of spermatogenesis and for the production of differentiated spermatogonia capable of undergoing meiosis. In contrast, undifferentiated spermatogonia were maintained throughout adulthood, consistent with a normal presence of POU5F1 in these cells. The results suggest that POU5F1 downregulation in differentiating spermatogonia is a necessary step for the progression of spermatogenesis. Further, the creation of a transgenic mouse model for conditional ectopic expression of POU5F1 may be a useful resource for studies of POU5F1 in other cell lineages, during tumorogenesis and cell fate reprogramming. PMID:27486267

  7. TCLP Preparation and Analysis of K East Basin Composite Sludge Samples

    SciTech Connect

    KL Silvers; JJ Wagner; RT Steele

    2000-08-15

    Sludge samples from the Hanford K East Basin were analyzed by the Toxicity Characterization Leaching Procedure (TCLP) to assist in the appropriate Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCIL4) designation of this material. Sludge samples were collected by Fluor Hanford, Inc. using the consolidated sludge sampling system (system that allows collection of a single sample from multiple sample locations). These samples were shipped to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building) and then transferred to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL, 325 Building) for recovery and testing. Two sludge composites were prepared, using the consolidated sludge samples, to represent K East canister sludge (sample KC Can Comp) and K East floor sludge (sample KC Floor Comp). Each composite was extracted in duplicate and analyzed in duplicate following pre-approved(a) TCLP extraction and analyses procedures. In addition, these samples and duplicates were analyzed for total RCRA metals (via acid digestion preparation). The work was conducted in accordance with the requirements of the Hanford Analytical Quality Assurance Requirements Document (HASQARD). A PNNL Quality Assurance Program compliant with J HASQARD was implemented for this effort. The results from the TCLP analyses showed that all RCRA metal concentrations were less than the TCLP limits for both the canister and floor composite samples and their respective duplicates.

  8. Isotopic composition analysis and age dating of uranium samples by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, A. I.; Pantelica, A.; Sima, O.; Fugaru, V.

    2016-09-01

    Non-destructive methods were applied to determine the isotopic composition and the time elapsed since last chemical purification of nine uranium samples. The applied methods are based on measuring gamma and X radiations of uranium samples by high resolution low energy gamma spectrometric system with planar high purity germanium detector and low background gamma spectrometric system with coaxial high purity germanium detector. The "Multigroup γ-ray Analysis Method for Uranium" (MGAU) code was used for the precise determination of samples' isotopic composition. The age of the samples was determined from the isotopic ratio 214Bi/234U. This ratio was calculated from the analyzed spectra of each uranium sample, using relative detection efficiency. Special attention is paid to the coincidence summing corrections that have to be taken into account when performing this type of analysis. In addition, an alternative approach for the age determination using full energy peak efficiencies obtained by Monte Carlo simulations with the GESPECOR code is described.

  9. Preparation and Application of Novel Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Composites for Recognition of Sulfadimethoxine in Feed Samples.

    PubMed

    Feng, Min; Li, Hengye; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jingyou; Dai, Jianping; Wang, Xiaojin; Zhang, Lingli; Wei, Yunji

    2016-01-01

    Novel magnetic molecularly imprinted composites were prepared through a facile method using sulfadimethoxine (SDM) as template. The inorganic magnetic nanoparticles were linked with the organic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) through irreversibly covalent bond. So, the resulted composites showed excellent stability and reusability under acidic elution conditions. The magnetic MIP composites showed good selectivity, high binding capacity and excellent kinetics toward SDM. Adopting the magnetic MIP composites as extraction material, an off-line magnetic solid-phase extraction (SPE)/high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05 - 15 mg kg(-1) (r(2) = 0.9976). The LOD and LOQ were 0.016 and 0.052 mg kg(-1), respectively, while the recoveries were in the range of 89.3 - 107.0%. These novel magnetic MIP composites may become a powerful tool for the extraction of template from complex samples with good efficiency. PMID:27169650

  10. Estimation of composite thermal conductivity of a heterogeneousmethane hydrate sample using iTOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Arvind; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Moridis, George J.; Seol,Yongkoo; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Sloan Jr., E.D.

    2006-05-15

    We determined the composite thermal conductivity (ktheta) ofa porous methanehydrate sample (composedof hydrate, water, and methan egas) as a function of density using iTOUGH2. X-ray computed tomography(CT) was used to visualize and quantify the density changes that occurredduring hydrate formation from granular ice. The composite thermalconductivity was estimated and validated by minimizing the differencesbetween the observed and the predicted thermal response using historymatching. The estimated density-dependent composite thermal conductivityranged between 0.25 and 0.58 W/m/K.

  11. The 5f2-->5f16d1 absorption spectrum of Cs2GeF6:U4+ crystals: A quantum chemical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ordejón, Belén; Karbowiak, Miroslaw; Seijo, Luis; Barandiarán, Zoila

    2006-08-21

    Single crystals of U(4+)-doped Cs2GeF6 with 1% U4+ concentration have been obtained by the modified Bridgman-Stockbarger method in spite of the large difference in ionic radii between Ge4+ and U4+ in octahedral coordination. Their UV absorption spectrum has been recorded at 7 K, between 190 and 350 nm; it consists of a first broad and intense band peaking at about 38,000 cm(-1) followed by a number of broad bands of lower intensity from 39,000 to 45,000 cm(-1). None of the bands observed shows appreciable fine vibronic structure, so that the energies of experimental electronic origins cannot be deduced and the assignment of the experimental spectrum using empirical methods based on crystal field theory cannot be attempted. Alternatively, the profile of the absorption spectrum has been obtained theoretically using the U-F bond lengths and totally symmetric vibrational frequencies of the ground 5f2 - 1A(1g) and 5f16d(t(2g))1 - iT(1u) excited states, their energy differences, and their corresponding electric dipole transition moments calculated using the relativistic ab initio model potential embedded cluster method. The calculations suggest that the observed bands are associated with the lowest five 5f2 - 1A(1g)-->5f16d(t(2g))1 - iT(1u) (i = 1-5) dipole allowed electronic origins and their vibrational progressions. In particular, the first broad and intense band peaking at about 38,000 cm(-1) can be safely assigned to the 0-0 and 0-1 members of the a(1g) progression of the 5f2 - 1A(1g)-->5f16d(t(2g))1 - 1T(1u) electronic origin. The electronic structure of all the states with main configurational character 5f16d(t(2g))1 has been calculated as well. The results show that the lowest crystal level of this manifold is 5f16d(t(2g))1 - 1E(u) and lies about 6200 cm(-1) above the 5f2 level closest in energy, which amounts to some 11 vibrational quanta. This large energy gap could result in low nonradiative decay and efficient UV emission, which suggest the interest of

  12. 26 CFR 5f.103-3 - Information reporting requirements for certain bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information reporting requirements for certain bonds. 5f.103-3 Section 5f.103-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX EQUITY AND FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 §...

  13. 26 CFR 5f.103-3 - Information reporting requirements for certain bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Information reporting requirements for certain bonds. 5f.103-3 Section 5f.103-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX EQUITY AND FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 §...

  14. Inhibitory effect of 5F on development of lung cancer in A/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hua; Yang, Xiaoqing; Wu, Kefeng; Li, Li; Lv, Yingnian; Liu, Yi; Zheng, Xuebao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of ent-11α-hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic-acid (5F) on the model of induced A/J mice lung cancer in A/J mice. The expressions of tumor-related molecules including P65 and Bcl-2 at protein level were examined using the immunohistochemical method (IHC). Side effects of 5F were also monitored. The results indicated that 5F significantly suppressed the development of B[a]P and NNK-induced lung cancer in vivo by facilitating cell apoptosis with minimal side effects. Compared to the expressions of P65 and Bcl-2 in model group, the levels were strongly attenuated both in blank and 5F injection groups. Moreover, P65 and Bcl-2 levels varied among different groups receiving 5F treatment. The expressions of P65 and Bcl-2 were much lower in groups receiving high-concentration 5F treatment than those with low-concentration 5F injection. Findings revealed that 5F inhibited the pathogenesis of lung cancer through accelerating apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26097604

  15. Thermal imaging of graphite/epoxy composite samples with fabricated defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.

    1991-01-01

    Consideration is given to a thermal inspection system for quickly inspecting large area composites for increased reliability and maintainability of helicopters resulting from improved quality assurance manufacturing. The infrared camera/image processor-based inspection system was used to image defects in composites. Noncontacting and single-sided measurements were performed on graphite/epoxy samples with fiber volume fraction variations, fabricated porosity, impact damage, and inclusions in incurred lay ups. These defects were imaged by determining the variations in the cooling rates caused by differences in through ply thermal diffusivity. Attention is also given to the system's sensitivity to measuring the defects due to sample thickness.

  16. Pharmacology of Indole and Indazole Synthetic Cannabinoid Designer Drugs AB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, ADB-PINACA, 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-ADB-PINACA, ADBICA, and 5F-ADBICA.

    PubMed

    Banister, Samuel D; Moir, Michael; Stuart, Jordyn; Kevin, Richard C; Wood, Katie E; Longworth, Mitchell; Wilkinson, Shane M; Beinat, Corinne; Buchanan, Alexandra S; Glass, Michelle; Connor, Mark; McGregor, Iain S; Kassiou, Michael

    2015-09-16

    Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) designer drugs based on indole and indazole scaffolds and featuring l-valinamide or l-tert-leucinamide side chains are encountered with increasing frequency by forensic researchers and law enforcement agencies and are associated with serious adverse health effects. However, many of these novel SCs are unprecedented in the scientific literature at the time of their discovery, and little is known of their pharmacology. Here, we report the synthesis and pharmacological characterization of AB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, ADB-PINACA, 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-ADB-PINACA, ADBICA, 5F-ADBICA, and several analogues. All synthesized SCs acted as high potency agonists of CB1 (EC50 = 0.24-21 nM) and CB2 (EC50 = 0.88-15 nM) receptors in a fluorometric assay of membrane potential, with 5F-ADB-PINACA showing the greatest potency at CB1 receptors. The cannabimimetic activities of AB-FUBINACA and AB-PINACA in vivo were evaluated in rats using biotelemetry. AB-FUBINACA and AB-PINACA dose-dependently induced hypothermia and bradycardia at doses of 0.3-3 mg/kg, and hypothermia was reversed by pretreatment with a CB1 (but not CB2) antagonist, indicating that these SCs are cannabimimetic in vivo, consistent with anecdotal reports of psychoactivity in humans. PMID:26134475

  17. Investigating Tungsten Concentrations and Isotopic Compositions of Natural Water Samples from the Carson River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, N. L.; Williams, R. W.; Kayzar, T. M.; Schorzman, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that W-isotopes may fractionate in nature1; however, the magnitude and cause of the isotopic variations are largely unknown and unconstrained. In this study, the isotopic compositions of the NIST 3163 W standard, W ore minerals, and 15 natural surface waters from Nevada's Carson River Basin were analyzed by MC-ICP-MS using external bracketing with NIST 3163 and the IUPAC 184W/183W for mass bias correction. Chemical separation procedures were developed to purify W from natural matrices and tested to assure fractionation was not introduced during column chemistry. The W isotopic compositions of these samples were measured and compared to the accepted IUPAC composition of natural W. Samples of wolframite (Fe, MnWO4) and hubnerite (MnWO4) have compositions similar to the IUPAC value but vary from the isotopic composition of NIST 3163 - particularly in 182W/183W. The isotopic compositions of the natural waters, except for an extremely evaporated sample from Soda Lake, are similar to the NIST standard. This evaporative lake, formed by a maar, has a unique chemical composition compared to other surface waters with high W (800 ± 20 ng/g) and As (1665 ± 17 ng/g) concentrations; and relatively low Fe (5.00 ± 0.13 ng/g) and Mn (0.52 ± 0.07 ng/g). These results support recent observations of natural W isotopic variation and imply that W-isotope compositions may be useful for environmental applications of stable isotope geochemistry. 1. Irisawa, K. and Hirata, T. (2006) Tungsten isotopic analysis on six geochemical reference materials using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry coupled with a rhenium-external correction technique. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry 21, 1387-1395.

  18. Rampant changes in 5f 5/2 and 5f 7/2 filling across the light and middle actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K; der Lann, G v; Wall, M; Schwartz, A; Haire, R

    2007-04-03

    We examine the branching ratio of the N{sub 4,5} (4d {yields} 5f ) spectra of Th, U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm metal using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), together with many-electron atomic spectral calculations and the spin-orbit sum rule. Our results show that: (1) The actinide metals Pu, Am, and Cm exhibit intermediate coupling. (2) The intermediate coupling values for the 5f states as calculated using a many-electron atomic model are correct for the actinides, this being proven by our new results for curium. (3) The EELS branching ratio is sensitive to the degree of 5f electron delocalization, which is illustrated by the transition from LS to intermediate coupling between U and Pu.

  19. Rotation and dichroism associated with microwave propagation in chiral composite samples

    SciTech Connect

    Umari, M.H.; Varadan, V.V.; Varadan, V.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Experimental results are presented on the angle of rotation and the axial ratio (dichroism) associated with the propagation of microwave waves in chiral composite samples (a phenomenon akin to optical rotation and optical dichroism). In the experiments the chiral composite samples tested were made in the form of planar slabs and consisted of low loss dielectric matrix materials in which miniature copper springs of left only, right only, or an equal mixture of left and right handedness were randomly distributed and oriented. The normally incident wave was linearly polarized. In the chiral sample the linearly polarized wave decomposes into left and right circularly polarized waves which propagate with different speeds and different attenuations leading to an elliptically polarized transmitted wave whose orientation (electromagnetic rotation) and axial ratio (dichroism) are proportional to the concentration of springs. Rotation and dichroism are shown to be zero in the equichiral samples. 10 refs.

  20. Cross-Combined Composite Sampling Designs for Identification of Elevated Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, John E.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Sego, Landon H.; Pulsipher, Brent A.

    2013-03-01

    Analyzing soils for contaminants can be costly. Generally, discrete samples are gathered from within a study area, analyzed by a laboratory and the results are used in a site-specific statistical analysis. Because of the heterogeneities that exist in soil samples within study areas, a large amount of variability and skewness may be present in the sample population. This necessitates collecting a large number of samples to obtain reliable inference on the mean contaminant concentration and to understand the spatial patterns for future remediation. Composite or Incremental sampling is a commonly applied method for gathering multiple discrete samples and physically combining them, such that each combination of discrete samples requires a single laboratory analysis, which reduces cost and can improve the estimates of the mean concentration. While incremental sampling can reduce cost and improve mean estimates, current implementations do not readily facilitate the characterization of spatial patterns or the detection of elevated regions within study areas. The methods we present in this work provide efficient estimation and inference for the mean contaminant concentration over the entire spatial area and enable the identification of high contaminant regions within the area of interest. We develop sample design methodologies that explicitly define the characteristics of these designs (such as sample grid layout) and quantify the number of incremental samples that must be obtained under a design criteria to control false positive and false negative (Type I and II) decision errors. We present the sample design theory and specifications as well as results on simulated and real data.

  1. Compositional study of a suite of samples from the 28-t Armanty (Xinjiang) iron meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, John T.; Ouyang, Xinwei; Wang, Daode

    1988-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis of 15 samples from widely separated locations on the surface of the 28-t Armanty (Xinjiang) group-IIIE iron meteorite showed no compositional variations attributable to magmatic fractionation processes such as fractional crystallization. The homogeneity contrasts with that observed in the Cape York IIIAB iron, in keeping with the idea that the latter is an exceptional case. From the maximum compositional gradients the radius of the IIIE core is estimated at greater than 1 km. One sample taken from a surface formed by fracture associated with its fall to Earth is slightly anomalous in composition. It is suggested that this region is near the border between two parental gamma crystals and has a high content of minor phases.

  2. ECONOMICS OF SAMPLE COMPOSITING AS A SCREENING TOOL IN GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advances in high throughput/automated compositing with robotics/field-screening methods offer seldom-tapped opportunities for achieving cost-reduction in ground water quality monitoring programs. n economic framework is presented in this paper for the evaluation of sample ...

  3. Application of Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Cylindrical Composite Test Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Richard E.; Roth, Donald J.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Two nondestructive methods were applied to composite cylinder samples pressurized to failure in order to determine manufacturing quality and monitor damage progression under load. A unique computed tomography (CT) image processing methodology developed at NASA Glenn Research was used to assess the condition of the as-received samples while acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was used to identify both the extent and location of damage within the samples up to failure. Results show the effectiveness of both of these methods in identifying potentially critical fabrication issues and their resulting impact on performance.

  4. Photothermal method for in situ microanalysis of the chemical composition of coal samples

    DOEpatents

    Amer, N.M.

    1983-10-25

    Successive minute regions along a scan path on a coal sample are individually analyzed, at a series of different depths if desired, to determine chemical composition including the locations, sizes and distributions of different maceral inclusions. A sequence of infrared light pulses of progressively changing wavelengths is directed into each minute region and a probe light beam is directed along the sample surface adjacent the region. Infrared wavelengths at which strong absorption occurs in the region are identified by detecting the resulting deflections of the probe beam caused by thermally induced index of refraction changes in the air or other medium adjacent the region. The detected peak absorption wavelengths are correlated with known characteristic peak absorption wavelengths of specific coal constituents to identify the composition of each such minute region of the sample. The method enables rapid, convenient and non-destructive analyses of coal specimens to facilitate mining, processing and utilization of coals. 2 figures.

  5. Quasi-relativistic SCF X. cap alpha. study of octahedral 5f/sup 1/ complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, G.; Roesch, N.; Edelstein, N.

    1980-05-01

    Quasi-relativistic SCF X..cap alpha.. calculations have been carried out for the octahedral 5f/sup 1/ complexes Pa/sup IV/X/sub 6//sup 2 -/, U/sup V/X/sub 6//sup -/(X = F, Cl, Br, I), and Np/sup VI/F/sub 6/. The 5f ..-->.. 5f excitation energies calculated by using the transition-state method agree well with the available absorption spectra. Ionic effects appear to dominate the trends observed in the f-orbital ligand field splitting.

  6. Bioagent Sample Matching using Elemental Composition Data: an Approach to Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Velsko, S P

    2006-04-21

    Sample matching is a fundamental capability that can have high probative value in a forensic context if proper validation studies are performed. In this report we discuss the potential utility of using the elemental composition of two bioagent samples to decide if they were produced in the same batch, or by the same process. Using guidance from the recent NRC study of bullet lead analysis and other sources, we develop a basic likelihood ratio framework for evaluating the evidentiary weight of elemental analysis data for sample matching. We define an objective metric for comparing two samples, and propose a method for constructing an unbiased population of test samples. We illustrate the basic methodology with some existing data on dry Bacillus thuringiensis preparations, and outline a comprehensive plan for experimental validation of this approach.

  7. Impact toughness and plastic properties of composite layered samples as compared to monolithic ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.; Mirzaev, D. A.; Panov, A. V.; Shaburov, D. V.

    2007-08-01

    Effects of testing conditions on the mechanical properties and fracture of a material in the course of impact loading have been studied. Using steels of various phase compositions (ferritic steel 08Kh18T1 and austenitic steel 10Kh18AG19) tested in a wide temperature range (from 20 to -196°C), the advantage of layered structures has been established as compared to monolithic. It has been shown that the testing of composite samples simulates the loading-affected behavior of the ferritic steel 08Kh18T1 with an inhomogeneous layered microstructure obtained during repeated hot rolling with a reduction of no less than 65%.

  8. Development of an analytical scheme for the determination of pyrethroid pesticides in composite diet samples.

    PubMed

    Vonderheide, Anne P; Kauffman, Peter E; Hieber, Thomas E; Brisbin, Judith A; Melnyk, Lisa Jo; Morgan, Jeffrey N

    2009-03-25

    Analysis of an individual's total daily food intake may be used to determine aggregate dietary ingestion of given compounds. However, the resulting composite sample represents a complex mixture, and measurement of such can often prove to be difficult. In this work, an analytical scheme was developed for the determination of 12 select pyrethroid pesticides in dietary samples. In the first phase of the study, several cleanup steps were investigated for their effectiveness in removing interferences in samples with a range of fat content (1-10%). Food samples were homogenized in the laboratory, and preparatory techniques were evaluated through recoveries from fortified samples. The selected final procedure consisted of a lyophilization step prior to sample extraction. A sequential 2-fold cleanup procedure of the extract included diatomaceous earth for removal of lipid components followed with a combination of deactivated alumina and C(18) for the simultaneous removal of polar and nonpolar interferences. Recoveries from fortified composite diet samples (10 microg kg(-1)) ranged from 50.2 to 147%. In the second phase of this work, three instrumental techniques [gas chromatography-microelectron capture detection (GC-microECD), GC-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-quadrupole-MS), and GC-ion trap-MS/MS] were compared for greatest sensitivity. GC-quadrupole-MS operated in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode proved to be most sensitive, yielding method detection limits of approximately 1 microg kg(-1). The developed extraction/instrumental scheme was applied to samples collected in an exposure measurement field study. The samples were fortified and analyte recoveries were acceptable (75.9-125%); however, compounds coextracted from the food matrix prevented quantitation of four of the pyrethroid analytes in two of the samples considered. PMID:19292459

  9. Perfluorinated Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticide Contamination in Composite Food Samples from Dallas, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357–362]. Methods In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Results Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p′- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Conclusion Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants. PMID:20146964

  10. Launch mission summary: Intelsat 5 (F3) Atlas/Centaur-55

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Intelsat 5 (F3) spacecraft, launch vehicle, and mission are described. Information relative to launch windows, flight plan, radar and telemetry coverage, selected trajectory information, and a brief sequence of flight events is provided.

  11. Death after use of the synthetic cannabinoid 5F-AMB.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Kevin G; Behonick, George S

    2016-05-01

    The use of synthetic cannabinoids and related products has been associated with adverse effects including seizure, acute kidney injury, and sudden death. We report the death of an individual that was associated with the synthetic cannabinoid 5F-AMB. Specimens were extracted via a liquid-liquid extraction at pH 10.2 into hexane:ethyl acetate. Analysis was completed via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. For this case report, we briefly describe the extraction and instrumental methods for 5F-AMB as well as the blood toxicology results (5F-AMB, 0.3ng/mL) and case circumstances and autopsy findings. Cause and manner of death was certified as accidental death due to synthetic cannabinoid toxicity. We also briefly review any previously published reports in which 5F-AMB was analytically confirmed and determined to be involved with cause of death. PMID:27017174

  12. Superconductivity in La1‑x Sm x O0.5F0.5BiS2 (x  =  0.2, 0.8) under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalai Selvan, G.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Manikandan, K.; Banerjee, A.; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Arumugam, S.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the pressure effect on the newly discovered samarium-doped La1‑x Sm x O0.5F0.5BiS2 superconductors. More than a threefold increase in T c (10.3 K) is observed with external pressure (at ~1.74 GPa at a rate of 4.08 K GPa‑1) for x  =  0.2 composition. There is a concomitant large improvement in the quality of the superconducting transition. Beyond this pressure T c decreases monotonously at the rate of  ‑2.09 K GPa‑1. In the x  =  0.8 sample, we do not observe any enhancement in T c with the application of pressure (up to 1.76 GPa). The semiconducting behavior observed in the normal-state resistivity of both samples is significantly subdued with the application of pressure which, if interpreted by invoking the thermal activation process, implies that the activation energy gap of the carriers is significantly reduced with pressure. We believe these observations should generate further interest in La1‑x Sm x O0.5F0.5BiS2 superconductors.

  13. 5f-electron localization in the actinide metals: thorides, actinides and the Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    For the light actinides Ac-Cm, the numbers of localized and itinerant 5f-electrons are determined by comparing various estimates of the f-electron counts. At least one itinerant f-electron is found for each element, Pa-Cm. These results resolve certain disagreements among electron counts determined by different methods and are consistent with the Mott transition model and with the picture of the 5f-electrons' dual nature.

  14. Large sample inference for a win ratio analysis of a composite outcome based on prioritized components.

    PubMed

    Bebu, Ionut; Lachin, John M

    2016-01-01

    Composite outcomes are common in clinical trials, especially for multiple time-to-event outcomes (endpoints). The standard approach that uses the time to the first outcome event has important limitations. Several alternative approaches have been proposed to compare treatment versus control, including the proportion in favor of treatment and the win ratio. Herein, we construct tests of significance and confidence intervals in the context of composite outcomes based on prioritized components using the large sample distribution of certain multivariate multi-sample U-statistics. This non-parametric approach provides a general inference for both the proportion in favor of treatment and the win ratio, and can be extended to stratified analyses and the comparison of more than two groups. The proposed methods are illustrated with time-to-event outcomes data from a clinical trial. PMID:26353896

  15. Study of carbon-polymer composite samples using an area-array CT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Savona, V.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-12-11

    The development of advanced materials and their improvement is strictly connected to the understanding of their properties and behavior as a function of both their macro- and micro-structures. The application of X-ray computed tomography (CT) to these materials allows for a better understanding of the materials properties and behavior on either macro- or micro-structure scales. We studied five Carbon-Polymer composite samples, static and fatigue tensile-tensile loading tested, characterized by different matrix composition (Epoxy and Peek), different fibers orientation and layer sequences. We considered both unnotched and notched (by a circular hole) samples too. We scanned these material with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory PCAT area array system, in order to investigate the feasibility of CT to study the defects and other features for such materials.

  16. Augmented composite likelihood for copula modeling in family studies under biased sampling.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yujie; Cook, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    The heritability of chronic diseases can be effectively studied by examining the nature and extent of within-family associations in disease onset times. Families are typically accrued through a biased sampling scheme in which affected individuals are identified and sampled along with their relatives who may provide right-censored or current status data on their disease onset times. We develop likelihood and composite likelihood methods for modeling the within-family association in these times through copula models in which dependencies are characterized by Kendall's [Formula: see text] Auxiliary data from independent individuals are exploited by augmentating composite likelihoods to increase precision of marginal parameter estimates and consequently increase efficiency in dependence parameter estimation. An application to a motivating family study in psoriatic arthritis illustrates the method and provides some evidence of excessive paternal transmission of risk. PMID:26819481

  17. Preparation of chitosan grafted graphite composite for sensitive detection of dopamine in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Thangavelu, Kokulnathan; Chen, Shen-Ming; Gnanaprakasam, P; Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Liu, Xiao-Heng

    2016-10-20

    The accurate detection of dopamine (DA) levels in biological samples such as human serum and urine are essential indicators in medical diagnostics. In this work, we describe the preparation of chitosan (CS) biopolymer grafted graphite (GR) composite for the sensitive and lower potential detection of DA in its sub micromolar levels. The composite modified electrode has been used for the detection of DA in biological samples such as human serum and urine. The GR-CS composite modified electrode shows an enhanced oxidation peak current response and low oxidation potential for the detection of DA than that of electrodes modified with bare, GR and CS discretely. Under optimum conditions, the fabricated GR-CS composite modified electrode shows the DPV response of DA in the linear response ranging from 0.03 to 20.06μM. The detection limit and sensitivity of the sensor were estimated as 0.0045μM and 6.06μA μM(-1)cm(-2), respectively. PMID:27474582

  18. Superconductivity phase diagram of Se-substituted CeO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Hiroi, Takafumi; Miura, Osuke

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of Se substitution on the lattice constants and superconducting properties of CeO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2. With increasing Se concentration, the a lattice constant increased, while the c lattice constant did not show any significant increase between x = 0.1 and x = 0.5. Bulk superconductivity was observed in samples with x = 0.2-0.4, and the superconducting transition temperature was the highest at x = 0.3. The obtained superconductivity phase diagram was compared to those of LaO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2 and NdO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2.

  19. Sampling variability and estimates of density dependence: a composite-likelihood approach.

    PubMed

    Lele, Subhash R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that sampling variability, if not properly taken into account, affects various ecologically important analyses. Statistical inference for stochastic population dynamics models is difficult when, in addition to the process error, there is also sampling error. The standard maximum-likelihood approach suffers from large computational burden. In this paper, I discuss an application of the composite-likelihood method for estimation of the parameters of the Gompertz model in the presence of sampling variability. The main advantage of the method of composite likelihood is that it reduces the computational burden substantially with little loss of statistical efficiency. Missing observations are a common problem with many ecological time series. The method of composite likelihood can accommodate missing observations in a straightforward fashion. Environmental conditions also affect the parameters of stochastic population dynamics models. This method is shown to handle such nonstationary population dynamics processes as well. Many ecological time series are short, and statistical inferences based on such short time series tend to be less precise. However, spatial replications of short time series provide an opportunity to increase the effective sample size. Application of likelihood-based methods for spatial time-series data for population dynamics models is computationally prohibitive. The method of composite likelihood is shown to have significantly less computational burden, making it possible to analyze large spatial time-series data. After discussing the methodology in general terms, I illustrate its use by analyzing a time series of counts of American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) from the Breeding Bird Survey data, San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) population abundance data, and spatial time series of Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) redds count data. PMID:16634310

  20. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  1. Estimating accuracy of land-cover composition from two-stage cluster sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehman, S.V.; Wickham, J.D.; Fattorini, L.; Wade, T.D.; Baffetta, F.; Smith, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Land-cover maps are often used to compute land-cover composition (i.e., the proportion or percent of area covered by each class), for each unit in a spatial partition of the region mapped. We derive design-based estimators of mean deviation (MD), mean absolute deviation (MAD), root mean square error (RMSE), and correlation (CORR) to quantify accuracy of land-cover composition for a general two-stage cluster sampling design, and for the special case of simple random sampling without replacement (SRSWOR) at each stage. The bias of the estimators for the two-stage SRSWOR design is evaluated via a simulation study. The estimators of RMSE and CORR have small bias except when sample size is small and the land-cover class is rare. The estimator of MAD is biased for both rare and common land-cover classes except when sample size is large. A general recommendation is that rare land-cover classes require large sample sizes to ensure that the accuracy estimators have small bias. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  2. Nucleotide composition analysis of tRNA from leukemia patient cell samples and human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Agris, P F

    1975-01-01

    A technique developed for analysis of less than microgram quantities of tRNA has been applied to the study of human leukemia. Leucocytes from peripheal blood and bone marrow samples of six, untreated leukemia patients and cells of five different established human cell lines were maintained for 18 hours in media containing (32P)-phosphate. Incorporation of radioactive phosphate into the cells from the patient samples was slightly less than that of the cell lines. Likewise, incorporation of (32P)-phosphate into the tRNA of the patient samples (approximately 5 x 106 DPM/mug tRNA) was also less then that incorporated into the tRNA of the cell lines. The major and minor nucleotide compositions of the unfractionated tRNA preparations from each patient sample and each cell line were determined and compared. Similarities and differences in the major and minor nucleotide compositions of the tRNA preparations are discussed with reference to types of leukemia and the importance of patient sample analysis versus analysis of cultured human cells. PMID:1057159

  3. H, C, and N isotopic compositions of Hayabusa category 3 organic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Motoo; Uesugi, Masayuki; Naraoka, Hiroshi; Yabuta, Hikaru; Kitajima, Fumio; Mita, Hajime; Takano, Yoshinori; Karouji, Yuzuru; Yada, Toru; Ishibashi, Yukihiro; Okada, Tatsuaki; Abe, Masanao

    2014-08-01

    Since isotopic ratios of H, C, and N are sensitive indicators for determining extraterrestrial organics, we have measured these isotopes of Hayabusa category 3 organic samples of RB-QD04-0047-02, RA-QD02-0120, and RB-QD04-0001 with ion imaging using a NanoSIMS ion microprobe. All samples have H, C, and N isotopic compositions that are terrestrial within errors (approximately ±50‰ for H, approximately ±9‰ for C, and approximately ±2‰ for N). None of these samples contain micrometer-sized hot spots with anomalous H, C, and N isotopic compositions, unlike previous isotope data for extraterrestrial organic materials, i.e., insoluble organic matters (IOMs) and nano-globules in chondrites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and cometary dust particles. We, therefore, cannot conclude whether these Hayabusa category 3 samples are terrestrial contaminants or extraterrestrial materials because of the H, C, and N isotopic data. A coordinated study using microanalysis techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), NanoSIMS ion microprobe, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and transmission electron microscopy/scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) is required to characterize Hayabusa category 3 samples in more detail for exploring their origin and nature.

  4. Technical bases and guidance for the use of composite soil sampling for demonstrating compliance with radiological release criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Vitkus, Timothy J.

    2012-04-24

    This guidance provides information on methodologies and the technical bases that licensees should consider for incorporating composite sampling strategies into final status survey (FSS) plans. In addition, this guidance also includes appropriate uses of composite sampling for generating the data for other decommissioning site investigations such as characterization or other preliminary site investigations.

  5. [Influence of ancient glass samples surface conditions on chemical composition analysis using portable XRF].

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Li, Qing-hui; Gan, Fu-xi

    2011-07-01

    Portable X-ray fluorescence analysis (PXRF) is one kind of surface analysis techniques, and the sample surface condition is an important factor that influences the quantitative analysis results. The ancient glass samples studied in the present paper were excavated from Xinjiang, Guangxi, Jiangsu provinces, and they belong to Na2O-CaO-SiO2, K2O-SiO2, and PbO-BaO-SiO2 system, respectively. Quantitative analysis results of weathered surface and inside of the ancient glass samples were compared. The concentration change of main fluxes in different parts of the samples was pointed out. Meanwhile, the authors studied the effect of distance between the sample and the reference plane, and curve shape of the sample on the quantitative results. The results obtained were calibrated by three methods, and the validity of these three methods was proved. Finally, the normalizing method was proved to be a better method for quantitative analysis of antiques. This paper also has guiding significance for chemical composition analysis of ancient jade samples using PXRF. PMID:21942060

  6. A Laser-Deposition Approach to Compositional-Spread Discovery of Materials on Conventional Sample Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Hans M; Okubo, Isao; Rouleau, Christopher M; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Lowndes, Douglas H

    2005-01-01

    Parallel (multi-sample) approaches, such as discrete combinatorial synthesis or continuous compositional-spread (CCS), can significantly increase the rate of materials discovery and process optimization. Here we review our generalized CCS method, based on pulsed-laser deposition, in which the synchronization between laser firing and substrate translation (behind a fixed slit aperture) yields the desired variations of composition and thickness. In situ alloying makes this approach applicable to the non-equilibrium synthesis of metastable phases. Deposition on a heater plate with a controlled spatial temperature variation can additionally be used for growth-temperature-dependence studies. Composition and temperature variations are controlled on length scales large enough to yield sample sizes sufficient for conventional characterization techniques (such as temperature-dependent measurements of resistivity or magnetic properties). This technique has been applied to various experimental studies, and we present here the results for the growth of electro-optic materials (Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1-x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) and magnetic perovskites (Sr{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}RuO{sub 3}), and discuss the application to the understanding and optimization of catalysts used in the synthesis of dense forests of carbon nanotubes.

  7. Martian Chronology and Atmospheric Composition: In Situ Measurements versus Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.

    2008-01-01

    I examine two significant issues of martian science from the point of view of in situ measurements by robotic spacecraft versus sample return and analysis in terrestrial labs. (1) To define martian history, ages of geological processes and surface features are required. Estimated ages from surface crater densities have limitations, and the ages measured for martian meteorites cannot be associated with specific martian locales. Whereas returned martian rocks could be accurately dated, some have suggested sending a robotic spacecraft to Mars to measure rock ages using the classical K- Ar-40 technique, considered the easiest to implement. (2) To understand the evolution of the martian atmosphere and its interactions with the surface, requires precise measurements of atmospheric composition. A significant amount of information has derived from measurements by Viking and of martian meteorites. Instrumentation on the Mars Science Lander (MSL) spacecraft to be launched in the near future promises to determine atmospheric composition even more precisely. If MSL is successful, which questions about atmospheric composition will remain and thus will require atmospheric sample return to answer?

  8. The surface chemical composition of lunar samples and its significance for optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.; Bilson, E.; Baron, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The surface Fe, Ti, Ca, and Si concentrations in a variety of soil and rock samples from all the Apollo sites are determined using an Auger spectrometer plus a single-pass cylindrical-mirror analyzer with a standard 15-stage BeCu electron multiplier. It is found that there are no great differences between the surface and bulk concentrations of any of the four elements in the rock samples, but the surface Fe and Ti concentrations in soil samples are higher than the bulk concentrations. Results are also reported for solar-wind simulation experiments in which a pulverized rock sample was bombarded with 2-keV alpha-particles corresponding to about a 30,000-yr dose of the solar-wind proton component. These results indicate that the chemical change induced on the surface of a rock powder by positive-ion bombardment is similar to the change from bulk to surface chemical composition in lunar soil samples. A clear correlation is observed between the surface Fe concentration and albedo of the soil samples.

  9. Photothermal method for in situ microanalysis of the chemical composition of coal samples

    DOEpatents

    Amer, Nabil M.

    1986-01-01

    Successive minute regions (13) along a scan path on a coal sample (11) are individually analyzed, at a series of different depths if desired, to determine chemical composition including the locations, sizes and distributions of different maceral inclusions (12). A sequence of infrared light pulses (17) of progressively changing wavelengths is directed into each minute region (13) and a probe light beam (22) is directed along the sample surface (21) adjacent the region (13). Infrared wavelengths at which strong absorption occurs in the region (13) are identified by detecting the resulting deflections (.phi.) of the probe beam (22) caused by thermally induced index of refraction changes in the air or other medium (19) adjacent the region (13). The detected peak absorption wavelengths are correlated with known characteristic peak absorption wavelengths of specific coal constituents to identify the composition of each such minute region (13) of the sample (11). The method enables rapid, convenient and non-destructive analyses of coal specimens to facilitate mining, processing and utilization of coals.

  10. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  11. The isotopic composition of methane in the stratosphere: high-altitude balloon sample measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röckmann, T.; Brass, M.; Borchers, R.; Engel, A.

    2011-04-01

    The isotopic composition of stratospheric methane has been determined on a large suite of air samples from stratospheric balloon flights covering subtropical to polar latitudes and a time period of 16 yr. 154 samples were analyzed for δsamples for δD, increasing the previously published dataset for balloon borne samples by an order of magnitude, and more than doubling the total available stratospheric data (including aircraft samples) published to date. The samples also cover a large range in mixing ratio from tropospheric values near 1800 ppb down to only 250 ppb, and the strong isotope fractionation processes accordingly increase the isotopic composition up to δ13C=-14‰ and δD= +190‰, the largest enrichments observed for atmospheric CH4 so far. When analyzing and comparing kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) derived from single balloon profiles, it is necessary to take into account the residence time in the stratosphere in combination with the observed mixing ratio and isotope trends in the troposphere, and the range of isotope values covered by the individual profile. Temporal isotope trends can also be determined in the stratosphere and compare reasonably well with the tropospheric trends. The effects of chemical and dynamical processes on the isotopic composition of CH4 in the stratosphere are discussed in detail. Different ways to interpret the data in terms of the relative fractions of the three important sink mechanisms (reaction with OH, O(1D)) and Cl, respectively), and their limitations, are investigated. The classical approach of using global mean KIE values can be strongly biased when profiles with different minimum mixing ratios are compared. Approaches for more local KIE investigations are suggested. It is shown that any approach for a formal sink partitioning from the measured data severely underestimates the fraction removed by OH, which is likely due to the insensitivity of the measurements to the kinetic fractionation in the

  12. Gamma Rays, Meteorites, Lunar Samples, and the Composition of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2005-11-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer built at Los Alamos National Laboratory and carried on the Lunar Prospector orbiter in 1997-1998 allowed scientists to measure the concentrations of several elements on the entire lunar surface. The data have been widely used by planetary scientists to determine the chemical composition of the Moon and infer something about the processes operating when it formed. However, specialists in the study of lunar samples have been a bit uneasy about the details of the elemental compositions and have offered modest, but significant, corrections to the gamma ray data to make them more in line with what we know from samples. The latest of these approaches to correcting the gamma-ray data has been done by Paul Warren (University of California, Los Angeles), a renowned lunar sample specialist. He concentrated on correcting the analysis for the element thorium (Th), whose natural radioactive decay releases characteristic gamma rays. Thorium is an important element because we understand its behavior during the formation and subsequent evolution of magma, and because it is a refractory element-that is, it condenses at a high temperature from a gas. This means that if you know the thorium concentration, you also know the concentrations of all other refractory elements with similar geochemical behavior, which includes the rare earth elements, uranium, zirconium, titanium, calcium, and aluminum. Using his revised global thorium concentration as a springboard, Warren then estimated the concentration of numerous elements in the entire rocky portion of the Moon, which makes up more than 95% of the orb that graces the night sky. His estimates do not agree with those produced by others, which will lead to continued debate and refinement of the Moon's chemical composition.

  13. K8(K5F)U6Si8O40: An Intergrowth Uranyl Silicate.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Gregory; Tran, T Thao; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2016-04-01

    Single crystals of K8(K5F)U6Si8O40 were grown from a mixed alkali halide flux. K8(K5F)U6Si8O40 is the first intergrowth uranyl silicate, being composed of alternating slabs related to two previously reported uranyl silicates: Cs2USiO6 and [Na9F2][(UO2)(UO2)2(Si2O7)2]. It exhibits intense luminescence, which is influenced by the [(UO2)2O] dimers present in the structure. PMID:26974872

  14. Failure of Russell-Saunders Coupling in the 5f States of Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, K. T.; Wall, M. A.; Schwartz, A. J.; Chung, B. W.; Shuh, D. K.; Schulze, R. K.; Tobin, J. G.

    2003-05-01

    Using high energy electron energy loss spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we provide the first experimental evidence that Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling fails for the 5f states of Pu. These results support the assumption that only the use of jj or intermediate coupling is appropriate for the 5f states of Pu. High energy electron energy loss spectroscopy experiments were performed by use of a transmission electron microscope and are coupled with image and diffraction data; therefore, the measurements are completely phase specific.

  15. Multivariate Methods for Prediction of Geologic Sample Composition with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard; Anderson, R.; Clegg, S. M.; Bell, J. F., III

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) uses pulses of laser light to ablate a material from the surface of a sample and produce an expanding plasma. The optical emission from the plasma produces a spectrum which can be used to classify target materials and estimate their composition. The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will use LIBS to rapidly analyze targets remotely, allowing more resource- and time-intensive in-situ analyses to be reserved for targets of particular interest. ChemCam will also be used to analyze samples that are not reachable by the rover's in-situ instruments. Due to these tactical and scientific roles, it is important that ChemCam-derived sample compositions are as accurate as possible. We have compared the results of partial least squares (PLS), multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural networks (ANNs), and cascade correlation (CC) ANNs to determine which technique yields better estimates of quantitative element abundances in rock and mineral samples. The number of hidden nodes in the MLP ANNs was optimized using a genetic algorithm. The influence of two data preprocessing techniques were also investigated: genetic algorithm feature selection and averaging the spectra for each training sample prior to training the PLS and ANN algorithms. We used a ChemCam-like laboratory stand-off LIBS system to collect spectra of 30 pressed powder geostandards and a diverse suite of 196 geologic slab samples of known bulk composition. We tested the performance of PLS and ANNs on a subset of these samples, choosing to focus on silicate rocks and minerals with a loss on ignition of less than 2 percent. This resulted in a set of 22 pressed powder geostandards and 80 geologic samples. Four of the geostandards were used as a validation set and 18 were used as the training set for the algorithms. We found that PLS typically resulted in the lowest average absolute error in its predictions, but that the optimized MLP ANN and

  16. Sampling and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from two locations of Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Chirino, Yolanda I.; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-01-01

    The PM10 airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm is considered as a risk factor of various adverse health outcomes, including lung cancer. Here we described the sampling and composition of PM10 collected from an industrial zone (IZ), and a commercial zone (CZ) of Mexico City. The PM10 was collected with a high-volume sampler in the above mentioned locations and both types of PM10 sampled were characterized by the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and endotoxin. The endotoxin PM10 content from IZ and CZ displayed 138.4 UE/mg and 170.4 UE/mg of PM10, respectively. PMID:26217815

  17. Sampling and composition of airborne particulate matter (PM10) from two locations of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Yolanda I; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Rosas, Irma; García-Cuellar, Claudia María

    2015-09-01

    The PM10 airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm is considered as a risk factor of various adverse health outcomes, including lung cancer. Here we described the sampling and composition of PM10 collected from an industrial zone (IZ), and a commercial zone (CZ) of Mexico City. The PM10 was collected with a high-volume sampler in the above mentioned locations and both types of PM10 sampled were characterized by the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and endotoxin. The endotoxin PM10 content from IZ and CZ displayed 138.4 UE/mg and 170.4 UE/mg of PM10, respectively. PMID:26217815

  18. Pulsed photothermal profiling of water-based samples using a spectrally composite reconstruction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaron, B.; Milanič, M.

    2010-03-01

    Pulsed photothermal profiling involves reconstruction of temperature depth profile induced in a layered sample by single-pulse laser exposure, based on transient change in mid-infrared (IR) emission from its surface. Earlier studies have indicated that in watery tissues, featuring a pronounced spectral variation of mid-IR absorption coefficient, analysis of broadband radiometric signals within the customary monochromatic approximation adversely affects profiling accuracy. We present here an experimental comparison of pulsed photothermal profiling in layered agar gel samples utilizing a spectrally composite kernel matrix vs. the customary approach. By utilizing a custom reconstruction code, the augmented approach reduces broadening of individual temperature peaks to 14% of the absorber depth, in contrast to 21% obtained with the customary approach.

  19. Vanadium isotopic composition and concentrations of ferromagnesian elements in returned lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    The effects are sought of an energetic charged particle irradiation of solar system material which is postulated as having taken place early in its history. A similar irradiation took place much more recently in the history of lunar samples and meteorites and this process is studied by means of a variety of monitors including highly sensitive noble gas nuclides, radionuclides, and tracks. Such monitors cannot be used to study the postulated early irradiation since it could have taken place under conditions such that these monitors were not retained or were subsequently lost. Accordingly, it is necessary that a nongaseous element be used to search for the effects of this irradiation, and one of the most sensitive of these is the vanadium isotopic composition. A comparative study is made of the 50 sub V/51 sub V ratios in 15 meteoritic, 5 terrestrial, and 11 lunar samples.

  20. Compositional and Geochronological Constraints on the Lunar Cataclysm from Planetary Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiometric dating and compositional clustering of lunar impact-melt rocks form the backbone of the lunar cataclysm hypothesis. Precise age determinations of Apollo and Luna impact-melt rocks define the classic formulation of the cataclysm: a large number of samples 3.9 Ga old, a steep decline after 3.9 Ga, and few impact rocks older than 4.0 Ga. Lunar meteorites more randomly sample the lunar surface, but impact-melt clasts in these rocks show the same apparent age cutoff at 4.0 Ga (though their ages extend approx.500 Myr later). Neither do impact-formed glass spherules and fragments, formed by impacts of all sizes throughout lunar history, predate 4.0 Ga. Geological associations between compositional groups of impact-melt rocks and specific impact basins imply that five large basins formed on the Moon within 200 Myr but a counter-argument postulates they are all products of the Imbrium basin-forming impact; it is not yet proven whether groups of impact melt that are resolvable from each other in age and in trace-element composition represent multiple impacts. The 3.9 Ga age peak and subsequent steep decline are not well mirrored in meteorite data. Radiometric ages in ordinary chondrites and HED meteorites peak around 3.9 Ga but ages older and younger than 3.9 Ga are common. Among Martian meteorites, there is a single impact-related age: ALH 84001 was shocked at 3.92 Ga. Differences in relative impact velocity, impact-melt production, and sampling rate could explain differences between the meteorite and lunar records. One way to anchor the early end of the lunar flux is to directly sample the impact-melt sheet of a large lunar basin distant from Imbrium, such as the South Pole-Aitken basin, where melt rocks probably still resides on the basin floor and could be directly sampled by a human or robotic mission.

  1. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in Composite U.S. Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, Arnold; Haffner, Darrah; Colacino, Justin; Patel, Keyur; Päpke, Olaf; Opel, Matthias; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to update previous U.S. market basket surveys of levels and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) dietary intake calculations. This study also quantifies hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) levels in U.S.-purchased foods for the first time and estimates U.S. dietary intake of HBCD. This is part of a larger market basket study reported in two companion articles, of current levels of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) PBDEs, HBCD, perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides in composite food samples collected in 2008–2009. Methods In this study, we measured concentrations of 24 PBDE congeners and total HBCD in composite samples of 31 food types (310 samples). U.S. dietary intake of PBDEs and HBCD was estimated referencing the most current U.S. Department of Agriculture loss-adjusted food availability report. Results Total PBDE concentrations in food varied by food type, ranging from 12 pg/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk to 1,545 pg/g ww in canned sardines and 6,211 pg/g ww in butter. Total HBCD concentrations also varied substantially within and among food groups, ranging from 23 pg/g in canned beef chili to 593 pg/g in canned sardines. HBCD was not detected in any dairy samples. Dietary intake of all PBDE congeners measured was estimated to be 50 ng/day, mostly from dairy consumption but also from meat and fish. HBCD intake was estimated at 16 ng/day, primarily from meat consumption. Conclusion PBDEs and HBCDs currently contaminate some food purchased in the United States, although PBDE intake estimated in this study is lower than reported in our previous market basket surveys. HBCD is in food at higher levels than expected based on previously reported levels in milk and blood compared with PBDE levels and is comparable to European levels. PMID:20064778

  2. Online Measurement of the Intramolecular Isotopic Composition of Acetate in Natural Porewater Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. B.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon dioxide and methane are traditionally considered to be the dominant end products of anaerobic metabolism while acetate is thought to be a rapidly consumed intermediate. However, in some settings, recent evidence has grown to suggest that, at least transiently, acetate can be a major metabolic end product. In natural systems, isotopic mass balances can be used to partition the flow of carbon to methane, CO2, and acetate. However, these isotopic estimates require intramolecular measurements of acetate in addition to isotopic measurements of the gaseous species, CO2 and CH4. In practice, the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate is rarely measured because the analysis is technically challenging and traditionally requires prior separation and offline pyrolysis of purified acetate. As a result of these technical challenges, acetate methyl carbon is usually assumed to be a few permil depleted relative to the carbon isotopic composition of bulk organic matter. In environments where acetate may be produced by autotrophic acetogens this assumption can be devastatingly false. This work describes the use of an online method for the analysis of the intramolecular carbon isotopic composition of dissolved acetate from dilute surface water samples with a detection limit of injected sample down to 500uM. Preconcentration of samples via lyophilization has resulted in detection limits as low as 30uM. In 2002, at Penn State, Dias et al. (Organic Geochemistry Vol. 33, p161-168) reported a technique to examine the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate from oil-prone source rocks using SPME extraction with an online GC-pyrolysis-IRMS. We have adapted the Dias method to be used with direct injection of dilute natural water samples. Briefly, this procedure protonates acetate with a .1M addition of oxalic acid and vaporizes the sample in the GC inlet at low temperatures. This prevents oxalic acid decomposition and provides sufficient separation of acetate from

  3. Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva: Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Diederik; Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; de Vries, Marcel P.; Weening, Desiree; Vonk, Roel J.; Roelofsen, Han

    2008-01-01

    Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh whole saliva with and without inhibitors of proteases and bacterial metabolism followed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI) analyses. Protein composition was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) fractionation of saliva proteins followed by digestion of excised bands and identification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results show that rapid protein degradation occurs within 30 minutes after sample collection. Degradation starts already during collection. Protease inhibitors partly prevented degradation while inhibition of bacterial metabolism did not affect degradation. Three stable degradation products of 2937 Da, 3370 Da and 4132 Da were discovered which can be used as markers to monitor sample quality. Saliva proteome analyses revealed 218 proteins of which 84 can also be found in blood plasma. Based on a comparison with seven other proteomics studies on whole saliva we identified 83 new saliva proteins. We conclude that saliva is a promising diagnostic fluid when precautions are taken towards protein breakdown. PMID:19578491

  4. Pou5f1 contributes to dorsoventral patterning by positive regulation of vox and modulation of fgf8a expression.

    PubMed

    Belting, Heinz-Georg; Wendik, Björn; Lunde, Karen; Leichsenring, Manuel; Mössner, Rebecca; Driever, Wolfgang; Onichtchouk, Daria

    2011-08-15

    Pou5f1/Oct-4 in mice is required for maintenance of embryonic pluripotent cell populations. Zebrafish pou5f1 maternal-zygotic mutant embryos (spiel ohne grenzen; MZspg) lack endoderm and have gastrulation and dorsoventral patterning defects. A contribution of Pou5f1 to the control of bmp2b, bmp4 and vox expression has been suggested, however the mechanisms remained unclear and are investigated in detail here. Low-level overexpression of a Pou5f1-VP16 activator fusion protein can rescue dorsalization in MZspg mutants, indicating that Pou5f1 acts as a transcriptional activator during dorsoventral patterning. Overexpression of larger quantities of Pou5f1-VP16 can ventralize wild-type embryos, while overexpression of a Pou5f1-En repressor fusion protein can dorsalize embryos. Lack of Pou5f1 causes a transient upregulation of fgf8a expression after mid-blastula transition, providing a mechanism for delayed activation of bmp2b in MZspg embryos. Overexpression of the Pou5f1-En repressor induces fgf8, suggesting an indirect mechanism of Pou5f1 control of fgf8a expression. Transcription of vox is strongly activated by Pou5f1-VP16 even when translation of zygotically expressed transcripts is experimentally inhibited by cycloheximide. In contrast, bmp2b and bmp4 are not activated under these conditions. We show that Pou5f1 binds to phylogenetically conserved Oct/Pou5f1 sites in the vox promoter, both in vivo (ChIP) and in vitro. Our data reveals a set of direct and indirect interactions of Pou5f1 with the BMP dorsoventral patterning network that serve to fine-tune dorsoventral patterning mechanisms and coordinate patterning with developmental timing. PMID:21621531

  5. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  6. Reciprocal Transcriptional Regulation of Pou5f1 and Sox2 via the Oct4/Sox2 Complex in Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Joon-Lin; Loh, Yuin-Han; Zhang, Wensheng; Chen, Xi; Tam, Wai-Leong; Yeap, Leng-Siew; Li, Pin; Ang, Yen-Sin; Lim, Bing; Robson, Paul; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells that can either self-renew or differentiate into many cell types. Oct4 and Sox2 are transcription factors essential to the pluripotent and self-renewing phenotypes of ESCs. Both factors are upstream in the hierarchy of the transcription regulatory network and are partners in regulating several ESC-specific genes. In ESCs, Sox2 is transcriptionally regulated by an enhancer containing a composite sox-oct element that Oct4 and Sox2 bind in a combinatorial interaction. It has previously been shown that Pou5f1, the Oct4 gene, contains a distal enhancer imparting specific expression in both ESCs and preimplantation embryos. Here, we identify a composite sox-oct element within this enhancer and show that it is involved in Pou5f1 transcriptional activity in ESCs. In vitro experiments with ESC nuclear extracts demonstrate that Oct4 and Sox2 interact specifically with this regulatory element. More importantly, by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we establish that both Oct4 and Sox2 bind directly to the composite sox-oct elements in both Pou5f1 and Sox2 in living mouse and human ESCs. Specific knockdown of either Oct4 or Sox2 by RNA interference leads to the reduction of both genes' enhancer activities and endogenous expression levels in addition to ESC differentiation. Our data uncover a positive and potentially self-reinforcing regulatory loop that maintains Pou5f1 and Sox2 expression via the Oct4/Sox2 complex in pluripotent cells. PMID:15988017

  7. Family-Level Sampling of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera: Compositional Heterogeneity and Phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML ("nonhomogeneous") algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees. PMID:26645679

  8. Ethnic Variation in Body Composition Assessment in a Sample of Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Katie A.; Friend, Sarah; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Demerath, Ellen W.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid measure of body composition in a multiethnic sample of adolescent girls, as compared to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Method Data were from a physical activity intervention study among 276 14–20 year-old sedentary American girls, including 74 whites, 85 blacks, 46 Hispanics, and 71 Asians. Height and weight were objectively measured. Body composition was assessed using a foot-to-foot BIA and a fan-beam DXA. Linear regression models quantified baseline cross-sectional estimates of percent body fat, fat mass, fat-free mass, fat mass index, and fat-free mass index and their BIA-DXA differences, which we considered an estimate of bias. Variation in BIA-DXA by ethnicity and DXA-assessed adiposity was examined with tests of statistical interaction. Results Compared to DXA measurement, BIA significantly underestimated percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass index, and overestimated fat-free mass and fat-free mass index in each ethnic group. There was significant ethnic variation in BIA-DXA bias: percent body fat was underestimated by between 4.8% in blacks and 8.6% in Asians (p-value, interaction<0.001), as were fat mass (p-value=0.012) and fat mass index (p-value<0.001); fat-free mass index was overestimated (p-value=0.002). The degree of ethnic-specific bias varied according to DXA-assessed body composition values. For example, there was relatively greater ethnic variation in bias estimating percent body fat at lower DXA-assessed percent body fat values. Conclusion Compared to DXA, BIA underestimated measures of adiposity in a multiethnic adolescent sample. Further, BIA-DXA bias varied by ethnicity and across measures of adiposity. PMID:21749194

  9. Family-Level Sampling of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera: Compositional Heterogeneity and Phylogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Timmermans, Martijn J. T. N.; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C. Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G.; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML (“nonhomogeneous”) algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees. PMID:26645679

  10. 26 CFR 5f.103-2 - Public approval of industrial development bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public approval of industrial development bonds... RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 § 5f.103-2 Public approval of industrial development bonds. (a) General rule. An industrial development bond (within the meaning of § 1.103-7(b)(1) issued after December 31, 1982, shall...

  11. 26 CFR 5f.103-2 - Public approval of industrial development bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public approval of industrial development bonds... RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 § 5f.103-2 Public approval of industrial development bonds. (a) General rule. An industrial development bond (within the meaning of § 1.103-7(b)(1) issued after December 31, 1982, shall...

  12. 26 CFR 5f.103-2 - Public approval of industrial development bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Public approval of industrial development bonds... RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 § 5f.103-2 Public approval of industrial development bonds. (a) General rule. An industrial development bond (within the meaning of § 1.103-7(b)(1) issued after December 31, 1982, shall...

  13. 26 CFR 5f.103-2 - Public approval of industrial development bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public approval of industrial development bonds... RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 § 5f.103-2 Public approval of industrial development bonds. (a) General rule. An... satisfies the public approval requirement of section 103(k) and paragraph (c) of this section or...

  14. Sac2/INPP5F is an inositol 4-phosphatase that functions in the endocytic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Messa, Mirko; Nández, Ramiro; Czapla, Heather; Zou, Yixiao; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRL–Sac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin. PMID:25869668

  15. Beyond Spin-Orbit: Probing Electron Correlation in the Pu 5f States

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2006-05-08

    Experiments planned to address the issue of electron correlation in the Pu 5f states are described herein. The key is the utilization of the Fano Effect, the observation of spin polarization in nonmagnetic systems, using chiral excitation such as circularly polarized X-rays.

  16. 48 CFR 47.303-5 - F.o.b. origin, with differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) Differentials for mode of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, with... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-5 F.o.b. origin,...

  17. 48 CFR 47.303-5 - F.o.b. origin, with differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) Differentials for mode of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, with... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-5 F.o.b. origin,...

  18. 48 CFR 47.303-5 - F.o.b. origin, with differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) Differentials for mode of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, with... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-5 F.o.b. origin,...

  19. 48 CFR 47.303-5 - F.o.b. origin, with differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) Differentials for mode of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, with... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-5 F.o.b. origin,...

  20. Early mantle composition and evolution inferred from 142Nd and 182W variation in Isua samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizo Garza, H. L.; Touboul, M.; Puchtel, I. S.; Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R. W.; Horan, M. F.; Boyet, M.

    2013-12-01

    The short-lived 146Sm-142Nd chronometer applied to Eoarchean rocks from Greenland led to the discovery of the oldest known mantle reservoir, likely formed during the first 150 Ma of Earth's history [1-4]. The geochemical composition and evolution of this reservoir can, thus, reveal the nature of early Earth differentiation events, and its survival provides information on the mixing rates of early heterogeneities in the mantle. High precision 142Nd analyses have revealed that the early-formed reservoir sampled by the Greenland rocks was depleted in incompatible elements, and that its obliteration by remixing into the mantle was completed around 3.3 Ga [5]. High precision 182W data are a promising tool that can provide new information about the earliest phase of Earth's evolution. Excesses in182W of ~+13 ppm relative to terrestrial standards, detected in ~ 3.8 Ga rocks from Greenland [6] were interpreted to reflect the incomplete mixing of late-accreted materials into the mantle sources of these rocks during the period between 4.5 and 3.8 Ga. Here, we measured highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances and 182W in Greenland rocks with ages ranging between 3.8 and 3.3 Ga. Platinum concentrations of ~3 to nearly 8ppb were measured in all samples, except for the of the 3.3 Ga rocks. The relatively high Pt abundances are not consistent with mantle sources characterized by strong HSE depletion. The tungsten isotopic data for the 3.8 Ga old samples show no 182W anomalies. By contrast, variable 182W excesses of as high as 13ppm are present in 3.7, 3.4 and 3.3 Ga samples. The 182W results do not correlate with the 142Nd variability in the same rocks. The 3.8 Ga samples also stand out with respect to their high W concentrations (2 - 3 ppm) compared to the other Greenland samples (0.1- 0.8 ppm). The 182W data, together with the HSE data may help to constrain the composition of the Archean mantle through time, and will allow modeling of the mixing rate of late arriving

  1. Isotopic composition of nitrate in sequential Hurricane Irene precipitation samples: Implications for changing NOx sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, J. David; Elliott, Emily M.; Avery, G. Brooks; Kieber, Robert J.; Mead, Ralph N.; Willey, Joan D.; Mullaugh, Katherine M.

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have concentrated on adverse ecosystem effects resulting from nitrogen (N) loading from runoff and increased N2O emissions due to hurricane activity but little focus has been placed on N inputs delivered by hurricane precipitation. Understanding these N inputs during extreme rain events is increasingly important since global climate change may alter hurricane activity. In this study, ten sequential Hurricane Irene rain samples were analyzed for isotopic composition of nitrate (NO3-) to investigate NOx (=NO + NO2) sources contributing to NO3- deposited by a hurricane. The samples were divided into three groups (I, II, II) by k-means clustering using rain event back trajectories, δ15N-NO3- values, and NO3- concentrations. Chemical, physical and isotopic analyses, including δ15N- and δ18O-NO3-, anions, cations, H+, H2O2, DOC, acetaldehyde, ethanol and rainfall intensity, were then used to explore similarities in geographic origins and potential relationships with NOx and other emission sources. While it is possible that all samples had contributions from various NOx sources, group I samples had marine back trajectories and a mean δ15N-NO3- value (-0.7 ± 1.9‰) suggesting primarily lightning-sourced NOx contributions to NO3- deposition. As the hurricane made landfall, Group II samples transitioned to reflect more of a terrestrial signature with a higher mean δ15N-NO3- value (+11.0 ± 0.5‰) indicating NOx emission contributions from vehicles and power plants sources. As the hurricane continued to move inland, Group III δ15N-NO3- values (-5.5 and -5.7‰) reflect the potential mixing of biogenic soil NOx emissions with vehicle and power plant sources. Higher concentrations of ethanol, acetaldehyde, NH4+, and carbohydrates in Group III samples support the influence of biogenic sources. The isotopic composition of NO3- in hurricane rain can aid in discerning varying NOx sources contributing to nitrate concentrations in extreme rain events. This

  2. Band structures of 4f and 5f materials studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-01

    Recent remarkable progress in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has enabled the direct observation of the band structures of 4f and 5f materials. In particular, ARPES with various light sources such as lasers (hν ∼ 7~\\text{eV} ) or high-energy synchrotron radiations (hν ≳ 400~\\text{eV} ) has shed light on the bulk band structures of strongly correlated materials with energy scales of a few millielectronvolts to several electronvolts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the behaviors of 4f and 5f band structures of various rare-earth and actinide materials observed by modern ARPES techniques, and understand how they can be described using various theoretical frameworks. For 4f-electron materials, ARPES studies of \\text{Ce}M\\text{I}{{\\text{n}}5} (M=\\text{Rh} , \\text{Ir} , and \\text{Co} ) and \\text{YbR}{{\\text{h}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} with various incident photon energies are summarized. We demonstrate that their 4f electronic structures are essentially described within the framework of the periodic Anderson model, and that the band-structure calculation based on the local density approximation cannot explain their low-energy electronic structures. Meanwhile, electronic structures of 5f materials exhibit wide varieties ranging from itinerant to localized states. For itinerant \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UFeG}{{\\text{a}}5} , their electronic structures can be well-described by the band-structure calculation assuming that all \\text{U}~5f electrons are itinerant. In contrast, the band structures of localized \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UP}{{\\text{d}}3} and \\text{U}{{\\text{O}}2} are essentially explained by the localized model that treats \\text{U}~5f electrons as localized core states. In regards to heavy fermion \\text{U} -based compounds such as the hidden-order compound \\text{UR}{{\\text{u}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} , their electronic structures exhibit complex behaviors. Their overall band structures

  3. Molecularly Imprinted Composite Membranes for Selective Detection of 2-Deoxyadenosine in Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Scorrano, Sonia; Mergola, Lucia; Di Bello, Maria Pia; Lazzoi, Maria Rosaria; Vasapollo, Giuseppe; Del Sole, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. In this work, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer composite membrane (MIM) was synthesized and employed for the selective detection in urine samples of 2-deoxyadenosine (2-dA), an important tumoral marker. By thermal polymerization, the 2-dA-MIM was cross-linked on the surface of a polyvinylidene-difluoride (PVDF) membrane. By characterization techniques, the linking of the imprinted polymer on the surface of the membrane was found. Batch-wise guest binding experiments confirmed the absorption capacity of the synthesized membrane towards the template molecule. Subsequently, a time-course of 2-dA retention on membrane was performed and the best minimum time (30 min) to bind the molecule was established. HPLC analysis was also performed to carry out a rapid detection of target molecule in urine sample with a recovery capacity of 85%. The experiments indicated that the MIM was highly selective and can be used for revealing the presence of 2-dA in urine samples. PMID:26086824

  4. Passive sampling to capture the spatial variability of coarse particles by composition in Cleveland, OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawvel, Eric J.; Willis, Robert; West, Roger R.; Casuccio, Gary S.; Norris, Gary; Kumar, Naresh; Hammond, Davyda; Peters, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Passive samplers deployed at 25 sites for three, week-long intervals were used to characterize spatial variability in the mass and composition of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) in Cleveland, OH in summer 2008. The size and composition of individual particles determined using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDS) was then used to estimate PM10-2.5 concentrations (μg m-3) and its components in 13 particle classes. The highest PM10-2.5 mean mass concentrations were observed at three central industrial sites (35 μg m-3, 43 μg m-3, and 48 μg m-3), whereas substantially lower mean concentrations were observed to the west and east of this area at suburban background sites (13 μg m-3 and 15 μg m-3). PM10-2.5 mass and components associated with steel and cement production (Fe-oxide and Ca-rich) exhibited substantial heterogeneity with elevated concentrations observed in the river valley, stretching from Lake Erie south through the central industrial area and in the case of Fe-oxide to a suburban valley site. Other components (e.g., Si/Al-rich typical of crustal material) were considerably less heterogeneous. This work shows that some species of coarse particles are considerably more spatially heterogeneous than others in an urban area with a strong industrial core. It also demonstrates that passive sampling coupled with analysis by CCSEM-EDS is a useful tool to assess the spatial variability of particulate pollutants by composition.

  5. Lower limbs composition and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA) in Chingford sample--a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Orit; Williams, Frances M K; Hart, Deborah J; Arden, Nigel K; Spector, Timothy D; Livshits, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Our aim in this longitudinal study was to evaluate to what extent fat and lean tissue mass variations are associated and can predict RKOA in a large sample of British women followed-up over 10 years. Kellgren/Lawrence (K/L), joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophyte (OSP) grades were scored from radiographs of both knees in 909 middle-aged women from the Chingford registry. Body composition components were assessed using the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) method. In cross-sectional analysis, combined effect of age, BMI and leg tissue composition was required for best fitting model explaining variations of K/L scoring and osteophytes at lateral compartment. To explain medial osteophytes, age and BMI were sufficient to generate the best fitting model. In prediction analysis, leg lean mass was the more powerful predictor of K/L, medial osteophytes than BMI. In conclusion, BMI appears to influence the development of knee OA through both fat and/or lean mass, depending on RKOA phenotype. PMID:23084478

  6. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  7. Isotopic composition of carbon and hydrogen in some Apollo 14 and 15 lunar samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Irving; Hardcastle, Kenneth G.; Gleason, Jim D.

    1974-01-01

    Isotopic composition of carbon and hydrogen in some Apollo 14 and 15 lunar samples was determined by use of a newly constructed combustion line that yields low blanks for CO2 and H2. The results from combustion of fines and breccia from Apollo 14 lunar samples and of fines, breccia, and basalt from Apollo 15 were compared with data obtained by heating samples in vacuo to over 1,350°C. The two techniques gave similar results. Total carbon in the fines ranged from 51 to 110 p/m with a C13 of +12 to -8 per mil (parts per thousand) PDB. The breccias contain 22 to 50p/mcarbon with a C13 of -21 to -25 per mil. The crystalline rock (sample 15555) has a carbon content of about 7 p/m and a C13 of -28 per mil. The total hydrogen in the fines ranges from 66 to 120 p/m with a (D/H) X 10-6 of 39 to 90. The breccias contain 8 to 38p/mH2 with a (D/H) X 10-6 of 103 to 144. The crystalline rock contains about 2 p/m H2 with a (D/H) X 10-6 of about 140. Arguments are presented to show that the contamination by earth materials is not as serious a problem as has been proposed by previous authors.

  8. Chemical composition of five commercial gynostemma pentaphyllum samples and their radical scavenging, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) samples were investigated: their chemical composition and their antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory effects were compared. Extracts (50% acetone, 75% ethanol, and 100% ethanol) of the five GP samples (GP1-5) differed in their total phenolic, sapon...

  9. Comparison of individual, pooled, and composite fecal sampling methods for detection of Salmonella on U.S. dairy operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella for individual, pooled, and composite fecal samples and to compare culture results from each sample type for determining herd Salmonella infection status and identifying Salmonella serotype(s). The USDA’s National Animal Hea...

  10. Thermodynamic Properties of 4f- and 5f-SHELL Metals at Finite Temperatures:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, N. K.; Vyas, P. R.; Jani, A. R.; Gohel, V. B.

    The thermodynamic properties of 4f- and 5f-shell metals have been studied at high temperatures using mean-field potential approach. The MFP seen by the lattice ion is constructed in terms of the total energy-volume relation using local pseudopotentials due to Pandya et al. [Physica B 307, 138 (2001)]. We have calculated static compression, shock-wave compression, volume thermal expansion, isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli (BT and BS), specific heats (CV and CP), thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter (γth), anharmonic contribution to the specific heat and temperature along shock Hugoniot for 4f (γ-Ce)- and 5f (fcc-Th)-shell metals. The results are well compared with the other theoretical and experimental findings, which ensure the use of pseudopotentials for studying thermodynamic properties at higher temperatures in case of lanthanides and actinides.

  11. Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia blunts the Insulin-Inpp5f negative feedback loop in the diabetic heart

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Danna; Zhang, Yajun; Shen, Mingzhi; Sun, Yongfeng; Xia, Qing; Zhang, Yingmei; Liu, Xuedong; Wang, Haichang; Yuan, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    The leading cause of death in diabetic patients is diabetic cardiomyopathy, in which alteration of Akt signal plays an important role. Inpp5f is recently found to be a negative regulator of Akt signaling, while its expression and function in diabetic heart is largely unknown. In this study, we found that in both the streptozotocin (STZ) and high fat diet (HFD) induced diabetic mouse models, Inpp5f expression was coordinately regulated by insulin, blood glucose and lipid levels. Increased Inpp5f was inversely correlated with the cardiac function. Further studies revealed that Insulin transcriptionally activated Inpp5f in an Sp1 dependent manner, and increased Inpp5f in turn reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, forming a negative feedback loop. The negative feedback plays a protective role under diabetic condition. However, high blood glucose and lipid, which are characteristics of uncontrolled diabetes and type 2 diabetes, increased Inpp5f expression through activation of NF-κB, blunts the protective feedback. Thus, our study has revealed that Inpp5f provides as a negative feedback regulator of insulin signaling and downregulation of Inpp5f in diabetes is cardioprotective. Increased Inpp5f by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia is an important mediator of diabetic cardiomyopathy and is a promising therapeutic target for the disease. PMID:26908121

  12. Sugar composition of French royal jelly for comparison with commercial and artificial sugar samples.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Gaëlle; Casabianca, Hervé

    2012-09-15

    A gas chromatographic method was developed to quantify the major and minor sugars of 400 Royal Jellies (RJs). Their contents were compared in relation to the geographical origins and different production methods. A reliable database was established from the analysis of 290 RJs harvested in different French areas that took into account the diversity of geographical origin, harvesting season, forage sources available in the environment corresponding to natural food of the bees: pollen and nectar. Around 30 RJ samples produced by Italian beekeepers, about sixty-ones from French market, and around thirty-ones derived from feeding experiments were analysed and compared with our database. Fructose and glucose contents are in the range 2.3-7.8% and 3.4-7.7%, respectively, whatever the RJ's origin. On the contrary, differences in minor sugar composition are observed. Indeed sucrose and erlose contents in French RJs are lesser than 1.7% and 0.3%, respectively, whereas they reach 3.9% and 2.0% in some commercial samples and 5.1% and 1.7% in RJs produced from feeding experiments. This study could be used to discriminate different production methods and provide an additional tool for identifying unknown commercial RJs. PMID:23107723

  13. 5f{sup N} configurations and x-ray spectra of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Kulagin, N.A.

    1995-04-01

    The electronic structure of 5f{sup N} configurations and the characteristic X-ray radiation energies for an entire actinium series are calculated using the Hartree-Fock-Pauli approximation, and the variations obtained are analyzed. The electrostatic and magnetic parameters of these ions, as well as energies of their K and L lines, exhibit essentially nonlinear dependence on the nuclear charge and number of electrons. This fact evidences that simplified models of atomic structure are inapplicable to heavy ions.

  14. Analytical test results for archived core composite samples from tanks 241-TY-101 and 241-TY-103

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.A.

    1993-07-16

    This report describes the analytical tests performed on archived core composite samples form a 1.085 sampling of the 241-TY-101 (101-TY) and 241-TY-103 (103-TY) single shell waste tanks. Both tanks are suspected of containing quantities of ferrocyanide compounds, as a result of process activities in the late 1950`s. Although limited quantities of the composite samples remained, attempts were made to obtain as much analytical information as possible, especially regarding the chemical and thermal properties of the material.

  15. Effects of 5f-elements on electronic structures and spectroscopic properties of gold superatom model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-08-01

    5f-elements encaged in a gold superatomic cluster are capable of giving rise to unique optical properties due to their hyperactive valence electrons and great radial components of 5f/6d orbitals. Herein, we review our first-principles studies on electronic structures and spectroscopic properties of a series of actinide-embedded gold superatomic clusters with different dimensions. The three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) superatom clusters possess the 18-electron configuration of 1S21P61D10 and 10-electron configuration of 1S21P41D4, respectively. Importantly, their electronic absorption spectra can also be effectively explained by the superatom orbitals. Specifically, the charge transfer (CT) transitions involved in surface-enhance Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra for 3D and 2D structures are both from the filled 1D orbitals, providing the enhancement factors of the order of ∼ 104 at 488 nm and ∼ 105 at 456 nm, respectively. This work implies that the superatomic orbital transitions involved in 5f-elements can not only lead to a remarkable spectroscopic performance, but also a new direction for optical design in the future. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374004), the Science and Technology Development Program of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150519021JH), the Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation, China (Grant No. 142001), and the Support from the High Performance Computing Center (HPCC) of Jilin University, China.

  16. Inhibition of insulin production by cyproheptadine in RINm5F rat insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, C P; Reape, T J; Fischer, L J

    1993-09-01

    The clonal insulin producing cell line RINm5F was evaluated as a model for the action of cyproheptadine (CPH)-like diabetogenic compounds in the rat pancreas. Treatment with 10 microM CPH and selected structural analogs under culture conditions produced a progressive loss of cellular insulin which reached 30% of control within 24 hours. Comparison of the activities of the analogs 4-diphenylmethylpiperidine (4-DPMP) and 2-diphenylmethylpiperidine (2-DPMP) to produce cellular insulin depletion showed that 4-DPMP was as active as CPH but 2-DPMP had no activity at the highest concentration employed (10 microM). The CPH metabolite desmethyl CPH-epoxide was five times more active than the parent compound in producing loss of insulin in RINm5F cells. These results are consistent with previously published results of CPH actions in vivo. An inhibition of insulin biosynthesis with no loss of preproinsulin mRNA occurred in RINm5F cells treated with CPH or DMCPH-epoxide. This suggests that an effect on transcription may not be the primary action by which CPH and its analogs inhibit insulin synthesis in vivo. PMID:8263899

  17. Transduced Tat-DJ-1 protein inhibits cytokines-induced pancreatic RINm5F cell death.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyo Sang; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Cha, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sang Jin; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2016-05-01

    Loss of pancreatic β-cells by oxidative stress or cytokines is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). DJ-1 is known to as a multifunctional protein, which plays an important role in cell survival. We prepared cell permeable wild type (WT) and mutant type (M26I) Tat-DJ-1 proteins to investigate the effects of DJ-1 against combined cytokines (IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α)-induced RINm5F cell death. Both Tat-DJ-1 proteins were transduced into RINm5F cells. WT Tat-DJ-1 proteins significantly protected against cell death from cytokines by reducing intracellular toxicities. Also, WT Tat-DJ-1 proteins markedly regulated cytokines-induced pro- and anti-apoptosis proteins. However, M26I Tat-DJ-1 protein showed relatively low protective effects, as compared to WT Tat-DJ-1 protein. Our experiments demonstrated that WT Tat-DJ-1 protein protects against cytokine-induced RINm5F cell death by suppressing intracellular toxicities and regulating apoptosisrelated protein expression. Thus, WT Tat-DJ-1 protein could potentially serve as a therapeutic agent for DM and cytokine related diseases. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 297-302]. PMID:26996344

  18. Azide interaction with 4f and 5f ions in aqueous solutions. I. Trivalent ions

    SciTech Connect

    Musikas, C.; Cuillerdier, C.; Livet, J.; Forchioni, A.; Chachaty, C.

    1983-08-31

    Solvent extraction and UV, Raman, and NMR spectroscopic studies were carried out on trivalent actinide and lanthanide aqueous azido complexes. Unlike trivalent d transition ions (..beta../sub 11/ approx. = 10/sup 5/) 5f and 4f aqueous azido complexes are weak (..beta../sub 11/ approx. = 2.5 for neodymium azide complexes (Nd(N/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/)), but the trivalent actinides exhibit formation constants 1 order of magnitude higher than the lanthanides. All the spectroscopic methods indicate that we are dealing with inner-sphere complexes and actinide-lanthanide differences must be attributed to higher covalent contributions in the 5f azides. /sup 15/N NMR combined with /sup 1/H NMR served to investigate the azide binding properties. With the trivalent 5f and 4f ions the binding occurs by one of the terminal nitrogen atoms. The M-N bond distance is close to 2.75 A. The lanthanide(III)-(linear azide) moieties are bent with a bond angle close to 135/sup 0/, unlike the homologous linear thiocyanate complexes. 7 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Chemical composition and mixing-state of ice residuals sampled within mixed phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, M.; Worringen, A.; Benker, N.; Mertes, S.; Weingartner, E.; Weinbruch, S.

    2011-03-01

    During an intensive campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, in February/March 2006 ice particle residuals within mixed-phase clouds were sampled using the Ice-counterflow virtual impactor (Ice-CVI). Size, morphology, chemical composition, mineralogy and mixing state of the ice residual and the interstitial (i.e., non-activated) aerosol particles were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Ice nuclei (IN) were identified from the significant enrichment of particle groups in the ice residual (IR) samples relative to the interstitial aerosol. In terms of number lead-bearing particles are enriched by a factor of approximately 25, complex internal mixtures with silicates or metal oxides as major components by a factor of 11, and mixtures of secondary aerosol and carbonaceous material (C-O-S particles) by a factor of 2. Other particle groups (sulfates, sea salt, Ca-rich particles, external silicates) observed in the ice-residual samples cannot be assigned unambiguously as IN. Between 9 and 24% of all IR are Pb-bearing particles. Pb was found as major component in around 10% of these particles (PbO, PbCl2). In the other particles, Pb was found as some 100 nm sized agglomerates consisting of 3-8 nm sized primary particles (PbS, elemental Pb). C-O-S particles are present in the IR at an abundance of 17-27%. The soot component within these particles is strongly aged. Complex internal mixtures occur in the IR at an abundance of 9-15%. Most IN identified at the Jungfraujoch station are internal mixtures containing anthropogenic components (either as main or minor constituent), and it is concluded that admixture of the anthropogenic component is responsible for the increased IN efficiency within mixed phase clouds. The mixing state appears to be a key parameter for the ice nucleation behaviour that cannot be predicted from the sole knowledge of the main component of an individual particle.

  20. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class: A Nationally Random Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Lasgaard, Mathias; Walsh, Sophie; Stevens, Gonneke G W J M; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2016-07-01

    Loneliness is a public health concern that increases the risk for several health, behavioral and academic problems among adolescents. Some studies have suggested that adolescents with an ethnic minority background have a higher risk for loneliness than adolescents from the majority population. The increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Even though adolescents spend a substantial amount of time at school, there is currently very little non-U.S. research that has examined the importance of the ethnic composition of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic diversity of the school classes and loneliness. The study adds novel and important findings to how ethnicity in a school class context, as opposed to ethnicity per se, influences adolescents' loneliness. PMID:26861709

  1. Stereoisomer composition of the chiral UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Müller, Markus D; Balmer, Marianne E; Poiger, Thomas; Buerge, Ignaz J

    2005-05-01

    .70-1.83), probably as a result of more extensive biotic degradation in this lake. The analysis of 4-MBC in a small number of fish from these lakes indicated residues with nearly racemic compositions or a moderate enantiomer excess (R/S, approximately 1.0-1.2) in roach (Rutilus rutilus), whereas in perch (Perca fluviatilis) a much higher enantiomer excess (R/S, approximately 5) was observed. The data indicate that the stereoisomer composition of 4-MBC in environmental samples is not only a function of initial product composition but is also modified by enantioselective processes in lakes and biota (fish). PMID:15926546

  2. Spatial analysis of Mount St. Helens tephra leachate compositions: implications for future sampling strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayris, P. M.; Delmelle, P.; Pereira, B.; Maters, E. C.; Damby, D. E.; Durant, A. J.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-07-01

    Tephra particles in physically and chemically evolving volcanic plumes and clouds carry soluble sulphate and halide salts to the Earth's surface, ultimately depositing volcanogenic compounds into terrestrial or aquatic environments. Upon leaching of tephra in water, these salts dissolve rapidly. Previous studies have investigated the spatial and temporal variability of tephra leachate compositions during an eruption in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of gas-tephra interaction which emplace those salts. However, the leachate datasets analysed are typically small and may poorly represent the natural variability and complexity of tephra deposits. Here, we have conducted a retrospective analysis of published leachate analyses from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, analysing the spatial structure of the concentrations and relative abundances of soluble Ca, Cl, Na and S across the deposits. We have identified two spatial features: (1) concentrated tephra leachate compositions in blast deposits to the north of the volcano and (2) low S/Cl and Na/Cl ratios around the Washington-Idaho border. By reference to the bulk chemistry and granulometry of the deposit and to current knowledge of gas-tephra interactions, we suggest that the proximal enrichments are the product of pre-eruptive gas uptake during cryptodome emplacement. We speculate that the low S/Cl and Na/Cl ratios reflect a combination of compositional dependences on high-temperature SO2 uptake and preferential HCl uptake by hydrometeor-tephra aggregates, manifested in terrestrial deposits by tephra sedimentation and fallout patterns. However, despite our interrogation of the most exhaustive tephra leachate dataset available, it has become clear in this effort that more detailed insights into gas-tephra interaction mechanisms are prevented by the prevalent poor temporal and spatial representativeness of the collated data and the limited characterisation of the tephra deposits. Future

  3. Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples During Torrefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Richard D. Boardman; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-10-01

    Torrefaction tests on miscanthus and white oak sawdust were carried out in a bubbling sand bed reactor to see the effect of temperature and residence time on the chemical composition. Process conditions for miscanthus and white oak saw dust are 250–350°C and 30–120 minutes, and 220 and 270°C and 30 minutes, respectively. Composition of the torrefied samples studied includes moisture content and moisture-free carbon (%), hydrogen (%), nitrogen (%), sulfur (%), and volatiles. Torrefaction at 250°C and a residence time of 30 minutes resulted in a significant decrease in moisture—about 82.68%—but the other components, C, H, N, S, and V, changed only marginally. Increasing the torrefaction temperature to 350°C and residence time to 120 minutes further reduced the moisture to a final value of 0.54% (a 93.2% reduction compared to the original) and also resulted in a significant decrease in the other components, H, N, and V, by 58.29%, 14.28%, and 70.45%, respectively. The carbon content at 350°C and 120 minutes increased by about 4% and sulfur values were below detection limits. The H/C ratio decreased with an increase in torrefaction temperature, where a minimum value of 0.6 was observed at 350°C and 120 minutes. The regression equations developed with respect to torrefaction temperature and times have adequately described the changes in chemical composition based on r2 value. The surface plots developed based on the regression equations indicate that torrefaction temperatures of 300–350°C and residence times of 30–120 minutes can help increase carbon content to >49.4% and reduce moisture, nitrogen, volatile, and the H/C ratio from 1.13 to 0.6 %, 0.27 to 0.23 %, 79 to 23 %, and 1.3 to 0.6%, respectively. Torrefaction studies on white oak sawdust (woody biomass) at 220 and 270°C for 30 minutes indicated a similar trend where moisture, volatiles, hydrogen, and nitrogen decreased with increased torrefaction temperature from initial values of 8.53%, 80

  4. Role of 5f electrons in the structural stability of light actinide (Th-U) mononitrides under pressure.

    PubMed

    Modak, P; Verma, Ashok K

    2016-03-16

    Pressure induced structural sequences and their mechanism for light actinide (Th-U) mononitrides were studied as a function of 5f-electron number using first-principles total energy and electronic structure calculations. Zero pressure lattice constants, bulk module and C11 elastic module vary systematically with 5f-electron number implying its direct role on crystal binding. There is a critical 5f-electron number below which the system makes B1-B2 and above it B1-R3[combining macron]m-B2 structural sequence under pressure. Also, the B1-B2 transition pressure increases with increasing 5f-electron number whereas an opposite trend is obtained for the B1-R3[combining macron]m transition pressure. The ascending of N p anti-bonding states through the Fermi level at high pressure is responsible for the structural instability of the system. Above the critical 5f-electron number in the system a narrow 5f-band occurs very close to the Fermi level which allows the system to lower its symmetry via band Jahn-Teller type lattice distortion and the system undergoes a B1-R3[combining macron]m phase transition. However, below the critical 5f-electron number this mechanism is not favorable due to a lack of sufficient 5f-state occupancy and thus the system undergoes a B1-B2 phase transition like other ionic solids. PMID:26953085

  5. In silico modeling of the dynamics of low density lipoprotein composition via a single plasma sample.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Martin; Pfaffelhuber, Peter; Hoffmann, Michael M; Puetz, Gerhard; Winkler, Karl

    2016-05-01

    Lipoproteins play a key role in the development of CVD, but the dynamics of lipoprotein metabolism are difficult to address experimentally. This article describes a novel two-step combined in vitro and in silico approach that enables the estimation of key reactions in lipoprotein metabolism using just one blood sample. Lipoproteins were isolated by ultracentrifugation from fasting plasma stored at 4°C. Plasma incubated at 37°C is no longer in a steady state, and changes in composition may be determined. From these changes, we estimated rates for reactions like LCAT (56.3 µM/h), β-LCAT (15.62 µM/h), and cholesteryl ester (CE) transfer protein-mediated flux of CE from HDL to IDL/VLDL (21.5 µM/h) based on data from 15 healthy individuals. In a second step, we estimated LDL's HL activity (3.19 pools/day) and, for the very first time, selective CE efflux from LDL (8.39 µM/h) by relying on the previously derived reaction rates. The estimated metabolic rates were then confirmed in an independent group (n = 10). Although measurement uncertainties do not permit us to estimate parameters in individuals, the novel approach we describe here offers the unique possibility to investigate lipoprotein dynamics in various diseases like atherosclerosis or diabetes. PMID:27015744

  6. Anchor balloons assisted deep intubation of 5F catheters for uncrossable lesions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Xu, K; Yang, N; Li, C

    2016-01-01

    A number of treatment strategies for complex coronary lesions have been utilized in varying clinical settings over the last decade. However, cardiologists still encounter some difficult scenarios such as variant coronary artery origins, severely calcified and highly tortuous lesions. We report four cases in which the stents failed to cross lesions using the conventional percutaneous coronary intervention techniques, but all the target lesions were successfully stented finally using a new combined technique of anchor balloon assisted deep intubation of 5F "child-in-mother" catheter. PMID:27022813

  7. Multiconfigurational nature of 5f orbitals in uranium and plutonium and their intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Corwin

    2013-03-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of U and Pu elements and intermetallics remain poorly understood despite decades of effort, and currently represent an important scientific frontier toward understanding matter. The last decade has seen great progress both due to the discovery of superconductivity in PuCoGa5 and advances in theory that finally can explain fundamental ground state properties in elemental plutonium, such as the phonon dispersion curve, the non-magnetic ground state, and the volume difference between the α and δ phases. A new feature of the recent calculations is the presence not only of intermediate valence of the Pu 5f electrons, but of multiconfigurational ground states, where the different properties of the α and δ phases are primarily governed by the different relative weights of the 5f4, 5f5, and 5f6 electronic configurations. The usual method for measuring multiconfigurational states in the lanthanides is to measure the lanthanide LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), a method that is severely limited for the actinides because the spectroscopic features are not well enough separated. Advances in resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) have now allowed for spectra with sufficient resolution to resolve individual resonances associated with the various actinide valence states. Utilizing a new spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL), RXES data have been collected that show, for the first time, spectroscopic signatures of each of these configurations and their relative changes in various uranium and plutonium intermetallic compounds. In combination with conventional XANES spectra on related compounds, these data indicate such states may be ubiquitous in uranium and plutonium intermetallics, providing a new framework toward understanding properties ranging from heavy fermion behavior, superconductivity, and intermediate valence to mechanical and fundamental bonding behavior in

  8. Development of a portable mass spectrometric system for determination of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples using fluorine volatilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loge, G.

    1994-09-01

    Using hardware and materials supplied by LANL, a prototype quadrupole mass spectrometer system designed for portable field analysis of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples was assembled and tested. The system contained the capability for fluorine volatilization of solid uranium samples with gas introduction, which was successfully tested and demonstrated using 100 mg samples of U3O8. Determination of precision and accuracy for measuring isotopic composition was performed using isotopic standards. Use with soil samples containing uranium were also attempted. Silicates in the soil forming SiF4 were found to be a kinetic bottleneck to the formation of UF6. This could be avoided by performing some sort of chemical separation as a pre-treatment step, which was demonstrated using nitric acid.

  9. Prebiotics and age, but not probiotics affect the transformation of 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) by fecal microbiota - An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Czyżowska, Agata; Huben, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Kuberski, Sławomir; Otlewska, Anna; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens which are formed in meat cooked using high-temperature methods. The human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining health in humans of different ages, and especially in the elderly. However, the GI microbiota, whose metabolism and composition changes with age, may also be responsible for the activation of mutagenic substances reaching the colon with diet. Probiotics and prebiotics are promising in terms of reducing the destructive effects of HAAs. The aim of the study was to determine if fecal microbiota derived from the feces of 27 volunteers: infants (up to 18 months), adults (aged 23-39 years), the sub-elderly (aged 64-65 years), and the elderly (aged 76-87 years), and the presence of probiotics or prebiotics, affected the transformation of IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) to 7-OH-IQ (2-amino-3,6-dihydro-3-methyl-7H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline-7-one). The compounds were identified using LC-MS(n), NMR, and FTIR. Their genotoxicity was compared in the comet assay. Individual strains capable of IQ transformation were also identified. 7-OH-IQ was detected in six persons (two children and four elderly individuals). The degree of IQ conversion ranged from 26% (4-month-old girl) to 94% (81-year-old woman) of the initial quantity. Four Enterococcus isolates: two Enterococcus faecium and two Enterococcus faecalis strains, as well as one Clostridium difficile strain (LOCK 1030, from the culture collection) converted IQ to 7-OH-IQ. The genotoxicity of samples containing 7-OH-IQ was even three times higher (P < 0.05) than those with IQ and was correlated with the degree of IQ conversion and 7-OH-IQ concentration. PMID:27034248

  10. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-08-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples. The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement-based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude larger for C5F12 (with 2008 EDGARv4.2 estimates for C5F12 at 9.6 kg yr-1, as compared to 67±53 t yr-1 as derived in this study). The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those

  11. Determination of the absolute isotopic composition and Atomic Weight of a reference sample of natural iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. D. P.; Maeck, R.; de Bièvre, P.

    1992-11-01

    Absolute values have been obtained by means of thermal ionisation mass spectrometry for the iron isotope abundance ratios of a sample of metallic iron of natural isotopic composition. This was achieved by calibrating the mass spectrometric measurement procedure using five different synthetic isotope mixtures, prepared from carefully characterised enriched isotope carrier compounds, viz. 54Fe2O3 and 56Fe2O3. These mixtures were made up at three different n(54Fe)/n(56Fe) ratios, covering a ratio range of more than two orders of magnitude, in order to determine the extent of the isotope fractionation in the ion source. Two mixtures bracket the natural ratio, two mixtures have ratio values approximating to unity, and one mixture has a ratio of about 10. The total relative uncertainty on the ratio values of the mixtures varies between 2 and 7 × 10-4 (2s). Three different mass spectrometric measurement procedures were developed, all using a silica-gel/boric acid ionisation enhancer. Measurements were carried out on two different instruments. The n(54Fe)/n(56Fe) ratio of the synthetic mixtures and of the natural iron isotopic reference material (IRM) were measured using a mass spectrometer with Faraday detector. Both the n(57Fe)/n(56Fe) and n(58Fe)/n(56Fe) ratios of the natural iron IRM were determined using the same instrument but operated at a higher ionisation temperature (1430°C instead of 1350°C) and using an internal normalisation procedure. For the determination of the abundances of the minor isotopes in the enriched isotope carrier compounds, an instrument equipped with a calibrated ion counting device was used and the ionisation temperature was 1150°C. Using the latter instrument and method, the n(54Fe)/n(56Fe) ratio of the IRM was found to a gree within 4 × 10-5 with the calibrated value of the Faraday measurements, indicating that experimental conditions were well controlled in both cases. Compared to the current IUPAC data (Atomic Weights of the Elements

  12. Physical Properties and Chemical Composition of Aerosols sampled in T1 site during MILAGRO Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, T.; Mamani-Paco, R.; Saavedra, M. I.; Garcia, J.; Amador, O.; Carabali, G.; Salcido, A.; Herrera, E.; Baez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Results from pollutant measurements and meteorological variables corresponding to the month of March of 2006 during the MILAGRO campaign at site T1 are presented (Tecamac, State of Mexico). Three 8-stage cascade impactors (MOUDI) were employed to obtain aerosol samples of different sizes. For organic species analysis, samples were collected with a PM2.5 High Volume sampler. Mass and chemical composition (inorganic and organic species) were obtained with the use of analytical techniques. Particle morphology analysis was done with a TEM-EDAX System. Physical properties of aerosols were measured with a PSAP, a nephelometer and a CPC. According with area meteorology, days with Mexico City urban influence on T1 (March 9-12) and without influence (March 14 and 15) were analyzed. The particle average concentration during the whole campaign was 20,000 particles/cm3. For the days with and without urban influence the average concentrations were 17,500 and 8,000 particles/cm3 respectively. From the MOUDI data the highest particle concentration through the campaign was during the morning in the mode d50=0.32 μm. On the other hand, the cumulative highest concentration of all the stages was observed for March 19 followed by March 9. Scattering and absorption coefficients average obtained on T1 were 5.1x10-5 m-1 and 2.54x10-5 m-1 respectively and single scattering albedo was 0.676. These values show T1 as a polluted atmosphere, just as happens with megacities. Morphology of particles captured in a MOUDI impactor was studied. Particles between d50=0.18 μm and d50=1.8 μm sampled in T1 associated with urban influence (March 9) tended to show less irregular shapes through different periods of that day. These findings suggest the presence of large numbers of secondary aerosols and aged agglomerated particles. Particles ranging from d50=0.18 μm to d50=1.8 μm sampled in T1 and associated mainly with surrounding areas influence, e.g. Tizayuca Industrial Park (March 15) showed

  13. Probing the population of the spin-orbit split levels in the actinide 5f states

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K; der Laan, G v; Tobin, J; Chung, B; Wall, M; Schwartz, A

    2004-07-14

    Spin-orbit interaction in the 5f states is believed to strongly influence exotic behaviors observed in actinides metals and compounds. Understanding these interactions and how they relate to the actinide series is of considerable importance. To address this issue, the branching ratio of the white-line peaks of the N4,5 edges for the light actinide metals, {alpha}-Th, {alpha}-U, and {alpha}-Pu were recorded using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Using the spin-orbit sum rule and the branching ratios from both experimental spectra and many-electron atomic spectral calculations, accurate values of the spin-orbit interaction, and thus the relative occupation of the j = 5/2 and 7/2 levels, are determined for the actinide 5f states. Results show that the spin-orbit sum rule works very well with both EELS and XAS spectra, needing little or no correction. This is important, since the high spatial resolution of a TEM can be used to overcome the problems of single crystal growth often encountered with actinide metals, allowing acquisition of EELS spectra, and subsequent spin-orbit analysis, from nm-sized regions. The relative occupation numbers obtained by our method have been compared with recent theoretical results and show a good agreement in their trend.

  14. Passive Sampling to Capture the Spatial Variability of Coarse Particles by Composition in Cleveland, OH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive samplers deployed at 25 sites for three week-long intervals were used to characterize spatial variability in the mass and composition of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) in Cleveland, OH in summer 2008. The size and composition of individual particles deter...

  15. A study on chemical composition and detection of chemical adulteration in tetra pack milk samples commercially available in Multan.

    PubMed

    Awan, Adeela; Naseer, Misbah; Iqbal, Aasfa; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Rehana; Iqbal, Furhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the chemical composition of 8 tetra pack milk samples, Olpers (S1), Haleeb (S2), Good milk (S3), Everyday (S4), Milk Pack (S5), Dairy Queen (S6), Dairy Umang (S7), Nurpur (S8) available in local markets and to detect the presence of various chemical adulterants in tetra pack milk samples in Southern Punjab (Pakistan). Density, pH, solid not fat, total solids, lactometer reading, specific gravity and fat contents were analyzed to determine the chemical composition of milk samples. Our results revealed that all the studied parameters had statistically non significant differences (P>0.05) except total fat in milk samples which was significantly different (P=0.03) among the 8 studied milk samples. Presence of a number of chemical adulterants, formalin, cane sugar, starch, glucose, ammonium sulphate, salt, pulverized soap, detergents, skim milk powder, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, borax, boric acid and alkalinity were also detected in milk samples following standard procedures. Results indicated that formalin, cane sugar, glucose, alkalinity and benzoic acid were present in all samples while salt test was positive only for Olper milk. All other studied adulterants were not detected in 8 milk samples under study. % fat was the only significantly different feature among the studied milk quality parameters with S8 containing lowest while S5 having the maximum % fat. PMID:24374447

  16. Levels and temporal trend of bisphenol A in composite food samples from Canadian Total Diet Study 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Perez-Locas, Carolina; Robichaud, André; Clement, Genevieve; Popovic, Svetlana; Dufresne, Guy; Dabeka, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Food composite samples from the Canadian Total Diet Study which was conducted each year from 2008 to 2012 rotating between different cities were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA). The overall levels of BPA in the composite food samples from each of the five years from 2008 to 2012 were similar in general with averages (range) of 7.7 ng/g (0.20-106 ng/g), 7.8 ng/g (0.26-110 ng/g), 6.9 ng/g (0.20-84 ng/g), 7.7 ng/g (0.20-105 ng/g) and 9.0 ng/g (0.15-90 ng/g) for 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Levels of BPA in most of the non-canned food composite samples were low and no particular trends were observed. In contrast, the trend of BPA levels in canned food composite samples over the five years (2008-2012) varies. BPA levels in most of the canned food composite samples from 2008 to 2012 were consistent in general (e.g. canned luncheon meat: 10-18 ng/g, canned baked beans: 18-25 ng/g). While BPA levels over the five years were found to decrease for some canned food composite samples (e.g., canned fish: 109 ng/g in 2009 vs. 51 ng/g in 2012), they were also found to increase for some other canned food composite samples (e.g. canned meat soups: 90-104 ng/g in 2011-2012 vs. 29 ng/g in 2008). Thus, recent changes in can coating for food packaging to BPA-free alternatives may have not been fully reflected in all canned food products over the period from 2008 to 2012. Continued monitoring is necessary to more fully assess the potential impact on dietary exposure by the use of BPA alternatives in food contact materials. PMID:26372889

  17. Elemental Compositions of Comet 81P/Wild 2 Samples Collected by Stardust

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn,G.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Bradley, J.; Brenker, F.; Brennan, S.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D.; Bullock, E.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed ({approx}180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is consistent with the CI meteorite composition, which is thought to represent the bulk composition of the solar system, for the elements Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Ti to 60%. The elements Cu, Zn, and Ga appear enriched in this Wild 2 material, which suggests that the CI meteorites may not represent the solar system composition for these moderately volatile minor elements.

  18. Elemental composition of Comet 81P/Wild2 samples collected byStardust

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.J.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Bradley, J.P.; Brenker, F.E.; Brennan, S.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D.E.; Bullock, E.S.; Burghammer,Manfred; Clark, B.C.; Dai, Zu Rong; Daghlian, C.P.; Djouadi, Z.; Fakra,S; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Franchi, I.A.; Gainsforth, Z.; Gallien, J.P.; Gillet, P.; Grant, P.G.; Graham, G.A.; Green, S.F.; Grossemy, F.; Heck,P.R.; Herzog, G.F.; Hoppe, P.; Horz, F.; Huth, J.; Ignatyev, K.; Ishii,H.A.; Janssens, K.; Joswiak, D.; Kearsley, A.T.; Khodja, H.; Lanzirotti,A.; Leitner, J.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Luening, K.; MacPherson, G.J.; Marhas, K.K.; Marcus, M.A.; Matrajt, G.; Nakamura, T.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nakano, T.; Newville, M.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Pianette, P.; Rao, William; Riekel, C.; Rietmeijer, F.J.M.; Rost, D.; Schwandt, C.S.; See, T.H.; Sheffield-Parker, J.; Simionovici, A.; Sitnitsky, Ilona; Snead, C.J.; Stadermann, F.J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud,R.M.; Susini, J.; Suzuki, Y.; Sutton, S.R.; Taylor, S.; Teslich, N.; Troadec, D.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Uesugi, K.; Vekemans, B.; Vicenzi,E.P.; Vincze, L.; Westphal, A.J.; Wozniakiewicz, P.; Zinner, E.; Zolensky, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We measured the elemental compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and from residue in seven craters in aluminum foil that was collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size scale analyzed ({approx}180 ng). The mean elemental composition of this Wild 2 material is consistent with the CI meteorite composition, which is thought to represent the bulk composition of the solar system, for the elements Mg, Si, Mn, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Ti to 60%. The elements Cu, Zn, and Ga appear enriched in this Wild 2 material, which suggests that the CI meteorites may not represent the solar system composition for these moderately volatile minor elements.

  19. Abundances and isotopic compositions of rhenium and osmium in pyrite samples from the Huaibei coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Peng, Z.; Yang, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two pyrite samples from the Shihezi Formation (Lower Permian), Huaibei coalfield, Anhui, China, have been analyzed for abundances and isotopic compositions of rhenium and osmium using negative thermal ion mass spectrometry. The Re-Os ages of the pyrites are 64.4 and 226 Ma, which are younger than the formation age of the coal seam. The pyrite samples may consist of pyrite formed at various stages during the history of coal formation. The ??Osvalues of the two pyrite samples are +17 and +18, respectively. Such high ??Osvalues are reported for the first time for recycles crustal materials from a sedimentary basin. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  20. Elemental Compositions of Comet 81P/Wild 2 Samples Collected by Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Bradley, J.; Brenker, F.; Brennan, S.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Bullock, E.; Clark, B. C.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Schwandt, C. S.; See, T. H.; Taylor, S.; Tsou, P.

    2006-01-01

    We measured the chemical compositions of material from 23 particles in aerogel and residue in 7 craters in aluminum foil, collected during passage of the Stardust spacecraft through the coma of Comet 81P/Wild 2. These particles are chemically heterogeneous at the largest size-scale analyzed, 180 nanograms. The mean chemical composition of this Wild 2 material agrees with the CI meteorite composition for the refractory elements Mg, Si, Cr, Fe, and Ni to 35%, and for Ca and Mn to 50%. The data suggest the moderately volatile elements Cu, Zn, and Ga may be enriched in this Wild 2 material.

  1. Bacterial community composition of chronic periodontitis and novel oral sampling sites for detecting disease indicators

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Periodontitis is an infectious and inflammatory disease of polymicrobial etiology that can lead to the destruction of bones and tissues that support the teeth. The management of chronic periodontitis (CP) relies heavily on elimination or at least control of known pathogenic consortia associated with the disease. Until now, microbial plaque obtained from the subgingival (SubG) sites has been the primary focus for bacterial community analysis using deep sequencing. In addition to the use of SubG plaque, here, we investigated whether plaque obtained from supragingival (SupG) and tongue dorsum sites can serve as alternatives for monitoring CP-associated bacterial biomarkers. Results Using SubG, SupG, and tongue plaque DNA from 11 healthy and 13 diseased subjects, we sequenced V3 regions (approximately 200 bases) of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina sequencing. After quality filtering, approximately 4.1 million sequences were collapsed into operational taxonomic units (OTUs; sequence identity cutoff of >97%) that were classified to a total of 19 phyla spanning 114 genera. Bacterial community diversity and overall composition was not affected by health or disease, and multiresponse permutation procedure (MRPP) on Bray-Curtis distance measures only supported weakly distinct bacterial communities in SubG and tongue plaque depending on health or disease status (P < 0.05). Nonetheless, in SubG and tongue sites, the relative abundance of Firmicutes was increased significantly from health to disease and members of Synergistetes were found in higher abundance across all sites in disease. Taxa indicative of CP were identified in all three locations (for example, Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Synergistes oral taxa 362 and 363). Conclusions For the first time, this study demonstrates that SupG and tongue dorsum plaque can serve as alternative sources for detecting and enumerating known and novel bacterial biomarkers of CP. This finding is clinically

  2. Effect of operating and sampling conditions on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale power generators.

    PubMed

    Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

  3. Effect of Operating and Sampling Conditions on the Exhaust Gas Composition of Small-Scale Power Generators

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Marianne; Vanpachtenbeke, Floris; Horemans, Benjamin; De Wael, Karolien; Hauchecorne, Birger; Van Langenhove, Herman; Demeestere, Kristof; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Small stationary diesel engines, like in generator sets, have limited emission control measures and are therefore responsible for 44% of the particulate matter (PM) emissions in the United States. The diesel exhaust composition depends on operating conditions of the combustion engine. Furthermore, the measurements are influenced by the used sampling method. This study examines the effect of engine loading and exhaust gas dilution on the composition of small-scale power generators. These generators are used in different operating conditions than road-transport vehicles, resulting in different emission characteristics. Experimental data were obtained for gaseous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and PM mass concentration, elemental composition and nitrate content. The exhaust composition depends on load condition because of its effect on fuel consumption, engine wear and combustion temperature. Higher load conditions result in lower PM concentration and sharper edged particles with larger aerodynamic diameters. A positive correlation with load condition was found for K, Ca, Sr, Mn, Cu, Zn and Pb adsorbed on PM, elements that originate from lubricating oil or engine corrosion. The nitrate concentration decreases at higher load conditions, due to enhanced nitrate dissociation to gaseous NO at higher engine temperatures. Dilution on the other hand decreases PM and nitrate concentration and increases gaseous VOC and adsorbed metal content. In conclusion, these data show that operating and sampling conditions have a major effect on the exhaust gas composition of small-scale diesel generators. Therefore, care must be taken when designing new experiments or comparing literature results. PMID:22442670

  4. Self-Assembly of Hexanuclear Clusters of 4f and 5f Elements with Cation Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Diwu, J.; Good, Justin J.; DiStefano, Victoria H.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-02-10

    Six hexanuclear clusters of 4f and 5f elements were synthesized by room-temperature slow concentration experiments. Cerium(IV), thorium(IV), and plutonium(IV) each form two different hexanuclear clusters, among which the cerium and plutonium clusters are isotypic, whereas the thorium clusters show more diversity. The change in ionic radii of approximately 0.08 Å between these different metal ions tunes the cavity size so that NH{sub 4}{sup +} (1.48 Å) has the right dimensions to assemble the cerium and plutonium clusters, whereas Cs{sup +} (1.69 Å) is necessary to assemble the thorium clusters. If these cations are not used in the reactions, only amorphous material is obtained.

  5. Structure of the parainfluenza virus 5 F protein in its metastable, prefusion conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hsien-Sheng; Wen, Xiaolin; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2010-03-08

    Enveloped viruses have evolved complex glycoprotein machinery that drives the fusion of viral and cellular membranes, permitting entry of the viral genome into the cell. For the paramyxoviruses, the fusion (F) protein catalyses this membrane merger and entry step, and it has been postulated that the F protein undergoes complex refolding during this process. Here we report the crystal structure of the parainfluenza virus 5 F protein in its prefusion conformation, stabilized by the addition of a carboxy-terminal trimerization domain. The structure of the F protein shows that there are profound conformational differences between the pre- and postfusion states, involving transformations in secondary and tertiary structure. The positions and structural transitions of key parts of the fusion machinery, including the hydrophobic fusion peptide and two helical heptad repeat regions, clarify the mechanism of membrane fusion mediated by the F protein.

  6. Localization of the 5f level across the UM 5-xT x series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoł; nierek, Z̵.; Troc, R.; Tran, V. H.

    1990-04-01

    We review the results of bulk measurements on selected pseudoternary compounds within the UM 5- xT x system where M = Cu, Ni and Pt, and T = Ag, Au, Pd and Ir. These ternary compounds crystallize in the cubic AuBe 5 crystal structure. The results obtained on about 20 specimens clearly show that the 5f-localization of the uranium depends on the degree of f-d and/or f-s hybridization. The strength of the hybridization is a function of the concentration of s- and d-conduction electrons and is controlled chemically by the extent of the “M 5- xT x” alloying.

  7. Multiconfigurational nature of 5f orbitals in uranium and plutonium intermetallics

    PubMed Central

    Booth, C.H.; Jiang, Yu; Wang, D.L.; Mitchell, J.N.; Tobash, P.H.; Bauer, E.D.; Wall, M.A.; Allen, P.G.; Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Torrez, M.A.; Sarrao, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium and plutonium’s 5f electrons are tenuously poised between strongly bonding with ligand spd-states and residing close to the nucleus. The unusual properties of these elements and their compounds (e.g., the six different allotropes of elemental plutonium) are widely believed to depend on the related attributes of f-orbital occupancy and delocalization for which a quantitative measure is lacking. By employing resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and making comparisons to specific heat measurements, we demonstrate the presence of multiconfigurational f-orbital states in the actinide elements U and Pu and in a wide range of uranium and plutonium intermetallic compounds. These results provide a robust experimental basis for a new framework toward understanding the strongly-correlated behavior of actinide materials. PMID:22706643

  8. ARPES in strongly correlated 4f and 5f systems: Comparison to the Periodic Anderson Model

    SciTech Connect

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Cox, L.E.

    1997-12-01

    The electronic structure of both Ce and U heavy fermions appears to consist of extremely narrow, nearly temperature independent bands (i.e., no spectral weight loss or transfer with temperature). A small dispersion of the f-bands above the Kondo temperature is easily measurable so that a Kondo resonance, as defined by NCA, is not evident. Preliminary results, however, indicate that the Periodic Anderson Model captures some of the essential physics. Angle-integrated resonant photoemission results on {delta}-Pu indicate a narrow 5f feature at E{sub F}, similar in width to f-states in Ce and U compounds, but differing in that cross-section behavior of the near-E{sub F} feature suggests substantial 6D admixture.

  9. Circularly Polarized Luminescence of Curium: A New Characterization of the 5f Actinide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ga-Lai; Andolina, Christopher M.; Xu, Jide; Luu, Vinh; Rutkowski, Philip X.; Muller, Gilles; Shuh, David K.; Gibson, John K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    A key distinction between the lanthanide (4f) and actinide (5f) transition elements is the increased role of f-orbital covalent bonding in the latter. Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) is an uncommon but powerful spectroscopy which probes the electronic structure of chiral, luminescent complexes or molecules. While there are many examples of CPL spectra for the lanthanides, this report is the first for an actinide. Two chiral, octadentate chelating ligands based on orthoamide phenol (IAM) were used to complex curium(III). While the radioactivity kept the amount of material limited to micromole amounts, the spectra of the highly luminescent complexes showed significant emission peak-shifts between the different complexes, consistent with ligand field effects previously observed in luminescence spectra. PMID:22920726

  10. Promoter analysis of the rabbit POU5F1 gene and its expression in preimplantation stage embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kobolak, Julianna; Kiss, Katalin; Polgar, Zsuzsanna; Mamo, Solomon; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Tancos, Zsuzsanna; Bock, Istvan; Baji, Arpad G; Tar, Krisztina; Pirity, Melinda K; Dinnyes, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Background The POU5F1 gene encodes the octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct4). It is crucial in the regulation of pluripotency during embryonic development and widely used as molecular marker of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The objective of this study was to identify and to analyse the promoter region of rabbit POU5F1 gene; furthermore to examine its expression pattern in preimplantation stage rabbit embryos. Results The upstream region of rabbit POU5F1 was subcloned sequenced and four highly conserved promoter regions (CR1-4) were identified. The highest degree of similarity on sequence level was found among the conserved domains between rabbit and human. Among the enhancers the proximal enhancer region (PE-1A) exhibited the highest degree of homology (96.4%). Furthermore, the CR4 regulator domain containing the distal enhancer (DE-2A) was responsible for stem cell-specific expression. Also, BAC library screen revealed the existence of a processed pseudogene of rabbit POU5F1. The results of quantitative real-time PCR experiments showed that POU5F1 mRNA was abundantly present in oocytes and zygotes, but it was gradually reduced until the activation of the embryonic genome, thereafter a continuous increase in POU5F1 mRNA level was observed until blastocyst stage. By using the XYClone laser system the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblast portions of embryos were microdissected and examined separately and POU5F1 mRNA was detected in both cell types. Conclusion In this study we provide a comparative sequence analysis of the regulatory region of rabbit POU5F1 gene. Our data suggest that the POU5F1 gene is strictly regulated during early mammalian development. We proposed that the well conserved CR4 region containing the DE-2A enhancer is responsible for the highly conserved ESC specific gene expression. Notably, we are the first to report that the rabbit POU5F1 is not restricted to ICM cells only, but it is expressed in trophoblast cells as well. This

  11. Microwave assisted SPPS of amylin and its toxicity of the pure product to RIN-5F cells.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Karen; Albericio, Fernando; Arvidsson, Per I; Govender, Patrick; Kruger, Hendrik G; Maguire, Glenn E M; Govender, Thavendran

    2010-01-01

    The 37-amino acid polypeptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), or amylin, is found as amyloid aggregates in the islets of Langerhans in patients with type II diabetes. Herein, we report an efficient microwave assisted solid phase peptide synthesis of amylin (IAPP). The most efficient synthesis used double and triple couplings and 10 equiv. of amino acids. Double couplings were used for most amino acids, whereas triple couplings were utilized for amino acids in selected regions. The most effective method for formation of the disulfide bond in amylin was found to be iodine oxidation. The highest purity amylin was obtained when the crude peptide was purified with HPLC before formation of the disulfide bond. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized amylin product to RIN-5F cells was determined. The synthesized amylin exhibits an exponential increase of cytotoxicity at concentrations >35 microM. Transmission electron microscope studies of a sample of amylin shows that insoluble amyloid fibrils spontaneously formed when 45 microM solution of synthesized amylin was incubated in a suitable buffer for 6 h. PMID:20069542

  12. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Steele, L. P.; Mühle, J.; Rigby, M.; Salameh, P. K.; Leist, M.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-02-01

    The first atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 38 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.18 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012) for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.28 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m-2, which is 3.6% of the total PFC radiative forcing. The globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs during 1973-2011 are 4.58 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015) per year (yr) for C4F10, 3.29 ppq yr-1 for C5F12, 7.50 ppq yr-1 for C6F14, 3.19 ppq yr-1 for C7F16 and 2.51 ppq yr-1 for C8F18. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the early 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12 and in the mid-to-late 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. The more recent slow down in the growth rates of the high molecular weight PFCs suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s. Nevertheless continued monitoring of these potent, extremely long-lived greenhouse gases is necessary to verify that global PFC emissions continue to decline.

  13. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Steele, L. P.; Mühle, J.; Rigby, M.; Salameh, P. K.; Leist, M.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.17 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012) for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m-2, which is 6% of the total anthropogenic PFC radiative forcing (Montzka and Reimann, 2011; Oram et al., 2012). The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the late 1990s peaking at 6.2 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015) per year (yr) for C4F10, at 5.0 ppq yr-1 for C5F12 and 16.6 ppq yr-1 for C6F14 and in the early 1990s for C7F16 at 4.7 ppq yr-1 and in the mid 1990s for C8F18 at 4.8 ppq yr-1. The 2011 globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs are subsequently lower at 2.2 ppq yr-1 for C4F10, 1.4 ppq yr-1 for C5F12, 5.0 ppq yr-1 for C6F14, 3.4 ppq yr-1 for C7F16 and 0.9 ppq yr-1 for C8F18. The more recent slowdown in the growth rates suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s.

  14. An Expressed Retrogene of the Master Embryonic Stem Cell Gene POU5F1 Is Associated with Prostate Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Joan P.; Dorset, Daniel C.; Clark, Travis A.; Bradley, Kevin M.; Wahlfors, Tiina A.; McReynolds, Kate M.; Maynard, William H.; Chang, Sam S.; Cookson, Michael S.; Smith, Joseph A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Dupont, William D.; Smith, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic association studies of prostate and other cancers have identified a major risk locus at chromosome 8q24. Several independent risk variants at this locus alter transcriptional regulatory elements, but an affected gene and mechanism for cancer predisposition have remained elusive. The retrogene POU5F1B within the locus has a preserved open reading frame encoding a homolog of the master embryonic stem cell transcription factor Oct4. We find that 8q24 risk alleles are expression quantitative trait loci correlated with reduced expression of POU5F1B in prostate tissue and that predicted deleterious POU5F1B missense variants are also associated with risk of transformation. POU5F1 is known to be self-regulated by the encoded Oct4 transcription factor. We further observe that POU5F1 expression is directly correlated with POU5F1B expression. Our results suggest that a pathway critical to self-renewal of embryonic stem cells may also have a role in the origin of cancer. PMID:24581739

  15. Chemical Composition of Aquatic Dissolved Organic Matter in Five Boreal Forest Catchments Sampled in Spring and Fall Seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher,M.; Christl, I.; Vogt, R.; Barmettler, K.; Jacobsen, C.; Kretzschmar, R.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition and carbon isotope signature of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five boreal forest catchments in Scandinavia were investigated. The DOM was isolated during spring and fall seasons using a reverse osmosis technique. The DOM samples were analyzed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, solid-state CP-MAS {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. In addition, the relative abundance of carbon isotopes ({sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C) in the samples was measured. There were no significant differences in the chemical composition or carbon isotope signature of the DOM sampled in spring and fall seasons. Also, differences in DOM composition between the five catchments were minor. Compared to reference peat fulvic and humic acids, all DOM samples were richer in O-alkyl carbon and contained less aromatic and phenolic carbon, as shown by FT-IR, {sup 13}C-NMR, and C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy. The DOM was clearly enriched in {sup 14}C relative to the NBS oxalic acid standard of 1950, indicating that the aquatic DOM contained considerable amounts of organic carbon younger than about 50 years. The weight-based C:N ratios of 31 {+-} 6 and the {delta}{sup 13}Cvalues of -29 {+-} 2{per_thousand}indicate that the isolated DOM is of terrestrial rather than aquatic origin. We conclude that young, hydrophilic carbon compounds of terrestrial origin are predominant in the samples investigated, and that the composition of the aquatic DOM in the studied boreal forest catchments is rather stable during low to intermediate flow conditions.

  16. The Composite Insect Trap: An Innovative Combination Trap for Biologically Diverse Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Laura; Stehouwer, Rachel; Heberling, Jacob Mason; Shea, Katriona

    2011-01-01

    Documentation of insect diversity is an important component of the study of biodiversity, community dynamics, and global change. Accurate identification of insects usually requires catching individuals for close inspection. However, because insects are so diverse, most trapping methods are specifically tailored to a particular taxonomic group. For scientists interested in the broadest possible spectrum of insect taxa, whether for long term monitoring of an ecosystem or for a species inventory, the use of several different trapping methods is usually necessary. We describe a novel composite method for capturing a diverse spectrum of insect taxa. The Composite Insect Trap incorporates elements from four different existing trapping methods: the cone trap, malaise trap, pan trap, and flight intercept trap. It is affordable, resistant, easy to assemble and disassemble, and collects a wide variety of insect taxa. Here we describe the design, construction, and effectiveness of the Composite Insect Trap tested during a study of insect diversity. The trap catches a broad array of insects and can eliminate the need to use multiple trap types in biodiversity studies. We propose that the Composite Insect Trap is a useful addition to the trapping methods currently available to ecologists and will be extremely effective for monitoring community level dynamics, biodiversity assessment, and conservation and restoration work. In addition, the Composite Insect Trap will be of use to other insect specialists, such as taxonomists, that are interested in describing the insect taxa in a given area. PMID:21698160

  17. Comparison of pollutant concentrations from weekly discrete versus composite samples for residential dry-weather runoff.

    PubMed

    Pitton, B J L; Dodge, L L; Gan, J; Greco, S E; Haver, D L; Lee, E; Majcherek, T J; Oki, L R

    2016-09-15

    As urbanization has increased, so has degradation of urban streams. Urban water quality monitoring has focused on storm runoff sampling, but in arid climates, dry-weather runoff is a significant contributor of pollutants to aquatic systems. The majority of dry-weather runoff studies sample a small window of the entire dry-season. For this study constituent concentrations were compared using two sampling protocols. The first protocol repeatedly collected samples on the same day of the week at the same time of day. The second protocol collected samples during two week-long intensive sampling events consisting of sample collection every hour for 24 h for seven consecutive days. The two protocols were compared to determine if sampling at the same time of the week was representative of the entire week. For nitrate, total phosphorous, fipronil, permethrin, total organic carbon, and total suspended solids, sampling at the same time was not representative of the weekly mean; however, variability was observed between sites and constituents. For those constituent concentrations with significant differences seen between the two protocols, load adjustment factors (LAF) were determined, using a ratio of treatment means, and employed to adjust dry-season load estimates. Future work should include determining if LAF values can be used at similar sites excluded from the study or for similar constituents from the current sampling sites. PMID:27192386

  18. Crustal heterogeneity of the moon viewed from the Galileo SSI camera: Lunar sample calibrations and compositional implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Belton, M.; Becker, T.; Carr, M. H.; Chapmann, C.; Fanale, F. P.; Fischer, Erich M.; Gaddis, L.; Greeley, Ronald; Greenberg, R.

    1991-01-01

    Summaries are given of the spectral calibration, compositional parameters, nearside color, and limb and farside color of the Moon. The farside of the Moon, a large area of lunar crust, is dominated by heavily cratered terrain and basin deposits that represent the products of the first half billion years of crustal evolution. Continuing analysis of the returned lunar samples suggest a magma ocean and/or serial magmatism model for evolution of the primordial lunar crust. However, testing either hypothesis requires compositional information about the crustal stratigraphy and lateral heterogeneity. Resolution of this important planetary science issue is dependent on additional data. New Galileo multispectral images indicate previously unknown local and regional compositional diversity of the farside crust. Future analysis will focus on individual features and a more detailed assessment of crustal stratigraphy and heterogeneity.

  19. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand 5F 203 Induces Oxidative Stress That Triggers DNA Damage in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Lancelot S.; Watkins, Cheri N.; Campbell, Petreena; Zylstra, Dain; Rowland, Leah; Amis, Louisa H.; Scott, Lia; Babb, Crystal E.; Livingston, W. Joel; Darwanto, Agus; Davis, Willie L.; Senthil, Maheswari; Sowers, Lawrence C.; Brantley, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Breast tumors often show profound sensitivity to exogenous oxidative stress. Investigational agent 2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F 203) induces aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated DNA damage in certain breast cancer cells. Since AhR agonists often elevate intracellular oxidative stress, we hypothesize that 5F 203 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce DNA damage, which thwarts breast cancer cell growth. We found that 5F 203 induced single-strand break formation. 5F 203 enhanced oxidative DNA damage that was specific to breast cancer cells sensitive to its cytotoxic actions, as it did not increase oxidative DNA damage or ROS formation in nontumorigenic MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. In contrast, AhR agonist and procarcinogen benzo[a]pyrene and its metabolite, 1,6-benzo[a]pyrene quinone, induced oxidative DNA damage and ROS formation, respectively, in MCF-10A cells. In sensitive breast cancer cells, 5F 203 activated ROS-responsive kinases: c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38). AhR antagonists (alpha-naphthoflavone, CH223191) or antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, EUK-134) attenuated 5F 203-mediated JNK and p38 activation, depending on the cell type. Pharmacological inhibition of AhR, JNK, or p38 attenuated 5F 203-mediated increases in intracellular ROS, apoptosis, and single-strand break formation. 5F 203 induced the expression of cytoglobin, an oxidative stress-responsive gene and a putative tumor suppressor, which was diminished with AhR, JNK, or p38 inhibition. Additionally, 5F 203-mediated increases in ROS production and cytoglobin were suppressed in AHR100 cells (AhR ligand-unresponsive MCF-7 breast cancer cells). Our data demonstrate 5F 203 induces ROS-mediated DNA damage at least in part via AhR, JNK, or p38 activation and modulates the expression of oxidative stress-responsive genes such as cytoglobin to confer its anticancer action. PMID:25781201

  20. Oral Samples as Non-Invasive Proxies for Assessing the Composition of the Rumen Microbial Community.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Ilma; Shingfield, Kevin J; McKain, Nest; Bonin, Aurélie; Fischer, Daniel; Bayat, Ali R; Vilkki, Johanna; Taberlet, Pierre; Snelling, Timothy J; Wallace, R John

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus) and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons. Faeces contained few protozoa, and bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were substantially different to ruminal digesta. Buccal and bolus samples gave much more similar profiles to ruminal digesta, although fewer archaea were detected in buccal and bolus samples. Bolus samples overall were most similar to ruminal samples. The differences between both buccal and bolus samples and ruminal digesta were consistent across all treatments. It can be concluded that either proxy sample type could be used as a predictor of the rumen microbial community, thereby enabling more convenient large-scale animal sampling for phenotyping and possible use in future animal breeding programs aimed at selecting cattle with a lower environmental footprint. PMID:26986467

  1. Oral Samples as Non-Invasive Proxies for Assessing the Composition of the Rumen Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Tapio, Ilma; Shingfield, Kevin J.; McKain, Nest; Bonin, Aurélie; Fischer, Daniel; Bayat, Ali R.; Vilkki, Johanna; Taberlet, Pierre; Snelling, Timothy J.; Wallace, R. John

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus) and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons. Faeces contained few protozoa, and bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were substantially different to ruminal digesta. Buccal and bolus samples gave much more similar profiles to ruminal digesta, although fewer archaea were detected in buccal and bolus samples. Bolus samples overall were most similar to ruminal samples. The differences between both buccal and bolus samples and ruminal digesta were consistent across all treatments. It can be concluded that either proxy sample type could be used as a predictor of the rumen microbial community, thereby enabling more convenient large-scale animal sampling for phenotyping and possible use in future animal breeding programs aimed at selecting cattle with a lower environmental footprint. PMID:26986467

  2. Polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite for the solid phase extraction of lead(II) in water samples.

    PubMed

    Sahmetlioglu, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Erkan; Aktas, Ece; Soylak, Mustafa

    2014-02-01

    A multi-walled carbon nanotubes-polypyrrole conducting polymer nanocomposite has been synthesized, characterized and used for the separation and preconcentration of lead at trace levels in water samples prior to its flame atomic absorption spectrometric detection. The analytical parameters like pH, sample volume, eluent, sample flow rate that were affected the retentions of lead(II) on the new nanocomposite were optimized. Matrix effects were also investigated. Limit of detection and preconcentration factors were 1.1 µg L(-1) and 200, respectively. The adsorption capacity of the nanocomposite was 25.0mg lead(II) per gram composite. The validation of the method was checked by using SPS-WW2 Waste water Level 2 certified reference material. The method was applied to the determination of lead in water samples with satisfactory results. PMID:24401439

  3. Influences of stage of lactation, teat position and sequential milk sampling on the composition of domestic cat milk (Felis catus).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, K L; DePeters, E J; Rogers, Q R; Taylor, S J

    2004-02-01

    Milk from 11 domestic shorthair cats (Felis catus; n=7 fed dry low-fat diet, n=4 fed dry high-fat diet) was collected weekly for 6 weeks following parturition, and analysed for total solids (TS), crude protein (CP), fat, lactose and ash. Samples were collected in 1-ml sequential fractions to determine whether within-sampling changes in composition existed Samples of extracted milk fat were also analysed for fatty acid content. Two commercia kitten milk replacers were analysed according to the same procedures utilized for mil samples. In statistical analyses individual cat, diet, stage of lactation, litter size, and teat position influenced concentrations of milk components; parity and sequential sampling had no effect. Averaged cat milk was 27.9% TS, and 8.7% CP, 12.7% fat, 4.2% lactose and 1.3% ash (on a wet basis). Milk protein percentage increased over lactation for both diet groups, but fat percentage increased only for queens fed the high-fat diet. Milk replacers were lower in fat and protein content than milk from queens, and had considerably lower levels of arachidonic acid. Data from this study contribute to the limited information available regarding the composition of domestic cat milk, and give possible reasons for poor growth occasionally observed in kittens fed unsupplemented commercial milk replacers. PMID:19774762

  4. Estimating Accuracy of Land-Cover Composition From Two-Stage Clustering Sampling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land-cover maps are often used to compute land-cover composition (i.e., the proportion or percent of area covered by each class), for each unit in a spatial partition of the region mapped. We derive design-based estimators of mean deviation (MD), mean absolute deviation (MAD), ...

  5. The Surface Chemical Composition of Lunar Samples and Its Significance for Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.; Bilson, E.; Baron, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The surface iron, titanium, calcium, and silicon concentration in numerous lunar soil and rock samples was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy. All soil samples show a large increase in the iron to oxygen ratio compared with samples of pulverized rock or with results of the bulk chemical analysis. A solar wind simulation experiment using 2 keV energy alpha -particles showed that an ion dose corresponding to approximately 30,000 years of solar wind increased the iron concentration on the surface of the pulverized Apollo 14 rock sample 14310 to the concentration measured in the Apollo 14 soil sample 14163, and the albedo of the pulverized rock decreased from 0.36 to 0.07. The low albedo of the lunar soil is related to the iron + titanium concentration on its surface. A solar wind sputter reduction mechanism is discussed as a possible cause for both the surface chemical and optical properties of the soil.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Salmonella enterica serotypes recovered from pens of commercial feedlot cattle using different types of composite samples.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Jahangir; Renter, David; Taylor, Ethel; Mina, Diana; Moxley, Rodney; Smith, David

    2009-04-01

    Salmonella enterica in cattle production systems may be associated with important human and animal disease issues. However, tremendous diversity exists among Salmonella recovered, and more information is needed about strains of greatest potential health concern, particularly those that are multidrug resistant (MDR). By characterizing Salmonella isolates from commercial feedlot pens, this study aimed to evaluate the strain diversity and prevalence of MDR Salmonella from different types of composite pen samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, serotype, and presence or absence of the integron-encoded intI1 gene were determined for 530 Salmonella isolates recovered using composite rope (n = 335), feces (n = 59), and water (n = 136) samples from 21 pens in 3 feedlots. The study investigated only pens with available isolates from multiple sample types. Most isolates (83.0%) of the 19 Salmonella serotypes identified were susceptible or intermediately susceptible to all the antimicrobials evaluated. Resistance to sulfisoxazole (14.9%), streptomycin (3.8%), and tetracycline (3.6%) were the most common. None of the isolates tested positive for a class 1 integron, and only 2.5% were resistant to multiple antimicrobials. All the MDR isolates, namely, serotypes Uganda (n = 9), Typhimurium (n = 2), and Give (n = 2), were resistant to at least five antimicrobials. Most MDR isolates (n = 11) were from two pens during 1 week within one feedlot. Overall, many Salmonella isolates collected within a pen were similar in terms of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility regardless of sample type. However, MDR Salmonella and rare serotypes were not recovered frequently enough to suggest a general strategy for appropriate composite sampling of feedlot cattle populations for Salmonella detection and monitoring. PMID:19219500

  7. Multi-element composition of historical lichen collections and bark samples, indicators of changing atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, O. W.; Chimonides, P. D. J.; Jeffries, T. E.; Jones, G. C.; Rusu, A.-M.; Read, H.

    Thirty six element signatures were compared in historical Parmelia sulcata samples from the Natural History Museum herbarium collected over the period 1797-1967 with those recorded in the same species and tree bark sampled in 2000 from Burnham Beeches, lying 40 km west of London. Nineteen elements reached highest concentrations in herbarium samples, consistent with a pollution legacy and dust contamination in the herbarium. Healthy Parmelia sampled east and down-wind of London at a farm during peak SO 2 emissions in 1967 contained highest V, Ni, Zn, Cd, Se, Ge contents, supporting derivation from fuel combustion; the same sample was previously determined as having a low δ34S and high S and N contents. Lowest V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Sb, Li, B, Cs, U, Th, Ga contents were recorded in a sample with a high δ34S and low S content collected in 1887 from a remote region from Ross-shire, Scotland. Se and Cd enrichment, never-the-less suggest a transboundary pollution influence. Lichen Pb concentrations from Burnham Beeches were amongst the lowest recorded in spite of lichens being collected close to roads. Herbarium samples help interpret changes in element deposition where few data exist, in spite of dust contamination.

  8. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN DIETARY AND DIETARY COMPOSITE SAMPLES TO PROVIDE A MORE COMPLETE ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE FROM DIETARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FDA's market basket study reports total arsenic concentrations from composite diet samples. The use of composite diets, based on market basket sampling, is the most cost effective means of obtaining a generic arsenic exposure estimate for a population. For example, the tota...

  9. SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN DIETARY AND DIETARY COMPOSITE SAMPLES TO PROVIDE A MORE COMPLETE ASSESSMENT OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE FROM DIETARY SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The FDA's market basket study reports total arsenic concentrations from composite diet samples. The use of composite diets, based on market basket sampling, is the most cost effective means of obtaining a generic exposure estimate for a population. For example, the total arseni...

  10. Trace element composition of the Mount St. Helens plume - Stratospheric samples from the 18 May eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vossler, T.; Anderson, D. L.; Aras, N. K.; Phelan, J. M.; Zoller, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate material collected from the stratosphere in the plume of the 18 May 1980 eruption of the Mount St. Helens volcano was quite similar in composition to that of ash that fell to the ground in western Washington. However, there were small but significant differences in concentrations of some elements with altitude, indicating that the stratospheric material was primarily produced from fresh magma, not fragments of the mountain.

  11. Trace element composition of the Mount St. Helens plume: stratospheric samples from the 18 May eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Vossler, T.; Anderson, D.L.; Aras, N.K.; Phelan, J.M.; Zoller, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate material collected from the stratosphere in plume of the 18 May 1980 eruption of the Mount St. Helens volcano was quite similar in composition to that of ash that fell to the ground in western Washington. However, there were small but significant differences in concentrations of some elements with altitude, indicating that the statospheric material was primarily produced from fresh magma, but fragments of the mountain.

  12. 5f-electron states in uranium dioxide investigated using high-resolution neutron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoretti, G.; Blaise, A.; Caciuffo, R.; Fournier, J. M.; Hutchings, M. T.; Osborn, R.; Taylor, A. D.

    1989-07-01

    High-resolution, high-energy-transfer, inelastic neutron scattering has been used to explore the crystal-field (CF) excitations in UO2. As all the dipole-allowed transitions within the free-ion ground manifold have been identified, the observations provide a complete determination of the crystal-field potential and 5f-electron eigenstates. The fourth- and sixth-degree CF parameters are V4=-123 meV and V6=26.5 meV. In spite of the strength of the CF, the ground state is accurately given by the intermediate-coupling approximation with little modification by J-mixing effects. In the antiferromagnetic phase below TN=30.8 K, a splitting of the cubic CF levels, due to the combined effects of the molecular field and the distortion of the oxygen-ligand cage surrounding the U4+ ions, has been observed. Detailed CF calculations are presented both for the case of a double-k magnetic structure with a monoclinic distortion of the oxygen sublattice, and for a combined triple-k distortion and magnetic order. The observed splittings are shown to be more consistent with the triple-k model.

  13. Oxidative Stress Type Influences the Properties of Antioxidants Containing Polyphenols in RINm5F Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Auberval, Nathalie; Dal, Stéphanie; Bietiger, William; Seyfritz, Elodie; Peluso, Jean; Muller, Christian; Zhao, Minjie; Marchioni, Eric; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard, Elisa; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro methods currently used to screen bioactive compounds focus on the use of a single model of oxidative stress. However, this simplistic view may lead to conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of two natural extracts (a mix of red wine polyphenols (RWPs) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)) with three models of oxidative stress induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a mixture of hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase (HX/XO), or streptozotocin (STZ) in RINm5F beta cells. We employed multiple approaches to validate their potential as therapeutic treatment options, including cell viability, reactive oxygen species production, and antioxidant enzymes expression. All three oxidative stresses induced a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis, whereas the level of ROS production was variable depending on the type of stress. The highest level of ROS was found for the HX/XO-induced stress, an increase that was reflected by higher expression antioxidant enzymes. Further, both antioxidant compounds presented beneficial effects during oxidative stress, but EGCG appeared to be a more efficient antioxidant. These data indicate that the efficiency of natural antioxidants is dependent on both the nature of the compound and the type of oxidative stress generated. PMID:26508986

  14. Estimation of thermal properties of composite materials without instrumentation inside the samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, B.; Delaunay, D.; Beck, J. V.

    1992-11-01

    Recent contributions of parameter estimation in the measurement of thermal properties are of great importance. In comparison with other techniques such as steady state (hot guarded plate, etc.) or transient (line source method, flash method, etc.), the use of parameter estimation provides more information and, in most cases, produces faster results. With this technique the thermal conductivity and the volumetric specific heat are estimated simultaneously and as a function of time, temperature, or position. This method requires experimental data, such as transient temperature and heat flux measurements. Previously, the temperature measurements came from thermocouples embedded in the sample. These thermocouples are introduced in the sample either by drilling holes or by molding the material around a series of thermocouples. Both operations are time-consuming and costly and are needed for each sample. In this study, temperature measurements are made only on the two sides of the samples with thin resistance thermometers. Since the sensors are not inside the material, the effect of the thermal contact conductance between sensor and sample was first investigated. The value of this thermal contact conductance was estimated by using samples of high-conductivity material. Using these values, the estimated thermal properties obtained with surface temperature measurements are compared with values provided by other methods for several low-thermal conductivity materials; agreement has been very good.

  15. Rapid inventory of the ant assemblage in a temperate hardwood forest: species composition and assessment of sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Aaron M; Record, Sydne; Arguello, Alexander; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2007-08-01

    Ants are key indicators of ecological change, but few studies have investigated how ant assemblages respond to dramatic changes in vegetation structure in temperate forests. Pests and pathogens are causing widespread loss of dominant canopy tree species; ant species composition and abundance may be very sensitive to such losses. Before the experimental removal of red oak trees to simulate effects of sudden oak death and examine the long-term impact of oak loss at the Black Rock Forest (Cornwall, NY), we carried out a rapid assessment of the ant assemblage in a 10-ha experimental area. We also determined the efficacy in a northern temperate forest of five different collecting methods--pitfall traps, litter samples, tuna fish and cookie baits, and hand collection--routinely used to sample ants in tropical systems. A total of 33 species in 14 genera were collected and identified; the myrmecines, Aphaenogaster rudis and Myrmica punctiventris, and the formicine Formica neogagates were the most common and abundant species encountered. Ninety-four percent (31 of 33) of the species were collected by litter sampling and structured hand sampling together, and we conclude that, in combination, these two methods are sufficient to assess species richness and composition of ant assemblages in northern temperate forests. Using new, unbiased estimators, we project that 38-58 ant species are likely to occur at Black Rock Forest. Loss of oak from these forests may favor Camponotus species that nest in decomposing wood and open habitat specialists in the genus Lasius. PMID:17716467

  16. Iron oxide functionalized graphene nano-composite for dispersive solid phase extraction of chemical warfare agents from aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Goud, D Raghavender; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2015-05-15

    Present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of graphene based magnetic nano-composite for dispersive solid phase extraction of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) relevant chemicals from aqueous samples. Nano-composite, Fe3O4@SiO2-G was synthesized by covalently bonding silica coated Fe3O4 onto the graphene sheets. Nerve agents (NA), Sulfur mustard (SM) and their non-toxic environmental markers were the target analytes. Extraction parameters like amount of sorbent, extraction time and desorption conditions were optimized. Dispersion of 20 milligram of sorbent in 200mL of water sample for 20min. followed by methanol/chloroform extraction produced average to good recoveries (27-94%) of targeted analytes. Recoveries of real agents exhibited great dependency upon sample pH and ionic strength. Sarin produced maximum recovery under mild acidic conditions (56% at pH 5) while VX demanded alkaline media (83% at pH 9). Salts presence in the aqueous samples was found to be advantageous, raising the recoveries to as high as 94% for SM. Excellent limits of detection (LOD) for sulphur mustard and VX (0.11ngmL(-1) and 0.19ngmL(-1) respectively) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals. PMID:25828545

  17. Do Milk Samples Stored for 12 Days after Collection Exhibit a Change in Composition Related to the Initial Bacterial Load?

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Larissa Nazareth; Cassoli, Laerte Dagher; da Silva, Janielen; de Figueiredo Pantoja, José Carlos; Machado, Paulo Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Total bacterial count (TBC) is a tool used to assess milk quality and is associated with not only the initial sample contamination but also the sample storage time and temperature. Several countries have reported milk samples with a high TBC, and the influence of TBC on milk preservation remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the initial bacterial contamination level on the macrocomponents and somatic cell count (SCC) of raw milk samples preserved with bronopol and maintained at two storage temperatures (7 and 25°C) for up to 12 days. Thus, we collected milk samples from 51 dairy farms, which were divided into two groups according to the initial bacterial load: low TBC (<100,000 CFU/ml) and high TBC (≥100,000 CFU/ml). We analyzed the sample composition for protein, fat, total solids, lactose, milk urea nitrogen, and the SCC. We did not observe an effect from TBC and storage time and temperature on the concentration of protein, fat, total solids, and lactose. SCC changes were not observed for samples maintained under refrigeration (7°C); however, samples maintained at room temperature (25°C) exhibited a decrease in the SCC beginning on day 6 of storage. For milk urea nitrogen, values increased when the samples were maintained at room temperature, beginning on the ninth storage day. Samples with the preservative bronopol added and maintained under refrigeration may be analyzed up to 12 days after collection, regardless of the milk microbial load. PMID:27296431

  18. Influence of cell physiological state on gene delivery to T lymphocytes by chimeric adenovirus Ad5F35

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-feng; Shao, Hong-wei; Wu, Feng-lin; Xie, Xin; Li, Zhu-Ming; Bo, Hua-Ben; Shen, Han; Wang, Teng; Huang, Shu-lin

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of genetically-modified T cells is a promising approach for treatment of both human malignancies and viral infections. Due to its ability to efficiently infect lymphocytes, the chimeric adenovirus Ad5F35 is potentially useful as an immunotherapeutic for the genetic modification of T cells. In previous studies, it was found that the infection efficiency of Ad5F35 was significantly increased without enhanced expression of the viral receptor after T cell stimulation; however, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Nonetheless, cell physiology has long been thought to affect viral infection. Therefore, we aimed to uncover the physiologic changes responsible for the increased infection efficiency of Ad5F35 following T cell stimulation. Given the complexity of intracellular transport we analyzed viral binding, entry, and escape using a Jurkat T cell model and found that both cell membrane fluidity and endosomal escape of Ad5F35 were altered under different physiological states. This, in turn, resulted in differences in the amount of virus entering cells and reaching the cytoplasm. These results provide additional insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying Ad5F35 infection of T cells and consequently, will help further the clinical application of genetically-modified T cells for immunotherapy. PMID:26972139

  19. Pressure-induced phase transition in La1–xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fang, Y.; Yazici, D.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-09-15

    Electrical resistivity measurements on La1–xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8) have been performed under applied pressures up to 2.6 GPa from 2 K to room temperature. The superconducting transition temperature Tc of each sample significantly increases at a Sm-concentration dependent pressure Pt, indicating a pressure-induced phase transition from a low-Tc to a high-Tc phase. At ambient pressure, Tc increases dramatically from 2.8 K at x = 0.1 to 5.4 K at x = 0.8; however, the Tc values at P > Pt decrease slightly with x and Pt shifts to higher pressures with Sm substitution. In the normal state,more » semiconducting-like behavior is suppressed and metallic conduction is induced with increasing pressure in all of the samples. Furthermore, these results suggest that the pressure dependence of Tc for the BiS2-based superconductors is related to the lattice parameters at ambient pressure and enable us to estimate the evolution of Tc for SmO0.5F0.5BiS2 under pressure.« less

  20. Pressure-induced phase transition in La1 -xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Yazici, D.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-09-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements on La1 -xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2 (x =0.1 ,0.3 ,0.6 ,0.8 ) have been performed under applied pressures up to 2.6 GPa from 2 K to room temperature. The superconducting transition temperature Tc of each sample significantly increases at a Sm-concentration-dependent pressure Pt, indicating a pressure-induced phase transition from a low-Tc to a high-Tc phase. At ambient pressure, Tc increases dramatically from 2.8 K at x =0.1 to 5.4 K at x =0.8 ; however, the Tc values at P >Pt decrease slightly with x , and Pt shifts to higher pressures with Sm substitution. In the normal state, semiconducting-like behavior is suppressed, and metallic conduction is induced with increasing pressure in all of the samples. These results suggest that the pressure dependence of Tc for the BiS2-based superconductors is related to the lattice parameters at ambient pressure and enable us to estimate the evolution of Tc for SmO0.5F0.5BiS2 under pressure.

  1. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-05-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples (Ivy et al., 2012). The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14,C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 andC6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude for C5F12. The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those estimated in this study. In addition, we present measured infrared absorption spectra for C7F16 and C8

  2. Broadband echo sequence using a pi composite pulse for the pure NQR of a spin I = 32 powder sample

    PubMed

    Odin

    2000-04-01

    This work presents a numerical approach to optimizing sequences with composite pulses for the pure NQR of a spin I = 32 powder sample. The calculations are based on a formalism developed in a previous paper, which allows a fast powder-averaging procedure to be implemented. The framework of the Cayley-Klein matrices to describe space rotations by 2 x 2 unitary and unimodular complex matrices is used to calculate the pulse propagators. The object of such a study is to design a high-performance echo sequence composed of a single preparation pulse and a three-pulse composite transfer pulse. We mean a sequence leading to a large excitation bandwidth with a good signal-to-noise ratio, a flat excitation profile near the irradiation frequency, and a good linearity of the phase as a function of frequency offset. Such a composite echo sequence is intended to give a better excitation profile than the classical Hahn (θ)-tau-(2θ) echo sequence. It is argued that in pure NQR of a powder sample, the sequence must be optimized as a whole since both the excitation and the reception of the signal depend on the relative orientation of the crystallites with respect to the coil axis. To our knowledge, this is the first time such a global approach is presented. An extensive numerical study of the composite echo sequence described above is performed in this article. The key of the discrimination between the sequences lies in using the first five reduced moments of the excitation profile as well as an estimator of the phase linearity. Based on such information, we suggest that the echo sequence that best fulfills our criterion is (1)(0)-tau-(0.35)(0)(2.1)(pi)(0.35)(0), the pulse angles omega(RF)t(p) being in radians. The subscripts are the relative pulse phases. We outlined the way to implement the spin echo mapping method to reconstruct large spectra with this sequence, and it is shown that it reduces the acquisition time by a factor of 1.7 if compared to the classical Hahn echo. Some

  3. Southeast Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20˚S during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.; Kleinman, L.; Coe, H.; Clarke, A.; Bretherton, C.; Wood, R.; Abel, S. J.; Barrett, P.; Brown, P.; George, R.; Freitag, S.; McNaughton, C.; Howell, S.; Shank, L.; Kapustin, V.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Toniazzo, T.; Krejci, R.; Fochesatto, J.; Shaw, G.; Krecl, P.; Brooks, B.; McKeeking, G.; Bower, K. N.; Williams, P. I.; Crosier, J.; Crawford, I.; Connolly, P.; Covert, D.; Bandy, A. R.

    2011-01-10

    The VAMOS Ocean-Climate-Atmosphere-Land Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was conducted from 15 October to 15 November 2008 in the South East Pacific region to investigate interactions between land, sea and atmosphere in this unique tropical eastern ocean environment and to improve the skill of global and regional models in representing the region. This study synthesises selected aircraft, ship and surface site observations from VOCALS-REx to statistically summarise and characterise the atmospheric composition and variability of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and Free Troposphere (FT) along the 20{sup o} S parallel between 70{sup o} W and 85{sup o} W. Significant zonal gradients in mean MBL sub-micron aerosol particle size and composition, carbon monoxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide were seen over the campaign, with a generally more variable and polluted coastal environment and a less variable, more pristine remote maritime regime. Gradients are observed to be associated with strong gradients in cloud droplet number. The FT is often more polluted in terms of trace gases than the MBL in the mean; however increased variability in the FT composition suggests an episodic nature to elevated concentrations. This is consistent with a complex vertical interleaving of airmasses with diverse sources and hence pollutant concentrations as seen by generalised back trajectory analysis, which suggests contributions from both local and long-range sources. Furthermore, back trajectory analysis demonstrates that the observed zonal gradients both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere are characteristic of marked changes in airmass history with distance offshore - coastal boundary layer airmasses having been in recent contact with the local land surface and remote maritime airmasses having resided over ocean for in excess of ten days. Boundary layer composition to the east of 75{sup o} W was observed to be dominated by coastal emissions from sources to the west of the Andes

  4. Mesh-size effects on drift sample composition as determined with a triple net sampler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, K.V.; Tilley, L.J.; Kennelly, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Nested nets of three different mesh apertures were used to study mesh-size effects on drift collected in a small mountain stream. The innermost, middle, and outermost nets had, respectively, 425 ??m, 209 ??m and 106 ??m openings, a design that reduced clogging while partitioning collections into three size groups. The open area of mesh in each net, from largest to smallest mesh opening, was 3.7, 5.7 and 8.0 times the area of the net mouth. Volumes of filtered water were determined with a flowmeter. The results are expressed as (1) drift retained by each net, (2) drift that would have been collected by a single net of given mesh size, and (3) the percentage of total drift (the sum of the catches from all three nets) that passed through the 425 ??m and 209 ??m nets. During a two day period in August 1986, Chironomidae larvae were dominant numerically in all 209 ??m and 106 ??m samples and midday 425 ??m samples. Large drifters (Ephemerellidae) occurred only in 425 ??m or 209 ??m nets, but the general pattern was an increase in abundance and number of taxa with decreasing mesh size. Relatively more individuals occurred in the larger mesh nets at night than during the day. The two larger mesh sizes retained 70% of the total sediment/detritus in the drift collections, and this decreased the rate of clogging of the 106 ??m net. If an objective of a sampling program is to compare drift density or drift rate between areas or sampling dates, the same mesh size should be used for all sample collection and processing. The mesh aperture used for drift collection should retain all species and life stages of significance in a study. The nested net design enables an investigator to test the adequacy of drift samples. ?? 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  5. The Effect of Sampling and Storage on the Fecal Microbiota Composition in Healthy and Diseased Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tedjo, Danyta I.; Jonkers, Daisy M. A. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H.; Masclee, Ad A.; van Best, Niels; Pierik, Marieke J.; Penders, John

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale cohort studies are currently being designed to investigate the human microbiome in health and disease. Adequate sampling strategies are required to limit bias due to shifts in microbial communities during sampling and storage. Therefore, we examined the impact of different sampling and storage conditions on the stability of fecal microbial communities in healthy and diseased subjects. Fecal samples from 10 healthy controls, 10 irritable bowel syndrome and 8 inflammatory bowel disease patients were collected on site, aliquoted immediately after defecation and stored at -80°C, -20°C for 1 week, at +4°C or room temperature for 24 hours. Fecal transport swabs (FecalSwab, Copan) were collected and stored for 48-72 hours at room temperature. We used pyrosequencing of the 16S gene to investigate the stability of microbial communities. Alpha diversity did not differ between all storage methods and -80°C, except for the fecal swabs. UPGMA clustering and principal coordinate analysis showed significant clustering by test subject (p<0.001) but not by storage method. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and (un)weighted UniFrac showed a significant higher distance between fecal swabs and -80°C versus the other methods and -80°C samples (p<0.009). The relative abundance of Ruminococcus and Enterobacteriaceae did not differ between the storage methods versus -80°C, but was higher in fecal swabs (p<0.05). Storage up to 24 hours (at +4°C or room temperature) or freezing at -20°C did not significantly alter the fecal microbial community structure compared to direct freezing of samples from healthy subjects and patients with gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26024217

  6. The effect of sampling and storage on the fecal microbiota composition in healthy and diseased subjects.

    PubMed

    Tedjo, Danyta I; Jonkers, Daisy M A E; Savelkoul, Paul H; Masclee, Ad A; van Best, Niels; Pierik, Marieke J; Penders, John

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale cohort studies are currently being designed to investigate the human microbiome in health and disease. Adequate sampling strategies are required to limit bias due to shifts in microbial communities during sampling and storage. Therefore, we examined the impact of different sampling and storage conditions on the stability of fecal microbial communities in healthy and diseased subjects. Fecal samples from 10 healthy controls, 10 irritable bowel syndrome and 8 inflammatory bowel disease patients were collected on site, aliquoted immediately after defecation and stored at -80 °C, -20 °C for 1 week, at +4°C or room temperature for 24 hours. Fecal transport swabs (FecalSwab, Copan) were collected and stored for 48-72 hours at room temperature. We used pyrosequencing of the 16S gene to investigate the stability of microbial communities. Alpha diversity did not differ between all storage methods and -80 °C, except for the fecal swabs. UPGMA clustering and principal coordinate analysis showed significant clustering by test subject (p < 0.001) but not by storage method. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and (un)weighted UniFrac showed a significant higher distance between fecal swabs and -80 °C versus the other methods and -80 °C samples (p < 0.009). The relative abundance of Ruminococcus and Enterobacteriaceae did not differ between the storage methods versus -80 °C, but was higher in fecal swabs (p < 0.05). Storage up to 24 hours (at +4 °C or room temperature) or freezing at -20 °C did not significantly alter the fecal microbial community structure compared to direct freezing of samples from healthy subjects and patients with gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26024217

  7. Carbon and Sulfur Isotopic Composition of Yellowknife Bay Sediments: Measurements by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, H. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Stern, J. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Steele, A.; Ming, D. W.; McAdam, A. C.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Archer, P. D.; Brunner, A. E.; Grotzinger,J. P.; Jones, J. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Miller, K.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Niles, P. B.; Owen, T. C.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.; Webster, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Since landing at Gale Crater in Au-gust 2012, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instru-ment suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) “Curiosity” rover has analyzed solid samples from the martian regolith in three locations, beginning with a scoop of aeolian deposits from the Rocknest (RN) sand shadow. Curiosity subsequently traveled to Yellowknife Bay, where SAM analyzed samples from two separate holes drilled into the Sheepbed Mudstone, designated John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB). Evolved gas analysis (EGA) of all samples revealed the presence of H2O as well as O-, C- and S-bearing phas-es, in most cases at abundances below the detection limit of the CheMin instrument. In the absence of definitive mineralogical identification by CheMin, SAM EGA data can help provide clues to the mineralogy of volatile-bearing phases through examination of tem-peratures at which gases are evolved from solid sam-ples. In addition, the isotopic composition of these gas-es may be used to identify possible formation scenarios and relationships between phases. Here we report C and S isotope ratios for CO2 and SO2 evolved from the JK and CB mudstone samples as measured with SAM’s quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and draw com-parisons to RN.

  8. Compositional analysis of excavated landfill samples and the determination of residual biogas potential of the organic fraction.

    PubMed

    García, J; Davies, S; Villa, R; Gomes, D M; Coulon, F; Wagland, S T

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the biogas potential of landfilled materials and to further validate the suitability of the enzymatic hydrolysis test EHT as a valuable alternative to substitute the standardised test currently in use (BMP). Both tests were applied to a range of landfill waste samples. The waste composition and volatile solids content (VS) profile together with the BMP test results showed that the biogas potential of the waste samples was directly related to their VS content, as expected. The positive correlation between the VS and the BMP test (r=0.67) suggests that the first could be used as a primary indicator of biogas potential of waste samples. Nevertheless, it should be validated against the BMP test because, occasionally, the VS content does not equate to the biogas production. This was mainly due to the paper content of the samples which also correlates positively (r=0.77) with the BMP biogas production. The EHT results showed a higher correlation with the BMP test (r=0.91) than in previous studies which used a wider mixture of enzymes containing cellulase, hemicellulase and carbohydrase. This finding positions the EHT as a quick assessing method for the biodegradability of waste samples in future sample regimes. PMID:27290632

  9. Glass Composition-Dependent Silicate Absorption Peaks in FTIR Spectroscopy: Implications for Measuring Sample Thickness and Molecular H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, I. M.; Nichols, A. R.; Schipper, C. I.; Stewart, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is often used to measure the H2O and CO2 contents of volcanic glasses. A key advantage of FTIR over other analytical techniques is that it can reveal not only total H2O concentration but also H2O speciation, i.e. how much H2O is present as molecular H2O (H2Om) and how much as hydroxyl groups (OH) bound to the silicate network. This H2O speciation data can be used to investigate cooling rate and glass transition temperature of volcanic glasses, and to interpret H2O contents of pyroclasts affected by partial bubble resorption during cooling or secondary hydration after deposition. FTIR in transmitted light requires sample wafers polished on both sides of known thickness. Thickness is commonly measured using a micrometer but this may damage fragile samples and in samples with non-uniform thickness, e.g. vesicular samples, it is difficult to position at the exact location of FTIR analysis. Furthermore, in FTIR images or maps of such samples it is impractical to determine the thickness across the whole of the analysed area, resulting either in only a selection of the collected data being processed quantitatively and the rest being unused, or results being presented in terms of absorbance, which does not account for variations in thickness.It is known that FTIR spectra contain absorption peaks related to the glass aluminosilicate network at wavenumbers of ~2000, ~1830 and ~1600 cm-1 [1]. These have been shown to be proportional to sample thickness at the analysis location for one obsidian composition with up to 0.66 wt% H2O [2]. We test whether this calibration can be applied more widely by analysing a range of synthetic and natural glasses (andesitic to rhyolitic) to examine how the position and relative intensities of the different silicate absorption peaks vary with composition and H2O content. Our data show that even minor differences in composition necessitate a unique calibration. Furthermore, importantly we show how

  10. Chemical composition of a sample of bright solar-metallicity stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Mott, A.; Steffen, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Gallagher, A.; Faraggiana, R.; Sbordone, L.

    2015-12-01

    We present a detailed analysis of seven young stars observed with the spectrograph SOPHIE at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence for which the chemical composition was incomplete or absent in the literature. For five stars, we derived the stellar parameters and chemical compositions using our automatic pipeline optimized for F, G, and K stars, while for the other two stars with high rotational velocity, we derived the stellar parameters by using other information (parallax), and performed a line-by-line analysis. Chromospheric emission-line fluxes from Ca II are obtained for all targets. The stellar parameters we derive are generally in good agreement with what is available in the literature. We provide a chemical analysis of two of the stars for the first time. The star HIP 80124 shows a strong Li feature at 670.8 nm implying a high lithium abundance. Its chemical pattern is not consistent with it being a solar sibling, as has been suggested. Data obtained at Observatoire de Haute Provence, with the SOPHIE spectrograph.

  11. Composition of selected rain samples collected at Menlo Park, California, 1971

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Vance C.; Zellweger, Gary W.; Avanzino, Ronald J.

    1976-01-01

    Chemical analysis are tabulated for 104 rain samples that were collected at Menlo Park, California, during November and December 1971. Of the 13 constituents determined, chloride was the most prominent with a range from less than 0.1 to 15.0 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Comparison with U ≈ 50 µK of neon samples of different isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavese, Franco; Steur, Peter P. M.; Bancone, Nicola; Ferri, Danilo; Giraudi, Domenico

    2010-10-01

    New comparisons are reported of the triple-point temperatures, Ttp, of seven neon samples with different 22Ne amount concentrations, 22x, in cryogenic cells sealed by INRIM, NMIJ, NPL and PTB. This work stems from a collaboration between those laboratories aiming at establishing the relationship between Ttp and 22x. Several problems remained unsolved in the published results. The new measurements supply more thermal data of lower uncertainty, to help solve some of these problems. The detailed results from 35 meltings are reported, characterized by improved uncertainty, and include an analysis of calorimetric, thermometric and sample-related effects. A broad range of collected and processed information is analysed in detail in order to confirm expanded uncertainty levels of the order of 30 µK for a single cell and 50 µK for a comparison of pairs of cells. The quality of the INRIM results is then discussed. In most cases the uncertainty budget for the INRIM measurements, including analysis of chemical impurities and the hydrostatic head correction, reached the targeted improved uncertainty. Finally, the results are discussed and compared with previous studies in support of the future assignment by the CCT of an accurate and reliable relationship Ttp versus 22x. The paper discusses various improvements regarding the influence of the thermal measurements on both the uncertainty of the relationship and the ability to recognize either possible isotopic fractionation during sample preparation or incorrect assignment of 22x values to some measured samples.

  13. Tick community composition in Midwestern US habitats in relation to sampling method and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rynkiewicz, Evelyn C; Clay, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The ranges of many tick species are changing due to climate change and human alteration of the landscape. Understanding tick responses to environmental conditions and how sampling method influences measurement of tick communities will improve our assessment of human disease risk. We compared tick sampling by three collection methods (dragging, CO2 trapping and rodent surveys) in adjacent forested and grassland habitats in the lower Midwest, USA, and analyzed the relationship between tick abundance and microclimate conditions. The study areas were within the overlapping ranges of three tick species, which may provide conditions for pathogen exchange and spread into new vectors. Dermacentor variabilis (American dog tick) was found using all methods, Amblyomma americanum (lonestar tick) was found by dragging and CO2 trapping and Ixodes scapularis (blacklegged deer tick) was found only on rodents. Proportion of each species differed significantly among sampling methods. More ticks were found in forests compared to open habitats. Further, more ticks were collected by dragging and from rodents in hotter, drier conditions. Our results demonstrate that multiple sampling methodologies better measure the tick community and that microclimate conditions strongly influence the abundance and activity of individual tick species. PMID:24705853

  14. Using Compositional Writing Samples to Explore Student Usage Patterns in a Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokensparger, Brian Jay

    2013-01-01

    This study explored relationships between writing sample features and LMS usage patterns for 366 college students who enrolled in Theology courses, junior-level courses cross-listed with theology courses, or Senior Perspective Program courses in the fall semester of 2012. These hybrid courses were managed inside the Canvas(TM) learning management…

  15. Temporal and spatial trends of chemical composition of wet deposition samples collected in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Elisabeth; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Lohninger, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Triggered by the occurrence of acid rain a sampling network for the collection of wet deposition samples was initiated in Austria in the early 1980s. Now the data set covers a time period of slightly more than 30 years for the stations being operable since the beginning. Sampling of rain water and snow was and is performed with Wet and Dry Only Samplers (WADOS) on a daily basis. Chemical analysis of rain water and snow samples comprised anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate) and cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) as well as pH and electrical conductivity. Here we evaluate and discuss temporal trends of both, ion concentrations and wet deposition data for twelve sampling stations, which were operable for most of the observation period of 30 years. As expected concentrations and wet deposition loads of sulfate and acidity decreased significantly during the last three decades - which is also reflected by a strong decrease of sulfur emissions in Austria and neighboring countries. Regarding nitrate the decrease of concentrations and wet deposition loads is less pronounced. Again this is in accordance with changes in emission data. In case of ammonium even less stations showed a significant decrease of annual average concentrations and depositions. Reasons for that might be twofold. On one hand emissions of ammonia did not decrease as strongly as e.g. sulfur emissions. Furthermore local sources will be more dominant and can influence the year to year variability. Seasonality of ion concentrations and deposition loads were investigated using Fourier analysis. Sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and also precipitation amount showed characteristic seasonal patterns for most of the sites and for concentrations as well as deposition loads. However the maxima in ion concentrations and deposition loads were observed during different times of the year. Concentrations of basic cations and chloride, on the contrary, hardly showed any seasonality. However, as

  16. Chemical composition of selected core samples, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Knobel, L.L.; Cecil, L.D.; Wood, T.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report presents chemical compositions determined from 84 subsamples and 5 quality-assurance split subsamples of basalt core from the eastern Snake River Plain. The 84 subsamples were collected at selected depths from 5 coreholes located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho. This report was jointly prepared by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company and the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. Ten major elements and as many as 32 trace elements were determined for each subsample either by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, or by both methods. Descriptive statistics for each element were calculated and tabulated by analytical method for each corehole.

  17. Space environmental effects on polymer matrix composites as a function of sample location on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Cool, G. R.; Zimcik, D. G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents results on the effect of circumferential location on the variation in solar absorptance (alpha(sub S)) and infrared emittance (epsilon) for five different polymer matrix composites (PMC), and variations in erosion depth due to atomic oxygen (AO) for fourteen different PMC materials. In addition, a chemical content design parameter (gamma) has been found that correlates well with the erosion yield obtained from space flight data and hyperthermal AO tests for hydrocarbon polymeric materials. This parameter defines the ratio of the total number of atoms in a repeat monomer unit to the difference between the total carbon content and the total number of intermolecular oxygen atoms in the same repeat unit.

  18. Analysis of POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 in gonocytes of patients with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Cortés-Trujillo, Lucero; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Vázquez, Francisco García; Carrasco-Daza, Daniel; Cuevas-Alpuche, Osvaldo; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César

    2015-10-01

    Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for the development of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). The most common type of TGCT in cryptorchidism is seminoma. The intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (ITGCNU) is a histological pattern preceding the development of seminomas and non-seminomas. It was suggested that in patients with cryptorchidism, the gonocytes remained undifferentiated with pluripotent abilities expressing proteins like POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 (POU5F1), tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit, placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), the transcription factor AP2γ and sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) that confer to the gonocytes this ability and therefore make them susceptible to develop ITGCNU. The aim of the present study was to determine if the gonocytes of patients with cryptorchidism express POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 proteins after their differentiation period. Based on this, we evaluated samples of testicular tissue from newborns to 16-year old subjects with or without cryptorchidism in search of POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 using immunocytochemical method, the results of which were validated by RT-PCR. The results showed that control subjects witnessed a down-regulation in the expression of these five proteins in the first year of life, which eventually disappeared. On the other hand, it was determined that 21.6% (8/37) of the patients with cryptorchidism continued to express, at least, one of the proteins analyzed in this study after the second year of life. And only 5.4% (2/37) of the patients were positive to the five markers. These data sustain the proposed hypothesis that in cryptorchid patients, ITGCNU arises from gonocytes that fail in their differentiation process to spermatogonia with conservation of the proteins (POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4) that maintain pluripotency and undifferentiated characteristics and which are responsible for making the gonocytes susceptible to malignancy. However, we

  19. Comparison of organic compositions in dust storm and normal aerosol samples collected at Gosan, Jeju Island, during spring 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Lee, Meehye

    To better understand the current physical and chemical properties of East Asian aerosols, an intensive observation of atmospheric particles was conducted at Gosan site, Jeju Island, South Korea during 2005 spring. Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected using pre-combusted quartz filters and a high-volume air sampler with the time intervals ranging from 3 h to 48 h. The kinds and amount of various organic compounds were measured in the samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the 99 target compounds detected, saccharides (average, 130 ± 14 ng m -3), fatty acids (73 ± 7 ng m -3), alcohols (41 ± 4 ng m -3), n-alkanes (32 ± 3 ng m -3), and phthalates (21 ± 2 ng m -3) were found to be major compound classes with polyols/polyacids, lignin and resin products, PAHs, sterols and aromatic acids being minor. Compared to the previous results reported for 2001 late spring samples, no significant changes were found in the levels of their concentrations and compositions for 4 years, although the economy in East Asia, especially in China, has sharply expanded from 2001 to 2005. During the campaign at Gosan site, we encountered two distinct dust storm episodes with high TSP concentrations. The first dust event occurred on March 28, which was characterized by a predominance of secondary organic aerosols. The second event that occurred on the next day (March 29) was found to be characterized by primary organic aerosols associated with forest fires in Siberia/northeastern China. A significant variation in the molecular compositions, which was found within a day, suggests that the compositions of East Asian aerosols are heterogeneous due to multi-contributions from different source regions together with different pathways of long-range atmospheric transport of particles.

  20. Capillary Absorption Spectrometer for 13C Isotopic Composition of Pico to Subpico Molar Sample Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J.; Kelly, J.; Sams, R.; Newburn, M.; Kreuzer, H.; Alexander, M.

    2011-12-01

    Quick incorporation of IR spectroscopy based isotope measurements into cutting edge research in biogeochemical cycling attests to the advantages of a spectroscopy versus mass spectrometry method for making some 13C measurements. The simple principles of optical spectroscopy allow field portability and provide a more robust general platform for isotope measurements. We present results with a new capillary absorption spectrometer (CAS) with the capability of reducing the sample size required for high precision isotopic measurements to the picomolar level and potentially the sub-picomolar level. This work was motivated by the minute sample size requirements for laser ablation isotopic studies of carbon cycling in microbial communities but has potential to be a valuable tool in other areas of biological and geological research. The CAS instrument utilizes a capillary waveguide as a sample chamber for interrogating CO2 via near IR laser absorption spectroscopy. The capillary's small volume (~ 0.5 mL) combined with propagation and interaction of the laser mode with the entire sample reduces sample size requirements to a fraction of that accessible with commercially available IR absorption including those with multi-pass or ring-down cavity systems. Using a continuous quantum cascade laser system to probe nearly adjacent rovibrational transitions of different isotopologues of CO2 near 2307 cm-1 permits sample measurement at low analyte pressures (as low as 2 Torr) for further sensitivity improvement. A novel method to reduce cw-fringing noise in the hollow waveguide is presented, which allows weak absorbance features to be studied at the few ppm level after averaging 1,000 scans in 10 seconds. Detection limits down to the 20 picomoles have been observed, a concentration of approximately 400 ppm at 2 Torr in the waveguide with precision and accuracy at or better than 1 %. Improvements in detection and signal averaging electronics and laser power and mode quality are

  1. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  2. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement withmore » values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.« less

  3. (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C

    2016-01-01

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe. PMID:26540258

  4. Native CB1 receptor affinity, intrinsic activity and accumbens shell dopamine stimulant properties of third generation SPICE/K2 cannabinoids: BB-22, 5F-PB-22, 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Castelli, M Paola; Loi, Barbara; Porcu, Alessandra; Martorelli, Mariella; Miliano, Cristina; Kellett, Kathryn; Davidson, Colin; Stair, Jacqueline L; Schifano, Fabrizio; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the in vivo dopamine (DA) stimulant properties of selected 3rd generation Spice/K2 cannabinoids, BB-22, 5F-PB-22, 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135, their in vitro affinity and agonist potency at native rat and mice CB1 receptors was studied. The compounds bind with high affinity to CB1 receptors in rat cerebral cortex homogenates and stimulate CB1-induced [(35)S]GTPγS binding with high potency and efficacy. BB-22 and 5F-PB-22 showed the lowest Ki of binding to CB1 receptors (0.11 and 0.13 nM), i.e., 30 and 26 times lower respectively than that of JWH-018 (3.38 nM), and a potency (EC50, 2.9 and 3.7 nM, respectively) and efficacy (Emax, 217% and 203%, respectively) as CB1 agonists higher than JWH-018 (EC50, 20.2 nM; Emax, 163%). 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135 had higher Ki for CB1 binding, higher EC50 and lower Emax as CB1 agonists than BB-22 and 5F-PB-22 but still comparatively more favourable than JWH-018. The agonist properties of all the compounds were abolished or drastically reduced by the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 (0.1 μM). No activation of G-protein was observed in CB1-KO mice. BB-22 (0.003-0.01 mg/kg i.v.) increased dialysate DA in the accumbens shell but not in the core or in the medial prefrontal cortex, with a bell shaped dose-response curve and an effect at 0.01 mg/kg and a biphasic time-course. Systemic AM251 (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) completely prevented the stimulant effect of BB-22 on dialysate DA in the NAc shell. All the other compounds increased dialysate DA in the NAc shell at doses consistent with their in vitro affinity for CB1 receptors (5F-PB-22, 0.01 mg/kg; 5F-AKB-48, 0.1 mg/kg; STS-135, 0.15 mg/kg i.v.). 3rd generation cannabinoids can be even more potent and super-high CB1 receptor agonists compared to JWH-018. Future research will try to establish if these properties can explain the high toxicity and lethality associated with these compounds. PMID:26686391

  5. Composition of particulate organic matter sampled in the troposphere over Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Voronetskaya, Natalya G.; Pevneva, Galina S.; Golovko, Anatoly K.; Kozlov, Alexander S.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present some results of the analysis of organic compounds contained in the particulate matter sampled in the Siberian air shed during monthly research flights in 2012-2013. Aerosol sampling was performed in the tropospheric layer from 500 to 7000 m over the Karakan pine forest located on the east bank of the Novosibirsk Reservoir (River Ob). The Optik TU-134 aircraft laboratory was used as a research platform for in-situ measurements of atmospheric trace gas species and aerosols, as well as a particulate matter collection on PTFE filters. Analysis of the particulate organic matter sampled in the Siberian air shed in 2012-2013 allowed us to draw the following conclusions: the total content of n-alkanes increases in the spring and decreases in the winter. the length of the n-alkane homologous series had no seasonal dependence. maximum in the molecular weight distribution of n-alkanes varies depending on the season; compounds with C17, C22 and C25 chains dominated in winter and spring 2012, whereas in summer - C17 ones; in 2013 compounds with C17 chains dominated in winter, C18-C20 - in spring, and C21 and C23 - in summer. Carbon preference index (CPI) value for a given chain length of the homologous series (on the average from C12 to C28) did not reflect the contribution of sources of n-alkanes in the atmosphere. This work was supported by Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No. 14-05-00526 and 14-05-00590).

  6. Composition, mineralogy, and petrology of 28 mare basalts from Apollo 15 rake samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, E.; Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1973-01-01

    Twenty-eight mare basalts from three Apollo 15 rake sample sections are divided into five rock groups which are considered to represent at least five rock units. Three of these groups (pyroxene-phyric basalt, olivine-phyric basalt, and olivine microgabbro) are from the mare area and are probably near-surface local mare rock units. The remaining groups (feldspathic peridotite and feldspathic microgabbro) are found outside the mare, in Spur Crater at the foot of the Apennines; they may come from deeper levels of the local mare or from a more distant source.

  7. Heavy Isotope Composition of Oxygen in Zircon from Soil Sample 14163: Lunar Perspective of an Early Ocean on the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Pidgeon, R. T.; Meyer, C.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty oxygen analyses of a large (sub-millimetre) zircon grain from the lunar soil sample 14163 have been determined using CAMECA 1270 ion microprobe. The sample 14163 was returned form the Fra Mauro region by Apollo 14 mission. Zircon grain of 0.6-0.8 mm in size extracted from the sample was imaged using CL detector fitted to the Philips Electron Microscope in order to reveal internal structure. Oxygen isotopes have been analysed during two sessions. The first set of data was collected using the original mount where the grain was set in the resin attached to the glass slide. This resulted in the two complications: (i) standard zircon has to be analysed from the separate mount and (ii) the lunar zircon grain was rased in the holder compared to the standard. In order to investigate, if the elevated oxygen compositions observed during this session could have resulted from this difference in geometric configuration during the standard and sample analyses, the lunar zircon was extracted from the original mount, remounted with the standard chip in the new resin disk and reanalysed during the second session. All analyses made during the first session show delta O-18 values heavier than 6.0%. The second set of data has a wider spread of delta O-18 values with some values as low as 5.6%. Nevertheless, a half of observed delta O-18 values in this set is also higher than 6.0%. Slightly lighter oxygen compositions observed during the second session indicate possible dependence of measured delta O-18 values on the geometry of analysed samples. Presence of zircons with similar heavy oxygen isotope compositions on the Moon, which neither had liquid water or felic crust similar to that on the Earth nor ever developed regime similar to plate tectonics, suggests that other mechanisms can be responsible for elevated delta O-18 values in zircons. This implies that there is no support for the presence of an ocean on the surface of the early Earth and as the ocean appears to be an

  8. Uncertainty in nutrient loads from tile-drained landscapes: Effect of sampling frequency, calculation algorithm, and compositing strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Mark R.; King, Kevin W.; Macrae, Merrin L.; Ford, William; Van Esbroeck, Chris; Brunke, Richard I.; English, Michael C.; Schiff, Sherry L.

    2015-11-01

    Accurate estimates of annual nutrient loads are required to evaluate trends in water quality following changes in land use or management and to calibrate and validate water quality models. While much emphasis has been placed on understanding the uncertainty of nutrient load estimates in large, naturally drained watersheds, few studies have focused on tile-drained fields and small tile-drained headwater watersheds. The objective of this study was to quantify uncertainty in annual dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) load estimates from four tile-drained fields and two small tile-drained headwater watersheds in Ohio, USA and Ontario, Canada. High temporal resolution datasets of discharge (10-30 min) and nutrient concentration (2 h to 1 d) were collected over a 1-2 year period at each site and used to calculate a reference nutrient load. Monte Carlo simulations were used to subsample the measured data to assess the effects of sample frequency, calculation algorithm, and compositing strategy on the uncertainty of load estimates. Results showed that uncertainty in annual DRP and NO3-N load estimates was influenced by both the sampling interval and the load estimation algorithm. Uncertainty in annual nutrient load estimates increased with increasing sampling interval for all of the load estimation algorithms tested. Continuous discharge measurements and linear interpolation of nutrient concentrations yielded the least amount of uncertainty, but still tended to underestimate the reference load. Compositing strategies generally improved the precision of load estimates compared to discrete grab samples; however, they often reduced the accuracy. Based on the results of this study, we recommended that nutrient concentration be measured every 13-26 h for DRP and every 2.7-17.5 d for NO3-N in tile-drained fields and small tile-drained headwater watersheds to accurately (±10%) estimate annual loads.

  9. Aerosol composition at Chacaltaya, Bolivia, as determined by size-fractionated sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, F.; van Espen, P.; Maenhaut, W.

    Thirty-four cascade-impactor samples were collected between September 1977 and November 1978 at Chacaltaya, Bolivia. The concentrations of 25 elements were measured for the six impaction stages of each sample by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission analysis. The results indicated that most elements are predominantly associated with a unimodal coarse-particle soil-dustdispersion component. Also chlorine and the alkali and alkaline earth elements belong to this group. The anomalously enriched elements (S, Br and the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Pb and Bi) showed a bimodal size distribution. Correlation coefficient calculations and principal component analysis indicated the presence in the submicrometer aerosol mode of an important component, containing S, K, Zn, As and Br, which may originate from biomass burning. For certain enriched elements (i.e. Zn and perhaps Cu) the coarse-particle enrichments observed may be the result of the true crust-air fractionation during soil-dust dispersion.

  10. In-depth analysis of ITER-like samples composition using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercadier, L.; Semerok, A.; Kizub, P. A.; Leontyev, A. V.; Hermann, J.; Grisolia, C.; Thro, P.-Y.

    2011-07-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic in-depth measurements were undertaken for two ITER-like calibrated multi-layered samples made of W-Mo or W/C layers on Ti-substrates. The samples were previously characterized by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. For laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic measurements, pulses generated by Nd:YAG laser sources with 1064 nm, 532 nm, 355 nm and 266 nm wavelengths were applied. The effects of laser beam shaping, fluence and wavelength as well as the gas nature (air, Ar, He) and pressure were investigated. The results obtained with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic in-depth measurements were compared to those obtained with glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and found to be in agreement. However, a mixing of the layers was observed and attributed to diffusion through the melted material and to the non-homogeneity of the laser beam spatial distribution. The depth resolution was found of the order of several thermal diffusion lengths but should be improved by using picosecond laser pulse duration. The results promote applications to tritium concentration measurements with depth resolution in the deposited layers of Tokamak first walls, as in the case of the future fusion reactor ITER.

  11. Potentially Functional Polymorphisms in POU5F1 Gene Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Rui; Wang, Yuzhuo; Zhu, Meng; Wen, Yifan; Sun, Jie; Shen, Wei; Cheng, Yang; Zhang, Jiahui; Jin, Guangfu; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Dai, Juncheng

    2015-01-01

    POU5F1 is a key regulator of self-renewal and differentiation in embryonic stem cells and may be associated with initiation, promotion, and progression in cancer. We hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in POU5F1 may play an important role in modifying the lung cancer risk. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to explore the association between 17 potentially functional SNPs in POU5F1 gene and the lung cancer risk in 1,341 incident lung cancer cases and 1,982 healthy controls in a Chinese population. We found that variant alleles of rs887468 and rs3130457 were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer after multiple comparison (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.11–1.51, Pfdr = 0.017 for rs887468; OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10–1.51, Pfdr = 0.034 for rs3130457, resp.). In addition, we detected a significant interaction between rs887468 genotypes and smoking status on lung cancer risk (P = 0.017). Combined analysis of these 2 SNPs showed a significant allele-dosage association between the number of risk alleles and increased risk of lung cancer (Ptrend < 0.001). These findings indicate that potentially functional polymorphisms in POU5F1 gene may contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population. PMID:26824036

  12. Effects of Fertilization and Sampling Time on Composition and Diversity of Entire and Active Bacterial Communities in German Grassland Soils

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Sarah; Wemheuer, Franziska; Wemheuer, Bernd; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Soil bacteria are major players in driving and regulating ecosystem processes. Thus, the identification of factors shaping the diversity and structure of these communities is crucial for understanding bacterial-mediated processes such as nutrient transformation and cycling. As most studies only target the entire soil bacterial community, the response of active community members to environmental changes is still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fertilizer application and sampling time on structure and diversity of potentially active (RNA-based) and the entire (DNA-based) bacterial communities in German grassland soils. Analysis of more than 2.3 million 16S rRNA transcripts and gene sequences derived from amplicon-based sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that fertilizer application and sampling time significantly altered the diversity and composition of entire and active bacterial communities. Although the composition of both the entire and the active bacterial community was correlated with environmental factors such as pH or C/N ratio, the active community showed a higher sensitivity to environmental changes than the entire community. In addition, functional analyses were performed based on predictions derived from 16S rRNA data. Genes encoding the uptake of nitrate/nitrite, nitrification, and denitrification were significantly more abundant in fertilized plots compared to non-fertilized plots. Hence, this study provided novel insights into changes in dynamics and functions of soil bacterial communities as response to season and fertilizer application. PMID:26694644

  13. Effects of Fertilization and Sampling Time on Composition and Diversity of Entire and Active Bacterial Communities in German Grassland Soils.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Sarah; Wemheuer, Franziska; Wemheuer, Bernd; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Soil bacteria are major players in driving and regulating ecosystem processes. Thus, the identification of factors shaping the diversity and structure of these communities is crucial for understanding bacterial-mediated processes such as nutrient transformation and cycling. As most studies only target the entire soil bacterial community, the response of active community members to environmental changes is still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fertilizer application and sampling time on structure and diversity of potentially active (RNA-based) and the entire (DNA-based) bacterial communities in German grassland soils. Analysis of more than 2.3 million 16S rRNA transcripts and gene sequences derived from amplicon-based sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that fertilizer application and sampling time significantly altered the diversity and composition of entire and active bacterial communities. Although the composition of both the entire and the active bacterial community was correlated with environmental factors such as pH or C/N ratio, the active community showed a higher sensitivity to environmental changes than the entire community. In addition, functional analyses were performed based on predictions derived from 16S rRNA data. Genes encoding the uptake of nitrate/nitrite, nitrification, and denitrification were significantly more abundant in fertilized plots compared to non-fertilized plots. Hence, this study provided novel insights into changes in dynamics and functions of soil bacterial communities as response to season and fertilizer application. PMID:26694644

  14. Sampling errors associated with soil composites used to estimate mean Ra-226 concentrations at an UMTRA remedial-action site

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.; Baker, K.R.; Nelson, R.A.; Miller, R.H.; Miller, M.L.

    1987-07-01

    The decision whether to take additional remedial action (removal of soil) from regions contaminated by uranium mill tailings involves collecting 20 plugs of soil from each 10-m by 10-m plot in the region and analyzing a 500-g portion of the mixed soil for /sup 226/Ra. A soil sampling study was conducted in the windblown mill-tailings flood plain area at Shiprock, New Mexico, to evaluate whether reducing the number of soil plugs to 9 would have any appreciable impact on remedial-action decisions. The results of the Shiprock study are described and used in this paper to develop a simple model of the standard deviation of /sup 226/Ra measurements on composite samples formed from 21 or fewer plugs. This model is used to predict as a function of the number of soil plugs per composite, the percent accuracy with which the mean /sup 226/Ra concentration in surface soil can be estimated, and the probability of making incorrect remedial action decisions on the basis of statistical tests. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Bio-polymer coatings on neural probe surfaces: Influence of the initial sample composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Winnie W. Y.; Herwik, Stanislav; Ruther, Patrick; Göthelid, Emmanuelle; Oscarsson, Sven

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the results of the study of hyaluronic acid (HyA) coating on two structural materials, silicon oxide (dielectric) surface and platinum (Pt) surface used for fabrication of probes developed for neurological investigations in the framework of the EU-project NeuroProbes. The silicon-based neural probes consist of multiple Pt electrodes on the probe shafts for neural recording applications. HyA coatings were proposed to apply on the probe surfaces to enhance the biocompatibility [1]. This study aims at understanding the influence of the initial composition of the probe surface on the structure and morphology of HyA coating. HyA was chemically functionalized by SS-pyridin using (N-Succinimidyl 3-[2-pyridyldithio]-propionate) (SPDP) and was immobilized on the surfaces via a covalent bond. The dielectric and Pt surfaces were derivatized by use of (3-mercaptopropyl) methyldimethoxysilane (MPMDMS). The silanol groups in MPMDMS bind to the dielectric surface, leaving the thiol groups at the uppermost surface and the thiol groups then bind covalently to the functionalized HyA. On the Pt surface, it is the thiol group which binds on the Pt surface. The coated surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A well-defined HyA layer was observed on both dielectric and Pt surfaces. The coating of two molecular weights (340 kDa and 1.3 MDa) of HyA was examined. The influence of the silanized layer on the HyA coating was also investigated.

  16. Quantitative nanoscopy: Tackling sampling limitations in (S)TEM imaging of polymers and composites.

    PubMed

    Gnanasekaran, Karthikeyan; Snel, Roderick; de With, Gijsbertus; Friedrich, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    Sampling limitations in electron microscopy questions whether the analysis of a bulk material is representative, especially while analyzing hierarchical morphologies that extend over multiple length scales. We tackled this problem by automatically acquiring a large series of partially overlapping (S)TEM images with sufficient resolution, subsequently stitched together to generate a large-area map using an in-house developed acquisition toolbox (TU/e Acquisition ToolBox) and stitching module (TU/e Stitcher). In addition, we show that quantitative image analysis of the large scale maps provides representative information that can be related to the synthesis and process conditions of hierarchical materials, which moves electron microscopy analysis towards becoming a bulk characterization tool. We demonstrate the power of such an analysis by examining two different multi-phase materials that are structured over multiple length scales. PMID:26492325

  17. Holographic nondestructive tests performed on composite samples of ceramic-epoxy-fiberglass sandwich structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L.; Liu, H. K.

    1974-01-01

    When a hologram storing more than one wave is illuminated with coherent light, the reconstructed wave fronts interfere with each other or with any other phase-related wave front derived from the illuminating source. This multiple wave front comparison is called holographic interferometry, and its application is called holographic nondestructive testing (HNDT). The theoretical aspects of HNDT techniques and the sensitivity of the holographic system to the geometrical placement of the optical components are briefly discussed. A unique HNDT system which is mobile and possesses variable sensitivity to stress amplitude is discribed, the experimental evidence of the application of this system to the testing of the hidden debonds in a ceramic-epoxy-fiberglass structure used for sample testing of the radome of the Pershing missile system is presented.

  18. Electron correlation and relativity of the 5f electrons in the U-Zr alloy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderlind, P.; Sadigh, B.; Lordi, V.; Landa, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.

    2014-01-01

    ] and VASP [4] codes. The Wien2K computations are set up with an APW + lo basis for the expansion of the wave functions within the muffin-tin spheres (with radius RMT = 2.5 a.u.) in partial waves with angular momenta up to l = 3, and an LAPW basis for all higher angular momenta up to l = 10. The plane-wave cutoff (Kmax) for the expansion of the wave functions in the interstitial region is chosen such that RMT × Kmax = 10. We apply the LSDA + U scheme proposed by Anisimov et al. [5] (Wien2K) and Dudarev et al. [6] (VASP) to the uranium f orbitals, which approximately corrects for their electron self interaction. An effective Ueff = U - J is chosen to be 2 eV (J = 0), which appears to be realistic for uranium systems [7]. The spin-orbit interaction is included using the second-variation method with scalar-relativistic orbitals as basis. This basis includes all Eigen states with energy less than 70 eV. For reason to improve the description of the relativistic orbitals, the p1/2 local orbitals are added to the basis set. For actinide metals, this technique for the spin-orbit coupling equals, with good approximation, that of the complete four-spinor Dirac formalism [8-10]. All calculations use a 12 × 12 × 12 Monkhorst-Pack k-point grid and a plane-wave cutoff of 23 Ry.In Table 1 we show our calculated equilibrium volumes (V) and bulk moduli (B) obtained with and without spin-orbit coupling (SOC) for bcc (γ) uranium metal using the Wien2K (VASP) codes. (The other component, Zr, is a light metal where relativistic effects are not important). The changes in V and B due to SOC are indeed quite small, consistent with results from previous studies [9,11], and within the scatter of the experimental data. The reason why the volume expands slightly is that the separation of the 5f5/2 and 5f7/2 states, due to spin-orbit coupling, weakens the cohesion of the bonding electrons. The separation is very small, as seen in Fig. 1[11] where we plot the total electronic density

  19. Sulfur stable isotopic compositions measured on whole rock samples from the Navan Pb-Zn Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidheiser-Kroll, B.; Boyce, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfide bearing ore bodies are major geochemical anomalies that reflect changing geologic conditions. The world-class sulfide deposit at Navan, Ireland contains > 100 Mt of ore that holds > 1.5 Mt of sulfide. The economic implications of understanding these deposits allow for scientific benefit from the data sets produced. The Navan ore body is located in central Ireland along a failed rift system active during the Carboniferous and has been studied since the 1970s. The role of sulfur in the creation of the deposit gives us insights into the scale of biological pathways and is critical to understanding the exploration potential within Ireland as well as the creation of such geochemical anomalies. The two main sources of sulfur identified at Navan have been a hydrothermal component (δ34S = +10 to +15‰) from the deep crust as well as a shallow sulfur component (δ34S = -25 to -50‰) from bacteriogenic sulfate reducing bacteria (Anderson 1989). The major methods used to understand the sulfur isotopes of the Irish ore fields have been conventional techniques, using mineral separates or micro-drilled minerals, as well as in situ laser analyses. These methods have all been applied to well-categorized (petrographically and texturally) samples and have data sets that range in the low hundreds. It is thought these studies bias analyses towards hydrothermal sources due to grain size differences, and it has been shown that over 90% of sulfide originated as shallow seawater sulfate that was reduced by bacteriogenic metabolisms (Fallick et al 2002). Here, we are able to see how the two distinct δ34S fluids interacted on a larger (km) scale. This is made feasible by using the milled sections of diamond drill core created by normal mining operations. We have measured δ34S on 75 whole rock core samples that have also been analyzed geochemically by ICP-MS. The range in δ34S is from -32.6 to -4.0‰, providing confidence that we are seeing the full range of mixing of the two

  20. Composition of microbial communities in aerosol, snow and ice samples from remote glaciated areas (Antarctica, Alps, Andes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elster, J.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Řeháková, K.

    2007-06-01

    Taxonomical and ecological analyses were performed on micro-autotrophs (cyanobacteria and algae together with remnants of diatom valves), micro-fungi (hyphae and spores), bacteria (rod, cocci and red clusters), yeast, and plant pollen extracted from various samples: Alps snow (Mt. Blank area), Andean snow (Illimani, Bolivia), Antarctic aerosol filters (Dumont d'Urville, Terre Adélie), and Antarctic inland ice (Terre Adélie). Three methods for ice and snow sample's pre-concentration were tested (filtration, centrifugation and lyophilisation). Afterwards, cultivation methods for terrestrial, freshwater and marine microorganisms (micro-autotrophs and micro-fungi) were used in combination with liquid and solid media. The main goal of the study was to find out if micro-autotrophs are commonly transported by air masses, and later stored in snow and icecaps around the world. The most striking result of this study was the absence of culturable micro-autotrophs in all studied samples. However, an unusual culturable pigmented prokaryote was found in both alpine snow and aerosol samples. Analyses of many samples and proper statistical analyses (PCA, RDA- Monte Carlo permutation tests) showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in both microbial community and biotic remnants composition F=9.33, p=0.001. In addition, GLM showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in numbers of categories of microorganisms and remnants of biological material F=11.45, p=0.00005. The Antarctic aerosol samples were characterised by having red clusters of bacteria, the unusual prokaryote and yeasts. The high mountain snow from the Alps and Andes contained much more culturable heterotrophs. The unusual prokaryote was very abundant, as were coccoid bacteria, red clusters of bacteria, as well as yeasts. The Antarctic ice samples were quite different. These samples had higher numbers of rod bacteria and fungal hyphae. The microbial communities and biological remnants of

  1. Total elemental composition analysis of soil samples using the PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Watanabe, Makiko; Hattroi, Toshiyuki

    2007-09-01

    The determination of major and trace element contents in soils was developed by acid digestion method combined with particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE). The digestion of soils was achieved by using nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid HCl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with repeated additions. A 20 μL aliquot from the digested samples was evaporated on the Nuclepore Track-Etch Membrane and irradiated by the 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of this methodology was estimated based on series of measurements done for a reference material of soil CRM 023-050. The proposed experimental procedure was shown to have good reproducibility of the experimental results. The corresponding limits of detection (LODs) for Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo and Cd were estimated. Other soil characteristics such as total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN) content, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were also measured.

  2. Reconstruction of clonal trees and tumor composition from multi-sample sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    El-Kebir, Mohammed; Oesper, Layla; Acheson-Field, Hannah; Raphael, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: DNA sequencing of multiple samples from the same tumor provides data to analyze the process of clonal evolution in the population of cells that give rise to a tumor. Results: We formalize the problem of reconstructing the clonal evolution of a tumor using single-nucleotide mutations as the variant allele frequency (VAF) factorization problem. We derive a combinatorial characterization of the solutions to this problem and show that the problem is NP-complete. We derive an integer linear programming solution to the VAF factorization problem in the case of error-free data and extend this solution to real data with a probabilistic model for errors. The resulting AncesTree algorithm is better able to identify ancestral relationships between individual mutations than existing approaches, particularly in ultra-deep sequencing data when high read counts for mutations yield high confidence VAFs. Availability and implementation: An implementation of AncesTree is available at: http://compbio.cs.brown.edu/software. Contact: braphael@brown.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26072510

  3. About contaminant element composition of roadside dust samples from Budapest and Seoul, including Pt and Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, M.; Chon, H. T.; Marton, L.

    2012-04-01

    Roadside dust was sampled in Seoul megacity /Korea as well as in Budapest and some other places in Hungary, digested with reverse aqua regia in presence of bromine, and analyzed for 29 chemical elements with ICP-OES and ICP-MS methods. In addition to rather traditionally investigated elements, like Pb-Cd-Cr-Ni-As-Sb, newly emerging Pt and Pd from abrasion of automotive catalysts were included in the study. For the analysis of Pd, separation by precipitation with dithizone had to be applied. Principal component analysis was used as a tool to estimate the contribution of various sources. Geogenic element contents were used to estimate geogenic backgrounds und inputs from soils erosion. Seoul is an East Asian densely populated megacity, not far from the seaside, and surrounded by granite rocks. To the contrary, Budapest is a European continental city surrounded mainly by plains formed in the tertiary. Background concentrations were estimated from median concentrations in soils over alluvial deposits from the East of Austria, as well as from Poland. Background concentrations for Seoul were estimated from Shiheung farmland soil, a town close to the megacity. As a result, traffic related contaminations were highly effected by traffic related activities, like stop and go. Pt and Pb levels in roadside dusts from Budapest citiy were in the range of 2-133 μg/kg (av. 62,9 μg/kg), and 88 - 2838 mg/kg (av. 662 mg/kg) respectively. The highest Pt and Pb levels in roadside dust were found at major roads with high traffic volumes. Due to the geo-accumulation index, in all roadside soils sampled in Hungary, Cu-Pb-Zn were enriched, and Cd-Mo and occasionally Ba from Budapest in addition, but As-Co-Cr-Hg-Ni-Tl-V were not. In roadside dusts from Seoul, heavy contaminations of As-Cd-Cu-Mo-Pb-Zn were found, but no significant increase of Co-Cr-Ni-V. The pollution index, which refers to the permissible levels of As-Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Sb-Tl-V, indicates heavy pollution for roadside dusts from

  4. Carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of core catcher samples from the ICDP deep drilling at Laguna Potrok Aike (Patagonia, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luecke, Andreas; Wissel, Holger; Mayr*, Christoph; Oehlerich, Markus; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd; Pasado Science Team

    2010-05-01

    The ICDP project PASADO aims to develop a detailed paleoclimatic record for the southern part of the South American continent from sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike (51°58'S, 70°23'W), situated in the Patagonian steppe east of the Andean cordillera and north of the Street of Magellan. The precursor project SALSA recovered the Holocene and Late Glacial sediment infill of Laguna Potrok Aike and developed the environmental history of the semi-arid Patagonian steppe by a consequent interdisciplinary multi-proxy approach (e.g. Haberzettl et al., 2007). From September to November 2008 the ICDP deep drilling took place and successfully recovered in total 510 m of sediments from two sites resulting in a composite depth of 106 m for the selected main study Site 2. A preliminary age model places the record within the last 50.000 years. During the drilling campaign, the core catcher content of each drilled core run (3 m) was taken as separate sample to be shared and distributed between involved laboratories long before the main sampling party. A total of 70 core catcher samples describe the sediments of Site 2 and will form the base for more detailed investigations on the palaeoclimatic history of Patagonia. We here report on the organic carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of bulk sediment and plant debris of the core catcher samples. Similar investigations were performed for Holocene and Late Glacial sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike revealing insights into the organic matter dynamics of the lake and its catchment as well as into climatically induced hydrological variations with related lake level fluctuations (Mayr et al., 2009). The carbon and nitrogen content of the core catcher fine sediment fraction (<200 µm) is low to very low (around 1 % and 0.1 %, respectively) and requires particular attention in isotope analysis. The carbon isotope composition shows comparably little variation around a value of -26.0 per mil. The positive values of the Holocene and the Late

  5. Organic composition of size segregated atmospheric particulate matter, during summer and winter sampling campaigns at representative sites in Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirante, Fátima; Alves, Célia; Pio, Casimiro; Pindado, Oscar; Perez, Rosa; Revuelta, M.a. Aranzazu; Artiñano, Begoña

    2013-10-01

    Madrid, the largest city of Spain, has some and unique air pollution problems, such as emissions from residential coal burning, a huge vehicle fleet and frequent African dust outbreaks, along with the lack of industrial emissions. The chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) was studied during summer and winter sampling campaigns, conducted in order to obtain size-segregated information at two different urban sites (roadside and urban background). PM was sampled with high volume cascade impactors, with 4 stages: 10-2.5, 2.5-1, 1-0.5 and < 0.5 μm. Samples were solvent extracted and organic compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alcohols and fatty acids were chromatographically resolved. The PM1-2.5 was the fraction with the highest mass percentage of organics. Acids were the organic compounds that dominated all particle size fractions. Different organic compounds presented apparently different seasonal characteristics, reflecting distinct emission sources, such as vehicle exhausts and biogenic sources. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations were lower than 1 ng m- 3. The estimated carcinogenic risk is low.

  6. Comparison of the Organic Composition of Cometary Samples with Residues Formed from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, S. N.; Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cody, G. D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Stroud, R. M.; DeGregorio, B. T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Stardust mission successfully collected material from Comet 81P/Wild 2 [1], including authentic cometary grains [2]. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analysis of these samples indicates the presence of oxygen-rich and nitrogen-rich organic materials, which contain a broad variety of functional groups (carbonyls, C=C bonds, aliphatic chains, amines, arnides, etc.) [3]. One component of these organics appears to contain very little aromatic carbon and bears some similarity to the organic residues produced by the irradiation of ices of interstellar/cometary composition, Stardust samples were also recently shown to contain glycine, the smallest biological amino acid [4]. Organic residues produced froth the UV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs are already known to contain a large suite of organic molecules including amino acids [5-7], amphiphilic compounds (fatty acids) [8], and other complex species. This work presents a comparison between XANES spectra measured from organic residues formed in the laboratory with similar data of cometary samples collected by the Stardust mission

  7. The degree of 5f electron localization in URu2Si2: electron energy-loss spectroscopy and spin-orbit sum rule analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, J R; Moore, K T; Butch, N P; Maple, M B

    2010-05-19

    We examine the degree of 5f electron localization in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} using spin-orbit sum rule analysis of the U N{sub 4,5} (4d {yields} 5f) edge. When compared to {alpha}-U metal, US, USe, and UTe, which have increasing localization of the 5f states, we find that the 5f states of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are more localized, although not entirely. Spin-orbit analysis shows that intermediate coupling is the correct angular momentum coupling mechanism for URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} when the 5f electron count is between 2.6 and 2.8. These results have direct ramifications for theoretical assessment of the hidden order state of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, where the degree of localization of the 5f electrons and their contribution to the Fermi surface are critical.

  8. Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The articles in this special issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" concern the state of composition instruction at the secondary and college levels. The titles and authors are "Monologues or Dialogues? A Plea for Literacy" by Dr. Alfred J. Lindsey, "Teaching Composition: Curiouser and Curiouser" by Denny Brandon, and "Teaching Writing to High…

  9. Composition of the adult digestive tract bacterial microbiome based on seven mouth surfaces, tonsils, throat and stool samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To understand the relationship between our bacterial microbiome and health, it is essential to define the microbiome in the absence of disease. The digestive tract includes diverse habitats and hosts the human body's greatest bacterial density. We describe the bacterial community composition of ten digestive tract sites from more than 200 normal adults enrolled in the Human Microbiome Project, and metagenomically determined metabolic potentials of four representative sites. Results The microbiota of these diverse habitats formed four groups based on similar community compositions: buccal mucosa, keratinized gingiva, hard palate; saliva, tongue, tonsils, throat; sub- and supra-gingival plaques; and stool. Phyla initially identified from environmental samples were detected throughout this population, primarily TM7, SR1, and Synergistetes. Genera with pathogenic members were well-represented among this disease-free cohort. Tooth-associated communities were distinct, but not entirely dissimilar, from other oral surfaces. The Porphyromonadaceae, Veillonellaceae and Lachnospiraceae families were common to all sites, but the distributions of their genera varied significantly. Most metabolic processes were distributed widely throughout the digestive tract microbiota, with variations in metagenomic abundance between body habitats. These included shifts in sugar transporter types between the supragingival plaque, other oral surfaces, and stool; hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide production were also differentially distributed. Conclusions The microbiomes of ten digestive tract sites separated into four types based on composition. A core set of metabolic pathways was present across these diverse digestive tract habitats. These data provide a critical baseline for future studies investigating local and systemic diseases affecting human health. PMID:22698087

  10. A 15N-poor isotopic composition for the solar system as shown by Genesis solar wind samples.

    PubMed

    Marty, B; Chaussidon, M; Wiens, R C; Jurewicz, A J G; Burnett, D S

    2011-06-24

    The Genesis mission sampled solar wind ions to document the elemental and isotopic compositions of the Sun and, by inference, of the protosolar nebula. Nitrogen was a key target element because the extent and origin of its isotopic variations in solar system materials remain unknown. Isotopic analysis of a Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator target material shows that implanted solar wind nitrogen has a (15)N/(14)N ratio of 2.18 ± 0.02 × 10(-3) (that is, ≈40% poorer in (15)N relative to terrestrial atmosphere). The (15)N/(14)N ratio of the protosolar nebula was 2.27 ± 0.03 × 10(-3), which is the lowest (15)N/(14)N ratio known for solar system objects. This result demonstrates the extreme nitrogen isotopic heterogeneity of the nascent solar system and accounts for the (15)N-depleted components observed in solar system reservoirs. PMID:21700869

  11. Aerosol chemical composition in New York state from integrated filter samples: Urban/rural and seasonal contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, James J.; Felton, H. D.; Demerjian, Kenneth L.

    2004-08-01

    Filter samples have been collected and analyzed for chemical composition at a number of sites in New York state for more than 2 years. Because of the broad focus of the New York Environmental Protection Agency Supersite program, these sites include remote, rural, and urban sites in midsized and large cities. Calculated blanks and laboratory reported minimum detection limits (MDLs) for all measured species are presented. Data are averaged by location and season and presented for six sites throughout New York state. Data are presented for PM2.5 mass, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and carbon, and selected metals and groups of trace elements. An approximate ion balance of the major inorganic ionic species is also calculated, which shows a predominately negative ion balance with the rural and remote sites being the most negative. In addition to chemical composition values in mass per unit volume (reported to ambient conditions), we also calculate ratios of the mass concentration values for five sites referenced to our site that is closest to background, Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks. By computing base ratios for the various chemical components and ratios of ratios referenced to mass concentrations, we can provide some insight into the sources of these chemical components relative to the sources of PM2.5 mass. The ratio of ratios analysis indicated that sulfate and potassium are the most regional species considered and that EC and some metal species have the strongest urban (especially New York City) sources.

  12. Continuous survey of color and glass composition of ash particles by automatic sampling system at Sakurajima volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimano, T.; Iguchi, M.; Miki, D.

    2013-12-01

    Activities at many subaerial volcanoes in subduction regions are characterized by ash emissions. Sakurajima volcano is also characterized by long-term successive ash emission such as vulcanian and strombolian eruptions that show many transitional features in eruption types, intensity of explosion or seismicity, amount and grain size of ash, height of plume, duration and interval of eruption, etc. In contrast, however, Plinian eruptions have occurred several times even in historical age, such as the 1914 eruption. In 2006, Showa crater of Sakurajima volcano became active since the 1946 eruption that similar ash emitting activity for several years evolved into effusion of large amount of lava. One of the aims of our study is to clarify how eruptions evolve into such larger eruptions from quiescent phase or moderate ash emission. We carried out continuous survey of ash particles of ash emitting eruptions, and here we report some results to reveal and understand transitional features of ash emitting activity. We started collection of ash at Sakurajima volcano in 2008 by establishing automatic sampling system. We developed mobile unmanned apparatus that enables continuous sampling of ash fall, and have been successful in daily collection of samples for five years at a locality 2.3 km from active vent, thus we have collected more than 1500 samples. The temporal change in daily amount of ash fall at this site was consistent with that estimated monthly by manned survey around this volcano. We found several types of ash particles in each of these samples where crystalline and glassy particles, in terms of groundmass crystallinity, are dominant types. We have carried out some analyses that characterize ash samples. Although petrological features are rather complex, chemical composition of matrix glass of particles and color of bulk ash sample in terms of photochrometry show systematic temporal changes in order of date that may be correlated with some geodetic observations

  13. Electron correlation and relativity of the 5f electrons in the U-Zr alloy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderlind, P.; Sadigh, B.; Lordi, V.; Landa, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.

    2014-01-01

    ] and VASP [4] codes. The Wien2K computations are set up with an APW + lo basis for the expansion of the wave functions within the muffin-tin spheres (with radius RMT = 2.5 a.u.) in partial waves with angular momenta up to l = 3, and an LAPW basis for all higher angular momenta up to l = 10. The plane-wave cutoff (Kmax) for the expansion of the wave functions in the interstitial region is chosen such that RMT × Kmax = 10. We apply the LSDA + U scheme proposed by Anisimov et al. [5] (Wien2K) and Dudarev et al. [6] (VASP) to the uranium f orbitals, which approximately corrects for their electron self interaction. An effective Ueff = U - J is chosen to be 2 eV (J = 0), which appears to be realistic for uranium systems [7]. The spin-orbit interaction is included using the second-variation method with scalar-relativistic orbitals as basis. This basis includes all Eigen states with energy less than 70 eV. For reason to improve the description of the relativistic orbitals, the p1/2 local orbitals are added to the basis set. For actinide metals, this technique for the spin-orbit coupling equals, with good approximation, that of the complete four-spinor Dirac formalism [8-10]. All calculations use a 12 × 12 × 12 Monkhorst-Pack k-point grid and a plane-wave cutoff of 23 Ry.In Table 1 we show our calculated equilibrium volumes (V) and bulk moduli (B) obtained with and without spin-orbit coupling (SOC) for bcc (γ) uranium metal using the Wien2K (VASP) codes. (The other component, Zr, is a light metal where relativistic effects are not important). The changes in V and B due to SOC are indeed quite small, consistent with results from previous studies [9,11], and within the scatter of the experimental data. The reason why the volume expands slightly is that the separation of the 5f5/2 and 5f7/2 states, due to spin-orbit coupling, weakens the cohesion of the bonding electrons. The separation is very small, as seen in Fig. 1[11] where we plot the total electronic density

  14. Spectroscopy and dynamics of 5f states of Es{sup 3+} in LaF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.; Liu, G.K.

    1997-11-01

    Using time- and wavelength-resolved laser-induced fluorescence methods, the 5f state spectroscopy and photodynamics of {sup 253}Es{sup 3+} in LaF{sub 3} have been investigated. Based on an effective operator Hamiltonian model and approximating the metal ion site symmetry as C{sub 2V}, a set of crystal field parameters has been obtained that fit the 56 assigned levels associated with the 7 states of Es{sup 3+} that were observed. The {sup 5}F{sub 5} emitting state of Es{sup 3+} exhibited a decay rate that approached the expected purely radiative decay of the state. This suggests that the shorter lifetime previously found for this state of Es{sup 3+} in LaCl{sub 3} arose from radiation damage induced by alpha decay of {sup 253}Es.

  15. Synthesis of Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composites for the highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from biological samples.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin; Yang, Pengyuan

    2013-08-14

    In this work, Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composites with a large surface area were designed and synthesized for the selective extraction and enrichment of phosphopeptides from biological samples. First, magnetic graphene was prepared according to our previous method. Next, we made the Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composite precursor using tetrabutyl titanate. Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composites were obtained after solvothermal and calcination treatments. We used standard protein-digestion solutions and human liver samples to test the enrichment ability of the obtained Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composites. The experimental results demonstrate that Fe3O4/graphene/TiO2 composites have a good phosphopeptide enrichment ability. PMID:23883739

  16. 5f state interaction with inner coordination sphere ligands: einsteinium 3+ ion fluorescence in aqueous and organic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Beitz, J.V.; Wester, D.W.; Williams, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction between 5f electron states of einsteinium 3+ ion and coordinated ligands in solution has been probed using laser-induced fluorescence. Aquo einsteinium 3+ ion was observed to fluoresce from its first excited J = 5 state in a broad-band peaking at 9260 wavenumbers. The observed fluorescence lifetimes were 1.05 microseconds and 2.78 microseconds in H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O (99+ % D atom), respectively. The non-radiative decay rates derived from the lifetime data are compared with previously reported data for Cm, Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy aquo 3+ ions. The 5f actinide states exhibit substantially greater non-radiative decay rates than do lanthanide 4f states of similar energy gap. This provides evidence that actinide 5f electrons interact more strongly with their inner coordination sphere than do lanthanide ion 4f electrons. The fluorescence lifetime of einsteinium 3+ ion complexed with 1 formal di(2-ethylhexyl)orthophosphoric acid in h-heptane was 2.34 microseconds. 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. Evaluation of regulatory genetic variants in POU5F1 and risk of congenital heart disease in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuan; Ding, Chenyue; Zhang, Kai; Ni, Bixian; Da, Min; Hu, Liang; Hu, Yuanli; Xu, Jing; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Yijiang; Mo, Xuming; Cui, Yugui; Shen, Hongbing; Sha, Jiahao; Liu, Jiayin; Hu, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    OCT4 is a transcription factor of the POU family, which plays a key role in embryonic development and stem cell pluripotency. Previous studies have shown that Oct4 is required for cardiomyocyte differentiation in mice and its depletion could result in cardiac morphogenesis in embryo. However, whether the genetic variations in OCT4 coding gene, POU5F1, confer the predisposition to congenital heart disease (CHD) is unclear. This study sought to investigate the associations between low-frequency (defined here as having minor allele frequency (MAF) between 0.1%–5%) and rare (MAF below 0.1%) variants with potential function in POU5F1 and risk of CHD. We conducted association analysis in a two-stage case-control study with a total of 2,720 CHD cases and 3,331 controls in Chinese. The low-frequency variant rs3130933 was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of CHD [additive model: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.15, adjusted P = 3.37 × 10−6]. Furthermore, luciferase activity assay showed that the variant A allele led to significantly lower expression levels as compared to the G allele. These findings indicate for the first time that low-frequency functional variant in POU5F1 may contribute to the risk of congenital heart malformations. PMID:26507003

  18. Evaluation of regulatory genetic variants in POU5F1 and risk of congenital heart disease in Han Chinese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Ding, Chenyue; Zhang, Kai; Ni, Bixian; da, Min; Hu, Liang; Hu, Yuanli; Xu, Jing; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Yijiang; Mo, Xuming; Cui, Yugui; Shen, Hongbing; Sha, Jiahao; Liu, Jiayin; Hu, Zhibin

    2015-10-01

    OCT4 is a transcription factor of the POU family, which plays a key role in embryonic development and stem cell pluripotency. Previous studies have shown that Oct4 is required for cardiomyocyte differentiation in mice and its depletion could result in cardiac morphogenesis in embryo. However, whether the genetic variations in OCT4 coding gene, POU5F1, confer the predisposition to congenital heart disease (CHD) is unclear. This study sought to investigate the associations between low-frequency (defined here as having minor allele frequency (MAF) between 0.1%-5%) and rare (MAF below 0.1%) variants with potential function in POU5F1 and risk of CHD. We conducted association analysis in a two-stage case-control study with a total of 2,720 CHD cases and 3,331 controls in Chinese. The low-frequency variant rs3130933 was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of CHD [additive model: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.15, adjusted P = 3.37 × 10-6]. Furthermore, luciferase activity assay showed that the variant A allele led to significantly lower expression levels as compared to the G allele. These findings indicate for the first time that low-frequency functional variant in POU5F1 may contribute to the risk of congenital heart malformations.

  19. Performance of Composites from 3D Orthogonal Woven Preforms in terms of Architecture and Sample Location during Resin Infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ince, Mehmet Erdem

    identical total denier in x- and y-directions/unit sample width) composites manufactu

  20. Headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of naphthalene in the composite food samples from the 2011 Canadian total diet study in Ottawa.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Hierlihy, Tara; Popovic, Svetlana; Dabeka, Bob

    2012-12-01

    A method based on isotope dilution headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, was developed for the determination of naphthalene in foods. Optimum method sensitivity was achieved by the addition of NaCl in water at saturation and with the sample solution incubated at 30°C for 15 min. The method had good repeatability, with relative standard deviations of 3.5 and 1.5% at 5 and 30 ng/ml, respectively. This method was used to determine naphthalene in 159 food composite samples collected from the 2011 Canadian Total Diet Study. Naphthalene was detected in 93 (58.9%) food composite samples, mostly in products of meat and cereal, fast food, and miscellaneous foods. Among the 93 samples, only 51 (54.8%) samples were found to contain naphthalene at levels above 1 ng/g, with a maximum of 35 ng/g found in the herbs and spices composite sample. Method detection limits, estimated for each one of the food composite samples by using the lower-abundance ionm/z 127, varied considerably because of the matrix effect, ranging from as low as 0.0022 ng/g for water to as high as 16 ng/g for fatty sample, with an average of 1.6 ng/g. PMID:23212013

  1. Graphite-teflon composite bienzyme electrodes for the determination of cholesterol in reversed micelles. Application to food samples.

    PubMed

    Peña, N; Ruiz, G; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2001-03-15

    A bienzyme amperometric composite biosensor for the determination of free and total cholesterol in food samples is reported. Cholesterol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase, together with potassium ferrocyanide as a mediator, are incorporated into a graphite-70% Teflon matrix. The compatibility of this biosensor design with predominantly nonaqueous media allows the use of reversed micelles as working medium. The reversed micelles are formed with ethyl acetate as continuous phase (in which cholesterol is soluble), a 4% final concentration of 0.05 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.4, as dispersed phase, and 0.1 mol L(-1) AOT as emulsifying agent. Studies on the repeatability of the amperometric response obtained at +0.10 V, with and without regeneration of the electrode surface by polishing, on the useful lifetime of one single biosensor and on the reproducibility in the fabrication of different pellets illustrate the robustness of the biosensor design. Determination of free and total cholesterol in food samples such as butter, lard, and egg yoke was carried out, and the obtained results were advantageously compared with those provided by using a commercial Boehringer test kit. PMID:11305650

  2. Concurrent Flame Growth, Spread and Extinction over Composite Fabric Samples in Low Speed Purely Forced Flow in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xiaoyang; T'ien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the NASA BASS and BASS-II experimental projects aboard the International Space Station, flame growth, spread and extinction over a composite cotton-fiberglass fabric blend (referred to as the SIBAL fabric) were studied in low-speed concurrent forced flows. The tests were conducted in a small flow duct within the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The fuel samples measured 1.2 and 2.2 cm wide and 10 cm long. Ambient oxygen was varied from 21% down to 16% and flow speed from 40 cm/s down to 1 cm/s. A small flame resulted at low flow, enabling us to observe the entire history of flame development including ignition, flame growth, steady spread (in some cases) and decay at the end of the sample. In addition, by decreasing flow velocity during some of the tests, low-speed flame quenching extinction limits were found as a function of oxygen percentage. The quenching speeds were found to be between 1 and 5 cm/s with higher speed in lower oxygen atmosphere. The shape of the quenching boundary supports the prediction by earlier theoretical models. These long duration microgravity experiments provide a rare opportunity for solid fuel combustion since microgravity time in ground-based facilities is generally not sufficient. This is the first time that a low-speed quenching boundary in concurrent spread is determined in a clean and unambiguous manner.

  3. A New Sample Substrate for Imaging and Correlating Organic and Trace Metal Composition in Biological Cells and Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Miller,L.; Wang, Q.; Smith, R.; Zhong, H.; Elliott, D.; Warren, J.

    2007-01-01

    Many disease processes involve alterations in the chemical makeup of tissue. Synchrotron-based infrared (IR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopes are becoming increasingly popular tools for imaging the organic and trace metal compositions of biological materials, respectively, without the need for extrinsic labels or stains. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) provides chemical information on the organic components of a material at a diffraction-limited spatial resolution of 2-10 {mu}m in the mid-infrared region. The synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe is a complementary technique used to probe trace element content in the same systems with a similar spatial resolution. However to be most beneficial, it is important to combine the results from both imaging techniques on a single sample, which requires precise overlap of the IR and X-ray images. In this work, we have developed a sample substrate containing a gold grid pattern on its surface, which can be imaged with both the IR and X-ray microscopes. The substrate consists of a low trace element glass slide that has a gold grid patterned on its surface, where the major and minor parts of the grid contain 25 and 12 nm gold, respectively. This grid pattern can be imaged with the IR microscope because the reflectivity of gold differs as a function of thickness. The pattern can also be imaged with the SXRF microprobe because the Au fluorescence intensity changes with gold thickness. The tissue sample is placed on top of the patterned substrate. The grid pattern's IR reflectivity image and the gold SXRF image are used as fiducial markers for spatially overlapping the IR and SXRF images from the tissue. Results show that IR and X-ray images can be correlated precisely, with a spatial resolution of less than one pixel (i.e., 2-3 microns). The development of this new tool will be presented along with applications to paraffin-embedded metalloprotein crystals, Alzheimer's disease, and hair

  4. Investigation of phase composition and nanoscale microstructure of high-energy ball-milled MgCu sample.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Yu, Liming; Cai, Qi

    2012-01-01

    The ball milling technique has been successfully applied to the synthesis of various materials such as equilibrium intermetallic phases, amorphous compounds, nanocrystalline materials, or metastable crystalline phases. However, how the phase composition and nanoscale microstructure evolute during ball milling in various materials is still controversial due to the complex mechanism of ball milling, especially in the field of solid-state amorphization caused by ball milling. In the present work, the phase evolution during the high-energy ball milling process of the Mg and Cu (atomic ratio is 1:1) mixed powder was investigated. It was found that Mg firstly reacts with Cu, forming the Mg2Cu alloy in the primary stage of ball milling. As the milling time increases, the diffracted peaks of Mg2Cu and Cu gradually disappear, and only a broad halo peak can be observed in the X-ray diffraction pattern of the final 18-h milled sample. As for this halo peak, lots of previous studies suggested that it originated from the amorphous phase formed during the ball milling. Here, a different opinion that this halo peak results from the very small size of crystals is proposed: As the ball milling time increases, the sizes of Mg2Cu and Cu crystals become smaller and smaller, so the diffracted peaks of Mg2Cu and Cu become broader and broader and result in their overlap between 39° and 45°, at last forming the amorphous-like halo peak. In order to determine the origin of this halo peak, microstructure observation and annealing experiment on the milled sample were carried out. In the transmission electron microscopy dark-field image of the milled sample, lots of very small nanocrystals (below 20 nm) identified as Mg2Cu and Cu were found. Moreover, in the differential scanning calorimetry curve of the milled sample during the annealing process, no obvious exothermic peak corresponding to the crystallization of amorphous phase is observed. All the above results confirm that the broad

  5. Core electron excitations in U(4+): modelling of the nd(10)5f(2)→nd(9)5f(3) transitions with n = 3, 4 and 5 by ligand field tools and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Ramanantoanina, Harry; Kuri, Goutam; Daul, Claude; Bertsch, Johannes

    2016-07-28

    Ligand field density functional theory (LFDFT) calculations have been used to model the uranium M4,5, N4,5 and O4,5-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) in UO2, characterized by the promotion of one electron from the core and the semi-core 3d, 4d and 5d orbitals of U(4+) to the valence 5f. The model describes the procedure to resolve non-empirically the multiplet energy levels originating from the two-open-shell system with d and f electrons and to calculate the oscillator strengths corresponding to the dipole allowed d(10)f(2)→ d(9)f(3) transitions appropriate to represent the d electron excitation process. In the first step, the energy and UO2 unit-cell volume corresponding to the minimum structures are determined using the Hubbard model (DFT+U) approach. The model of the optical properties due to the uranium nd(10)5f(2)→nd(9)5f(3) transitions, with n = 3, 4 and 5, has been tackled by means of electronic structure calculations based on the ligand field concept emulating the Slater-Condon integrals, the spin-orbit coupling constants and the parameters of the ligand field potential needed by the ligand field Hamiltonian from Density Functional Theory. A deep-rooted theoretical procedure using the LFDFT approach has been established for actinide-bearing systems that can be valuable to compute targeted results, such as spectroscopic details at the electronic scale. As a case study, uranium dioxide has been considered because it is a nuclear fuel material, and both atomic and electronic structure calculations are indispensable for a deeper understanding of irradiation driven microstructural changes occurring in this material. PMID:27356168

  6. Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.; McCullough, R.L.; Pipes, R.B.

    1986-10-01

    The degree of control over material properties that is typified by hybrid composites is transforming engineering design. In part because homogeneous materials such as metals and alloys do not offer comparable control, specifying a material and designing a component have traditionally taken place separately. As composites begin to replace traditional materials in fields and such as aerospace, component design and the specification of a material are merging and becoming aspects of a single process. The controllable microstructure of a composite allows it to be tailored to match the distribution of stresses to which it will be subject. At the same time components must come to reflect the distinctive nature of composites: their directional properties and the intricate forms they can be given through processes such as injection molding, filament winding and three-dimensional weaving. The complexity inherent in conceiving components and their materials at the same time suggests engineering design will grow increasingly dependent on computers and multidisciplinary teams. Such an approach will harness the full potential of composites for the technologies of the future. 10 figures.

  7. Development of particle induced gamma-ray emission methods for nondestructive determination of isotopic composition of boron and its total concentration in natural and enriched samples.

    PubMed

    Chhillar, Sumit; Acharya, Raghunath; Sodaye, Suparna; Pujari, Pradeep K

    2014-11-18

    We report simple particle induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) methods using a 4 MeV proton beam for simultaneous and nondestructive determination of the isotopic composition of boron ((10)B/(11)B atom ratio) and total boron concentrations in various solid samples with natural isotopic composition and enriched with (10)B. It involves measurement of prompt gamma-rays at 429, 718, and 2125 keV from (10)B(p,αγ)(7)Be, (10)B(p, p'γ)(10)B, and (11)B(p, p'γ)(11)B reactions, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in natural and enriched samples was determined by comparing peak area ratios corresponding to (10)B and (11)B of samples to natural boric acid standard. An in situ current normalized PIGE method, using F or Al, was standardized for total B concentration determination. The methods were validated by analyzing stoichiometric boron compounds and applied to samples such as boron carbide, boric acid, carborane, and borosilicate glass. Isotopic compositions of boron in the range of 0.247-2.0 corresponding to (10)B in the range of 19.8-67.0 atom % and total B concentrations in the range of 5-78 wt % were determined. It has been demonstrated that PIGE offers a simple and alternate method for total boron as well as isotopic composition determination in boron based solid samples, including neutron absorbers that are important in nuclear technology. PMID:25312472

  8. 26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rules and related matters regarding certain safe harbor leases. 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Section 5f.168(f)(8)-1... Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe harbor leases... certain safe harbor leases under section 208(d) of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of...

  9. 26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe harbor leases. 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Section 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER...

  10. 26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe harbor leases. 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Section 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER...

  11. 26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe harbor leases. 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Section 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER...

  12. Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) leachate chemistry data for solid mine-waste composite samples from southwestern New Mexico, and Leadville, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Briggs, Paul H.; Desborough, George A.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    This report details chemistry data derived from leaching of mine-waste composite samples using a modification of E.P.A. Method 1312, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). In 1998, members of the U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project collected four mine-waste composite samples from mining districts in southwestern New Mexico (CAR and PET) and near Leadville, Colorado (TUC and MII). Resulting leachate pH values for the four composites ranged from 5.45 to 8.84 and ranked in the following order: CAR < TUC < MII < PET. Specific conductivity values ranged from 85 uS/cm to 847 uS/cm in the following order: PET < MII < CAR < TUC. Geochemical data generated from this investigation reveal that leachate from the CAR composite contains the highest concentrations of Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Al

  13. Development and validation of a single collector ICPMS procedure to determine boron isotopeic compositions of water and food samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Pritzkow, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    Authenticity and provenance studies as well as issues in environmental- and geo-sciences are hot topics in nowadays isotope research. Elements being known for their natural isotopic variation, such as lead and strontium, are being used to assign the provenance of artefacts, food and other products. A recent study revealed the potential of boron (B) isotopes for delivering information on the provenance of crop plants. To offer alternative analytical instrumentations beside the classical TIMS procedures a single collector ICPMS procedure for B isotope analyses has been developed and validated. This procedure should enable more B isotope studies, as single collector ICPMS intruments are more widepread in the relevant laboratories compared to TIMS. The developed procedures for the determination of B isotopic compositions use a magnetic sector ICPMS and consist of one low resolution (LR) and one medium resolution (MR) procedure. The absolute standard deviation for the δ11B determination in three independently measured samples lies between 0.2 and 0.8 ‰ for the LR and between 0.3 and 1.5 ‰ for the MR. The expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of k=2 range between 1.4 and 1.6 ‰ for the LR and between 2.9 and 3.2 ‰ for the MR. The trueness, expressed as average deviation from the reference values, is less than 1.1 ‰ for LR and 0.8 ‰ for MR. To test the practicability of the procedure the matrix tolerance has been investigated. Using a measurement solution containing 100 µg/kg boron a matrix of 2 mg/kg of alkaline and earth alkaline elements was found as a limit for stable instrumental mass discrimination. Thus a highly efficient matrix separation is required, similar to TIMS. The developed procedure is well suited for the for B isotope studies of various matrices and especially the LR procedure offers relatively small uncertainties combined with high sample throughput.

  14. Redox proteomics of fat globules unveils broad protein lactosylation and compositional changes in milk samples subjected to various technological procedures.

    PubMed

    Arena, Simona; Renzone, Giovanni; Novi, Gianfranco; Scaloni, Andrea

    2011-10-19

    The Maillard reaction between lactose and proteins occurs during thermal treatment of milk and lactosylated β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin and caseins have widely been used to monitor the quality of dairy products. We recently demonstrated that a number of other whey milk proteins essential for nutrient delivery, defense against bacteria/virus and cellular proliferation become lactosylated during milk processing. The extent of their modification is associated with the harshness of product manufacturing. Since fat globule proteins are also highly important for the health-beneficial properties of milk, an evaluation of their lactosylation is crucial for a complete understanding of aliment nutritional characteristics. This is more important when milk is the unique dietary source, as in the infant diet. To this purpose, a sequential proteomic procedure involving an optimized milk fat globule (MFG) preparation/electrophoretic resolution, shot-gun analysis of gel portions for protein identification, selective trapping of lactosylated peptides by phenylboronate chromatography and their analysis by nanoLC-ESI-electron transfer dissociation (ETD) tandem MS was used for systematic characterization of fat globule proteins in milk samples subjected to various manufacturing procedures. Significant MFG protein compositional changes were observed between samples, highlighting the progressive adsorption of caseins and whey proteins on the fat globule surface as result of the technological process used. A significant lactosylation of MFG proteins was observed in ultra-high temperature sterilized and powdered for infant nutrition milk preparations, which well paralleled with the harshness of thermal treatment. Globally, this study allowed the identification of novel 157 non-redundant modification sites and 35 MFG proteins never reported so far as being lactosylated, in addition to the 153 ones ascertained here as present on other 21 MFG-adsorbed proteins whose nature was already

  15. The 5f localization/delocalization in square and hexagonal americium monolayers: a FP-LAPW electronic structure study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, D.; Ray, A. K.

    2006-04-01

    The electronic and geometrical properties of bulk americium and square and hexagonal americium monolayers have been studied with the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The effects of several common approximations are examined: (1) non-spin polarization (NSP) vs. spin polarization (SP); (2) scalar-relativity (no spin-orbit coupling (NSO)) vs. full-relativity (i.e., with spin-orbit (SO) coupling included); (3) local-density approximation (LDA) vs. generalized-gradient approximation (GGA). Our results indicate that both spin polarization and spin orbit coupling play important roles in determining the geometrical and electronic properties of americium bulk and monolayers. A compression of both americium square and hexagonal monolayers compared to the americium bulk is also observed. In general, the LDA is found to underestimate the equilibrium lattice constant and give a larger total energy compared to the GGA calculations. While spin orbit coupling shows a similar effect on both square and hexagonal monolayer calculations regardless of the model, GGA versus LDA, an unusual spin polarization effect on both square and hexagonal monolayers is found in the LDA results as compared with the GGA results. The 5f delocalization transition of americium is employed to explain our observed unusual spin polarization effect. In addition, our results at the LDA level of theory indicate a possible 5f delocalization could happen in the americium surface within the same Am II (fcc crystal structure) phase, unlike the usually reported americium 5f delocalization which is associated with crystal structure change. The similarities and dissimilarities between the properties of an Am monolayer and a Pu monolayer are discussed in detail.

  16. The level of nitric oxide regulates lipocalin-2 expression under inflammatory condition in RINm5F beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seo-Yoon; Kim, Dong-Bin; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Jang, Hyun-Jong; Jo, Yang-Hyeok; Kim, Myung-Jun

    2016-07-15

    We previously reported that proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and interferon-γ) induced the expression of lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) together with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in RINm5F beta-cells. Therefore, we examined the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on LCN-2 expression in cytokines-treated RINm5F beta-cells. Additionally, we observed the effect of LCN-2 on cell viability. First, we found the existence of LCN-2 receptor and the internalization of exogenous recombinant LCN-2 peptide in RINm5F and INS-1 beta-cells. Next, the effects of NO on LCN-2 expression were evaluated. Aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor and iNOS gene silencing significantly inhibited cytokines-induced LCN-2 expression while sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor potentiated it. Luciferase reporter assay showed that transcription factor NF-κB was not involved in LCN-2 expression. Both LCN-2 mRNA and protein stability assays were conducted. SNP did not affect LCN-2 mRNA stability, however, it significantly reduced LCN-2 protein degradation. The LCN-2 protein degradation was significantly attenuated by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Finally, the effect of LCN-2 on cell viability was evaluated. LCN-2 peptide treatment and LCN-2 overexpression significantly reduced cell viability. FACS analysis showed that LCN-2 induced the apoptosis of the cells. Collectively, NO level affects LCN-2 expression via regulation of LCN-2 protein stability under inflammatory condition and LCN-2 may reduce beta-cell viability by promoting apoptosis. PMID:27233602

  17. Structure and composition of the Southern Mariana Forearc: new observations and samples from Shinkai 6500 dive studies in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Y.; Reagan, M. K.; Ishizuka, O.; Stern, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    two important problems by in-situ dive operations using the Shinkai 6500 and deep-tow camera: (1) Increasing the sampling density along the southern Mariana forearc, thereby providing detail for the lithological map of subduction initiation sequences. A particular goal will be to obtain a more complete suite of gabbroic lithologies for better radiometric age control. (2) Increasing the sampling density in the SEMFR to gain a better understanding of this newly indentified active rift and the origin of its near-trench basalts. In this contribution, we will report the results of this cruise, synthesizing our current understanding of the structure and composition of the southern Mariana forearc.

  18. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  19. Self-assembly of a 3d-5f trinuclear single-molecule magnet from a pentavalent uranyl complex.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Lucile; Walsh, James P S; Pécaut, Jacques; Tuna, Floriana; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2014-12-01

    Mixed-metal uranium compounds are very attractive candidates in the design of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), but only one 3d-5f hetero-polymetallic SMM containing a uranium center is known. Herein, we report two trimeric heterodimetallic 3d-5f complexes self-assembled by cation-cation interactions between a uranyl(V) complex and a TPA-capped M(II)  complex (M=Mn (1), Cd (2); TPA=tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). The metal centers were strategically chosen to promote the formation of discrete molecules rather than extended chains. Compound 1, which contains an almost linear {MnOUOMn} core, exhibits SMM behavior with a relaxation barrier of 81±0.5 K-the highest reported for a mono-uranium system-arising from intramolecular Mn-U exchange interactions combined with the high Ising anisotropy of the uranyl(V) moiety. Compound 1 also exhibits an open magnetic hysteresis loop at temperatures less than 3 K, with a significant coercive field of 1.9 T at 1.8 K. PMID:25284018

  20. Gene expression of INPP5F as an independent prognostic marker in fludarabine-based therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, G; Maisel, D; Barrett, M; Smith, H; Duchateau-Nguyen, G; Nguyen, T; Yeh, R-F; Dufour, A; Robak, T; Dornan, D; Weisser, M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a heterogeneous disease. Various disease-related and patient-related factors have been shown to influence the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to identify novel biomarkers of significant clinical relevance. Pretreatment CD19-separated lymphocytes (n=237; discovery set) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (n=92; validation set) from the REACH trial, a randomized phase III trial in relapsed CLL comparing rituximab plus fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide with fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide alone, underwent gene expression profiling. By using Cox regression survival analysis on the discovery set, we identified inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase F (INPP5F) as a prognostic factor for progression-free survival (P<0.001; hazard ratio (HR), 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35–1.98) and overall survival (P<0.001; HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.18–1.84), regardless of adjusting for known prognostic factors. These findings were confirmed on the validation set, suggesting that INPP5F may serve as a novel, easy-to-assess future prognostic biomarker for fludarabine-based therapy in CLL. PMID:26430724

  1. Gross alpha, gross beta activities and gamma emitting radionuclides composition of rainwater samples and deposition to ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, C.; Fernández, M. C.; Gordo, E.; Cañete, S.; Pérez, M.

    2011-02-01

    The radiometric composition of bulk deposition samples, collected monthly in a 5 year period (1 January 2005 until 31 December 2009) at a site located 30 m a.s.l in Málaga (4°28' 8″W; 36° 43'40″N), are analysed in this paper. Measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, artificial and natural radionuclide activity concentrations were carried out in 60 bulk deposition samples. We analysed the time series of gross alpha, gross beta 7Be, 210Pb and 40K. The specific activities of gross alpha and gross beta measured in bulk deposition material are in the range from 0.012-0.32 and 0.045-1.81 Bq l -1 and theirs mean values are: 0.11 and 0.59 Bq l -1 respectively. The activity values of 7Be and 210Pb are in the range from 0.65-8.3 and 0.05-1.32 Bq l -1 with mean values of 2.5 and 0.41 Bq l -1 respectively. The highest specific activities of 40K in bulk deposition material were recorded in connection with high altitude Saharan dust intrusion. The time variations of the different radionuclide concentrations have been discussed in relation with various meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature for other sites located at different latitudes. To study the deposition, monthly deposition data from a funnel collector were compared from 2005 to 2009.The monthly range in deposition fluxes for gross alpha varied widely (0.40-11 Bq m -2 month -1) and the average annual deposition is 21 Bq m -2 y -1. The monthly fluxes for gross beta varied (1.3-33.8 Bq m -2 month -1) and the average annual deposition is approximately 120 Bq m -2 y -1. The total annual deposition fluxes of 210Pb varied between 64.9 and 160.8 Bq m -2 y -1 with a mean of 120 Bq m -2 y -1. The annual 7Be depositional flux varied between 432 and 1204 Bq m -2 y -1 with a mean of 676 Bq m -2 y -1. Observed seasonal variations of deposition data are explained in terms of different environmental features. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb were

  2. Chemical composition, and anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of the leaf and wholeplant samples of diploid and tetraploid gynostemma pentaphyllum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf and whole-plant samples of the diploid and tetraploid Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP)were investigated and compared for their chemical compositions, and their potential anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects. The highest levels of total flavonoids and phenolics were observed in the diplo...

  3. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  4. Analysis of permethrin isomers in composite diet samples by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction and isotope dilution gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vonderheide, Anne P; Boyd, Brian; Ryberg, Anna; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Hieber, Thomas E; Kauffman, Peter E; Garris, Sherry T; Morgan, Jeffrey N

    2009-05-29

    Determination of an individual's aggregate dietary ingestion of pesticides entails analysis of a difficult sample matrix. Permethrin-specific molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) solid-phase extraction cartridges were developed for use as a sample preparation technique for a composite food matrix. Vortexing with acetonitrile and centrifugation were found to provide optimal extraction of the permethrin isomers from the composite foods. The acetonitrile (with 1% acetic acid) was mostly evaporated and the analytes reconstituted in 90:10 water/acetonitrile in preparation for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction. Permethrin elution was accomplished with acetonitrile and sample extracts were analyzed by isotope dilution gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Quantitation of product ions provided definitive identification of the pesticide isomers. The final method parameters were tested with fortified composite food samples of varying fat content (1%, 5%, and 10%) and recoveries ranged from 99.3% to 126%. Vegetable samples with incurred pesticide levels were also analyzed with the given method and recoveries were acceptable (81.0-95.7%). Method detection limits were demonstrated in the low ppb range. Finally, the applicability of the MIP stationary phase to extract other pyrethroids, specifically cyfluthrin and cypermethrin, was also investigated. PMID:19393156

  5. Lanthanide doped Y6O5F8/YF3 microcrystals: phase-tunable synthesis and bright white upconversion photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Deng, Ruiping; Guo, Hailing; Song, Shuyan; Cao, Feng; Li, Xiyan; Su, Shengqun; Zhang, Hongjie

    2010-10-14

    High-quality Y(6)O(5)F(8)/YF(3) microcrystals have been synthesised by using a hydrothermal and subsequent calcination route. Upon changing the initial solution pH value, the as-prepared microcrystal can be well tuned from YF(3) octahedron microcrystals to YF(3) hollow spheres and finally to Y(6)O(5)F(8) microtubes. The as-obtained microcrystals have been characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. When the Y(6)O(5)F(8):Ln(3+) microtubes are excited by a 980 nm continual wave laser diode, bright red, green, and blue room temperature upconversion PL emissions have been observed. A series of white light emissions have been obtained by precisely adjusting dopants concentration in Y(6)O(5)F(8) microtubes. PMID:20714629

  6. Itinerant 5 f Electrons and the Fermi Surface Properties in an Enhanced Pauli Paramagnet NpGe3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Dai; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Homma, Yoshiya; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Nakamura, Akio; Haga, Yoshinori; Settai, Rikio; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2005-08-01

    We succeeded in growing a high-quality single crystal of an enhanced Pauli paramagnet, NpGe3, by the Bi-flux method, and observed the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect. The topology of a Fermi surface is well explained by the relativistic linear augmented-plane-wave (LAPW) band calculations based on the 5 f itinerant band model. The Fermi surface consists of a nearly spherical electron-Fermi surface with necks along the < 100 > direction, forming a hollow ball, centered at the R point, which is derived from the single band. The cyclotron effective mass is in the range from 2.6 to 16 m0, which is enhanced approximately 3.5 times from the corresponding band mass.

  7. Squelching of ETS2 transactivation by POU5F1 silences the human chorionic gonadotropin CGA subunit gene in human choriocarcinoma and embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rangan; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R Michael

    2012-05-01

    The subunit genes encoding human chorionic gonadotropin, CGA, and CGB, are up-regulated in human trophoblast. However, they are effectively silenced in choriocarcinoma cells by ectopically expressed POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 (POU5F1). Here we show that POU5F1 represses activity of the CGA promoter through its interactions with ETS2, a transcription factor required for both placental development and human chorionic gonadotropin subunit gene expression, by forming a complex that precludes ETS2 from interacting with the CGA promoter. Mutation of a POU5F1 binding site proximal to the ETS2 binding site does not alter the ability of POU5F1 to act as a repressor but causes a drop in basal promoter activity due to overlap with the binding site for DLX3. DLX3 has only a modest ability to raise basal CGA promoter activity, but its coexpression with ETS2 can up-regulate it 100-fold or more. The two factors form a complex, and both must bind to the promoter for the combination to be transcriptionally effective, a synergy compromised by POU5F1. Similarly, in human embryonic stem cells, which express ETS2 but not CGA, ETS2 does not occupy its binding site on the CGA promoter but is found instead as a soluble complex with POU5F1. When human embryonic stem cells differentiate in response to bone morphogenetic protein-4 and concentrations of POU5F1 fall and hCG and DLX3 rise, ETS2 then occupies its binding site on the CGA promoter. Hence, a squelching mechanism underpins the transcriptional silencing of CGA by POU5F1 and could have general relevance to how pluripotency is maintained and how the trophoblast lineage emerges from pluripotent precursor cells. PMID:22446105

  8. The impact of igneous bedrock weathering on the Mo isotopic composition of stream waters: Natural samples and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voegelin, Andrea R.; Nägler, Thomas F.; Pettke, Thomas; Neubert, Nadja; Steinmann, Marc; Pourret, Olivier; Villa, Igor M.

    2012-06-01

    River waters have been shown to be systematically enriched in the heavy molybdenum (Mo) isotopes when compared to typical granites and basalts, which generally possess Mo isotopic compositions (δMo) of around 0‰. This inconsistency has been used to argue against weathering of crustal rocks as the cause for heavy riverine δMo signatures. Incongruent dissolution of primary bedrock, however, may be an important process by which the anomalous Mo signatures of the river dissolved load are produced. This study therefore investigates the effect of igneous crustal rock weathering on the aquatic δMo signal by comparing stream water and bedrock Mo isotope data to results of bulk rock leach experiments. For this purpose, stream water and bedrock (orthogneiss, granite, basalt), as well as soil and vegetation samples were collected in a small catchment in the French Massif Central. In accordance with the results of earlier studies on riverine Mo, both streams are isotopically heavier (δMo = 0.5-1.1‰) than the typical granites and basalts. The excellent agreement of these data with those of Mo released during experimental leaching of the basalt bedrock (0.6-1.0‰) identifies a predominance of basalt weathering over the stream water Mo geochemistry, while other processes (i.e. soil formation, secondary mineral precipitation and adsorption) are subordinate in this catchment. Given that the basalt bulk rock δMo reflects a value typical for crustal magmatic rocks (ca. 0.1‰), Mo isotope fractionation during the incongruent dissolution of basalt can explain the observed isotopically heavy aquatic Mo signatures. Laser ablation analyses demonstrate that the volumetrically minor magmatic sulfides can be highly enriched in Mo and mass balance calculations identify the sulfide melt inclusions as the principal Mo source for the leach solutions. These data suggest that the magmatic sulfides possess a distinctly heavier δMo signature than the coexisting silicate melt. In this

  9. Gross alpha, gross beta activities and gamma emitting radionuclides composition of airborne particulate samples in an oceanic island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, F.; Hernández-Armas, J.; Catalán, A.; Fernández-Aldecoa, J. C.; Karlsson, L.

    The radiometric compositions of airborne particulate samples, collected weekly during a 4 years period (1 January 2000 till 31 December 2003) at a site located 310 m a.s.l. in Tenerife (Canary Islands), are analysed in this paper. To do this, measurements of gross alpha, gross beta, 7Be, 210Pb, 228Ac, 226Ra, 212Pb, 214Pb, 208Tl, 214Bi, 235U, 40K, 131I and 137Cs concentrations were carried out in 376 cellulose and polypropylene filters. The time variations of the different radionuclides concentrations have been discussed in relation with various meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature for other sites located at the same altitude but different latitudes. The weekly activities of 7Be correlated linearly with the 210Pb activities ( R=0.59). In disagreement with other published studies, the 7Be activities did not correlate ( R=-0.05) with the temperature and maximum values were not found during summer season. The gross beta activities showed correlations with the gross alpha ( R=0.72) and 210Pb activities ( R=0.52), but not with the 7Be ( R=0.16). The anthropogenic radionuclide 131I, emitted from a nearby hospital, was detected slightly above detection limits (1.73×10 -6 Bq m -3) in 88 of the 210 weeks of measurement considered in this work. 137Cs was detected in 31 of those weeks. The 4-year average calculated for 7Be and 210Pb were 3 and 0.3 mBq m -3, respectively. These values are lower than those expected for a site at comparable latitude and altitude. In general, the radionuclides which appeared most frequently in the airborne particulate filters ( 7Be, 210Pb, 212Pb and 40K), did not correlate significantly with any of the meteorological parameters considered: rainfall, temperature, pressure, relative humidity, visibility, wind speed and direction. Therefore, no predictive model could be established with the available data as it has been done for continental sites. The long-range transport of aerosols

  10. Moon - Possible nature of the body that produced the Imbrian Basin, from the composition of Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathy, R.; Laul, J. C.; Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1972-01-01

    Soils from the Apollo 14 site contain nearly three times as much meteoritic material as soils from the Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Luna 16 sites. Part of this material consists of the ubiquitous micrometeorite component, of primitive (carbonaceous-chondrite-like) composition. The remainder, seen most conspicuously in coarse glass and norite fragments, has a decidedly fractionated composition, with volatile elements less than one-tenth as abundant as siderophiles. This material seems to be debris of the Cyprus-sized planetesimal that produced the Imbrian Basin. Compositionally this planetesimal has no exact counterpart among known meteorite classes, though group IVA irons come close. It also resembles the initial composition of the earth as postulated by the two-component model. Apparently the Imbrian planetesimal was an earth satellite swept up by the moon during tidal recession or capture, or an asteroid deflected by Mars into terrestrial space.

  11. Brillouin light scattering investigation of the thickness dependence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in C o0.5F e0.5 ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M. S.; Roussigné, Y.; Stashkevich, A.; Chérif, S. M.; Zighem, F.; Tiusan, C.

    2016-05-01

    C o0.5F e0.5 (CoFe) ultrathin films of various thicknesses (0.8 nm ≤tCoFe≤1.6 nm ) have been grown by sputtering on (001) MgO single crystal or Si/SiO2 substrates, using Pt as capping or buffer layers, respectively. The x-ray diffraction revealed an in-plane epitaxial (isotropic) growth of Pt on MgO (Si). Their magnetic properties have been studied by vibrating sample magnetometry and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) in the Damon-Eshbach geometry. Vibrating sample magnetometry characterizations show that films grown on MgO are in-plane magnetized, while films deposited on Si are perpendicularly magnetized for CoFe thickness below 1.4 nm. The BLS measurements reveal a pronounced nonreciprocal spin waves propagation, which increases with decreasing CoFe thickness. This nonreciprocity was attributed to an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) induced by Pt interface with CoFe. Moreover, the DMI sign has been found to depend on the stacks order: it is positive (negative) for CoFe/Pt (Pt/CoFe). The effective thickness dependence of the DMI effective constant shows two regimes due to the degradation of the interfaces as the CoFe thickness decreases. We thus show that the magnetic dead layer should be taken into account to precisely determine the surface DMI constant Ds. Therefore, for the thickest samples, the surface DMI constants are nearly opposite: -1.27 and 1.32 pJ m-1 for Pt/CoFe and its reversed system, respectively.

  12. An 8-year record of gas geochemistry and isotopic composition of methane during baseline sampling at a groundwater observation well in Alberta (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humez, P.; Mayer, B.; Nightingale, M.; Ing, J.; Becker, V.; Jones, Don; Lam, Vien

    2016-02-01

    Variability in baseline groundwater methane concentrations and isotopic compositions was assessed while comparing free and dissolved gas sampling approaches for a groundwater monitoring well in Alberta (Canada) over an 8-year period. Methane concentrations in dissolved gas samples ( n = 12) were on average 4,380 ± 2,452 μg/L, yielding a coefficient of variation (CV) >50 %. Methane concentrations in free gas samples ( n = 12) were on average 228,756 ± 62,498 ppm by volume, yielding a CV of 27 %. Quantification of combined sampling, sample handling and analytical uncertainties was assessed via triplicate sampling (CV of 19 % and 12 % for free gas and dissolved gas methane concentrations, respectively). Free and dissolved gas samples yielded comparable methane concentration patterns and there was evidence that sampling operations and pumping rates had a marked influence on the obtained methane concentrations in free gas. δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values of methane were essentially constant (-78.6 ± 1.3 and -300 ± 3 ‰, respectively) throughout the observation period, suggesting that methane was derived from the same biogenic source irrespective of methane concentration variations. The isotopic composition of methane constitutes a robust and highly valuable baseline parameter and increasing δ13CCH4 and δ2HCH4 values during repeat sampling may indicate influx of thermogenic methane. Careful sampling and analytical procedures with identical and repeatable approaches are required in baseline-monitoring programs to generate methane concentration and isotope data for groundwater that can be reliably compared to repeat measurements once potential impact from oil and gas development, for example, may occur.

  13. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates.

    PubMed

    Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M

    2011-06-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low. PMID:21623504

  14. Day and night variation in chemical composition and toxicological responses of size segregated urban air PM samples in a high air pollution situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalava, P. I.; Wang, Q.; Kuuspalo, K.; Ruusunen, J.; Hao, L.; Fang, D.; Väisänen, O.; Ruuskanen, A.; Sippula, O.; Happo, M. S.; Uski, O.; Kasurinen, S.; Torvela, T.; Koponen, H.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Komppula, M.; Gu, C.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hirvonen, M.-R.

    2015-11-01

    Urban air particulate pollution is a known cause for adverse human health effects worldwide. China has encountered air quality problems in recent years due to rapid industrialization. Toxicological effects induced by particulate air pollution vary with particle sizes and season. However, it is not known how distinctively different photochemical activity and different emission sources during the day and the night affect the chemical composition of the PM size ranges and subsequently how it is reflected to the toxicological properties of the PM exposures. The particulate matter (PM) samples were collected in four different size ranges (PM10-2.5; PM2.5-1; PM1-0.2 and PM0.2) with a high volume cascade impactor. The PM samples were extracted with methanol, dried and thereafter used in the chemical and toxicological analyses. RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the particulate samples in four different doses for 24 h. Cytotoxicity, inflammatory parameters, cell cycle and genotoxicity were measured after exposure of the cells to particulate samples. Particles were characterized for their chemical composition, including ions, element and PAH compounds, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to take images of the PM samples. Chemical composition and the induced toxicological responses of the size segregated PM samples showed considerable size dependent differences as well as day to night variation. The PM10-2.5 and the PM0.2 samples had the highest inflammatory potency among the size ranges. Instead, almost all the PM samples were equally cytotoxic and only minor differences were seen in genotoxicity and cell cycle effects. Overall, the PM0.2 samples had the highest toxic potential among the different size ranges in many parameters. PAH compounds in the samples and were generally more abundant during the night than the day, indicating possible photo-oxidation of the PAH compounds due to solar radiation. This was reflected to different toxicity in the PM

  15. Lherzolitic versus harzburgitic garnet trends: sampling of extended depth versus extended composition. Reply to the comment by Ivanic et al. 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, M.; Hill, P. J. A.; Russell, J. K.; Cookenboo, H.

    2016-02-01

    Using the Hill et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 169:13, 2015. doi: 10.1007/s00410-014-1102-7) modeling technique, we have tested the idea of Ivanic et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 164:505-520, 2012) that decompression and metamorphic re-equilibration of garnet with spinel causes garnet zoning perpendicular to the Cr-Ca harzburgitic trend in garnet composition. The modeling confirms that garnet zoning across the harzburgitic trend cannot form without spinel buffering. The harzburgitic trend is very rare because it results from extreme compositional heterogeneity of the mantle at the same depth. In contrast, the common lherzolitic trend requires less diversity in the bulk composition of the mantle, as it can be established with only a few samples of metamorphically re-equilibrated mantle peridotite deriving from a variety of depths.

  16. Structure and composition of the San Andreas Fault in central California: Recent results from SAFOD sample analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, S.; Zoback, M.; Ellsworth, W.; Chester, J.; Chester, F.; Evans, J.; Moore, D.; Kirschner, D.; Schleicher, A.; van der Pluijm, B.; Solum, J.

    2008-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) was drilled to study the physical and chemical processes controlling faulting and earthquake generation along an active, plate-bounding fault at depth. SAFOD is located near Parkfield, California, and penetrates a section of the fault that is moving through a combination of repeating microearthquakes and fault creep. In 2004 and 2005, SAFOD was drilled vertically to a depth of 1.5 km and then deviated across the entire San Andreas Fault Zone to a vertical depth of 3.1 km. In 2007, cores were acquired from holes branching off the main hole to sample directly the country rock and actively deforming traces of the fault. Geophysical logs define the San Andreas Fault Zone to be about 200 m wide, containing several discrete zones only 2-3 m wide with very low P- and S-wave velocities and low resistivity. Two of these zones have progressively deformed the cemented well casing at measured depths of 3194 m and 3301 m (corresponding to vertical depths of 2.6 - 2.7 km), indicating that they are actively creeping shear zones. The 3194 m casing deformation zone lies about 100 m above a cluster of repeating M2 earthquakes along the southwestern boundary of the active fault zone. Talc and serpentine discovered in drill cuttings associated with the deepest casing deformation zone may be responsible for the predominantly creeping behavior and anomalously low shear strength of the San Andreas Fault at this location. Hydrous clay minerals found as thin-film coatings on polished slip surfaces in cuttings may also be important in controlling fault strength and stability of sliding. Core was obtained in 2007 across the active deformation zones at 3194 and 3301 m and from just outside the geologically defined San Andreas Fault Zone. Cores crossing the two deformation zones are composed of shales, siltstones and mudstones and contain 1-2 m of a highly foliated, relatively incohesive fault gouge. In both cases, this fault gouge exactly

  17. Expression analysis of Cdx2 and Pou5f1 in a marsupial, the stripe-faced dunnart, during early development.

    PubMed

    Familari, Mary; Au, Phil Chi Khang; de Iongh, Robb U; Cruz, Yolanda; Selwood, Lynne

    2016-02-01

    The first lineage allocation during mouse development forms the trophectoderm and inner cell mass, in which Cdx2 and Pou5f1 display reciprocal expression. Yet Cdx2 is not required for trophectoderm specification in other mammals, such as the human, cow, pig, or in two marsupials, the tammar and opossum. The role of Cdx2 and Pou5f1 in the first lineage allocation of Sminthopsis macroura, the stripe-faced dunnart, is unknown. In this study, expression of Cdx2 and Pou5f1 during oogenesis, development from cleavage to blastocyst stages, and in the allocation of the first three lineages was analyzed for this dunnart. Cdx2 mRNA was present in late antral-stage oocytes, but not present again until Day 5.5. Pou5f1 mRNA was present from primary follicles to zygotes, and then expression resumed starting at the early unilaminar blastocyst stage. All cleavage stages and the pluriblast and trophoblast cells co-expressed CDX2 and POU5F1 proteins, which persisted until early stages of hypoblast formation. Hypoblast cells also show co-localisation of POU5F1 and CDX2 once they were allocated, and this persisted during their division and migration. Our studies suggest that CDX2, and possibly POU5F1, are maternal proteins, and that the first lineage to differentiate is the trophoblast, which differentiates to trophectoderm after shell loss one day before implantation. In the stripe-faced dunnart, cleavage cells, as well as trophoblast and pluriblast cells, are polarized, suggesting the continued presence of CDX2 in both lineages until late blastocyst stages may play a role in the formation and maintenance of polarity. PMID:26613191

  18. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    SciTech Connect

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  19. Summary of inorganic compositional data for groundwater, soil-water, and surface-water samples collected at the Headgate Draw subsurface drip irrigation site, Johnson County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupancic, John W.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  20. Isotopic Composition of Carbon Dioxide Released from Confidence Hills Sediment as Measured by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, H. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Stern, J.; Archer, P., Jr.; Conrad, P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jones, J.; Ming, D.; McAdam, A.; Morris, R.; Navarro-Gozalez, R.; Owen, T.; Steele, A.; Summons, R.; Sutter, B.; Webster, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2014, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity" rover drilled into the sediment at the base of Mount Sharp in a location namsed Cionfidence Hills (CH). CH marked the fifth sample pocessed by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite since Curiosity arrived in Gale Crater, with previous analyses performed at Rocknest (RN), John Klein (JK), Cumberland (CB), and Windjana (WJ). Evolved gas analysis (EGA) of all samples has indicated H2O as well as O-, C- and S-bearing phases in the samples, often at abundances that would be below the detection limit of the CheMin instrument. By examining the temperatures at which gases are evolved from samples, SAM EGA data can help provide clues to the mineralogy of volatile-bearing phases when their identities are unclear to CheMin. SAM may also detect gases evolved from amorphous material in solid samples, which is not suitable for analysis by CheMin. Finally, the isotopic composition of these gases may suggest possible formation scenarios and relationships between phases. We will discuss C isotope ratios of CO2 evolved from the CH sample as measured with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and draw comparisons to samples previously analyzed by SAM.

  1. Rumen Bacterial Community Composition in Holstein and Jersey Cows Is Different under Same Dietary Condition and Is Not Affected by Sampling Method.

    PubMed

    Paz, Henry A; Anderson, Christopher L; Muller, Makala J; Kononoff, Paul J; Fernando, Samodha C

    2016-01-01

    The rumen microbial community in dairy cows plays a critical role in efficient milk production. However, there is a lack of data comparing the composition of the rumen bacterial community of the main dairy breeds. This study utilizes 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the rumen bacterial community composition in Holstein and Jersey cows fed the same diet by sampling the rumen microbiota via the rumen cannula (Holstein cows) or esophageal tubing (both Holstein and Jersey cows). After collection of the rumen sample via esophageal tubing, particles attached to the strainer were added to the sample to ensure representative sampling of both the liquid and solid fraction of the rumen contents. Alpha diversity metrics, Chao1 and observed OTUs estimates, displayed higher (P = 0.02) bacterial richness in Holstein compared to Jersey cows and no difference (P > 0.70) in bacterial community richness due to sampling method. The principal coordinate analysis displayed distinct clustering of bacterial communities by breed suggesting that Holstein and Jersey cows harbor different rumen bacterial communities. Family level classification of most abundant (>1%) differential OTUs displayed that OTUs from the bacterial families Lachnospiraceae and p-2534-18B5 to be predominant in Holstein cows compared to Jersey cows. Additionally, OTUs belonging to family Prevotellaceae were differentially abundant in the two breeds. Overall, the results from this study suggest that the bacterial community between Holstein and Jersey cows differ and that esophageal tubing with collection of feed particles associated with the strainer provides a representative rumen sample similar to a sample collected via the rumen cannula. Thus, in future studies esophageal tubing with addition of retained particles can be used to collect rumen samples reducing the cost of cannulation and increasing the number of animals used in microbiome investigations, thus increasing the statistical power of rumen microbial

  2. Rumen Bacterial Community Composition in Holstein and Jersey Cows Is Different under Same Dietary Condition and Is Not Affected by Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Henry A.; Anderson, Christopher L.; Muller, Makala J.; Kononoff, Paul J.; Fernando, Samodha C.

    2016-01-01

    The rumen microbial community in dairy cows plays a critical role in efficient milk production. However, there is a lack of data comparing the composition of the rumen bacterial community of the main dairy breeds. This study utilizes 16S rRNA gene sequencing to describe the rumen bacterial community composition in Holstein and Jersey cows fed the same diet by sampling the rumen microbiota via the rumen cannula (Holstein cows) or esophageal tubing (both Holstein and Jersey cows). After collection of the rumen sample via esophageal tubing, particles attached to the strainer were added to the sample to ensure representative sampling of both the liquid and solid fraction of the rumen contents. Alpha diversity metrics, Chao1 and observed OTUs estimates, displayed higher (P = 0.02) bacterial richness in Holstein compared to Jersey cows and no difference (P > 0.70) in bacterial community richness due to sampling method. The principal coordinate analysis displayed distinct clustering of bacterial communities by breed suggesting that Holstein and Jersey cows harbor different rumen bacterial communities. Family level classification of most abundant (>1%) differential OTUs displayed that OTUs from the bacterial families Lachnospiraceae and p-2534-18B5 to be predominant in Holstein cows compared to Jersey cows. Additionally, OTUs belonging to family Prevotellaceae were differentially abundant in the two breeds. Overall, the results from this study suggest that the bacterial community between Holstein and Jersey cows differ and that esophageal tubing with collection of feed particles associated with the strainer provides a representative rumen sample similar to a sample collected via the rumen cannula. Thus, in future studies esophageal tubing with addition of retained particles can be used to collect rumen samples reducing the cost of cannulation and increasing the number of animals used in microbiome investigations, thus increasing the statistical power of rumen microbial

  3. Complexities in pyroxene compositions derived from absorption band centers: Examples from Apollo samples, HED meteorites, synthetic pure pyroxenes, and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, D. P.; Pieters, C. M.

    2016-02-01

    We reexamine the relationship between pyroxene composition and near-infrared absorption bands, integrating measurements of diverse natural and synthetic samples. We test an algorithm (PLC) involving a two-part linear continuum removal and parabolic fits to the 1 and 2 μm bands—a computationally simple approach which can easily be automated and applied to remote sensing data. Employing a suite of synthetic pure pyroxenes, the PLC technique is shown to derive similar band centers to the modified Gaussian model. PLC analyses are extended to natural pyroxene-bearing materials, including (1) bulk lunar basalts and pyroxene separates, (2) diverse lunar soils, and (3) HED meteorites. For natural pyroxenes, the relationship between composition and absorption band center differs from that of synthetic pyroxenes. These differences arise from complexities inherent in natural materials such as exsolution, zoning, mixing, and space weathering. For these reasons, band center measurements of natural pyroxene-bearing materials are compositionally nonunique and could represent three distinct scenarios (1) pyroxene with a narrow compositional range, (2) complexly zoned pyroxene grains, or (3) a mixture of multiple pyroxene (or nonpyroxene) components. Therefore, a universal quantitative relationship between band centers and pyroxene composition cannot be uniquely derived for natural pyroxene-bearing materials without additional geologic context. Nevertheless, useful relative relationships between composition and band center persist in most cases. These relationships are used to interpret M3 data from the Humboldtianum Basin. Four distinct compositional units are identified (1) Mare Humboldtianum basalts, (2) distinct outer basalts, (3) low-Ca pyroxene-bearing materials, and (4) feldspathic materials.

  4. Fluorinated Peptide Nucleic Acids with Fluoroacetyl Side Chain Bearing 5-(F/CF3)-Uracil: Synthesis and Cell Uptake Studies.

    PubMed

    Ellipilli, Satheesh; Palvai, Sandeep; Ganesh, Krishna N

    2016-08-01

    Fluorine incorporation into organic molecules imparts favorable physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity, solubility and metabolic stability necessary for drug action. Toward such applications using peptide nucleic acids (PNA), we herein report the chemical synthesis of fluorinated PNA monomers and biophysical studies of derived PNA oligomers containing fluorine in in the acetyl side chain (-CHF-CO-) bearing nucleobase uracil (5-F/5-CF3-U). The crystal structures of fluorinated racemic PNA monomers reveal interesting base pairing of enantiomers and packing arrangements directed by the chiral F substituent. Reverse phase HPLC show higher hydrophobicity of fluorinated PNA oligomers, dependent on the number and site of the fluorine substitution: fluorine on carbon adjacent to the carbonyl group induces higher lipophilicity than fluorine on nucleobase or in the backbone. The PNA oligomers containing fluorinated bases form hybrids with cDNA/RNA with slightly lower stability compared to that of unmodified aeg PNA, perhaps due to electronic effects. The uptake of fluorinated homooligomeric PNAs by HeLa cells was as facile as that of nonfluorinated PNA. In conjunction with our previous work on PNAs fluorinated in backbone and at N-terminus, it is evident that the fluorinated PNAs have potential to emerge as a new class of PNA analogues for applications in functional inhibition of RNA. PMID:27391099

  5. UDP-(5F)-GlcNAc acts as a slow-binding inhibitor of MshA, a retaining glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Frantom, Patrick A; Coward, James K; Blanchard, John S

    2010-05-19

    Glycosyltransferase enzymes play important roles in numerous cellular pathways. Despite their participation in many therapeutically relevant pathways, there is a paucity of information on how to effectively inhibit this class of enzymes. Here we report that UDP-(5F)-GlcNAc acts as a slow-binding, competitive inhibitor of the retaining glycosyltransferase MshA from Corynebacterium glutamicum (K(i) approximately 1.6 muM). The kinetic data are consistent with a single-step inhibition mechanism whose equilibration is slow relative to catalysis. We believe that this is the first slow-onset inhibitor to be reported for the glycosyltransferase family of enzymes. The potent inhibition of the enzyme by the fluoro-substituted substrate is consistent with the involvement of an oxocarbenium transition-state structure, which has been previously proposed for this family of enzymes. Additionally, although several members of the GT-B enzyme family, including MshA, have been shown to undergo a conformational change upon UDP-GlcNAc binding, the kinetic data are inconsistent with a two-step inhibition mechanism. This suggests that there may be other conformations of the enzyme that are useful for the design of inhibitors against the large family of GT-B glycosyltransferase enzymes. PMID:20411981

  6. Structural phase transition and 5f-electrons localization of PuSe explored by ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Shouxin; Feng Wenxia; Hu Haiquan; Gong Zizheng; Liu Hong

    2010-04-15

    An investigation into the structural phase transformation, electronic and optical properties of PuSe under high pressure was conducted by using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-LAPW+lo) method, in the presence and in the absence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Our results demonstrate that there exists a structural phase transition from rocksalt (B 1) structure to CsCl-type (B 2) structure at the transition pressure of 36.3 GPa (without SOC) and 51.3 GPa (with SOC). The electronic density of states (DOS) for PuSe show that the f-electrons of Pu are more localized and concentrated in a narrow peak near the Fermi level, which is consistent with the experimental studies. The band structure shows that B 1-PuSe is metallic. A pseudogap appears around the Fermi level of the total density of states of B 1 phase PuSe, which may contribute to its stability. The calculated reflectivity R(omega) shows agreement with the available experimental results. Furthermore, the absorption spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient, energy-loss spectrum and dielectric function were calculated. The origin of the spectral peaks was interpreted based on the electronic structures. - Abstract: Graphical Abstract Legend (TOC Figure): 5f-electrons are more localized by the analysis of the density of states (SOC). The origin spectra peaks was interpreted based on electronic structures.

  7. Aloe-Emodin Protects RIN-5F (Pancreatic β-cell) Cell from Glucotoxicity via Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine and Downregulation of Bax and Caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Subash-Babu, P

    2016-01-01

    To determine the protective effect of aloe-emodin (AE) from high glucose induced toxicity in RIN-5F (pancreatic β-cell) cell and restoration of its function was analyzed. RIN-5F cells have been cultured in high glucose (25 mM glucose) condition, with and without AE treatment. RIN-5F cells cultured in high glucose decreased cell viability and increased ROS levels after 48 hr compared with standard medium (5.5 mM glucose). Glucotoxicity was confirmed by significantly increased ROS production, increased pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-1β,) & decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-6&IL-10) cytokine levels, increased DNA fragmentation. In addition, we found increased Bax, caspase 3, Fadd, and Fas and significantly reduced Bcl-2 expression after 48 hr. RIN-5F treated with both high glucose and AE (20 μM) decreased ROS generation and prevent RIN-5F cell from glucotoxicity. In addition, AE treated cells cultured in high glucose were transferred to standard medium, normal responsiveness to glucose was restored within 8hr and normal basal insulin release within 24 hr was achieved when compared to high glucose. PMID:26759701

  8. Aloe-Emodin Protects RIN-5F (Pancreatic β-cell) Cell from Glucotoxicity via Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine and Downregulation of Bax and Caspase 3

    PubMed Central

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Subash-Babu, P.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the protective effect of aloe-emodin (AE) from high glucose induced toxicity in RIN-5F (pancreatic β-cell) cell and restoration of its function was analyzed. RIN-5F cells have been cultured in high glucose (25 mM glucose) condition, with and without AE treatment. RIN-5F cells cultured in high glucose decreased cell viability and increased ROS levels after 48 hr compared with standard medium (5.5 mM glucose). Glucotoxicity was confirmed by significantly increased ROS production, increased pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-1β,) & decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-6&IL-10) cytokine levels, increased DNA fragmentation. In addition, we found increased Bax, caspase 3, Fadd, and Fas and significantly reduced Bcl-2 expression after 48 hr. RIN-5F treated with both high glucose and AE (20 μM) decreased ROS generation and prevent RIN-5F cell from glucotoxicity. In addition, AE treated cells cultured in high glucose were transferred to standard medium, normal responsiveness to glucose was restored within 8hr and normal basal insulin release within 24 hr was achieved when compared to high glucose. PMID:26759701

  9. ION COMPOSITION ELUCIDATION (ICE): A HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRIC TOOL FOR IDENTIFYING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN COMPLEX EXTRACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Unidentified Organic Compounds. For target analytes, standards are purchased, extraction and clean-up procedures are optimized, and mass spectra and retention times for the chromatographic separation are obtained for comparison to the target compounds in environmental sample ...

  10. Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-13

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  11. Probing 5 f -state configurations in URu2Si2 with U LIII-edge resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, C. H.; Medling, S. A.; Tobin, J. G.; Baumbach, R. E.; Bauer, E. D.; Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.

    2016-07-01

    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) was employed at the U LIII absorption edge and the Lα 1 emission line to explore the 5 f occupancy, nf, and the degree of 5 f -orbital delocalization in the hidden-order compound URu2Si2 . By comparing to suitable reference materials such as UF4, UCd11, and α -U, we conclude that the 5 f orbital in URu2Si2 is at least partially delocalized with nf=2.87 ±0.08 , and does not change with temperature down to 10 K within the estimated error. These results place further constraints on theoretical explanations of the hidden order, especially those requiring a localized f2 ground state.

  12. Electron-phonon superconductivity in LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yanqing; Du, Yongping; Wan, Xiangang Wang, Bogen; Ding, Hang-Chen; Savrasov, Sergey Y.; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2014-06-21

    We report density functional calculations of the electronic structure, Fermi surface, phonon spectrum and electron–phonon coupling for the newly discovered superconductor LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2}. It is confirmed that there is a strong Fermi surface nesting at (π,π,0), which results in unstable phonon branches. Combining the frozen phonon total energy calculations and an anharmonic oscillator model, we find that the quantum fluctuation prevents the appearance of static long–range order. The calculation shows that LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2} is highly anisotropic, and same as its cousin LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiS{sub 2}, this compound is also a conventional electron-phonon coupling induced superconductor.

  13. Etching Enhancement Followed by Nitridation on Low-k SiOCH Film in Ar/C5F10O Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Yudai; Shibata, Emi; Kondo, Yusuke; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Okamoto, Hidekazu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2013-02-01

    The etching rates of low-dielectric-constant (low-k), porous SiOCH (p-SiOCH) films were increased by nitrogen-added Ar/C5F10O plasma etching in dual-frequency (60 MHz/2 MHz)-excited parallel plate capacitively coupled plasma. Previously, perfluoropropyl vinyl ether [C5F10O] provided a very high density of CF3+ ions [Nagai et al.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45 (2006) 7100]. Surface nitridation on the p-SiOCH surface exposed to Ar/N2 plasma led to the etching of larger amounts of p-SiOCH in Ar/C5F10O plasma, which depended on the formation of bonds such as =C(sp2)=N(sp2)- and -C(sp)≡N(sp).

  14. Energy-level calculations for the 5f 26d 1 configuration of U 3+ in Cs 2NaYCl 6 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbowiak, M.

    2005-07-01

    Energy levels and the 5f 3 → 5f 26d(t 2g) 1 transition intensities of U 3+ in Cs 2NaYCl 6 were calculated using a theoretical model for nf N energy levels extended for interactions related with the presence of d-electron, proposed by Reid et al. [M.F. Reid, L. van Pieterson, R.T. Wegh, A. Meijerink, Phys. Rev. B 62 (2000) 14744]. The Fk(fd) and Gj(fd) parameters for f-d Coulomb interactions, the ζ(dd) spin-orbit interactions parameter for 6d electron as well as B04(ff)andB06(ff) crystal-field parameters for 5f 2 core electrons were adjusted, and a very good agreement between calculated and experimental spectrum has been achieved. The F2(fd), G1(fd) and ζ(dd) parameters were reduced to 37.5%, 45.3% and 77.2% of the ab initio calculated free-ion values, respectively. The values of Bqk(ff) parameters determined for 5f 26d 1 configuration are closer to those of 5f 2 configuration of U 4+ than 5f 3 configuration of U 3+. The results of calculations performed in the frame of the semi-empirical Hamiltonian model are in a very good accordance with those of ab initio theoretical analysis, reported by Seijo and Barandiarán [L. Seijo, Z. Barandiarán, J. Chem. Phys. 118 (2003) 5335].

  15. β-CD/ATP composite materials for use in dispersive solid-phase extraction to measure (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in honey samples.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiangqian; Zhang, Panjie; Yang, Xiaoling; Yang, Miyi; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbin; Gao, Haixiang; Lu, Runhua

    2015-06-01

    A novel sorbent (β-CD/ATP composite) for dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) prepared by bonding β-cyclodextrin to modified attapulgite via silane coupling was used to determine the concentrations of four (fluoro)quinolones (Qs) in honey samples. The subsequent quantification of the Qs (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and gatifloxacin) was accomplished using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection after the d-SPE procedure. Parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency, such as type and volume of the eluent, type and amount of the sorbent, times of the vortex and sonication process, and pH of the sample, were investigated using batch and column procedures. The optimal experimental conditions (5 mL sample at pH 3, 4 mg of β-CD/ATP composite as the sorbent, 200 μL of 40% ammonia in methanol as the eluent, with vortex time 60s and sonication time 6 min, and no addition of salt) were obtained from this statistical evaluation. The limits of detection (LODs) were determined to the range from 0.30 to 3.95 μg L(-1). Good recoveries (83.6-88.6%) were obtained under the optimum conditions, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs), which are used to indicate reproducibility, were less than 7.4%. The method was validated with three real honey samples, and the results demonstrated that β-CD/ATP composite possessed a high adsorption capacity for Qs. Although the LODs were slightly higher than expected, this study confirmed the possibility of using cyclodextrin grafted palygorskite in analytical applications. PMID:26002334

  16. Trace element and REE composition of five samples of the Yucca Mountain calcite-silica deposits. Special report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, D.

    1993-07-01

    The attached materials document the results of part of a recent effort of geochemical sampling and analysis at Yucca Mountain and nearby regions. The efforts come as a result of interest in comprehensive analyses of rare earth elements (REE), lanthanum (La) through lutecium (Lu). Several additional, non-REE analyses were obtained as well. Commercially available REE analyses have proved to be insufficiently sensitive for geochemical purposes. Dr. Roman Schmitt at the Radiation Center at Oregon State University in Corvallis was sent five samples as a trial effort. The results are very encouraging. The purpose of compiling Dr. Schmitt`s report and the other materials is to inform the sponsor of his independent observations of these results and other information that sent to him. To provide a more complete appreciation of the utility of REE analyses a copy of Dave Vaniman`s recent article is included in which he notes that REE analyses from Yucca Mountain indicate the occurrence of two distinctly different REE patterns as do several other chemical parameters of the calcite-silica deposits. Our four samples with high equivalent CaCO{sub 3} were collected from sites we believe to be spring deposits. One sample, 24D, is from southern Crater Flat which is acknowledged by U.S.G.S. investigators to be a spring deposit. All four of these samples have REE patterns similar to those from the saturated zone reported by Vaniman.

  17. Organic Composition of Size-Segregated Aerosols Sampled During the 2002 Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE), Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, R. T.; Zika, R. G.

    2003-04-01

    Aerosol samples were collected for the analysis of organic source markers using non-rotating Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactors (MOUDI) as part of the Bay Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) in Tampa, FL, USA. Daily samples were collected 12 m above ground at a flow rate of 30 lpm throughout the month of May 2002. Aluminum foil discs were used to sample aerosol size fractions with aerodynamic cut diameter of 18, 10, 5.6, 3.2, 1.8, 1.0, 0.56, 0.32, 0.17 and 0.093 um. Samples were solvent extracted using a mixture of dichloromethane/acetone/hexane, concentrated and then analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Low detection limits were achieved using a HP Programmable Temperature Vaporizing inlet (PTV) and large volume injections (80ul). Excellent chromatographic resolution was obtained using a 60 m long RTX-5MS, 0.25 mm I.D. column. A quantification method was built for over 90 organic compounds chosen as source markers including straight/iso/anteiso alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The investigation of potential aerosol sources for different particle sizes using known organic markers and source profiles will be presented. Size distributions of carbon preference indices (CPI), percent wax n-alkanes (%WNA) and concentration of selected compounds will be discussed. Also, results will be compared with samples acquired in different environments including the 1999 Atlanta SuperSite Experiment, GA, USA.

  18. Coordinated analysis of Comet 81P/Wild-2 dust samples: Nanoscale measurements of its organic/ inorganic chemical and isotopic composition and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenger, K. N.; Messenger, S. R.; Clemett, S. J.; Keller, L. P. Class='hr'>; Zolensky, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    Dust particles released from comet 81P/Wild-2 were captured in silica aerogel on-board the STARDUST spacecraft and successfully returned to the Earth on January 15, 2006. This is the first sample of extraterrestrial materials returned from beyond the moon. STARDUST recovered thousands of particles ranging in size from 1 to 100 micrometers. The analysis of these samples is complicated by the small total mass collected (< 1 mg), its entrainment in the aerogel collection medium, and the fact that the cometary dust is comprised of submicrometer minerals and carbonaceous material. During the six month preliminary examination period, 75 tracks were extracted from the aerogel cells and 25 cometary grains were fully studied by an international collaboration among 150 scientists who investigated their mineralogy/petrology, organic/inorganic chemistry, optical properties and isotopic compositions. This scientific consortium was made possible by sophisticated sample preparation methods developed for the STARDUST mission and by recent major advances in the sensitivity and spatial resolution of analytical instruments. Coordinated and replicate analyses of the samples were made possible by subdividing individual particles into 50 nm-thick sections by ultramicrotomy, providing up to 100 sections from a 20 um particle. We present results of a coordinated study of comet Wild 2 dust samples in which individual particles were analyzed by FTIR microspectroscopy, field emission scanning-transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and isotopic measurements with a NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe. The STEM is equipped with a thin window energy- dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer that was used to acquire spectrum images that contained a high count- rate EDX spectrum in each pixel, enabling the determination of the nm-scale spatial distribution of quantitative element abundances. These samples were later analyzed by the JSC NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe, which acquired 100 nm spatial resolution C

  19. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO2NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO2. The ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10-160nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25nM (based on 3Sb/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. PMID:27287106

  20. Impact of sampling depth and plant species on local environmental conditions, microbiological parameters and bacterial composition in a mercury contaminated salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Cleary, D F R; Oliveira, V; Gomes, N C M; Pereira, A; Henriques, I; Marques, B; Almeida, A; Cunha, A; Correia, A; Lillebø, A I

    2012-02-01

    We compare the environmental characteristics and bacterial communities associated with two rushes, Juncus maritimus and Bolboschoenus maritimus, and adjacent unvegetated habitat in a salt marsh subjected to historical mercury pollution. Mercury content was higher in vegetated than unvegetated habitat and increased with sampling depth. There was also a significant relationship between mercury concentration and bacterial composition. Habitat (Juncus, Bolboschoenus or unvegetated), sample depth, and the interaction between both, however, explained most of the variation in composition (~70%). Variation in composition with depth was most prominent for the unvegetated habitat, followed by Juncus, but more constrained for Bolboschoenus habitat. This constraint may be indicative of a strong plant-microbe ecophysiological adaptation. Vegetated habitat contained distinct bacterial communities associated with higher potential activity of aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase and arylsulphatase and incorporation rates of (14)C-glucose and (14)C-acetate. Communities in unvegetated habitat were, in contrast, associated with both higher pH and proportion of sulphate reducing bacteria. PMID:22177286

  1. Piezoelectric composite oscillator for measuring mechanical spectroscopy in small samples that non-match in half wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacich, F. G.; Lambri, O. A.; Pérez Landazábal, J. I.; Recarte, V.; Zelada, G. I.; Mocellini, R. R.; Sánchez Alarcos, V.; Marenzana, A.; Plazaola, F.

    2016-03-01

    A novel piezoelectric device for measuring mechanical spectroscopy as a function of temperature and strain has been developed. The new equipment involves five oscillating elements, a crystal driver, two spacer bars, the sample and the crystal gauge. The spacer bars and the sample do not match in frequency. The device developed here results in an important solution for measuring mechanical spectroscopy in small samples, where the condition of match in frequency cannot be satisfied. Mechanical spectroscopy measurements were performed in free decay with the equipment working in an out of tune condition. The associated mathematical equations required for the measurement process have also been developed. In addition, the new equipment was successfully used for the measurement of different types of materials: metals, polymers and ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION OF "HOT PARTICLES" SAMPLED IN THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOURTH REACTOR UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) 4th Reactor Unit Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified and the fuel burnup in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burnup values based on the cesium isotopes, in comparison with other radionuclides, was observed. The conducted studies were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243}Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from {sup 241}Am (and going higher), in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  3. Assessment of the radionuclide composition of "hot particles" sampled in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant fourth reactor unit.

    PubMed

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zheltonozhsky, Viktor A; Zheltonozhskaya, Maryna V; Kulich, Nadezhda V; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy; Marra, James C

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified, and the fuel burn-up in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burn-up values based on the cesium isotopes in comparison with other radionuclides was observed. The studies conducted were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of 242Cm and 243Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from 241Am (and going higher) in comparison with the theoretical calculations. PMID:21878762

  4. FINAL REPORT FOR THE INITIAL SOLID PHASE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 2011 GRAB SAMPLES AND COMPOSITE FOR THE C-109 HARD HEEL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PAGE JS; COOKE G; PESTOVICH JA

    2011-12-01

    On May 3, 2011, solid phase characterization subsamples were taken from six of the eight grab samples that had been collected from tank 241-C-109 in April, 2011 and delivered to the 222-S Laboratory. These subsamples were characterized in order to guide the creation of the composite for the C-109 hard heel study. Visual observation showed that there was a large variability in the physical characteristics of the eight individual grab samples. Several of the grab samples consisted of 'stone-like' cobbles (several > 25 mm in diameter) while the other grab samples were of a finer granular composition referred to as 'bulk material'. Half of the six subsamples taken for this initial SPC were of crushed cobbles and half were of the bulk material. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on all six subsamples, and X-ray diffraction was performed on all three of the 'bulk material' samples and one of the crushed cobble samples. The crushed cobbles were found to be composed primarily of gibbsite (Al[OHh]{sub 3}). Analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated gibbsite to be the only crystalline phase detected, and scanning electron microscopy showed the crushed cobbles to consist primarily of aggregates of euhedral to subhedral gibbsite crystals that were 20 to 100 {mu}m in size. The aggregates, having a moderate amount of pore space, were cemented primarily by recrystallized gibbsite making them resistant to crushing. The bulk material consisted of coarse to fine-grained pebble-sized (2 to 20 mm) particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed them to be a mixture of natrophosphate (Na{sub 7}[PO{sub 4}]{sub 2}F{center_dot}19[H{sub 2}O]) and gibbsite crystals in varying amounts in each of the three subsamples (i.e., some grab samples were primarily natrophosphate while others were mixed with gibbsite). The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the bulk material showed the crystals to be euhedral to anhedral (rounded) in shape. Trace phases, too minor to be detected by XRD

  5. Cardiac damage induced by 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed Central

    Thorgeirsson, U P; Farb, A; Virmani, R; Adamson, R H

    1994-01-01

    The heterocyclic aromatic amine 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a potent hepatocarcinogen in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys. The finding of high cardiac IQ-DNA adduct levels prompted a histopathological study of perfusion-fixed hearts from 10 tumor-bearing monkeys chronically dosed with IQ at 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg 5 days per week for 48-80 months. Two monkeys dosed only with the vehicle for IQ, hydroxypropylcellulose, served as controls. All the monkeys had normal heart weights, and no abnormalities were observed upon gross inspection of the hearts. Microscopically, focal myocardial lesions were observed in 8 of 10 monkeys dosed with IQ. Light microscopic abnormalities included myocyte necrosis with or without chronic inflammatory infiltrates, interstitial fibrosis with myocyte hypertrophy or atrophy, and vasculitis. Electron microscopic findings included disruption of the mitochondrial architecture (i.e., mitochondrial swelling and clearing of matrix densities), myofibrillar loss, disorganization of the normal alignment of sarcomeres, and occasional myocytes showing nuclear hypertrophy or peripheral clumping of the nuclear chromatin. There was some correlation between the cumulative dose of IQ and the extent of the myocardial abnormalities. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to IQ can lead to myocardial damage in monkeys. Although focal and not associated with clinical evidence of heart failure, these abnormalities may represent the initial stages of IQ-induced toxic cardiomyopathy. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. B PMID:8033851

  6. Potentiation of stimulus-induced insulin secretion in protein kinase C-deficient RINm5F cells.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G D; Regazzi, R; Ullrich, S; Pralong, W F; Wollheim, C B

    1990-01-01

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in stimulus recognition and insulin secretion was investigated after long-term (24 h) treatment of RINm5F cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Three methods revealed that PKC was no longer detectable, and PMA-induced insulin secretion was abolished. Such PKC-deficient cells displayed enhanced insulin secretion (2-6-fold) in response to vasopressin and carbachol (activating phospholipase C) as well as to D-glyceraldehyde and alanine (promoting membrane depolarization and voltage-gated Ca2+ influx). Insulin release stimulated by 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG) was also greater in PKC-deficient cells. OAG caused membrane depolarization and raised the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), both of which were unaffected by PKC down-regulation. Except for that caused by vasopressin, the secretagogue-induced [Ca2+]i elevations were similar in control and PKC-depleted cells. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by vasopressin was enhanced during the early phase (observed both in cell suspensions and at the single cell level) and the stimulation of diacylglycerol production was also augmented. These findings suggest more efficient activation of phospholipase C by vasopressin after PKC depletion. Electrically permeabilized cells were used to test whether the release process is facilitated after long-term PMA treatment. PKC deficiency was associated with only slightly increased responsiveness to half-maximally (2 microM) but not to maximally stimulatory Ca2+ concentrations. At 2 microM-Ca2+ vasopressin caused secretion, which was also augmented by PMA pretreatment. The difference between intact and permeabilized cells could indicate the loss in the latter of soluble factors which mediate the enhanced secretory responses. However, changes in cyclic AMP production could not explain the difference. These results demonstrate that PKC not only exerts inhibitory influences on the coupling of receptors to phospholipase C but also interferes with

  7. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    PubMed Central

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G.; Popovic, S.; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng g−1), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g−1), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g−1). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g−1 in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84–2.46 ng g−1 in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g−1), baking powder (0.64 ng g−1), some cheeses (0.68–2.24 ng g−1), breads and some cereals (0.40–1.73 ng g−1), and fast foods (1.1–10.9 ng g−1). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age–sex groups, with 0.17–0.33 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for infants, 0.082–0.23 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052–0.081 μg kg−1 body weight day−1 for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low. PMID:21623504

  8. Effect of sampling method on the species composition and abundance of adult mosquitoes in a Florida swamp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of the adult mosquito populations in a Florida swamp (Sumter Co.) were obtained using suction traps and portable CDC light traps (augmented with CO2) and the results compared with mosquitoes captured by mechanical aspirator when landing on a human subject. Sixteen mosquito species total wer...

  9. Handle with care: the impact of using Java applets in Web-based studies on dropout and sample composition.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan; Göritz, Anja S; Voracek, Martin

    2011-05-01

    In Web-based studies, Web browsers are used to display online questionnaires. If an online questionnaire relies on non-standard technologies (e.g., Java applets), it is often necessary to install a particular browser plug-in. This can lead to technically induced dropout because some participants lack the technological know-how or the willingness to install the plug-in. In two thematically identical online studies conducted across two time points in two different participant pools (N = 1,527 and 805), we analyzed whether using a Java applet produces dropout and distortion of demographics in the final sample. Dropout was significantly higher on the Java applet questionnaire page than on the preceding and subsequent questionnaire pages. Age-specific effects were found only in one sample (i.e., dropouts were older), whereas sex-specific effects were found in both samples (i.e., women dropped out more frequently than men on the Java applet page). These results additionally support the recommendation that using additional technologies (e.g., Java applets) can be dangerous in producing a sample that is biased toward both younger and male respondents. PMID:20969454

  10. Influence of sample and mobile phase composition on peptide retention behaviour and sensitivity in reversed-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Houbart, V; Rozet, E; Matagne, A; Crommen, J; Servais, A-C; Fillet, M

    2013-11-01

    Because the chromatographic behaviour of peptides is totally different from that of small molecules, a good understanding of the mechanisms that occur from injection to detection in reversed-phase LC-MS is strongly recommended to successfully develop not only qualitative but also quantitative methods. In this study, design of experiments was used in order to investigate the influence of the experimental parameters, i.e. sample and mobile phase composition, on a peptide mixture covering a wide range of molecular weights, isoelectric points and hydropathies. First, a screening design was developed to identify the significant factors concerning mobile phase (ion-pairing reagent nature and concentration) and sample composition (organic modifier proportion and ion-pairing reagent nature) on retention and response intensity (sensitivity). Then, after having selected the experimental domain and the significant factors, a full factorial design was used to further investigate the role of the considered factors and their interactions. Interestingly, ion-pairing reagent nature present in the sample had a tremendous effect on retention and response intensity. Optimal conditions leading to good sensitivity and adequate peptide retention without band splitting were selected and could be used as starting point for rapid method development using classical solvents and ion-pairing reagents. PMID:24070623

  11. A spectrally composite reconstruction approach for improved resolution of pulsed photothermal temperature profiling in water-based samples.

    PubMed

    Milanic, Matija; Sersa, Igor; Majaron, Boris

    2009-05-01

    We report on the first experimental evaluation of pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR) using a spectrally composite kernel matrix in signal analysis. Numerical studies have indicated that this approach could enable PPTR temperature profiling in watery tissues with better accuracy and stability as compared to the customary monochromatic approximation. By using an optimized experimental set-up and image reconstruction code (involving a projected nu-method and adaptive regularization), we demonstrate accurate localization of thin absorbing layers in agar tissue phantoms with pronounced spectral variation of a mid-infrared absorption coefficient. Moreover, the widths of reconstructed temperature peaks reach 14-17% of their depth, significantly less than in earlier reports on PPTR depth profiling in watery tissues. Experimental results are replicated by a detailed numerical simulation, which enables analysis of the broadening effect as a function of temperature profile amplitude and depth. PMID:19369707

  12. Graphene oxide-TiO2 composite solid phase extraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of inorganic selenium in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanan; Chen, Beibei; Wu, Shaowei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a method of graphene oxide (GO)-TiO2 composite solid phase extraction followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection was proposed for the speciation of inorganic selenium in environmental waters. The adsorption behavior of inorganic Se(IV) and Se(VI) on the GO-TiO2(1:1) composite was investigated. It was found that Se(IV) was quantitatively retained on the GO-TiO2 composites within a wide pH range of 0.5-10, while Se(VI) was quantitatively adsorbed on GO-TiO2(1:1) composite at pH 0.5-2, and no obvious adsorption of Se(VI) within the pH range of 4-10 was found. By selecting pH 6.0, Se(IV) could be easily determined. After reduction of Se(VI), total Se was determined by the proposed method, and Se(VI) was calculated as the difference between the total Se and Se(IV). The factors affecting the separation/preconcentration of Se(IV) and Se(VI) were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the isothermal adsorption of Se(IV) on the GO-TiO2(1:1) composite fitted Langmuir model; a linear range over 0.1-12ngmL(-1) was obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) and precision of the method for Se(IV) was 0.04ngmL(-1) and 9.4% (cSe(IV)=0.5ngmL(-1), n=7), respectively. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, a standard water sample (GSBZ50031-94) was analyzed, and the determined value was in a good agreement to the certified value. The established method was applied to inorganic Se speciation in environmental water samples and the recovery of 87.4-102% was obtained for the spiked samples. PMID:27154702

  13. Field-Based Evaluation of Two Herbaceous Plant Community Composition Sampling Methods for Long-Term Monitoring in Northern Great Plains National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symstad, Amy J.; Wienk, Cody L.; Thorstenson, Andy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains Inventory & Monitoring (I&M) Network (Network) of the National Park Service (NPS) consists of 13 NPS units in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and eastern Wyoming. The Network is in the planning phase of a long-term program to monitor the health of park ecosystems. Plant community composition is one of the 'Vital Signs,' or indicators, that will be monitored as part of this program for three main reasons. First, plant community composition is information-rich; a single sampling protocol can provide information on the diversity of native and non-native species, the abundance of individual dominant species, and the abundance of groups of plants. Second, plant community composition is of specific management concern. The abundance and diversity of exotic plants, both absolute and relative to native species, is one of the greatest management concerns in almost all Network parks (Symstad 2004). Finally, plant community composition reflects the effects of a variety of current or anticipated stressors on ecosystem health in the Network parks including invasive exotic plants, large ungulate grazing, lack of fire in a fire-adapted system, chemical exotic plant control, nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and climate change. Before the Network begins its Vital Signs monitoring, a detailed plan describing specific protocols used for each of the Vital Signs must go through rigorous development and review. The pilot study on which we report here is one of the components of this protocol development. The goal of the work we report on here was to determine a specific method to use for monitoring plant community composition of the herb layer (< 2 m tall).

  14. Analytical techniques for retrieval of atmospheric composition with the quadrupole mass spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B. Franz, Heather; G. Trainer, Melissa; H. Wong, Michael; L. K. Manning, Heidi; C. Stern, Jennifer; R. Mahaffy, Paul; K. Atreya, Sushil; Benna, Mehdi; G. Conrad, Pamela; N. Harpold, Dan; A. Leshin, Laurie; A. Malespin, Charles; P. McKay, Christopher; Thomas Nolan, J.; Raaen, Eric

    2014-06-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite is the largest scientific payload on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover, which landed in Mars' Gale Crater in August 2012. As a miniature geochemical laboratory, SAM is well-equipped to address multiple aspects of MSL's primary science goal, characterizing the potential past or present habitability of Gale Crater. Atmospheric measurements support this goal through compositional investigations relevant to martian climate evolution. SAM instruments include a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and a gas chromatograph that are used to analyze martian atmospheric gases as well as volatiles released by pyrolysis of solid surface materials (Mahaffy et al., 2012). This report presents analytical methods for retrieving the chemical and isotopic composition of Mars' atmosphere from measurements obtained with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer. It provides empirical calibration constants for computing volume mixing ratios of the most abundant atmospheric species and analytical functions to correct for instrument artifacts and to characterize measurement uncertainties. Finally, we discuss differences in volume mixing ratios of the martian atmosphere as determined by SAM (Mahaffy et al., 2013) and Viking (Owen et al., 1977; Oyama and Berdahl, 1977) from an analytical perspective. Although the focus of this paper is atmospheric observations, much of the material concerning corrections for instrumental effects also applies to reduction of data acquired with SAM from analysis of solid samples. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument measures the composition of the martian atmosphere. Rigorous calibration of SAM's mass spectrometer was performed with relevant gas mixtures. Calibration included derivation of a new model to correct for electron multiplier effects. Volume mixing ratios for Ar and N2 obtained with SAM differ from those obtained with Viking. Differences between SAM and Viking

  15. The lunar neutron energy spectrum inferred from the isotope compositions of rare-earth elements and hafnium in Apollo samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalat, Emmanuelle; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Telouk, Philippe; Albarède, Francis

    2015-11-01

    The isotopic abundances of Sm, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, and Hf have been measured in nine lunar samples by MC-ICP-MS. The data were corrected for both instrumental mass bias and natural isotope fractionation. We used the data to calculate the total flux and energy spectrum of the neutrons absorbed by the rocks. We write the constitutive equations of the isotopic changes for these elements induced by neutrons and solve the inverse problem by computing local energy averages. Resonant absorption peaks can be used as convenient kernels to define the spectrum of epithermal neutrons. We find that 149Sm and 157Gd anomalies correlate with neutron flux density for E < 0.015 eV (r2 > 0.98) and E ≈ 0.13 eV (r2 > 0.85), while no significant correlation exists between the ratio of these anomalies and the epithermal/thermal flux ratio at any value of energy. Neutron flux density variations can be used to trace the proportions of neutrons scattered out of the samples. The spectrum in the thermal region follows the expected E - 1 / 2 dependence but with 'notches' corresponding to neutron absorption. A major notch at the lowest end of the epithermal neutron spectrum (0.2-0.8 eV) is possibly due to absorption of neutrons by 151Eu, 167Er, and 149Sm. In general, we find a rather good correlation between the neutron flux density at specific energies and the exposure age, which suggests a mean residence time of the samples at the surface of the regolith of 2-300 Ma. Another correlation of epithermal neutrons with sample wt% FeO + TiO2 is consistent with orbital reflectance observations.

  16. Trawls and cooling-water intakes as estuarine fish sampling tools: Comparisons of catch composition, trends in relative abundance, and length selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, M. F. D.

    2008-01-01

    Fish populations in estuaries are often monitored with traditional sampling gears such as trawls. Trawling is relatively expensive and may be hindered by environmental conditions such as tides and substrates. Power station cooling-water intake screens have been effectively used as estuarine fish sampling devices for many years, but very few quantitative comparisons of intake fish-catch characteristics with samples from other collection methods have been made. Fish collected at the cooling-water intake of a large power station in the lower Forth estuary, UK, were more similar in assemblage composition to fish caught by nearby pelagic trawling than to fish caught by Agassiz (demersal) trawling, mostly because the intake and pelagic-trawl catches were largely composed of clupeids ( Sprattus sprattus and Clupea harengus). The intake catch was typified by pelagic, demersal, and benthic species, however, and was less variable than the catches made by the two trawls. Monthly trends in relative abundance correlated reasonably well between the intake and trawl samples. Fish collected at the intake tended to be significantly smaller than those collected by trawling, which was probably attributable to the intake's smaller mesh size. The study highlighted the utility of a cooling-water intake as an efficient, low-cost fish sampling device, which should be considered as an alternative to trawling as the cost of the latter increases into the future.

  17. The effects of composition, temperature and sample size on the sintering of chem-prep high field varistors.

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.

    2007-09-01

    The sintering behavior of Sandia chem-prep high field varistor materials was studied using techniques including in situ shrinkage measurements, optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. A thorough literature review of phase behavior, sintering and microstructure in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO varistor systems is included. The effects of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content (from 0.25 to 0.56 mol%) and of sodium doping level (0 to 600 ppm) on the isothermal densification kinetics was determined between 650 and 825 C. At {ge} 750 C samples with {ge}0.41 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} have very similar densification kinetics, whereas samples with {le}0.33 mol% begin to densify only after a period of hours at low temperatures. The effect of the sodium content was greatest at {approx}700 C for standard 0.56 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and was greater in samples with 0.30 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} than for those with 0.56 mol%. Sintering experiments on samples of differing size and shape found that densification decreases and mass loss increases with increasing surface area to volume ratio. However, these two effects have different causes: the enhancement in densification as samples increase in size appears to be caused by a low oxygen internal atmosphere that develops whereas the mass loss is due to the evaporation of bismuth oxide. In situ XRD experiments showed that the bismuth is initially present as an oxycarbonate that transforms to metastable {beta}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} by 400 C. At {approx}650 C, coincident with the onset of densification, the cubic binary phase, Bi{sub 38}ZnO{sub 58} forms and remains stable to >800 C, indicating that a eutectic liquid does not form during normal varistor sintering ({approx}730 C). Finally, the formation and morphology of bismuth oxide phase regions that form on the varistors surfaces during slow cooling were studied.

  18. The planar age-velocity dispersion relation from a polar sample of F stars with solar composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knude, J.; Winther, M.; Schnedler Nielsen, H.

    1987-06-01

    A photometric catalog of A and F stars at the North Galactic Pole is compared to the AGK 3. The intersection contains 2359 stars. Due to the high latitude of these stars, b > +70°, an accurate estimate of the plane parallel velocities U and V is obtainable from proper motions and distances alone. Complete subsamples of unevolved and slightly evolved F stars of solar composition are used to study the variation of the velocity dispersions σU and σV with time. Both dispersions are found to follow power laws very closely but the two laws have significantly different powers. The axial ratio σV/σU is found to change from 1 to about 0.5 during a period lasting five billion years signifying a changing shape of the velocity ellipsoid. The age variation's power may discriminate between disk heating mechanisms. It is therefore interesting that the two resulting powers almost are identical to those suggested for spiral wave heating (+1/2) and heating by gravitational collisions with giant molecular clouds (+1/4) respectively. The dispersion of the velocity parallel to the plane is found to obey a law with power ≈1/2.

  19. Composition and concentration of hydrocarbons in sediment samples from the oil producing area of the East Shetland Basin, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Russell, M; Webster, L; Walsham, P; Packer, G; Dalgarno, E J; McIntosh, A D; Fryer, R J; Moffat, C F

    2008-04-01

    The East Shetland Basin is one of the areas that the Fisheries Research Services (FRS) has concentrated on to assess the possible impacts of oil exploration and production on the marine environment. A stratified random survey of the sediment was carried out in 2002. TOCs were low across the basin and were positively correlated with grain size. The total PAH concentrations (2- to 6-ring parent and alkylated PAHs, including the 16 US EPA PAHs) were less than 150 microg kg(-1) dry weight and their composition indicated a predominantly pyrolytic input to the basin in 2002. Minor unresolved complex mixtures in the n-alkane profiles indicated a slight petrogenic input but further examination of the biomarkers (hopanes and steranes) showed a mixed North Sea and Middle Eastern source. The Middle Eastern source is likely due to inputs from shipping activity, as it is widely used as bunker fuel. Grid surveys were carried out in 1986, 1988-89 and 1994 and areas were selected for which there was data for all the historic grid surveys and the 2002 stratified random survey. Although referring to only a small part of the East Shetland Basin, comparison with these historic surveys shows clearly that the concentrations of Forties crude oil equivalents and total PAH concentrations were highest in 1988-89 and by 2002 had returned to concentrations the same as or less than observed in the original survey in 1986. PMID:18385878

  20. The composite effect for inverted faces is reliable at large sample sizes and requires the basic face configuration.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Rezlescu, Constantin; Duchaine, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The absence of the face composite effect (FCE) for inverted faces is often considered evidence that holistic processing operates only on upright faces. However, such absence might be explained by power issues: Most studies that have failed to find the inverted FCE tested 24 participants or less. Here we find that the inverted FCE exists reliably when we tested at least 60 participants. The inverted FCE was ∼ 18% the size of the upright FCE, and it was unaffected by testing order: It did not matter whether participants did the upright condition first (Experiment 1, n = 64) or the inverted condition first (Experiment 2, n = 68). The effect also remained when upright and inverted trials were mixed (Experiment 3, n = 60). An individual differences analysis found a modest positive correlation between inverted and upright FCE, suggesting partially shared mechanisms. A critical control experiment demonstrates that the inverted FCE cannot be explained by visuospatial attention or other generic accounts because the effect disappeared when the basic face configuration was disrupted (Experiment 4, n = 50). Our study shows that the inverted FCE is a reliable effect that requires an intact face configuration, consistent with the notion that some holistic processing also operates on inverted faces. PMID:24222184

  1. Magnetic graphene - polystyrene sulfonic acid nano composite: A dispersive cation exchange sorbent for the enrichment of aminoalcohols and ethanolamines from environmental aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2015-12-01

    Present study aimed at graphene surface modification to achieve selective analyte binding in dispersive solid phase extraction. Magnetic graphene - polystyrene sulfonic acid (MG-PSS) cation exchange nano-composite was prepared by non-covalent wrapping method. Composite was characterized by FT-IR and zeta potential. Material exhibited good dispersion in water and high exchange capacity of 1.97±0.16mMg(-1). Prepared nano-sorbent was then exploited for the cation exchange extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometric analysis of Chemical Weapons Convention relevant aminoalcohols and ethanolamines from aqueous samples. Extraction parameters such as sorbent amount, extraction time, desorption conditions and sample pH were optimized and effect of common matrix interferences such as polyethylene glycol and metal salts was also studied. Three milligram of sorbent per mL of sample with 20min of extraction time at room temperature afforded 70-81% recoveries of the selected analytes spiked at concentration level of 1μgmL(-1). Method showed good linearity in the studied range with r(2)≥0.993. The limits of detection and limits of quantification ranged from 23 to 54ngmL(-1) and 72 to 147ngmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation for intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 4.6 to 10.2% and 7.4 to 14.8% respectively. Applicability of the method to different environmental samples as well as the proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) was also ascertained. PMID:26554296

  2. Property changes induced by the space environment in composite materials on LDEF: Solar array materials passive LDEF experiment A0171 (SAMPLE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Surface modifications to composite materials induced by long term exposure in low earth orbit (LEO) were dominated by atomic oxygen erosion and micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. As expected, calculated erosion rates were peculiar to material type and within the predicted order of magnitude. Generally, about one ply of the carbon fiber composites was eroded during the 70 month LDEF experiment. Matrix erosion was greater than fiber erosion and was more evident for a polysulfone matrix than for epoxy matrices. Micrometeoroid and space debris impacts resulted in small (less than 1mm) craters and splattered contaminants on all samples. Surfaces became more diffuse and darker with small increases in emissivity and absorption. Tensile strength decreased roughly with thickness loss, and epoxy matrices apparently became slightly embrittled, probably as a result of continued curing under UV and/or electron bombardment. However, changes in the ultimate yield stress of the carbon reinforced epoxy composites correlate neither with weave direction nor fiber type. Unexpected developments were the discovery of new synergistic effects of the space environment in the interaction of atomic oxygen and copious amounts of contamination and in the induced luminescence of many materials.

  3. Property changes induced by the space environment in composite materials on LDEF: Solar array materials passive LDEF experiment A0171 (SAMPLE)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Surface modifications to composite materials induced by long term exposure in low earth orbit (LEO) were dominated by atomic oxygen erosion and micrometeoroid and space debris impacts. As expected, calculated erosion rates were peculiar to material type and within the predicted order of magnitude. Generally, about one ply of the carbon fiber composites was eroded during the 70 month LDEF experiment. Matrix erosion was greater than fiber erosion and was more evident for a polysulfone matrix than for epoxy matrices. Micrometeoroid and space debris impacts resulted in small (less than 1mm) craters and splattered contaminants on all samples. Surfaces became more diffuse and darker with small increases in emissivity and absorption. Tensile strength decreased roughly with thickness loss, and epoxy matrices apparently became slightly embrittled, probably as a result of continued curing under UV and/or electron bombardment. However, changes in the ultimate yield stress of the carbon reinforced epoxy composites correlate neither with weave direction nor fiber type. Unexpected developments were the discovery of new synergistic effects of the space environment in the interaction of atomic oxygen and copious amounts of contamination and in the induced luminescence of many materials.

  4. Preconcentration and analysis of Rhodamine B in water and red wine samples by using magnesium hydroxide/carbon nanotube composites as a solid-phase extractant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Liang; Liu, Qi; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Jin-Gang

    2015-10-01

    A convenient and accurate analysis approach that combined solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography was developed to determine the amount of Rhodamine B in red wine and Xiang-jiang river water samples. A novel composite, magnesium hydroxide/carbon nanotube composites, was synthesized and used as the solid-phase extractant for the preconcentration/analysis of Rhodamine B. Magnesium hydroxide/carbon nanotube composites, which combined the merits of carbon nanotubes and magnesium hydroxide, exhibited acceptable adsorption and desorption efficiencies for Rhodamine B. The linear range of the proposed solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography method for Rhodamine B was 0.05-20.0 mg/L, with a limit of detection of 3.6 μg/L. The precision and reproducibility of the developed solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography method and the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the solid-phase extractant were also validated at spiking levels of 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L. The recovery of Rhodamine B was 94.33-106.7%, and the recovery relative standard deviations of the intra- and interday precisions were ≤ 3.83 and ≤ 6.01%, respectively. The relative standard deviation of the batch-to-batch reproducibility was ≤ 7.98%. PMID:26179418

  5. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples with a β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Panjie; Cui, Xiangqian; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Lu, Runhua

    2016-01-01

    A β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite was prepared and used as a dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction sorbent for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in honey samples. Parameters that may influence the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of the eluent, the amount of the sorbent, the extraction time and the ionic strength were investigated and optimized using batch and column procedures. Under optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained for all of the tested compounds, with R(2) values of at least 0.9834. The limits of detection were determined in the range of 0.2-1.0 μg/L. The recoveries of the four benzoylurea insecticides in vitex honey and acacia honey increased from 15.2 to 81.4% and from 14.2 to 82.0%, respectively. Although the β-cyclodextrin-modified attapulgite composite did not show a brilliant adsorption capacity for the selected benzoylurea insecticides, it exhibited a higher adsorption capacity toward relatively hydrophobic compounds, such as chlorfluazuron and hexaflumuron (recoveries in vitex honey samples ranged from 70.0 to 81.4% with a precision of 1.0-3.7%). It seemed that the logPow of the benzoylurea insecticides is related to their recoveries. The results confirmed the possibility of using cyclodextrin-modified palygorskite in the determination of relatively hydrophobic trace pharmaceutical residues. PMID:26573895

  6. Comparison of the Organic Composition of Cometary Samples with Residues Formed from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuevo, M.; Cody, G.; Kilcoyne, D.; Milam, S. N.; Sandford, S.

    2009-12-01

    We present C-, N-, and O-XANES (X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy) results of organic residues produced in the laboratory from the UV irradiation of astrophysical ice mixture analogs containing H2O, CO, CH3OH, NH3, and/or naphthalene (C10H8), and/or hexane (C6H14), in order to mimic processes that may occur in cold icy bodies of the outer Solar System, particularly comets. Such analyses showed that laboratory-formed organic residues mainly consist of a solid phase and an oily phase. C-XANES analysis of the solid phase suggests a rich distribution of organic functionalities, among which carbonyl, C=C, and alcohols, whereas N-XANES spectra indicate the possible presence of amide, amine, and nitrile groups. O-XANES spectra confirmed the O-bearing groups. These results are compared with the XANES spectra obtained from cometary samples.

  7. Carbon and Sulfur Isotopic Composition of Rocknest Soil as Determined with the Sample Analysis at Mars(SAM) Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, H. B.; McAdam, C.; Stern, J. C.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Sutter, B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jones, J. H.; Leshin, L. A.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Niles, P. B.; Owen, T. C.; Raaen, E.; Steele, A.; Webster, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover got its first taste of solid Mars in the form of loose, unconsolidated materials (soil) acquired from an aeolian bedform designated Rocknest. Evolved gas analysis (EGA) revealed the presence of H2O as well as O-, C- and S-bearing phases in these samples. CheMin did not detect crystalline phases containing these gaseous species but did detect the presence of X-ray amorphous materials. In the absence of definitive mineralogical identification by CheMin, SAM EGA data can provide clues to the nature and/or mineralogy of volatile-bearing phases through examination of temperatures at which gases are evolved from solid samples. In addition, the isotopic composition of these gases, particularly when multiple sources contribute to a given EGA curve, may be used to identify possible formation scenarios and relationships between phases. Here we report C and S isotope ratios for CO2 and SO2 evolved from Rocknest soil samples as measured with SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS).

  8. Validation of mega composite sampling and nationwide mass inventories for 26 previously unmonitored contaminants in archived biosolids from the U.S National Biosolids Repository

    PubMed Central

    Chari, Bipin P.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, archived U.S biosolids from the 2001 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Sewage Sludge Survey were analyzed with an expanded U.S EPA Method 1694, to determine the occurrence of 26 previously unmonitored pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) among a total of 120 analytes. The study further served to examine the reproducibility of a mega-composite approach for creating chemical mass inventories in biosolids based on pooled samples from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) nationwide. Five mega-composites reflecting 94 WWTPs in 32 states and the District of Columbia were constructed from archived biosolids and analyzed by LC/ESI-MS/MS using a newly introduced analytical method expanding upon U.S EPA Method 1694. In addition, soil-biosolids mixtures from a mesocosm setup were analyzed to experimentally determine the half-lives of biosolids-borne compounds applied on U.S land. Among 59 analytes detected, 33 had been reported previously, whereas 26 are reported in biosolids for the first time, at levels ranging from 1.65 to 673 μg kg−1 dry weight. Newly recognized biosolids constituents were identified as Ca2+ channel blockers, antidepressants, diuretics, β-blockers and analgesics. Using a mass balance approach, the total loading of these 26 pharmaceuticals to U.S soils from biosolids land application was estimated at 5–15 tons year−1. Past and present datasets for 30 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were determined to be statistically indistinguishable (paired t-test; p = 0.01). This study expands the list of PPCPs reported in U.S biosolids, provides the first estimates of nationwide release rates to and environmental half-lives in U.S agricultural soils, and confirms the utility of using mega-composite sampling for economical tracking of chemical inventories in biosolids on a national scale. PMID:22789759

  9. Linking Samples to Orbital Imagery: Cataloging the Spectral Signatures of the Transantarctic Mountains for Future Compositional Studies and Remote Ground Truthing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Morin, P. J.; Roth, G.; Grunow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past five years, remote spectral investigations of ice-free Antarctic geology have become possible through improvements to atmospheric correction techniques and detailed laboratory- and field-based spectral validation. These investigations have provided new insight into the primary (inherent lithologic variability) and secondary (chemical weathering and surface alteration processes) geologic processes that have occurred across the Antarctic continent. While largely limited to familiar areas that have been thoroughly investigated in the field, such ground validation is possible through analyzing well-documented samples returned by previous investigators. This work also provides the first critical steps towards examining the nature of atmospheric contributions to orbital data across the Antarctic continent and developing a means of effectively removing their contributions. In close collaboration with the Polar Geospatial Center (PGC) and the Polar Rock Repository (PRR), we have begun collecting and archiving visible and near-infrared (0.35 - 2.50 microns) hyperspectral data of samples currently archived at the PRR. These samples include a range of clasts and sediments that span the full diversity of Antarctic geology. As they are collected, these data are shared and archived at both the PGC and PRR, and will soon be incorporated into the PRR digital data archive that accompanies all lithologic samples. We will report on the progress of this investigation, including preliminary associations between the laboratory-derived spectra and high-resolution (meter-scale) orbital data from the PGC. These investigations suggest that first-order atmospheric removal and compositional investigations can be performed remotely for areas where samples have been collected and analyzed. Future work will continue to expand the geographic range of analyzed samples, particularly along the Antarctic coast.

  10. AMS Measurements in National Parks of Aerosol Mass, Size and Composition, Comparison with Filter Samples and Correlation with Particle Hygroscopicity and Optical Extinction Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M.; Taylor, N. F.; Collins, D. R.; Kumar, N.; Allen, J.; Newburn, M.; Lowenthal, D. H.; Zielinska, B.

    2011-12-01

    We report a comparison of results from aerosol studies at Great Smoky Mountain National Park (2006), Mt. Rainier National Park (2009) and Acadia National Park (2011), all class I visibility areas associated with IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) sites. This collaborative study was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and was done with the cooperation of the National Park Service and the EPA. The atmospheric aerosol composition in these sites is influenced by a number of anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources, providing a rich environment for fundamental aerosol studies. The primary purpose of these studies was to add state-of-the-art aerosol instrumentation to the standard light extinction and aerosol measurements at the site, used to determine parameters for the IMPROVE light extinction reconstruction equation, adopted by the EPA to estimate light extinction from atmospheric aerosol concentrations and Rayleigh scattering. The combination of these diverse measurements also provides significant insight into fundamental aerosol properties such as aging and radiative forcing. New instrumentation included a quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer (Aerodyne Q-AMS-Smoky Mountain Study), a high resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS - Mt. Rainier and Acadia studies) for real time measurements that directly address the relationship between sulfate, nitrate, and OC size and concentration, which is related to cloud and dry gas-to-particle conversion as air masses age during transport, the relationship between WSOC hygroscopic growth and oxygenated organic (OOA) composition, the OCM/OC ratio, and the chemical composition that determines the ambient hygroscopic state. The OCM/OC ratio and organic water uptake was addressed with high-volume and medium volume PM2.5 aerosol samples. Aerosols were collected daily on Teflon coated glass fiber filters (TGFF) in four high-volume PM2.5 samplers

  11. Reconstruction of in-situ porosity and porewater compositions of low-permeability crystalline rocks: Magnitude of artefacts induced by drilling and sample recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, D. B.; Waber, H. N.; Gimmi, T.; Eichinger, F.; Diamond, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Geological site characterisation programmes typically rely on drill cores for direct information on subsurface rocks. However, porosity, transport properties and porewater composition measured on drill cores can deviate from in-situ values due to two main artefacts caused by drilling and sample recovery: (1) mechanical disruption that increases porosity and (2) contamination of the porewater by drilling fluid. We investigated the effect and magnitude of these perturbations on large drill core samples (12-20 cm long, 5 cm diameter) of high-grade, granitic gneisses obtained from 350 to 600 m depth in a borehole on Olkiluoto Island (SW Finland). The drilling fluid was traced with sodium-iodide. By combining out-diffusion experiments, gravimetry, UV-microscopy and iodide mass balance calculations, we successfully quantified the magnitudes of the artefacts: 2-6% increase in porosity relative to the bulk connected porosity and 0.9 to 8.9 vol.% contamination by drilling fluid. The spatial distribution of the drilling-induced perturbations was revealed by numerical simulations of 2D diffusion matched to the experimental data. This showed that the rims of the samples have a mechanically disrupted zone 0.04 to 0.22 cm wide, characterised by faster transport properties compared to the undisturbed centre (1.8 to 7.7 times higher pore diffusion coefficient). Chemical contamination was shown to affect an even wider zone in all samples, ranging from 0.15 to 0.60 cm, in which iodide enrichment was up to 180 mg/kgwater, compared to 0.5 mg/kgwater in the uncontaminated centre. For all samples in the present case study, it turned out that the magnitude of the artefacts caused by drilling and sample recovery is so small that no correction is required for their effects. Therefore, the standard laboratory measurements of porosity, transport properties and porewater composition can be taken as valid in-situ estimates. However, it is clear that the magnitudes strongly depend on site- and

  12. Reconstruction of in-situ porosity and porewater compositions of low-permeability crystalline rocks: Magnitude of artefacts induced by drilling and sample recovery.

    PubMed

    Meier, D B; Waber, H N; Gimmi, T; Eichinger, F; Diamond, L W

    2015-12-01

    Geological site characterisation programmes typically rely on drill cores for direct information on subsurface rocks. However, porosity, transport properties and porewater composition measured on drill cores can deviate from in-situ values due to two main artefacts caused by drilling and sample recovery: (1) mechanical disruption that increases porosity and (2) contamination of the porewater by drilling fluid. We investigated the effect and magnitude of these perturbations on large drill core samples (12-20 cm long, 5 cm diameter) of high-grade, granitic gneisses obtained from 350 to 600 m depth in a borehole on Olkiluoto Island (SW Finland). The drilling fluid was traced with sodium-iodide. By combining out-diffusion experiments, gravimetry, UV-microscopy and iodide mass balance calculations, we successfully quantified the magnitudes of the artefacts: 2-6% increase in porosity relative to the bulk connected porosity and 0.9 to 8.9 vol.% contamination by drilling fluid. The spatial distribution of the drilling-induced perturbations was revealed by numerical simulations of 2D diffusion matched to the experimental data. This showed that the rims of the samples have a mechanically disrupted zone 0.04 to 0.22 cm wide, characterised by faster transport properties compared to the undisturbed centre (1.8 to 7.7 times higher pore diffusion coefficient). Chemical contamination was shown to affect an even wider zone in all samples, ranging from 0.15 to 0.60 cm, in which iodide enrichment was up to 180 mg/kg water, compared to 0.5 mg/kg water in the uncontaminated centre. For all samples in the present case study, it turned out that the magnitude of the artefacts caused by drilling and sample recovery is so small that no correction is required for their effects. Therefore, the standard laboratory measurements of porosity, transport properties and porewater composition can be taken as valid in-situ estimates. However, it is clear that the magnitudes strongly depend on site

  13. The role of Al in C-S-H: NMR, XRD, and compositional results for precipitated samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, G.K.; Young, J. Francis; Kirkpatrick, R. James . E-mail: kirkpat@uiuc.edu

    2006-01-15

    X-ray diffraction, compositional analysis, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectroscopy of Al-substituted tobermorite-type C-S-H made by precipitation from solution provide significant new insight into the structural mechanisms of Al-substitution in this important and complicated phase. Al occurs in 4-, 5-, and 6-coordination (Al[4], Al[5], and Al[6]) and plays multiple structural roles. Al[4] occurs on the bridging tetrahedra of the drierkette Al-silicate chains, and Al[5] and Al[6] occur in the interlayer and perhaps on particle surfaces. Al does not enter either the central Ca-O sheet or the pairing tetrahedra of the tobermorite-type layers. Al[4] occurs on three types of bridging sites, Q{sup 3} sites that bridge across the interlayer; Q{sup 2} sites that are charge balanced by interlayer Ca{sup +2}, Na{sup +}, or H{sup +}; and Q{sup 2} sites that are most likely charge balanced by interlayer or surface Al[5] and Al[6] through Al[4]-O-Al[5,6] linkages. Although the data presented here are for relatively well-crystallized tobermorite-type C-S-H with C/S ratios {<=} 1.2, comparable spectral features for hydrated white cement pastes in previously published papers [M.D. Andersen, H.J. Jakobsen, J. Skibsted, Incorporation of aluminum in the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) of hydrated Portland cements: a high-field {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR investigation Inorg. Chem. 42 (2003) 2280-2287; M.D. Andersen, H.J. Jakobsen, J. Skibsted, Characterization of white Portland cement hydration and the C-S-H structure in the presence of sodium aliminate by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, Cem. Concr. Res. 43 (2004) 857-868; M.D. Andersen, H. J. Jakobsen, J. Skibsted, A new aluminum-hydrate phase in hydrated Portland cements characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, Cem. Concr. Res., submitted for publication.] indicate the presence of similar structural environments in the C-S-H of such pastes, and by implication OPC pastes.

  14. Effervescence-assisted β-cyclodextrin/attapulgite composite for the in-syringe dispersive solid-phase extraction of pyrethroids in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Panjie; Li, Xiaobing; Hu, Lu; Gao, Haixiang; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Lu, Runhua

    2016-06-01

    In this research, an effervescence-assisted β-cyclodextrin/attapulgite composite (β-CD/ATP) for the in-syringe dispersive solid-phase extraction (EAIS-DSPE) of pyrethroids in environmental samples was developed for the first time. A syringe was used to conduct the extraction procedure and a small amount of β-CD/ATP was dispersed into the solution with the release of carbon dioxide when the effervescent tablet components dissolved in water. Then, the sorbent was recovered using a filter membrane, and the analytes were directly eluted using acetonitrile. In the process, the β-CD/ATP sorbent resulted in an excellent extraction efficiency compared to commercially available sorbents such as C18 and HLB. Moreover, in the extraction procedure, both the β-cyclodextrin inclusion interactions (especially the hydrophobic effects) and the special structure of the ATP contributed to the efficient enrichment of pyrethroids in aqueous media. The amount of β-CD/ATP sorbent, the volume of desorption, the ratio of NaH2PO4/Na2CO3, the volume of the sample, and the pH were screened using a Plackett-Burman design. All factors affecting the procedure were optimized by applying a central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, a good repeatability (RSDs) ranging from 1.7 to 2.3, linearity (2.5-500μgL(-1)), limits of detection (LODs) (0.15-1.03μgL(-1)), and an acceptable recoveries (76.8-86.5%) were achieved. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of pyrethroids in environmental samples including river water, reservoir water and lake water. PMID:27130127

  15. DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDES IN COMPOSITE DIETARY SAMPLES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE SELECTED ION MONITORING MODE USING A TEMPERATURE PROGRAMMABLE LARGE VOLUME INJECTOR WITH PRE-SEPARATION COLUMN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of a temperature-programmable pre-separation column in the gas chromatographic injection port permits determination of a wide range of semi-volatile pesticides including organochlorines, organophosphates, triazines, and anilines in fatty composite dietary samples while reduci...

  16. Isotopic and Chemical Composition of Inorganic and Organic Water-Quality Samples from the Mississippi River Basin, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Kendall, Carol; Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Silva, Steven R.; Campbell, Donald H.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3) and other nutrients discharged by the Mississippi River combined with seasonal stratification of the water column are known to cause a zone of depleted dissolved oxygen (hypoxic zone) in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. About 120 water and suspended sediment samples collected in 1997 and 1998 from 24 locations in the Mississippi River Basin were analyzed for the isotope ratios d15N and d18O of dissolved NO3, and d15N and d13C of suspended particulate organic material (POM). Sampling stations include both large rivers (drainage areas more than 30,000 square kilometers) that integrate the effects of many land uses, and smaller streams (drainage areas less than 2,500 square kilometers) that have relatively uniform land use within their drainage areas. The data are used to determine sources and transformations of NO3 in the Mississippi River. Results of this study demonstrate that much of the NO3 in the Mississippi River originates in the agriculturally dominated basins of the upper midwestern United States and is transported without significant transformation or other loss to the Gulf of Mexico. Results from major tributaries that drain into the Mississippi River suggest that NO3 is not significantly altered by denitrification in its journey, ultimately, to the Gulf of Mexico. The spatial variability of isotope ratios among the smaller streams appears to be related to the dominant nitrogen source in the basins. There are some distinct isotope differences among land-use types. For example, for both NO3 and POM, the majority of d15N isotope ratio values from basins dominated by urban and undeveloped land are less than +5 per mil, whereas the majority of values from basins dominated by row crops and row crops and/or livestock production are greater than +5 per mil. Also, the median d18O of NO3 isotope ratio value (+14.0 per mil) from undeveloped basins is more than 6 per mil higher than the median value (+7.3 per mil) from the row crop dominated basins and 5

  17. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.

  18. Partitioning of Nb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Pb, Th and U between immiscible carbonate and silicate liquids: Evaluating the effects of P2O5,F, and carbonate composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.; Walker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Previously we have reported carbonate liq./silicate liq. partition coefficients (D) for a standard suite of trace elements (Nb, Mo, Ba, Ce, Pb, Th, and U) and Ra and Pa as well. In brief, we have found that immiscible liquid partitioning is a strong function of temperature. As the critical temperature of the carbonate-silicate solvus is approached, all partition coefficients approach unity. Additionally, for the overwhelming majority of the partitioning elements, InD is a linear function of 'ionic field strength,' z/r, where z is the charge of the partitioned cation and r is its ionic radius.

  19. Delocalization and occupancy effects of 5f orbitals in plutonium intermetallics using L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, C. H.; Medling, S. A.; Jiang, Yu; Bauer, E. D.; Tobash, P. H.; Mitchell, J. N.; Veirs, D. K.; Wall, M. A.; Allen, P. G.; Kas, J. J.; Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T. -C.

    2014-06-24

    Although actinide (An) L3 -edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been very effective in determining An oxidation states in insulating, ionically bonded materials, such as in certain coordination compounds and mineral systems, the technique fails in systems featuring more delocalized 5f orbitals, especially in metals. Recently, actinide L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spec- troscopy (RXES) has been shown to be an effective alternative. This technique is further demonstrated here using a parameterized partial unoccupied density of states method to quantify both occupancy and delocalization of the 5f orbital in ?-Pu, ?-Pu, PuCoGa5 , PuCoIn5 , and PuSb2. These new results, supported by FEFF calculations, highlight the effects of strong correlations on RXES spectra and the technique?s ability to differentiate between f-orbital occupation and delocalization.

  20. Demonstration of carcinogenicity in F344 rats of 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline from broiled sardine, fried beef and beef extract.

    PubMed

    Takayama, S; Nakatsuru, Y; Masuda, M; Ohgaki, H; Sato, S; Sugimura, T

    1984-06-01

    The mutagenic compound 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, originally isolated from broiled sardines and also present in cooked beef and beef extract, is being tested for carcinogenicity in F344 rats of both sexes. High incidences of tumors of the Zymbal gland, colon, small intestine and liver in males have been observed in the first 300 days of the experiment. PMID:6468834

  1. Chemical composition of the essential oils of the flowers, leaves and stems of two senecio polyanthemoides Sch. Bip. samples from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oladipupo, Lawal A; Adebola, Oyedeji O

    2009-01-01

    The essential oils of the flowers, leaves and stems of Senecio polyanthemoides Sch. Bip. Samples collected from two different localities within the city of uMhlathuze, KwaZulu-Natal Province (South Africa) were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC and GC/MS. Twenty-six constituents were identified, representing an average of 86.0 - 99.6% of the total oil composition. The chemical profile reveals the dominance of monoterpenoid compounds, although some quantitative variance was noticed. The main constituents of the oils were limonene (3.1 - 43.0%), p-cymene (4.9-36.3%), beta-selinene (1.3-32.7%), alpha-pinene (1.8-21.4%), beta-pinene (7.6-16.5%) and 1,8-cineole (9.3-11.4%), caryophyllene oxide (4.1-13.4%) and humulene epoxide II (8.6-10.3%). PMID:19513007

  2. Trace element and Pb isotope composition of plagioclase from dome samples from the 2004-2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington: Chapter 35 in A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Adam J.R.; Rowe, Michael C.; Thornber, Carl R.; Pallister, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Plagioclase crystals from gabbronorite inclusions in three dacite samples have markedly different trace-element and Pbisotope compositions from those of plagioclase phenocrysts, despite having a similar range of anorthite contents. Inclusions show some systematic differences from each other but typically have higher Ti, Ba, LREE, and Pb and lower Sr and have lower 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios than coexisting plagioclase phenocrysts. The compositions of plagioclase from inclusions cannot be related to phenocryst compositions by any reasonable petrologic model. From this we suggest that they are unlikely to represent magmatic cumulates or restite inclusions but instead are samples of mafic Tertiary basement from beneath the volcano.

  3. Evaluation of mitochondrial divisions in mouse with type-2 diabetes and effect of glucose-oxidase on mouse islet cells RIN-m5F.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Li, Fan; Zhang, Anping; Wang, Li; Tong, Weidong; Liu, Baohua

    2014-03-01

    To elucidate the relationship between dynamic variations of insular β cell mitochondria and type-2 diabetes by using a mouse model, the dynamic variation (fusion or fission) of insular β cell mitochondria present in two groups of Wistar mice with type-2 diabetes (high fat feeding and streptozotocin (STZ) adding with low dose and high frequency, high fat feeding and STZ adding with high dose and low frequency), and normal Wistar mouse were systematically compared. By analysing the insulin secretion level and other related indexes, the molecular mechanism of the fusion or fission phenomenon of insular β cell mitochondria in two different models (high fat feeding and STZ adding with low dose and high frequency, high fat feeding and STZ adding with high dose and low frequency) of mice with type-2 diabetes were initially elucidated. The phenomenon of mitochondrial fusion and fission was clearly seen. In initially determining the relationship between the change of insular β cell mitochondrial structure and its cell apoptosis generated by some factors such as treatment by glucose-oxidase (GO), the effect of GO on the mouse islet cells RIN-m5F including the effects on cell growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle, cell apoptosis of RIN-m5F were systematically examined. GO showed some influence on the mouse islet cells RIN-m5F cell activity, ROS and apoptosis, but its effect on the cell cycle was not significant. PMID:24375791

  4. Tat-ATOX1 inhibits streptozotocin-induced cell death in pancreatic RINm5F cells and attenuates diabetes in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eun Hee; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Ryu, Eun Ji; Yong, Ji In; Chung, Seok Young; Cha, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sang Jin; Choi, Yeon Joo; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Lee, Keunwook; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant 1 (ATOX1) functions as an antioxidant against hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, and therefore may play a significant role in many human diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM). In the present study, we examined the protective effects of Tat-ATOX1 protein on streptozotocin (STZ)-exposed pancreatic insulinoma cells (RINm5F) and in a mouse model of STZ-induced diabetes using western blot analysis, immunofluorescence staining and MTT assay, as well as histological and biochemical analysis. Purified Tat-ATOX1 protein was efficiently transduced into RINm5F cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, Tat-ATOX1 protein markedly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damage and the activation of Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in STZ-exposed RINm5F cells. In addition, Tat-ATOX1 protein transduced into mice pancreatic tissues and significantly decreased blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels as well as the body weight changes in a model of STZ-induced diabetes. These results indicate that transduced Tat-ATOX1 protein protects pancreatic β-cells by inhibiting STZ-induced cellular toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Based on these findings, we suggest that Tat-ATOX1 protein has potential applications as a therapeutic agent for oxidative stress-induced diseases including DM. PMID:27222268

  5. A new organic-inorganic hybrid oxyfluorotitanate [Hgua]2·(Ti5O5F12) as a transparent UV filter.

    PubMed

    Lhoste, J; Rocquefelte, X; Adil, K; Dessapt, R; Jobic, S; Leblanc, M; Maisonneuve, V; Bujoli-Doeuff, M

    2011-06-20

    A new generation UV absorber is obtained by microwave-heating-assisted hydrothermal synthesis: [Hgua](2)·(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)). The structure of this hybrid titanium(IV) oxyfluoride is ab initio determined from powder X-ray data by combining a direct space method, Rietveld refinement [orthorhombic, Cmm2, a = 22.410(1) Å, b = 11.191(1) Å, c = 3.802(1) Å], and density functional theory geometry optimization. The three-dimensional network is built up from infinite inorganic layers (∞)(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)) separated by guanidinium cations. The theoretical optical gap (3.2 eV) estimated from density of state calculations is in good agreement with the experimental gap (3.3 eV) obtained by UV-vis diffuse reflectivity. The optical absorption is mainly due to O(2p) → Ti(3d) and F(2p) → Ti(3d) transitions at higher energies. The refraction index is low in the visible range (n ≈ 1.9) compared to that of TiO(2) and, consequently, [Hgua](2)·(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)) shows a good transparency adapted to UV shielding. Under UV irradiation at 254 nm for 40 h, the white microcrystalline powder turns to light purple-gray. This color change is caused by the reduction of Ti(IV) to Ti(III), confirmed by magnetic measurements. PMID:21545091

  6. Electronic structure of a new layered bismuth oxyselenide superconductor: LaO0.5F0.5BiSe2.

    PubMed

    Xia, M; Jiang, J; Niu, X H; Liu, J Z; Wen, C H P; Lu, H Y; Lou, X; Pu, Y J; Huang, Z C; Zhu, Xiyu; Wen, H H; Xie, B P; Shen, D W; Feng, D L

    2015-07-22

    LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) is a new layered superconductor discovered recently, which shows the superconducting transition temperature of 3.5 K. With angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we study the electronic structure of LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) comprehensively. Two electron-like bands are located around the X point of the Brillouin zone, and the outer pockets connect with each other and form large Fermi surface around Γ and M. These bands show negligible k(z) dispersion, indicating their two-dimensional nature. Based on the Luttinger theorem, the carrier concentration is about 0.53 e(-) per unit cell, close to its nominal value. Moreover, the photoemission data and the band structure calculations agree very well, and the renormalization factor is nearly 1.0, indicating the electron correlations in this material are rather weak. Our results suggest that LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) is a conventional BCS superconductor without strong electron correlations. PMID:26102451

  7. Nanog, Pou5f1 and SoxB1 activate zygotic gene expression during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Miler T.; Bonneau, Ashley R.; Takacs, Carter M.; Bazzini, Ariel A.; DiVito, Kate R.; Fleming, Elizabeth S.; Giraldez, Antonio J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Upon fertilization, maternal factors direct development and trigger zygotic genome activation (ZGA) at the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). In zebrafish, ZGA is required for gastrulation and clearance of maternal mRNAs, which is in part regulated by the conserved microRNA miR-430. However, the factors that activate the zygotic program in vertebrates are unknown. Here, we show that Nanog, Pou5f1 and SoxB1 regulate zygotic gene activation in zebrafish. We identified several hundred genes directly activated by maternal factors, constituting the first wave of zygotic transcription. Ribosome profiling revealed that nanog, sox19b and pou5f1 are the most highly translated transcription factors pre-MZT. Combined loss of these factors resulted in developmental arrest prior to gastrulation and a failure to activate >75% of zygotic genes, including miR-430. Our results demonstrate that maternal Nanog, Pou5f1 and SoxB1 are required to initiate the zygotic developmental program and induce clearance of the maternal program by activating miR-430 expression. PMID:24056933

  8. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  9. Gene-Silencing Screen for Mammalian Axon Regeneration Identifies Inpp5f (Sac2) as an Endogenous Suppressor of Repair after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yixiao; Stagi, Massimiliano; Wang, Xingxing; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Siegel, Chad S.; Nakatsu, Fubito; Cafferty, William B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Axonal growth and neuronal rewiring facilitate functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Known interventions that promote neural repair remain limited in their functional efficacy. To understand genetic determinants of mammalian CNS axon regeneration, we completed an unbiased RNAi gene-silencing screen across most phosphatases in the genome. We identified one known and 17 previously unknown phosphatase suppressors of injury-induced CNS axon growth. Silencing Inpp5f (Sac2) leads to robust enhancement of axon regeneration and growth cone reformation. Results from cultured Inpp5f−/− neurons confirm lentiviral shRNA results from the screen. Consistent with the nonoverlapping substrate specificity between Inpp5f and PTEN, rapamycin does not block enhanced regeneration in Inpp5f−/− neurons, implicating mechanisms independent of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Inpp5f−/− mice develop normally, but show enhanced anatomical and functional recovery after mid-thoracic dorsal hemisection injury. More serotonergic axons sprout and/or regenerate caudal to the lesion level, and greater numbers of corticospinal tract axons sprout rostral to the lesion. Functionally, Inpp5f-null mice exhibit enhanced recovery of motor functions in both open-field and rotarod tests. This study demonstrates the potential of an unbiased high-throughput functional screen to identify endogenous suppressors of CNS axon growth after injury, and reveals Inpp5f (Sac2) as a novel suppressor of CNS axon repair after spinal cord injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The extent of axon regeneration is a critical determinant of neurological recovery from injury, and is extremely limited in the adult mammalian CNS. We describe an unbiased gene-silencing screen that uncovered novel molecules suppressing axonal regeneration. Inpp5f (Sac2) gene deletion promoted recovery from spinal cord injury with no side effects. The mechanism of action is distinct from another lipid phosphatase implicated in regeneration

  10. Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic studies of cores 60009/60010 and 60003 - Compositional and surface-exposure stratigraphy. [of Apollo deep drill lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Gose, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance and static magnetic measurements were made on 131 samples from core 60009/60010 and on 40 samples from section 60003 of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. These studies provided depth profiles for composition, in terms of the concentration of FeO, and relative surface exposure age (or maturity), in terms of the values of the specific FMR intensity normalized to the FeO content. For core 60009/60010, the concentration of FeO ranged from about 1.6 wt.% to 5.8 wt.% with a mean value of 4.6 wt.% and the maturity ranged from immature to mature with most of the soils being submature. A systematic decrease in maturity from the lunar surface to a depth of about 12.5 cm was observed in core section 60010. For core section 60003, the concentration of FeO ranged from about 5.2 wt.% to 7.5 wt.% with a mean value of 6.4 wt.% and the maturity ranged from submature to mature with most of the soils being mature.

  11. Uranium-series disequilibrium in ground water and core composite samples from the San Juan Basin and Copper Mountain research sites

    SciTech Connect

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1981-09-01

    The study of the patterns of /sup 238/U, /sup 234/U, and /sup 230/Th disequilibrium in two secondary uranium deposits shows that, on a 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 5/ year time scale, considerable movement of the uranium has occurred. The deposit at the San Juan Basin Research Site is classified as a tabular ore body, and that at the Copper Mountain Research Site as a residual deposit; yet both can be recognized as having disequilibrium sectors consistent with a general model developed to explain roll-front dynamics. The disequilibrium patterns at the two deposits were studied in two ways: core composite samples, leached of their labile uranium and daughters; and ground water samples from the associated aquifer. In general, the core data and the water data are consistent. The uranium in the residual Copper Mountain deposits appears to be more mobile than does the ore of the San Juan Basin deposit. The ground water at Copper Mountain appears to be moving the uranium southward.

  12. Determination of nickel in food samples by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after preconcentration and microextraction based ionic liquids using full factorial and central composite design.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Zohre; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2012-12-01

    In this research, a microextraction technique based on ionic liquids (ILs) termed in situ solvent formation microextraction (ISFME) was used for determination of nickel in solutions. 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) was chosen as a complexing agent. After preconcentration, the settled IL-phase was dissolved in 50 μL of ethanol and aspirated into the flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) using a home-made microsample introduction system. Injection of 50 μL volumes of analyte into an air-acetylene flame provided very sensitive spike-like and reproducible signals. ISFME is based on phase separation phenomenon of ionic liquids in aqueous solutions. This method is simple and rapid for extraction and preconcentration of metal ions from food samples and can be applied for the sample solutions containing very high concentrations of salt. Furthermore, this technique is much safer in comparison with the organic solvent extraction because of using ionic liquid. The effective parameters such as amount of IL, salt effect, concentration of the chelating agent and ion pairing agent were inspected by a full factorial design to identify important parameters and their interactions. Next, a central composite design was applied to obtain optimum point of the important parameters. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear over the range of 2 to 80 ng/mL. The limit of detection and relative standard deviation (n= 6) were 0.6 ng/mL and 2%, respectively. PMID:22853633

  13. Chemical compositions responsible for inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung by coarse and fine particulate samples from contrasting air pollution in Europe.

    PubMed

    Happo, Mikko S; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Halinen, Arja I; Jalava, Pasi I; Pennanen, Arto S; Sillanpaa, Markus; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O

    2008-11-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism in mortality and morbidity associated with exposures of cardiorespiratory patients to urban air particulate matter. We investigated the association of the chemical composition and sources of urban air fine (PM(2.5-0.2)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate samples with the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung. The particulate samples were collected during selected seasons in six European cities using a high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of the particulate samples. At 4, 12, and 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: cell number, total protein, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-6, and KC). Dicarboxylic acids and transition metals, especially Ni and V, in PM(2.5-0.2) correlated positively and some secondary inorganic ions (NO3(-), NH4(+)) negatively with the inflammatory activity. Total organic matter and SO4(2-) had no consistent correlations. In addition, the soil-derived constituents (Ca2+, Al, Fe, Si) showed positive correlations with the PM(2.5-0.2)-induced inflammatory activity, but their role in PM(10-2.5) remained obscure, possibly due to largely undefined biogenic material. Markers of poor biomass and coal combustion, i.e., monosaccharide anhydrides and As, were associated with elevated PAH contents in PM(2.5-0.2) and a consistent immunosuppressive effect. Overall, our results support epidemiological findings that the local sources of incomplete combustion and resuspended road dust are important in urban air particulate pollution-related health effects. PMID:18855153

  14. Sol-gel/nanoclay composite as a solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Jafari, Mohammad Taghi; Sherafatmand, Hossein

    2015-02-01

    A novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coated with a sol-gel/nanoclay composite was prepared by the sol-gel technique involving the hydrolysis reaction of alkoxysilanes and the subsequent condensation reaction with hydroxyl groups of the nanoclay on a stainless steel wire. A method based on direct immersion SPME and gas chromatography-corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry was developed for the determination of four organophosphorus pesticides in aqueous samples. The effect of different experimental parameters on the extraction efficiency of the method was investigated. The sol-gel/nanoclay fiber showed higher extraction performance for the organophosphorus pesticides compared with Ppy/nanoclay, sol-gel coating, and three commercial fibers (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), PDMS/divinylbenzene (DVB), and polyacrylate (PA)). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) of the method were in the range of 0.003-0.012 and 0.01-0.02 μg L(-1), respectively. The calibration curves were linear in a concentration range from 0.01 to 2.0 μg L(-1) (r (2)  > 0.995). The relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision were 3.3-5.6 and 6.4-8.4 %, respectively. Fiber-to-fiber reproducibility for three prepared fibers was 7.4-10.2 %. Finally, the method was successfully applied for the extraction of the studied compounds from water samples. The relative recovery obtained for the spiked real-water samples were 86-104 %. PMID:25471290

  15. Major- and minor-metal composition of three distinct solid material fractions associated with Juan de Fuca hydrothermal fluids (northeast Pacific), and calculation of dilution fluid samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.K.; Seeley, J.L.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1988-01-01

    Three distinct types of solid material are associated with each sample of the hydrothermal fluid that was collected from the vents of the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The solid materials appear to be representative of deposits on ocean floors near mid-ocean ridges, and interpretation of the chemistry of the hydrothermal solutions requires understanding of them. Sr isotopic evidence indicates that at least two and probably all three of these solid materials were removed from the solution with which they are associated, by precipitation or adsorption. This occurred after the "pure" hydrothermal fluid was diluted and thoroughly mixed with ambient seawater. The three types of solid materials, are, respectively, a coarse Zn- and Fe-rich material with small amounts of Na and Ca; a finer material also rich in Zn and Fe, but with alkali and alkaline-earth metals; and a scum composed of Ba or Zn, with either considerable Fe or Si, and Sr. Mineral identification is uncertain because of uncertain anion composition. Only in the cases of Ba and Zn were metal masses greater in solid materials than in the associated fluids. For all other metals measured, masses in fluids dwarf those in solids. The fluids themselves contain greater concentrations of all metals measured, except Mg, than seawater. We discuss in detail the relative merits of two methods of determining the mixing proportions of "pure" hydrothermal solution and seawater in the fluids, one based on Sr isotopes, and another previously used method based on Mg concentrations. Comparison of solute concentrations in the several samples shows that degree of dilution of "pure" hydrothermal solutions by seawater, and amounts of original solutes that were removed from it as solid materials, are not related. There is no clear evidence that appreciable amounts of solid materials were not conserved (lost) either during or prior to sample collection. ?? 1988.

  16. Chemical compositions responsible for inflammation and tissue damage in the mouse lung by coarse and fine particulate samples from contrasting air pollution in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Happo, M.S.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Halinen, A.I.; Jalava, P.I.; Pennanen, A.S.; Sillanpaa, M.; Hillamo, R.; Salonen, R.O.

    2008-07-01

    Inflammation is regarded as an important mechanism in mortality and morbidity associated with exposures of cardiorespiratory patients to urban air particulate matter. We investigated the association of the chemical composition and sources of urban air fine (PM2.5-0.2) and coarse (PM10-2.5) particulate samples with the inflammatory activity in the mouse lung. The particulate samples were collected during selected seasons in six European cities using a high-volume cascade impactor. Healthy C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with a single dose (10 mg/kg) of the particulate samples. At 4, 12, and 24 h after the exposure, the lungs were lavaged and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation and tissue damage: cell number, total protein, and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and KC). Dicarboxylic acids and transition metals, especially Ni and V, in PM2.5-0.2 correlated positively and some secondary inorganic ions (NO{sub 3}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}) negatively with the inflammatory activity. Total organic matter and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} had no consistent correlations. In addition, the soil-derived constituents (Ca{sup 2+}, Al, Fe, Si) showed positive correlations with the PM2.5-0.2-induced inflammatory activity, but their role in PM10 (2.5) remained obscure, possibly due to largely undefined biogenic material. Markers of poor biomass and coal combustion, i.e., monosaccharide anhydrides and As, were associated with elevated PAH contents in PM2.5 (0.2) and a consistent immunosuppressive effect. Overall, our results support epidemiological findings that the local sources of incomplete combustion and resuspended road dust are important in urban air particulate pollution-related health effects.

  17. The roles of 4f- and 5f-orbitals in bonding: a magnetochemical, crystal field, density functional theory, and multi-reference wavefunction study.

    PubMed

    Lukens, W W; Speldrich, M; Yang, P; Duignan, T J; Autschbach, J; Kögerler, P

    2016-07-28

    The electronic structures of 4f(3)/5f(3) Cp''3M and Cp''3M·alkylisocyanide complexes, where Cp'' is 1,3-bis-(trimethylsilyl)cyclopentadienyl, are explored with a focus on the splitting of the f-orbitals, which provides information about the strengths of the metal-ligand interactions. While the f-orbital splitting in many lanthanide complexes has been reported in detail, experimental determination of the f-orbital splitting in actinide complexes remains rare in systems other than halide and oxide compounds, since the experimental approach, crystal field analysis, is generally significantly more difficult for actinide complexes than for lanthanide complexes. In this study, a set of analogous neodymium(iii) and uranium(iii) tris-cyclopentadienyl complexes and their isocyanide adducts was characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. The crystal field model was parameterized by combined fitting of EPR and susceptibility data, yielding an accurate description of f-orbital splitting. The isocyanide derivatives were also studied using density functional theory, resulting in f-orbital splitting that is consistent with crystal field fitting, and by multi-reference wavefunction calculations that support the electronic structure analysis derived from the crystal-field calculations. The results highlight that the 5f-orbitals, but not the 4f-orbitals, are significantly involved in bonding to the isocyanide ligands. The main interaction between isocyanide ligand and the metal center is a σ-bond, with additional 5f to π* donation for the uranium complexes. While interaction with the isocyanide π*-orbitals lowers the energies of the 5fxz(2) and 5fyz(2)-orbitals, spin-orbit coupling greatly reduces the population of 5fxz(2) and 5fyz(2) in the ground state. PMID:27349178

  18. Sample preparation for actinide solid state research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirlet, J. C.

    1982-09-01

    The actinide elements (5f elements) and their compounds constitute a very interesting group for solid state research. The electronic properties of the 5f elements show intermediate behavior between the well-understood, completely localized 4f system (lanthanides) and the 3d system (transition elements). The possibility of understanding some unexplained properties of the 3d elements through a systematic investigation of the electronic structures of the actinides considerably increased interest in samples with well-defined composition and structure and with well-known purity. In some cases, single crystals of low defect densities and high purity levels are needed to allow sophisticated investigations of physical properties. Actinide compounds are easily obtained at a high purity level by direct synthesis from pure elements using noncontaminating techniques. Examples of these techniques are the reaction of the actinide metal powder with the vapor of an oxidant in a sealed quartz ampoule, leviation melting on a water-cooled pedestal or melting in a Huking crucible. Actinide metals are produced by metallothermic reduction of commercially available oxides or carbides or by the van Arkel purification process. The metals are refined to the desired purity level by evaporation in vacuum for the more volatile elements (Ac, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk) and by the van Arkel process for the metals with low vapor pressure. Single crystals of actinide compounds have been grown by chemical vapor transport methods (oxides, chalcogenides), high temperature solution growth techniques (oxides), and pulling from the melt by the Czochralski method (oxides, intermetallics). Thin solid films have been prepared by vacuum evaporation or by focused ion-beam sputtering. The materials are analyzed for trace-level impurity content by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy, by spark source mass spectroscopy and by secondary-ion mass spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the compounds is determined by

  19. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    using SRS sludge tank sample material. A Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) details the experimental plan as outlined by the Technical Task Request (TTR). The TTR identifies that the data produced by this testing and results included in this report will support the technical baseline with portions having a safety class functional classification. The primary goals for SRNL RWT are as follows: (1) to confirm ECC performance with real tank sludge samples, (2) to determine the impact of ECC on fate of actinides and the other sludge metals, and (3) to determine changes, if any, in solids flow and settling behavior.

  20. Sample Dilution and Bacterial Community Composition Influence Empirical Leucine-to-Carbon Conversion Factors in Surface Waters of the World's Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Hernando-Morales, Víctor; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Sarmento, Hugo; Valencia-Vila, Joaquín; Serrano Catalá, Teresa; Hernández-Ruiz, Marta; Varela, Marta M.; Ferrera, Isabel; Gutiérrez Morán, Xosé Anxelu; Gasol, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of leucine incorporation rates to prokaryotic carbon production rates requires the use of either theoretical or empirically determined conversion factors. Empirical leucine-to-carbon conversion factors (eCFs) vary widely across environments, and little is known about their potential controlling factors. We conducted 10 surface seawater manipulation experiments across the world's oceans, where the growth of the natural prokaryotic assemblages was promoted by filtration (i.e., removal of grazers [F treatment]) or filtration combined with dilution (i.e., also relieving resource competition [FD treatment]). The impact of sunlight exposure was also evaluated in the FD treatments, and we did not find a significant effect on the eCFs. The eCFs varied from 0.09 to 1.47 kg C mol Leu−1 and were significantly lower in the FD than in the F samples. Also, changes in bacterial community composition during the incubations, as assessed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), were more pronounced in the FD than in the F treatments, compared to unmanipulated controls. Thus, we discourage the common procedure of diluting samples (in addition to filtration) for eCF determination. The eCFs in the filtered treatment were negatively correlated with the initial chlorophyll a concentration, picocyanobacterial abundance (mostly Prochlorococcus), and the percentage of heterotrophic prokaryotes with high nucleic acid content (%HNA). The latter two variables explained 80% of the eCF variability in the F treatment, supporting the view that both Prochlorococcus and HNA prokaryotes incorporate leucine in substantial amounts, although this results in relatively low carbon production rates in the oligotrophic ocean. PMID:26407885

  1. Analyzing the Effects of Climate Factors on Soybean Protein, Oil Contents, and Composition by Extensive and High-Density Sampling in China.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenwen; Yang, Ruping; Wu, Tingting; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Zhang, Shouwei; Jiang, Bingjun; Tian, Shiyan; Liu, Xiaobing; Han, Tianfu

    2016-05-25

    From 2010 to 2013, 763 soybean samples were collected from an extensive area of China. The correlations between seed compositions and climate data were analyzed. The contents of crude protein and water-soluble protein, total amount of protein plus oil, and most of the amino acids were positively correlated with an accumulated temperature ≥15 °C (AT15) and the mean daily temperature (MDT) but were negatively correlated with hours of sunshine (HS) and diurnal temperature range (DTR). The correlations of crude oil and most fatty acids with climate factors were opposite to those of crude protein. Crude oil content had a quadratic regression relationship with MDT, and a positive correlation between oil content and MDT was found when the daily temperature was <19.7 °C. A path analysis indicated that DTR was the main factor that directly affected soybean protein and oil contents. The study illustrated the effects of climate factors on soybean protein and oil contents and proposed agronomic practices for improving soybean quality in different regions of China. The results provide a foundation for the regionalization of high-quality soybean production in China and similar regions in the world. PMID:27022763

  2. Composition of free and adherent ruminal bacteria: inaccuracy of the microbial nutrient supply estimates obtained using free bacteria as reference samples and (15)N as the marker.

    PubMed

    González, J; Arroyo, J M; Ouarti, M; Guevara-González, J; Rodríguez, C A; Alvir, M R; Moya, V J; Piquer, O

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that (15)N enrichment of solid-associated bacteria (SAB) may be predicted from the same value in liquid-associated bacteria (LAB). The aims of this study were to confirm this and to measure the error in the nutrient supply from SAB, when LAB are used as the reference sample. For this purpose, the chemical and amino acid (AA) compositions of both the bacterial populations were studied in four experiments carried out on different groups of three rumen cannulated wethers. Diets (one in Experiments 1 and 4 and three in Experiments 2 and 3) had forage-to-concentrate ratios (dry matter (DM) basis) between 2 : 1 and 40 : 60, and were consumed at intake levels between 40 and 75 g DM/kg (BW)(0.75). The bacteria samples were isolated after continuous infusion of ((15)NH(4))(2)SO(4) (40, 18, 30 and 25 mg (15)N/day, in Experiments 1 to 4, respectively) for at least 14 days. In all experiments, SAB had consistently higher concentrations of organic matter (826 v. 716 g/kg DM, as average) and total lipids (192 v. 95 g/kg DM, as average) than LAB. Similar CP concentrations of both populations were observed, except a higher concentration in SAB than in LAB in Experiment 3. A consistent (in Experiment 4 only as tendency) higher AA-N/total N ratio (on average 17.5%) was observed in SAB than in LAB. The (15)N enrichment in SAB was systematically lower than in LAB. On the basis of the results of all studies a close relationship was found between the (15)N enrichment in SAB and LAB, which was shown irrespective of experiments. This relationship was established from Experiments 1 and 2 and the above cited previous results (n = 20; P < 0.001; R(2) = 0.996), and then confirmed from the results of Experiments 3 and 4. These relationships between SAB and LAB demonstrate that CP supply from SAB is underevaluated by, on average, 21.2% when LAB are used as the reference. This underevaluation was higher for true protein and even higher for the lipid supply (32

  3. Update and revisions for Open-File Report 98-624, synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) leachate chemistry data for solid mine-waste composite samples from the Silverton and Leadville districts in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Desborough, George A.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Theodorakos, Peter M.

    2000-01-01

    This report supersedes, revises, and updates information and data previously released in Open-File Report 98-624 (Montour and others, 1998). Data for this report were derived from leaching of mine-waste composite samples using a modification of E.P. A. Method 1312, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). In 1997, members of the U.S. Geological Survey Mine Waste Characterization Project collected four mine-waste composite samples from mining districts near Silverton, Colorado (MAY and YUK), and near Leadville, Colorado (VEN and SUN). This report presents analytical results from these sites.

  4. Autoradiographic distribution of /sup 14/C-labeled 3H-imidazo(4,5-f)quinoline-2-amines in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, K.

    1985-03-01

    The highly mutagenic heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (MeIQ), are formed during heating of protein-rich foods. In order to gain information about the distribution and fate of IQ and MeIQ in vivo, a whole-body autoradiographic study of i.v.-injected /sup 14/C-labeled IQ and MeIQ has been performed in male NMRI, pregnant NMRI, and female C3H mice. IQ and MeIQ showed similar distribution patterns. At short survival times, the autoradiograms were characterized by an accumulation of radioactivity in metabolic and excretory organs (liver, kidney, bile, urine, gastric and intestinal contents, salivary glands, nasal mucosa, and Harder's gland), as well as in lymphomyeloid tissues (bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lymph nodes) and in endocrine and reproductive tissues (adrenal medulla, pancreatic islets, thyroid, hypophysis, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, ampulla, and prostate). The liver and kidney cortex were identified as sites of retention of nonextractable radioactivity. IQ and MeIQ showed a strong affinity for melanin. IQ and MeIQ passed the placenta, but no radioactivity was retained in fetal tissues. The results pinpoint the liver as a site of IQ- and MeIQ-mediated toxicity. Future studies of IQ and MeIQ may be guided by and clarify the role of other tissue localizations in the toxicity of IQ and MeIQ.

  5. Ring Puckering Potentials of Three Fluorinated Cyclopentenes: C_5F_8, C_5HF_7, and C_5H_2F_6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, E. A.; Long, B. E.; Pringle, Wallace C.; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Cooke, S. A.; Ocola, Esther J.; Laane, Jaan

    2015-06-01

    A systematic study on the ring puckering potentials of three fluorinated cyclopentenes has been performed using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in tandem with quantum chemical calculations. Spectra between 8 GHz and 16 GHz have been measured for octafluorocyclopentene, 1H-heptafluorocyclopentene, and 1H,2H-hexafluorocyclopentene, where the hydrogens sequentially replace the fluorines on the sp^2 hybridized carbons. Rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants have been determined for the parent species and all 13C isotopologues. In regards to the ring puckering, double minimum potential, both cross state and intra-state transitions were observed for all molecules except the 1H,2H-hexafluorocyclopentene. Experimental Coriolis coupling constants and ΔE01 values will be presented and discussed. The ring puckering barrier heights for C_5F_8, C_5HF_7, and C_5H_2F_6, have been calculated to be 222 wn, 302 wn, and 367 wn, respectively.

  6. Multi-functional ion-sensor based on a photochromic diarylethene with a 1H-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline unit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renjie; Dong, Xiaorong; Liu, Gang; Ren, Panpan; Pu, Shouzhi

    2015-12-01

    A new asymmetrical diarylethene containing a 1H-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline unit was synthesized. The compound showed typical photochromism and functioned as a notable fluorescence switch upon alternating irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. Its closed-ring isomer could be used as a selective 'naked-eye' colorimetric sensor for Cu(2+), accompanied by a notable color change from blue to colorless. Furthermore, the compound was found to be selective towards Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Sr(2+) with significant fluorescence changes. On the basis of this characteristic, a logic circuit was constructed by utilizing both light and chemical stimuli as inputs and fluorescence intensity at 487 nm as output. PMID:25847126

  7. Growth and diode-pumped laser operation of Pr3+:β-(Y0.5,Gd0.5)F3 at various transitions.

    PubMed

    Werner Metz, Philip; Marzahl, Daniel-Timo; Guguschev, Christo; Bertram, Rainer; Kränkel, Christian; Huber, Günter

    2015-06-15

    We report on the crystal growth of the orthorhombic low-temperature β-phase of (Y0.5,Gd0.5)F3 (YGF) single crystals. The crystals were activated with trivalent praseodymium (Pr3+) and characterized with respect to their ground state absorption and stimulated emission properties. Under InGaN-laser-diode pumping, laser oscillation was obtained at more than ten wavelengths in the green, orange, red, and dark red spectral regions. In these initial experiments, output powers exceeding 100 mW and slope efficiencies between 10% and 30% were obtained. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the first application of YGF crystals as laser host material for any active ion. PMID:26076240

  8. DNA-binding, photocleavage studies of ruthenium(II) complexes with 2-(2-quinolinyl) imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Wen; Chen, Zhen-gan; Li, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Dao; Lu, Ji-Lin; Zhang, Da-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Two new ruthenium complexes with [Ru(L)2(qip)]2+ (L = bpy (2,2'- bipyridine), phen (1,10-phenanthroline); qip = 2-(2-quinolinyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ES-MS, 1H NMR. The binding properties of two complexes towards CT-DNA were investigated by various optical methods and viscosity measurements. The experiment results suggested that both Ru(II) complexes can intercalate into DNA base pairs. Strong quenching in emission intensity of two Ru(II) complexes were observed upon addition of Ag+ in the absence and presence of CT-DNA. Furthermore, the two complexes can promote cleavage of pBR322 DNA under irradiation at 365 nm, and complex 2 exhibits a stronger DNA-photocleavage efficiency than complex 1. The mechanism of DNA cleavage suggests that singlet oxygen (1O2) is likely to be the cleaving agent.

  9. CF3+ fragmentation by electron impact ionization of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl-ethers, C5F10O, in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hayashi, Toshio; Miyawaki, Yudai; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2015-04-01

    The gas phase fragmentations of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl ether (PPVE, C5F10O) are studied experimentally. Dominant fragmentations of PPVE are found to be the result of a dissociative ionization reaction, i.e., CF3+ via direct bond cleavage, and C2F3O- and C3F7O- via electron attachment. Regardless of the appearance energy of around 14.5 eV for the dissociative ionization of CF3+, the observed ion efficiency for the CF3+ ion was extremely large the order of 10-20 cm-2, compared with only 10-21 cm-2 for the other channels. PPVE characteristically generated CF3+ as the largest abundant ion are advantageous for use of feedstock gases in plasma etching processes.

  10. Effect of epigenetic modification with trichostatin A and S-adenosylhomocysteine on developmental competence and POU5F1-EGFP expression of interspecies cloned embryos in dog.

    PubMed

    Mousai, M; Hosseini, S M; Hajian, M; Jafarpour, F; Asgari, V; Forouzanfar, M; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2015-10-01

    Adult canine fibroblasts stably transfected with either cytomegalovirus (CMV) or POU5F1 promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were used to investigate if pre-treatment of these donor cells with two epigenetic drugs [trichostatin A (TSA), or S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH)] can improve the efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), analyses revealed that TSA, but not SAH, treatment of both transgenic and non-transgenic fibroblasts significantly increased acetylation levels compared with untreated relatives. The expression levels of Bcl2 and P53 were significantly affected in TSA-treated cells compared with untreated cells, whereas SAH treatment had no significant effect on cell apoptosis. Irrespective of epigenetic modification, dog/bovine iSCNT embryos had overall similar rates of cleavage and development to 8-16-cell and morula stages in non-transgenic groups. For transgenic reconstructed embryos, however, TSA and SAH could significantly improve development to 8-16-cell and morula stages compared with control. Even though, irrespective of cell transgenesis and epigenetic modification, none of the iSCNT embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. The iSCNT embryos carrying CMV-EGFP expressed EGFP at all developmental stages (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-16-cell, and morula) without mosaicism, while no POU5F1-EGFP signal was observed in any stage of developing iSCNT embryos irrespective of TSA/SAH epigenetic modifications. These results indicated that bovine oocytes partially remodel canine fibroblasts and that TSA and SAH have marginal beneficial effects on this process. PMID:25314965

  11. Development of an reliable analytical method for synergistic extractive spectrophotometric determination of cobalt(II) from alloys and nano composite samples by using chromogenic chelating ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Ganesh S.; Ghare, Anita A.; Kolekar, Sanjay S.; Han, Sung H.; Anuse, Mansing A.

    2011-12-01

    A synergistic simple and selective spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of cobalt(II) with 1-(2',4'-dinitro aminophenyl)-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiol [2',4'-dinitro APTPT] as a chromogenic reagent. The proposed method has been described on the basis of synergistic effective extraction of cobalt(II) in presence of pyridine at pH range 9.5-10.2, showed orange-red coloured ternary complex having molar ratio 1:2:2 (M:L:Py). The equilibrium time is 10 min for extraction of cobalt(III) from organic phase. The absorbance of coloured organic layer in chloroform is measured spectrophotometrically at 490 nm against reagent blank. The Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 2.5-15 μg mL -1 of cobalt(II) and optimum concentration range was 5-12.5 μg mL -1 of cobalt(II) and it was evaluated from Ringbom's plot. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of cobalt(II)-2',4'-dinitro APTPT-pyridine complex in chloroform are 1.109 × 10 3 L mol -1 cm -1 and 0.053 μg cm -2, respectively while molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of cobalt(II)-2',4'-dinitro APTPT complex in chloroform are 6.22 × 10 2 L mol -1 cm -1 and 0.096 μg cm -2, respectively. The composition of cobalt(II)-2',4'-dinitro APTPT-pyridine complex (1:2:2) was established by slope ratio method, mole ratio method and Job's method of continuous variation. The ternary complex was stable for more than 48 h. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied, and use of suitable masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The method is successfully applied for the determination of cobalt(II) in binary, synthetic mixtures and real samples. A repetition of the method was checked by finding relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for n = 5 which was 0.15%. The reliability of the method is confirmed by comparison of experimental results with atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

  12. Development of an reliable analytical method for synergistic extractive spectrophotometric determination of cobalt(II) from alloys and nano composite samples by using chromogenic chelating ligand.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Ganesh S; Ghare, Anita A; Kolekar, Sanjay S; Han, Sung H; Anuse, Mansing A

    2011-12-15

    A synergistic simple and selective spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of cobalt(II) with 1-(2',4'-dinitro aminophenyl)-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-thiol [2',4'-dinitro APTPT] as a chromogenic reagent. The proposed method has been described on the basis of synergistic effective extraction of cobalt(II) in presence of pyridine at pH range 9.5-10.2, showed orange-red coloured ternary complex having molar ratio 1:2:2 (M:L:Py). The equilibrium time is 10 min for extraction of cobalt(III) from organic phase. The absorbance of coloured organic layer in chloroform is measured spectrophotometrically at 490 nm against reagent blank. The Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 2.5-15 μg mL(-1) of cobalt(II) and optimum concentration range was 5-12.5 μg mL(-1) of cobalt(II) and it was evaluated from Ringbom's plot. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of cobalt(II)-2',4'-dinitro APTPT-pyridine complex in chloroform are 1.109×10(3) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.053 μg cm(-2), respectively while molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of cobalt(II)-2',4'-dinitro APTPT complex in chloroform are 6.22×10(2) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.096 μg cm(-2), respectively. The composition of cobalt(II)-2',4'-dinitro APTPT-pyridine complex (1:2:2) was established by slope ratio method, mole ratio method and Job's method of continuous variation. The ternary complex was stable for more than 48 h. The interfering effects of various cations and anions were also studied, and use of suitable masking agents enhances the selectivity of the method. The method is successfully applied for the determination of cobalt(II) in binary, synthetic mixtures and real samples. A repetition of the method was checked by finding relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for n=5 which was 0.15%. The reliability of the method is confirmed by comparison of experimental results with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. PMID:21978559

  13. Detecting to secret folded composite lamina package pairs in cores related slump dump structures and seismites with high resolution sampling of physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Dursun; Cagatay, Namik; Feray Meydan, Aysegul; Eris, Kadir; Sari, Erol; Akcer, Sena; Makaroglu, Ozlem; Alkislar, Hakan; Biltekin, Demet; Nagehan Arslan, Tugce

    2016-04-01

    The core retrieved from Lake Van consists of seismites that were possibly deposited during the earthquakes around the Van region. Deformed parts of the core sediments display folded laminations that can be attributed to seismites. The problem arises that if the fold axis is deposited perpendicular to the liner and, if the hinge line is far enough, describing the true laminations might be impossible related to real age of basin evolution because extra laminae seem deposited to the area. Scientist must pay attention such problem that dating method like varve counting and basin evolution estimates can totally change due to extra laminae that explained before. For eliminate to wrong interpretations considering reversal reflected anomalies even with angularity effects to one package of pair can show significant difference than other symmetric one due to angle of the hinge line or soft sediment deformation. Considering the situation explained, p-wave is not enough to support the idea however; chemical analyses (x-ray florescence), ICP-MS (asdasd) analysis can provide appropriate results to identify laminae that appear on the limbs of the reversed micro folds. New easy designed extra U-Channel drive tray framework prepared by us. U-Channels are prepared well conditioned, saturated enough to well contact between sediment surface and plastic shield of u-channel samples from cores. Physical parameters are measured by Multi sensor core logger (MSCL) with high resolution step ratio fixed to 1mm. At the p- wave and gamma ray results, we observed together stair upwards form and reverse reflected downward data graphics, thus our interpretation of identifying the fold limbs are now visible. We understand that laminae packages are exactly the same. XRF and MSCL are totally supporting to origin of pairs generated after their sedimentation age with mechanical forces. For this reason, in this study, we attended to solve such problem to analyze deformed folded laminations that must be

  14. Chemical composition of samples collected from waste rock dumps and other mining-related features at selected phosphate mines in southeastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and northern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, Phillip R.; Causey, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    This report provides chemical analyses for 31 samples collected from various phosphate mine sites in southeastern Idaho (25), northern Utah (2), and western Wyoming (4). The sampling effort was undertaken as a reconnaissance and does not constitute a characterization of mine wastes. Twenty-five samples were collected from waste rock dumps, 2 from stockpiles, and 1 each from slag, tailings, mill shale, and an outcrop. All samples were analyzed for a suite of major, minor, and trace elements. Although the analytical data set for the 31 samples is too small for detailed statistical analysis, a summary of general observations is made.

  15. Disposition of the Dietary Mutagen 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5- f ]quinoxaline in Healthy and Pancreatic Cancer Compromised Humans

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Malfatti, Michael A.; Kuhn, Edward A.; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vickers, Selwyn M.; Jensen, Eric H.; Strayer, Lori; Anderson, Kristin E.

    2016-02-26

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. Once diagnosed, prognosis is poor with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Exposure to carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) derived from cooked meat has been shown to be positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk. To evaluate the processes that determines the carcinogenic potential of HCAs for human pancreas, 14-carbon labeled 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), a putative human carcinogenic HCA found in well-done cooked meat, was administered at a dietary relevant dose to human volunteers diagnosed with pancreatic cancer undergoing partial pancreatectomy and healthy control volunteers. After 14C-MeIQx exposure,more » blood and urine was collected for pharmacokinetic and metabolite analysis. MeIQx-DNA adducts levels were quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry from pancreatic tissue excised during surgery from the cancer patient group. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma revealed a rapid distribution of MeIQx with a plasma elimination half-life of approximately 3.5 hr in 50% of the cancer patients and all of the control volunteers. In 2 of the 4 cancer patients very low levels of MeIQx were detected in plasma and urine suggesting low absorption from the gut into the plasma. Urinary metabolite analysis revealed five MeIQx metabolites with 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid being the most abundant accounting for 25%–50% of the recovered 14-carbon/ml urine. We found there was no discernable difference in metabolite levels between the cancer patient volunteers and the control group. MeIQx-DNA adduct analysis of pancreas and duodenum tissue revealed adduct levels indistinguishable from background levels. Lastly, although other meat-derived HCA mutagens have been shown to bind DNA in pancreatic tissue, indicating that exposure to HCAs from cooked meat cannot be discounted as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the results from this

  16. A triphenylamine-grafted imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ruthenium(II) complex: acid-base and photoelectric properties.

    PubMed

    Fan, Su-Hua; Zhang, An-Guo; Ju, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Li-Hua; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2010-04-19

    A new heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex of [Ru(Hipdpa)(Hdcbpy)(NCS)(2)](-).0.5H(+).0.5[N(C(4)H(9))(4)](+) Ru(Hipdpa) {where Hdcbpy = monodeprotonated 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine and Hipdpa = 4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline} was synthesized and characterized by elementary analysis, standard spectroscopy techniques, and cyclic voltammetry. The ground- and excited-state acid-base properties of Ru(Hipdpa) were studied by means of UV-vis absorption spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric titrations in 4:1(v/v) Britton-Robinson/dimethylformamide buffer solution. The four-step separate protonation/deprotonation processes were found in the ground states, and one of which taking place near the physiological pH range. The two observable excited-state protonation/deprotonation processes were found for the Ru(Hipdpa), constituting pH-induced "off-on-off" emission switches. The performance of the complexes as photosensitizers in nanocrystalline TiO(2)-based liquid solar cells containing an electrolyte solution (0.05 M I(2), 0.5 M LiI, and 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpyridine in 50% acetonitrile and 50% propylene carbonate) was investigated and found to achieve a much improved device performance (a short-circuit photocurrent density of 18.7 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage of 630 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 6.85%) compared to a triphenylamine-free parent complex [Ru(Hpip)(Hdcbpy)(NCS)(2)](-).[N(C(4)H(9))(4)](+)-based device {Hpip = 2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} and a comparable performance to that of cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)ruthenium(II) (N3) under identical experimental conditions. A density functional theory calculation of the molecular structures and electronic properties of the complexes was also carried out in an effort to understand their effectiveness in TiO(2)-based solar cells. PMID:20337492

  17. Characterizations and Electrical Modelling of Sensory Samples Formed from Synthesized Vanadium (V) Oxide and Copper Oxide Graphene Quantum Tunneling Composites (GQTC) Applied in Electrotribology.

    PubMed

    Habdank-Wojewódzki, Tadeusz; Habdank, Josef; Cwik, Przemyslaw; Zimowski, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    CuO and V₂O₅ graphene quantum tunneling composites (GQTC) presented in this article were produced and their sensory properties were analyzed. The composites were synthesised using two stage high-power milling process, which resulted in materials that have good temeprature and pressure sensory properties. Described production process defines internal structure of materials such that when used as sensor in the desired range, it exhibits a strong percolation effect. The experiment, with controlled changing physical conditions during electrotribological measurement, enabled analyzing of the composites' conductivity as a function of the sensory properties: applied temperature, pressure, tangential force and wear. The sensory characteristic was successfully modelled by invertible generalized equations, and used to create sensor capable of estimating temperature or pressure in the real time. The developed materials have the potential to be applied in the areas where miniaturization is essential, due to the materials exhibiting good sensory properties in mini and micro scale. PMID:26742044

  18. Sampling and Sample Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawicki, Rubén O.

    Quality attributes in food products, raw materials, or ingredients are measurable characteristics that need monitoring to ensure that specifications are met. Some quality attributes can be measured online by using specially designed sensors and results obtained in real time (e.g., color of vegetable oil in an oil extraction plant). However, in most cases quality attributes are measured on small portions of material that are taken periodically from continuous processes or on a certain number of small portions taken from a lot. The small portions taken for analysis are referred to as samples, and the entire lot or the entire production for a certain period of time, in the case of continuous processes, is called a population. The process of taking samples from a population is called sampling. If the procedure is done correctly, the measurable characteristics obtained for the samples become a very accurate estimation of the population.

  19. The Electronic States of U(4+) in U(PO4)Cl: An Example for Angular Overlap Modeling of 5f(n) Systems.

    PubMed

    Bronova, Anna; Bredow, Thomas; Glaum, Robert; Urland, Werner

    2016-07-18

    Detailed experimental data on UPO4Cl comprising single-crystal UV/vis/NIR spectra and temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities form the basis for the investigation of the electronic structure of the U(4+) cation in UPO4Cl. For modeling of the observed physical properties the angular overlap model (AOM) was successfully employed. The computations were performed using the newly developed computer program BonnMag. The calculations show that all electronic transitions and the magnetic susceptibility as well as its temperature dependence are well-reproduced within the AOM framework. Using Judd-Ofelt theory BonnMag allows estimation of the relative absorption coefficients of the electronic transitions with reasonable accuracy. Ligand field splitting for states originating from f-electron configurations are determined. Slater-Condon-Shortley parameters and the spin-orbit coupling constant for U(4+) were taken from literature. The good transferability of AOM parameters for U(4+) is confirmed by calculations of the absorption spectra of UP2O7 and (U2O)(PO4)2. The effect of variation of the fit parameters is investigated. AOM parameters for U(4+) (5f) are compared to those of the rare-earth elements (4f) and transition metals (3d). PMID:27355276

  20. Inhibition or enhancement by 4 Pacific Island food plants against cancers induced by 2 amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Zhu, Shuotun; Han, Dug Yeo; Harris, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    A 1-yr carcinogenicity bioassay was conducted in rats fed 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), simultaneously with AIN-76/ high-fat (HF) diet alone, or with 10% starch replaced with kumara, pineapple, coconut, or taro, prepared as for a human diet. All of the non-IQ treated control, kumara, pineapple, or taro but not coconut-fed rats survived to 1 yr. None of the IQ-fed animals survived to 1 yr and although there were minor survival time differences among the groups, none was statistically significant. At sacrifice, IQ/HF controls had tumors in the skin, Zymbal's gland, ear canal, oral cavity, liver, and small intestine, totaling 32 among 20 animals. Kumara-fed rats had a similar tumor distribution but no tumors in the ear or oral cavity, and a total of 27 tumors among 20 animals, whereas pineapple-fed rats showed a somewhat lower tumor incidence (23/20 animals), including no small intestine lesions. Unexpectedly, a higher tumor incidence, especially of skin tumors, was seen in coconut and taro-fed animals (35/20 and 41/20 animals, respectively). In particular, the incidence of malignant liver tumors and gastrointestinal tumors were significantly increased in the taro-fed group in comparison with the kumara group. PMID:22211787

  1. Mild exposure of RIN-5F β-cells to human islet amyloid polypeptide aggregates upregulates antioxidant enzymes via NADPH oxidase-RAGE: An hormetic stimulus☆

    PubMed Central

    Borchi, Elisabetta; Bargelli, Valentina; Guidotti, Valentina; Berti, Andrea; Stefani, Massimo; Nediani, Chiara; Rigacci, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The presence of amyloid aggregates of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, contributes to pancreatic β-cell impairment, where oxidative stress plays a key role. A contribution of NADPH oxidase to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation after cell exposure to micromolar concentrations of hIAPP aggregates has been suggested. However, little is known about β-cells exposure to lower amounts of hIAPP aggregates, similar to those found in human pancreas. Thus, we aimed to investigate the events resulting from RIN-5F cells exposure to nanomolar concentrations of toxic hIAPP aggregates. We found an early and transient rise of NADPH oxidase activity resulting from increased Nox1 expression following the engagement of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) by hIAPP aggregates. Unexpectedly, NADPH oxidase activation was not accompanied by a significant ROS increase and the lipoperoxidation level was significantly reduced. Indeed, cell exposure to hIAPP aggregates affected the antioxidant defences, inducing a significant increase of the expression and activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase. We conclude that exposure of pancreatic β-cells to nanomolar concentrations of hIAPP aggregates for a short time induces an hormetic response via the RAGE-Nox1 axis; the latter stimulates the enzymatic antioxidant defences that preserve the cells against oxidative stress damage. PMID:24416718

  2. Influence of the 5f Orbitals on the Bonding and Reactivity in Organoactinides: Experimental and Computational Studies on a Uranium Metallacyclopropene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Hou, Guohua; Zi, Guofu; Ding, Wanjian; Walter, Marc D

    2016-04-20

    The synthesis, structure, and reactivity of a uranium metallacyclopropene were comprehensively studied. Reduction of (η(5)-C5Me5)2UCl2 (1) with potassium graphite (KC8) in the presence of bis(trimethylsilyl)acetylene (Me3SiC≡CSiMe3) allows the first stable uranium metallacyclopropene (η(5)-C5Me5)2U[η(2)-C2(SiMe3)2] (2) to be isolated. Magnetic susceptibility data confirm that 2 is a U(IV) complex, and density functional theory (DFT) studies indicate substantial 5f orbital contributions to the bonding of the metallacyclopropene U-(η(2)-C═C) moiety, leading to more covalent bonds between the (η(5)-C5Me5)2U(2+) and [η(2)-C2(SiMe3)2](2-) fragments than those in the related Th(IV) compound. Consequently, very different reactivity patterns emerge, e.g., 2 can act as a source for the (η(5)-C5Me5)2U(II) fragment when reacted with alkynes and a variety of heterounsaturated molecules such as imines, bipy, carbodiimide, organic azides, hydrazine, and azo derivatives. PMID:27070508

  3. Zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoplates composite as coating for solid phase microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection for trace analysis of chlorophenols in water and tomato juice samples.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Reza; Kashkoei, Parvin Khodaei; Kazemipour, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    In the present research, the ZnO-CuO nanoplate composite (ZCNC), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating, was prepared and its extraction capability for certain chlorophenols (CPs) was studied through directly sampling the typical CPs mixed standard solution of 4-chlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with high performance liquid chromatography. ZCNC thickness was in the range of 50-65 nm. The effective variables on ZCNC-SPME extraction efficiency were extraction time, salt percentage, and desorption time. Accordingly, a multivariate strategy was applied based on an experimental design by using central composite design for optimizing the significant factors affecting the extraction efficiency. The detection limit and relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 6), that include repeatability and reproducibility as the target analytes, were in the range of 0.5-5 ng ml(-1) and 5.1-14 % of standard solutions at 50 ng ml(-1) concentration of CPs, respectively. The developed technique is believed to be successfully applicable to preconcentration and determination of target analytes in environmental water and tomato juice samples. Graphical Abstract Application of zinc oxide-copper oxide nanoplates composite for extraction of chlorophenols in water and tomato juice samples and optimizing condition by experimental design method. PMID:26995010

  4. Some lessons from Apollo for a sampling strategy on Mars for understanding the origin of the ancient igneous crust and the composition of the mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1988-01-01

    Proper site selection for sample collection is crucial to determining the nature and time scales of major events on Mars. Analysis and interpretation of lunar samples acquired by the Apollo lunar missions provides valuable experience on the effects of site selection. Lunar selection techniques are briefly examined.

  5. High-accuracy measurements of N2O concentration and isotopic composition of low and high concentration samples with small volume injections using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saad, Nabil; Palmer, Melissa; Huang, Kuan

    2015-04-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) gas is among the major contributors to global warming and ozone depletion in stratosphere. Quantitative estimate of N2O production in various pathways and N2O fluxes across different reservoirs is the key to understanding the role of N2O in the global change. To achieve this goal, accurate and concurrent measurement of both N2O concentration ([N2O]) and its associated isotopic ratios (δ 15Nα , δ 15{N}β & δ 18O) is desired. Recent developments in Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) have enabled high-precision measurements of [N2O] and Site-Preference-δ 15N (SP-δ 15N) and δ 18O of a continuous gas flow. However, many N2O samples are discrete with limited volume ( 2 ppm), and are not suitable for direct continuous measurements by CRDS. Here we present results of a small sample introduction and handling device, labelled as Small Sample Isotope Module (SSIM), coupled to and automatically coordinated with a Picarro isotopic N2O CRDS analyzer to handle and measure high concentration and/or small volume samples. The SSIM requires 20 ml of sample volume per analysis at STP, and transfers the sample to the CRDS for high-precision concentration and isotope ratio measurements. When the injected sample is

  6. Characterizations and Electrical Modelling of Sensory Samples Formed from Synthesized Vanadium (V) Oxide and Copper Oxide Graphene Quantum Tunneling Composites (GQTC) Applied in Electrotribology

    PubMed Central

    Habdank-Wojewódzki, Tadeusz; Habdank, Josef; Cwik, Przemyslaw; Zimowski, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    CuO and V2O5 graphene quantum tunneling composites (GQTC) presented in this article were produced and their sensory properties were analyzed. The composites were synthesised using two stage high-power milling process, which resulted in materials that have good temeprature and pressure sensory properties. Described production process defines internal structure of materials such that when used as sensor in the desired range, it exhibits a strong percolation effect. The experiment, with controlled changing physical conditions during electrotribological measurement, enabled analyzing of the composites’ conductivity as a function of the sensory properties: applied temperature, pressure, tangential force and wear. The sensory characteristic was successfully modelled by invertible generalized equations, and used to create sensor capable of estimating temperature or pressure in the real time. The developed materials have the potential to be applied in the areas where miniaturization is essential, due to the materials exhibiting good sensory properties in mini and micro scale. PMID:26742044

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles-nylon 6 composite for the dispersive micro solid phase extraction of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gallardo, Emilia M; Lucena, R; Cárdenas, S; Valcárcel, M

    2014-06-01

    In this article, the easy synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles-nylon 6 composite is presented, characterized and applied in the microextraction field. The one-step synthesis of the composite is performed by a solvent changeover playing with the different solubility of the polymeric network in formic acid and water. The new material has been characterized by different techniques including infrared spectroscopy, transmission and scanning microscopy. The extraction performance of the composite under a dispersive micro solid phase extraction format has been evaluated by determining four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[b]fluoranthene, fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and phenanthrene) in water using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) combined with photo diode array detection. The developed methodology allows the determination of the analytes with limits of detection in the range from 0.05 μg/L (benzo[b]fluoranthene) to 0.58 μg/L (phenanthrene). The repeatability of the method was better than 6.9% at the limit of quantification level. The relative recoveries varied in the interval 80-111%. PMID:24786654

  8. Effect of sample test volume and geometry on the tensile mechanical behavior of SiC/SiC continuous fiber ceramic composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sankar, J.; Kelkar, A.D.; Neogi, J.

    1998-09-01

    The development of a silicon carbide-type fiber from an organometallic precursor has led to a major resurgence of interest in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites. By combining this high strength fiber with a variety of ceramic matrices it has been possible to achieve tough composites offering significant potential advantages over monolithic ceramics and carbon-carbon for high temperature applications. A continuous-fiber ceramic matrix composite (CFCC) typical of materials proposed for such industrial applications as power generation, heat recovery and chemical production as well as biomedical and environmental applications was tested in uniaxial tension using a universal test machine. Test parameters investigated included: test mode (load versus displacement), test rate (0.003 mm/s, 0.03 mm/s, 50 N/s and 500 N/s), specimen geometry (straight-sided versus reduced-gauge section) and type of specimen volume (long/thin versus short/fat). Typical properties include an average elastic modulus 130 {+-} 10 Gpa, an average proportional limit stress of 45 {+-} 20 Mpa, an average ultimate tensile strength of 180 {+-} 20 MPa and an average modulus of toughness of 8.4 {+-} 2 (x10{sup 5})J/m{sup 3}.

  9. Guidelines for sample collecting and analytical methods used in the U.S. Geological Survey for determining chemical composition of coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Vernon Emanuel; Huffman, Claude

    1976-01-01

    This report is intended to meet the many requests for information on current U.S. Geological Survey procedures in handling coal samples. In general, the exact type and number of samples of coal and associated rock to be collected are left to the best judgment of the geologist. Samples should be of unweathered coal or rock and representative of the bed or beds sampled; it is recommended that two channel samples, separated by 10 to 100 yards (10 to 100 metres) and weighing 4 to 5 pounds ( 1.8 to 2.3 kilograms) each, be collected of each 5 feet ( 1.5 metres) of vertical section. Care must be taken to avoid any sample contamination, and to record the exact locality, thickness, and stratigraphic information for each sample. Analytical methods are described for the determination of major, minor, and trace elements in coal. Hg, As, Sb, F, Se, U, and Th are determined in the raw coal, and the following 34 elements are determined after ashing the coal: Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe (total), Cl, Ti, Mn, P, S (total), Cd, Li, Cu, Zn, Pb, B, Ba, Be, Co, Cr, Ga, La, Mo, Nb, Ni, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, Y, Yb, and Zr. The methods used to determine these elements include atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical emission spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, selective-ion electrode, and neutron activation analysis. A split of representative coal samples is submitted to the U.S. Bureau of Mines for proximate, ultimate, forms of sulfur, and Btu determinations.

  10. Preparation of water stable methyl-modified metal-organic framework-5/polyacrylonitrile composite nanofibers via electrospinning and their application for solid-phase extraction of two estrogenic drugs in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Asiabi, Mina; Mehdinia, Ali; Jabbari, Ali

    2015-12-24

    The nanofibers of methyl-modified metal-organic framework-5/polyacrylonitrile composite (CH3MOF-5/PAN) were successfully synthesized and used as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for pre-concentration of two estrogenic drugs, levonorgestrel and megestrol acetate, in urine samples. A simple, cheap and accessible electrospinning method was employed to prepare a water stable CH3MOF-5/PAN composite. The nanofibers were packed into the mini-disc cartridges to be used as SPE devices. They were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption-desorption experiments. The effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including the type of eluent and its volume, the amount of the sorbent, pH, the ionic strength, the sample volume and the reusability of the sorbent were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the linearity varied in range of 0.05-100μgL(-1) with R(2) values higher than 0.999. The limit of detection for both of the analytes was 0.02μgL(-1). The applicability of the method was examined by analyzing the analytes in the urine samples. The recovery of the analytes varied in the range of 82.8-94.8% which shows capability of the method for the determination of the drugs in the urine samples. PMID:26639216

  11. Involvement of 5f-orbitals in the bonding and reactivity of organoactinide compounds: thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) bis (hydrazonato) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cantat, Thibault; Graves, Christopher R; Morris, David E; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2008-01-01

    Migratory insertion of diphenyldiazomethane into both metal-carbon bonds of the bis(alkyl) and bis(aryl) complexes (C5Me5)2AnR2 yields the first f-element bis(hydrazonato) complexes (C5Me5)2An[2-(N,N')-R-N-NCPh2]2 [An = Th, R = CH3 (18), PhCH2 (15), Ph (16); An = U, R = CH3 (17), PhCH2 (14)], which have been characterized by a combination of spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and X-ray crystallography. The two hydrazonato ligands adopt an 2-coordination mode leading to 20-electron (for Th) and 22-electron (for U) complexes that have no transition-metal analogues. In fact, reaction of (C5H5)2Zr(CH3)2 or (C5Me5)2Hf(CH3)2 with diphenyldiazomethane is limited to the formation of the corresponding mono(hydrazonato) complex (C5R5)2M[2-(N,N')-CH3-N-NCPh2](CH3) (M = Zr, R = H or M = Hf, R = CH3). The difference in the reactivities of the group 4 metal complexes and the actinides was used as a unique platform for investigating in depth the role of 5f orbitals on the reactivity and bonding in actinide organometallic complexes. The electronic structure of the (C5H5)2M[2-(N,N')-CH3-N-NCH2]2 (M = Zr, Th, U) model complexes was studied using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and compared to experimental structural, electrochemical, and spectroscopic results. Whereas transition-metal bis(cyclopentadienyl) complexes are known to stabilize three ligands in the metallocene girdle to form saturated (C5H5)2ML3 species, in a bis(hydrazonato) system, a fourth ligand is coordinated to the metal center to give (C5H5)2ML4. DFT calculations have shown that 5f orbitals in the actinide complexes play a crucial role in stabilizing this fourth ligand by stabilizing both the s and p electrons of the two 2-coordinated hydrazonato ligands. In contrast, the stabilization of the hydrazonato ligands was found to be significantly less effective for the putative bis(hydrazonato) zirconium(IV) complex, yielding a higher energy structure. However, the difference in the reactivities of the group 4

  12. DNA adducts of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in fetal tissues of patas monkeys after transplacental exposure.

    PubMed

    Josyula, S; Lu, L J; Salazar, J J; Nerurkar, P V; Jones, A B; Grady, J J; Snyderwine, E G; Anderson, L M

    2000-08-01

    Transplacental genotoxicity of the heterocyclic amine food-derived mutagen/carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) has been investigated by (32)P-postlabeling assay for IQ-DNA adducts in maternal liver, placenta, and several fetal tissues of patas monkeys, after exposure to 15, 35, or 50 mg/kg IQ near the end of gestation or to the highest dose in the first or second trimester. Dose-dependent adduct formation occurred in all tissues, with the highest levels occurring in maternal liver. Adduct amounts were similar among fetal tissues and placenta, except for lower levels in fetal brain and slightly more adducts in fetal liver. Adducts in placenta, fetal liver, lung, kidney, skin, and adrenal gland, but not in maternal liver or fetal brain, increased significantly as gestation progressed. Pretreatment with phenobarbital, which induces CYP enzymes that detoxify IQ, decreased adducts in maternal liver and possibly placenta, but not in fetal tissues. The CYP inducer beta-naphthoflavone caused a significant increase in IQ-DNA adducts in fetal lungs. Regression analysis suggested that IQ activation in maternal and fetal liver and possibly placenta contributed to adduct formation in fetal tissues; adducts in placenta and/or fetal liver were strong predictors for those in most fetal tissues. The results indicate that exposure of pregnant primates to IQ results in DNA adduct formation in most fetal tissues, especially late in gestation; that upregulation of maternal detoxification does not provide fetal protection; and that adducts in placenta indicate adduct levels in fetal tissues. PMID:10906279

  13. Protective Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate on Colon Preneoplastic Lesions Induced by 2-Amino-3-Methylimidazo[4,5-f ] Quinoline in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jun-Hua; Li, Yan-Qing; Yang, Xiao-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a key active ingredient in green tea, has multiple anticarcinogenic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate if EGCG could prevent the formation of colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f ]quinoline (IQ) and to explore possible mechanisms for resultant effects. Sixty male BALB/cA nude, immunodeficient mice were divided into six groups including a normal unexposed control, mice induced with IQ alone, three groups treated with varying doses of EGCG post–IQ induction, and a EGCG-treated control population. Six weeks later, the mice were killed, and tissues subjected to hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and 0.2% methylene blue staining to observe histopathological alterations of colon mucus and the formation of ACF, respectively. Protein expression of NF-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) was assessed via immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western analysis, and mRNA levels of Nrf2 and uridine 5′-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A10 were determined in colon tissues. Our results demonstrate that, compared with IQ-induced controls, the degree of atypical hyperplasia decreased and the number of total ACF and total AC also decreased significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) in mice belonging to all EGCG dosing groups. At the same time, the protein levels of Nrf2 detected by IHC and Western blotting increased (both P < 0.01 compared with IQ group), and the mRNA levels of Nrf2 and UGT1A10 increased (both P < 0.01 compared with IQ group). In conclusion, EGCG had preventive effects on preneoplastic lesions induced by IQ. Our observations suggest that this effect may be the result of activation of the Nrf2-UGT1A10 signaling pathway. PMID:18596869

  14. Stabilization of Tetravalent 4f (Ce), 5d (Hf), or 5f (Th, U) Clusters by the [α-SiW9O34](10-) Polyoxometalate.

    PubMed

    Duval, Sylvain; Béghin, Sébastien; Falaise, Clément; Trivelli, Xavier; Rabu, Pierre; Loiseau, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    The reaction of Na10[α-SiW9O34] with tetravalent metallic cations such as 4f ((NH4)2Ce(NO3)6), 5d (HfCl4), or 5f (UCl4 and Th(NO3)4) in a pH 4.7 sodium acetate buffer solution leads to the formation of four sandwich-type polyoxometalates [Ce4(μ(3)-O)2(SiW9O34)2(CH3COO)2](10-) (1), [U4(μ(3)-O)2(SiW9O34)2(CH3COO)2](10-) (2), [Th3(μ(3)-O)(μ(2)-OH)3(SiW9O34)2](13-) (3), and [Hf3(μ(2)-OH)3(SiW9O34)2](11-) (4). All four compounds consist of a polynuclear cluster fragment stabilized by two [α-SiW9O34](10-) polyanions. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural with a tetranuclear core (Ce4, U4), while compound 3 presents a trinuclear Th3 core bearing a μ(3)-O-centered bridge. It is an unprecedented configuration in the case of the thorium(IV) cluster. Compound 4 also possesses a trinuclear Hf3 core but with the absence of the μ(3)-O bridge. The molecules have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, (183)W and (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis. PMID:26301948

  15. Organic carboxylate anions effect on the structures of a series of Mn(II) complexes based on 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiuli; Chen Yongqiang; Liu Guocheng; Lin Hongyan; Zhang Jinxia

    2009-09-15

    In our efforts to tune the structures of Mn(II) complexes by selection of organic carboxylic acid ligands, six new complexes [Mn(PIP){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}] (1), [Mn(PIP){sub 2}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O)].2H{sub 2}O (2), [Mn(PIP){sub 2}(1,4-bdc)] (3), [Mn(PIP)(1,3-bdc)] (4), [Mn(PIP){sub 2}(2,6-napdc)].H{sub 2}O (5), and [Mn(PIP)(1,4-napdc)].H{sub 2}O (6) were obtained, where PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpdc=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}bdc=benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 1,3-H{sub 2}bdc=benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-H{sub 2}napdc=2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}napdc=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid. All complexes have been structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analyses show that complexes 1 and 2 possess mononuclear structures, complexes 3, 4, and 5 feature chain structures, and complex 6 exhibits a 2D (4,4) network. The structural difference of 1-6 indicates that organic carboxylate anions play important roles in the formation of such coordination architectures. Furthermore, the thermal properties of complexes 1-6 and the magnetic property of 4 have been investigated. - Graphical Abstract: Through selecting organic carboxylate anions, six Mn(II) complexes have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  16. Comparison of the solid-phase extraction efficiency of a bounded and an included cyclodextrin-silica microporous composite for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water samples.

    PubMed

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela; Amorós, Pedro; Moragues, Alaina; Guillem, Carmen; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina

    2016-08-15

    Solid-phase extraction is one of the most important techniques for sample purification and concentration. A wide variety of solid phases have been used for sample preparation over time. In this work, the efficiency of a new kind of solid-phase extraction adsorbent, which is a microporous material made from modified cyclodextrin bounded to a silica network, is evaluated through an analytical method which combines solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. Several parameters that affected the analytes recovery, such as the amount of solid phase, the nature and volume of the eluent or the sample volume and concentration influence have been evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the material possesses adsorption ability to the tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Under the optimum conditions, the quantification limits of the method were in the range of 0.09-2.4μgL(-1) and fine linear correlations between peak height and concentration were found around 1.3-70μgL(-1). The method has good repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of variation under 8%. Due to the concentration results, this material may represent an alternative for trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water trough solid-phase extraction. PMID:27260440

  17. Suite versus composite statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balsillie, J.H.; Tanner, W.F.

    1999-01-01

    Suite and composite methodologies, two statistically valid approaches for producing statistical descriptive measures, are investigated for sample groups representing a probability distribution where, in addition, each sample is probability distribution. Suite and composite means (first moment measures) are always equivalent. Composite standard deviations (second moment measures) are always larger than suite standard deviations. Suite and composite values for higher moment measures have more complex relationships. Very seldom, however, are they equivalent, and they normally yield statistically significant but different results. Multiple samples are preferable to single samples (including composites) because they permit the investigator to examine sample-to-sample variability. These and other relationships for suite and composite probability distribution analyses are investigated and reported using granulometric data.

  18. Use of 2,3,5-F3Y-β2 and 3-NH2Y-α2 to study PCET in E. coli Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.; Yee, Cyril S.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    E. coli ribonucleotide reductase is an α2β2 complex that catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside 5′-diphosphates (NDPs) to deoxynucleotides (dNDPs). The active site for NDP reduction resides in α2, and the essential diferric-tyrosyl radical (Y122•) cofactor that initiates radical transfer to the active site cysteine in α2 (C439), 35 Å removed, is in β2. The oxidation is proposed to involve a hopping mechanism through aromatic amino acids (Y122→W48→Y356 in β2 to Y731→Y730→C439 in α2) and reversible proton coupled electron transfer (PCET). Recently 2,3,5-F3Y (F3Y) was site-specifically incorporated in place of Y356 in β2, and 3-NH2Y (NH2Y) in place of Y731 and Y730 in α2. A pH rate profile with F3Y356-β2 suggested that as the pH is elevated, the rate-determining step of RNR can be altered from a conformational change to PCET and that the altered driving force for F3Y oxidation, by residues adjacent to it in the pathway, is responsible for this change. Studies with NH2Y731(730)-α2/β2/CDP/ATP resulted in detection of NH2Y radical (NH2Y•) intermediates capable of dNDP formation. In this study, the reaction of F3Y356-β2/α2/CDP/ATP has been examined by stopped flow (SF) absorption and rapid freeze quench EPR spectroscopy and has failed to reveal any radical intermediates. F3Y356-β2/CDP/ATP has also been examined with NH2Y731-α2 (or NH2Y730-α2) by stopped-flow kinetics from pH 6.5–9.2 and revealed rate constants for NH2Y• formation that support a change in rate limiting step at elevated pH. The results together with kinetic simulations provide a guide for future studies to detect radical intermediates in the pathway. PMID:21182280

  19. Up-conversion routines of Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} and YOF phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sangmoon; Yang, Wonseok; Park, Chu-Young; Noh, Minhee; Choi, Seulki; Park, Dahye; Jang, Ho Seong; Cho, So-Hye

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Single-phase optical materials of Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8}:Er and YOF:Er were prepared. • Effective spectral converting properties were observed in Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8}:Er,Yb. • 980 nm diode laser was irradiated for up-converting analysis. • A multi-photon process in the phosphors was investigated. - Abstract: Optical materials composed of a Y{sub 6(1−p−q)}Er{sub 6p}Yb{sub 6q}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} (p = 0.001–0.1, q = 0.005–0.1) solid solution with Y{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}OF were prepared via a solid-state reaction using excess NH{sub 4}F flux at 950 °C for 30 min. X-ray diffraction patterns of Y{sub 6(1−p−q)}Er{sub 6p}Yb{sub 6q}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} and Y{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}OF were compared upon altering the synthesis temperature and the molar ratio of the NH{sub 4}F flux to the Y{sup 3+} (Er{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+}) ions. The effective spectral-conversion properties of Er{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} ions in Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} phosphors were monitored during excitation with a 980 nm wavelength diode-laser. Selection of appropriate Er{sup 3+} and/or Yb{sup 3+} concentrations in the Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} structure led to achievement of the desired up-conversion emission, from the green to the red regions of the spectra. Furthermore, the mechanism of up-conversion in the phosphors was described by an energy-level schematic. Up-conversion emission spectra and the dependence of the emission intensity on pump power (between 193 and 310 mW) in the Y{sub 6(0.995−q)}Er{sub 0.03}Yb{sub 6q}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} phosphors were also investigated.

  20. Shifts in the meso- and bathypelagic archaea communities composition during recovery and short-term handling of decompressed deep-sea samples.

    PubMed

    La Cono, Violetta; Smedile, Francesco; La Spada, Gina; Arcadi, Erika; Genovese, Maria; Ruggeri, Gioacchino; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Yakimov, Michail M

    2015-06-01

    Dark ocean microbial communities are actively involved in chemoautotrophic and anaplerotic fixation of bicarbonate. Thus, aphotic pelagic realm of the ocean might represent a significant sink of CO2 and source of primary production. However, the estimated metabolic activities in the dark ocean are fraught with uncertainties. Typically, deep-sea samples are recovered to the sea surface for downstream processing on deck. Shifts in ambient settings, associated with such treatments, can likely change the metabolic activity and community structure of deep-sea adapted autochthonous microbial populations. To estimate influence of recovery and short-term handling of deep-sea samples, we monitored the succession of bathypelagic microbial community during its 3 days long on deck incubation. We demonstrated that at the end of exposition, the deep-sea archaeal population decreased threefold, whereas the bacterial fraction doubled in size. As revealed by phylogenetic analyses of amoA gene transcripts, dominance of the active ammonium-oxidizing bathypelagic Thaumarchaeota groups shifted over time very fast. These findings demonstrated the simultaneous existence of various 'deep-sea ecotypes', differentially reacting to the sampling and downstream handling. Our study supports the hypothesis that metabolically active members of meso- and bathypelagic Thaumarchaeota possess the habitat-specific distribution, metabolic complexity and genetic divergence at subpopulation level. PMID:25682761

  1. Content of lithium, beryllium, boron, and titanium, and the isotopic composition of lithium, boron, and magnesium in Luna 16 regolith sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eugster, O.

    1974-01-01

    The abundance of the following elements in the L 16-19 No. 118 regolith sample, zone V was determined by isotopic dilution using a mass spectrometer equipped with a scattering ion source: Li -- 9.8, Be -- 1.2, Be -- 2.6, and Ti -- 1.92 percent. For comparison, these same elements were measured in samples of surface material returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, and in the terrestrial reference standard diabase W-1. The content of Li, Be, and B in the Luna 16 sample is nearly the same as in the Apollo 11 surface material. The surface material returned by Apollo 12 and Apollo 14 contains two to four times more of these elements. However, the abundance ratios of Li, Be, and B are remarkably similar in the surface materials from the four different lunar regions. With respect to basaltic achondrites and especially with respect to chondrites, the lunar basalts are enriched in Li, Be, and B up to 100 times.

  2. Single-step solubilization of milk samples with N,N-dimethylformamide for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis and classification based on their elemental composition.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; Savio, Marianela; Smichowski, Patricia; Martinez, Luis D; Camiña, José M; Gil, Raúl A

    2015-10-01

    A single-step procedure for trace elements analysis of milk samples is presented. Solubilization with small amounts of dymethylformamide (DMF) was assayed prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detection with a high efficiency sample introduction system. All main instrumental conditions were optimized in order to readily introduce the samples without matrix elimination. In order to assess and mitigate matrix effects in the determination of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Eu, Ga, Gd, Ge, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sm, S, Sr, Ta, Tb, V, Zn, and Zr, matrix matching calibration with (103)Rh as internal standard (IS) was performed. The obtained limits of detection were between 0.68 (Tb) and 30 (Zn) μg L(-1). For accuracy verification, certified Skim milk powder reference material (BCR 063R) was employed. The developed method was applied to trace elements analysis of commercially available milks. Principal components analysis was used to correlate the content of trace metals with the kind of milk, obtaining a classification according to adults, baby or baby fortified milks. The outcomes highlight a simple and fast approach that could be trustworthy for routine analysis, quality control and traceability of milks. PMID:26078129

  3. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  4. Magnetic solid phase adsorption, preconcentration and determination of methyl orange in water samples using silica coated magnetic nanoparticles and central composite design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariati-Rad, Masoud; Irandoust, Mohsen; Amri, Somayyeh; Feyzi, Mostafa; Ja'fari, Fattaneh

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of SiO2-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) for adsorption of methyl orange (MO). Adsorption of MO on the studied nanoparticle was developed for removal, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of it. To find the optimum adsorption conditions, the influence of pH, dosage of the adsorbent and contact time was explored by central composite design. In pH 2.66, with 10.0 mg of the SMNPs and time of 30.0 min, the maximum adsorption of MO was obtained. The experimental adsorption data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Both models were fitted to the equilibrium data and the maximum monolayer capacity q max of 53.19 mg g-1 was obtained for MO. Moreover, the sorption kinetics was fitted well to the pseudo-second-order rate equation model. The results showed that desorption efficiencies higher than 99 % can be achieved in a short contact time and in one step elution by 2.0 mL of 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. The SMNPs were washed with deionized water and reused for two successive removal processes with removal efficiencies more than 90 %. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 10.0-120.0 ng mL-1 for MO. A preconcentration factor of about 45 % was achieved by the method.

  5. Molecular and Stable Carbon Isotope Composition of Organic Compounds from Particles Sampled from the Lower Fraser Valley, BC Urban and Regional Air Shed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiticar, M. J.; Gray, S. L.

    2001-12-01

    This study examines the character of specific non-volatile organic compounds (N-VOCs) extracted from total suspended particulates. Aerosols are collected on filters by HiVol samplers on monthly intervals, at well-characterized meteorological sites throughout the Lower Fraser Valley. Filters are solvent-extracted , then separated into different compound classes by Silica-gel Chromatography. Selected fractions are analysed for their individual compound molecular compositions by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and by Continuous Flow-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (CF-IRMS) for their stable carbon isotope ratio. The purpose is to identify spatial and temporal variations in N-VOCs, with the long-term goal of understanding their sources, transport processes and atmospheric chemistry. This Health Canada, Toxic Substance Research Initiative offers insights into the levels and signatures of N-VOCs exposed to humans in congested urban settings. The program is also part of the Pacific 2001 field study. This paper presents the initial year's results on our N-VOCs, including alkanes, organic acids, in comparison with bulk isotope analyses.

  6. Comparative study on bulk and composite fibrous samples photophysical feature: synthesis and characterization of a fluorine-containing Re(I) complex and its electrospinning fibers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Shaoyan, Wang; Cangming, Zhao; Qi, Wang

    2015-05-01

    This paper reported a diamine ligand 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (referred to as FPOZ) owing two typical electron-withdrawing moieties of an oxidiazole group and a fluorine atom, as well as its corresponding Re(I) complex Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br. Geometric structure and electronic nature of Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br were explored and discussed by single crystal analysis and theoretical calculation, which suggested that Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br took a distorted octahedral coordination field. The onset electronic transitions owned a mixed character of metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) and ligand-to-ligand-charge-transfer (LLCT). Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was then doped into a polymer host. Photophysical difference between resulting composite fibers and bulk Re(CO)3(FPOZ)Br was carefully performed, so that the correlation between emissive performance and electron-withdrawing group/geometric relaxation could be investigated. It was found that the immobilization in polymer matrix could repress MLCT excited state geometric relaxation, leading to improved PL parameters such as emission blue shift, longer excited state lifetime and higher photostability. PMID:25699692

  7. Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbon/graphene composites as supercapacitor electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanjie; Li, Zhu; Guo, Kunkun; Shao, Ting

    2016-08-25

    Hierarchically ordered mesoporous carbon/graphene (OMC/G) composites have been fabricated by means of a solvent-evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) method. The structures of these composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K. These results indicate that OMC/G composites possess the hierarchically ordered hexagonal p6mm mesostructure with the lattice unit parameter and pore diameter close to 10 nm and 3 nm, respectively. The specific surface area of OMC/G composites after KOH activation is high up to 2109.2 m(2) g(-1), which is significantly greater than OMC after activation (1474.6 m(2) g(-1)). Subsequently, the resulting OMC/G composites as supercapacitor electrode materials exhibit an outstanding capacitance as high as 329.5 F g(-1) in 6 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1), which is much higher than both OMC (234.2 F g(-1)) and a sample made by mechanical mixing of OMC with graphene (217.7 F g(-1)). In addition, the obtained OMC/G composites display good cyclic stability, and the final capacitance retention is approximately 96% after 5000 cycles. These ordered mesopores in the OMC/G composites are beneficial to the accessibility and rapid diffusion of the electrolyte, while graphene in OMC/G composites can also facilitate the transport of electrons during the processes of charging and discharging owing to its high conductivity, thereby leading to an excellent energy storage performance. The method demonstrated in this work would open up a new route to design and develop graphene-based architectures for supercapacitor applications. PMID:27523568

  8. Fingerprinting El Nino Southern Ocean events using oxygen triple isotopic composition of aerosol sulfate from the South Pole snow pit samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemens, M. H.; Abaunza Quintero, M. M.; Shaheen, R.; Jackson, T. L.; McCabe, J.; Savarino, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4th assessment report [IPCC 2007], aerosols are the largest source of uncertainty in modeling the earth's radiative budget. Sulfate aerosols contributes to global cooling that may mask warming effect by greenhouse gases, therefore, high resolution record of aerosol sulfate can help to understand the impact of anthropogenic activities and natural variations on climate change. Sulfate aerosols were extracted from the ice pit samples obtained from the South Pole (1979-2002) at a high resolution temporal record of the winter and summer seasons. To insure highest measurement ability of very small samples (few nano moles) a hydrogen peroxide cleaning method was developed to remove organic impurities from aerosols which otherwise significantly affect O-triple isotopic measurement of the sulfates. Preliminary data indicated non sea salt contributions of 70-95% with a range in δ18OVSMOW = -1.86 -12% and Δ17O = 0.8-3.7% for the years 1990-2001. The positive Δ17O of sulfate derives from aqueous phase oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 and O3 and involves transfer of the isotopic anomaly from the oxidant to the product sulfate. All other sulfate sources (sea salt sulfates and primary sulfates from fossil fuel combustion), including gas-phase oxidation by OH in the troposphere, metal catalyzed oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI), are strictly mass dependent (Δ17O = 0%). The magnitude of the transfer of the Δ17O varies according to the relative contribution from H2O2 at pH < 6 (Δ17O = 1%) and O3 at pH > 6 (Δ17O = 8%). Seasonal variations of these oxidants and their contribution to S(IV) oxidation will be discussed. Since our samples include the time period 1977-2002, each year divided into two parts (winter and summer season's aerosols), in addition to seasonal variation in sulfate oxidation pathways, we may also be able to assess if the oxidation cycle of sulfate changes during El Niño years.

  9. Superparamagnetic Fe3 O4 @SiO2 core-shell composite nanoparticles for the mixed hemimicelle solid-phase extraction of benzodiazepines from hair and wastewater samples before high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Shahri, Effat; Es'haghi, Zarrin

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic Fe3 O4 /SiO2 composite core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized, and applied for the surfactant-assisted solid-phase extraction of five benzodiazepines diazepam, oxazepam, clonazepam, alprazolam, and midazolam, from human hair and wastewater samples before high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The nanocomposite was synthesized in two steps. First, Fe3 O4 nanoparticles were prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method of Fe(III) and Fe(II) as reaction substrates and NH3 /H2 O as precipitant. Second, the surface of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles was modified with shell silica by Stober method using tetraethylorthosilicate. The Fe3 O4 /SiO2 composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. To enhance their adsorptive tendency toward benzodiazepines, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide was added, which was adsorbed on the surface of the Fe3 O4 /SiO2 nanoparticles and formed mixed hemimicelles. The main parameters affecting the efficiency of the method were thoroughly investigated. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.10-15 μgmL(-1) . The relative standard deviations ranged from 2.73 to 7.07%. The correlation coefficients varied from 0.9930 to 0.9996. PMID:26412451

  10. Aerosol mass spectrometric analysis of the chemical composition of non-refractory PM(1) samples from school environments in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Crilley, Leigh R; Ayoko, Godwin A; Jayaratne, E Rohan; Salimi, Farhad; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-08-01

    Long-term exposure to vehicle emissions has been associated with detrimental health effects. Children are amongst the most susceptible group and schools represent an environment where they can experience significant exposure to vehicle emissions. However, there are limited studies on children's exposure to vehicle emissions in schools. The aim of this study was to quantify the concentration of organic aerosol (OA) and in particular, vehicle emissions that children are exposed to during school hours. Therefore an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (TOF-AMS) was deployed at five urban schools in Brisbane, Australia. TOF-AMS enabled the chemical composition of the non-refractory (NR-PM1) to be analysed with a high temporal resolution to assess the concentration of vehicle emissions and other OA components during school hours. The organic fraction at each school comprised the majority of NR-PM1. Primary emissions were found to dominate the OA at only one school which had an O:C ratio of 0.17, due to fuel powered gardening equipment used near the TOF-AMS. A significant source of the OA at two of the schools was aged vehicle emissions from nearby highways. More oxidised OA was observed at the remaining two schools, which also recorded strong biomass burning influences. In general, the diurnal cycle of the total OA concentration varied between schools and was found to be at a minimum during school hours. The major organic component that school children were exposed to during school hours was secondary OA at all schools. Peak exposure of school children to vehicle emissions occurred during school drop-off and pick-up times. Unless a school is located near major roads, children are exposed predominately to regional secondary OA as opposed to local emissions during school hours in urban environments. PMID:23644356

  11. Poly(2-aminobenzothiazole)-coated graphene oxide/magnetite nanoparticles composite as an efficient sorbent for determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in urine sample.

    PubMed

    Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira

    2016-02-26

    In this study, for the first time, 2-aminobenzothiazole monomer was polymerized on Fe3O4 NPs, graphene oxide/Fe3O4 (GO/Fe3O4) and graphene/Fe3O4 (G/Fe3O4) nanocomposites. The synthesized magnetic nanosorbents were characterized by various techniques. The extraction ability of these nanosorbents including Fe3O4, GO/Fe3O4, G/Fe3O4, Fe3O4@poly(2-aminobenzothiazole) (Fe3O4@PABT), GO/Fe3O4@PABT and G/Fe3O4@PABT were compared for dispersive-micro-solid phase extraction of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The results revealed that GO/Fe3O4@PABT nanocomposite demonstrates higher extraction efficiency for naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen as selected model analytes. Following the sorption and elution steps, the model analytes were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array detection. Afterwards, a central composite design methodology combined with desirability function approach was applied to find out the optimal experimental conditions. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection and linear dynamic ranges were achieved in the range of 0.07-0.3μgL(-1) and 0.25-2000μgL(-1), respectively. The percent of extraction recovery was 87.4, 85.5 and 90.5% for naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen, respectively. The obtained relative standard deviation (n=5) was 7.2, 5.4 and 6.4% for naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen, respectively. Ultimately, this method was employed for urinary monitoring of the target analytes and satisfactory results were obtained. PMID:26839179

  12. Nanocellulose/nanobentonite composite anchored with multi-carboxyl functional groups as an adsorbent for the effective removal of Cobalt(II) from nuclear industry wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Deepa, J R; Christa, J

    2016-04-01

    A novel adsorbent, poly(itaconic acid/methacrylic acid)-grafted-nanocellulose/nanobentonite composite [P(IA/MAA)-g-NC/NB] with multi carboxyl functional groups for the effective removal of Cobalt(II) [Co(II)] from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent was characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDS, AFM and potentiometric titrations before and after adsorption of Co(II) ions. FTIR spectra revealed that Co(II) adsorption on to the polymer may be due to the involvement of COOH groups. The surface morphological changes were observed by the SEM images. The pH was optimized as 6.0. An adsorbent dose of 2.0g/L found to be sufficient for the complete removal of Co(II) from 100mg/L at room temperature. Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were tested to describe kinetic data and adsorption of Co(II) follows pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium attained at 120min. Isotherm studies were conducted and data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips isotherm models and best fit was Sips model. Thermodynamic study confirmed endothermic and physical nature of adsorption of the Co(II) onto the adsorbent. Desorption experiments were done with 0.1MHCl proved that without significant loss in performance adsorbent could be reused for six cycles. The practical efficacy and effectiveness of the adsorbent were tested using nuclear industrial wastewater. A double stage batch adsorption system was designed from the adsorption isotherm data of Co(II) by constructing operating lines. PMID:26844393

  13. Determination of trace/ultratrace rare earth elements in environmental samples by ICP-MS after magnetic solid phase extraction with Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline-graphene oxide composite.

    PubMed

    Su, Shaowei; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin; Xiao, Zuowei

    2014-02-01

    A novel Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline-graphene oxide composite (MPANI-GO) was prepared through a simple noncovalent method and applied to magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in tea leaves and environmental water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. The prepared MPANI-GO was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. Various parameters affecting MPANI-GO MSPE of REEs have been investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, 3σ) for REEs were in the range of 0.04-1.49 ng L(-1) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, c=20 ng L(-1), n=7) were 1.7-6.5%. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated by analyzing a Certified Reference Material of GBW 07605 tea leaves. The method was also successfully applied for the determination of trace REEs in tea leaves and environmental water samples. The developed MPANI-GO MSPE-ICP-MS method has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, high enrichment factor and is suitable for the analysis of trace REEs in samples with complex matrix. PMID:24401441

  14. Simultaneous determination of stable isotopic compositions of nitrous oxide (δ15N and δ18O of N2O) and methane (δ13C of CH4) in nanomolar quantities from a single water sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, A.; Tsunogai, U.; Komatsu, D. D.; Nakagawa, F.

    2010-12-01

    The stable isotopic compositions of nitrous oxide (δ15N of N2O and δ18O of N2O, respectively) and methane (δ13C of CH4) have provided us with some interesting geochemical insights. We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and automated analytical system to simultaneously determine the concentrations and stable isotopic compositions of nanomolar quantities of N2O and CH4 in the environmental water, by combining continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometry and a He-sparging system to extract and purify the dissolved gases. Our system, which is composed of a sparging bottle, a chemical trap, four cold traps and a capillary gas chromatograph that use ultra-pure helium as the carrier gas, achieves complete extraction of N2O and CH4 in a water sample and separation among N2O, CH4, and the other component gases. The flow path subsequent to gas chromatograph was periodically changed to pass the gases through the combustion furnace to convert CH4 and the other hydrocarbons into CO2, or to bypass the combustion furnace for the direct introduction of eluted N2O into the mass spectrometer, for determining the stable isotopic compositions through monitoring m/z = 44, 45, and 46, on the bases of CO2+ and N2O+, respectively. The analytical system can be operated automatically with sequential software programmed on a personal computer. The analytical precisions (the standard deviation of a single measurement) were better than 0.2‰ for δ15N of N2O and 0.3‰ for δ18O of N2O, in the case of more than 6.7 nmol N2O injection and better than 1.4‰ for δ15N of N2O and 2.6‰ for δ18O of N2O, in the case of more than 0.2 nmol N2O injection, respectively. Simultaneously, the analytical precisions were better than 0.07‰ for δ13C of CH4, in the case of more than 5.5 nmol CH4 infection and better than 2.1‰ for δ13C of CH4, when more than 0.024 nmol CH4 injection. In this manner, we can simultaneously determine stable isotopic compositions of a 120 mL water sample having

  15. The Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative composite cognitive test score: Sample size estimates for the evaluation of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease treatments in presenilin 1 E280A mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Langbaum, Jessica B.; Hendrix, Suzanne B.; Chen, Kewei; Fleisher, Adam S.; Friesenhahn, Michel; Ward, Michael; Aguirre, Camilo; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Madrigal, Lucìa; Muñoz, Claudia; Tirado, Victoria; Moreno, Sonia; Tariot, Pierre N.; Lopera, Francisco; Reiman, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is a need to identify a cognitive composite that is sensitive to tracking preclinical AD decline to be used as a primary endpoint in treatment trials. Method We capitalized on longitudinal data, collected from 1995 to 2010, from cognitively unimpaired presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers from the world’s largest known early-onset autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) kindred to identify a composite cognitive test with the greatest statistical power to track preclinical AD decline and estimate the number of carriers age 30 and older needed to detect a treatment effect in the Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative’s (API) preclinical AD treatment trial. The mean-to-standard-deviation ratios (MSDRs) of change over time were calculated in a search for the optimal combination of one to seven cognitive tests/sub-tests drawn from the neuropsychological test battery in cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers during a two and five year follow-up period, using data from non-carriers during the same time period to correct for aging and practice effects. Combinations that performed well were then evaluated for robustness across follow-up years, occurrence of selected items within top performing combinations and representation of relevant cognitive domains. Results This optimal test combination included CERAD Word List Recall, CERAD Boston Naming Test (high frequency items), MMSE Orientation to Time, CERAD Constructional Praxis and Ravens Progressive Matrices (Set A) with an MSDR of 1.62. This composite is more sensitive than using either the CERAD Word List Recall (MSDR=0.38) or the entire CERAD-Col battery (MSDR=0.76). A sample size of 75 cognitively normal PSEN1-E280A mutation carriers age 30 and older per treatment arm allows for a detectable treatment effect of 29% in a 60-month trial (80% power, p=0.05). Conclusions We have identified a composite cognitive test score representing multiple cognitive domains that has improved power compared to the most

  16. Preconcentration of valsartan by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop and its determination in urine sample: Central composite design.

    PubMed

    Pebdani, Arezou Amiri; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayesteh; Talebianpoor, Mohammad Sharif; Khodadoust, Saeid

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a fast, easy, and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic drop followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was developed for the separation/preconcentration and determination of the drug valsartan. Experimental design was applied for the optimization of the effective variables (such as volume of extracting and dispersing solvents, ionic strength, and pH) on the extraction efficiency of valsartan from urine samples. The optimized values were 250.0 μL ethanol, 65.0 μL 1-dodecanol, 4.0% w/v NaCl, pH 3.8, 1.0 min extraction time, and 4.0 min centrifugation at 4000 rpm min(-1) . The linear response (r(2) = 0.997) was obtained in the range of 0.013-10.0 μg mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 4.0 ng mL(-1) and relative standard deviations of less than 5.0 % (n = 6). PMID:26991865

  17. Problems, possibilities and limitations of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in the determination of platinum, palladium and rhodium in samples with different matrix composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, P.; Velichkov, S.; Velitchkova, N.; Havezov, I.; Daskalova, N.

    2010-02-01

    The economic and geological importance of platinum group of elements has led to the development of analytical methods to quantify them in different types of samples. In the present paper the quantitative information for spectral interference in radial viewing 40.68 MHz inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in the determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in the presence of complex matrix, containing Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and Ti as matrix constituents was obtained. The database was used for optimum line selections. By using the selected analysis lines the following detection limits in ng g - 1 were obtained: Pt 1700, Pd-1440, Rh-900. The reached detection limits determine the possibilities and limitation of the direct ICP-AES method in the determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in geological and environmental materials. The database for spectral interferences in the presence of aluminum can be used for the determination of platinum group of elements in car catalysts. The accuracy of the analytical results was experimentally demonstrated by two certified reference materials that were analyzed: SARM 7, Pt ore and recycled auto-catalyst certified reference material SRM 2556.

  18. Exact geometry solid-shell element based on a sampling surfaces technique for 3D stress analysis of doubly-curved composite shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, G. M.; Mamontov, A. A.; Plotnikova, S. V.; Mamontov, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    A hybrid-mixed ANS four-node shell element by using the sampling surfaces (SaS) technique is developed. The SaS formulation is based on choosing inside the nth layer In not equally spaced SaS parallel to the middle surface of the shell in order to introduce the displacements of these surfaces as basic shell variables. Such choice of unknowns with the consequent use of Lagrange polynomials of degree In - 1 in the thickness direction for each layer permits the presentation of the layered shell formulation in a very compact form. The SaS are located inside each layer at Chebyshev polynomial nodes that allows one to minimize uniformly the error due to the Lagrange interpolation. To implement the efficient analytical integration throughout the element, the enhanced ANS method is employed. The proposed hybrid-mixed four-node shell element is based on the Hu-Washizu variational equation and exhibits a superior performance in the case of coarse meshes. It could be useful for the 3D stress analysis of thick and thin doubly-curved shells since the SaS formulation gives the possibility to obtain numerical solutions with a prescribed accuracy, which asymptotically approach the exact solutions of elasticity as the number of SaS tends to infinity.

  19. Zeolite/iron oxide composite as sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes from water samples prior to gas chromatography⬜mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Elena; Vidal, Lorena; Canals, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study reports a new composite based on ZSM-5 zeolite decorated with iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles as a valuable sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). A proposal is made to determine benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) as model analytes in water samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A two-step multivariate optimization strategy, using Plackett⬜Burman and circumscribed central composite designs, was employed to optimize experimental parameters affecting MSPE. The method was evaluated under optimized extraction conditions (i.e., amount of sorbent, 138mg; extraction time, 11min; sample pH, pH of water (i.e., 5.5⬜6.5); eluent solvent volume, 0.5mL; and elution time, 5min), obtaining a linear response from 1 to 100μgL(↙1) for benzene; from 10 to 100μgL(↙1) for toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene; and from 10 to 75μgL(↙1) for m,p-xylene. The repeatability of the proposed method was evaluated at a 40μgL(↙1) spiking level and coefficients of variation ranged between 8 and 11% (n=5). Limits of detection were found to be 0.3μgL(↙1) for benzene and 3μgL(↙1) for the other analytes. These values satisfy the current normative of the Environmental Protection Agency and European Union for BTEX content in waters for human consumption. Finally, drinking water, wastewater and river water were selected as real water samples to assess the applicability of the method. Relative recoveries varied between 85% and 114% showing negligible matrix effects. PMID:27373373

  20. Photophysical properties of ESIPT inspired fluorescent 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione and its derivative: Experimental and DFT based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Mininath S.; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2015-01-01

    The excited-state intramolecular proton transfer chromophores 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione and 2-(4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione are synthesized from 4,5-diamino-N-methylphthalimide. The photophysical behavior of the synthesized chromophores was studied using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy in the polar and non-polar solvents. The synthesized o-hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole derivatives are fluorescent and very sensitive to the solvent polarity. These dyes are thermally stable up to 317 °C. Density Functional Theory computations have been used to understand the structural, molecular, electronic and photophysical properties of the chromophores. The experimental absorption and emission wavelengths are in good agreement with the computed vertical excitation and theoretical emission obtained by Density Functional Theory and Time Dependant Density Functional Theory.

  1. Folate Deficiency Triggers an Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death and Impedes Insulin Biosynthesis in RINm5F Pancreatic Islet β–Cells: Relevant to the Pathogenesis of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Huei; Chen, Chia-Hui; Mau, Shin-Yi; Ho, Chun-Te; Chang, Pey-Jium; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that folic acid (folate) deficiency (FD) may be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of a variety of oxidative stress-triggered chronic degenerative diseases including diabetes, however, the direct evidence to lend support to this hypothesis is scanty. For this reason, we set out to study if FD can trigger the apoptotic events in an insulin-producing pancreatic RINm5F islet β cells. When these cells were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature proceeding through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. In addition to evoke oxidative stress, FD condition could also trigger nitrosative stress through a NF-κB-dependent iNOS-mediated overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). The latter compound could then trigger depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca2+) store leading to cytosolic Ca2+ overload and caused ER stress as evidence by the activation of CHOP expression. Furthermore, FD-induced apoptosis of RINm5F cells was found to be correlated with a time-dependent depletion of intracellular gluthathione (GSH) and a severe down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. Along the same vein, we also demonstrated that FD could severely impede RINm5F cells to synthesize insulin and their abilities to secret insulin in response to glucose stimulation were appreciably hampered. Even more importantly, we found that folate replenishment could not restore the ability of RINm5F cells to resynthesize insulin. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis that FD is a legitimate risk factor for the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24223745

  2. Folate deficiency triggers an oxidative-nitrosative stress-mediated apoptotic cell death and impedes insulin biosynthesis in RINm5F pancreatic islet β-cells: relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hung-Chih; Chiou, Jeng-Fong; Wang, Yu-Huei; Chen, Chia-Hui; Mau, Shin-Yi; Ho, Chun-Te; Chang, Pey-Jium; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that folic acid (folate) deficiency (FD) may be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of a variety of oxidative stress-triggered chronic degenerative diseases including diabetes, however, the direct evidence to lend support to this hypothesis is scanty. For this reason, we set out to study if FD can trigger the apoptotic events in an insulin-producing pancreatic RINm5F islet β cells. When these cells were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature proceeding through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. In addition to evoke oxidative stress, FD condition could also trigger nitrosative stress through a NF-κB-dependent iNOS-mediated overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). The latter compound could then trigger depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) store leading to cytosolic Ca(2+) overload and caused ER stress as evidence by the activation of CHOP expression. Furthermore, FD-induced apoptosis of RINm5F cells was found to be correlated with a time-dependent depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and a severe down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. Along the same vein, we also demonstrated that FD could severely impede RINm5F cells to synthesize insulin and their abilities to secret insulin in response to glucose stimulation were appreciably hampered. Even more importantly, we found that folate replenishment could not restore the ability of RINm5F cells to resynthesize insulin. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis that FD is a legitimate risk factor for the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24223745

  3. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Extension of Temporary Placement of PB-22, 5F-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA and ADB-PINACA in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this final order to extend the temporary schedule I status of four synthetic cannabinoids pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. The substances are: quinolin-8-yl 1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (PB-22; QUPIC); quinolin-8-yl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (5-fluoro-PB-22; 5F-PB-22); N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-FUBINACA); and N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (ADB-PINACA), including their optical, positional and geometric isomers, salts, and salts of isomers. The current final order temporarily placing PB-22, 5F-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA, and ADB-PINACA into schedule I is in effect through February 9, 2016. This final order will extend the temporary scheduling of PB-22, 5F-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA, and ADB-PINACA for one year, or until the permanent scheduling action for these four substances is completed, whichever occurs first. PMID:26859904

  4. Sampling mechanisms for asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D.; Franzen, M. A.; Preble, J.; Long, T.

    2003-04-01

    There is a unique challenge in developing sample collectors for low-gravity bodies such as asteroids. Traditional devices rely mostly on gravity for sample collection which is inappropriate in the case of asteroids. The NEAR Shoemaker has shown that we can design spacecrafts that can maneuver very closely to asteroids and provide us with a wealth of valuable data. However, a sample collector that can return samples to the Earth has yet to be fully developed. During the Near-Earth Sample Return Workshop held in Los Angeles in July 2002, the scientific requirements and engineering constraints of sample return collectors were discussed. It was proposed that the touch-and-go-sampler is to be preferred for the first missions. The collector should be as simple as possible, with the minimum of moving parts to reduce cost and prevent damage to the sampler during the collection process as well as minimize surface disturbance on the asteroid. However, the collection procedure must meet certain conditions in order for a complete assessment of the samples. The collection process should not change the composition (molecular, elemental, or isotopic), physical properties, mineral and phase proportions, or grain size distribution. Our answer to these challenges is an adhesive tray collector. The adhesive tray touch-and-go-sampler would include a thirty centimeter in diameter tray bound to a boom. The boom would allow the spacecraft to collect samples with a minimum amount of disturbance from the one to two second encounter with the surface of the asteroid with the adhesive tray. The adhesive tray would be able to sample surface regolith including one to two centimeter clasts in a diverse number of scientifically valuable sites. Once the sample has been collected, the boom will retract and place the adhesive sample tray into a sample return canister. Progress in the development of this collector and preliminary results of testing under microgravity and space conditions will be

  5. Separation of very hydrophobic analytes by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. I. Optimization of the composition of the sample solution for the determination of the aromatic ingredients of sassafras and other essential oils of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Huhn, Carolin; Pütz, Michael; Holthausen, Ivie; Pyell, Ute

    2008-01-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatographic method using UV and (UV)LIF detection in-line was developed for the determination of aromatic constituents, mainly allylbenzenes in essential oils. The method optimization included the optimization of the composition of the separation electrolyte using ACN and urea to reduce retention factors and CaCl(2) to widen the migration time window. In addition, it was necessary to optimize the composition of the sample solution which included the addition of a neutral surfactant at high concentration. With the optimized method, the determination of minor constituents in essential oils was possible despite of the presence of a structurally related compound being in a molar ratio excess of 1000:1. The use of UV and LIF-detection in-line enabled the direct comparison of the two detection traces using an electrophoretic mobility x-axis instead of the normal time-based scale. This simplifies the assignment of signals and enhances repeatability. The method developed was successfully applied to the determination of minor and major constituents in herbal essential oils, some of them being forensically relevant as sources of precursors for synthetic drugs. PMID:18064732

  6. Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics in the stable oxygen isotope compositions of water pools in a temperate humid grassland ecosystem: results from MIBA sampling and MuSICA modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirl, Regina; Schnyder, Hans; Auerswald, Karl; Vetter, Sylvia; Ostler, Ulrike; Schleip, Inga; Wingate, Lisa; Ogée, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    The oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of water in terrestrial ecosystems usually shows strong and dynamic variations within and between the various compartments. These variations originate from changes in the δ18O of water inputs (e.g. rain or water vapour) and from 18O fractionation phenomena in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Investigations of δ18O in ecosystem water pools and of their main drivers can help us understand water relations at plant, canopy or ecosystem scale and interpret δ18O signals in plant and animal tissues as paleo-climate proxies. During the vegetation periods of 2006 to 2012, soil, leaf and stem water as well as atmospheric humidity, rain water and groundwater were sampled at bi-weekly intervals in a temperate humid pasture of the Grünschwaige Grassland Research Station near Munich (Germany). The sampling was performed following standardised MIBA (Moisture Isotopes in the Biosphere and Atmosphere) protocols. Leaf water samples were prepared from a mixture of co-dominant species in the plant community in order to obtain a canopy-scale leaf water δ18O signal. All samples were then analysed for their δ18O compositions. The measured δ18O of leaf, stem and soil water were then compared with the δ18O signatures simulated by the process-based isotope-enabled ecosystem model MuSICA (Multi-layer Simulator of the Interactions between a vegetation Canopy and the Atmosphere). MuSICA integrates current mechanistic understanding of processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Hence, the comparison of modelled and measured data allows the identification of gaps in current knowledge and of questions to be tackled in the future. Soil and plant characteristics for model parameterisation were derived from investigations at the experimental site and supplemented by values from the literature. Eddy-covariance measurements of ecosystem CO2 (GPP, NEE) and energy (H, LE) fluxes and soil temperature data were used for model evaluation. The

  7. Form development sample test matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ebbinghaus, B B

    1999-10-15

    This document summarizes the status of sample fabrication and analysis in the Form Development Sample Test Matrix. Since its publication in the ''Baseline Formulation'' report (UCRL-ID- 133089, PIP-99-O 12) and in the ''Complete Single-Phase Sample Fabrications that Support the Licensing Application and Complete Process and Compositional Extreme Sample Fabrications that Support the Licensing Application'' report (PIP-99-078), the Sample Test Matrix has been updated and expanded. This version is current though September 30, 1999.

  8. Capillary sample

    MedlinePlus

    ... using capillary blood sampling. Disadvantages to capillary blood sampling include: Only a limited amount of blood can be drawn using this method. The procedure has some risks (see below). Capillary ...

  9. Chlorophenol's ultra-trace analysis in environmental samples by chitosan-zinc oxide nanorod composite as a novel coating for solid phase micro-extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a simple, novel, and efficient preconcentration method has been developed for the determination of some chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) using a direct solid phase microextraction (D-SPME) based on chitosan-ZnO nanorod composite combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A one step-novel hydrothermal method was demonstrated on the fabrication of ZnO nanorods arrayed on the fused silica fiber in the chitosan hydrogel solution (CZNC) as a new coating of SPME fiber. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) instruments. The CZNC coating has combined the merits of both ZnO nanorods and chitosan hydrogel; it has several improvements such as increased extraction efficiency of chlorophenols and longer life time (over 80 cycles of D-SPME-HPLC operation). Experimental design method was used for optimization of extraction conditions and determination of four chlorophenols in water samples by SPME-HPLC-UV method. The calibration curves were linear from 5 to 1000 µg L(-1) for analytes, and the limits of detection were between 0.1 and 2 µg L(-1). Single fiber repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were in the range of 5.8-10.2% and 8.8-14.5%, respectively. The spiked recoveries at 50 µg L(-1) for environmental water sample were in the range of 93-102%. PMID:26695336

  10. Response surface methodology based on central composite design as a chemometric tool for optimization of dispersive-solidification liquid-liquid microextraction for speciation of inorganic arsenic in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Asadollahzadeh, Mehdi; Tavakoli, Hamed; Torab-Mostaedi, Meisam; Hosseini, Ghaffar; Hemmati, Alireza

    2014-06-01

    Dispersive-solidification liquid-liquid microextraction (DSLLME) coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for preconcentration and determination of inorganic arsenic (III, V) in water samples. At pH=1, As(III) formed complex with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) and extracted into the fine droplets of 1-dodecanol (extraction solvent) which were dispersed with ethanol (disperser solvent) into the water sample solution. After extraction, the organic phase was separated by centrifugation, and was solidified by transferring into an ice bath. The solidified solvent was transferred to a conical vial and melted quickly at room temperature. As(III) was determined in the melted organic phase while As(V) remained in the aqueous layer. Total inorganic As was determined after the reduction of the pentavalent forms of arsenic with sodium thiosulphate and potassium iodide. As(V) was calculated by difference between the concentration of total inorganic As and As(III). The variable of interest in the DSLLME method, such as the volume of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, pH, concentration of APDC (chelating agent), extraction time and salt effect, was optimized with the aid of chemometric approaches. First, in screening experiments, fractional factorial design (FFD) was used for selecting the variables which significantly affected the extraction procedure. Afterwards, the significant variables were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). In the optimum conditions, the proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of inorganic arsenic in different environmental water samples and certified reference material (NIST RSM 1643e). PMID:24725860

  11. Crystal structure of a binuclear nickel(II) complex constructed of 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and doubly deprotonated benzene-1,3,5-tri­carb­oxy­lic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ying; Hao, Xiang-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The title complex, [Ni2(C9H4O6)2(C13H8N4)2(H2O)4]·2H2O, bis­(μ-5-carb­oxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 O 1:O 1′)bis­[di­aqua(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline-κ2 N 7,N 8)nickel(II)] di­hydrate, was obtained under solvothermal conditions by the reaction of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) with Ni(NO3)2 in the presence of 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (IP). The crystal has triclinic (P-1) symmetry with a centrosymmetric binuclear nickel(II) cluster. The NiII atom is coordinated by two N atoms from a chelating 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ligand, two carboxyl­ate O atoms from two 5-carb­oxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ate ligands and two water mol­ecules in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. Two carboxyl­ate groups bridge two NiII cations, forming the binuclear complex. Extensive N—H⋯O, O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure, forming a three-dimensional supermolecular framework. Weak π–π stacking is observed between parallel HBTC2− and IP ring systems, the face-to-face separation being 3.695 (2) Å. PMID:26029419

  12. The Functional Property Changes of Muscular Na(v)1.4 and Cardiac Na(v)1.5 Induced by Scorpion Toxin BmK AGP-SYPU1 Mutants Y42F and Y5F.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangxue; Xu, Yijia; Zhao, Mingyi; Wang, Fangyang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Jin, Yao; Liu, Yanfeng; Song, Yongbo; Zhang, Jinghai

    2015-05-19

    Scorpion toxins are invaluable therapeutic leads and pharmacological tools which influence the voltage-gated sodium channels. However, the details were still unclear about the structure-function relationship of scorpion toxins on VGSC subtypes. In the previous study, we reported one α-type scorpion toxin Bmk AGP-SYPU1 and its two mutants (Y5F and Y42F) which had been demonstrated to ease pain in mice acetic acid writhing test. However, the function of Bmk AGP-SYPU1 on VGSCs is still unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of BmK AGP-SYPU1 and its two mutants (Y5F and Y42F) on hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5 heterologously expressed CHO cell lines by using Na⁺-specialized fluorescent dye and whole-cell patch clamp. The data showed that BmK AGP-SYPU1 displayed as an activator of hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5, which might indeed contribute to its biotoxicity to muscular and cardiac system and exhibited the functional properties of both the α-type and β-type scorpion toxin. Notably, Y5F mutant exhibited lower activatory effects on hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5 compared with BmK AGP-SYPU1. Y42F was an enhanced activator and confirmed that the conserved Tyr42 was the key amino acid involved in bioactivity or biotoxicity. These data provided a deep insight into the structure-function relationship of BmK AGP-SYPU1, which may be the guidance for engineering α-toxin with high selectivity on VGSC subtypes. PMID:25919575

  13. Sampling Development

    PubMed Central

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of the enterprise. This article discusses how to sample development in order to accurately discern the shape of developmental change. The ideal solution is daunting: to summarize behavior over 24-hour intervals and collect daily samples over the critical periods of change. We discuss the magnitude of errors due to undersampling, and the risks associated with oversampling. When daily sampling is not feasible, we offer suggestions for sampling methods that can provide preliminary reference points and provisional sketches of the general shape of a developmental trajectory. Denser sampling then can be applied strategically during periods of enhanced variability, inflections in the rate of developmental change, or in relation to key events or processes that may affect the course of change. Despite the challenges of dense repeated sampling, researchers must take seriously the problem of sampling on a developmental time scale if we are to know the true shape of developmental change. PMID:22140355

  14. 19 CFR 151.52 - Sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Representative commercial moisture and assay samples shall be taken under Customs supervision for testing by the... composite sample of the shipment shall be drawn for assay, providing composite sampling is feasible and assays of the individual lots are not required for tariff classification or other Customs purposes....

  15. Sampling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  16. Topoisomerase IIα poisoning and DNA double-strand breaking by chiral ruthenium(ii) complexes containing 2-furanyl-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chen; Wu, Jingheng; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-06-28

    Four chiral Ru(ii) complexes bearing furan ligands, Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(pocl)](2+) () and Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(poi)](2+) () (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, pocl = 2-(5-chlorofuran-2-yl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, poi = 2-(5-5-iodofuran-2-yl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), were synthesized and characterized. These Ru(ii) complexes showed antitumor activities against HeLa, A549, HepG2, HL-60 and K562 tumor cell lines, especially the HL-60 tumor cell line. Moreover, was more active than other complexes accounting for the different cellular uptakes. In addition, could accumulate in the nucleus of HL-60 cells, suggesting that nucleic acids were the cellular target of . Topoisomerase inhibition tests in vitro and in living cells confirmed that the four complexes acted as efficient topoisomerase IIα poisons, DNA double-strand breaks had also been observed from neutral single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). inhibited the growth of HL-60 cells through the induction of apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by the Alexa Fluor® 488 annexin V staining assays. The results demonstrated that acted as a topoisomerase IIα poison and caused DNA double-strand damage that could lead to apoptosis. PMID:27226117

  17. Upper Critical Field, Critical Current Density and Activation Energy of the New La1-xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2 (x = 0.2, 0.8) Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalai Selvan, Ganesan; Singh Thakur, Gohil; Manikandan, Krishnan; Uwatoko, Yoshia; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, Laxmi Chand; Ganguli, Ashok Kumar; Arumugam, Sonachalam

    2015-12-01

    Critical current density (Jc), thermal activation energy (U0), and upper critical field (Hc2) of La1-xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2 (x = 0.2, 0.8) superconductors are investigated from magnetic field dependent ρ(T) studies. The estimated upper critical field (Hc2) has low values of 1.04 T for x = 0.2 and 1.41 T for x = 0.8. These values are lower than Sm free LaO0.5F0.5BiS2 superconductor (1.9 T). The critical current density (Jc) is estimated to be 1.35 × 105 and 5.07 × 105 A/cm2 (2 K) for x = 0.2 and 0.8 respectively, using the Bean's model. The thermal activation energy (U0/kB) is 61 K for x = 0.2 and 140 K for x = 0.8 as calculated from Arrhenius plots at low magnetic field (1 T) and indicates a strong flux pinning potential which might be co-existing with applied magnetic field.

  18. Photophysical properties of ESIPT inspired fluorescent 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione and its derivative: experimental and DFT based approach.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Mininath S; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2015-01-25

    The excited-state intramolecular proton transfer chromophores 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione and 2-(4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione are synthesized from 4,5-diamino-N-methylphthalimide. The photophysical behavior of the synthesized chromophores was studied using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy in the polar and non-polar solvents. The synthesized o-hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole derivatives are fluorescent and very sensitive to the solvent polarity. These dyes are thermally stable up to 317 °C. Density Functional Theory computations have been used to understand the structural, molecular, electronic and photophysical properties of the chromophores. The experimental absorption and emission wavelengths are in good agreement with the computed vertical excitation and theoretical emission obtained by Density Functional Theory and Time Dependant Density Functional Theory. PMID:25108369

  19. Elevating sampling

    PubMed Central

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  20. SAMPLING SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hannaford, B.A.; Rosenberg, R.; Segaser, C.L.; Terry, C.L.

    1961-01-17

    An apparatus is given for the batch sampling of radioactive liquids such as slurries from a system by remote control, while providing shielding for protection of operating personnel from the harmful effects of radiation.

  1. Fluidic sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-04-20

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate.

  2. Fluidic sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)