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Sample records for 5f final characterization

  1. Analysis Of The Tank 5F Final Characterization Samples-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 5F FINAL CHARATERIZATION SAMPLES-2011

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.

    2012-01-20

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by SRR to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 5F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Two types of samples were collected and delivered to SRNL: floor samples across the tank and subsurface samples from mounds near risers 1 and 5 of Tank 5F. These samples were taken from Tank 5F between January and March 2011. These samples from individual locations in the tank (nine floor samples and six mound Tank 5F samples) were each homogenized and combined in a given proportion into 3 distinct composite samples to mimic the average composition in the entire tank. These Tank 5F composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 5F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble species. With analyses for certain challenging radionuclides as the exception, all composite Tank 5F samples were analyzed and reported in triplicate. The target detection limits for isotopes analyzed were based on customer desired detection limits as specified in the technical task request documents. SRNL developed new methodologies to meet these target detection limits and provide data for the extensive suite of components. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 5F, as specified in the technical task request, some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The Technical Task Request allows that while the analyses of these isotopes is needed, meeting the detection limits for these isotopes is a lower priority than meeting detection limits for the other specified isotopes. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included the

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M. S.; Crapse, K. P.; Fink, S. D.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2007-08-30

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  5. Circularly Polarized Luminescence of Curium: A New Characterization of the 5f Actinide Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ga-Lai; Andolina, Christopher M.; Xu, Jide; Luu, Vinh; Rutkowski, Philip X.; Muller, Gilles; Shuh, David K.; Gibson, John K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2012-01-01

    A key distinction between the lanthanide (4f) and actinide (5f) transition elements is the increased role of f-orbital covalent bonding in the latter. Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) is an uncommon but powerful spectroscopy which probes the electronic structure of chiral, luminescent complexes or molecules. While there are many examples of CPL spectra for the lanthanides, this report is the first for an actinide. Two chiral, octadentate chelating ligands based on orthoamide phenol (IAM) were used to complex curium(III). While the radioactivity kept the amount of material limited to micromole amounts, the spectra of the highly luminescent complexes showed significant emission peak-shifts between the different complexes, consistent with ligand field effects previously observed in luminescence spectra. PMID:22920726

  6. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Extension of Temporary Placement of PB-22, 5F-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA and ADB-PINACA in Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this final order to extend the temporary schedule I status of four synthetic cannabinoids pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. The substances are: quinolin-8-yl 1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (PB-22; QUPIC); quinolin-8-yl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (5-fluoro-PB-22; 5F-PB-22); N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-FUBINACA); and N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (ADB-PINACA), including their optical, positional and geometric isomers, salts, and salts of isomers. The current final order temporarily placing PB-22, 5F-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA, and ADB-PINACA into schedule I is in effect through February 9, 2016. This final order will extend the temporary scheduling of PB-22, 5F-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA, and ADB-PINACA for one year, or until the permanent scheduling action for these four substances is completed, whichever occurs first. PMID:26859904

  7. Characterization, photophysical and DFT calculation study on 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Thanikachalam, Venugopal; Venkatesh Perumal, Marimuthu

    The synthesized imidazole derivative 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline (dfpmpip) has been characterized using IR, mass, 1H, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. The photophysical properties of dfpmpip have been studied using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy in different solvents. The solvent effect on the absorption and fluorescence bands has been analyzed by a multi-component linear regression. Theoretically calculated bond lengths, bond angles and dihedral angles are found to be slightly higher than that of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) values of its parent compound. The charge distribution has been calculated from the atomic charges by non-linear optical (NLO) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Since the synthesized imidazole derivative has the largest μgβ0 value, the reported imidazole can be used as potential NLO material. The energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) levels and the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) energy surface studies evidenced the existence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. Theoretical calculations regarding the chemical potential (μ), hardness (η) and electrophilicity index (ω) have also been calculated.

  8. Fermi energy 5f spectral weight variation in uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Denlinger, J.D.; Clack, J.; Allen, J.W.

    1997-04-01

    Uranium materials display a wide range of thermal, electrical and magnetic properties, often exotic. For more than a decade there have been efforts to use photoemission spectroscopy to develop a systematic and unified understanding of the 5f electron states giving rise to this behavior. These efforts have been hampered by a paucity of systems where changes in transport properties are accompanied by substantial spectral changes, so as to allow an attempt to correlate the two kinds of properties within some model. The authors have made resonant photoemission measurements to extract the 5f spectral weight in three systems which show varying degrees of promise of permitting such an attempt, Y{sub 1{minus}x}U{sub x}Pd{sub 3}, U(Pd{sub x}Pt{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 3} and U(Pd{sub x}Cu{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 5}. They have also measured U 4f core level spectra. The 4f spectra can be modeled with some success by the impurity Anderson model (IAM), and the 5f spectra are currently being analyzed in that framework. The IAM characterizes the 5f-electrons of a single site by an f binding energy {epsilon}{sub f}, an f Coulomb interaction and a hybridization V to conduction electrons. Latent in the model are the phenomena of 5f mixed valence and the Kondo effect.

  9. Northrop F-5F shark nose development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, O. R.

    1978-01-01

    During spin susceptibility testing of the Northrop F-5F airplane, two erect spin entries were obtained from purely longitudinal control inputs at low speed. Post flight analysis of the data showed that the initial yaw departure occurred at zero sideslip, and review of wind tunnel data showed significant yawing moments present at angles of attack well above stall. Further analysis of this wind tunnel data indicated that the yawing moments were being generated by the long slender nose of the airplane. Redesign of the nose was accomplished, resulting in a nose configuration which completely alleviated the asymmetric yawing moments.

  10. Synthesis, structural characterization and theoretical approach of the tri(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) cobalt(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiwei; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Dunru; Ma, Kuirong; Ni, Haiwei; Tang, Guodong

    2015-08-01

    The crystal structure of a new coordination compound tri(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) Co(II) complex ([Co(dcpip)3]Cl2) was measured with X-ray diffraction measurements. The compound is crystallizes triclinic, Pī space group. The ligand, 2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline(dcpip), binds to Co(II) ions with a bis-dentate mode, and each Co(II) ion with a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The calculated interaction energies of Co(II) with coordination atoms N are between 101.7-206.5 kJ/mol and 115.3-230.9 kJ/mol for B3LYP/6-31+G∗ and PBE1PBE/6-31+G∗ theoretical methods, respectively. The experimental Fourier transform infrared spectrum was assigned. The calculated IR based on B3LYP/6-31+G∗ and PBE1PBE/6-31+G∗ methods were performed and compared with experimental results. The UV-Vis experimental spectrum of [Co(dcpip)3]Cl2 was measured in methanol solution. The calculated electronic spectrum was performed with TD/B3LYP and TD/PBE1PBE methods with 6-31+G∗ basis set. The first and second order hyperpolarizability for the compound was calculated. The calculated values of γtot are -1.5551344 × 10-33 esu for B3LYP method and -1.3323259 × 10-33 esu for PBE1PBE method. The nature bond orbital analysis and temperature dependence of the thermodynamic properties were calculated with the same methods.

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization and theoretical approach of the tri(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) cobalt(II).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwei; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Dunru; Ma, Kuirong; Ni, Haiwei; Tang, Guodong

    2015-08-01

    The crystal structure of a new coordination compound tri(2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) Co(II) complex ([Co(dcpip)3]Cl2) was measured with X-ray diffraction measurements. The compound is crystallizes triclinic, Pī space group. The ligand, 2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline(dcpip), binds to Co(II) ions with a bis-dentate mode, and each Co(II) ion with a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The calculated interaction energies of Co(II) with coordination atoms N are between 101.7-206.5 kJ/mol and 115.3-230.9 kJ/mol for B3LYP/6-31+G(∗) and PBE1PBE/6-31+G(∗) theoretical methods, respectively. The experimental Fourier transform infrared spectrum was assigned. The calculated IR based on B3LYP/6-31+G(∗) and PBE1PBE/6-31+G(∗) methods were performed and compared with experimental results. The UV-Vis experimental spectrum of [Co(dcpip)3]Cl2 was measured in methanol solution. The calculated electronic spectrum was performed with TD/B3LYP and TD/PBE1PBE methods with 6-31+G(∗) basis set. The first and second order hyperpolarizability for the compound was calculated. The calculated values of γtot are -1.5551344 × 10(-33) esu for B3LYP method and -1.3323259 × 10(-33) esu for PBE1PBE method. The nature bond orbital analysis and temperature dependence of the thermodynamic properties were calculated with the same methods. PMID:25827764

  12. Final Technical Report: Characterizing Emerging Technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    King, Bruce Hardison; Hansen, Clifford; Stein, Joshua; Riley, Daniel; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2015-12-01

    The Characterizing Emerging Technologies project focuses on developing, improving and validating characterization methods for PV modules, inverters and embedded power electronics. Characterization methods and associated analysis techniques are at the heart of technology assessments and accurate component and system modeling. Outputs of the project include measurement and analysis procedures that industry can use to accurately model performance of PV system components, in order to better distinguish and understand the performance differences between competing products (module and inverters) and new component designs and technologies (e.g., new PV cell designs, inverter topologies, etc.).

  13. SA3654 Component characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meir, G.W.

    1996-06-01

    AlliedSignal Inc., Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T), was provided with production capability assurance program (PCAP) funding to develop, characterize, and qualify purchased product components for use on the PRESS-A program. The SA3654, N-Channel, Power MOSFET was identified as a component needing such activity to support PRESS-A. This report presents the characterization activities and results for the SA3654.

  14. Physical characterization of magmatic liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Manghnani, M.H.

    1991-12-31

    Long-range goals of this research project are: (1) Characterization of seismic velocity and attenuation (V{sub p}, V{sub S}, Q{sub p}{sup {minus}1}, Q{sup S}{sup {minus}1}) and electrical properties of selected Hawaiian and related rocks under appropriate controlled environments of pressure, temperature and volatile/fluid content; and, (2) Characterization of the elastic, viscoelastic and thermodynamic properties (V{sub p}, V{sub S}, Q{sub P}{sup {minus}1}, Q{sub S}{sup {minus}1}, viscosity and compressibility) of molten basalts, picrites and komatites, and related silicate melts to {approximately} 1600{degrees}C using the ultrasonic interferometry method. In addition, the pressure dependences of V{sub p},V{sub S} and bulk modulus will be determined using the Brillouin scattering and diamond- anvil cell techniques.

  15. Tools for characterizing biomembranes : final LDRD report.

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd Michael; Stevens, Mark; Holland, Gregory P.; McIntyre, Sarah K.

    2007-10-01

    A suite of experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy tools were developed to investigate lipid structure and dynamics in model membrane systems. By utilizing both multinuclear and multidimensional NMR experiments a range of different intra- and inter-molecular contacts were probed within the membranes. Examples on pure single component lipid membranes and on the canonical raft forming mixture of DOPC/SM/Chol are presented. A unique gel phase pretransition in SM was also identified and characterized using these NMR techniques. In addition molecular dynamics into the hydrogen bonding network unique to sphingomyelin containing membranes were evaluated as a function of temperature, and are discussed.

  16. Pharmacology of Indole and Indazole Synthetic Cannabinoid Designer Drugs AB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, ADB-PINACA, 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-ADB-PINACA, ADBICA, and 5F-ADBICA.

    PubMed

    Banister, Samuel D; Moir, Michael; Stuart, Jordyn; Kevin, Richard C; Wood, Katie E; Longworth, Mitchell; Wilkinson, Shane M; Beinat, Corinne; Buchanan, Alexandra S; Glass, Michelle; Connor, Mark; McGregor, Iain S; Kassiou, Michael

    2015-09-16

    Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) designer drugs based on indole and indazole scaffolds and featuring l-valinamide or l-tert-leucinamide side chains are encountered with increasing frequency by forensic researchers and law enforcement agencies and are associated with serious adverse health effects. However, many of these novel SCs are unprecedented in the scientific literature at the time of their discovery, and little is known of their pharmacology. Here, we report the synthesis and pharmacological characterization of AB-FUBINACA, ADB-FUBINACA, AB-PINACA, ADB-PINACA, 5F-AB-PINACA, 5F-ADB-PINACA, ADBICA, 5F-ADBICA, and several analogues. All synthesized SCs acted as high potency agonists of CB1 (EC50 = 0.24-21 nM) and CB2 (EC50 = 0.88-15 nM) receptors in a fluorometric assay of membrane potential, with 5F-ADB-PINACA showing the greatest potency at CB1 receptors. The cannabimimetic activities of AB-FUBINACA and AB-PINACA in vivo were evaluated in rats using biotelemetry. AB-FUBINACA and AB-PINACA dose-dependently induced hypothermia and bradycardia at doses of 0.3-3 mg/kg, and hypothermia was reversed by pretreatment with a CB1 (but not CB2) antagonist, indicating that these SCs are cannabimimetic in vivo, consistent with anecdotal reports of psychoactivity in humans. PMID:26134475

  17. Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report Tritium Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.B.; Gorman, T.P.

    1996-08-01

    This document contains the specific radiological characterization information on Building 968, the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) Complex and Facility. We performed the characterization as outlined in its Radiological Characterization Plan. The Radiological Characterization and Final Facility Status Report (RC&FFSR) provides historic background information on each laboratory within the TRL complex as related to its original and present radiological condition. Along with the work outlined in the Radiological Characterization Plan (RCP), we performed a Radiological Soils Characterization, Radiological and Chemical Characterization of the Waste Water Hold-up System including all drains, and a Radiological Characterization of the Building 968 roof ventilation system. These characterizations will provide the basis for the Sandia National Laboratory, California (SNL/CA) Site Termination Survey .Plan, when appropriate.

  18. 5f3 --> 5f 26d1 absorption spectrum analysis of U3+-SrCl2.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Mirosław

    2005-04-28

    The 5f3--> 5f26d1 absorption spectra of the U3+ ions incorporated in SrCl2 single crystals were recorded at 4.2 K in the 15,000-50,000 cm(-1) spectral range. From an analysis of the vibronic structure, 32 zero-phonon lines corresponding to transitions from the 4I9/2 ground multiplet of the 5f3 configuration to the 5f26d(eg)1 excited levels were assigned. A theoretical model proposed by Reid et al. (Reid, H. F.; van Pieterson, L.; Wegh, R. T.; Meijerink, A. Phys. Rev. B 2000, 62, 14744) that extends the established model for energy-level calculations of nf N states has been applied for analysis of the spectrum. The Fk(ff) (k = 2, 4), zeta(5f)(ff), B0(4)(ff), B0(6)(ff), Fk(fd) (k = 2, 4), and Gj(fd) (j = 1, 3) Hamiltonian parameters were determined by a least-squares fitting of the calculated energies to the experimental data. A good overall agreement between the calculated and experimentally observed energy levels has been achieved, with the root-mean-square (rms) deviation equal to 95 cm(-1) for 32 fitted levels and 9 varied parameters. Adjusted values of Fk(ff) and zeta(5f)(ff) parameters for the 5f2 core electrons are closer to the values characteristic of the 5f2 (U4+) configuration than to those of the 5f3 (U3+) configuration. For the U3+ ion, the f-d Coulomb interaction parameters are significantly more reduced from the values calculated using Cowan's computer code than they are for lanthanide ions. Moreover, because of weaker f-d Coulomb interactions for the U3+ ion than for the isoelectronic Nd3+ lanthanide ion, the very simple model assuming the coupling of crystal-field levels of the 6d1 electron with the lattice and the multiplet structure of the 5f2 configuration may be employed for the qualitative description of the general structure of the U3+ ion f-d spectrum. PMID:16839023

  19. Reservoir characterization of Pennsylvanian sandstone reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, M.

    1995-02-01

    This final report summarizes the progress during the three years of a project on Reservoir Characterization of Pennsylvanian Sandstone Reservoirs. The report is divided into three sections: (i) reservoir description; (ii) scale-up procedures; (iii) outcrop investigation. The first section describes the methods by which a reservoir can be described in three dimensions. The next step in reservoir description is to scale up reservoir properties for flow simulation. The second section addresses the issue of scale-up of reservoir properties once the spatial descriptions of properties are created. The last section describes the investigation of an outcrop.

  20. Giant magnetoresistance effects in 5f-materials

    SciTech Connect

    Havela, L.; Sechovsky, V.; Prokes, K. |

    1995-09-01

    Very large magnetoresistance effects related to reorientation of magnetic moments were observed in a number of U-intermetallics. The resemblance to magnetic multilayers is a basis of discussion of possible mechanisms of these phenomena, in background of which is probably the strong hybridization of 5f- and conduction-electron states. A clear cut evidence of relative contributions of varied scattering rate on one side and carrier concentration on the other side can be presumably obtained from experiments on samples with controlled disorder.

  1. F-5F Shark Nose radome lightning test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A unique F-5F radome wtih a geometry similar to a Shark Nose profile was tested with a high voltage Marx generator, 1,200,000 volts in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the lightning protection system with currents from 5,000 amperes or greater. An edge discontinuity configuration is a characteristic feature in the forward region of the radome and occasionally serves as an attachment point. The results of nineteen attachment tests at various aspect angles with an air gap of one meter indicated that no damage occurred to the dielectric material of the radom. The test proved the effectiveness of the lightning protection system.

  2. Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Apps, John; Doughty, Christine; Gwatney, Hope; Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Trautz, Robert; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-03-01

    This is the final report of the NUMO-LBNL collaborative project: Feature Detection, Characterization and Confirmation Methodology under NUMO-DOE/LBNL collaboration agreement, the task description of which can be found in the Appendix. We examine site characterization projects from several sites in the world. The list includes Yucca Mountain in the USA, Tono and Horonobe in Japan, AECL in Canada, sites in Sweden, and Olkiluoto in Finland. We identify important geologic features and parameters common to most (or all) sites to provide useful information for future repository siting activity. At first glance, one could question whether there was any commonality among the sites, which are in different rock types at different locations. For example, the planned Yucca Mountain site is a dry repository in unsaturated tuff, whereas the Swedish sites are situated in saturated granite. However, the study concludes that indeed there are a number of important common features and parameters among all the sites--namely, (1) fault properties, (2) fracture-matrix interaction (3) groundwater flux, (4) boundary conditions, and (5) the permeability and porosity of the materials. We list the lessons learned from the Yucca Mountain Project and other site characterization programs. Most programs have by and large been quite successful. Nonetheless, there are definitely 'should-haves' and 'could-haves', or lessons to be learned, in all these programs. Although each site characterization program has some unique aspects, we believe that these crosscutting lessons can be very useful for future site investigations to be conducted in Japan. One of the most common lessons learned is that a repository program should allow for flexibility, in both schedule and approach. We examine field investigation technologies used to collect site characterization data in the field. An extensive list of existing field technologies is presented, with some discussion on usage and limitations. Many of the

  3. Anchor balloons assisted deep intubation of 5F catheters for uncrossable lesions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Xu, K; Yang, N; Li, C

    2016-01-01

    A number of treatment strategies for complex coronary lesions have been utilized in varying clinical settings over the last decade. However, cardiologists still encounter some difficult scenarios such as variant coronary artery origins, severely calcified and highly tortuous lesions. We report four cases in which the stents failed to cross lesions using the conventional percutaneous coronary intervention techniques, but all the target lesions were successfully stented finally using a new combined technique of anchor balloon assisted deep intubation of 5F "child-in-mother" catheter. PMID:27022813

  4. Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-07-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

  5. Fischer-Tropsch wax characterization and upgrading: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, P.P.; Sturtevant, G.C.; Gregor, J.H.; Humbach, M.J.; Padrta, F.G.; Steigleder, K.Z.

    1988-06-06

    The characterization and upgrading of Fischer-Tropsch wax was studied. The focus of the program was to maximize the yield of marketable transportation fuels from the Fischer-Tropsch process. The wax was characterized using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), gas chromatography (GC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and various other physical analyses. Hydrocracking studies conducted in a pilot plant indicate that Fischer-Tropsch wax is an excellent feedstock. A high yield of excellent quality diesel fuel was produced with satisfactory catalyst performance at relatively mild operating conditions. Correlations for predicting key diesel fuel properties were developed and checked against actual laboratory blend data. The blending study was incorporated into an economic evaluation. Finally, it is possible to take advantage of the high quality of the Fischer-Tropsch derived distillate by blending a lower value light cycle oil (produced from a refinery FCC unit) representing a high aromatic and low cetane number. The blended stream meets diesel pool specifications (up to 60 wt % LCO addition). The value added to this blending stream further enhances the upgrading complex return. 22 refs., 39 figs., 48 tabs.

  6. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2011-03-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

    2012-06-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  8. Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2013-01-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  9. Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

    2012-09-27

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite

  10. 5f band dispersion in epitaxial films of UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Jia, Quanxi; Roy, Lindsay E; Martin, Richard L; Joyce, John J

    2009-01-01

    Polymer-assisted deposition of epitaxial films utilizes lattice pinning to produce films of very high stability and properties identical with bulk crystal. Dispersion of the 5f band is shown for the first time in a actinide Mott insulator system, which suggestes hybridization as a leading process in establishing the electronic structure. Hybrid density functional is succesfully employed to calculate the electronic structure of UO{sub 2} in agreement with experiments. UO{sub 2} continues to be a mysterious and elusive compound in terms of understanding the physical properties of a material. Most actinide oxides, including UO{sub 2} are predicted to be metallic. However, UO{sub 2} is an antiferromagnetic insulator with a relatively large gap of about 2eV. The f orbital charater of the excitations across the gap places UO{sub 2} in a Mott insulator category, but no states at the gap center have ever been measured directly, in spite of intensive efforts. In this work we present the first results of the electronic structure investigation of a epitaxial film of UO{sub 2}, where we find even more unexpected properties, like the dispersive nature of 5f bands. We also demonstrate the unexpected, very high stability of the epitaxial film of UO{sub 2}. In the lattice-pinning scheme, the crystalline nature of the film is preserved all the way up to the topmost layers even after prolonged exposure to atmospheric conditions. Hybridized, dispersive bands are common in the itinerant uranium compounds. One usually finds hybridization of f-orbitals with conduction band to be quite common in f-electron systems at low temperatures. Such bands may reside in the vicinity of the Fermi level and participate in the construction of the Fermi surface. However, in the insulator like UO{sub 2}, one expects a more atomic band nature, where f-bands are relatively flat and shifted away from the Fermi level by the gap energy scale. Precise location of UO{sub 2} on the localization

  11. Multiconfigurational nature of 5f orbitals in uranium and plutonium and their intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Corwin

    2013-03-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of U and Pu elements and intermetallics remain poorly understood despite decades of effort, and currently represent an important scientific frontier toward understanding matter. The last decade has seen great progress both due to the discovery of superconductivity in PuCoGa5 and advances in theory that finally can explain fundamental ground state properties in elemental plutonium, such as the phonon dispersion curve, the non-magnetic ground state, and the volume difference between the α and δ phases. A new feature of the recent calculations is the presence not only of intermediate valence of the Pu 5f electrons, but of multiconfigurational ground states, where the different properties of the α and δ phases are primarily governed by the different relative weights of the 5f4, 5f5, and 5f6 electronic configurations. The usual method for measuring multiconfigurational states in the lanthanides is to measure the lanthanide LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), a method that is severely limited for the actinides because the spectroscopic features are not well enough separated. Advances in resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) have now allowed for spectra with sufficient resolution to resolve individual resonances associated with the various actinide valence states. Utilizing a new spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL), RXES data have been collected that show, for the first time, spectroscopic signatures of each of these configurations and their relative changes in various uranium and plutonium intermetallic compounds. In combination with conventional XANES spectra on related compounds, these data indicate such states may be ubiquitous in uranium and plutonium intermetallics, providing a new framework toward understanding properties ranging from heavy fermion behavior, superconductivity, and intermediate valence to mechanical and fundamental bonding behavior in

  12. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-09-09

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each US Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the QAPP.

  13. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed.

  14. Lanthanide doped Y6O5F8/YF3 microcrystals: phase-tunable synthesis and bright white upconversion photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Deng, Ruiping; Guo, Hailing; Song, Shuyan; Cao, Feng; Li, Xiyan; Su, Shengqun; Zhang, Hongjie

    2010-10-14

    High-quality Y(6)O(5)F(8)/YF(3) microcrystals have been synthesised by using a hydrothermal and subsequent calcination route. Upon changing the initial solution pH value, the as-prepared microcrystal can be well tuned from YF(3) octahedron microcrystals to YF(3) hollow spheres and finally to Y(6)O(5)F(8) microtubes. The as-obtained microcrystals have been characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. When the Y(6)O(5)F(8):Ln(3+) microtubes are excited by a 980 nm continual wave laser diode, bright red, green, and blue room temperature upconversion PL emissions have been observed. A series of white light emissions have been obtained by precisely adjusting dopants concentration in Y(6)O(5)F(8) microtubes. PMID:20714629

  15. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    1999-12-14

    The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan required each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site that characterizes transuranic waste to be sent the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan that addresses applicable requirements specified in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP).

  16. Ectopic POU5F1 in the male germ lineage disrupts differentiation and spermatogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Phillips, LeAnna J; Hartman, Rachel; An, Junhui; Dann, Christina T

    2016-10-01

    Expression levels of the pluripotency determinant, POU5F1, are tightly regulated to ensure appropriate differentiation during early embryogenesis. POU5F1 is also present in the spermatogonial stem cell/progenitor cell population in mice and it is downregulated as spermatogenesis progresses. To test if POU5F1 downregulation is required for SSCs to differentiate, we produced transgenic mice that ubiquitously express POU5F1 in Cre-expressing lineages. Using a Vasa-Cre driver to produce ectopic POU5F1 in all postnatal germ cells, we found that POU5F1 downregulation was necessary for spermatogonial expansion during the first wave of spermatogenesis and for the production of differentiated spermatogonia capable of undergoing meiosis. In contrast, undifferentiated spermatogonia were maintained throughout adulthood, consistent with a normal presence of POU5F1 in these cells. The results suggest that POU5F1 downregulation in differentiating spermatogonia is a necessary step for the progression of spermatogenesis. Further, the creation of a transgenic mouse model for conditional ectopic expression of POU5F1 may be a useful resource for studies of POU5F1 in other cell lineages, during tumorogenesis and cell fate reprogramming. PMID:27486267

  17. Minimally invasive three-dimensional site characterization system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steedman, D.; Seusy, F.E.; Gibbons, J.; Bratton, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents an improved for hazardous site characterization. The major components of the systems are: (1) an enhanced cone penetrometer test, (2) surface geophysical surveys and (3) a field database and visualization code. The objective of the effort was to develop a method of combining geophysical data with cone penetrometer data in the field to produce a synergistic effect. Various aspects of the method were tested at three sites. The results from each site are discussed and the data compared. This method allows the data to be interpreted more fully with greater certainty, is faster, cheaper and leads to a more accurate site characterization. Utilizing the cone penetrometer test rather than the standard drilling, sampling and laboratory testing reduces the workers exposure to hazardous materials and minimizes the hazardous material disposal problems. The technologies employed in this effort are, for the most part, state-of-the-art procedures. The approach of using data from various measurement systems to develop a synergistic effect was a unique contribution to environmental site characterization. The use of the cone penetrometer for providing ``ground truth`` data and as a platform for subsurface sensors in environmental site characterization represents a significant advancement in environmental site characterization.

  18. Final Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization QA Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    The Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) has been prepared for waste characterization activities to be conducted by the Transuranic (TRU) Project at the Hanford Site to meet requirements set forth in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) Hazardous Waste Facility Permit, 4890139088-TSDF, Attachment B, including Attachments B1 through B6 (WAP) (DOE, 1999a). The QAPjP describes the waste characterization requirements and includes test methods, details of planned waste sampling and analysis, and a description of the waste characterization and verification process. In addition, the QAPjP includes a description of the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) requirements for the waste characterization program. Before TRU waste is shipped to the WIPP site by the TRU Project, all applicable requirements of the QAPjP shall be implemented. Additional requirements necessary for transportation to waste disposal at WIPP can be found in the ''Quality Assurance Program Document'' (DOE 1999b) and HNF-2600, ''Hanford Site Transuranic Waste Certification Plan.'' TRU mixed waste contains both TRU radioactive and hazardous components, as defined in the WLPP-WAP. The waste is designated and separately packaged as either contact-handled (CH) or remote-handled (RH), based on the radiological dose rate at the surface of the waste container. RH TRU wastes are not currently shipped to the WIPP facility.

  19. Assessing Risks to Populations at Superfund and Rcra Sites: Characterizing Effects on Populations (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) announced the release of the final document titled, Assessing Risks to Populations at Superfund and RCRA Sites: Characterizing Effects on Populations.

  20. Characterization of nuclear reactor containment penetrations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shackelford, M.H.; Bump, T.R.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report concludes a preliminary report prepared by ANL for Sandia, published as NUREG/CR-3855, in June 1984. The preliminary report, NUREG/CR-3855, presented the results of a survey of nuclear reactor containment penetrations, covering the number of plants surveyed at that time (22 total). Since that time, an additional 26 plants have been included in the survey. This final report serves two purposes: (1) to add the summary data sheets and penetration details for the additional plants now included in the survey; and (2) to confirm, revise, or add to analyses and discussions presented in the first report which, of course, were based solely on the earlier sample of 22 plants. This final report follows the outline and format of the preliminary survey report. In general, changes and additions to the preliminary report are implied, rather than stated as such to avoid repeated reference to that report. If no changes have been made in a section the title of the section of the previous report is simply repeated followed by ''No Changes''. Some repetition is used for continuity and clarity.

  1. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  2. Nondestructive ultrasonic characterization of two-phase materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, K.

    1987-01-01

    The development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive characterization of mechanical properties of two phase engineering materials are described. The primary goal was to establish relationships between the nonlinearity parameter and the percentage of solid solution phase in two phase systems such as heat treatable aluminum alloys. The acoustoelastic constant was also measured on these alloys. A major advantage of the nonlinearity parameter over that of the acoustoelastic constant is that it may be determined without the application of stress on the material, which makes the method more applicable to inservice nondestructive characterization. The results obtained on the heat treatable 7075 and the work hardenable 5086 and 5456 aluminum alloys show that both the acoustoelastic constant and the acoustic nonlinearity parameter change considerable with the volume fraction of second phase precipitates in these aluminum alloys. A mathematical model was also developed to relate the effective acoustic nonlinearity parameter to volume fraction of second phase precipitates in an alloy. The equation is approximated to within experimental error by a linear expression for volume fractions up to approx. 10%.

  3. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Meara, Jr., D. J.

    1997-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is to use the extensive Gypsy Field laboratory and data set as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. The Gypsy Field laboratory consists of coupled outcrop and subsurface sites which have been characterized to a degree of detail not possible in a production operation. Data from these sites entail geological descriptions, core measurements, well logs, vertical seismic surveys, a 3D seismic survey, crosswell seismic surveys, and pressure transient well tests. The overall project consists of four interdisciplinary sub-projects which are closely interlinked: modeling depositional environments; sweep efficiency; tracer testing; and integrated 3D seismic interpretation. The first of these aims at improving the ability to model complex depositional environments which trap movable oil. The second is a development geophysics project which proposes to improve the quality of reservoir geological models through better use of 3D seismic data. The third investigates the usefulness of a new numerical technique for identifying unswept oil through rapid calculation of sweep efficiency in large reservoir models. The fourth explores what can be learned from tracer tests in complex depositional environments, particularly those which are fluvial dominated.

  4. Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes - FY-98 Final Report for LDRD 2349

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, Glen Frank; Nelson, Lee Orville; Grandy, Jon Drue; Zuck, Larry Douglas; Kong, Peter Chuen Sun; Anderson, Gail

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of LDRD #2349, Characterize and Model Final Waste Formulations and Offgas Solids from Thermal Treatment Processes, was to develop a set of tools that would allow the user to, based on the chemical composition of a waste stream to be immobilized, predict the durability (leach behavior) of the final waste form and the phase assemblages present in the final waste form. The objectives of the project were: • investigation, testing and selection of thermochemical code • development of auxiliary thermochemical database • synthesis of materials for leach testing • collection of leach data • using leach data for leach model development • thermochemical modeling The progress toward completion of these objectives and a discussion of work that needs to be completed to arrive at a logical finishing point for this project will be presented.

  5. The 5f2-->5f16d1 absorption spectrum of Cs2GeF6:U4+ crystals: A quantum chemical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ordejón, Belén; Karbowiak, Miroslaw; Seijo, Luis; Barandiarán, Zoila

    2006-08-21

    Single crystals of U(4+)-doped Cs2GeF6 with 1% U4+ concentration have been obtained by the modified Bridgman-Stockbarger method in spite of the large difference in ionic radii between Ge4+ and U4+ in octahedral coordination. Their UV absorption spectrum has been recorded at 7 K, between 190 and 350 nm; it consists of a first broad and intense band peaking at about 38,000 cm(-1) followed by a number of broad bands of lower intensity from 39,000 to 45,000 cm(-1). None of the bands observed shows appreciable fine vibronic structure, so that the energies of experimental electronic origins cannot be deduced and the assignment of the experimental spectrum using empirical methods based on crystal field theory cannot be attempted. Alternatively, the profile of the absorption spectrum has been obtained theoretically using the U-F bond lengths and totally symmetric vibrational frequencies of the ground 5f2 - 1A(1g) and 5f16d(t(2g))1 - iT(1u) excited states, their energy differences, and their corresponding electric dipole transition moments calculated using the relativistic ab initio model potential embedded cluster method. The calculations suggest that the observed bands are associated with the lowest five 5f2 - 1A(1g)-->5f16d(t(2g))1 - iT(1u) (i = 1-5) dipole allowed electronic origins and their vibrational progressions. In particular, the first broad and intense band peaking at about 38,000 cm(-1) can be safely assigned to the 0-0 and 0-1 members of the a(1g) progression of the 5f2 - 1A(1g)-->5f16d(t(2g))1 - 1T(1u) electronic origin. The electronic structure of all the states with main configurational character 5f16d(t(2g))1 has been calculated as well. The results show that the lowest crystal level of this manifold is 5f16d(t(2g))1 - 1E(u) and lies about 6200 cm(-1) above the 5f2 level closest in energy, which amounts to some 11 vibrational quanta. This large energy gap could result in low nonradiative decay and efficient UV emission, which suggest the interest of

  6. 26 CFR 5f.103-3 - Information reporting requirements for certain bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information reporting requirements for certain bonds. 5f.103-3 Section 5f.103-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX EQUITY AND FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 §...

  7. 26 CFR 5f.103-3 - Information reporting requirements for certain bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Information reporting requirements for certain bonds. 5f.103-3 Section 5f.103-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX EQUITY AND FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 §...

  8. Inhibitory effect of 5F on development of lung cancer in A/J mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hua; Yang, Xiaoqing; Wu, Kefeng; Li, Li; Lv, Yingnian; Liu, Yi; Zheng, Xuebao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of ent-11α-hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic-acid (5F) on the model of induced A/J mice lung cancer in A/J mice. The expressions of tumor-related molecules including P65 and Bcl-2 at protein level were examined using the immunohistochemical method (IHC). Side effects of 5F were also monitored. The results indicated that 5F significantly suppressed the development of B[a]P and NNK-induced lung cancer in vivo by facilitating cell apoptosis with minimal side effects. Compared to the expressions of P65 and Bcl-2 in model group, the levels were strongly attenuated both in blank and 5F injection groups. Moreover, P65 and Bcl-2 levels varied among different groups receiving 5F treatment. The expressions of P65 and Bcl-2 were much lower in groups receiving high-concentration 5F treatment than those with low-concentration 5F injection. Findings revealed that 5F inhibited the pathogenesis of lung cancer through accelerating apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26097604

  9. [Paleoclimatology studies for Yucca Mountain site characterization]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-03

    This report consists of two separate papers: Fernley Basin studies; and Influence of sediment supply and climate change on late Quaternary eolian accumulation patterns in the Mojave Desert. The first study involved geologic mapping of late Quaternary sediments and lacustrine features combined with precise control of elevations and descriptions of sediments for each of the major sedimentary units. The second paper documents the response of a major eolian sediment transport system in the east-central Mojave Desert: that which feeds the Kelso Dune field. Information from geomorphic, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic studies of eolian deposits and landforms is combined with luminescence dating of these deposits to develop a chronology of periods of eolian deposition. Both studies are related to site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain and the forecasting of rainfall patterns possible for the high-level radioactive waste repository lifetime.

  10. Characterization of grinding wheels: An annotated Bibliography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    The characteristics of grinding wheels, after both fabrication and periods of operation, have a significant effect on the processed surface and the mechanical properties of advanced ceramics. An extensive literature survey and review has been conducted to determine and catalogue the various characterization methods that have been investigated and reported. Although many of the references have addressed the grinding of metals, the historical and technical merit justify their inclusion in this bibliography. For convenience, the references have been subdivided into nine subheadings: Nondestructive examination; elasticity and stiffness; wheel hardness; topography and profilometry; observation of texture of wheel surfaces wheel wear; in process monitoring of grinding, acoustic emission, other; characteristics of ground surfaces; and miscellaneous.

  11. Internal structural characterization. Final report, September 1988-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Klaassen, R.; Bashyam, M.

    1992-08-01

    The nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques most appropriate for the detection of a variety of defects in metal- and ceramic matrix composites (MMC and CMC's) are described. NDE techniques which were investigated for application to these materials include acoustic microscopy, ultrasonic pulse-echo, ultrasonic through-transmission, ultrasonic velocity, ultrasonic backscatter, ultrasonic surface wave velocity, ultrasonic surface wave attenuation, film radiography, microtomographic radiography, and dual-energy microtomographic radiography. Types of defects for which optimized techniques are summarized include delaminations, broken fibers, fiber spacing, fiber orientation, fiber/matrix interface, matrix cracks and voids/porosity. Further NDE development is needed for these materials in the areas of basic development for other NDE modalities, advanced development for nondestructive material characterization, and the scale-up of proven NDE techniques for full scale components, to accommodate cost and geometry limitations.

  12. Rampant changes in 5f 5/2 and 5f 7/2 filling across the light and middle actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K; der Lann, G v; Wall, M; Schwartz, A; Haire, R

    2007-04-03

    We examine the branching ratio of the N{sub 4,5} (4d {yields} 5f ) spectra of Th, U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm metal using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), together with many-electron atomic spectral calculations and the spin-orbit sum rule. Our results show that: (1) The actinide metals Pu, Am, and Cm exhibit intermediate coupling. (2) The intermediate coupling values for the 5f states as calculated using a many-electron atomic model are correct for the actinides, this being proven by our new results for curium. (3) The EELS branching ratio is sensitive to the degree of 5f electron delocalization, which is illustrated by the transition from LS to intermediate coupling between U and Pu.

  13. Aerial remote sensing surveys, geophysical characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Labson, V.F.; Pellerin, L.; Anderson, W.L.

    1998-06-01

    The application of helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) and magnetic methods to the requirements of the environmental restoration of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) demand the use of advanced, nontraditional methods of data acquisition, processing and interpretation. The cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and University of California (UCB) has resulted in the planning and supervision of data acquisition, the development of tools for data processing and interpretation, and an intensive application of the methods developed. This final report consists of a series of publications which the USGS collaborated with the ORNL technical staff. These reports represent the full scope of the USGS assistance. Copies of the reports and papers are included in the Appendix. The primary goals of this effort were to quantify the effectiveness of the geophysical methods applied in the survey of the ORR for the identification of buried waste, hydrogeologic pathways by which contamination could migrate through or off the site, and for the more accurate geologic mapping of the ORR. The objectives in buried waste identification are the accurate description of the source of the geophysical anomaly and the determination of the limits of resolution of the geophysical methods to acknowledge what we might have missed. The study of hydrogeologic pathways concentrated on the identification of karst features in the limestone underlying much of the ORR. Work in this study has indicated to the ORNL staff that these karst features can be located from the airborne geophysics. The defining characteristic of this helicopter geophysical study is the collaborative nature of the effort. Each task in which the USGS was involved has included a designated staff member from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Gasifier slag and feedstock characterization. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M.S.; Havekotte, D.E.; Sim, F.A.; Sivasubramanian, R.

    1983-03-01

    The purpose of this subcontract work was to establish the gasification reactivities and ash and slag properties of several Midwestern coals and Kerr-McGee ash concentrates which would be available to the SRC-I demo plant as gasifier feedstocks to produce process hydrogen. The ash concentrates are high ash by-products of the Kerr-McGee critical solvent deashing (CSD) process which is a leading candidate for solids removal at the SRC-I demo plant. Four Midwestern coals, three from Kentucky and one from Illinois, and six Kerr-McGee ash concentrate samples produced at the SRC-I pilot plant in Wilsonville, Alabama, were characterized in this work. In addition to complete chemical analysis, a petrographic analysis was performed on each coal sample. CO/sub 2/-carbon reactivities of chars produced during the pressurized coking at simulated gasifier conditions of all ten materials were determined. These reactivities were measured under pressure (300 psig) at 800/sup 0/C, and at 950/sup 0/C and 1 atmosphere. The results of the atmospheric high temperature reactivity determinations suggest that all materials tested should be sufficiently reactive for use in a Koppers-Totzek or Texaco slagging gasifier. The pressurized, 800/sup 0/C reactivities are fairly low for every material tested. This is consistent with the reactivities of Eastern and midcontinent bituminous coals and limits the desirability of using these coals and Kerr-McGee ash concentrates as feedstocks to lower temperature, when coupled with the low fusion temperatures of the ashes from all of these materials, virtually precludes their economic useage in a conventional (dry-bottom) Lurgi gasifier. 11 references, 5 figures, 26 tables.

  15. Southern Great Plains Ice Nuclei Characterization Experiment Final Campaign Summary

    SciTech Connect

    DeMott, PJ; Suski, KJ; Hill, TCJ; Levin, EJT

    2015-03-01

    The first ever ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements to be collected at the Southern Great Plains site were made during a period from late April to June 2014, as a trial for possible longer-term measurements at the site. These measurements will also be used to lay the foundation for understanding and parameterizing (for cloud resolving modeling) the sources of these climatically important aerosols as well as to augment the existing database containing this knowledge. Siting the measurements during the spring was intended to capture INP sources in or to this region from plant, soil, dust transported over long distances, biomass burning, and pollution aerosols at a time when they may influence warm-season convective clouds and precipitation. Data have been archived of real-time measurements of INP number concentrations as a function of processing conditions (temperature and relative humidity) during 18 days of sampling that spanned two distinctly different weather situations: a warm, dry and windy period with regional dust and biomass burning influences in early May, and a cooler period of frequent precipitation during early June. Precipitation delayed winter wheat harvesting, preventing intended sampling during that perturbation on atmospheric aerosols. INP concentrations were highest and most variable at all temperatures in the dry period, where we attribute the INP activity primarily to soil dust emissions. Additional offline INP analyses are underway to extend the characterization of INP to cover the entire mixed phase cloud regime from -5°C to -35°C during the full study. Initial comparisons between methods on four days show good agreement and excellent future promise. The additional offline immersion freezing data will be archived as soon as completed under separate funding. Analyses of additional specialized studies for specific attribution of INP to biological and smoke sources are continuing via the National Science Foundation and National Aeronautics

  16. Quasi-relativistic SCF X. cap alpha. study of octahedral 5f/sup 1/ complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, G.; Roesch, N.; Edelstein, N.

    1980-05-01

    Quasi-relativistic SCF X..cap alpha.. calculations have been carried out for the octahedral 5f/sup 1/ complexes Pa/sup IV/X/sub 6//sup 2 -/, U/sup V/X/sub 6//sup -/(X = F, Cl, Br, I), and Np/sup VI/F/sub 6/. The 5f ..-->.. 5f excitation energies calculated by using the transition-state method agree well with the available absorption spectra. Ionic effects appear to dominate the trends observed in the f-orbital ligand field splitting.

  17. Launch mission summary: Intelsat 5 (F3) Atlas/Centaur-55

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Intelsat 5 (F3) spacecraft, launch vehicle, and mission are described. Information relative to launch windows, flight plan, radar and telemetry coverage, selected trajectory information, and a brief sequence of flight events is provided.

  18. Death after use of the synthetic cannabinoid 5F-AMB.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Kevin G; Behonick, George S

    2016-05-01

    The use of synthetic cannabinoids and related products has been associated with adverse effects including seizure, acute kidney injury, and sudden death. We report the death of an individual that was associated with the synthetic cannabinoid 5F-AMB. Specimens were extracted via a liquid-liquid extraction at pH 10.2 into hexane:ethyl acetate. Analysis was completed via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. For this case report, we briefly describe the extraction and instrumental methods for 5F-AMB as well as the blood toxicology results (5F-AMB, 0.3ng/mL) and case circumstances and autopsy findings. Cause and manner of death was certified as accidental death due to synthetic cannabinoid toxicity. We also briefly review any previously published reports in which 5F-AMB was analytically confirmed and determined to be involved with cause of death. PMID:27017174

  19. 5f-electron localization in the actinide metals: thorides, actinides and the Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    For the light actinides Ac-Cm, the numbers of localized and itinerant 5f-electrons are determined by comparing various estimates of the f-electron counts. At least one itinerant f-electron is found for each element, Pa-Cm. These results resolve certain disagreements among electron counts determined by different methods and are consistent with the Mott transition model and with the picture of the 5f-electrons' dual nature.

  20. Core electron excitations in U(4+): modelling of the nd(10)5f(2)→nd(9)5f(3) transitions with n = 3, 4 and 5 by ligand field tools and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Ramanantoanina, Harry; Kuri, Goutam; Daul, Claude; Bertsch, Johannes

    2016-07-28

    Ligand field density functional theory (LFDFT) calculations have been used to model the uranium M4,5, N4,5 and O4,5-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) in UO2, characterized by the promotion of one electron from the core and the semi-core 3d, 4d and 5d orbitals of U(4+) to the valence 5f. The model describes the procedure to resolve non-empirically the multiplet energy levels originating from the two-open-shell system with d and f electrons and to calculate the oscillator strengths corresponding to the dipole allowed d(10)f(2)→ d(9)f(3) transitions appropriate to represent the d electron excitation process. In the first step, the energy and UO2 unit-cell volume corresponding to the minimum structures are determined using the Hubbard model (DFT+U) approach. The model of the optical properties due to the uranium nd(10)5f(2)→nd(9)5f(3) transitions, with n = 3, 4 and 5, has been tackled by means of electronic structure calculations based on the ligand field concept emulating the Slater-Condon integrals, the spin-orbit coupling constants and the parameters of the ligand field potential needed by the ligand field Hamiltonian from Density Functional Theory. A deep-rooted theoretical procedure using the LFDFT approach has been established for actinide-bearing systems that can be valuable to compute targeted results, such as spectroscopic details at the electronic scale. As a case study, uranium dioxide has been considered because it is a nuclear fuel material, and both atomic and electronic structure calculations are indispensable for a deeper understanding of irradiation driven microstructural changes occurring in this material. PMID:27356168

  1. The level of nitric oxide regulates lipocalin-2 expression under inflammatory condition in RINm5F beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seo-Yoon; Kim, Dong-Bin; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Jang, Hyun-Jong; Jo, Yang-Hyeok; Kim, Myung-Jun

    2016-07-15

    We previously reported that proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and interferon-γ) induced the expression of lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) together with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in RINm5F beta-cells. Therefore, we examined the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on LCN-2 expression in cytokines-treated RINm5F beta-cells. Additionally, we observed the effect of LCN-2 on cell viability. First, we found the existence of LCN-2 receptor and the internalization of exogenous recombinant LCN-2 peptide in RINm5F and INS-1 beta-cells. Next, the effects of NO on LCN-2 expression were evaluated. Aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor and iNOS gene silencing significantly inhibited cytokines-induced LCN-2 expression while sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor potentiated it. Luciferase reporter assay showed that transcription factor NF-κB was not involved in LCN-2 expression. Both LCN-2 mRNA and protein stability assays were conducted. SNP did not affect LCN-2 mRNA stability, however, it significantly reduced LCN-2 protein degradation. The LCN-2 protein degradation was significantly attenuated by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Finally, the effect of LCN-2 on cell viability was evaluated. LCN-2 peptide treatment and LCN-2 overexpression significantly reduced cell viability. FACS analysis showed that LCN-2 induced the apoptosis of the cells. Collectively, NO level affects LCN-2 expression via regulation of LCN-2 protein stability under inflammatory condition and LCN-2 may reduce beta-cell viability by promoting apoptosis. PMID:27233602

  2. K8(K5F)U6Si8O40: An Intergrowth Uranyl Silicate.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Gregory; Tran, T Thao; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2016-04-01

    Single crystals of K8(K5F)U6Si8O40 were grown from a mixed alkali halide flux. K8(K5F)U6Si8O40 is the first intergrowth uranyl silicate, being composed of alternating slabs related to two previously reported uranyl silicates: Cs2USiO6 and [Na9F2][(UO2)(UO2)2(Si2O7)2]. It exhibits intense luminescence, which is influenced by the [(UO2)2O] dimers present in the structure. PMID:26974872

  3. Failure of Russell-Saunders Coupling in the 5f States of Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, K. T.; Wall, M. A.; Schwartz, A. J.; Chung, B. W.; Shuh, D. K.; Schulze, R. K.; Tobin, J. G.

    2003-05-01

    Using high energy electron energy loss spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we provide the first experimental evidence that Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling fails for the 5f states of Pu. These results support the assumption that only the use of jj or intermediate coupling is appropriate for the 5f states of Pu. High energy electron energy loss spectroscopy experiments were performed by use of a transmission electron microscope and are coupled with image and diffraction data; therefore, the measurements are completely phase specific.

  4. Pou5f1 contributes to dorsoventral patterning by positive regulation of vox and modulation of fgf8a expression.

    PubMed

    Belting, Heinz-Georg; Wendik, Björn; Lunde, Karen; Leichsenring, Manuel; Mössner, Rebecca; Driever, Wolfgang; Onichtchouk, Daria

    2011-08-15

    Pou5f1/Oct-4 in mice is required for maintenance of embryonic pluripotent cell populations. Zebrafish pou5f1 maternal-zygotic mutant embryos (spiel ohne grenzen; MZspg) lack endoderm and have gastrulation and dorsoventral patterning defects. A contribution of Pou5f1 to the control of bmp2b, bmp4 and vox expression has been suggested, however the mechanisms remained unclear and are investigated in detail here. Low-level overexpression of a Pou5f1-VP16 activator fusion protein can rescue dorsalization in MZspg mutants, indicating that Pou5f1 acts as a transcriptional activator during dorsoventral patterning. Overexpression of larger quantities of Pou5f1-VP16 can ventralize wild-type embryos, while overexpression of a Pou5f1-En repressor fusion protein can dorsalize embryos. Lack of Pou5f1 causes a transient upregulation of fgf8a expression after mid-blastula transition, providing a mechanism for delayed activation of bmp2b in MZspg embryos. Overexpression of the Pou5f1-En repressor induces fgf8, suggesting an indirect mechanism of Pou5f1 control of fgf8a expression. Transcription of vox is strongly activated by Pou5f1-VP16 even when translation of zygotically expressed transcripts is experimentally inhibited by cycloheximide. In contrast, bmp2b and bmp4 are not activated under these conditions. We show that Pou5f1 binds to phylogenetically conserved Oct/Pou5f1 sites in the vox promoter, both in vivo (ChIP) and in vitro. Our data reveals a set of direct and indirect interactions of Pou5f1 with the BMP dorsoventral patterning network that serve to fine-tune dorsoventral patterning mechanisms and coordinate patterning with developmental timing. PMID:21621531

  5. Analysis of the Tank 5F Feed and Bleed Residual Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Diprete, D.: Coleman, C.; Washington, A.

    2011-07-07

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. As part of Tank 5F Closure Mechanical Cleaning, SRR conducted a 'Feed and Bleed' process in Tank 5F. Following this 'Feed and Bleed' Mechanical Cleaning in Tank 5F, SRR collected two tank heel samples (referred to as sample 1 and sample 2) under Riser 5 to determine the composition of the material remaining in the tanks. This document describes sample analysis results. The conclusions from this analysis follow. (1) The anions measured all had a concentration less than 250 mg/kg, except for oxalate, which had a concentration of 2100-2400 mg/kg. (2) The measured cations with the highest concentration were iron (432,000-519,000 mg/kg), nickel (54,600-69,300 mg/kg), and manganese (35,200-42,100 mg/kg). All other cations measured less than 13,000 mg/kg. (3) The radionuclides present in the highest concentration are {sup 90}Sr (3.0 x 10{sup 10} dpm/g), {sup 137}Cs (6.8 x 10{sup 8} dpm/g), and {sup 241}Am (1.4 x 10{sup 8} - 1.8 x 10{sup 8} dpm/g). (4) The particle size analysis shows a large fraction of particles greater than 100 {micro}.

  6. 26 CFR 5f.103-2 - Public approval of industrial development bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public approval of industrial development bonds... RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 § 5f.103-2 Public approval of industrial development bonds. (a) General rule. An industrial development bond (within the meaning of § 1.103-7(b)(1) issued after December 31, 1982, shall...

  7. 26 CFR 5f.103-2 - Public approval of industrial development bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public approval of industrial development bonds... RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 § 5f.103-2 Public approval of industrial development bonds. (a) General rule. An industrial development bond (within the meaning of § 1.103-7(b)(1) issued after December 31, 1982, shall...

  8. 26 CFR 5f.103-2 - Public approval of industrial development bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Public approval of industrial development bonds... RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 § 5f.103-2 Public approval of industrial development bonds. (a) General rule. An industrial development bond (within the meaning of § 1.103-7(b)(1) issued after December 31, 1982, shall...

  9. Four Postmortem Case Reports with Quantitative Detection of the Synthetic Cannabinoid, 5F-PB-22

    PubMed Central

    Behonick, George; Shanks, Kevin G.; Firchau, Dennis J.; Mathur, Gagan; Lynch, Charles F.; Nashelsky, Marcus; Jaskierny, David J.; Meroueh, Chady

    2014-01-01

    In January 2014, the US government temporarily designated 5F-PB-22, along with three other synthetic cannabinoids (AB-FUBINACA, ADB-PINACA and PB-22), into Schedule I. Over the course of a 4-month time period (July–October 2013), our laboratory quantitatively identified 5F-PB-22 in specimens obtained from four postmortem cases. We describe the four cases, to include pertinent autopsy findings and decedent histories, together with quantitative results for 5F-PB-22 determined in postmortem blood and antemortem serum. Samples were prepared via a liquid–liquid extraction at pH 10.2 into hexane : ethyl acetate. Instrumental analysis was achieved with liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two ion transitions were monitored for the analyte of interest, and one ion transition was monitored for the internal standard. The observed concentration range of 5F-PB-22 is 1.1–1.5 ng/mL for three postmortem blood specimens and one antemortem serum specimen. Three of the decedents experienced abrupt, sudden death; however, one decedent expired after a rapidly deteriorating hospital course. PMID:24876364

  10. Four postmortem case reports with quantitative detection of the synthetic cannabinoid, 5F-PB-22.

    PubMed

    Behonick, George; Shanks, Kevin G; Firchau, Dennis J; Mathur, Gagan; Lynch, Charles F; Nashelsky, Marcus; Jaskierny, David J; Meroueh, Chady

    2014-10-01

    In January 2014, the US government temporarily designated 5F-PB-22, along with three other synthetic cannabinoids (AB-FUBINACA, ADB-PINACA and PB-22), into Schedule I. Over the course of a 4-month time period (July-October 2013), our laboratory quantitatively identified 5F-PB-22 in specimens obtained from four postmortem cases. We describe the four cases, to include pertinent autopsy findings and decedent histories, together with quantitative results for 5F-PB-22 determined in postmortem blood and antemortem serum. Samples were prepared via a liquid-liquid extraction at pH 10.2 into hexane : ethyl acetate. Instrumental analysis was achieved with liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two ion transitions were monitored for the analyte of interest, and one ion transition was monitored for the internal standard. The observed concentration range of 5F-PB-22 is 1.1-1.5 ng/mL for three postmortem blood specimens and one antemortem serum specimen. Three of the decedents experienced abrupt, sudden death; however, one decedent expired after a rapidly deteriorating hospital course. PMID:24876364

  11. 26 CFR 5f.103-2 - Public approval of industrial development bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public approval of industrial development bonds... RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 § 5f.103-2 Public approval of industrial development bonds. (a) General rule. An... satisfies the public approval requirement of section 103(k) and paragraph (c) of this section or...

  12. Sac2/INPP5F is an inositol 4-phosphatase that functions in the endocytic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Messa, Mirko; Nández, Ramiro; Czapla, Heather; Zou, Yixiao; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRL–Sac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin. PMID:25869668

  13. Beyond Spin-Orbit: Probing Electron Correlation in the Pu 5f States

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G

    2006-05-08

    Experiments planned to address the issue of electron correlation in the Pu 5f states are described herein. The key is the utilization of the Fano Effect, the observation of spin polarization in nonmagnetic systems, using chiral excitation such as circularly polarized X-rays.

  14. 48 CFR 47.303-5 - F.o.b. origin, with differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) Differentials for mode of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, with... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-5 F.o.b. origin,...

  15. 48 CFR 47.303-5 - F.o.b. origin, with differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) Differentials for mode of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, with... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-5 F.o.b. origin,...

  16. 48 CFR 47.303-5 - F.o.b. origin, with differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) Differentials for mode of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, with... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-5 F.o.b. origin,...

  17. 48 CFR 47.303-5 - F.o.b. origin, with differentials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) Differentials for mode of... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, with... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-5 F.o.b. origin,...

  18. Band structures of 4f and 5f materials studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Shin-ichi

    2016-04-01

    Recent remarkable progress in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) has enabled the direct observation of the band structures of 4f and 5f materials. In particular, ARPES with various light sources such as lasers (hν ∼ 7~\\text{eV} ) or high-energy synchrotron radiations (hν ≳ 400~\\text{eV} ) has shed light on the bulk band structures of strongly correlated materials with energy scales of a few millielectronvolts to several electronvolts. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the behaviors of 4f and 5f band structures of various rare-earth and actinide materials observed by modern ARPES techniques, and understand how they can be described using various theoretical frameworks. For 4f-electron materials, ARPES studies of \\text{Ce}M\\text{I}{{\\text{n}}5} (M=\\text{Rh} , \\text{Ir} , and \\text{Co} ) and \\text{YbR}{{\\text{h}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} with various incident photon energies are summarized. We demonstrate that their 4f electronic structures are essentially described within the framework of the periodic Anderson model, and that the band-structure calculation based on the local density approximation cannot explain their low-energy electronic structures. Meanwhile, electronic structures of 5f materials exhibit wide varieties ranging from itinerant to localized states. For itinerant \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UFeG}{{\\text{a}}5} , their electronic structures can be well-described by the band-structure calculation assuming that all \\text{U}~5f electrons are itinerant. In contrast, the band structures of localized \\text{U}~5f compounds such as \\text{UP}{{\\text{d}}3} and \\text{U}{{\\text{O}}2} are essentially explained by the localized model that treats \\text{U}~5f electrons as localized core states. In regards to heavy fermion \\text{U} -based compounds such as the hidden-order compound \\text{UR}{{\\text{u}}2}\\text{S}{{\\text{i}}2} , their electronic structures exhibit complex behaviors. Their overall band structures

  19. Thermodynamic Properties of 4f- and 5f-SHELL Metals at Finite Temperatures:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, N. K.; Vyas, P. R.; Jani, A. R.; Gohel, V. B.

    The thermodynamic properties of 4f- and 5f-shell metals have been studied at high temperatures using mean-field potential approach. The MFP seen by the lattice ion is constructed in terms of the total energy-volume relation using local pseudopotentials due to Pandya et al. [Physica B 307, 138 (2001)]. We have calculated static compression, shock-wave compression, volume thermal expansion, isothermal and adiabatic bulk moduli (BT and BS), specific heats (CV and CP), thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter (γth), anharmonic contribution to the specific heat and temperature along shock Hugoniot for 4f (γ-Ce)- and 5f (fcc-Th)-shell metals. The results are well compared with the other theoretical and experimental findings, which ensure the use of pseudopotentials for studying thermodynamic properties at higher temperatures in case of lanthanides and actinides.

  20. Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia blunts the Insulin-Inpp5f negative feedback loop in the diabetic heart

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Danna; Zhang, Yajun; Shen, Mingzhi; Sun, Yongfeng; Xia, Qing; Zhang, Yingmei; Liu, Xuedong; Wang, Haichang; Yuan, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    The leading cause of death in diabetic patients is diabetic cardiomyopathy, in which alteration of Akt signal plays an important role. Inpp5f is recently found to be a negative regulator of Akt signaling, while its expression and function in diabetic heart is largely unknown. In this study, we found that in both the streptozotocin (STZ) and high fat diet (HFD) induced diabetic mouse models, Inpp5f expression was coordinately regulated by insulin, blood glucose and lipid levels. Increased Inpp5f was inversely correlated with the cardiac function. Further studies revealed that Insulin transcriptionally activated Inpp5f in an Sp1 dependent manner, and increased Inpp5f in turn reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, forming a negative feedback loop. The negative feedback plays a protective role under diabetic condition. However, high blood glucose and lipid, which are characteristics of uncontrolled diabetes and type 2 diabetes, increased Inpp5f expression through activation of NF-κB, blunts the protective feedback. Thus, our study has revealed that Inpp5f provides as a negative feedback regulator of insulin signaling and downregulation of Inpp5f in diabetes is cardioprotective. Increased Inpp5f by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia is an important mediator of diabetic cardiomyopathy and is a promising therapeutic target for the disease. PMID:26908121

  1. 5f{sup N} configurations and x-ray spectra of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Kulagin, N.A.

    1995-04-01

    The electronic structure of 5f{sup N} configurations and the characteristic X-ray radiation energies for an entire actinium series are calculated using the Hartree-Fock-Pauli approximation, and the variations obtained are analyzed. The electrostatic and magnetic parameters of these ions, as well as energies of their K and L lines, exhibit essentially nonlinear dependence on the nuclear charge and number of electrons. This fact evidences that simplified models of atomic structure are inapplicable to heavy ions.

  2. Effects of 5f-elements on electronic structures and spectroscopic properties of gold superatom model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-08-01

    5f-elements encaged in a gold superatomic cluster are capable of giving rise to unique optical properties due to their hyperactive valence electrons and great radial components of 5f/6d orbitals. Herein, we review our first-principles studies on electronic structures and spectroscopic properties of a series of actinide-embedded gold superatomic clusters with different dimensions. The three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) superatom clusters possess the 18-electron configuration of 1S21P61D10 and 10-electron configuration of 1S21P41D4, respectively. Importantly, their electronic absorption spectra can also be effectively explained by the superatom orbitals. Specifically, the charge transfer (CT) transitions involved in surface-enhance Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra for 3D and 2D structures are both from the filled 1D orbitals, providing the enhancement factors of the order of ∼ 104 at 488 nm and ∼ 105 at 456 nm, respectively. This work implies that the superatomic orbital transitions involved in 5f-elements can not only lead to a remarkable spectroscopic performance, but also a new direction for optical design in the future. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374004), the Science and Technology Development Program of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20150519021JH), the Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation, China (Grant No. 142001), and the Support from the High Performance Computing Center (HPCC) of Jilin University, China.

  3. Inhibition of insulin production by cyproheptadine in RINm5F rat insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, C P; Reape, T J; Fischer, L J

    1993-09-01

    The clonal insulin producing cell line RINm5F was evaluated as a model for the action of cyproheptadine (CPH)-like diabetogenic compounds in the rat pancreas. Treatment with 10 microM CPH and selected structural analogs under culture conditions produced a progressive loss of cellular insulin which reached 30% of control within 24 hours. Comparison of the activities of the analogs 4-diphenylmethylpiperidine (4-DPMP) and 2-diphenylmethylpiperidine (2-DPMP) to produce cellular insulin depletion showed that 4-DPMP was as active as CPH but 2-DPMP had no activity at the highest concentration employed (10 microM). The CPH metabolite desmethyl CPH-epoxide was five times more active than the parent compound in producing loss of insulin in RINm5F cells. These results are consistent with previously published results of CPH actions in vivo. An inhibition of insulin biosynthesis with no loss of preproinsulin mRNA occurred in RINm5F cells treated with CPH or DMCPH-epoxide. This suggests that an effect on transcription may not be the primary action by which CPH and its analogs inhibit insulin synthesis in vivo. PMID:8263899

  4. Transduced Tat-DJ-1 protein inhibits cytokines-induced pancreatic RINm5F cell death.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyo Sang; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Cha, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sang Jin; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Yeo, Eun Ji; Choi, Yeon Joo; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2016-05-01

    Loss of pancreatic β-cells by oxidative stress or cytokines is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). DJ-1 is known to as a multifunctional protein, which plays an important role in cell survival. We prepared cell permeable wild type (WT) and mutant type (M26I) Tat-DJ-1 proteins to investigate the effects of DJ-1 against combined cytokines (IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α)-induced RINm5F cell death. Both Tat-DJ-1 proteins were transduced into RINm5F cells. WT Tat-DJ-1 proteins significantly protected against cell death from cytokines by reducing intracellular toxicities. Also, WT Tat-DJ-1 proteins markedly regulated cytokines-induced pro- and anti-apoptosis proteins. However, M26I Tat-DJ-1 protein showed relatively low protective effects, as compared to WT Tat-DJ-1 protein. Our experiments demonstrated that WT Tat-DJ-1 protein protects against cytokine-induced RINm5F cell death by suppressing intracellular toxicities and regulating apoptosisrelated protein expression. Thus, WT Tat-DJ-1 protein could potentially serve as a therapeutic agent for DM and cytokine related diseases. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 297-302]. PMID:26996344

  5. Azide interaction with 4f and 5f ions in aqueous solutions. I. Trivalent ions

    SciTech Connect

    Musikas, C.; Cuillerdier, C.; Livet, J.; Forchioni, A.; Chachaty, C.

    1983-08-31

    Solvent extraction and UV, Raman, and NMR spectroscopic studies were carried out on trivalent actinide and lanthanide aqueous azido complexes. Unlike trivalent d transition ions (..beta../sub 11/ approx. = 10/sup 5/) 5f and 4f aqueous azido complexes are weak (..beta../sub 11/ approx. = 2.5 for neodymium azide complexes (Nd(N/sub 3/)/sup 2 +/)), but the trivalent actinides exhibit formation constants 1 order of magnitude higher than the lanthanides. All the spectroscopic methods indicate that we are dealing with inner-sphere complexes and actinide-lanthanide differences must be attributed to higher covalent contributions in the 5f azides. /sup 15/N NMR combined with /sup 1/H NMR served to investigate the azide binding properties. With the trivalent 5f and 4f ions the binding occurs by one of the terminal nitrogen atoms. The M-N bond distance is close to 2.75 A. The lanthanide(III)-(linear azide) moieties are bent with a bond angle close to 135/sup 0/, unlike the homologous linear thiocyanate complexes. 7 figures, 4 tables.

  6. Role of 5f electrons in the structural stability of light actinide (Th-U) mononitrides under pressure.

    PubMed

    Modak, P; Verma, Ashok K

    2016-03-16

    Pressure induced structural sequences and their mechanism for light actinide (Th-U) mononitrides were studied as a function of 5f-electron number using first-principles total energy and electronic structure calculations. Zero pressure lattice constants, bulk module and C11 elastic module vary systematically with 5f-electron number implying its direct role on crystal binding. There is a critical 5f-electron number below which the system makes B1-B2 and above it B1-R3[combining macron]m-B2 structural sequence under pressure. Also, the B1-B2 transition pressure increases with increasing 5f-electron number whereas an opposite trend is obtained for the B1-R3[combining macron]m transition pressure. The ascending of N p anti-bonding states through the Fermi level at high pressure is responsible for the structural instability of the system. Above the critical 5f-electron number in the system a narrow 5f-band occurs very close to the Fermi level which allows the system to lower its symmetry via band Jahn-Teller type lattice distortion and the system undergoes a B1-R3[combining macron]m phase transition. However, below the critical 5f-electron number this mechanism is not favorable due to a lack of sufficient 5f-state occupancy and thus the system undergoes a B1-B2 phase transition like other ionic solids. PMID:26953085

  7. Network discovery, characterization, and prediction : a grand challenge LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kegelmeyer, W. Philip, Jr.

    2010-11-01

    This report is the final summation of Sandia's Grand Challenge LDRD project No.119351, 'Network Discovery, Characterization and Prediction' (the 'NGC') which ran from FY08 to FY10. The aim of the NGC, in a nutshell, was to research, develop, and evaluate relevant analysis capabilities that address adversarial networks. Unlike some Grand Challenge efforts, that ambition created cultural subgoals, as well as technical and programmatic ones, as the insistence on 'relevancy' required that the Sandia informatics research communities and the analyst user communities come to appreciate each others needs and capabilities in a very deep and concrete way. The NGC generated a number of technical, programmatic, and cultural advances, detailed in this report. There were new algorithmic insights and research that resulted in fifty-three refereed publications and presentations; this report concludes with an abstract-annotated bibliography pointing to them all. The NGC generated three substantial prototypes that not only achieved their intended goals of testing our algorithmic integration, but which also served as vehicles for customer education and program development. The NGC, as intended, has catalyzed future work in this domain; by the end it had already brought in, in new funding, as much funding as had been invested in it. Finally, the NGC knit together previously disparate research staff and user expertise in a fashion that not only addressed our immediate research goals, but which promises to have created an enduring cultural legacy of mutual understanding, in service of Sandia's national security responsibilities in cybersecurity and counter proliferation.

  8. Probing the population of the spin-orbit split levels in the actinide 5f states

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K; der Laan, G v; Tobin, J; Chung, B; Wall, M; Schwartz, A

    2004-07-14

    Spin-orbit interaction in the 5f states is believed to strongly influence exotic behaviors observed in actinides metals and compounds. Understanding these interactions and how they relate to the actinide series is of considerable importance. To address this issue, the branching ratio of the white-line peaks of the N4,5 edges for the light actinide metals, {alpha}-Th, {alpha}-U, and {alpha}-Pu were recorded using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and synchrotron-radiation-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Using the spin-orbit sum rule and the branching ratios from both experimental spectra and many-electron atomic spectral calculations, accurate values of the spin-orbit interaction, and thus the relative occupation of the j = 5/2 and 7/2 levels, are determined for the actinide 5f states. Results show that the spin-orbit sum rule works very well with both EELS and XAS spectra, needing little or no correction. This is important, since the high spatial resolution of a TEM can be used to overcome the problems of single crystal growth often encountered with actinide metals, allowing acquisition of EELS spectra, and subsequent spin-orbit analysis, from nm-sized regions. The relative occupation numbers obtained by our method have been compared with recent theoretical results and show a good agreement in their trend.

  9. Self-Assembly of Hexanuclear Clusters of 4f and 5f Elements with Cation Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Diwu, J.; Good, Justin J.; DiStefano, Victoria H.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-02-10

    Six hexanuclear clusters of 4f and 5f elements were synthesized by room-temperature slow concentration experiments. Cerium(IV), thorium(IV), and plutonium(IV) each form two different hexanuclear clusters, among which the cerium and plutonium clusters are isotypic, whereas the thorium clusters show more diversity. The change in ionic radii of approximately 0.08 Å between these different metal ions tunes the cavity size so that NH{sub 4}{sup +} (1.48 Å) has the right dimensions to assemble the cerium and plutonium clusters, whereas Cs{sup +} (1.69 Å) is necessary to assemble the thorium clusters. If these cations are not used in the reactions, only amorphous material is obtained.

  10. Structure of the parainfluenza virus 5 F protein in its metastable, prefusion conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hsien-Sheng; Wen, Xiaolin; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2010-03-08

    Enveloped viruses have evolved complex glycoprotein machinery that drives the fusion of viral and cellular membranes, permitting entry of the viral genome into the cell. For the paramyxoviruses, the fusion (F) protein catalyses this membrane merger and entry step, and it has been postulated that the F protein undergoes complex refolding during this process. Here we report the crystal structure of the parainfluenza virus 5 F protein in its prefusion conformation, stabilized by the addition of a carboxy-terminal trimerization domain. The structure of the F protein shows that there are profound conformational differences between the pre- and postfusion states, involving transformations in secondary and tertiary structure. The positions and structural transitions of key parts of the fusion machinery, including the hydrophobic fusion peptide and two helical heptad repeat regions, clarify the mechanism of membrane fusion mediated by the F protein.

  11. Localization of the 5f level across the UM 5-xT x series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoł; nierek, Z̵.; Troc, R.; Tran, V. H.

    1990-04-01

    We review the results of bulk measurements on selected pseudoternary compounds within the UM 5- xT x system where M = Cu, Ni and Pt, and T = Ag, Au, Pd and Ir. These ternary compounds crystallize in the cubic AuBe 5 crystal structure. The results obtained on about 20 specimens clearly show that the 5f-localization of the uranium depends on the degree of f-d and/or f-s hybridization. The strength of the hybridization is a function of the concentration of s- and d-conduction electrons and is controlled chemically by the extent of the “M 5- xT x” alloying.

  12. Multiconfigurational nature of 5f orbitals in uranium and plutonium intermetallics

    PubMed Central

    Booth, C.H.; Jiang, Yu; Wang, D.L.; Mitchell, J.N.; Tobash, P.H.; Bauer, E.D.; Wall, M.A.; Allen, P.G.; Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.; Torrez, M.A.; Sarrao, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium and plutonium’s 5f electrons are tenuously poised between strongly bonding with ligand spd-states and residing close to the nucleus. The unusual properties of these elements and their compounds (e.g., the six different allotropes of elemental plutonium) are widely believed to depend on the related attributes of f-orbital occupancy and delocalization for which a quantitative measure is lacking. By employing resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and making comparisons to specific heat measurements, we demonstrate the presence of multiconfigurational f-orbital states in the actinide elements U and Pu and in a wide range of uranium and plutonium intermetallic compounds. These results provide a robust experimental basis for a new framework toward understanding the strongly-correlated behavior of actinide materials. PMID:22706643

  13. ARPES in strongly correlated 4f and 5f systems: Comparison to the Periodic Anderson Model

    SciTech Connect

    Arko, A.J.; Joyce, J.J.; Cox, L.E.

    1997-12-01

    The electronic structure of both Ce and U heavy fermions appears to consist of extremely narrow, nearly temperature independent bands (i.e., no spectral weight loss or transfer with temperature). A small dispersion of the f-bands above the Kondo temperature is easily measurable so that a Kondo resonance, as defined by NCA, is not evident. Preliminary results, however, indicate that the Periodic Anderson Model captures some of the essential physics. Angle-integrated resonant photoemission results on {delta}-Pu indicate a narrow 5f feature at E{sub F}, similar in width to f-states in Ce and U compounds, but differing in that cross-section behavior of the near-E{sub F} feature suggests substantial 6D admixture.

  14. Promoter analysis of the rabbit POU5F1 gene and its expression in preimplantation stage embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kobolak, Julianna; Kiss, Katalin; Polgar, Zsuzsanna; Mamo, Solomon; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Tancos, Zsuzsanna; Bock, Istvan; Baji, Arpad G; Tar, Krisztina; Pirity, Melinda K; Dinnyes, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Background The POU5F1 gene encodes the octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct4). It is crucial in the regulation of pluripotency during embryonic development and widely used as molecular marker of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The objective of this study was to identify and to analyse the promoter region of rabbit POU5F1 gene; furthermore to examine its expression pattern in preimplantation stage rabbit embryos. Results The upstream region of rabbit POU5F1 was subcloned sequenced and four highly conserved promoter regions (CR1-4) were identified. The highest degree of similarity on sequence level was found among the conserved domains between rabbit and human. Among the enhancers the proximal enhancer region (PE-1A) exhibited the highest degree of homology (96.4%). Furthermore, the CR4 regulator domain containing the distal enhancer (DE-2A) was responsible for stem cell-specific expression. Also, BAC library screen revealed the existence of a processed pseudogene of rabbit POU5F1. The results of quantitative real-time PCR experiments showed that POU5F1 mRNA was abundantly present in oocytes and zygotes, but it was gradually reduced until the activation of the embryonic genome, thereafter a continuous increase in POU5F1 mRNA level was observed until blastocyst stage. By using the XYClone laser system the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblast portions of embryos were microdissected and examined separately and POU5F1 mRNA was detected in both cell types. Conclusion In this study we provide a comparative sequence analysis of the regulatory region of rabbit POU5F1 gene. Our data suggest that the POU5F1 gene is strictly regulated during early mammalian development. We proposed that the well conserved CR4 region containing the DE-2A enhancer is responsible for the highly conserved ESC specific gene expression. Notably, we are the first to report that the rabbit POU5F1 is not restricted to ICM cells only, but it is expressed in trophoblast cells as well. This

  15. An Expressed Retrogene of the Master Embryonic Stem Cell Gene POU5F1 Is Associated with Prostate Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Joan P.; Dorset, Daniel C.; Clark, Travis A.; Bradley, Kevin M.; Wahlfors, Tiina A.; McReynolds, Kate M.; Maynard, William H.; Chang, Sam S.; Cookson, Michael S.; Smith, Joseph A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Dupont, William D.; Smith, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic association studies of prostate and other cancers have identified a major risk locus at chromosome 8q24. Several independent risk variants at this locus alter transcriptional regulatory elements, but an affected gene and mechanism for cancer predisposition have remained elusive. The retrogene POU5F1B within the locus has a preserved open reading frame encoding a homolog of the master embryonic stem cell transcription factor Oct4. We find that 8q24 risk alleles are expression quantitative trait loci correlated with reduced expression of POU5F1B in prostate tissue and that predicted deleterious POU5F1B missense variants are also associated with risk of transformation. POU5F1 is known to be self-regulated by the encoded Oct4 transcription factor. We further observe that POU5F1 expression is directly correlated with POU5F1B expression. Our results suggest that a pathway critical to self-renewal of embryonic stem cells may also have a role in the origin of cancer. PMID:24581739

  16. Non-supersymmetric D1/D5, F/NS5 and closed string tachyon condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. X.; Roy, Shibaji; Wang, Zhao-Long; Wu, Rong-Jun

    2009-09-01

    We construct the intersecting non-supersymmetric (non-susy) D1/D5 solution of type IIB string theory. While, as usual, the solution is charged under an electric two-form and an electric six-form gauge field, it also contains a non-susy chargeless (non-BPS) D0-brane. The S-dual of this solution is the non-susy F/NS5 solution. We show how these solutions nicely interpolate between the corresponding black (or non-extremal) solutions and the Kaluza-Klein (KK) "bubble of nothing" (BON) by continuously changing some parameters characterizing the solutions from one set of values to another. We show, by a time symmetric general bubble initial data analysis, that the final bubbles in these cases are static and stable and the interpolations can be physically interpreted as closed string tachyon condensation. As special cases, we recover the transition of two charge black F-string to BON, considered by Horowitz, and also the transition from AdS 3 black hole to global AdS 3.

  17. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity; Final report, November 1, 1989--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, G.D.

    1993-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope comprises one of the Nation`s and the world`s most prolific oil province. Original oil in place (OOIP) is estimated at nearly 70 BBL (Kamath and Sharma, 1986). Generalized reservoir descriptions have been completed by the University of Alaska`s Petroleum Development Laboratory over North Slope`s major fields. These fields include West Sak (20 BBL OOIP), Ugnu (15 BBL OOIP), Prudhoe Bay (23 BBL OOIP), Kuparuk (5.5 BBL OOIP), Milne Point (3 BBL OOIP), and Endicott (1 BBL OOIP). Reservoir description has included the acquisition of open hole log data from the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (AOGCC), computerized well log analysis using state-of-the-art computers, and integration of geologic and logging data. The studies pertaining to fluid characterization described in this report include: experimental study of asphaltene precipitation for enriched gases, CO{sup 2} and West Sak crude system, modeling of asphaltene equilibria including homogeneous as well as polydispersed thermodynamic models, effect of asphaltene deposition on rock-fluid properties, fluid properties of some Alaskan north slope reservoirs. Finally, the last chapter summarizes the reservoir heterogeneity classification system for TORIS and TORIS database.

  18. Statistical Methods and Tools for Uxo Characterization (SERDP Final Technical Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gilbert, Richard O.; Wilson, John E.; Hassig, Nancy L.; Carlson, Deborah K.; O'Brien, Robert F.; Bates, Derrick J.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2004-11-15

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) issued a statement of need for FY01 titled Statistical Sampling for Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Site Characterization that solicited proposals to develop statistically valid sampling protocols for cost-effective, practical, and reliable investigation of sites contaminated with UXO; protocols that could be validated through subsequent field demonstrations. The SERDP goal was the development of a sampling strategy for which a fraction of the site is initially surveyed by geophysical detectors to confidently identify clean areas and subsections (target areas, TAs) that had elevated densities of anomalous geophysical detector readings that could indicate the presence of UXO. More detailed surveys could then be conducted to search the identified TAs for UXO. SERDP funded three projects: those proposed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (SERDP Project No. UXO 1199), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The projects were closely coordinated to minimize duplication of effort and facilitate use of shared algorithms where feasible. This final report for PNNL Project 1199 describes the methods developed by PNNL to address SERDP's statement-of-need for the development of statistically-based geophysical survey methods for sites where 100% surveys are unattainable or cost prohibitive.

  19. Final report on characterizing the dynamics of spatio-temporal data

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelich, E.J.; Armbruster, H.D.

    1998-09-01

    One principal goal of the grant was to model and analyze the dynamics of spatially extended chaotic systems. One of the principal tools used in the analysis was KLTOOL, a computer package developed by the principal investigators for Karhunen-Loeve analysis. The package was used to analyze video data from a laboratory experiment on cellular flames. A second goal of the project was to analyze complex time series whose underlying dynamics may be low dimensionally chaotic. Particular emphasis was placed on systems of possible relevance to energy production and distribution. The work attempted to characterize low-dimensional aspects of the dynamics of a fluidized bed, in particular, a transition from periodic to irregular behavior. Finally, collaborators worked on aspects of targeting in chaotic dynamical systems. This work showed that it is possible to switch a moderately high-dimensional chaotic process rapidly between prespecified periodic saddle orbits embedding within the attractor. Additional work extended previously-developed algorithms for the highly accurate computation of stable manifolds of periodic saddle orbits, which is essential to the successful application of targeting algorithms.

  20. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligand 5F 203 Induces Oxidative Stress That Triggers DNA Damage in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Lancelot S.; Watkins, Cheri N.; Campbell, Petreena; Zylstra, Dain; Rowland, Leah; Amis, Louisa H.; Scott, Lia; Babb, Crystal E.; Livingston, W. Joel; Darwanto, Agus; Davis, Willie L.; Senthil, Maheswari; Sowers, Lawrence C.; Brantley, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Breast tumors often show profound sensitivity to exogenous oxidative stress. Investigational agent 2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F 203) induces aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated DNA damage in certain breast cancer cells. Since AhR agonists often elevate intracellular oxidative stress, we hypothesize that 5F 203 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) to induce DNA damage, which thwarts breast cancer cell growth. We found that 5F 203 induced single-strand break formation. 5F 203 enhanced oxidative DNA damage that was specific to breast cancer cells sensitive to its cytotoxic actions, as it did not increase oxidative DNA damage or ROS formation in nontumorigenic MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. In contrast, AhR agonist and procarcinogen benzo[a]pyrene and its metabolite, 1,6-benzo[a]pyrene quinone, induced oxidative DNA damage and ROS formation, respectively, in MCF-10A cells. In sensitive breast cancer cells, 5F 203 activated ROS-responsive kinases: c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38). AhR antagonists (alpha-naphthoflavone, CH223191) or antioxidants (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, EUK-134) attenuated 5F 203-mediated JNK and p38 activation, depending on the cell type. Pharmacological inhibition of AhR, JNK, or p38 attenuated 5F 203-mediated increases in intracellular ROS, apoptosis, and single-strand break formation. 5F 203 induced the expression of cytoglobin, an oxidative stress-responsive gene and a putative tumor suppressor, which was diminished with AhR, JNK, or p38 inhibition. Additionally, 5F 203-mediated increases in ROS production and cytoglobin were suppressed in AHR100 cells (AhR ligand-unresponsive MCF-7 breast cancer cells). Our data demonstrate 5F 203 induces ROS-mediated DNA damage at least in part via AhR, JNK, or p38 activation and modulates the expression of oxidative stress-responsive genes such as cytoglobin to confer its anticancer action. PMID:25781201

  1. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and unstable clones. These

  2. Final evaluation of characterizing pipe-over-pack containers using high efficiency neutron counters

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, Pete; Stanfield, Sean B; Wachter, Joe; Cramer, Doug; Harvill, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of Transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) packed in Pipe-over-Pack Containers (POC) contain a number of complexities. The POC is highly attenuating to both gamma rays and neutrons which presents a difficult waste matrix for correct quantification of material in the container. Currently there are a number ofPOC containers at LANL that require evaluation for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, NM. Updated data has been evaluated that finalizes the evaluation of characterizing Pipe-Over-Pack Containers. Currently at LANL, a single instrument has been used to explore the appropriateness of both passive neutron and quantitative gamma ray methods for measuring POC's. The passive neutron approach uses the Reals coincidence count rate to establish plutonium mass and other parameters of interest for TRU waste. The quantitative gamma ray method assumes a homogeneous distribution of radioactive source material with the surrounding material throughout the drum volume. Drums are assayed with a calibration based on the known density of the matrix. Both methods are supplemented by a simultaneous isotopic measurement using Multi-Group Analysis (MGA) to determine the plutonium isotopic composition. If MGA fails to provide a viable isotopic result Fixed Energy Response function Analysis with Multiple efficiencies (FRAM) has been used to replace the MGA results. Acceptable Knowledge (AK) may also be used in certain instances. This report will discuss the two methods in detail. Included in the discussion will be descriptions of the setup parameters and calibration techniques for the instrument. A number of test measurements have been performed to compare HENC data with certified historical data. Empty POCs loaded with known sources have also been measured to determine the viability of the technique. A comparison between calorimetry data, historical measurements and HENC data will also be

  3. The roles of 4f- and 5f-orbitals in bonding: a magnetochemical, crystal field, density functional theory, and multi-reference wavefunction study.

    PubMed

    Lukens, W W; Speldrich, M; Yang, P; Duignan, T J; Autschbach, J; Kögerler, P

    2016-07-28

    The electronic structures of 4f(3)/5f(3) Cp''3M and Cp''3M·alkylisocyanide complexes, where Cp'' is 1,3-bis-(trimethylsilyl)cyclopentadienyl, are explored with a focus on the splitting of the f-orbitals, which provides information about the strengths of the metal-ligand interactions. While the f-orbital splitting in many lanthanide complexes has been reported in detail, experimental determination of the f-orbital splitting in actinide complexes remains rare in systems other than halide and oxide compounds, since the experimental approach, crystal field analysis, is generally significantly more difficult for actinide complexes than for lanthanide complexes. In this study, a set of analogous neodymium(iii) and uranium(iii) tris-cyclopentadienyl complexes and their isocyanide adducts was characterized by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility. The crystal field model was parameterized by combined fitting of EPR and susceptibility data, yielding an accurate description of f-orbital splitting. The isocyanide derivatives were also studied using density functional theory, resulting in f-orbital splitting that is consistent with crystal field fitting, and by multi-reference wavefunction calculations that support the electronic structure analysis derived from the crystal-field calculations. The results highlight that the 5f-orbitals, but not the 4f-orbitals, are significantly involved in bonding to the isocyanide ligands. The main interaction between isocyanide ligand and the metal center is a σ-bond, with additional 5f to π* donation for the uranium complexes. While interaction with the isocyanide π*-orbitals lowers the energies of the 5fxz(2) and 5fyz(2)-orbitals, spin-orbit coupling greatly reduces the population of 5fxz(2) and 5fyz(2) in the ground state. PMID:27349178

  4. Gradual Localization of 5f States in Orthorhombic UTX Ferromagnets:Polarized Neutron Diffraction Study of Ru Substituted UCoGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vališka, Michal; Pospíšil, Jiří; Stunault, Anne; Takeda, Yukiharu; Gillon, Béatrice; Haga, Yoshinori; Prokeš, Karel; Abd-Elmeguid, Mohsen M.; Nénert, Gwilherm; Okane, Tetsuo; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Chapon, Laurent; Gukasov, Arsene; Cousson, Alain; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Sechovský, Vladimír

    2015-08-01

    We report on a microscopic study of the evolution of ferromagnetism in the Ru substituted ferromagnetic superconductor (FM SC) UCoGe crystallizing in the orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure. For that purpose, two single crystals with composition UCo0.97Ru0.03Ge and UCo0.88Ru0.12Ge have been prepared and characterized by magnetization, AC susceptibility, specific heat and electrical resistivity measurements. Both compounds have been found to order ferromagnetically below TC = 6.5 and 7.5 K, respectively, which is considerably higher than the TC = 3 K of the parent compound UCoGe. The higher values of TC are accompanied by enhanced values of the spontaneous moment μspont = 0.11 μB/f.u. and μspont = 0.21 μB/f.u., respectively in comparison to the tiny spontaneous moment of UCoGe (about 0.07 μB/f.u.). No sign of superconductivity was detected in either compound. The magnetic moments of the samples were investigated on the microscopic scale using polarized neutron diffraction (PND) and for UCo0.88Ru0.12Ge also by soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). The analysis of the PND results indicates that the observed enhancement of ferromagnetism is mainly due to the growth of the orbital part of the uranium 5f moment μ LU, reflecting a gradual localization of the 5f electrons with Ru substitution. In addition, the parallel orientation of the U and Co moments has been established in both substituted compounds. The results are discussed and compared with related isostructural ferromagnetic UTX compounds (T: transition metals, X: Si, Ge) in the context of a varying degree of the 5f-ligand hybridization.

  5. 5f-electron states in uranium dioxide investigated using high-resolution neutron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoretti, G.; Blaise, A.; Caciuffo, R.; Fournier, J. M.; Hutchings, M. T.; Osborn, R.; Taylor, A. D.

    1989-07-01

    High-resolution, high-energy-transfer, inelastic neutron scattering has been used to explore the crystal-field (CF) excitations in UO2. As all the dipole-allowed transitions within the free-ion ground manifold have been identified, the observations provide a complete determination of the crystal-field potential and 5f-electron eigenstates. The fourth- and sixth-degree CF parameters are V4=-123 meV and V6=26.5 meV. In spite of the strength of the CF, the ground state is accurately given by the intermediate-coupling approximation with little modification by J-mixing effects. In the antiferromagnetic phase below TN=30.8 K, a splitting of the cubic CF levels, due to the combined effects of the molecular field and the distortion of the oxygen-ligand cage surrounding the U4+ ions, has been observed. Detailed CF calculations are presented both for the case of a double-k magnetic structure with a monoclinic distortion of the oxygen sublattice, and for a combined triple-k distortion and magnetic order. The observed splittings are shown to be more consistent with the triple-k model.

  6. Oxidative Stress Type Influences the Properties of Antioxidants Containing Polyphenols in RINm5F Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Auberval, Nathalie; Dal, Stéphanie; Bietiger, William; Seyfritz, Elodie; Peluso, Jean; Muller, Christian; Zhao, Minjie; Marchioni, Eric; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard, Elisa; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Sigrist, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro methods currently used to screen bioactive compounds focus on the use of a single model of oxidative stress. However, this simplistic view may lead to conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of two natural extracts (a mix of red wine polyphenols (RWPs) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)) with three models of oxidative stress induced with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a mixture of hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase (HX/XO), or streptozotocin (STZ) in RINm5F beta cells. We employed multiple approaches to validate their potential as therapeutic treatment options, including cell viability, reactive oxygen species production, and antioxidant enzymes expression. All three oxidative stresses induced a decrease in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis, whereas the level of ROS production was variable depending on the type of stress. The highest level of ROS was found for the HX/XO-induced stress, an increase that was reflected by higher expression antioxidant enzymes. Further, both antioxidant compounds presented beneficial effects during oxidative stress, but EGCG appeared to be a more efficient antioxidant. These data indicate that the efficiency of natural antioxidants is dependent on both the nature of the compound and the type of oxidative stress generated. PMID:26508986

  7. Influence of cell physiological state on gene delivery to T lymphocytes by chimeric adenovirus Ad5F35

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-feng; Shao, Hong-wei; Wu, Feng-lin; Xie, Xin; Li, Zhu-Ming; Bo, Hua-Ben; Shen, Han; Wang, Teng; Huang, Shu-lin

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of genetically-modified T cells is a promising approach for treatment of both human malignancies and viral infections. Due to its ability to efficiently infect lymphocytes, the chimeric adenovirus Ad5F35 is potentially useful as an immunotherapeutic for the genetic modification of T cells. In previous studies, it was found that the infection efficiency of Ad5F35 was significantly increased without enhanced expression of the viral receptor after T cell stimulation; however, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Nonetheless, cell physiology has long been thought to affect viral infection. Therefore, we aimed to uncover the physiologic changes responsible for the increased infection efficiency of Ad5F35 following T cell stimulation. Given the complexity of intracellular transport we analyzed viral binding, entry, and escape using a Jurkat T cell model and found that both cell membrane fluidity and endosomal escape of Ad5F35 were altered under different physiological states. This, in turn, resulted in differences in the amount of virus entering cells and reaching the cytoplasm. These results provide additional insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying Ad5F35 infection of T cells and consequently, will help further the clinical application of genetically-modified T cells for immunotherapy. PMID:26972139

  8. Autoradiographic distribution of /sup 14/C-labeled 3H-imidazo(4,5-f)quinoline-2-amines in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, K.

    1985-03-01

    The highly mutagenic heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (IQ) and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (MeIQ), are formed during heating of protein-rich foods. In order to gain information about the distribution and fate of IQ and MeIQ in vivo, a whole-body autoradiographic study of i.v.-injected /sup 14/C-labeled IQ and MeIQ has been performed in male NMRI, pregnant NMRI, and female C3H mice. IQ and MeIQ showed similar distribution patterns. At short survival times, the autoradiograms were characterized by an accumulation of radioactivity in metabolic and excretory organs (liver, kidney, bile, urine, gastric and intestinal contents, salivary glands, nasal mucosa, and Harder's gland), as well as in lymphomyeloid tissues (bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lymph nodes) and in endocrine and reproductive tissues (adrenal medulla, pancreatic islets, thyroid, hypophysis, testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, ampulla, and prostate). The liver and kidney cortex were identified as sites of retention of nonextractable radioactivity. IQ and MeIQ showed a strong affinity for melanin. IQ and MeIQ passed the placenta, but no radioactivity was retained in fetal tissues. The results pinpoint the liver as a site of IQ- and MeIQ-mediated toxicity. Future studies of IQ and MeIQ may be guided by and clarify the role of other tissue localizations in the toxicity of IQ and MeIQ.

  9. Final Report Phase I Study to Characterize the Market Potential for Non-Motorized Travel

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Reuscher, Tim; Wilson, Daniel W; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2012-06-01

    The idea of livable communities suggests that people should have the option to utilize non-motorized travel (NMT), specifically walking and bicycling, to conduct their daily tasks. Forecasting personal travel by walk and bike is necessary as part of regional transportation planning, and requires fine detail not only about individual travel, but also on transportation and neighborhood infrastructure. In an attempt to characterize the 'market' potential for NMT, the Office of Planning, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) funded the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to conduct a study. The objectives of this effort were to identify factors that influence communities to walk and bike and to examine why, or why not, travelers walk and bike in their communities. This study relied on information collected under the 2009 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) as the major source of data, and was supplemented with data from the American Community Survey (ACS), educational survey, health, employment, and others. Initial statistical screening methods were applied to sort through over 400 potential predictor variables, and examined with various measures (e.g., walk trip per person, walk mileage per person, bike trip per person, bike mileage per person) as the dependent variables. The best geographic level of detail used in the modeling for this study was determined to be the Census block group level for walking and Census tract level for biking. The need for additional supplemental private data (i.e., Walk Scores and Nielsen employment data), and geospatial information that reflects land use and physical environments, became evident after an examination of findings from the initial screening models. To be feasible, in terms of costs and time, the geographic scale of the study region was scaled down to nine selected NHTS add-on regions. These regions were chosen based on various criteria including transit availability

  10. Native CB1 receptor affinity, intrinsic activity and accumbens shell dopamine stimulant properties of third generation SPICE/K2 cannabinoids: BB-22, 5F-PB-22, 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Maria Antonietta; Castelli, M Paola; Loi, Barbara; Porcu, Alessandra; Martorelli, Mariella; Miliano, Cristina; Kellett, Kathryn; Davidson, Colin; Stair, Jacqueline L; Schifano, Fabrizio; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the in vivo dopamine (DA) stimulant properties of selected 3rd generation Spice/K2 cannabinoids, BB-22, 5F-PB-22, 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135, their in vitro affinity and agonist potency at native rat and mice CB1 receptors was studied. The compounds bind with high affinity to CB1 receptors in rat cerebral cortex homogenates and stimulate CB1-induced [(35)S]GTPγS binding with high potency and efficacy. BB-22 and 5F-PB-22 showed the lowest Ki of binding to CB1 receptors (0.11 and 0.13 nM), i.e., 30 and 26 times lower respectively than that of JWH-018 (3.38 nM), and a potency (EC50, 2.9 and 3.7 nM, respectively) and efficacy (Emax, 217% and 203%, respectively) as CB1 agonists higher than JWH-018 (EC50, 20.2 nM; Emax, 163%). 5F-AKB-48 and STS-135 had higher Ki for CB1 binding, higher EC50 and lower Emax as CB1 agonists than BB-22 and 5F-PB-22 but still comparatively more favourable than JWH-018. The agonist properties of all the compounds were abolished or drastically reduced by the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 (0.1 μM). No activation of G-protein was observed in CB1-KO mice. BB-22 (0.003-0.01 mg/kg i.v.) increased dialysate DA in the accumbens shell but not in the core or in the medial prefrontal cortex, with a bell shaped dose-response curve and an effect at 0.01 mg/kg and a biphasic time-course. Systemic AM251 (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) completely prevented the stimulant effect of BB-22 on dialysate DA in the NAc shell. All the other compounds increased dialysate DA in the NAc shell at doses consistent with their in vitro affinity for CB1 receptors (5F-PB-22, 0.01 mg/kg; 5F-AKB-48, 0.1 mg/kg; STS-135, 0.15 mg/kg i.v.). 3rd generation cannabinoids can be even more potent and super-high CB1 receptor agonists compared to JWH-018. Future research will try to establish if these properties can explain the high toxicity and lethality associated with these compounds. PMID:26686391

  11. Potentially Functional Polymorphisms in POU5F1 Gene Are Associated with the Risk of Lung Cancer in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Rui; Wang, Yuzhuo; Zhu, Meng; Wen, Yifan; Sun, Jie; Shen, Wei; Cheng, Yang; Zhang, Jiahui; Jin, Guangfu; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Dai, Juncheng

    2015-01-01

    POU5F1 is a key regulator of self-renewal and differentiation in embryonic stem cells and may be associated with initiation, promotion, and progression in cancer. We hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in POU5F1 may play an important role in modifying the lung cancer risk. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a case-control study to explore the association between 17 potentially functional SNPs in POU5F1 gene and the lung cancer risk in 1,341 incident lung cancer cases and 1,982 healthy controls in a Chinese population. We found that variant alleles of rs887468 and rs3130457 were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer after multiple comparison (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.11–1.51, Pfdr = 0.017 for rs887468; OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.10–1.51, Pfdr = 0.034 for rs3130457, resp.). In addition, we detected a significant interaction between rs887468 genotypes and smoking status on lung cancer risk (P = 0.017). Combined analysis of these 2 SNPs showed a significant allele-dosage association between the number of risk alleles and increased risk of lung cancer (Ptrend < 0.001). These findings indicate that potentially functional polymorphisms in POU5F1 gene may contribute to lung cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population. PMID:26824036

  12. Electron correlation and relativity of the 5f electrons in the U-Zr alloy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderlind, P.; Sadigh, B.; Lordi, V.; Landa, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.

    2014-01-01

    ] and VASP [4] codes. The Wien2K computations are set up with an APW + lo basis for the expansion of the wave functions within the muffin-tin spheres (with radius RMT = 2.5 a.u.) in partial waves with angular momenta up to l = 3, and an LAPW basis for all higher angular momenta up to l = 10. The plane-wave cutoff (Kmax) for the expansion of the wave functions in the interstitial region is chosen such that RMT × Kmax = 10. We apply the LSDA + U scheme proposed by Anisimov et al. [5] (Wien2K) and Dudarev et al. [6] (VASP) to the uranium f orbitals, which approximately corrects for their electron self interaction. An effective Ueff = U - J is chosen to be 2 eV (J = 0), which appears to be realistic for uranium systems [7]. The spin-orbit interaction is included using the second-variation method with scalar-relativistic orbitals as basis. This basis includes all Eigen states with energy less than 70 eV. For reason to improve the description of the relativistic orbitals, the p1/2 local orbitals are added to the basis set. For actinide metals, this technique for the spin-orbit coupling equals, with good approximation, that of the complete four-spinor Dirac formalism [8-10]. All calculations use a 12 × 12 × 12 Monkhorst-Pack k-point grid and a plane-wave cutoff of 23 Ry.In Table 1 we show our calculated equilibrium volumes (V) and bulk moduli (B) obtained with and without spin-orbit coupling (SOC) for bcc (γ) uranium metal using the Wien2K (VASP) codes. (The other component, Zr, is a light metal where relativistic effects are not important). The changes in V and B due to SOC are indeed quite small, consistent with results from previous studies [9,11], and within the scatter of the experimental data. The reason why the volume expands slightly is that the separation of the 5f5/2 and 5f7/2 states, due to spin-orbit coupling, weakens the cohesion of the bonding electrons. The separation is very small, as seen in Fig. 1[11] where we plot the total electronic density

  13. Growth and diode-pumped laser operation of Pr3+:β-(Y0.5,Gd0.5)F3 at various transitions.

    PubMed

    Werner Metz, Philip; Marzahl, Daniel-Timo; Guguschev, Christo; Bertram, Rainer; Kränkel, Christian; Huber, Günter

    2015-06-15

    We report on the crystal growth of the orthorhombic low-temperature β-phase of (Y0.5,Gd0.5)F3 (YGF) single crystals. The crystals were activated with trivalent praseodymium (Pr3+) and characterized with respect to their ground state absorption and stimulated emission properties. Under InGaN-laser-diode pumping, laser oscillation was obtained at more than ten wavelengths in the green, orange, red, and dark red spectral regions. In these initial experiments, output powers exceeding 100 mW and slope efficiencies between 10% and 30% were obtained. To the best of our knowledge, these results represent the first application of YGF crystals as laser host material for any active ion. PMID:26076240

  14. DNA-binding, photocleavage studies of ruthenium(II) complexes with 2-(2-quinolinyl) imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Wen; Chen, Zhen-gan; Li, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Dao; Lu, Ji-Lin; Zhang, Da-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Two new ruthenium complexes with [Ru(L)2(qip)]2+ (L = bpy (2,2'- bipyridine), phen (1,10-phenanthroline); qip = 2-(2-quinolinyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ES-MS, 1H NMR. The binding properties of two complexes towards CT-DNA were investigated by various optical methods and viscosity measurements. The experiment results suggested that both Ru(II) complexes can intercalate into DNA base pairs. Strong quenching in emission intensity of two Ru(II) complexes were observed upon addition of Ag+ in the absence and presence of CT-DNA. Furthermore, the two complexes can promote cleavage of pBR322 DNA under irradiation at 365 nm, and complex 2 exhibits a stronger DNA-photocleavage efficiency than complex 1. The mechanism of DNA cleavage suggests that singlet oxygen (1O2) is likely to be the cleaving agent.

  15. Final report for the Iowa Livestock Industry Waste Characterization and Methane Recovery Information Dissemination Project

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, M.V.; Richard, Thomas L

    2001-11-13

    This report summarizes analytical methods, characterizes Iowa livestock wastes, determines fossil fuel displacement by methane use, assesses the market potential, and offers recommendations for the implementation of methane recovery technologies.

  16. Characterization of weakly excited final states by shakedown spectroscopy of laser-excited potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, J.; Heinaesmaeki, S.; Aksela, S.; Aksela, H.; Sankari, R.; Rander, T.; Lindblad, A.; Bergersen, H.; Oehrwall, G.; Svensson, S.; Kukk, E.

    2006-07-15

    3p shakedown spectra of laser excited potassium atoms as well as direct 3p photoemission of ground state potassium have been studied. These two excitation schemes lead to the same final states and thereby provide a good basis for a detailed study of the 3p{sup 5}(4s3d){sup 1} configurations of singly ionized potassium and the photoemission processes leading to these configurations. The comparison of direct photoemission from the ground state and conjugate shakedown spectra from 4p{sub 1/2} laser excited potassium made it possible to experimentally determine the character of final states that are only weakly excited in the direct photoemission but have a much higher relative intensity in the shakedown spectrum. Based on considerations of angular momentum and parity conservation the excitation scheme of the final states can be understood.

  17. The degree of 5f electron localization in URu2Si2: electron energy-loss spectroscopy and spin-orbit sum rule analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, J R; Moore, K T; Butch, N P; Maple, M B

    2010-05-19

    We examine the degree of 5f electron localization in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} using spin-orbit sum rule analysis of the U N{sub 4,5} (4d {yields} 5f) edge. When compared to {alpha}-U metal, US, USe, and UTe, which have increasing localization of the 5f states, we find that the 5f states of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are more localized, although not entirely. Spin-orbit analysis shows that intermediate coupling is the correct angular momentum coupling mechanism for URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} when the 5f electron count is between 2.6 and 2.8. These results have direct ramifications for theoretical assessment of the hidden order state of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, where the degree of localization of the 5f electrons and their contribution to the Fermi surface are critical.

  18. Characterization of the deformation and annealing of 304L stainless steel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.

    1994-08-01

    Stainless steel, type 304L, was deformed at room temperature using the two processes of semi-piercing and cold-rolling and then annealed at various temperatures and times. The three metallurgical areas of work hardening, age hardening, and anneal softening were observed and characterized using metallography techniques of macrohardness, optical and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction.

  19. Career Interest Characterizing and Reporting System. May 1, 1976 - May 31, 1977. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Inst., Waco.

    A study was conducted to update the existing Career Interest Characterizing (CIC) instrument in terms of current career choices of students and to implement the survey instrument in the Texas secondary school counseling programs. The CIC instrument defines career interests of secondary school students and yields information of value in counseling…

  20. Molecular characterization of bacterial respiration of minerals. Final technical report, March 1, 1985--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R. II

    1996-08-01

    The goals of this project were to continue the identification, separation, and characterization of the cellular components necessary for aerobic respiration on iron, and to initiate an investigation of the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble inorganic substrates. Progress is described.

  1. Collaborative Research: Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mavko, G.

    2000-01-01

    This research contributes three newly-developed relationships that significantly improve aquifer characterization: (1) a general relationship between total and channel porosities, (2) a general relationship between electrical resistivity and channel porosity, and (3) bounds on the electrical resistivity - seismic velocity relationship.

  2. FINAL REPORT. REAL-TIME BROAD SPECTRUM CHARACTERIZATION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE BY MEMBRANE INTRODUCTION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project was to expand the range of chemical species that may be detected by membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) in environmental, and specifically in Mixed Waste, monitoring and characterization applications. There were three major thrusts to this work...

  3. Electron correlation and relativity of the 5f electrons in the U-Zr alloy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderlind, P.; Sadigh, B.; Lordi, V.; Landa, A.; Turchi, P. E. A.

    2014-01-01

    ] and VASP [4] codes. The Wien2K computations are set up with an APW + lo basis for the expansion of the wave functions within the muffin-tin spheres (with radius RMT = 2.5 a.u.) in partial waves with angular momenta up to l = 3, and an LAPW basis for all higher angular momenta up to l = 10. The plane-wave cutoff (Kmax) for the expansion of the wave functions in the interstitial region is chosen such that RMT × Kmax = 10. We apply the LSDA + U scheme proposed by Anisimov et al. [5] (Wien2K) and Dudarev et al. [6] (VASP) to the uranium f orbitals, which approximately corrects for their electron self interaction. An effective Ueff = U - J is chosen to be 2 eV (J = 0), which appears to be realistic for uranium systems [7]. The spin-orbit interaction is included using the second-variation method with scalar-relativistic orbitals as basis. This basis includes all Eigen states with energy less than 70 eV. For reason to improve the description of the relativistic orbitals, the p1/2 local orbitals are added to the basis set. For actinide metals, this technique for the spin-orbit coupling equals, with good approximation, that of the complete four-spinor Dirac formalism [8-10]. All calculations use a 12 × 12 × 12 Monkhorst-Pack k-point grid and a plane-wave cutoff of 23 Ry.In Table 1 we show our calculated equilibrium volumes (V) and bulk moduli (B) obtained with and without spin-orbit coupling (SOC) for bcc (γ) uranium metal using the Wien2K (VASP) codes. (The other component, Zr, is a light metal where relativistic effects are not important). The changes in V and B due to SOC are indeed quite small, consistent with results from previous studies [9,11], and within the scatter of the experimental data. The reason why the volume expands slightly is that the separation of the 5f5/2 and 5f7/2 states, due to spin-orbit coupling, weakens the cohesion of the bonding electrons. The separation is very small, as seen in Fig. 1[11] where we plot the total electronic density

  4. Spectroscopy and dynamics of 5f states of Es{sup 3+} in LaF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.; Liu, G.K.

    1997-11-01

    Using time- and wavelength-resolved laser-induced fluorescence methods, the 5f state spectroscopy and photodynamics of {sup 253}Es{sup 3+} in LaF{sub 3} have been investigated. Based on an effective operator Hamiltonian model and approximating the metal ion site symmetry as C{sub 2V}, a set of crystal field parameters has been obtained that fit the 56 assigned levels associated with the 7 states of Es{sup 3+} that were observed. The {sup 5}F{sub 5} emitting state of Es{sup 3+} exhibited a decay rate that approached the expected purely radiative decay of the state. This suggests that the shorter lifetime previously found for this state of Es{sup 3+} in LaCl{sub 3} arose from radiation damage induced by alpha decay of {sup 253}Es.

  5. 5f state interaction with inner coordination sphere ligands: einsteinium 3+ ion fluorescence in aqueous and organic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Beitz, J.V.; Wester, D.W.; Williams, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction between 5f electron states of einsteinium 3+ ion and coordinated ligands in solution has been probed using laser-induced fluorescence. Aquo einsteinium 3+ ion was observed to fluoresce from its first excited J = 5 state in a broad-band peaking at 9260 wavenumbers. The observed fluorescence lifetimes were 1.05 microseconds and 2.78 microseconds in H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O (99+ % D atom), respectively. The non-radiative decay rates derived from the lifetime data are compared with previously reported data for Cm, Sm, Eu, Tb, and Dy aquo 3+ ions. The 5f actinide states exhibit substantially greater non-radiative decay rates than do lanthanide 4f states of similar energy gap. This provides evidence that actinide 5f electrons interact more strongly with their inner coordination sphere than do lanthanide ion 4f electrons. The fluorescence lifetime of einsteinium 3+ ion complexed with 1 formal di(2-ethylhexyl)orthophosphoric acid in h-heptane was 2.34 microseconds. 3 figures, 1 table.

  6. Evaluation of regulatory genetic variants in POU5F1 and risk of congenital heart disease in Han Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuan; Ding, Chenyue; Zhang, Kai; Ni, Bixian; Da, Min; Hu, Liang; Hu, Yuanli; Xu, Jing; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Yijiang; Mo, Xuming; Cui, Yugui; Shen, Hongbing; Sha, Jiahao; Liu, Jiayin; Hu, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    OCT4 is a transcription factor of the POU family, which plays a key role in embryonic development and stem cell pluripotency. Previous studies have shown that Oct4 is required for cardiomyocyte differentiation in mice and its depletion could result in cardiac morphogenesis in embryo. However, whether the genetic variations in OCT4 coding gene, POU5F1, confer the predisposition to congenital heart disease (CHD) is unclear. This study sought to investigate the associations between low-frequency (defined here as having minor allele frequency (MAF) between 0.1%–5%) and rare (MAF below 0.1%) variants with potential function in POU5F1 and risk of CHD. We conducted association analysis in a two-stage case-control study with a total of 2,720 CHD cases and 3,331 controls in Chinese. The low-frequency variant rs3130933 was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of CHD [additive model: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.15, adjusted P = 3.37 × 10−6]. Furthermore, luciferase activity assay showed that the variant A allele led to significantly lower expression levels as compared to the G allele. These findings indicate for the first time that low-frequency functional variant in POU5F1 may contribute to the risk of congenital heart malformations. PMID:26507003

  7. Evaluation of regulatory genetic variants in POU5F1 and risk of congenital heart disease in Han Chinese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Ding, Chenyue; Zhang, Kai; Ni, Bixian; da, Min; Hu, Liang; Hu, Yuanli; Xu, Jing; Wang, Xiaowei; Chen, Yijiang; Mo, Xuming; Cui, Yugui; Shen, Hongbing; Sha, Jiahao; Liu, Jiayin; Hu, Zhibin

    2015-10-01

    OCT4 is a transcription factor of the POU family, which plays a key role in embryonic development and stem cell pluripotency. Previous studies have shown that Oct4 is required for cardiomyocyte differentiation in mice and its depletion could result in cardiac morphogenesis in embryo. However, whether the genetic variations in OCT4 coding gene, POU5F1, confer the predisposition to congenital heart disease (CHD) is unclear. This study sought to investigate the associations between low-frequency (defined here as having minor allele frequency (MAF) between 0.1%-5%) and rare (MAF below 0.1%) variants with potential function in POU5F1 and risk of CHD. We conducted association analysis in a two-stage case-control study with a total of 2,720 CHD cases and 3,331 controls in Chinese. The low-frequency variant rs3130933 was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of CHD [additive model: adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.15, adjusted P = 3.37 × 10-6]. Furthermore, luciferase activity assay showed that the variant A allele led to significantly lower expression levels as compared to the G allele. These findings indicate for the first time that low-frequency functional variant in POU5F1 may contribute to the risk of congenital heart malformations.

  8. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schey, Stephen; Francfort, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Collect and evaluate data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization Study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect and evaluate data to validate the utilization of advanced plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) transportation. This report summarizes the fleets studied to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  9. Wastewater characterization survey, Thule Air Base, Greenland. Final report, 6-22 July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, R.P.

    1993-03-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted at Thule AB, Greenland,from 6-22 July 1992 by personnel from the Water Quality Function of Armstrong Laboratory. Extensive sampling of the outfall feeding into North Star Bay and industrial sites within the base cantonment area was performed. Low levels of organic contamination were found in the wastewater. In addition, metals and other pollutants were found in concentrations typical of domestic wastewater, indicating little contamination from industrial activities. Daily flow averaged approximately 100,000 gallons per day (375 cubic meters per day). The average chemical oxygen demand was found to be 130 milligrams per liter. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), though not determined experimentally during this survey, can be expected to fall within the range of 75-100 mg/l.... Wastewater characterization, Chemical oxygen demand, Pollutants, Acute marine toxicity, Chronic marine toxicity.

  10. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  11. Automated fabrication, characterization and transport of ICF pellets. Final report, March 1, 1979-October 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, D W; Boyd, B A; Lilienkamp, R H

    1980-12-01

    The near-term objectives of the contract were threefold: (1) evaluate techniques for the production of frozen hydrogen microspheres and demonstrate concepts for coating them; (2) develop and demonstrate an optical characterization system which could lead to automated pellet inspection; and (3) develop and demonstrate a preliminary electrostatic pellet transport control system. This report describes the equipment assembled for these experiments and the results obtained.

  12. Final Report on Materials Characterization for the Wetted Cathodes for Low-Temperature Aluminum Smelting Program

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, Charles F.

    2002-10-30

    This report is a summary of materials characterization results on twenty cathode samples that were used in a novel aluminum reduction cell at the Northwest Aluminum Technologies laboratory. Most of these cathodes were based on the TiB2 composition and showed very little corrosion as a result of testing. Most of the samples also showed good wetting by Al metal that formed during cell operation.

  13. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

  14. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, C.D.; Kendrick, D.T.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1997-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently in the process of decommissioning and dismantling many of its nuclear materials processing facilities that have been in use for several decades. Site managers throughout the DOE complex must employ the safest and most cost effective means to characterize, remediate and recycle or dispose of hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. The DOE discovered that standard characterization methods were inadequate for its pipes, drains, and ducts because many of the systems are buried or encased. In response to the DOE`s need for a more specialized characterization technique, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) developed the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system through a DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) contract administered through the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The purpose of this report is to serve as a comprehensive overview of all phases of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} development project. The report is divided into 6 sections. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, including the operating principles of using an inverting membrane to tow sensors into pipes. The basic components of the characterization system are also described. Descriptions of the various deployment systems are given in Section 3 along with descriptions of the capabilities of the deployment systems. During the course of the development project 7 types of survey instruments were demonstrated with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} and are a part of the basic toolbox of instruments available for use with the system. These survey tools are described in Section 4 along with their typical performance specifications. The 4 demonstrations of the system are described chronologically in Section 5. The report concludes with a summary of the history, status, and future of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system in Section 6.

  15. Evaluation of uncertainties in irradiated hardware characterization: Final report, September 30, 1986-March 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Bedore, N.; Levin, A.; Tuite, P.

    1987-10-01

    Waste Management Group, Inc. has evaluated the techniques used by industry to characterize and classify irradiated hardware components for disposal. This report describes the current practices used to characterize the radionuclide content of hardware components, identifies the uncertainties associated with the techniques and practices considered, and recommends areas for improvement which could reduce uncertainty. Industry uses two different characterization methods. The first uses a combination of gamma scanning, direct sampling, underwater radiation profiling and radiochemical analysis to determine radionuclide content, while the second uses a form of activation analysis in conjunction with underwater radiation profiling. Both methods employ the determination of Cobalt 60 content, and the determination of scaling factors for hard-to-detect Part 61 radionuclides. The accurate determination of Cobalt-60 is critical since the Part 61 activation product radionuclides which affect Part 61 classification are scaled from Cobalt-60. Current uncertainties in Cobalt-60 determination can be reduced by improving underwater radiation profiling equipment and techniques. The calculational techniques used for activation analysis can also be refined to reduce the uncertainties with Cobalt-60 determination. 33 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Electron Microscopy Characterization of Tc-Bearing Metallic Waste Forms- Final Report FY10

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Neiner, Doinita

    2010-09-30

    The DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development (FCR&D) Program is developing aqueous and electrochemical approaches to the processing of used nuclear fuel that will generate technetium-bearing waste streams. This final report presents Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research in FY10 to evaluate an iron-based alloy waste form for Tc that provides high waste loading within waste form processing limitations, meets waste form performance requirements for durability and the long-term retention of radionuclides and can be produced with consistent physical, chemical, and radiological properties that meet regulatory acceptance requirements for disposal.

  17. Characterizing the emissivity of materials under dynamic compression (final report for LDRD project 79877).

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.

    2007-10-01

    Temperature measurements are crucial to equation of state development, but difficult to perform reliably. In the case of infrared pyrometry, a large uncertainty comes from the fact that sample emissivity (the deviation from a blackbody) is unknown. In this project, a method for characterizing the emissivity of shocked materials was developed. By coupling infrared radiation from the National Synchrotron Light Source to a gas gun system, broad spectrum emissivity changes were studied to a peak stress of 8 GPa. Emissivity measurements were performed on standard metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Pt) as well as a high emissivity coating developed at Sandia.

  18. Processing of High Level Waste: Spectroscopic Characterization of Redox Reactions in Supercritical Water - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington Jr., C. A.

    2000-11-15

    Current efforts are focused on the oxidative dissolution of chromium compounds found in Hanford tank waste sludge. Samples of chromium oxides and hydroxides with varying degrees of hydration are being characterized using Raman, FTIR, and XPS spectroscopic techniques. Kinetics of oxidation reactions at subcritical and supercritical temperatures are being followed by Raman spectroscopy using a high temperature stainless steel cell with diamond windows. In these reactions both hydrogen peroxide and nitrate anions are used as the oxidizing species with Cr(III) compounds and organic compounds as reducing agents.

  19. Dispersion measurement as a method of quantifying geologic characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menzie, D.E.

    1995-05-01

    The main objective of this research project is to investigate dispersion as a method of quantifying geological characterization and defining reservoir heterogeneity in order to enhance crude oil recovery. The dispersion of flow of a reservoir rock (dispersion coefficient and dispersivity) was identified as one of the physical properties of a reservoir rock by measuring the mixing of two miscible fluids, one displacing the other in a porous medium. A rock was 100% saturated with a resident fluid and displaced by a miscible fluid of equal viscosity and equal density. Some specific experiments were performed with unequal densities. Produced fluid was analyzed by refractometer, nuclear reaction, electrical conductivity and X-ray scan. Several physical and flow characteristics were measured on the sand rock sample in order to establish correlations with the measured dispersion property. Absolute permeability, effective porosity, relative permeability, capillary pressure, the heterogeneity factor and electrical conductivity were used to better understand the flow system. Linear, transverse, 2-D and 3-D dispersions were measured and used to characterize the rock heterogeneity of the flow system. A new system of measuring dispersion was developed using a gas displacing gas system in a porous medium. An attempt was also made to determine the dispersion property of an actual reservoir from present day well log data on a producing well. 275 refs., 102 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. 26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rules and related matters regarding certain safe harbor leases. 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Section 5f.168(f)(8)-1... Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe harbor leases... certain safe harbor leases under section 208(d) of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of...

  1. 26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe harbor leases. 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Section 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER...

  2. 26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe harbor leases. 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Section 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER...

  3. 26 CFR 5f.168(f)(8)-1 - Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Questions and answers concerning transitional rules and related matters regarding certain safe harbor leases. 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Section 5f.168(f)(8)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER...

  4. Characterization of exhaust emissions from trap-equipped light-duty diesels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the project was to thoroughly characterize and quantify the criteria and toxic-pollutant emissions from two different types of trap-equipped light-duty diesel vehicles. These vehicles included a 1986 Mercedes-Benz 300 SDL, which utilizes a catalyzed trap system, and a prototype Volkswagen, which utilizes an additive trap system (organometallic iron additive). Exhaust emissions from the two vehicles were evaluated as to driving cycle, presence of traps, engine condition, trap condition and fuel aromatic content. In addition to the currently regulated emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter), a number of unregulated emissions were measured, including aldehydes, benzene, PAHs, metals and trace elements, and 1,3-butadiene. Particulate samples were also analyzed for mutagenic activity using the Ames test. In general, the vehicles produced lower hydrocarbon emissions, higher carbon monoxide emissions, and lower fuel economy when the traps were installed in the vehicles.

  5. Toxic contaminant characterization of aquatic organisms in Galveston Bay: A pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Wade, T.L.; Dennicutt, M.C.; Wiesenburg, D.A.; Wilkinson, D.

    1992-06-01

    The study characterizes contamination in edible fish and shellfish from Galveston Bay. The sampling design called for the analysis of trace contaminants in five species from four sites in Galveston Bay. The goal of the sampling program was to collect ten specimens of each target organism that were of legal market size from each collection site. Standard fisheries data were recorded for all collections. The analytical program called for the analyses of 10 individual specimens of the target organisms from each site (200 edible tissue (muscle) samples). Fifty (50) liver samples were composed for analysis from the 120 fishes. The trace contaminants that were measured included heavy metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), pesticides and PCBs and a GC-MS scan for other EPA organic priority pollutants. In general, trace contaminants were higher in oyster and crab tissues than fish tissue.

  6. Characterization of several plasters and one retarder for repository sealing mixtures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, A.D.; Burkes, J.P.; Reinhold, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    Samples of plasters (i.e., calcium sulfate hemihydrate, CaSO4.1/2H/sup 2/0) from six sources and one plaster retarder from a different source were obtained and characterized by a combination of chemical and physical testing and by petrographic examination. The petrographic examination included x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy procedures. The intent of this work was twofold. One purpose was to determine if plaster per se could be used as an ingredient for cementitious mixtures intended for repository sealing applications, Previous experience had been with use of a proprietary admixture that contained plaster. The second purpose was to determine one or more methods of distinguishing between the alpha and beta forms of calcium sulfate hemihydrate. Keywords: nuclear wastes; plaster of paris; tables(data).

  7. Characterization of porosity via secondary reactions. Final technical report, 1 September 1991--30 November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Calo, J.M.; Zhang, L.; Hall, P.J.; Antxustegi, M.

    1997-09-01

    A new approach to the study of porosity and porosity development in coal chars during gasification was investigated. This approach involves the establishment of the relationships between the amount and type of surface complexes evolved during post-activation temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and the porosity, as measured by gas adsorption and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. With this new method, the total surface area and micropore volume can be determined by the interpretation of post-activation TPD spectra. The primary conclusion of this work is that it is possible to predict total surface area and micropore volume from TPD spectra. From the extended random pore model, additional information about the micropore surface area, the nonmicroporous surface area, and the mean micropore size development as a function of reaction time (or burn-off) can also be predicted. Therefore, combining the TPD technique and the extended random pore model provides a new method for the characterization of char porosity.

  8. Characterization of single-tube model-boiler dented intersection specimens. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Varsanik, R.G.; Gibbon, D.L.

    1983-05-01

    Crevice denting, caused by the uncontrolled growth of magnetite in the space between carbon-steel tube-support plates and Inconel heat-exchange tubes is a major cause of concern in nuclear steam generators. This particular form of localized corrosion has been modeled experimentally by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation using prototypical boiler systems. In this study, three corrosion specimens from these model-boiler systems have been characterized by Calgon Corporation using light and scanning electron microscopy along with both energy- and wave-length-dispersive x-ray spectrophotometry. Samples examined consisted of specimens which had been exposed to a known corrosive environment and then either left untreated, treated with calcium hydroxide, or treated with boric acid in an attempt to halt the corrosion process. The destructive examination of the samples was conducted on both polished sections as well as sections fractured in liquid nitrogen to expose uncontaminated interfaces between the multiple phases involved.

  9. Wastewater characterization survey, Edwards Air Force Base, California. Final report, 17-28 February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, R.P.

    1992-08-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base from 17-28 February 1992 by personnel from the Water Quality Function of Armstrong Laboratory. Extensive sampling of the treatment plant influent wastewater and sludge beds was performed as well as sampling at nine other sites in the base cantonment area. Some sampling of an Imhoff tank on North Base, five evaporation ponds and the lakebed was also conducted. Low levels of organic contamination were found in the influent and industrial sites downstream of Site 7. Site 7 is a manhole located in an identified Installation Restoration Program (IRP) site. Corrective actions were recommended to prevent organic soil contaminants from intruding into this site prior to the operation of a planned tertiary treatment plant. Organic and inorganic contaminants discharged at other industrial sites were found to be in low concentrations and indicated that good shop practices were followed in minimizing contamination of the wastewater with industrial chemicals.

  10. Characterization of facies and permeability patterns in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.; Lucia, F.J.; Senger, R.K.; Fogg, G.E.; Nance, H.S.; Hovorka, S.D.

    1993-07-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop methods for better describing the three-dimensional geometry of carbonate reservoir flow units as related to conventional or enhanced recovery of oil. San Andres and Grayburg reservoirs were selected for study because of the 13 Bbbl of remaining mobile oil and 17 Bbbl of residual oil in these reservoirs. The key data base is provided by detailed characterization of geologic facies and rock permeability in reservior-scale outcrops of the Permian San Andres Formation in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico. Emphasis is placed on developing an outcrop analog for San Andres strata that can be used as (1) a guide to interpreting the regional and local geologic framework of the subsurface reservoirs (2) a data source illustrating the scales and patterns of variability of rock-fabric facies and petrophysical properties, particularly in lateral dimension, and on scales that cannot be studied during subsurface reservoir characterization. The research approach taken to achieve these objectives utilizes the integration of geologic description, geostatistical techniques, and reservoir flow simulation experiments. Results from this research show that the spatial distribution of facies relative to the waterflood direction can significantly affect how the reservoir produces. Bypassing of unswept oil occurs due to cross flow of injected water from high permeability zones into lower permeability zones were high permeability zones terminate. An area of unswept oil develops because of the slower advance of the water-injection front in the lower permeability zones. When the injection pattern is reversed, the cross-flow effect changes due to the different arrangements of rock-fabric flow units relative to the flow of injected water, and the sweep efficiency is significantly different. Flow across low-permeability mudstones occurs showing that these layers do not necessarily represent flow barriers.

  11. Characterization of a fluidized-bed combustion ash to determine potential for environmental impact. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hassett, D.J.; Henderson, A.K.; Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Mann, M.D.; Eylands, K.E.

    1997-10-01

    A 440-megawatt, circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC), lignite-fired power plant is planned for construction in Choctaw County north of Ackerman, Mississippi. This power plant will utilize Mississippi lignite from the first lignite mine in that state. Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., is working with the power plant developer in the current planning and permitting efforts for this proposed construction project. In order to accommodate Mississippi state regulatory agencies and meet appropriate permit requirements, Malcolm Pirnie needed to provide an indication of the characteristics of the by-products anticipated to be produced at the proposed plant. Since the Mississippi lignite is from a newly tapped mine and the CFBC technology is relatively new, Malcolm Pirnie contacted with the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop and perform a test plan for the production and characterization of ash similar to ash that will be eventually produced at the proposed power plant. The work performed at the EERC included two primary phases: production of by-products in a bench-scale CFBC unit using lignite provided by Malcolm Pirnie with test conditions delineated by Malcolm Pirnie to represent expected operating conditions for the full-scale plant; and an extensive characterization of the by-products produced, focusing on Mississippi regulatory requirements for leachability, with the understanding that return of the by-product to the mine site was an anticipated by-product management plan. The overall focus of this project was the environmental assessment of the by-product expected to be produced at the proposed power plant. Emphasis was placed on the leachability of potentially problematic trace elements in the by-products. The leaching research documented in this report was performed to determine trends of leachability of trace elements under leaching conditions appropriate for evaluating land disposal in monofills, such as returning the by-products to the mine

  12. Characterization of available coals from Illinois mines. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Demir, I.; Harvey, R.D.; Ruch, R.R.; Chaven, C.; Damberger, H.H.; Steele, J.D.; Frankie, W.T.

    1993-12-31

    The goal of this project was to characterize available product coals from Illinois mines. The characterization parameters that were determined include the concentration of all trace and minor elements that are of environmental concern, the pyrite size distribution and maceral association, preliminary froth flotation cleanability, slagging and fouling characteristics, chlorine forms and distribution, and certain gasification and rheology parameters. The available trace element data on Illinois coals, mainly on channel samples, was edited and updated with new records. The determinations of the trace and minor elements in 34 collected cleaned coal samples, as well as the proximate and ultimate compositions of 34 samples, were completed. In comparison with the previous channel sample data, the results indicated that the cleaning at existing preparation plants reduced the average concentrations of most of the trace elements in the coals. The data also indicated that the trace element concentrations in the product coals could be reduced further by advanced physical cleaning techniques. A sequential (hot water, dilute ammonia, and dilute sodium hydroxide) extraction procedure on three samples indicated variable chloride reductions. The pyrite cleanability index was determined microscopically for each sample. This index is a relative measure of the ease of pyrite removal from the tested sample. The froth flotation test data on 15 of the samples provided a measure of further cleanability of the product coals by physical fine coal cleaning. Viscosities of the 50% solid and <60 mesh particle size slurries of the same 15 samples revealed that these coals can be pumped in slurry form through a pipeline. Slagging and fouling indices, calculated for all 34 samples, indicated that most of the samples are of low to medium slagging and fouling types. Calculation of the gasification parameters indicated that the Illinois coals are in general amenable to gasification.

  13. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Final report: decontamination and decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.J.; Ames, L.L.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gee, G.W.; Sandness, G.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a series of investigations at the Hanford Site to develop technologies for characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste burial facilities that could be used in determining appropriate decommissioning alternatives. Specific objectives were to develop unique functional geophysics, geochemical, soil physics, numerical modeling, and biological methodologies needed to better characterize and monitor buried radioactive waste disposal sites. To meet these objectives the project was divided into four tasks: Task I, Geophysical Evaluation - Geophysical surveys were taken to locate and define the gross composition of waste materials. Task II, Geochemical Analysis - The interaction of disposed radionuclides with geologic media was analyzed through an integrated radiochemical procedure. Task III, Fluid Transport and Modeling - Computer modeling of water migration in partially saturated groundwater systems was verified with actual data collected at a field test facility used to monitor micrometeorological and geohydrological energy and mass transfer factors. Task IV, Biological Transport - Several biological organisms were evaluated for potential radionuclide uptake and transport. Along with the four tasks, the project included a review of pertinent literature and regulatory issues that might affect the alternatives selected. Surveys were taken of the surrounding area and specific sites and operations. The overall results indicated that the 300 Area Burial Grounds have been adequate in containing radioactive waste. Based on the results of the project, the alternatives identified for decommissioning these sites are exhumation and translocation, entombment, perpetual care, and abandonment. Perpetual care (currently used) appears to be the best decommissioning alternative for these burial grounds at this time. However, another alternative may be selected depending on future waste management policies, plans, or activities.

  14. Ash and slag characterization. Final report for the period ending March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone, S K

    1986-06-01

    A procedure was developed for mine sampling and the storage of standard coals under argon. In total, 53 coals were collected and are also available to other DOE supported projects at the Center. Task 2 was the study of mineral transformation during ashing of low-rank coals. Results of this study verified the importance of organically-bound alkalies, specifically calcium and sodium, in forming low-melting temperature aluminosilicates (i.e., melilites). Task 3 highlighted the viscosity studies on the molten ash of low-rank coals. A major part of this study involved the modification of the Urbain equation so that it can be used to predict the Newtonian behavior of low-rank coal slags. In addition, the effects of iron and sodium on viscosity, hysteresis, and the nature of the non-Newtonian flow were examined. Task 4 comprised the identification of volatilized species evolved during the combustion of selected low-rank coals. In each case sodium, potassium and sulfur were found to be major components of the condensed volatiles. Verification of their volatility on an experimental basis has significance in their possible contributions to forming new solid and liquid phases at high temperatures. Finally Task 5 evaluated the use of various sessile drop techniques to determine the surface tension of low-rank coal slags. Results show that meaningful surface tension measurements can be obtained with the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate.

  15. The 5f localization/delocalization in square and hexagonal americium monolayers: a FP-LAPW electronic structure study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, D.; Ray, A. K.

    2006-04-01

    The electronic and geometrical properties of bulk americium and square and hexagonal americium monolayers have been studied with the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The effects of several common approximations are examined: (1) non-spin polarization (NSP) vs. spin polarization (SP); (2) scalar-relativity (no spin-orbit coupling (NSO)) vs. full-relativity (i.e., with spin-orbit (SO) coupling included); (3) local-density approximation (LDA) vs. generalized-gradient approximation (GGA). Our results indicate that both spin polarization and spin orbit coupling play important roles in determining the geometrical and electronic properties of americium bulk and monolayers. A compression of both americium square and hexagonal monolayers compared to the americium bulk is also observed. In general, the LDA is found to underestimate the equilibrium lattice constant and give a larger total energy compared to the GGA calculations. While spin orbit coupling shows a similar effect on both square and hexagonal monolayer calculations regardless of the model, GGA versus LDA, an unusual spin polarization effect on both square and hexagonal monolayers is found in the LDA results as compared with the GGA results. The 5f delocalization transition of americium is employed to explain our observed unusual spin polarization effect. In addition, our results at the LDA level of theory indicate a possible 5f delocalization could happen in the americium surface within the same Am II (fcc crystal structure) phase, unlike the usually reported americium 5f delocalization which is associated with crystal structure change. The similarities and dissimilarities between the properties of an Am monolayer and a Pu monolayer are discussed in detail.

  16. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  17. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D

    2009-02-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  18. Characterization and development of a new ceramic electrolyte for fuel cell applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This work consisted of research directed toward characterization and development of new solid electrolyte materials that are potentially superior to other solid electrolyte materials currently under development (such as yttria-stabilized zirconia). The solid electrolyte technology described herein is based on new ceramic materials generally described as Bismuth Oxide doped with Niobium or Yyyrium oxides that were exclusively licensed to Solid-State Fuel Cells, Inc. by CeramPhysics, Inc. The technology is also based on further material, cell and stack technology concepts and manufacturing methods that were earlier reduced to practice by Solid- State Fuel Cells, Inc., and which are therefore proprietary to the Company. In this report a presentation of the overall program background is provided in Section 2.0. This includes a technical discussion of the technology in the context of the current state of the art. The task work description for the applicable portion of Phase 1 is presented in Section 3.0. Specifically, Phase 1-A comprises the following elements: Electrolyte materials development; testing of electrolyte stability under a reducing environment; development of cell electrodes; test fixtures design and facility erection; and preliminary coupon cell tests. 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Screening and characterizing oleaginous microalgal species from the southeastern United States. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tadros, M.G.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to select and characterize promising algal species which tolerate high light intensities, temperature variations and accumulate lipids. Samples have been collected from freshwater and saltwater locations in the State of Alabama and intertidal regions of the Gulf of Mexico. Samples were screened through a multi-step process. Selected species: Cyclotella, Nitzschia, Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Ankistrodesmus, have been examined for growth requirements. Approximate cellular composition of these species was determined. This report describes accomplishments from February 1984 to January 1985. During this period, collection trips were made to Dauphin Island near the Alabama coast in the summer of 1984. Over sixty strains were isolated, and of these six were ranked as good growers. Two diatoms were isolated that are of particular interest because of their ability to accumulate high lipids. Cyclotella tolerates high temperatures (30/sup 0/-35/sup 0/C), grows at moderate salinities (15-25 parts per thousand), and with nitrogen stress accumulates 42% of its dry weight as lipid. Hantzschia is a large diatom that also grows well at elevated temperatures and full strength seawater. Hantzschia can accumulate as much as 66% of its dry weight as lipid. 29 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Characterization of non-Darcy multiphase flow in petroleum bearing formation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.; Civan, F.

    1994-04-01

    The productive capacity of oil and gas bearing rocks depends on various parameters characterizing the flow conditions in the reservoir. Among these, the non-Darcy flow coefficient specifically plays an important role for cases involving fluid accelerations or decelerations around the well bore and in the reservoir. However, most reservoir simulators used for reservoir management assume Darcy flow, and yield misleading results causing an incorrect analysis or projection of reservoir performance. A few attempts have been made to incorporate non-Darcy effect in reservoir models but many of these lack a reliable accuracy since they use simplified correlations which ignore the effects of the variation of the fluid and formation conditions. The present study developed an accurate non-Darcy flow model that will lead to more accurate reservoir management decisions. First, a rigorous analysis and derivation of the porous media mass and momentum equations are presented considering the non-Darcy flow behavior. Second, steady-state and unsteady-state methods for simultaneous determination of relative permeability, capillary pressure, and interfacial drag during non-Darcy flow in laboratory cores are derived. This work results in several algebraic, integral, and differential interpretation methods. Third, correlations for the non-Darcy flow coefficient are investigated and improved. The study presented in this report provides new insights and formulations in the description of non-Darcy flow in oil and gas bearing formations.

  1. Characterization and supply of coal based fuels. Volume 1, Final report and appendix A (Topical report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Studies and data applicable for fuel markets and coal resource assessments were reviewed and evaluated to provide both guidelines and specifications for premium quality coal-based fuels. The fuels supplied under this contract were provided for testing of advanced combustors being developed under Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsorship for use in the residential, commercial and light industrial (RCLI) market sectors. The requirements of the combustor development contractors were surveyed and periodically updated to satisfy the evolving needs based on design and test experience. Available coals were screened and candidate coals were selected for further detailed characterization and preparation for delivery. A team of participants was assembled to provide fuels in both coal-water fuel (CWF) and dry ultrafine coal (DUC) forms. Information about major US coal fields was correlated with market needs analysis. Coal fields with major reserves of low sulfur coal that could be potentially amenable to premium coal-based fuels specifications were identified. The fuels requirements were focused in terms of market, equipment and resource constraints. With this basis, the coals selected for developmental testing satisfy the most stringent fuel requirements and utilize available current deep-cleaning capabilities.

  2. Characterization of embryo-specific genes. Final report, April 1, 1987--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.

    1992-06-12

    The objective of the proposed research is to characterize the function and regulation of a set of embryonic genes which are expressed in the embryos, not in the plants. 22 cDNA clones were isolated from a cDNA library we constructed using mRNAS of -carrot somatic embryos. These cDNA clones identified mRNA species that are present in the somatic and zygotic embryos, but not in adult plants. The sequence of all 22cDNA clones were determined; genomic clones for three cDNA clones, DC8, DC59, and DC49 were isolated and gene sequences determined. DC8, DC49, and several other genes identified by the cDNA sequences belong to the category of late embryogenesis abundant protein genes, Lea. The function of these gens have not yet been determined, but they share common structural features, are regulated by ABA and are speculated to play a role in seed desiccation.

  3. Selenium isotope geochemistry: A new approach to characterizing the environmental chemistry of selenium. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A.M.; Esser, B.K.

    1997-02-05

    High levels of selenium in the environment will be a prominent water quality issue in the western United States for many years. Selenium accumulation is linked to increased rates of death and deformity in migratory birds, blind staggers in livestock, and selenosis in humans. In California, agricultural drain waters and oil refinery effluent contribute to high selenium content in the San Joaquin Valley and the San Francisco Bay. The importance of these industries to California`s economy precludes simple abatement, while the complexity of selenium cycling precludes simple remediation. The purpose of this project is to measure variations in the isotopic composition of selenium in water and soil samples caused by natural processes and to show, for the first time, the value of isotopic measurements in characterizing selenium pollution. The research seeks to identify sources of selenium pollution, determine processes in the selenium cycle, and support selenium remediation studies. The project required the successful integration of three components: (1) appropriate sampling a field setting showing Se enrichment and possibly isotopic fractionation, (2) analytical chemical methods for isolating and purifying the various species of Se in waters and sediment, and (3) mass spectroscopic instrumentation for high precision isotope abundance measurements.

  4. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  5. Use of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system at Grandville, Michigan superfund site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, M.K.; Kala, R.; Powell, J.

    1992-12-01

    This report documents the results of an investigation at the Organic Chemical, Inc. site in Grandville, Michigan. This site is on the National Priority List for cleanup, and is being overseen by the Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, Region V office. The site was investigated utilizing the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, with a fiber optic fluorimeter sensor. This sensor allows the detection of hydrocarbon contaminants in the subsurface. A total of fifty pushes were completed at the site to an average depth of approximately 15 ft, covering approximately 80 acres. A hydrocarbon contaminant plume was located at the site extending from the OCI facility in a northerly direction. This matches the flow of the groundwater in the area as it moves toward the Grand River. The plume was successfully bounded on the North, South, and West sides. The plume boundary on the East side could not be established due to property constraints. The concentrations of contaminants in certain areas of the site exceeded 5000 ppm. Cone penetrometer, Geophysics, Fiber optic fluorescence.

  6. Molecular characterization of bacterial respiration on minerals. Final technical report, August 4, 1994--August 3, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, R. II

    1996-12-31

    The scope of work outlined in the original proposal contained two specific aims. Highlights of the results obtained and published on each specific aim during the grant period in question are summarized. The first aim continued the identification, separation, and characterization of the cellular components necessary for aerobic respiration on iron. An electrochemical apparatus for the large scale cultivation of chemolithotrophic bacteria that respire aerobically on ferrous ions was perfected. The kinetic properties of an acid-stable iron:rusticyanin oxidoreductase from T. ferrooxidans were determined. The overall tertiary structure of rusticyanin in solution was elucidated from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear {sup 15}N-edited NMR spectra. An artificial gene for rusticyanin was designed, synthesized, and successfully expressed in E. coli. The X-ray crystallographic structure of rusticyanin was solved to a resolution of 1.9 {angstrom} by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing. The second aim initiated an investigation of the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble inorganic substrates. The electrophoretic mobility of T. ferrooxidans with and without its insoluble substrates was determined by laser Doppler velocimetry under physiological conditions. The adherence of T. ferrooxidans to the surface of pyrite was observed directly in a video-enhanced light microscope.

  7. Mass spectrometer for quantification and characterization of DNA damage in mammalian and human systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The instrument grant was used to purchase a Finnigan TSQ 7000 tandem quadruple mass spectrometer with electrospray and atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization ion sources for the amount of the grant, $371,857. MIT contributed $50,000 in refurbishing costs for the laboratory in which the instrument is used. This mass spectrometer has been in operation since July, 1995 in professor Steven Tannenbaum`s Laboratory in the MIT Division of Toxicology, under the direct supervision of Dr. John S. Wishnok. Its current location is in MIT Building 56, room 747. It is in good operating condition, and is being actively used. Since the original purchase, the instrument has been upgraded by the addition of a (1) dedicated high-performance liquid chromatograph with an autosampler and (2) a nanoelectrospray ion source. The instrument has been used in a number of research projects including the identification of proteins and oligonucleotides, identification of PAH-DNA and PAH-protein adducts, quantitation of food-related carcinogens, and characterization of nitric oxide- and peroxynitrite-related DNA damage.

  8. Characterization of an oxygen plasma process for cleaning packaged semiconductor devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally determine the operating {open_quotes}window{close_quotes} for an oxygen plasma cleaning process to be used on microelectronics components just prior to wire bonding. The process was being developed to replace one that used vapor degreasing with trichlorotrifluoroethane, an ozone-depleting substance. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used to generate data from which the oxygen plasma cleaning process could be characterized. Auger electron spectrophotometry was used to measure the contamination thickness on the dice after cleaning. An empirical equation correlating the contamination thickness on the die surface with the operating parameters of the plasma system was developed from the collected Auger data, and optimum settings for cleaning semiconductor devices were determined. Devices were also tested for undesirable changes in electrical parameters resulting from cleaning in the plasma system. An increase in leakage current occurred for bipolar transistors and diodes after exposure to the oxygen plasma. Although an increase in leakage current occurred, each device`s parameter remained well below the acceptable specification limit. Based upon the experimental results, the optimum settings for the plasma cleaning process were determined to be 200 watts of power applied for five minutes in an enclosure maintained at 0.7 torr. At these settings, all measurable contamination was removed without compromising the reliability of the devices.

  9. Characterization of exhaust emissions from alcohol-fueled vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    The report describes the laboratory effort to develop analytical techniques to characterize exhaust emissions from neat methanol and ethanol-fueled vehicles. Analytical techniques were developed or modified to allow the measurement of methanol, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, methyl nitrite, and formic and acetic acid in both raw and CVS-diluted exhaust. The methods were validated, qualified, and then used to evaluate exhaust emissions from a 1981 Ford Escort chassis with a 1983 1.6-liter methanol-fueled Ford Escort engine. The vehicle was evaluated over the Light-Duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and at 30 and 55 mph steady-state operation both with and without a catalytic converter. In addition to testing conducted with the 90% methanol/10% gasoline fuel blend for which the Ford Escort engine was designed, testing was also conducted with 100% methanol fuel. Other areas investigated included unburned fuel hydrocarbon composition, FID response correction for alcohols as compared with propane, and losses of unburned fuel and aldehydes in the sampling system.

  10. Analysis and evaluation of interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.; Zook, B.J.; Sturdivant, V.R.

    1994-06-01

    The work reported herein represents the third year work in evaluating high-resolution interwell seismic logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. The objective of this project is to investigate interwell seismic logging techniques for indirectly interpreting oil and gas reservoir geology and rock physical properties. The work involves a balanced study of theoretical and numerical modeling of seismic waves transmitted between pairs of wells combined with experimental data acquisition and processing at controlled field conditions. The field applications of this reservoir probing concept are aimed at demonstrating high resolution measurements and detailed interpretation of heterogeneous hydrocarbon-bearing formations. The first part of this third year project efforts was devoted to thoroughly evaluating interwell seismic logging and reverse VSP in a hydrocarbon-bearing formation at the Buckhorn test site in Illinois. Specifically, the data from the experiments conducted in the second year of this project were analyzed to delineate geological structures and to extract rock physical parameters. The second part of this project is devoted to the evaluation of continuity logging techniques for hydrocarbon reservoir continuity. Specifically, this part of the project includes the evaluation of methods of measurements, modeling and data processing to delineate the reservoir architecture and relate dispersion and attenuation measurements to rock physical properties.

  11. Characterization and optimization of sorbents utilized for emission control during coal gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Huque, Z.; Mei, D.; Zhou, J.

    1998-07-14

    To overcome the shortage of components required for high temperature operation required by current IGCC and PFBC systems, researchers recently have decided that the power systems can be optimized within an operation temperature range of 343 to 538 C. The findings of this research work support the use of iron oxides as an efficient, disposable hot gas desulfurization sorbent candidate to meet the temperature range of 343 to 538 C to further optimize its application for hot gas desulfurization. A parametric study was performed to characterize the controlling parameters dominating the absorption process of hydrogen sulfide by waste iron oxide as a sorbent alternative within a stringent environment with the use of simulated KRW reducing gas. The major parameters studied for hot gas desulfurization with the use of waste iron oxide; mixed in coal ash and reacted with hot sulfurized gas; in hot gas stream include (1) dust cake permeability during heavy dust loading, (2) feasibility of dust cake removal with current back pulse cleaning technology, (3) the reaction temperature, (4) the space velocity of the gas stream. Based on the parametric testing performed on hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration, the test results of this study indicate that the simultaneous operation of hot gas desulfurization and particulate filtration is feasible. The significant savings of capital investment, system operation and maintenance justify the use of iron oxides as an excellent candidate for hot gas cleanup.

  12. Experimental characterization of fluid film effects in various steam generator tube support geometries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haslinger, K.H.

    1995-03-01

    Fluid film characteristics inside cylindrical steam generator tube support holes and near anti-vibration bar supports were determined experimentally. Test results were evaluated and empirical formulations were developed which adequately represent the observed fluid film phenomena. The empirical formulations are suited for incorporation into the ABAQUS computer code which has been developed by Foster Wheeler for EPRI for prediction of the dynamic behavior and work rates of vibrating steam generator tubes with non-linear support characteristics. A short rigid tube was cycled sinusoidally inside special, instrumented tube support samples. Alignment features enabled accurate positioning of the tube, thereby producing either non-contact or impact conditions with known excitation frequency, tube orbit, and amplitude. The complement of measurements consisted of the instantaneous values for tube motion, tube velocity, tube acceleration, contact condition, and the force exchange between tube and support. These measurements were digitized with high sampling rates and subsequently tabulated and graphed. Review of various 2-D and 3-D collages for a water environment at ambient revealed that the fluid film reaction forces, for reasonably large gaps between tube and support, are primarily dependent on tube acceleration, and to a lesser extent on tube velocity. For smooth cylindrical support surfaces there also exists a strong squeeze film effect for small gaps up to impact, and a suction effect during rebound. The squeeze film effect was found to be dependent on the instantaneous gap and tube velocity values. As influenced by the fluid viscosity, the dependency of the fluid reaction force on tube acceleration and on tube velocity was found to vary and was characterized in the experiments for one support clearance condition.

  13. Electrical characterization of 6H crystalline silicon carbide. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lempner, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) substrates and epilayers, undoped as well as n- and p-doped, have been electrically characterized by performing Hall effect and resistivity measurements (van der Pauw) over the temperature range of approximately 85 K to 650 K (200 K to 500 K for p-type sample). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the single activation energy theoretical model: (1) the activation energy for the nitrogen donor ranged from 0.078 eV to 0.101 eV for a doping concentration range of 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) to 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the aluminum acceptor was 0.252 eV for a doping concentration of 4.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the double activation energy level theoretical model for the nitrogen donor: (1) the activation energy for the hexagonal site was 0.056 eV and 0.093 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 3.33 x 10 (exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 1.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the cubic site was 0.113 and 0.126 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 4.2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 5.4 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3).

  14. Use of ``rock-typing`` to characterize carbonate reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ikwuakor, K.C.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of the project was to apply techniques of ``rock-typing`` and quantitative formation evaluation to borehole measurements in order to identify reservoir and non-reservoir rock-types and their properties within the ``C`` zone of the Ordovician Red River carbonates in the northeast Montana and northwest North Dakota areas of the Williston Basin. Rock-typing discriminates rock units according to their pore-size distribution. Formation evaluation estimates porosities and pore fluid saturation. Rock-types were discriminated using crossplots involving three rock-typing criteria: (1) linear relationship between bulk density and porosity, (2) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and porosity, and (3) linear relationship between acoustic interval transit-time and bulk density. Each rock-type was quantitatively characterized by the slopes and intercepts established for different crossplots involving the above variables, as well as porosities and fluid saturations associated with the rock-types. All the existing production was confirmed through quantitative formation evaluation. Highly porous dolomites and anhydritic dolomites contribute most of the production, and constitute the best reservoir rock-types. The results of this study can be applied in field development and in-fill drilling. Potential targets would be areas of porosity pinchouts and those areas where highly porous zones are downdip from non-porous and tight dolomites. Such areas are abundant. In order to model reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations, a more localized (e.g. field scale) study, expanded to involve other rock-typing criteria, is necessary.

  15. Radiation characterization report for the GPS Receiver microcontroller chip. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-20

    The overall objective of this characterization test was to determine the sensitivity of the Motorola 68332 32-bit microcontroller to radiation induced single event upset and latch-up (SEU/SEL). The microcontroller is a key component of the GPS Receiver which will be a subsystem of the satellite required for the {open_quotes}FORTE{close_quotes} experiment. Testing was conducted at the Single Event Effects Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The results obtained included a latch-up (SEL) threshold LET (Linear Energy Transfer) of 20 MeV-CM{sub 2}/mg and an upset (SEU) threshold LET of 5 MeV-CM{sup 2}/mg. The SEU threshold is typical of this technology, commercial 0.8{mu}m HCMOS. Some flow errors were observed that were not reset by the internal watchdog timer of the 68332. It is important that the Receiver design include a monitor of the device, such as an external watch-dog timer, that would initiate a reset of the program when this type of upset occurs. The SEL threshold is lower than would be expected for this 12{mu}m epi layer process and suggests the need for a strategy that would allow for a hard reset of the controller when a latch-up event occurs. Analysis of the galactic cosmic ray spectrum for the FORTE orbit was done and the results indicate a worst case latch-up rate for this device of 6.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} latch-ups per device day or roughly one latch-up per 43.5 device years.

  16. Reservoir characterization by cross-hole seismic imaging. Final report, September 15, 1989--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Turpening, R.M.; Matarese, J.R.; Toksoez, M.N.

    1995-07-01

    Better characterization of reservoirs requires better images of those reservoirs. This report documents the research undertaken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s Earth Resources Laboratory (ERL) to improve seismic tomographic images. In addition, the new imaging method was applied to a data set collected in a producing oil field. The method developed is nonlinear travel time tomography. This technique uses the travel time of the first arriving energy at a receiver and distributes that time back along realistic ray paths. This is an important distinction between this method and previous methods that used either straight ray paths from source to receiver or fixed ray paths (ray paths fixed by an a priori model). The nonlinearity arises during each iteration in the matching of observed travel times with those determined from a model. In this technique the model is updated during each iteration (the velocity structure is changed) and new ray paths are computed in that update model. Thus the resulting image is based on physically realistic ray paths. Tomography resolution is not merely a simple function of the wavelength of the seismic energy used but also involves a measure of how well a given region has been sampled by ray paths. Moreover, the ray paths must represent a wide variation in inclination as they pass through a given spatial cell. This imaging technique was applied to a compressional wave data set collected at ERL`s Michigan Test Site located in the Northern Reef Trend of MI. It consists of two deep boreholes that straddle a producing reef. Two hundred source positions and two hundred receiver positions were used to obtain 40,000 ray paths. Although ERL`s boreholes are 2,000 ft apart, kilohertz data was obtained. The resulting image of the reservoir showed a low velocity zone inside the reef and a thin layer of low velocity that intersected one of the boreholes. The presence of this thin layer was confirmed by logs and borehole engineering.

  17. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier; Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver; Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A.; Koch, Wolfgang; Pretzsch, Gunter Guido; Brucher, Wenzel; Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-03-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively

  18. Final Technical Report for "Feature Extraction, Characterization, and Visualization for Protein Interaction via Geometric and Topological Methods"

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yusu

    2013-03-25

    Shape analysis plays an important role in many applications. In particular, in molecular biology, analyzing molecular shapes is essential to the fundamental problem of understanding how molecules interact. This project aims at developing efficient and effective algorithms to characterize and analyze molecular structures using geometric and topological methods. Two main components of this project are (1) developing novel molecular shape descriptors; and (2) identifying and representing meaningful features based on those descriptors. The project also produces accompanying (visualization) software. Results from this project (09/2006-10/2009) include the following publications. We have also set up web-servers for the software developed in this period, so that our new methods are accessible to a broader scientific community. The web sites are given below as well. In this final technical report, we first list publications and software resulted from this project. We then briefly explain the research conducted and main accomplishments during the period of this project.

  19. Fuel Thermo-physical Characterization Project. Fiscal Year 2014 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Slonecker, Bruce D.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2015-03-15

    The Office of Material Management and Minimization (M3) Reactor Conversion Fuel Thermo-Physical Characterization Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with using PNNL facilities and processes to receive irradiated low enriched uranium–molybdenum (LEU-Mo) fuel plate samples and perform analysis in support of the M3 Reactor Conversion Program. This work is in support of the M3 Reactor Conversion Fuel Development Pillar that is managed by Idaho National Laboratory. The primary research scope was to determine the thermo-physical properties as a function of temperature and burnup. Work conducted in Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 complemented measurements performed in FY 2013 on four additional irradiated LEU-Mo fuel plate samples. Specifically, the work in FY 2014 investigated the influence of different processing methods on thermal property behavior, the absence of aluminum alloy cladding on thermal property behavior for additional model validation, and the influence of higher operating surface heat flux / more aggressive irradiation conditions on thermal property behavior. The model developed in FY 2013 and refined in FY 2014 to extract thermal properties of the U-Mo alloy from the measurements conducted on an integral fuel plate sample (i.e., U-Mo alloy with a thin Zr coating and clad in AA6061) continues to perform very well. Measurements conducted in FY 2014 on samples irradiated under similar conditions compare well to measurements performed in FY 2013. In general, there is no gross influence of fabrication method on thermal property behavior, although the difference in LEU-Mo foil microstructure does have a noticeable influence on recrystallization of grains during irradiation. Samples irradiated under more aggressive irradiation conditions, e.g., higher surface heat flux, revealed lower thermal conductivity when compared to samples irradiated at moderate surface heat fluxes, with the exception of one sample. This report documents thermal

  20. Using Phenomenological Models to Characterize Transmissibility and Forecast Patterns and Final Burden of Zika Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Hincapie-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Juan; Pell, Bruce; Tariq, Amna; Dahal, Sushma; Moghadas, Seyed; Smirnova, Alexandra; Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. ZIKV disease in humans is characterized by a “dengue-like” syndrome including febrile illness and rash. However, ZIKV infection in early pregnancy has been associated with severe birth defects, including microcephaly and other developmental issues. Mechanistic models of disease transmission can be used to forecast trajectories and likely disease burden but are currently hampered by substantial uncertainty on the epidemiology of the disease (e.g., the role of asymptomatic transmission, generation interval, incubation period, and key drivers). When insight is limited, phenomenological models provide a starting point for estimation of key transmission parameters, such as the reproduction number, and forecasts of epidemic impact. Methods: We obtained daily counts of suspected Zika cases by date of symptoms onset from the Secretary of Health of Antioquia, Colombia during January-April 2016. We calibrated the generalized Richards model, a phenomenological model that accommodates a variety of early exponential and sub-exponential growth kinetics, against the early epidemic trajectory and generated predictions of epidemic size. The reproduction number was estimated by applying the renewal equation to incident cases simulated from the fitted generalized-growth model and assuming gamma or exponentially-distributed generation intervals derived from the literature. We estimated the reproduction number for an increasing duration of the epidemic growth phase. Results: The reproduction number rapidly declined from 10.3 (95% CI: 8.3, 12.4) in the first disease generation to 2.2 (95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) in the second disease generation, assuming a gamma-distributed generation interval with the mean of 14 days and standard deviation of 2 days. The generalized-Richards model outperformed the logistic growth

  1. Final characterization and safety screen report of double shell tank 241-AP-105 for evaporator campaign 97-1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.L.

    1997-01-20

    Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-105 (hereafter referred to as AP-105) was characterized for physical, inorganic, organic and radiochemical parameters by the 222-S Laboratory as directed by the Tank Sample and Analysis Plan (TSAP), References 1 through 4, and Engineering Change Notice, number 635332, Reference 5. This data package satisfies the requirement for a format IV, final report as described in Reference 1. This data package is also a follow-up to the 45-Day safety screen results for tank AP-105, Reference 8, which was issued on November 5, 1996, and is attached as Section II to this report. Preliminary data in the form of summary analytical tables were provided to the project in advance of this final report to enable early estimation of evaporator operational parameters, using the Predict modeling program. Analyses were performed at the 222-S Laboratory as defined and specified in the TSAP and the Laboratory's Quality Assurance P1an, References 6 and 7. Any deviations from the instructions documented in the TSAP are discussed in this narrative and are supported with additional documentation.

  2. Self-assembly of a 3d-5f trinuclear single-molecule magnet from a pentavalent uranyl complex.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Lucile; Walsh, James P S; Pécaut, Jacques; Tuna, Floriana; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2014-12-01

    Mixed-metal uranium compounds are very attractive candidates in the design of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), but only one 3d-5f hetero-polymetallic SMM containing a uranium center is known. Herein, we report two trimeric heterodimetallic 3d-5f complexes self-assembled by cation-cation interactions between a uranyl(V) complex and a TPA-capped M(II)  complex (M=Mn (1), Cd (2); TPA=tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). The metal centers were strategically chosen to promote the formation of discrete molecules rather than extended chains. Compound 1, which contains an almost linear {MnOUOMn} core, exhibits SMM behavior with a relaxation barrier of 81±0.5 K-the highest reported for a mono-uranium system-arising from intramolecular Mn-U exchange interactions combined with the high Ising anisotropy of the uranyl(V) moiety. Compound 1 also exhibits an open magnetic hysteresis loop at temperatures less than 3 K, with a significant coercive field of 1.9 T at 1.8 K. PMID:25284018

  3. Gene expression of INPP5F as an independent prognostic marker in fludarabine-based therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, G; Maisel, D; Barrett, M; Smith, H; Duchateau-Nguyen, G; Nguyen, T; Yeh, R-F; Dufour, A; Robak, T; Dornan, D; Weisser, M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a heterogeneous disease. Various disease-related and patient-related factors have been shown to influence the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to identify novel biomarkers of significant clinical relevance. Pretreatment CD19-separated lymphocytes (n=237; discovery set) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (n=92; validation set) from the REACH trial, a randomized phase III trial in relapsed CLL comparing rituximab plus fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide with fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide alone, underwent gene expression profiling. By using Cox regression survival analysis on the discovery set, we identified inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase F (INPP5F) as a prognostic factor for progression-free survival (P<0.001; hazard ratio (HR), 1.63; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35–1.98) and overall survival (P<0.001; HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.18–1.84), regardless of adjusting for known prognostic factors. These findings were confirmed on the validation set, suggesting that INPP5F may serve as a novel, easy-to-assess future prognostic biomarker for fludarabine-based therapy in CLL. PMID:26430724

  4. Final Phase I-Phase II interim report : expedited site characterization, Morrill, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2005-10-20

    fumigants at the facility, the CCC/USDA is conducting an environmental site investigation at Morrill. The investigation at Morrill is being performed by the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. The primary goals of this investigation were (1) to verify any association of carbon tetrachloride with the former CCC/USDA facility; (2) to verify the contaminant migration pathway from the former facility; and (3) to identify any domestic wells located outside the Morrill city limits that are downgradient from and within 1 mi of the former CCC/USDA facility and thus are potential receptors of groundwater contamination.

  5. Final Report: Characterization of Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon-Based Materials by NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yue; Kleinhammes, Alfred

    2011-07-11

    PEEK is well suited for hydrogen storage due to its controlled microporous structure and large surface area. • A new porosimetry method for evaluating the pore landscape using H2 as a probe was developed. 1H NMR can probe the nanoscale pore structure of synthesized material and can assess the pore dimension over a range covering 1.2 nm to 2.5 nm, the size that is desired for H2 adsorption. • Analysis of 1H NMR spectra in conjunction with the characterization of the bonding structure of the adsorbent by 13C NMR distinguishes between a heterogeneous and homogeneous pore structure as evidenced by the work on AX21 and activated PEEK. • Most of the sorbents studied are suited to hydrogen storage at low temperature (T < 100K). Of the materials investigated, only boron substituted graphite has the potential to work at higher temperatures if the boron content in the favorable planar BC3 configuration that actively contributes to adsorption can be increased.

  6. Characterization of pore evolution in ceramics during creep failure and densification. Final report, April 15, 1984--April 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R.A.; Chan, K.S.

    1995-04-01

    This research program was divided into two phases, one involving creep cavitation, the other cavity evolution during sintering. In the former, work was aimed at determining the effect of microstructure and stress state upon creep cavitation, while in the latter, the principal objective was the characterization of pore evolution during sintering. In order to meet these objectives, the creep cavitation portion of the program was centered around small-angle neutron scattering, supplemented by electron microscopy and precision density measurements. The neutron scattering measurements yielded cavity nucleation and growth rates, and average pore, size, distribution, and morphology. These data were used to evaluate current cavitation models, and to implement improved modelling efforts. Additionally, stereoimaging analysis was used to determine grain boundary sliding displacements, which appear to be the critical driving force responsible for cavity nucleation and early growth. Effort in the pore sintering phase focussed on characterization of pore evolution during intermediate and final stage sintering of alumina using both single and multiple scattering techniques. Electron microscopy, density measurements, and mercury intrusion porosimetry measurements complemented the scattering results. The effects of sintering trajectory, green state, powder morphology, and additives were evaluated. These results were compared to current sintering models.

  7. Southern California Earthquake Center - SCEC1: Final Report Summary Alternative Earthquake Source Characterization for the Los Angeles Region

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, B

    2003-02-26

    geometrical and slip-rate parameters, including full uncertainty distributions, and a set of logic trees that define alternative source characterizations, particularly for sets of fault systems having inter-dependent geometries and kinematics resulting from potential intersection and interaction in the sub-surface. All of these products exist in a form suitable for input to earthquake likelihood and seismic hazard analyses. In addition, moment-balanced Poissonian earthquake rates for the alternative multi-segment characterizations of each fault system have been estimated. Finally, this work has served an important integrative function in that the exchange and debate of data, results and ideas that it has engendered has helped to focus SCEC research over the past six years on to key issues in tectonic deformation and faulting.

  8. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Asok K. Ray

    2012-05-22

    During the past decades, considerable theoretical efforts have been devoted to studying the electronic and geometric structures and related properties of surfaces. Such efforts are particularly important for systems like the actinides for which experimental work is relatively difficult to perform due to material problems and toxicity. The actinides are characterized by a gradual filling of the 5f-electron shell with the degree of localization increasing with the atomic number Z along the last series of the periodic table. The open shell of the 5f electrons determines the atomic, molecular, and solid state properties of the actinide elements and their compounds and understanding the quantum mechanics of the 5f electrons is the defining issue in the chemistry and physics of actinide elements. These elements are also characterized by the increasing prominence of relativistic effects and their studies can, in fact, help us understand the role of relativity throughout the periodic table. However, the electronic and geometric structures of the actinides, specifically the trans-uranium actinides and the roles of the 5f electrons in chemical bonding are still not well understood. This is crucial not only for our understanding of the actinides but also for the fact that the actinides constitute 'the missing link' between the d transition elements and the lanthanides. The 5f orbitals have properties intermediate between those of localized 4f and delocalized 3d orbitals. Thus, a proper understanding of the actinides will help us understand the behavior of the lanthanides and transition metals as well. In fact, there is an urgent need for continued extensive and detailed theoretical research in this area to provide significant and deep understandings of the electronic and geometric structures of the actinides. In this work, we have performed electronic structure studies for plutonium (Pu), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) surfaces, and molecular adsorptions on Pu and Am

  9. A triphenylamine-grafted imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ruthenium(II) complex: acid-base and photoelectric properties.

    PubMed

    Fan, Su-Hua; Zhang, An-Guo; Ju, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Li-Hua; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2010-04-19

    A new heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complex of [Ru(Hipdpa)(Hdcbpy)(NCS)(2)](-).0.5H(+).0.5[N(C(4)H(9))(4)](+) Ru(Hipdpa) {where Hdcbpy = monodeprotonated 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine and Hipdpa = 4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline} was synthesized and characterized by elementary analysis, standard spectroscopy techniques, and cyclic voltammetry. The ground- and excited-state acid-base properties of Ru(Hipdpa) were studied by means of UV-vis absorption spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric titrations in 4:1(v/v) Britton-Robinson/dimethylformamide buffer solution. The four-step separate protonation/deprotonation processes were found in the ground states, and one of which taking place near the physiological pH range. The two observable excited-state protonation/deprotonation processes were found for the Ru(Hipdpa), constituting pH-induced "off-on-off" emission switches. The performance of the complexes as photosensitizers in nanocrystalline TiO(2)-based liquid solar cells containing an electrolyte solution (0.05 M I(2), 0.5 M LiI, and 0.5 M 4-tert-butylpyridine in 50% acetonitrile and 50% propylene carbonate) was investigated and found to achieve a much improved device performance (a short-circuit photocurrent density of 18.7 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit voltage of 630 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 6.85%) compared to a triphenylamine-free parent complex [Ru(Hpip)(Hdcbpy)(NCS)(2)](-).[N(C(4)H(9))(4)](+)-based device {Hpip = 2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} and a comparable performance to that of cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)ruthenium(II) (N3) under identical experimental conditions. A density functional theory calculation of the molecular structures and electronic properties of the complexes was also carried out in an effort to understand their effectiveness in TiO(2)-based solar cells. PMID:20337492

  10. Itinerant 5 f Electrons and the Fermi Surface Properties in an Enhanced Pauli Paramagnet NpGe3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Dai; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Homma, Yoshiya; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Nakamura, Akio; Haga, Yoshinori; Settai, Rikio; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2005-08-01

    We succeeded in growing a high-quality single crystal of an enhanced Pauli paramagnet, NpGe3, by the Bi-flux method, and observed the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect. The topology of a Fermi surface is well explained by the relativistic linear augmented-plane-wave (LAPW) band calculations based on the 5 f itinerant band model. The Fermi surface consists of a nearly spherical electron-Fermi surface with necks along the < 100 > direction, forming a hollow ball, centered at the R point, which is derived from the single band. The cyclotron effective mass is in the range from 2.6 to 16 m0, which is enhanced approximately 3.5 times from the corresponding band mass.

  11. Squelching of ETS2 transactivation by POU5F1 silences the human chorionic gonadotropin CGA subunit gene in human choriocarcinoma and embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rangan; Ezashi, Toshihiko; Roberts, R Michael

    2012-05-01

    The subunit genes encoding human chorionic gonadotropin, CGA, and CGB, are up-regulated in human trophoblast. However, they are effectively silenced in choriocarcinoma cells by ectopically expressed POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 (POU5F1). Here we show that POU5F1 represses activity of the CGA promoter through its interactions with ETS2, a transcription factor required for both placental development and human chorionic gonadotropin subunit gene expression, by forming a complex that precludes ETS2 from interacting with the CGA promoter. Mutation of a POU5F1 binding site proximal to the ETS2 binding site does not alter the ability of POU5F1 to act as a repressor but causes a drop in basal promoter activity due to overlap with the binding site for DLX3. DLX3 has only a modest ability to raise basal CGA promoter activity, but its coexpression with ETS2 can up-regulate it 100-fold or more. The two factors form a complex, and both must bind to the promoter for the combination to be transcriptionally effective, a synergy compromised by POU5F1. Similarly, in human embryonic stem cells, which express ETS2 but not CGA, ETS2 does not occupy its binding site on the CGA promoter but is found instead as a soluble complex with POU5F1. When human embryonic stem cells differentiate in response to bone morphogenetic protein-4 and concentrations of POU5F1 fall and hCG and DLX3 rise, ETS2 then occupies its binding site on the CGA promoter. Hence, a squelching mechanism underpins the transcriptional silencing of CGA by POU5F1 and could have general relevance to how pluripotency is maintained and how the trophoblast lineage emerges from pluripotent precursor cells. PMID:22446105

  12. Organic carboxylate anions effect on the structures of a series of Mn(II) complexes based on 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiuli; Chen Yongqiang; Liu Guocheng; Lin Hongyan; Zhang Jinxia

    2009-09-15

    In our efforts to tune the structures of Mn(II) complexes by selection of organic carboxylic acid ligands, six new complexes [Mn(PIP){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}] (1), [Mn(PIP){sub 2}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O)].2H{sub 2}O (2), [Mn(PIP){sub 2}(1,4-bdc)] (3), [Mn(PIP)(1,3-bdc)] (4), [Mn(PIP){sub 2}(2,6-napdc)].H{sub 2}O (5), and [Mn(PIP)(1,4-napdc)].H{sub 2}O (6) were obtained, where PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpdc=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}bdc=benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 1,3-H{sub 2}bdc=benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-H{sub 2}napdc=2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}napdc=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid. All complexes have been structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analyses show that complexes 1 and 2 possess mononuclear structures, complexes 3, 4, and 5 feature chain structures, and complex 6 exhibits a 2D (4,4) network. The structural difference of 1-6 indicates that organic carboxylate anions play important roles in the formation of such coordination architectures. Furthermore, the thermal properties of complexes 1-6 and the magnetic property of 4 have been investigated. - Graphical Abstract: Through selecting organic carboxylate anions, six Mn(II) complexes have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  13. Characterization of a Flavoprotein Oxidase from Opium Poppy Catalyzing the Final Steps in Sanguinarine and Papaverine Biosynthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Hagel, Jillian M.; Beaudoin, Guillaume A. W.; Fossati, Elena; Ekins, Andrew; Martin, Vincent J. J.; Facchini, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids are a diverse class of plant specialized metabolites that includes the analgesic morphine, the antimicrobials sanguinarine and berberine, and the vasodilator papaverine. The two-electron oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine catalyzed by dihydrobenzophenanthridine oxidase (DBOX) is the final step in sanguinarine biosynthesis. The formation of the fully conjugated ring system in sanguinarine is similar to the four-electron oxidations of (S)-canadine to berberine and (S)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine. We report the isolation and functional characterization of an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) cDNA encoding DBOX, a flavoprotein oxidase with homology to (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase and the berberine bridge enzyme. A query of translated opium poppy stem transcriptome databases using berberine bridge enzyme yielded several candidate genes, including an (S)-tetrahydroprotoberberine oxidase-like sequence selected for heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme preferentially catalyzed the oxidation of dihydrosanguinarine to sanguinarine but also converted (RS)-tetrahydropapaverine to papaverine and several protoberberine alkaloids to oxidized forms, including (RS)-canadine to berberine. The Km values of 201 and 146 μm for dihydrosanguinarine and the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-scoulerine, respectively, suggested high concentrations of these substrates in the plant. Virus-induced gene silencing to reduce DBOX transcript levels resulted in a corresponding reduction in sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine, and papaverine accumulation in opium poppy roots in support of DBOX as a multifunctional oxidative enzyme in BIA metabolism. PMID:23118227

  14. Expression analysis of Cdx2 and Pou5f1 in a marsupial, the stripe-faced dunnart, during early development.

    PubMed

    Familari, Mary; Au, Phil Chi Khang; de Iongh, Robb U; Cruz, Yolanda; Selwood, Lynne

    2016-02-01

    The first lineage allocation during mouse development forms the trophectoderm and inner cell mass, in which Cdx2 and Pou5f1 display reciprocal expression. Yet Cdx2 is not required for trophectoderm specification in other mammals, such as the human, cow, pig, or in two marsupials, the tammar and opossum. The role of Cdx2 and Pou5f1 in the first lineage allocation of Sminthopsis macroura, the stripe-faced dunnart, is unknown. In this study, expression of Cdx2 and Pou5f1 during oogenesis, development from cleavage to blastocyst stages, and in the allocation of the first three lineages was analyzed for this dunnart. Cdx2 mRNA was present in late antral-stage oocytes, but not present again until Day 5.5. Pou5f1 mRNA was present from primary follicles to zygotes, and then expression resumed starting at the early unilaminar blastocyst stage. All cleavage stages and the pluriblast and trophoblast cells co-expressed CDX2 and POU5F1 proteins, which persisted until early stages of hypoblast formation. Hypoblast cells also show co-localisation of POU5F1 and CDX2 once they were allocated, and this persisted during their division and migration. Our studies suggest that CDX2, and possibly POU5F1, are maternal proteins, and that the first lineage to differentiate is the trophoblast, which differentiates to trophectoderm after shell loss one day before implantation. In the stripe-faced dunnart, cleavage cells, as well as trophoblast and pluriblast cells, are polarized, suggesting the continued presence of CDX2 in both lineages until late blastocyst stages may play a role in the formation and maintenance of polarity. PMID:26613191

  15. Microwave assisted SPPS of amylin and its toxicity of the pure product to RIN-5F cells.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Karen; Albericio, Fernando; Arvidsson, Per I; Govender, Patrick; Kruger, Hendrik G; Maguire, Glenn E M; Govender, Thavendran

    2010-01-01

    The 37-amino acid polypeptide islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), or amylin, is found as amyloid aggregates in the islets of Langerhans in patients with type II diabetes. Herein, we report an efficient microwave assisted solid phase peptide synthesis of amylin (IAPP). The most efficient synthesis used double and triple couplings and 10 equiv. of amino acids. Double couplings were used for most amino acids, whereas triple couplings were utilized for amino acids in selected regions. The most effective method for formation of the disulfide bond in amylin was found to be iodine oxidation. The highest purity amylin was obtained when the crude peptide was purified with HPLC before formation of the disulfide bond. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized amylin product to RIN-5F cells was determined. The synthesized amylin exhibits an exponential increase of cytotoxicity at concentrations >35 microM. Transmission electron microscope studies of a sample of amylin shows that insoluble amyloid fibrils spontaneously formed when 45 microM solution of synthesized amylin was incubated in a suitable buffer for 6 h. PMID:20069542

  16. Fluorinated Peptide Nucleic Acids with Fluoroacetyl Side Chain Bearing 5-(F/CF3)-Uracil: Synthesis and Cell Uptake Studies.

    PubMed

    Ellipilli, Satheesh; Palvai, Sandeep; Ganesh, Krishna N

    2016-08-01

    Fluorine incorporation into organic molecules imparts favorable physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity, solubility and metabolic stability necessary for drug action. Toward such applications using peptide nucleic acids (PNA), we herein report the chemical synthesis of fluorinated PNA monomers and biophysical studies of derived PNA oligomers containing fluorine in in the acetyl side chain (-CHF-CO-) bearing nucleobase uracil (5-F/5-CF3-U). The crystal structures of fluorinated racemic PNA monomers reveal interesting base pairing of enantiomers and packing arrangements directed by the chiral F substituent. Reverse phase HPLC show higher hydrophobicity of fluorinated PNA oligomers, dependent on the number and site of the fluorine substitution: fluorine on carbon adjacent to the carbonyl group induces higher lipophilicity than fluorine on nucleobase or in the backbone. The PNA oligomers containing fluorinated bases form hybrids with cDNA/RNA with slightly lower stability compared to that of unmodified aeg PNA, perhaps due to electronic effects. The uptake of fluorinated homooligomeric PNAs by HeLa cells was as facile as that of nonfluorinated PNA. In conjunction with our previous work on PNAs fluorinated in backbone and at N-terminus, it is evident that the fluorinated PNAs have potential to emerge as a new class of PNA analogues for applications in functional inhibition of RNA. PMID:27391099

  17. UDP-(5F)-GlcNAc acts as a slow-binding inhibitor of MshA, a retaining glycosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Frantom, Patrick A; Coward, James K; Blanchard, John S

    2010-05-19

    Glycosyltransferase enzymes play important roles in numerous cellular pathways. Despite their participation in many therapeutically relevant pathways, there is a paucity of information on how to effectively inhibit this class of enzymes. Here we report that UDP-(5F)-GlcNAc acts as a slow-binding, competitive inhibitor of the retaining glycosyltransferase MshA from Corynebacterium glutamicum (K(i) approximately 1.6 muM). The kinetic data are consistent with a single-step inhibition mechanism whose equilibration is slow relative to catalysis. We believe that this is the first slow-onset inhibitor to be reported for the glycosyltransferase family of enzymes. The potent inhibition of the enzyme by the fluoro-substituted substrate is consistent with the involvement of an oxocarbenium transition-state structure, which has been previously proposed for this family of enzymes. Additionally, although several members of the GT-B enzyme family, including MshA, have been shown to undergo a conformational change upon UDP-GlcNAc binding, the kinetic data are inconsistent with a two-step inhibition mechanism. This suggests that there may be other conformations of the enzyme that are useful for the design of inhibitors against the large family of GT-B glycosyltransferase enzymes. PMID:20411981

  18. Structural phase transition and 5f-electrons localization of PuSe explored by ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Shouxin; Feng Wenxia; Hu Haiquan; Gong Zizheng; Liu Hong

    2010-04-15

    An investigation into the structural phase transformation, electronic and optical properties of PuSe under high pressure was conducted by using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-LAPW+lo) method, in the presence and in the absence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Our results demonstrate that there exists a structural phase transition from rocksalt (B 1) structure to CsCl-type (B 2) structure at the transition pressure of 36.3 GPa (without SOC) and 51.3 GPa (with SOC). The electronic density of states (DOS) for PuSe show that the f-electrons of Pu are more localized and concentrated in a narrow peak near the Fermi level, which is consistent with the experimental studies. The band structure shows that B 1-PuSe is metallic. A pseudogap appears around the Fermi level of the total density of states of B 1 phase PuSe, which may contribute to its stability. The calculated reflectivity R(omega) shows agreement with the available experimental results. Furthermore, the absorption spectrum, refractive index, extinction coefficient, energy-loss spectrum and dielectric function were calculated. The origin of the spectral peaks was interpreted based on the electronic structures. - Abstract: Graphical Abstract Legend (TOC Figure): 5f-electrons are more localized by the analysis of the density of states (SOC). The origin spectra peaks was interpreted based on electronic structures.

  19. Aloe-Emodin Protects RIN-5F (Pancreatic β-cell) Cell from Glucotoxicity via Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine and Downregulation of Bax and Caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Subash-Babu, P

    2016-01-01

    To determine the protective effect of aloe-emodin (AE) from high glucose induced toxicity in RIN-5F (pancreatic β-cell) cell and restoration of its function was analyzed. RIN-5F cells have been cultured in high glucose (25 mM glucose) condition, with and without AE treatment. RIN-5F cells cultured in high glucose decreased cell viability and increased ROS levels after 48 hr compared with standard medium (5.5 mM glucose). Glucotoxicity was confirmed by significantly increased ROS production, increased pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-1β,) & decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-6&IL-10) cytokine levels, increased DNA fragmentation. In addition, we found increased Bax, caspase 3, Fadd, and Fas and significantly reduced Bcl-2 expression after 48 hr. RIN-5F treated with both high glucose and AE (20 μM) decreased ROS generation and prevent RIN-5F cell from glucotoxicity. In addition, AE treated cells cultured in high glucose were transferred to standard medium, normal responsiveness to glucose was restored within 8hr and normal basal insulin release within 24 hr was achieved when compared to high glucose. PMID:26759701

  20. Aloe-Emodin Protects RIN-5F (Pancreatic β-cell) Cell from Glucotoxicity via Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine and Downregulation of Bax and Caspase 3

    PubMed Central

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Subash-Babu, P.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the protective effect of aloe-emodin (AE) from high glucose induced toxicity in RIN-5F (pancreatic β-cell) cell and restoration of its function was analyzed. RIN-5F cells have been cultured in high glucose (25 mM glucose) condition, with and without AE treatment. RIN-5F cells cultured in high glucose decreased cell viability and increased ROS levels after 48 hr compared with standard medium (5.5 mM glucose). Glucotoxicity was confirmed by significantly increased ROS production, increased pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-1β,) & decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-6&IL-10) cytokine levels, increased DNA fragmentation. In addition, we found increased Bax, caspase 3, Fadd, and Fas and significantly reduced Bcl-2 expression after 48 hr. RIN-5F treated with both high glucose and AE (20 μM) decreased ROS generation and prevent RIN-5F cell from glucotoxicity. In addition, AE treated cells cultured in high glucose were transferred to standard medium, normal responsiveness to glucose was restored within 8hr and normal basal insulin release within 24 hr was achieved when compared to high glucose. PMID:26759701

  1. Stabilization of Tetravalent 4f (Ce), 5d (Hf), or 5f (Th, U) Clusters by the [α-SiW9O34](10-) Polyoxometalate.

    PubMed

    Duval, Sylvain; Béghin, Sébastien; Falaise, Clément; Trivelli, Xavier; Rabu, Pierre; Loiseau, Thierry

    2015-09-01

    The reaction of Na10[α-SiW9O34] with tetravalent metallic cations such as 4f ((NH4)2Ce(NO3)6), 5d (HfCl4), or 5f (UCl4 and Th(NO3)4) in a pH 4.7 sodium acetate buffer solution leads to the formation of four sandwich-type polyoxometalates [Ce4(μ(3)-O)2(SiW9O34)2(CH3COO)2](10-) (1), [U4(μ(3)-O)2(SiW9O34)2(CH3COO)2](10-) (2), [Th3(μ(3)-O)(μ(2)-OH)3(SiW9O34)2](13-) (3), and [Hf3(μ(2)-OH)3(SiW9O34)2](11-) (4). All four compounds consist of a polynuclear cluster fragment stabilized by two [α-SiW9O34](10-) polyanions. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural with a tetranuclear core (Ce4, U4), while compound 3 presents a trinuclear Th3 core bearing a μ(3)-O-centered bridge. It is an unprecedented configuration in the case of the thorium(IV) cluster. Compound 4 also possesses a trinuclear Hf3 core but with the absence of the μ(3)-O bridge. The molecules have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, (183)W and (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) analysis. PMID:26301948

  2. Brillouin light scattering investigation of the thickness dependence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in C o0.5F e0.5 ultrathin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M. S.; Roussigné, Y.; Stashkevich, A.; Chérif, S. M.; Zighem, F.; Tiusan, C.

    2016-05-01

    C o0.5F e0.5 (CoFe) ultrathin films of various thicknesses (0.8 nm ≤tCoFe≤1.6 nm ) have been grown by sputtering on (001) MgO single crystal or Si/SiO2 substrates, using Pt as capping or buffer layers, respectively. The x-ray diffraction revealed an in-plane epitaxial (isotropic) growth of Pt on MgO (Si). Their magnetic properties have been studied by vibrating sample magnetometry and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) in the Damon-Eshbach geometry. Vibrating sample magnetometry characterizations show that films grown on MgO are in-plane magnetized, while films deposited on Si are perpendicularly magnetized for CoFe thickness below 1.4 nm. The BLS measurements reveal a pronounced nonreciprocal spin waves propagation, which increases with decreasing CoFe thickness. This nonreciprocity was attributed to an interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) induced by Pt interface with CoFe. Moreover, the DMI sign has been found to depend on the stacks order: it is positive (negative) for CoFe/Pt (Pt/CoFe). The effective thickness dependence of the DMI effective constant shows two regimes due to the degradation of the interfaces as the CoFe thickness decreases. We thus show that the magnetic dead layer should be taken into account to precisely determine the surface DMI constant Ds. Therefore, for the thickest samples, the surface DMI constants are nearly opposite: -1.27 and 1.32 pJ m-1 for Pt/CoFe and its reversed system, respectively.

  3. Probing 5 f -state configurations in URu2Si2 with U LIII-edge resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, C. H.; Medling, S. A.; Tobin, J. G.; Baumbach, R. E.; Bauer, E. D.; Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T.-C.

    2016-07-01

    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) was employed at the U LIII absorption edge and the Lα 1 emission line to explore the 5 f occupancy, nf, and the degree of 5 f -orbital delocalization in the hidden-order compound URu2Si2 . By comparing to suitable reference materials such as UF4, UCd11, and α -U, we conclude that the 5 f orbital in URu2Si2 is at least partially delocalized with nf=2.87 ±0.08 , and does not change with temperature down to 10 K within the estimated error. These results place further constraints on theoretical explanations of the hidden order, especially those requiring a localized f2 ground state.

  4. Electron-phonon superconductivity in LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yanqing; Du, Yongping; Wan, Xiangang Wang, Bogen; Ding, Hang-Chen; Savrasov, Sergey Y.; Duan, Chun-Gang

    2014-06-21

    We report density functional calculations of the electronic structure, Fermi surface, phonon spectrum and electron–phonon coupling for the newly discovered superconductor LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2}. It is confirmed that there is a strong Fermi surface nesting at (π,π,0), which results in unstable phonon branches. Combining the frozen phonon total energy calculations and an anharmonic oscillator model, we find that the quantum fluctuation prevents the appearance of static long–range order. The calculation shows that LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiSe{sub 2} is highly anisotropic, and same as its cousin LaO{sub 0.5}F{sub 0.5}BiS{sub 2}, this compound is also a conventional electron-phonon coupling induced superconductor.

  5. Superconductivity phase diagram of Se-substituted CeO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuguchi, Yoshikazu; Hiroi, Takafumi; Miura, Osuke

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of Se substitution on the lattice constants and superconducting properties of CeO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2. With increasing Se concentration, the a lattice constant increased, while the c lattice constant did not show any significant increase between x = 0.1 and x = 0.5. Bulk superconductivity was observed in samples with x = 0.2-0.4, and the superconducting transition temperature was the highest at x = 0.3. The obtained superconductivity phase diagram was compared to those of LaO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2 and NdO0.5F0.5Bi(S1-xSex)2.

  6. Etching Enhancement Followed by Nitridation on Low-k SiOCH Film in Ar/C5F10O Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Yudai; Shibata, Emi; Kondo, Yusuke; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Okamoto, Hidekazu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2013-02-01

    The etching rates of low-dielectric-constant (low-k), porous SiOCH (p-SiOCH) films were increased by nitrogen-added Ar/C5F10O plasma etching in dual-frequency (60 MHz/2 MHz)-excited parallel plate capacitively coupled plasma. Previously, perfluoropropyl vinyl ether [C5F10O] provided a very high density of CF3+ ions [Nagai et al.: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45 (2006) 7100]. Surface nitridation on the p-SiOCH surface exposed to Ar/N2 plasma led to the etching of larger amounts of p-SiOCH in Ar/C5F10O plasma, which depended on the formation of bonds such as =C(sp2)=N(sp2)- and -C(sp)≡N(sp).

  7. Energy-level calculations for the 5f 26d 1 configuration of U 3+ in Cs 2NaYCl 6 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbowiak, M.

    2005-07-01

    Energy levels and the 5f 3 → 5f 26d(t 2g) 1 transition intensities of U 3+ in Cs 2NaYCl 6 were calculated using a theoretical model for nf N energy levels extended for interactions related with the presence of d-electron, proposed by Reid et al. [M.F. Reid, L. van Pieterson, R.T. Wegh, A. Meijerink, Phys. Rev. B 62 (2000) 14744]. The Fk(fd) and Gj(fd) parameters for f-d Coulomb interactions, the ζ(dd) spin-orbit interactions parameter for 6d electron as well as B04(ff)andB06(ff) crystal-field parameters for 5f 2 core electrons were adjusted, and a very good agreement between calculated and experimental spectrum has been achieved. The F2(fd), G1(fd) and ζ(dd) parameters were reduced to 37.5%, 45.3% and 77.2% of the ab initio calculated free-ion values, respectively. The values of Bqk(ff) parameters determined for 5f 26d 1 configuration are closer to those of 5f 2 configuration of U 4+ than 5f 3 configuration of U 3+. The results of calculations performed in the frame of the semi-empirical Hamiltonian model are in a very good accordance with those of ab initio theoretical analysis, reported by Seijo and Barandiarán [L. Seijo, Z. Barandiarán, J. Chem. Phys. 118 (2003) 5335].

  8. Topoisomerase IIα poisoning and DNA double-strand breaking by chiral ruthenium(ii) complexes containing 2-furanyl-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chen; Wu, Jingheng; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-06-28

    Four chiral Ru(ii) complexes bearing furan ligands, Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(pocl)](2+) () and Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(poi)](2+) () (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, pocl = 2-(5-chlorofuran-2-yl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, poi = 2-(5-5-iodofuran-2-yl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), were synthesized and characterized. These Ru(ii) complexes showed antitumor activities against HeLa, A549, HepG2, HL-60 and K562 tumor cell lines, especially the HL-60 tumor cell line. Moreover, was more active than other complexes accounting for the different cellular uptakes. In addition, could accumulate in the nucleus of HL-60 cells, suggesting that nucleic acids were the cellular target of . Topoisomerase inhibition tests in vitro and in living cells confirmed that the four complexes acted as efficient topoisomerase IIα poisons, DNA double-strand breaks had also been observed from neutral single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). inhibited the growth of HL-60 cells through the induction of apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by the Alexa Fluor® 488 annexin V staining assays. The results demonstrated that acted as a topoisomerase IIα poison and caused DNA double-strand damage that could lead to apoptosis. PMID:27226117

  9. Cardiac damage induced by 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed Central

    Thorgeirsson, U P; Farb, A; Virmani, R; Adamson, R H

    1994-01-01

    The heterocyclic aromatic amine 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a potent hepatocarcinogen in cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys. The finding of high cardiac IQ-DNA adduct levels prompted a histopathological study of perfusion-fixed hearts from 10 tumor-bearing monkeys chronically dosed with IQ at 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg 5 days per week for 48-80 months. Two monkeys dosed only with the vehicle for IQ, hydroxypropylcellulose, served as controls. All the monkeys had normal heart weights, and no abnormalities were observed upon gross inspection of the hearts. Microscopically, focal myocardial lesions were observed in 8 of 10 monkeys dosed with IQ. Light microscopic abnormalities included myocyte necrosis with or without chronic inflammatory infiltrates, interstitial fibrosis with myocyte hypertrophy or atrophy, and vasculitis. Electron microscopic findings included disruption of the mitochondrial architecture (i.e., mitochondrial swelling and clearing of matrix densities), myofibrillar loss, disorganization of the normal alignment of sarcomeres, and occasional myocytes showing nuclear hypertrophy or peripheral clumping of the nuclear chromatin. There was some correlation between the cumulative dose of IQ and the extent of the myocardial abnormalities. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to IQ can lead to myocardial damage in monkeys. Although focal and not associated with clinical evidence of heart failure, these abnormalities may represent the initial stages of IQ-induced toxic cardiomyopathy. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 1. C Figure 1. D Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. A Figure 5. B PMID:8033851

  10. Potentiation of stimulus-induced insulin secretion in protein kinase C-deficient RINm5F cells.

    PubMed Central

    Li, G D; Regazzi, R; Ullrich, S; Pralong, W F; Wollheim, C B

    1990-01-01

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in stimulus recognition and insulin secretion was investigated after long-term (24 h) treatment of RINm5F cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Three methods revealed that PKC was no longer detectable, and PMA-induced insulin secretion was abolished. Such PKC-deficient cells displayed enhanced insulin secretion (2-6-fold) in response to vasopressin and carbachol (activating phospholipase C) as well as to D-glyceraldehyde and alanine (promoting membrane depolarization and voltage-gated Ca2+ influx). Insulin release stimulated by 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG) was also greater in PKC-deficient cells. OAG caused membrane depolarization and raised the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), both of which were unaffected by PKC down-regulation. Except for that caused by vasopressin, the secretagogue-induced [Ca2+]i elevations were similar in control and PKC-depleted cells. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by vasopressin was enhanced during the early phase (observed both in cell suspensions and at the single cell level) and the stimulation of diacylglycerol production was also augmented. These findings suggest more efficient activation of phospholipase C by vasopressin after PKC depletion. Electrically permeabilized cells were used to test whether the release process is facilitated after long-term PMA treatment. PKC deficiency was associated with only slightly increased responsiveness to half-maximally (2 microM) but not to maximally stimulatory Ca2+ concentrations. At 2 microM-Ca2+ vasopressin caused secretion, which was also augmented by PMA pretreatment. The difference between intact and permeabilized cells could indicate the loss in the latter of soluble factors which mediate the enhanced secretory responses. However, changes in cyclic AMP production could not explain the difference. These results demonstrate that PKC not only exerts inhibitory influences on the coupling of receptors to phospholipase C but also interferes with

  11. Involvement of 5f-orbitals in the bonding and reactivity of organoactinide compounds: thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) bis (hydrazonato) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cantat, Thibault; Graves, Christopher R; Morris, David E; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L

    2008-01-01

    Migratory insertion of diphenyldiazomethane into both metal-carbon bonds of the bis(alkyl) and bis(aryl) complexes (C5Me5)2AnR2 yields the first f-element bis(hydrazonato) complexes (C5Me5)2An[2-(N,N')-R-N-NCPh2]2 [An = Th, R = CH3 (18), PhCH2 (15), Ph (16); An = U, R = CH3 (17), PhCH2 (14)], which have been characterized by a combination of spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and X-ray crystallography. The two hydrazonato ligands adopt an 2-coordination mode leading to 20-electron (for Th) and 22-electron (for U) complexes that have no transition-metal analogues. In fact, reaction of (C5H5)2Zr(CH3)2 or (C5Me5)2Hf(CH3)2 with diphenyldiazomethane is limited to the formation of the corresponding mono(hydrazonato) complex (C5R5)2M[2-(N,N')-CH3-N-NCPh2](CH3) (M = Zr, R = H or M = Hf, R = CH3). The difference in the reactivities of the group 4 metal complexes and the actinides was used as a unique platform for investigating in depth the role of 5f orbitals on the reactivity and bonding in actinide organometallic complexes. The electronic structure of the (C5H5)2M[2-(N,N')-CH3-N-NCH2]2 (M = Zr, Th, U) model complexes was studied using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and compared to experimental structural, electrochemical, and spectroscopic results. Whereas transition-metal bis(cyclopentadienyl) complexes are known to stabilize three ligands in the metallocene girdle to form saturated (C5H5)2ML3 species, in a bis(hydrazonato) system, a fourth ligand is coordinated to the metal center to give (C5H5)2ML4. DFT calculations have shown that 5f orbitals in the actinide complexes play a crucial role in stabilizing this fourth ligand by stabilizing both the s and p electrons of the two 2-coordinated hydrazonato ligands. In contrast, the stabilization of the hydrazonato ligands was found to be significantly less effective for the putative bis(hydrazonato) zirconium(IV) complex, yielding a higher energy structure. However, the difference in the reactivities of the group 4

  12. FINAL REPORT. IMPROVED ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID WASTE-FORMS BY FUNDAMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF LASER ABLATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laser ablation can save the DOE millions of dollars in characterization costs. Chemical characterization represents a significant need within the DOE EM program in the areas of high-level waste, tanks, sub-surface contaminant plumes, D&D activities, spent nuclear fuel, mixed wast...

  13. Wastewater characterization survey, O'Hare International Airport (IAP), Air Reserve Station, Illinois. Final report, 13-24 April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, A.M.; Fields, M.K.; Davis, R.P.

    1993-02-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted by members of the Armstrong Laboratory Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate Water Quality Function from 13-24 April 1992 at O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois. The purpose of this survey was to identify and characterize the wastewater. Results of the sampling showed the use of industrial chemicals is being well controlled. The base should be commended for good shop practices to minimize the disposal of industrial waste through the sanitary sewerage system.... O'Hare International Airport (IAP)-Air Reserve Station, Illinois, Wastewater characterization.

  14. LASER ABLATION/IONIZATION CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLIDS: FINAL PROGRESS REPORT OF THE STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Department of Energy has undertaken the enormous task of remediating defense wastes and environmental insults which have occurred over 50 years of nuclear weapons production. It is abundantly clear that significant technology advances are needed to characterize, process, and ...

  15. Characterization of Final State Interaction Strength in Plastic Scintillator by Muon-Neutrino Charged Current Charged Pion Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eberly, Brandon M.

    2014-01-01

    Precise knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is increasingly important as neutrino oscillation measurements transition into the systematics-limited era. In addition to modifying the initial interaction, the nuclear medium can scatter and absorb the interaction by-products through final state interactions, changing the types and kinematic distributions of particles seen by the detector. Recent neutrino pion production data from MiniBooNE is inconsistent with the final state interaction strength predicted by models and theoretical calculations, and some models fit best to the MiniBooNE data only after removing final state interactions entirely. This thesis presents a measurement of dσ/dTπ and dσ/dθπ for muon-neutrino charged current charged pion production in the MINER A scintillator tracker. MINER A is a neutrino-nucleus scattering experiment installed in the few-GeV NuMI beam line at Fermilab. The analysis is limited to neutrino energies between 1.5-10 GeV. Dependence on invariant hadronic mass W is studied through two versions of the analysis that impose the limits W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV. The lower limit on W increases compatibility with the MiniBooNE pion data. The shapes of the differential cross sections, which depend strongly on the nature of final state interactions, are compared to Monte Carlo and theoretical predictions. It is shown that the measurements presented in this thesis favor models that contain final state interactions. Additionally, a variety of neutrino-nucleus interaction models are shown to successfully reproduce the thesis measurements, while simultaneously failing to describe the shape of the MiniBooNE data.

  16. Petrographic, mineralogical, and chemical characterization of certain Alaskan coals and washability products. Final report, July 11, 1978-October 11, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.D.; Wolff, E.N.

    1981-05-01

    Petrological, mineralogical and chemical characterization provides basic information needed for proper utilization of coals. Since many of these coals are likely to be beneficiated to reduce ash, the influence of coal washing on the characteristics of the washed product is important. Twenty samples of Alaskan coal seams were used for this study. The coals studied ranged in rank from lignite to high volatile A bituminous with vitrinite/ulminite reflectance ranging from 0.25 to 1.04. Fifteen raw coals were characterized for proximate and ultimate analysis reflectance rank, petrology, composition of mineral matter, major oxides and trace elements in coal ash. Washability products of three coals from Nenana, Beluga and Matanuska coal fields were used for characterization of petrology, mineral matter and ash composition. Petrological analysis of raw coals and float-sink products showed that humodetrinite was highest in top seam in a stratigraphic sequence

  17. Characterization of and Ti Gettering for PV Substrates: Final Subcontract Report; 28 January 1998 - 28 August 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Rozgonyi, G. A.; Karoui, A.; Romanowski, A.; Kordas, L.

    2002-06-01

    This report describes two project objectives: to determine optical and gettering properties of titanium and titanium oxy-nitride films, and to examine the influence of carrier recombination processes on the microwave reflection coefficient in the frequency domain such that PV materials parameters could be evaluated nondestructively. A third topic was added as the main focus, wherein we carried out a detailed characterization study of dislocated, high-purity, float-zone crystals grown at NREL. These crystals were compared with nitrogen-doped CZ wafers. The accompanying report has a chapter devoted to each of these topics: (1) characterization of controlled defect/impurity growth of float-zone crystals; (2) contactless characterization of silicon wafers using frequency-resolved photoconductance decay; and (3) gettering and surface reflectivity of Ti thin films.

  18. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Lloyd W.

    2009-09-17

    Remediation of highly radioactive waste is a major technical and programmatic challenge for the DOE. Rapid, on-line physical characterization of highly concentrated slurries is required for the safe and efficient remediation of 90 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (HLW), sodium bearing waste, and mixed waste. The research presented here, describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. Near-surface characterization of the slurry flow in the particle size range from nanometer to micrometer is examined using optical low coherence reflectometry. Volumetric characterization at depths in the slurry flow, up to several centimeters in the particle size range from the micrometer to millimeter, is realized by utilizing ultrasonic backscatter and diffuses fields. One of the strengths, the teaming up of significant talents in both experimental and theoretical optics (University of Washington) and in ultrasonics [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] provides a synergistic approach to integrate these complimentary techniques. One of the benefits of this combined approach is the physical characterization of HLW over a concentration and particle size range that is broader than can be achieved with today’s technology. This will avoid a costly increase in waste stream volume due to excess dilution, and will lessen chance of plugging pipes that could shut down expensive processing lines.

  19. Characterization of rocket propellant combustion products. Chemical characterization and computer modeling of the exhaust products from four propellant formulations: Final report, September 23, 1987--April 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Nestor, C.W.; Thompson, C.V.; Gayle, T.M.; Ma, C.Y.; Tomkins, B.A.; Moody, R.L.

    1991-12-09

    The overall objective of the work described in this report is four-fold: to (a) develop a standardized and experimentally validated approach to the sampling and chemical and physical characterization of the exhaust products of scaled-down rocket launch motors fired under experimentally controlled conditions at the Army`s Signature Characterization Facility (ASCF) at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama; (b) determine the composition of the exhaust produces; (c) assess the accuracy of a selected existing computer model for predicting the composition of major and minor chemical species; (d) recommended alternations to both the sampling and analysis strategy and the computer model in order to achieve greater congruence between chemical measurements and computer prediction. 34 refs., 2 figs., 35 tabs.

  20. Electrical Characterization of Printed Nanocrystalline Silicon Films, Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-00241

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.

    2011-05-01

    This CRADA helped Innovalight characterize and quantify their ink-based selective emitter technology. Controlled localized doping of selective emitter structures via Innovalight Silicon Ink technology was demonstrated. Both secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning capacitance microscopy revealed; abrupt lateral dopant profiles at ink-printed boundaries. Uniform doping of iso- and pyramidal surfaces was also verified using scanning electron microscopy dopant contrast imaging.

  1. Delocalization and occupancy effects of 5f orbitals in plutonium intermetallics using L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, C. H.; Medling, S. A.; Jiang, Yu; Bauer, E. D.; Tobash, P. H.; Mitchell, J. N.; Veirs, D. K.; Wall, M. A.; Allen, P. G.; Kas, J. J.; Sokaras, D.; Nordlund, D.; Weng, T. -C.

    2014-06-24

    Although actinide (An) L3 -edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been very effective in determining An oxidation states in insulating, ionically bonded materials, such as in certain coordination compounds and mineral systems, the technique fails in systems featuring more delocalized 5f orbitals, especially in metals. Recently, actinide L3-edge resonant X-ray emission spec- troscopy (RXES) has been shown to be an effective alternative. This technique is further demonstrated here using a parameterized partial unoccupied density of states method to quantify both occupancy and delocalization of the 5f orbital in ?-Pu, ?-Pu, PuCoGa5 , PuCoIn5 , and PuSb2. These new results, supported by FEFF calculations, highlight the effects of strong correlations on RXES spectra and the technique?s ability to differentiate between f-orbital occupation and delocalization.

  2. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-08-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples. The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement-based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude larger for C5F12 (with 2008 EDGARv4.2 estimates for C5F12 at 9.6 kg yr-1, as compared to 67±53 t yr-1 as derived in this study). The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those

  3. Final Characterization Report for Corrective Action Unit 109: Area 2 U-2BU Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1998-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 109, Area 2 U-2bu Crater, is an inactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part A Permit disposal unit located in Area 2 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit has been characterized under the requirements of the Nevada Test Site Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Part A Permit (NDEP, 1995) and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 265 (CFR, 1996). The site characterization was performed under the RCRA Part A Permit Characterization Plan for the U-2bu Subsidence Crater (DOE/NV, 1998c), as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (Liebendorfer, 1998). The primary objective of the site characterization activities was to evaluate the presence, concentration, and extent of any Resource Conservation and Recovery Act contaminants in the crater. Surface soil samples were collected on April 22, 1998, and subsurface soil samples and geotechnical samples were collected from April 27-29, 1998. Soil samples were collected using a hand auger or a piston-type drive hammer to advance a 5-centimeter (2-inch) diameter steel sampling tool into the ground. The permit for the Nevada Test Site requires that Corrective Action Unit 109 be closed under 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265 Subpart G and 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 265.310 (CFR, 1996). Analysis of the data collected during the characterization effort indicates that lead was detected in Study Area 1 at 5.7 milligrams per liter, above the regulatory level in 40 Code of Federal Regulations 261.24 of 5.0 milligrams per liter. Except for the lead detection at a single location within the crater, the original Resource Conservation Recovery Act constituents of potential concern determined between the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office and the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection during the Data Quality Objectives process (DOE/NV, 1998b) were not found to be present at Corrective Action Unit 109 above regulatory levels of

  4. Demonstration of carcinogenicity in F344 rats of 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline from broiled sardine, fried beef and beef extract.

    PubMed

    Takayama, S; Nakatsuru, Y; Masuda, M; Ohgaki, H; Sato, S; Sugimura, T

    1984-06-01

    The mutagenic compound 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, originally isolated from broiled sardines and also present in cooked beef and beef extract, is being tested for carcinogenicity in F344 rats of both sexes. High incidences of tumors of the Zymbal gland, colon, small intestine and liver in males have been observed in the first 300 days of the experiment. PMID:6468834

  5. Reciprocal Transcriptional Regulation of Pou5f1 and Sox2 via the Oct4/Sox2 Complex in Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Joon-Lin; Loh, Yuin-Han; Zhang, Wensheng; Chen, Xi; Tam, Wai-Leong; Yeap, Leng-Siew; Li, Pin; Ang, Yen-Sin; Lim, Bing; Robson, Paul; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells that can either self-renew or differentiate into many cell types. Oct4 and Sox2 are transcription factors essential to the pluripotent and self-renewing phenotypes of ESCs. Both factors are upstream in the hierarchy of the transcription regulatory network and are partners in regulating several ESC-specific genes. In ESCs, Sox2 is transcriptionally regulated by an enhancer containing a composite sox-oct element that Oct4 and Sox2 bind in a combinatorial interaction. It has previously been shown that Pou5f1, the Oct4 gene, contains a distal enhancer imparting specific expression in both ESCs and preimplantation embryos. Here, we identify a composite sox-oct element within this enhancer and show that it is involved in Pou5f1 transcriptional activity in ESCs. In vitro experiments with ESC nuclear extracts demonstrate that Oct4 and Sox2 interact specifically with this regulatory element. More importantly, by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we establish that both Oct4 and Sox2 bind directly to the composite sox-oct elements in both Pou5f1 and Sox2 in living mouse and human ESCs. Specific knockdown of either Oct4 or Sox2 by RNA interference leads to the reduction of both genes' enhancer activities and endogenous expression levels in addition to ESC differentiation. Our data uncover a positive and potentially self-reinforcing regulatory loop that maintains Pou5f1 and Sox2 expression via the Oct4/Sox2 complex in pluripotent cells. PMID:15988017

  6. Final work plan: Expedited Site Characterization of the IES Industries, Inc., Site at Marshalltown, Iowa. Ames Expedited Site Characterization Project, Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-04

    The overall goal of the Ames Laboratory Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative and state-of-the-practice site characterization and/or monitoring technologies. This will be accomplished by fielding both types of technologies together in the context of an expedited site characterization. The first site will be at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) in Marshalltown, Iowa. The project will field three areas of technology: geophysical, analytical, and data fusion. Geophysical technologies are designed to understand the subsurface geology to help predict fate and transport of the target contaminants. Analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. Data fusion technology consists of software systems designed to rapidly integrate or fuse all site information into a conceptual site model that then becomes the decision making tool for the site team to plan subsequent sampling activity. Not all of the contaminants present can be located at the action level. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the signature organics associated with the coal tar activities that took place at the site. As a result, PAHs were selected as the target compounds. Screening analytical instruments and nonintrusive geophysical techniques will be fielded to qualitatively map the spatial contaminant distribution. Soil gas surveys, immunoassay testing (IMA), innovative optical techniques, and passive organic sorbent sensors will be deployed along with the geophysical methods. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) instruments and a cone penetrometer system equipped with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) probe will quantitatively map the action level edges of the PAH plume(s). Samples will be taken both by the cone penetrometer test system (CPT) and the Geoprobe {reg_sign} sampler system.

  7. Evaluation of mitochondrial divisions in mouse with type-2 diabetes and effect of glucose-oxidase on mouse islet cells RIN-m5F.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Li, Fan; Zhang, Anping; Wang, Li; Tong, Weidong; Liu, Baohua

    2014-03-01

    To elucidate the relationship between dynamic variations of insular β cell mitochondria and type-2 diabetes by using a mouse model, the dynamic variation (fusion or fission) of insular β cell mitochondria present in two groups of Wistar mice with type-2 diabetes (high fat feeding and streptozotocin (STZ) adding with low dose and high frequency, high fat feeding and STZ adding with high dose and low frequency), and normal Wistar mouse were systematically compared. By analysing the insulin secretion level and other related indexes, the molecular mechanism of the fusion or fission phenomenon of insular β cell mitochondria in two different models (high fat feeding and STZ adding with low dose and high frequency, high fat feeding and STZ adding with high dose and low frequency) of mice with type-2 diabetes were initially elucidated. The phenomenon of mitochondrial fusion and fission was clearly seen. In initially determining the relationship between the change of insular β cell mitochondrial structure and its cell apoptosis generated by some factors such as treatment by glucose-oxidase (GO), the effect of GO on the mouse islet cells RIN-m5F including the effects on cell growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle, cell apoptosis of RIN-m5F were systematically examined. GO showed some influence on the mouse islet cells RIN-m5F cell activity, ROS and apoptosis, but its effect on the cell cycle was not significant. PMID:24375791

  8. Tat-ATOX1 inhibits streptozotocin-induced cell death in pancreatic RINm5F cells and attenuates diabetes in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eun Hee; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Ryu, Eun Ji; Yong, Ji In; Chung, Seok Young; Cha, Hyun Ju; Kim, Sang Jin; Choi, Yeon Joo; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Lee, Keunwook; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant 1 (ATOX1) functions as an antioxidant against hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, and therefore may play a significant role in many human diseases, including diabetes mellitus (DM). In the present study, we examined the protective effects of Tat-ATOX1 protein on streptozotocin (STZ)-exposed pancreatic insulinoma cells (RINm5F) and in a mouse model of STZ-induced diabetes using western blot analysis, immunofluorescence staining and MTT assay, as well as histological and biochemical analysis. Purified Tat-ATOX1 protein was efficiently transduced into RINm5F cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, Tat-ATOX1 protein markedly inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, DNA damage and the activation of Akt and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in STZ-exposed RINm5F cells. In addition, Tat-ATOX1 protein transduced into mice pancreatic tissues and significantly decreased blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels as well as the body weight changes in a model of STZ-induced diabetes. These results indicate that transduced Tat-ATOX1 protein protects pancreatic β-cells by inhibiting STZ-induced cellular toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Based on these findings, we suggest that Tat-ATOX1 protein has potential applications as a therapeutic agent for oxidative stress-induced diseases including DM. PMID:27222268

  9. A new organic-inorganic hybrid oxyfluorotitanate [Hgua]2·(Ti5O5F12) as a transparent UV filter.

    PubMed

    Lhoste, J; Rocquefelte, X; Adil, K; Dessapt, R; Jobic, S; Leblanc, M; Maisonneuve, V; Bujoli-Doeuff, M

    2011-06-20

    A new generation UV absorber is obtained by microwave-heating-assisted hydrothermal synthesis: [Hgua](2)·(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)). The structure of this hybrid titanium(IV) oxyfluoride is ab initio determined from powder X-ray data by combining a direct space method, Rietveld refinement [orthorhombic, Cmm2, a = 22.410(1) Å, b = 11.191(1) Å, c = 3.802(1) Å], and density functional theory geometry optimization. The three-dimensional network is built up from infinite inorganic layers (∞)(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)) separated by guanidinium cations. The theoretical optical gap (3.2 eV) estimated from density of state calculations is in good agreement with the experimental gap (3.3 eV) obtained by UV-vis diffuse reflectivity. The optical absorption is mainly due to O(2p) → Ti(3d) and F(2p) → Ti(3d) transitions at higher energies. The refraction index is low in the visible range (n ≈ 1.9) compared to that of TiO(2) and, consequently, [Hgua](2)·(Ti(5)O(5)F(12)) shows a good transparency adapted to UV shielding. Under UV irradiation at 254 nm for 40 h, the white microcrystalline powder turns to light purple-gray. This color change is caused by the reduction of Ti(IV) to Ti(III), confirmed by magnetic measurements. PMID:21545091

  10. Electronic structure of a new layered bismuth oxyselenide superconductor: LaO0.5F0.5BiSe2.

    PubMed

    Xia, M; Jiang, J; Niu, X H; Liu, J Z; Wen, C H P; Lu, H Y; Lou, X; Pu, Y J; Huang, Z C; Zhu, Xiyu; Wen, H H; Xie, B P; Shen, D W; Feng, D L

    2015-07-22

    LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) is a new layered superconductor discovered recently, which shows the superconducting transition temperature of 3.5 K. With angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we study the electronic structure of LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) comprehensively. Two electron-like bands are located around the X point of the Brillouin zone, and the outer pockets connect with each other and form large Fermi surface around Γ and M. These bands show negligible k(z) dispersion, indicating their two-dimensional nature. Based on the Luttinger theorem, the carrier concentration is about 0.53 e(-) per unit cell, close to its nominal value. Moreover, the photoemission data and the band structure calculations agree very well, and the renormalization factor is nearly 1.0, indicating the electron correlations in this material are rather weak. Our results suggest that LaO(0.5)F(0.5)BiSe(2) is a conventional BCS superconductor without strong electron correlations. PMID:26102451

  11. Nanog, Pou5f1 and SoxB1 activate zygotic gene expression during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Miler T.; Bonneau, Ashley R.; Takacs, Carter M.; Bazzini, Ariel A.; DiVito, Kate R.; Fleming, Elizabeth S.; Giraldez, Antonio J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Upon fertilization, maternal factors direct development and trigger zygotic genome activation (ZGA) at the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT). In zebrafish, ZGA is required for gastrulation and clearance of maternal mRNAs, which is in part regulated by the conserved microRNA miR-430. However, the factors that activate the zygotic program in vertebrates are unknown. Here, we show that Nanog, Pou5f1 and SoxB1 regulate zygotic gene activation in zebrafish. We identified several hundred genes directly activated by maternal factors, constituting the first wave of zygotic transcription. Ribosome profiling revealed that nanog, sox19b and pou5f1 are the most highly translated transcription factors pre-MZT. Combined loss of these factors resulted in developmental arrest prior to gastrulation and a failure to activate >75% of zygotic genes, including miR-430. Our results demonstrate that maternal Nanog, Pou5f1 and SoxB1 are required to initiate the zygotic developmental program and induce clearance of the maternal program by activating miR-430 expression. PMID:24056933

  12. Study of biological processes on the US South Atlantic slope and rise. Phase 1: Benthic characterization. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, J.A.; Hecker, B.; Grassle, J.F.; Maciolek-Blake, N.; Brown, B.

    1985-06-01

    Concerns about the potential effects of oil and gas exploration on the U.S. Continental Slope and Rise led to the initiation of a deep-sea characterization study off North Carolina. The biological communities off North Carolina were poorly known, and prior to any drilling activities, a limited regional data base was required. The program included a seasonal characterization of biological and surficial geological properties at a limited number of slope and rise sites, with special emphasis on areas of high oil industry interest. A rich and highly diverse benthic infauna was discovered, with a large percentage of the 877 species being new to science. Annelids were the dominant taxa both in terms of density, numbers of species, and biomass. Foraminiferan tests comprised most of the sand fraction. Hydrographic data indicated some intrusion of colder water on the upper slope benthos from deeper water.

  13. Waste-water characterization survey, dobbins air force base, georgia. Final report, 9-21 Jun 91

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, A.M.

    1991-12-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted by members of the Armstrong Laboratory Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate Water Quality Function from 9-21 June 1991 at Dobbins AFB, GA. The purpose of this survey was to identify and characterize the wastewater, determine the appropriateness of present disposal methods, determine the need for routine sampling or monitoring, and recommend parameters for wastewater and storm water analysis. Results of the sampling showed the use of industrial chemicals is being well controlled and present disposal methods are appropriate. It is not necessary at this time for routine sampling or monitoring If the Lockheed Plant experiences an upset in its treatment process, the Air Force Reserves and Air National Guard units can expect monitoring requirements to be imposed upon them under the Environmental Protection Agency Pretreatment Rule. The only need for any routine sampling would be as a result of an upset to the Lockheed Wastewater Treatment Plant.

  14. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. This volume contains the data from the Background Soil Characterization Project. When available, the following validation qualifiers are used in the appendixes. When validation qualifiers are not available, the corresponding contract laboratory data qualifiers appearing on the next page are used.

  15. Wastewater characterization survey, Victor Valley Wastewater Reclamation Authority and hazardous-waste survey at George AFB, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Binovi, R.D.; Ng, E.K.; Tetla, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This is a report of a survey of the Victor Wastewater Reclamation Authority Sewerage system, the sewage treatment plant, and effluent from the various operations at George AFB, California. The scope of work included the characterization of the wastewater from George AFB, as well as characterization of effluents from 29 oil/water separators servicing industrial operations on base, flow measurements at three locations on base, a microbiological evaluation of aeration basin foam, bench-scale activated-sludge studies, and a review of results from previous surveys. Recommendations: (1) AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming Foam) should never be discharged to the sewer. (2) Programming for pretreatment should proceed at selected operations. (3) More waste and wastestream analysis be performed. (4) Upgrade waste accumulation points. (5) Implement an aggressive inspection program for oil/water separators. (6) Cut down on nonessential washing.

  16. Remote sensing data exploiration for geologic characterization of difficult targets : Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 38703 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Costin, Laurence S.; Walker, Charles A.; Lappin, Allen R.; Hayat, Majeed M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Ford, Bridget K.; Paskaleva, Biliana (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Moya, Mary M.; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Stormont, John C.; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2003-09-01

    Characterizing the geology, geotechnical aspects, and rock properties of deep underground facility sites can enhance targeting strategies for both nuclear and conventional weapons. This report describes the results of a study to investigate the utility of remote spectral sensing for augmenting the geological and geotechnical information provided by traditional methods. The project primarily considered novel exploitation methods for space-based sensors, which allow clandestine collection of data from denied sites. The investigation focused on developing and applying novel data analysis methods to estimate geologic and geotechnical characteristics in the vicinity of deep underground facilities. Two such methods, one for measuring thermal rock properties and one for classifying rock types, were explored in detail. Several other data exploitation techniques, developed under other projects, were also examined for their potential utility in geologic characterization.

  17. Characterization of propagation and communication properties of the natural and artificially disturbed ionosphere. Final report, September 1990-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Reinisch, B.W.; Sales, G.S.; Brent, R.; Ostergaard, J.; Huang, Y.

    1995-05-01

    This basic research project, conducted during the period starting 12 September 1990 and ending 12 December 1994, studied the effects of natural and artificial ionospheric disturbances on HF and VHF propagation and communication. This project was reasonably divided into two parts where each stood by itself; VHF meteor scatter investigation and HF ionospheric modification studies. In addition to these two studies, a third study was later added to the project to include a Joint Electromagnetic Warfare Center (JEWC) electromagnetic wave propagation and signal loss study. Each of these studies are addressed independently within this final report.

  18. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Steele, L. P.; Mühle, J.; Rigby, M.; Salameh, P. K.; Leist, M.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-02-01

    The first atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 38 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.18 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012) for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.28 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m-2, which is 3.6% of the total PFC radiative forcing. The globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs during 1973-2011 are 4.58 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015) per year (yr) for C4F10, 3.29 ppq yr-1 for C5F12, 7.50 ppq yr-1 for C6F14, 3.19 ppq yr-1 for C7F16 and 2.51 ppq yr-1 for C8F18. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the early 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12 and in the mid-to-late 1990s for C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18. The more recent slow down in the growth rates of the high molecular weight PFCs suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s. Nevertheless continued monitoring of these potent, extremely long-lived greenhouse gases is necessary to verify that global PFC emissions continue to decline.

  19. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Steele, L. P.; Mühle, J.; Rigby, M.; Salameh, P. K.; Leist, M.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.17 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012) for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m-2, which is 6% of the total anthropogenic PFC radiative forcing (Montzka and Reimann, 2011; Oram et al., 2012). The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the late 1990s peaking at 6.2 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015) per year (yr) for C4F10, at 5.0 ppq yr-1 for C5F12 and 16.6 ppq yr-1 for C6F14 and in the early 1990s for C7F16 at 4.7 ppq yr-1 and in the mid 1990s for C8F18 at 4.8 ppq yr-1. The 2011 globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs are subsequently lower at 2.2 ppq yr-1 for C4F10, 1.4 ppq yr-1 for C5F12, 5.0 ppq yr-1 for C6F14, 3.4 ppq yr-1 for C7F16 and 0.9 ppq yr-1 for C8F18. The more recent slowdown in the growth rates suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s.

  20. Gene-Silencing Screen for Mammalian Axon Regeneration Identifies Inpp5f (Sac2) as an Endogenous Suppressor of Repair after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yixiao; Stagi, Massimiliano; Wang, Xingxing; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Siegel, Chad S.; Nakatsu, Fubito; Cafferty, William B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Axonal growth and neuronal rewiring facilitate functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Known interventions that promote neural repair remain limited in their functional efficacy. To understand genetic determinants of mammalian CNS axon regeneration, we completed an unbiased RNAi gene-silencing screen across most phosphatases in the genome. We identified one known and 17 previously unknown phosphatase suppressors of injury-induced CNS axon growth. Silencing Inpp5f (Sac2) leads to robust enhancement of axon regeneration and growth cone reformation. Results from cultured Inpp5f−/− neurons confirm lentiviral shRNA results from the screen. Consistent with the nonoverlapping substrate specificity between Inpp5f and PTEN, rapamycin does not block enhanced regeneration in Inpp5f−/− neurons, implicating mechanisms independent of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Inpp5f−/− mice develop normally, but show enhanced anatomical and functional recovery after mid-thoracic dorsal hemisection injury. More serotonergic axons sprout and/or regenerate caudal to the lesion level, and greater numbers of corticospinal tract axons sprout rostral to the lesion. Functionally, Inpp5f-null mice exhibit enhanced recovery of motor functions in both open-field and rotarod tests. This study demonstrates the potential of an unbiased high-throughput functional screen to identify endogenous suppressors of CNS axon growth after injury, and reveals Inpp5f (Sac2) as a novel suppressor of CNS axon repair after spinal cord injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The extent of axon regeneration is a critical determinant of neurological recovery from injury, and is extremely limited in the adult mammalian CNS. We describe an unbiased gene-silencing screen that uncovered novel molecules suppressing axonal regeneration. Inpp5f (Sac2) gene deletion promoted recovery from spinal cord injury with no side effects. The mechanism of action is distinct from another lipid phosphatase implicated in regeneration

  1. Characterization of a defective interfering RNA that contains a mosaic of a plant viral genome. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.J.; Jackson, A.O.

    1991-12-31

    Our lab was the first to describe and characterize a defective interfering RNA (DI RNAs or DIs) in association with a small RNA plant virus. The features of the DIs that we discovered in infections of tomato bushy stunt virus were compatible with the properties of DIs identified in many animal virus infections. Animal virologists have generally recognized the importance of studying DIs because they are invaluable tools for identifying cis-acting sequences important in virus multiplication and because they offer the opportunity to elucidate mechanisms involved in viral persistence and disease attenuation. Hence our discovery offered a comparably valuable tool for use in plant virus studies for the first time. Since then, we have also discovered the second example of plant viral DI RNAs associated with turnip crinkle virus (TCV), a virus structurally related to TBSV. We proposed a thorough characterization of this unique class of symptom modulating RNAs with the overall objective of identifying viral RNA nucleotide, sequences involved in such fundamental processes as virus replication and encapsidation as well as the degree of symptom expression resulting from the viral-DI-host interaction. The proposed research focused on the molecular characterization of the DI RNAs and the helper virus. We had demonstrated that the DIs were collinear deletion mutants of the genome of a cherry strain of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV). We had also shown that these low molecular weight RNAs interfered with the helper plant virus and modulated disease expression by preventing the development of a lethal necrotic disease in susceptible host plants. We also suggested that by exploring the mechanisms associated with the symptom attenuation effect, we might be able to devise novel strategies useful for engineering viral disease resistance.

  2. Storm-water characterization and lagoon sediment analysis, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, J.G.; Vaughn, R.W.; Scott, P.T.

    1990-08-01

    Sampling was conducted in the wastewater treatment lagoons and stormwater runoff at Grand Forks AFB. The base was concerned about whether the unlined lagoons were creating a potential groundwater contamination problem and whether their stormwater runoff met North Dakota state stream standards. Lagoon sediment did not contain Extraction Procedure hazardous chemicals. Stormwater runoff exceeded state standards for boron, phosphates, and phenols and contained trace levels of methylene chloride. Characterization of lagoon influent showed it to be generally representative of domestic sewage, but also contained trace levels of boron, phenols, toluene, cyanide, chloroform, methylene chloride and ethyl benzene.

  3. Demonstration, testing and evaluation of nonintrusive characterization technologies at operable Unit 2 of Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution (HR) seismic reflection evaluation was conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), near Golden, Colorado, to demonstrate the applicability of nonintrusive characterization techniques to detect buried objects, contamination, and geological/hydrological features at RFP. The evaluation was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) request for demonstration, testing and evaluation (DT&E) of nonintrusive techniques, under DOE Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) No. DE-RA05-09OR22000.

  4. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan (site investigation study). Final draft. Task 2. Milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    Phase II of a 5-phase overall compressed air energy storage (CAES) development program was performed to characterize and explore potential CAES sites and to prepare a research and development plan. This volume for Phase II activities contains an evaluation of the suitability of seven selected sites to undergo field drilling and air injection testing; a bibliography; results of a literature search on the effects of air injection of aquifer-caprock well systems; reservoir data for the sites; cost estimates; and predicted potential risks from a CAES plant. (LCL)

  5. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared.

  6. Production Test N-611 and N-614 emergency cooling/fog spray supply characterization tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, K.R.; Kelly, W.S.; Zaloudek, F.R.

    1989-05-01

    The results of Production Tests N-611 and N-614 (PTN-611 and PTN-614), Emergency Cooling/Fog Spray Supply Characterization Tests are reported. These production tests consisted of 21 individual tests designed to characterize the diesel-driven pumps and piping sections in the emergency core cooling system (ECCS), the fog spray systems, and the effluent disposal systems. Production Test N-614 included demineralized water and filtered water tank drawdowns and emergency raw water tank fillups to calibrate flow measurement devices in the RWS-2 and the ECCS, and tests to establish the performance of the high-lift fog spray diesel-driven pumps. It also demonstrated operation of the low-lift diesel-driven pumps with the river flow at the minimum release rate allowed by the operating license for Priest Rapids Dam. The tank drawdown data was also used to determine loss coefficients in piping between the demineralized water storage tank and the high-lift diesel-driven pumps. Other tests provided information on the division of the low lift flow between the silo and the RWS-2, and on the performance of the low-lift diesel-driven pumps. 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Advanced NMR approaches in the characterization of coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1993-09-30

    This project addressed two main goals and one much smaller one. The main goals were (1) to improve the significance, reliability and information content in high-resolution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) characterization of coal samples and (2) to develop chemically informative NMR imaging techniques for coal. The minor goal was to explore advanced features of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) as a technique for coal characterization; this included the development of two DNP probes and the examination of DNP characteristics of various carbonaceous samples, including coals. {sup 13}C NMR advances for coal depended on large-sample MAS devices, employing either cross-polarization (CP) or direct polarization (DP) approaches. CP and DP spin dynamics and their relationships to quantitation and spin counting were elucidated. {sup 1}H NMR studies, based on CRAMPS, dipolar dephasing and saturation with perdeuteropyridine, led to a {sup 1}H NMR-based elucidation of chemical functionality in coal. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR imaging techniques, based on magic-angle spinning and rotating magnetic field gradients, were developed for introducing chemical shift information (hence, chemical detail) into the spatial imaging of coal. The TREV multiple-pulse sequence was found to be useful in the {sup 1}H CRAMPS imaging of samples like coal.

  8. Waste-water characterization survey, Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri. Final report, 28 Oct-7 Nov 91

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, M.K.; Davis, R.P.

    1992-08-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted by members of the Armstrong Laboratory Occupational and Environmental Health directorate Water Quality Function from 28 Oct 91 - 7 Nov 91 at Whiteman AFB, MO. The purpose of the survey was to identify and characterize the wastewater, determine the appropriateness of present disposal methods, determine the need for routine sampling or monitoring and recommend parameters for wastewater analysis. Results of the sampling showed metals and volatile organic discharge in varying concentrations throughout the base. Recommendations are: (1) evaluation of industrial operations and chemical disposal procedures at designated sites; (2) routine monitoring of the discharge from the Hospital and Audiovisual for silver; (3) excavation and sediment disposal at the Transportation Washrack and WWTP Effluent discharge point; (4) collection and analyses of sludge at oil water separators, to include the oil and water side; (5) evaluation of the sanitary sewer system for corrosion and sediment buildup by a mobile Reveal and Seal Unit; (6) background soil sample collection and analyses; and (7) pretreatment of Aqueous Film Forming Foam discharge and notification of the Base Bioenvironmental Engineer, Environmental Coordinator, and WWTP personnel when discharge occurs.

  9. Thermal and Chemical Characterization of Composite Materials. MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Project No. ED36-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, D. C.; Huff, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to: (1) provide a concise and well-defined property profile of current and developing composite materials using thermal and chemical characterization techniques and (2) optimize analytical testing requirements of materials. This effort applied a diverse array of methodologies to ascertain composite material properties. Often, a single method of technique will provide useful, but nonetheless incomplete, information on material composition and/or behavior. To more completely understand and predict material properties, a broad-based analytical approach is required. By developing a database of information comprised of both thermal and chemical properties, material behavior under varying conditions may be better understood. THis is even more important in the aerospace community, where new composite materials and those in the development stage have little reference data. For example, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy spectral databases available for identification of vapor phase spectra, such as those generated during experiments, generally refer to well-defined chemical compounds. Because this method renders a unique thermal decomposition spectral pattern, even larger, more diverse databases, such as those found in solid and liquid phase FTIR spectroscopy libraries, cannot be used. By combining this and other available methodologies, a database specifically for new materials and materials being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center can be generated . In addition, characterizing materials using this approach will be extremely useful in the verification of materials and identification of anomalies in NASA-wide investigations.

  10. Baseline characterization of combustion products at the GRI (Gas Research Institute) conventional research house. Final report, October 1987-May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, N.P.; Ghassan, P.G.; Krug, E.K.

    1989-08-01

    The Gas Research Institute has arranged to conduct a series of experiments in an unoccupied research house to evaluate indoor air quality in relation to various space-conditioning systems and control strategies. Baseline trace combustion-product characterization experiments were completed, and a detailed analysis of experiment results was performed. Results of the baseline characterization and unvented space-heater experiments were compared with previously acquired data at other houses. Results show a low NO{sub 2} decay constant and a moderate infiltration rate. A blower door test and perfluorocarbon tracer gas experiments were also performed. Results of these experiments confirm an average to low infiltration rate for this house and are consistent with results obtained by the SF{sub 6} tracer decay method. Range hood experiments show effective capture of range emissions but poor capture of oven emissions, due to the location of the oven away from the range and hood. The emission rates of combustion products from the range, oven, and fan-forced unvented space heater were determined using a probe test and a hood test. Emission rates for appliances were within the expected range based on published results.

  11. Superconductive organic polymers: Conceptual design, synthesis, and characterization. Final technical report, 30 September 1992-30 September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Elsenbaumer, R.L.; Marynick, D.S.; Pomerantz, M.; Sharma, S.C.

    1997-05-27

    Here are significant findings of the project for period September 92-96. Theoretical studies indicate that extended chains consisting of isomeric TTF structures have electronic properties and stabilities comparable to TTF extended structures and are therefore of considerable interest as possible polymeric organic superconductive compositions. Synthetic strategies were developed to prepare polymeric TTF and isomeric TTF structures. Dramatically simplified synthetic procedures were developed to prepare TTF and ET-TTF donors in high yield and large quantities from inexpensive starting materials. Developed new techniques to purify, characterize and grow large single crystals of TTF and ET-TTF. Synthesized new organic conductive polymers with good electrical conductivities and processibility. Developed new processing and doping techniques for polyalkylthiophenes to provide consistently high conductivity materials.

  12. Statistical methodology and assessment of seismic event characterization capability. Final report, 2 June 1993-2 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, M.D.; Gray, H.L.; McCartor, G.D.

    1995-10-31

    This project has focused on developing and applying statistical methods to perform seismic event characterization/identification and on quantifying capabilities with regard to monitoring of a Comprehensive Test Ban. An automated procedure is described to categorize seismic events, based on multivariate analysis of features derived from seismic waveforms. Second, preliminary event identification results are presented for a seismic event which occurred on 5 January 1995 in the Southern Ural Mountains region. Third, various statistics are compiled regarding 1786 seismic events which occurred between 11 January 1995 and 12 February 1995 and were detected by a set of 30 GSETT-3 Alpha stations. Fourth, a fundamental problem is addressed of how to utilize multivariate discriminant data from a multistation network in order to optimize the power of the outlier test for fixed false alarm rate.

  13. Performance analysis and characterization of the Lumonics Inc. HyperDYE-300 laser-pumped dye laser. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.S.; Davenport, W.E.; Ehrlich, J.J.

    1990-07-11

    The laser analyzed in this research, the Lumonics, Inc. HyperDYE-300 laser pumped dye laser, was procured via the FSTC D650 Program and was characterized in order to support the technology development of that program. The dye laser was pumped with a Neodymium:YAG q-switched laser and it utilized Rhodamine-6G in methanol. It was found to be tunable from about 545 nm to 590 nm and produced a maximum ouput energy of 56 percent of the pump beam energy. The analysis involved the measuring of optimum dye/solvent concentration, output energy versus tunability, optical efficiency versus tunability, temporal and spatial profiles, beam divergence, linewidth, and amplified spontaneous emission versus laser emission.

  14. Electroseismic characterization of lithology and fluid type in the shallow subsurface. Final report, January 15, 1995--January 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Haartsen, M.W.; Mikhailov, O.V.; Queen, J.H.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy funded the M.I.T. Earth Resources Laboratory to investigate electroseismic phenomena. Because electroseismic phenomena in fluid-saturated porous media provide geophysicists with a unique opportunity to detect a seismic-wave-generated flow of pore fluid with respect to the porous matrix. The term {open_quotes}electroseismic{close_quotes} describes phenomena in which a seismic wave induces an electrical field or causes radiation of an electromagnetic wave. Electroseismic phenomena take place in fluid-saturated porous rocks, because the pore fluid carries an excess electrical charge. When the charged pore fluid is forced to flow through the rock by pressure gradients within a seismic wave, a streaming electrical current is generated. This electrical current results in charge separation, which induces an electrical field. Measuring this seismic-wave-induced electrical field allows detection of the fluid flow generated by the wave in the porous medium. In turn, detecting the fluid flow allows characterization of fluid transport properties of the medium. The major contribution of our research is in the following three areas: (1) Theory. Theoretical models of various electroseismic phenomena in fluid-saturated porous media were developed. Numerical algorithms were developed for modeling electroseismic measurements in surface (Paper 1 in this report) and VSP (Paper 2) geometries. A closed-form analytical expression was obtained for the logging geometry (Paper 8). The major result is the theoretical models` prediction that porosity, permeability, and fluid chemistry can be characterized using electroseismic measurements; (2) Laboratory Experiments. A number of laboratory experiments were performed in surface (Paper 4), VSP (Paper 4), and logging (Paper 5) geometries. In addition, conversion of electrical energy into seismic energy was investigated (Paper 6), and (3) Field Measurements.

  15. Identification and characterization of conservative organic tracers for use as hydrologic tracers for the Yucca Mountain site characterization study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stetzenbach, K.; Farnham, I.

    1996-06-01

    Extensive tracer testing is expected to take place at the C-well complex in the Nevada Test Site as part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The C-well complex consists of one pumping well, C3, and two injection wells, C1 and C2 into which tracer will be introduced. The goal of this research was to provide USGS with numerous tracers to completed these tests. Several classes of fluorinated organic acids have been evaluated. These include numerous isomers of fluorinated benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, and salicylic acids. Also several derivatives of 2-hydroxy nicotinic acid (pyridone) have been tested. The stability of these compounds was determined using batch and column tests. Ames testing (mutagenicity/carcinogenicity) was conducted on the fluorinated benzoic acids and a literature review of toxicity of the fluorobenzoates and three perfluoro aliphatic acids was prepared. Solubilities were measured and method development work was performed to optimize the detection of these compounds. A Quality Assurance (QA) Program was developed under existing DOE and USGS guidelines. The program includes QA procedures and technical standard operating procedures. A tracer test, using sodium iodide, was performed at the C-well complex. HRC chemists performed analyses on site, to provide real time data for the USGS hydrologists and in the laboratories at UNLV. Over 2,500 analyses were performed. This report provides the results of the laboratory experiments and literature reviews used to evaluate the potential tracers and reports on the results of the iodide C-well tracer test.

  16. Background Characterization and Discrimination in the Final Analysis of the CDMS II Phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, Matthew C.

    2011-02-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is designed to detectWeakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in the Milky Way halo. The phase known as CDMS II was performed in the Soudan Underground Laboratory. The final set of CDMS II data, collected in 2007-8 and referred to as Runs 125-8, represents the largest exposure to date for the experiment. We seek collisions between WIMPs and atomic nuclei in disk-shaped germanium and silicon detectors. A key design feature is to keep the rate of collisions from known particles producing WIMP-like signals very small. The largest category of such background is interactions with electrons in the detectors that occur very close to one of the faces of the detector. The next largest category is collisions between energetic neutrons that bypass the experimental shielding and nuclei in the detectors. Analytical efforts to discriminate these backgrounds and to estimate the rate at which such discrimination fails have been refined and improved throughout each phase of CDMS. Next-generation detectors for future phases of CDMS require testing at cryogenic test facilities. One such facility was developed at the University of Minnesota in 2007 and has been used continuously since then to test detectors for the next phase of the experiment, known as SuperCDMS.

  17. Global emission estimates and radiative impact of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Rigby, M.; Baasandorj, M.; Burkholder, J. B.; Prinn, R. G.

    2012-05-01

    Global emission estimates based on new atmospheric observations are presented for the acylic high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C4F10), dodecafluoropentane (C5F12), tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14), hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16) and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18). Emissions are estimated using a 3-dimensional chemical transport model and an inverse method that includes a growth constraint on emissions. The observations used in the inversion are based on newly measured archived air samples that cover a 39-yr period, from 1973 to 2011, and include 36 Northern Hemispheric and 46 Southern Hemispheric samples (Ivy et al., 2012). The derived emission estimates show that global emission rates were largest in the 1980s and 1990s for C4F10 and C5F12, and in the 1990s for C6F14,C7F16 and C8F18. After a subsequent decline, emissions have remained relatively stable, within 20%, for the last 5 yr. Bottom-up emission estimates are available from the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research version 4.2 (EDGARv4.2) for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14 and C7F16, and inventories of C4F10, C5F12 andC6F14 are reported to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) by Annex 1 countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The atmospheric measurement based emission estimates are 20 times larger than EDGARv4.2 for C4F10 and over three orders of magnitude for C5F12. The derived emission estimates for C6F14 largely agree with the bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.2. Moreover, the C7F16 emission estimates are comparable to those of EDGARv4.2 at their peak in the 1990s, albeit significant underestimation for the other time periods. There are no bottom-up emission estimates for C8F18, thus the emission rates reported here are the first for C8F18. The reported inventories for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 to UNFCCC are five to ten times lower than those estimated in this study. In addition, we present measured infrared absorption spectra for C7F16 and C8

  18. Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: Shining light on short-lived forbidden 5f transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M.; Yang, P.; D'Aleo, A.; Abergel, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (AmIII) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for AmIII, generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very short lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10–3 to 10–2%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of AmIII assigned to the 5D17F1 f–f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formed with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these AmIII complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.

  19. Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: Shining light on short-lived forbidden 5f transitions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M.; Yang, P.; D'Aleo, A.; Abergel, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (AmIII) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for AmIII, generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very short lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10–3 to 10–2%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of AmIII assigned to the 5D1 → 7F1 f–f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formedmore » with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these AmIII complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects.« less

  20. Intramolecular sensitization of americium luminescence in solution: shining light on short-lived forbidden 5f transitions.

    PubMed

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, M; Yang, P; D'Aléo, A; Abergel, R J

    2016-06-14

    The photophysical properties and solution thermodynamics of water soluble trivalent americium (Am(III)) complexes formed with multidentate chromophore-bearing ligands, 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), Enterobactin, and 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO), were investigated. The three chelators were shown to act as antenna chromophores for Am(III), generating sensitized luminescence emission from the metal upon complexation, with very short lifetimes ranging from 33 to 42 ns and low luminescence quantum yields (10(-3) to 10(-2)%), characteristic of Near Infra-Red emitters in similar systems. The specific emission peak of Am(III) assigned to the (5)D1 → (7)F1 f-f transition was exploited to characterize the high proton-independent stability of the complex formed with the most efficient sensitizer 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), with a log β110 = 20.4 ± 0.2 value. In addition, the optical and solution thermodynamic features of these Am(III) complexes, combined with density functional theory calculations, were used to probe the influence of electronic structure on coordination properties across the f-element series and to gain insight into ligand field effects. PMID:26961598

  1. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K55.c (L-(+)-Valine): Characterization of organic substances for chemical purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Choteau, Tiphaine; Daireaux, Adeline; Wielgosz, Robert; Davies, Stephen; Moad, Michael; Chan, Benjamin; Muñoz, Amalia; Conneely, Patrick; Ricci, Marina; Pires do Rego, Eliane Cristina; Garrido, Bruno C.; Violante, Fernando G. M.; Windust, Anthony; Dai, Xinhua; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei; Su, Fuhai; Quan, Can; Wang, Haifeng; Lo, Man-fung; Wong, Wai-fun; Gantois, Fanny; Lalerle, Béatrice; Dorgerloh, Ute; Koch, Matthias; Klyk-Seitz, Urszula-Anna; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Philipp, Rosemarie; Piechotta, Christian; Recknagel, Sebastian; Rothe, Robert; Yamazaki, Taichi; Zakaria, Osman Bin; Castro, E.; Balderas, M.; González, N.; Salazar, C.; Regalado, L.; Valle, E.; Rodríguez, L.; Ángel Laguna, L.; Ramírez, P.; Avila, M.; Ibarra, J.; Valle, L.; Pérez, M.; Arce, M.; Mitani, Y.; Konopelko, L.; Krylov, A.; Lopushanskaya, E.; Tang Lin, Teo; Liu, Qinde; Tong Kooi, Lee; Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Prevoo-Franzsen, Désirée; Nhlapo, Nontete; Visser, Ria; Kim, Byungjoo; Lee, Hwashim; Kankaew, Pornhatai; Pookrod, Preeyaporn; Sudsiri, Nittaya; Shearman, Kittiya; Ceyhan Gören, Ahmet; Bilsel, Gökhan; Yilmaz, Hasibe; Bilsel, Mine; Çergel, Muhiddin; Gonca Çoskun, Fatma; Uysal, Emrah; Gündüz, Simay; Ün, Ilker; Warren, John; Bearden, Daniel W.; Bedner, Mary; Duewer, David L.; Lang, Brian E.; Lippa, Katrice A.; Schantz, Michele M.; Sieber, John R.

    2014-01-01

    . There was overall excellent agreement between participants in the identification and the quantification of the total and individual related structure impurities, water content, residual solvent and total non-volatile content of the sample. Appropriate technical justifications were developed to rationalise observed discrepancies in the limited cases where methodology differences led to inconsistent results. The comparison demonstrated that to perform a qNMR purity assignment the selection of appropriate parameters and an understanding of their potential influence on the assigned value is critical for reliable implementation of the method, particularly when one or more of the peaks to be quantified consist of complex multiplet signals. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries (including shape characterization). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pendse, H.P.; Goetz, P.J.; Sharma, A.; Han, W; Bliss, T.C.

    1996-10-01

    The overall goal of the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) sensor projects was to develop and commercialize a sensor system capable of particle analysis, in terms of size distributions, using concentrated suspensions at high solids concentrations. The early research was focused on application of ultrasonic spectroscopy of inorganic pigment slurries (e.g. titanium dioxide) commonly encountered on paper industry. During the project prototypes were tested in both academic and industrial laboratories. Work also involved successful field tests of the on-line prototype at a pigment manufacturing facility. Pen Kem continued the work at its cost beyond the initial funded period from March `92 to September `94. The first project (DE- FC05-88CE40684), which began in September 1988, culminated in a commercial laboratory instrument, Pen Kem AcoustoPhor {trademark} 8000, put on the market in June 1993. The follow-on project was aimed at investigation of shape and orientation effects on ultrasonic spectroscopy. A new cooperative agreement was awarded in September 1994 (DE-FC05-94CE40005) to develop shape characterization capabilities deemed critical by the clay industry. This follow-on project achieved following successes: A theoretical model was developed to account for the effects of size-dependent aspect ratios of spheroid particles under different orientations on ultrasound attenuation spectra of concentrated slurries. The theoretical model was confirmed by laboratory tests on kaolin slurries. An algorithm was developed to simulate evolution of particle orientation fields in simple squeezing flows.

  3. Characterization of Amorphous Silicon Advanced Materials and PV Devices: Final Technical Report, 15 December 2001--31 January 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P. C.

    2005-11-01

    The major objectives of this subcontract have been: (1) understand the microscopic properties of the defects that contribute to the Staebler-Wronski effect to eliminate this effect, (2) perform correlated studies on films and devices made by novel techniques, especially those with promise to improve stability or deposition rates, (3) understand the structural, electronic, and optical properties of films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) made on the boundary between the amorphous and microcrystalline phases, (4) search for more stable intrinsic layers of a-Si:H, (5) characterize the important defects, impurities, and metastabilities in the bulk and at surfaces and interfaces in a-Si:H films and devices and in important alloy systems, and (6) make state-of-the-art plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) devices out of new, advanced materials, when appropriate. All of these goals are highly relevant to improving photovoltaic devices based on a-Si:H and related alloys. With regard to the first objective, we have identified a paired hydrogen site that may be the defect that stabilizes the silicon dangling bonds formed in the Staebler-Wronski effect.

  4. Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from environmental monitoring and site characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1996-10-01

    This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.

  5. Cloud and aerosol characterization for the ARM central facility: Multiple remote sensor techniques development. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, K.

    1993-11-01

    In support of the initial phase of the Instrument Development Program (IDP) of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, the authors have researched the means by which multiple remote sensing techniques could be best applied to characterizing the cloudy atmosphere. This research has directly supported the short-term goal of aiding in the selection of the most appropriate instrumentation for ARM Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites, but also has more long-term consequences for the application of remote sensing for measuring cloud properties of crucial concern to general circulation and climate models. To accomplish the goals they have (1) developed a mobile, state-of-the-art, scanning polarization diversity lidar (PDL) to test a variety of techniques for cloud remote sensing, including simultaneous dual-wavelength and dual-polarization, and high-speed variable field-of-view operations; (2) successfully participated in field projects using the PDL along with other remote sensors and instrumented aircraft to obtain detailed datasets for the testing of instrument techniques; (3) in collaboration with researchers at the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory, used numerical cloud modeling and empirical studies to develop and refine remote sensing approaches for cloud property retrieval.

  6. Waste water/storm water characterization survey, Willow Grove Air Reserve Facility, Pennsylvania. Final report, 15-26 Jul 91

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, R.P.

    1992-03-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted at Willow Grove Air Reserve Facility from 15-26 July 1991 by personnel from the Water Quality Function of Armstrong Laboratory. Quantitative data were also collected after a rain event to assess the quality of the water in the storm water holding pond. Sampling of the oil/water separators was also performed and recommendations were made concerning good management practices to implement to maintain the separators. Slight contamination of the wastewater discharged from the Facility was found, indicating the base is using good shop practices to minimize the disposal of industrial wastes through the sanitary sewer system. Results of the storm water sampling showed that the quality of the water in the holding pond was not greatly impacted by storm water runoff from the industrial areas on the Facility. A recommendation was made to install a pollution control device on the drain at the Bulk Fuels Storage Area. One oil/water separator was found to contain oil that had hazardous waste characteristics. All others had oil that was suitable for energy recovery.

  7. Waste-water characterization survey, McChord Air Force Base, Washington. Final report, 18-30 Sep 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.P.

    1990-08-01

    At the request of USAF Hosp McChord/SGPB, The Air Force Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory, Environmental Quality Function (AFOEHL/EQE) conducted a basewide wastewater characterization study. Recommendations include: (1) The base should use BEE chemical-use documents or other environmental audit information (ECAMP) to identify specific sources of methylene chloride. (2) Determine if the Commissary, Castle and Ranier Dining Halls, NCO and O'Club have grease traps to catch the oil and grease from cooking; if they do perform routine maintenance; if they do not then install them as a solution to lower the oil and grease levels. (3) Perform routine maintenance on oil/water separators. This should lower the petroleum hydrocarbon levels going into the storm and sanitary sewer. Install or perform routine maintenance on grease traps. These steps may lower the oil and grease level going into the sanitary or storm sewer. (4) Monitor the pH of the oil/water separators that discharge into Clover Creek and into the sewage treatment plant because pH is regulated by a NPDES permit leaving Fort Lewis Sewage Treatment Plant. (5) Collect additional samples from the listing of shops in the conclusion for volatile aromatics and halocarbons.

  8. Analysis of POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 in gonocytes of patients with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Cortés-Trujillo, Lucero; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Vázquez, Francisco García; Carrasco-Daza, Daniel; Cuevas-Alpuche, Osvaldo; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César

    2015-10-01

    Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for the development of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). The most common type of TGCT in cryptorchidism is seminoma. The intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (ITGCNU) is a histological pattern preceding the development of seminomas and non-seminomas. It was suggested that in patients with cryptorchidism, the gonocytes remained undifferentiated with pluripotent abilities expressing proteins like POU domain class 5 transcription factor 1 (POU5F1), tyrosine kinase receptor c-Kit, placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), the transcription factor AP2γ and sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) that confer to the gonocytes this ability and therefore make them susceptible to develop ITGCNU. The aim of the present study was to determine if the gonocytes of patients with cryptorchidism express POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 proteins after their differentiation period. Based on this, we evaluated samples of testicular tissue from newborns to 16-year old subjects with or without cryptorchidism in search of POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4 using immunocytochemical method, the results of which were validated by RT-PCR. The results showed that control subjects witnessed a down-regulation in the expression of these five proteins in the first year of life, which eventually disappeared. On the other hand, it was determined that 21.6% (8/37) of the patients with cryptorchidism continued to express, at least, one of the proteins analyzed in this study after the second year of life. And only 5.4% (2/37) of the patients were positive to the five markers. These data sustain the proposed hypothesis that in cryptorchid patients, ITGCNU arises from gonocytes that fail in their differentiation process to spermatogonia with conservation of the proteins (POU5F1, c-Kit, PLAP, AP2γ and SALL4) that maintain pluripotency and undifferentiated characteristics and which are responsible for making the gonocytes susceptible to malignancy. However, we

  9. TESTING OF ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING OF SRS ACTUAL WASTE TANK 5F AND TANK 12H SLUDGES

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, C.; King, W.

    2011-08-22

    Forty three of the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have internal structures that hinder removal of the last approximately five thousand gallons of waste sludge solely by mechanical means. Chemical cleaning can be utilized to dissolve the sludge heel with oxalic acid (OA) and pump the material to a separate waste tank in preparation for final disposition. This dissolved sludge material is pH adjusted downstream of the dissolution process, precipitating the sludge components along with sodium oxalate solids. The large quantities of sodium oxalate and other metal oxalates formed impact downstream processes by requiring additional washing during sludge batch preparation and increase the amount of material that must be processed in the tank farm evaporator systems and the Saltstone Processing Facility. Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) was identified as a potential method for greatly reducing the impact of oxalate additions to the SRS Tank Farms without adding additional components to the waste that would extend processing or increase waste form volumes. In support of Savannah River Site (SRS) tank closure efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted Real Waste Testing (RWT) to evaluate an alternative to the baseline 8 wt. % OA chemical cleaning technology for tank sludge heel removal. The baseline OA technology results in the addition of significant volumes of oxalate salts to the SRS tank farm and there is insufficient space to accommodate the neutralized streams resulting from the treatment of the multiple remaining waste tanks requiring closure. ECC is a promising alternative to bulk OA cleaning, which utilizes a more dilute OA (nominally 2 wt. % at a pH of around 2) and an oxalate destruction technology. The technology is being adapted by AREVA from their decontamination technology for Nuclear Power Plant secondary side scale removal. This report contains results from the SRNL small scale testing of the ECC process

  10. Final Report U.S. Department of Energy Joint Inversion of Geophysical Data for Site Characterization and Restoration Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.A.; Berryman, J.G.; Bertete-Aguirre, H.; Bonner, B.P.; Roberts, J.J.; Wildenschild, D.

    2000-07-31

    The purpose of this project was to conduct basic research leading to significant improvements in the state-of-the-art of geophysical imaging of the shallow subsurface. Geophysical techniques are commonly used for underground imaging for site characterization and restoration monitoring. in order to improve subsurface imaging, the objective was to develop improved methods for interpreting geophysical data collected in the field, by developing better methods for relating measured geophysical properties, such as seismic velocity and electrical conductivity, to hydrogeology parameters of interest such as porosity, saturation, and soil composition. They met the objectives using an approach that combined laboratory experiments, comparison to available field data, rock physics theories, and modeling, to find relationships between geophysical measurements, hydrogeological parameters and soil composition. The primary accomplishments of this project in the last year (FY99) were that they completed the laboratory measurements of ultrasonic velocities in soils at low pressures and the measurements of complex electrical conductivity in those same soils; they used x-ray computed microtomography to image the microstructure of several soil samples; they used rock physics theories and modeling to relate the geophysical measurements to the microstructure and hydrological properties; they developed a theoretical technique for relating compressional and shear wave velocities to fluid distribution in porous media; they showed how electrical conductivity is related to clay content and microstructure; they developed an inversion algorithm for inferring soil composition given compressional and shear wave velocities and tested the algorithm on synthetic field seismic data; they completed two patent applications; they wrote three journal papers; and they made 15 presentations of their results at eight scientific meetings.

  11. Detection and Characterization of Chemicals Present in Tank Waste - Final Report - 09/15/1998 - 09/14/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, Panos G.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2001-09-14

    DOE has a strong commitment to the efficient and safe remediation of waste (high level radioactive waste, mixed waste, and hazardous waste) present in underground waste storage tanks. Safety issues arise from the presence of organic chemicals and oxidizers and concerns are raised about the flammability, explosivity, and the possible corrosion of storage tanks due to presence of nitrates and nitrites. Knowledge of the physical parameters and chemical and radioactive composition of waste is necessary for effective and safe tank remediation. New and improved characterization and monitoring of waste present in storage tanks is necessary. The overall goal of this project has been to develop and demonstrate novel multi-parameter micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors based on Si and SiNx microcantilever (MC) structures that are robust and can be used to simultaneously detect the presence of target chemicals (analytes) in a mixture, radiation emitted from radioactive materials, an d the heat generated by the absorption of photons of specific wavelength by the target analytes. The mechanisms by which adsorption, photophysical, photothermal processes cause stress in MC surfaces are better understood. Methods of applying a wide variety of chemically selective coatings have been developed specifically for miniaturized MC surfaces, and the response characteristic of the cantilever were shown to be altered dramatically and predictably through incorporation of these phases on the surfaces. By addressing sensitivity and liquid matrix issues, the spectroscopic approach promises to provide an essential element of specificity for integrated sensors. We discovered early in these studies that fundamental limitations exist regarding the degree to which adsorption of analytes on smooth surfaces cause stress and this significantly limits chemi-mechanical response. To circumvent this limitation a concerted effort was made to devise and test ways to nanostructure cantilever

  12. Characterization of hydrogen ingress in high-strength alloys. Final report, 15 September 1993-14 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, B.G.

    1995-11-01

    The ingress of hydrogen (H) in various high-strength alloys was investigated with a view to characterizing their susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement (HE). A potentiostatic pulse technique was applied to three Fe-base alloys (AerMet 100, H11, and A-286), two Cu-containing alloys (Be-Cu and alloy K-500), a superferritic stainless steel (Sea-Cure), and three Beta-Ti alloys (Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn, Beta-21S, and Beta-C) in 1 mol/L acetic acid-1 mol/L sodium acetate. The data were analyzed using a diffusion/trapping model to obtain the irreversible trapping constant (k) and H entry flux for each alloy. The order of the k values for AerMet 100, H11, and two high-strength steels previously studied (4340 and 18Ni) inversely parallels their threshold stress intensities for stress corrosion cracking. Likewise, the k values for the other alloys can be correlated with their observed resistances to HE according to the following groups: (1) alloy A-286,18Ni steel, H11, Be-Cu, and also alloy 718 from earlier work; (2) annealed/aged and direct aged alloy K-500; and (3) Ti alloys. The trapping characteristics of Sea-Cure could not be determined. However, the propensity of the S44660 alloy to undergo HE at cathodic protection potentials can be attributed to changes in the oxide that lead to a less restricted entry of H.

  13. Pressure-induced phase transition in La1–xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Fang, Y.; Yazici, D.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-09-15

    Electrical resistivity measurements on La1–xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8) have been performed under applied pressures up to 2.6 GPa from 2 K to room temperature. The superconducting transition temperature Tc of each sample significantly increases at a Sm-concentration dependent pressure Pt, indicating a pressure-induced phase transition from a low-Tc to a high-Tc phase. At ambient pressure, Tc increases dramatically from 2.8 K at x = 0.1 to 5.4 K at x = 0.8; however, the Tc values at P > Pt decrease slightly with x and Pt shifts to higher pressures with Sm substitution. In the normal state,more » semiconducting-like behavior is suppressed and metallic conduction is induced with increasing pressure in all of the samples. Furthermore, these results suggest that the pressure dependence of Tc for the BiS2-based superconductors is related to the lattice parameters at ambient pressure and enable us to estimate the evolution of Tc for SmO0.5F0.5BiS2 under pressure.« less

  14. Pressure-induced phase transition in La1 -xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Yazici, D.; White, B. D.; Maple, M. B.

    2015-09-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements on La1 -xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2 (x =0.1 ,0.3 ,0.6 ,0.8 ) have been performed under applied pressures up to 2.6 GPa from 2 K to room temperature. The superconducting transition temperature Tc of each sample significantly increases at a Sm-concentration-dependent pressure Pt, indicating a pressure-induced phase transition from a low-Tc to a high-Tc phase. At ambient pressure, Tc increases dramatically from 2.8 K at x =0.1 to 5.4 K at x =0.8 ; however, the Tc values at P >Pt decrease slightly with x , and Pt shifts to higher pressures with Sm substitution. In the normal state, semiconducting-like behavior is suppressed, and metallic conduction is induced with increasing pressure in all of the samples. These results suggest that the pressure dependence of Tc for the BiS2-based superconductors is related to the lattice parameters at ambient pressure and enable us to estimate the evolution of Tc for SmO0.5F0.5BiS2 under pressure.

  15. Final Report: DoE SBIR Phase 2 Low-Cost Small Diameter NMR Technologies for In-Situ Subsurface Characterization and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, David Oliver

    2010-09-03

    In this Phase 2 SBIR program, Vista Clara successfully developed and field-tested small diameter NNR logging tools for subsurface characterization and monitoring. This effort involved the design and development surface electronics, a winch with 470ft cable, and three interchangeable downhole probes: a 3.5â diameter borehole NMR probe, a 1.67â diameter borehole NMR probe, and a 2.5â diameter NMR probe that can be deployed using a Geoprobe direct push machine. The 3.5â probe was tested extensively over a 6 week period including 4â to 8â boreholes in Washington, Idaho, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, Connecticut and Massachusetts. The field test campaign was highly successful. The 1.67â probe was assembled, tested and calibrated in the laboratory. The 2.5â Geoprobe probe is in final assembly and testing at the time of this report. The completed Phase 2 R&D program has resulted in the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed in boreholes of 4â diameter, the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed in boreholes on 2â diameter, and the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed by a direct push machine. These small diameter tools make NMR logging technically and economically feasible, for the first time. Previously available NMR logging tools were developed for oilfield applications and are prohibitively large and expensive for the majority of near surface groundwater characterization problems.

  16. Dibenzothiopheno[6,5-b:6',5'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DBTTT): high-performance small-molecule organic semiconductor for field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Il; Chung, Jong Won; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Jiyoul; Jung, Ji Young; Koo, Bonwon; Lee, Bang-Lin; Lee, Soon W; Jin, Yong Wan; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2015-09-30

    We present the synthesis, characterization, and structural analysis of a thiophene-rich heteroacene, dibenzothiopheno[6,5-b:6',5'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DBTTT) as well as its application in field-effect transistors. The design of DBTTT is based on the enhancement of intermolecular charge transfer through strong S-S interactions. Crystal structure analysis showed that the intermolecular π-π distance is shortened and that the packing density is higher than those of the electronically equivalent benzene analogue, dinaphtho-[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT). The highest hole mobility we obtained in polycrystalline DBTTT thin-film transistors was 19.3 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1), six times higher than that of DNTT-based transistors. The observed isotropic angular mobilities and thermal stabilities at temperatures up to 140 °C indicate the great potential of DBTTT for attaining device uniformity and processability. PMID:25826228

  17. Ring Puckering Potentials of Three Fluorinated Cyclopentenes: C_5F_8, C_5HF_7, and C_5H_2F_6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, E. A.; Long, B. E.; Pringle, Wallace C.; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Cooke, S. A.; Ocola, Esther J.; Laane, Jaan

    2015-06-01

    A systematic study on the ring puckering potentials of three fluorinated cyclopentenes has been performed using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in tandem with quantum chemical calculations. Spectra between 8 GHz and 16 GHz have been measured for octafluorocyclopentene, 1H-heptafluorocyclopentene, and 1H,2H-hexafluorocyclopentene, where the hydrogens sequentially replace the fluorines on the sp^2 hybridized carbons. Rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants have been determined for the parent species and all 13C isotopologues. In regards to the ring puckering, double minimum potential, both cross state and intra-state transitions were observed for all molecules except the 1H,2H-hexafluorocyclopentene. Experimental Coriolis coupling constants and ΔE01 values will be presented and discussed. The ring puckering barrier heights for C_5F_8, C_5HF_7, and C_5H_2F_6, have been calculated to be 222 wn, 302 wn, and 367 wn, respectively.

  18. Multi-functional ion-sensor based on a photochromic diarylethene with a 1H-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline unit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renjie; Dong, Xiaorong; Liu, Gang; Ren, Panpan; Pu, Shouzhi

    2015-12-01

    A new asymmetrical diarylethene containing a 1H-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10] phenanthroline unit was synthesized. The compound showed typical photochromism and functioned as a notable fluorescence switch upon alternating irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) and visible light. Its closed-ring isomer could be used as a selective 'naked-eye' colorimetric sensor for Cu(2+), accompanied by a notable color change from blue to colorless. Furthermore, the compound was found to be selective towards Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Sr(2+) with significant fluorescence changes. On the basis of this characteristic, a logic circuit was constructed by utilizing both light and chemical stimuli as inputs and fluorescence intensity at 487 nm as output. PMID:25847126

  19. CF3+ fragmentation by electron impact ionization of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl-ethers, C5F10O, in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hayashi, Toshio; Miyawaki, Yudai; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2015-04-01

    The gas phase fragmentations of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl ether (PPVE, C5F10O) are studied experimentally. Dominant fragmentations of PPVE are found to be the result of a dissociative ionization reaction, i.e., CF3+ via direct bond cleavage, and C2F3O- and C3F7O- via electron attachment. Regardless of the appearance energy of around 14.5 eV for the dissociative ionization of CF3+, the observed ion efficiency for the CF3+ ion was extremely large the order of 10-20 cm-2, compared with only 10-21 cm-2 for the other channels. PPVE characteristically generated CF3+ as the largest abundant ion are advantageous for use of feedstock gases in plasma etching processes.

  20. Effect of epigenetic modification with trichostatin A and S-adenosylhomocysteine on developmental competence and POU5F1-EGFP expression of interspecies cloned embryos in dog.

    PubMed

    Mousai, M; Hosseini, S M; Hajian, M; Jafarpour, F; Asgari, V; Forouzanfar, M; Nasr-Esfahani, M H

    2015-10-01

    Adult canine fibroblasts stably transfected with either cytomegalovirus (CMV) or POU5F1 promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were used to investigate if pre-treatment of these donor cells with two epigenetic drugs [trichostatin A (TSA), or S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH)] can improve the efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), analyses revealed that TSA, but not SAH, treatment of both transgenic and non-transgenic fibroblasts significantly increased acetylation levels compared with untreated relatives. The expression levels of Bcl2 and P53 were significantly affected in TSA-treated cells compared with untreated cells, whereas SAH treatment had no significant effect on cell apoptosis. Irrespective of epigenetic modification, dog/bovine iSCNT embryos had overall similar rates of cleavage and development to 8-16-cell and morula stages in non-transgenic groups. For transgenic reconstructed embryos, however, TSA and SAH could significantly improve development to 8-16-cell and morula stages compared with control. Even though, irrespective of cell transgenesis and epigenetic modification, none of the iSCNT embryos developed to the blastocyst stage. The iSCNT embryos carrying CMV-EGFP expressed EGFP at all developmental stages (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-16-cell, and morula) without mosaicism, while no POU5F1-EGFP signal was observed in any stage of developing iSCNT embryos irrespective of TSA/SAH epigenetic modifications. These results indicated that bovine oocytes partially remodel canine fibroblasts and that TSA and SAH have marginal beneficial effects on this process. PMID:25314965

  1. Preliminary site characterization - final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Smith, L.B.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the ecological unit reconnaissance conducted at the F-Area Burning/Rubble Pit(s) RCRA/CERCLA Unit (F-Area BRP) on August 30 and 31, 1993 as part of the RFI/RI baseline risk assessment for the waste unit The baseline risk assessment will assess the potential endangerment to human health and the environment associated with the unit and will be used to evaluate remediation criteria, if needed. The information presented in this report will be used in subsequent stages of the ecological risk assessment to refine the conceptual site model, assist in the selection of contaminants of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and evaluate trophic relationships and other exposure pathways. The unit reconnaissance survey was conducted in accordance with Specification No. E-18272, Rev. 1 dated August 5, 1993, and the Draft {open_quotes}Ecological Risk Assessment Program Plan for Evaluation of Waste Sites on the Savannah River Site{close_quotes}. The objectives of the site reconnaissance were to: Assess the general characteristics of on-unit biological communities including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and any aquatic communities present. Determine the location, extent, and characteristics of on-unit ecological resources, such as forested areas and wetlands, that could serve as important wildlife habitat or provide other ecological functions. Identify any overt effects of contamination on biological communities. The field investigations included mapping and describing all wetland and terrestrial habitats; recording wildlife observations of birds, mammals, and reptiles; and investigating ecological resources in nearby downgradient and downstream areas which could be affected by mobile contaminants or future remedial actions. In preparation for the field investigation, existing unit information including aerial photographs and reports were reviewed to help identify and describe ecological resources at the waste unit.

  2. Integrated approaches of x-ray absorption spectroscopic and electron microscopic techniques on zinc speciation and characterization in a final sewage sludge product.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bojeong; Levard, Clément; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Brown, Gordon E; Hochella, Michael F

    2014-05-01

    Integration of complementary techniques can be powerful for the investigation of metal speciation and characterization in complex and heterogeneous environmental samples, such as sewage sludge products. In the present study, we combined analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-based techniques with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify and characterize nanocrystalline zinc sulfide (ZnS), considered to be the dominant Zn-containing phase in the final stage of sewage sludge material of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant. We also developed sample preparation procedures to preserve the organic and sulfur-rich nature of sewage sludge matrices for microscopic and spectroscopic analyses. Analytical TEM results indicate individual ZnS nanocrystals to be in the size range of 2.5 to 7.5 nm in diameter, forming aggregates of a few hundred nanometers. Observed lattice spacings match sphalerite. The ratio of S to Zn for the ZnS nanocrystals is estimated to be 1.4, suggesting that S is present in excess. The XAS results on the Zn speciation in the bulk sludge material also support the TEM observation that approximately 80% of the total Zn has the local structure of a 3-nm ZnS nanoparticle reference material. Because sewage sludge is frequently used as a soil amendment on agricultural lands, future studies that investigate the oxidative dissolution rate of ZnS nanoparticles as a function of size and aggregation state and the change of Zn speciation during post sludge-processing and soil residency are warranted to help determine the bioavailability of sludge-born Zn in the soil environment. PMID:25602819

  3. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of CuO superconductors with anomalous transitions above 200 K. Final report, 1 June 1993-31 October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, L.E.; Chen, J.T.

    1996-12-31

    This final report describes the authors continual superconductivity research on the materials and structural phases responsible for the above 200-K superconducting transitions, their synthesis conditions, and the study of the physical properties associated with these transitions. These transitions are characterized by resistive drops and flux-trapping hysteretic behavior in the magnetization measurements. Information on the magnetic properties of a reproducible flux-trapping phenomenon occurring at 336 K as well as on the synthesis conditions and structural features of multi-phase YBaCuO samples which exhibit this phenomenon are detailed. Also studies of the Josephson properties on YBaCuO single crystals are presented which indicate intrinsic Josephson junctions at the inter- and intra-unit-cell length scales. This latter result has a strong implication for atomic-plane 2-dimensional superconductivity in the cuprate superconductors. In addition, studies of the paramagnetic Meissner effect on Nb disks and cuprate samples indicate that the effect is not an intrinsic property, but dependent upon the sample geometry and the surface microstructure.

  5. Final characterization and safety screen report of double shell tank 241-AP-104 for 242-A evaporator, campaign 96-1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.L.

    1996-04-19

    This data package satisfies the requirement for a format IV, final report. It is a follow-up to the 45-day safety screen report for tank AP-104. Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-104 (hereafter referred to as AP-104) was characterized for physical, inorganic, organic and radiochemical parameters by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 222-S Laboratory, and by the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) as directed by the Tank Sample and Analysis Plan (TSAP), References 1 through 4. Preliminary data in the form of summary analytical tables were provided to the project in advance of this final report to enable early estimation of evaporator operational parameters, using the Predict modeling program. Laboratory analyses at ACL Laboratory was performed according to the TSAP. Analyses were performed at the 222-S Laboratory as defined and specified in the TSAP and the Laboratory`s Quality Assurance Plan, References 5 and 6. Any deviations from the instructions documented in the TSAP are discussed in this narrative and are supported with additional documentation. SAMPLING The TSAP, section 2, provided sampling information for waste samples collected from tank AP-104. The bottle-on-a-string method was used to collect liquid grab samples from the tank. Each glass sample bottle was amber, precleaned, and contained approximately 100 milliliters. Each bottle was closed with a teflon seal cap (or teflon septum for volatile organic analysis samples). Field blank samples were prepared by placing deionized water into sampling bottles, lowering the unclosed bottles into the riser for a period of time, retrieving them from the riser, and then closing the bottles with the same types of caps used for the tank samples. None of the samples were preserved by acidification. Upon receipt, the sample bottles destined for organic analyses were placed in a refrigerator. No attempt was made during sampling to assure the complete

  6. Disposition of the Dietary Mutagen 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5- f ]quinoxaline in Healthy and Pancreatic Cancer Compromised Humans

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Malfatti, Michael A.; Kuhn, Edward A.; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vickers, Selwyn M.; Jensen, Eric H.; Strayer, Lori; Anderson, Kristin E.

    2016-02-26

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. Once diagnosed, prognosis is poor with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Exposure to carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) derived from cooked meat has been shown to be positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk. To evaluate the processes that determines the carcinogenic potential of HCAs for human pancreas, 14-carbon labeled 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), a putative human carcinogenic HCA found in well-done cooked meat, was administered at a dietary relevant dose to human volunteers diagnosed with pancreatic cancer undergoing partial pancreatectomy and healthy control volunteers. After 14C-MeIQx exposure,more » blood and urine was collected for pharmacokinetic and metabolite analysis. MeIQx-DNA adducts levels were quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry from pancreatic tissue excised during surgery from the cancer patient group. Pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma revealed a rapid distribution of MeIQx with a plasma elimination half-life of approximately 3.5 hr in 50% of the cancer patients and all of the control volunteers. In 2 of the 4 cancer patients very low levels of MeIQx were detected in plasma and urine suggesting low absorption from the gut into the plasma. Urinary metabolite analysis revealed five MeIQx metabolites with 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline-8-carboxylic acid being the most abundant accounting for 25%–50% of the recovered 14-carbon/ml urine. We found there was no discernable difference in metabolite levels between the cancer patient volunteers and the control group. MeIQx-DNA adduct analysis of pancreas and duodenum tissue revealed adduct levels indistinguishable from background levels. Lastly, although other meat-derived HCA mutagens have been shown to bind DNA in pancreatic tissue, indicating that exposure to HCAs from cooked meat cannot be discounted as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, the results from this

  7. Completing The Characterization Of Stellar Populations In The Galaxy: Final Catalogs Of Unique Galex Uv Sources And Of Milky Way Hot Stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) has performed the first extensive surveys in the Ultraviolet (UV), filling the last gap in our view of the sky across the electromagnetic spectrum. Its legacy is an unprecedented database with more than 200 million source measurements in far-UV and near-UV. The UV surveys offer unique sensitivity for identifying and studying selected classes of astrophysical objects, both stellar and extra- galactic, notably hot stars, star-forming galaxies, and QSOs (redshift ≤sssim2.4). In order to examine the overall content and distribution of UV sources over the sky, and to classify them by astrophysical class, we propose to construct final catalogs of UV unique sources with homogeneous quality (eliminating duplicate measurements of the same source, excluding artifacts, adding science flags, etc). Such catalogs will facilitate a variety of science investigations on UV-selected samples by the community, in addition to our own science goal, as well as planning of observations with future instruments. We will build the catalogs (high-level science product) using recipes developed for our early version (Bianchi et al. 2011a) but with expanded tools, science flags, and corollary data, in addition to the much larger area coverage with respect to our early version. To facilitate UV source classification and characterization, we will also match the catalogs of unique UV sources with existing ground-based surveys, adding optical and infrared magnitudes to the two UV GALEX magnitudes, and construct flags to identify sources with multiple matches. These products will allow us (and the community) to extract UV-selected samples for several projects. We will use our catalogs for our own science goal: an unbiased census of Milky Way hot white dwarfs (WD). Hot WDs are elusive at all wavelengths except the UV, given their very high temperatures to which optical colors are insensitive, and low optical luminosity. From our proposed UV catalogs we will be

  8. The Electronic States of U(4+) in U(PO4)Cl: An Example for Angular Overlap Modeling of 5f(n) Systems.

    PubMed

    Bronova, Anna; Bredow, Thomas; Glaum, Robert; Urland, Werner

    2016-07-18

    Detailed experimental data on UPO4Cl comprising single-crystal UV/vis/NIR spectra and temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibilities form the basis for the investigation of the electronic structure of the U(4+) cation in UPO4Cl. For modeling of the observed physical properties the angular overlap model (AOM) was successfully employed. The computations were performed using the newly developed computer program BonnMag. The calculations show that all electronic transitions and the magnetic susceptibility as well as its temperature dependence are well-reproduced within the AOM framework. Using Judd-Ofelt theory BonnMag allows estimation of the relative absorption coefficients of the electronic transitions with reasonable accuracy. Ligand field splitting for states originating from f-electron configurations are determined. Slater-Condon-Shortley parameters and the spin-orbit coupling constant for U(4+) were taken from literature. The good transferability of AOM parameters for U(4+) is confirmed by calculations of the absorption spectra of UP2O7 and (U2O)(PO4)2. The effect of variation of the fit parameters is investigated. AOM parameters for U(4+) (5f) are compared to those of the rare-earth elements (4f) and transition metals (3d). PMID:27355276

  9. Inhibition or enhancement by 4 Pacific Island food plants against cancers induced by 2 amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lynnette R; Zhu, Shuotun; Han, Dug Yeo; Harris, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    A 1-yr carcinogenicity bioassay was conducted in rats fed 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), simultaneously with AIN-76/ high-fat (HF) diet alone, or with 10% starch replaced with kumara, pineapple, coconut, or taro, prepared as for a human diet. All of the non-IQ treated control, kumara, pineapple, or taro but not coconut-fed rats survived to 1 yr. None of the IQ-fed animals survived to 1 yr and although there were minor survival time differences among the groups, none was statistically significant. At sacrifice, IQ/HF controls had tumors in the skin, Zymbal's gland, ear canal, oral cavity, liver, and small intestine, totaling 32 among 20 animals. Kumara-fed rats had a similar tumor distribution but no tumors in the ear or oral cavity, and a total of 27 tumors among 20 animals, whereas pineapple-fed rats showed a somewhat lower tumor incidence (23/20 animals), including no small intestine lesions. Unexpectedly, a higher tumor incidence, especially of skin tumors, was seen in coconut and taro-fed animals (35/20 and 41/20 animals, respectively). In particular, the incidence of malignant liver tumors and gastrointestinal tumors were significantly increased in the taro-fed group in comparison with the kumara group. PMID:22211787

  10. Mild exposure of RIN-5F β-cells to human islet amyloid polypeptide aggregates upregulates antioxidant enzymes via NADPH oxidase-RAGE: An hormetic stimulus☆

    PubMed Central

    Borchi, Elisabetta; Bargelli, Valentina; Guidotti, Valentina; Berti, Andrea; Stefani, Massimo; Nediani, Chiara; Rigacci, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The presence of amyloid aggregates of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, contributes to pancreatic β-cell impairment, where oxidative stress plays a key role. A contribution of NADPH oxidase to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation after cell exposure to micromolar concentrations of hIAPP aggregates has been suggested. However, little is known about β-cells exposure to lower amounts of hIAPP aggregates, similar to those found in human pancreas. Thus, we aimed to investigate the events resulting from RIN-5F cells exposure to nanomolar concentrations of toxic hIAPP aggregates. We found an early and transient rise of NADPH oxidase activity resulting from increased Nox1 expression following the engagement of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) by hIAPP aggregates. Unexpectedly, NADPH oxidase activation was not accompanied by a significant ROS increase and the lipoperoxidation level was significantly reduced. Indeed, cell exposure to hIAPP aggregates affected the antioxidant defences, inducing a significant increase of the expression and activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase. We conclude that exposure of pancreatic β-cells to nanomolar concentrations of hIAPP aggregates for a short time induces an hormetic response via the RAGE-Nox1 axis; the latter stimulates the enzymatic antioxidant defences that preserve the cells against oxidative stress damage. PMID:24416718

  11. Influence of the 5f Orbitals on the Bonding and Reactivity in Organoactinides: Experimental and Computational Studies on a Uranium Metallacyclopropene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Hou, Guohua; Zi, Guofu; Ding, Wanjian; Walter, Marc D

    2016-04-20

    The synthesis, structure, and reactivity of a uranium metallacyclopropene were comprehensively studied. Reduction of (η(5)-C5Me5)2UCl2 (1) with potassium graphite (KC8) in the presence of bis(trimethylsilyl)acetylene (Me3SiC≡CSiMe3) allows the first stable uranium metallacyclopropene (η(5)-C5Me5)2U[η(2)-C2(SiMe3)2] (2) to be isolated. Magnetic susceptibility data confirm that 2 is a U(IV) complex, and density functional theory (DFT) studies indicate substantial 5f orbital contributions to the bonding of the metallacyclopropene U-(η(2)-C═C) moiety, leading to more covalent bonds between the (η(5)-C5Me5)2U(2+) and [η(2)-C2(SiMe3)2](2-) fragments than those in the related Th(IV) compound. Consequently, very different reactivity patterns emerge, e.g., 2 can act as a source for the (η(5)-C5Me5)2U(II) fragment when reacted with alkynes and a variety of heterounsaturated molecules such as imines, bipy, carbodiimide, organic azides, hydrazine, and azo derivatives. PMID:27070508

  12. UTa{sub 2}O(S{sub 2}){sub 3}Cl{sub 6}: A ribbon structure containing a heterobimetallic 5d-5f M{sub 3} cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Daniel M.; Chan, George H.; Ellis, Donald E.; Ibers, James A.

    2010-02-15

    A new solid-state compound containing a heterobimetallic cluster of U and Ta, UTa{sub 2}O(S{sub 2}){sub 3}Cl{sub 6}, has been synthesized and its structure has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. UTa{sub 2}O(S{sub 2}){sub 3}Cl{sub 6} was synthesized from UCl{sub 4} and Ta{sub 1.2}S{sub 2} at 883 K. The O is believed to have originated in the Ta{sub 1.2}S{sub 2} reactant. The compound crystallizes in the space group P1-bar of the triclinic system. The structure comprises a UTa{sub 2} unit bridged by mu{sub 2}-S{sub 2} and mu{sub 3}-O groups. Each Ta atom bonds to two mu{sub 2}-S{sub 2}, the mu{sub 3}-O, and two terminal Cl atoms. Each U atom bonds to two mu{sub 2}-S{sub 2}, the mu{sub 3}-O, and four Cl atoms. The Cl atoms bridge in pairs to neighboring U atoms to form a ribbon structure. The bond distances are normal and are consistent with formal oxidation states of +IV/+V/-II/-I/-I for U/Ta/O/S/Cl, respectively. The optical absorbance spectrum displays characteristic transition peaks near the absorption edge. Density functional theory was used to assign these peaks to transitions between S{sup 1-} valence-band states and empty U 5f-6d hybrid bands. Density-of-states analysis shows overlap between Ta 5d and U bands, consistent with metal-metal interactions. - The UTa2O(S2)3Cl6 cluster with completed coordination sphere around uranium

  13. The Ultraviolet Sky: final catalogs of unique UV sources from GALEX, and characterization of the UV-emitting sources across the sky, and of the Milky Way extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Conti, A.; Shiao, B.; Keller, G. R.; Thilker, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The legacy of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), which imaged the sky at Ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths for about 9 years, is its unprecedented database with more than 200 million source measurements in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV), as well as wide-field imaging of extended objects. GALEX's data, the first substantial sky surveys at UV wavelengths, offer an unprecedented view of the sky and a unique opportunity for an unbiased characterization of several classes of astrophysical objects, such as hot stars, QSOs at red-shift about 1, UV-peculiar QSOs, star-forming galaxies, among others. Bianchi et al. (2013, J. Adv. Space Res. (2013), DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.07.045) have constructed final catalogs of UV sources, with homogeneous quality, eliminating duplicate measurements of the same source ('unique' source catalogs), and excluding rim artifacts and bad photometry. The catalogs are constructed improving on the recipe of Bianchi et al. 2011 (MNRAS, 411, 2770, which presented the earlier version of these catalogs) and include all data for the major surveys, AIS and MIS. Considering the fields where both FUV and NUV detectors were exposed, the catalogs contain about 71 and 16.6 million unique sources respectively. We show several maps illustrating the content of UV sources across the sky, globally, and separately for bright/faint, hot, stellar/extragalactic objects. We matched the UV-source catalogs with optical-IR data from the SDSS, GSC2, 2MASS surveys. We are also in the process of matching the catalogs with preliminary PanSTARRS1 (PS1) 3pi survey photometry which already provides twice the sky coverage of SDSS, at slightly fainter magnitude limits. The sources' SED from FUV to optical wavelengths enables classification, derivation of the object physical parameters, and ultimately also a map of the Milky Way extinction. The catalogs will be available on MAST, Vizier (where the previous version already is), and in reduced form (for agile

  14. DNA adducts of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in fetal tissues of patas monkeys after transplacental exposure.

    PubMed

    Josyula, S; Lu, L J; Salazar, J J; Nerurkar, P V; Jones, A B; Grady, J J; Snyderwine, E G; Anderson, L M

    2000-08-01

    Transplacental genotoxicity of the heterocyclic amine food-derived mutagen/carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) has been investigated by (32)P-postlabeling assay for IQ-DNA adducts in maternal liver, placenta, and several fetal tissues of patas monkeys, after exposure to 15, 35, or 50 mg/kg IQ near the end of gestation or to the highest dose in the first or second trimester. Dose-dependent adduct formation occurred in all tissues, with the highest levels occurring in maternal liver. Adduct amounts were similar among fetal tissues and placenta, except for lower levels in fetal brain and slightly more adducts in fetal liver. Adducts in placenta, fetal liver, lung, kidney, skin, and adrenal gland, but not in maternal liver or fetal brain, increased significantly as gestation progressed. Pretreatment with phenobarbital, which induces CYP enzymes that detoxify IQ, decreased adducts in maternal liver and possibly placenta, but not in fetal tissues. The CYP inducer beta-naphthoflavone caused a significant increase in IQ-DNA adducts in fetal lungs. Regression analysis suggested that IQ activation in maternal and fetal liver and possibly placenta contributed to adduct formation in fetal tissues; adducts in placenta and/or fetal liver were strong predictors for those in most fetal tissues. The results indicate that exposure of pregnant primates to IQ results in DNA adduct formation in most fetal tissues, especially late in gestation; that upregulation of maternal detoxification does not provide fetal protection; and that adducts in placenta indicate adduct levels in fetal tissues. PMID:10906279

  15. Protective Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate on Colon Preneoplastic Lesions Induced by 2-Amino-3-Methylimidazo[4,5-f ] Quinoline in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jun-Hua; Li, Yan-Qing; Yang, Xiao-Yun

    2008-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a key active ingredient in green tea, has multiple anticarcinogenic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate if EGCG could prevent the formation of colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f ]quinoline (IQ) and to explore possible mechanisms for resultant effects. Sixty male BALB/cA nude, immunodeficient mice were divided into six groups including a normal unexposed control, mice induced with IQ alone, three groups treated with varying doses of EGCG post–IQ induction, and a EGCG-treated control population. Six weeks later, the mice were killed, and tissues subjected to hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and 0.2% methylene blue staining to observe histopathological alterations of colon mucus and the formation of ACF, respectively. Protein expression of NF-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) was assessed via immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western analysis, and mRNA levels of Nrf2 and uridine 5′-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A10 were determined in colon tissues. Our results demonstrate that, compared with IQ-induced controls, the degree of atypical hyperplasia decreased and the number of total ACF and total AC also decreased significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) in mice belonging to all EGCG dosing groups. At the same time, the protein levels of Nrf2 detected by IHC and Western blotting increased (both P < 0.01 compared with IQ group), and the mRNA levels of Nrf2 and UGT1A10 increased (both P < 0.01 compared with IQ group). In conclusion, EGCG had preventive effects on preneoplastic lesions induced by IQ. Our observations suggest that this effect may be the result of activation of the Nrf2-UGT1A10 signaling pathway. PMID:18596869

  16. Characterizing the production and retention of dissolved iron as Fe(II) across a natural gradient in chlorophyll concentrations in the Southern Drake Passage - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Katherine Barbeau

    2007-04-10

    . As a co-PI in the NSF/OPP-funded project, I was responsible for iron addition incubation and radiotracer experiments, and analysis of iron chemistry, including iron-organic speciation. This final technical report describes the results of my DOE funded project to analyse reduced iron species using an FeLume flow injection analysis chemiluminescence system as an extension of my work on the NSF/OPP project. On the cruise in 2004, spatial and temporal gradients in Fe(II) were determined, and on-board incubations were conducted to study Fe(II) lifetime and production. Following the cruise a further series of experiments was conducted in my laboratory to study Fe(II) lifetimes and photoproduction under conditions typical of high latitude waters. The findings of this study suggest that, in contrast to results observed during mesoscale iron addition experiments, steady-state levels of Fe(II) are likely to remain low (below detection) even within a significant gradient in dissolved Fe concentrations produced as a result of natural iron enrichment processes. Fe(II) is likely to be produced, however, as a reactive intermediate associated with photochemical reactions in surface waters. While Fe(II) lifetimes measured in the field in this study were commensurate with those determined in previously published Southern Ocean work, Fe(II) lifetimes reflective of realistic Southern Ocean environmental conditions have proven difficult to determine in a laboratory setting, due to contamination by trace levels of H2O2. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that direct ligand-to-metal charge transfer reactions of strong Fe(III)-organic complexes do appear to be a viable source of available Fe(II) in Antarctic waters, and further studies are needed to characterize the temperature dependence of this phenomenon.

  17. RESPONSE PROTOCOL TOOLBOX: PLANNING FOR AND RESPONDING TO DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS AND INCIDENTS, MODULE 3: SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SAMPLING GUIDE. INTERIM FINAL - DECEMBER 2003

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interim final Response Protocol Toolbox: Planning for and Responding to Contamination Threats to Drinking Water Systems is designed to help the water sector effectively and appropriately respond to intentional contamination threats and incidents. It was produced by EPA, buil...

  18. Use of 2,3,5-F3Y-β2 and 3-NH2Y-α2 to study PCET in E. coli Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.; Yee, Cyril S.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    E. coli ribonucleotide reductase is an α2β2 complex that catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside 5′-diphosphates (NDPs) to deoxynucleotides (dNDPs). The active site for NDP reduction resides in α2, and the essential diferric-tyrosyl radical (Y122•) cofactor that initiates radical transfer to the active site cysteine in α2 (C439), 35 Å removed, is in β2. The oxidation is proposed to involve a hopping mechanism through aromatic amino acids (Y122→W48→Y356 in β2 to Y731→Y730→C439 in α2) and reversible proton coupled electron transfer (PCET). Recently 2,3,5-F3Y (F3Y) was site-specifically incorporated in place of Y356 in β2, and 3-NH2Y (NH2Y) in place of Y731 and Y730 in α2. A pH rate profile with F3Y356-β2 suggested that as the pH is elevated, the rate-determining step of RNR can be altered from a conformational change to PCET and that the altered driving force for F3Y oxidation, by residues adjacent to it in the pathway, is responsible for this change. Studies with NH2Y731(730)-α2/β2/CDP/ATP resulted in detection of NH2Y radical (NH2Y•) intermediates capable of dNDP formation. In this study, the reaction of F3Y356-β2/α2/CDP/ATP has been examined by stopped flow (SF) absorption and rapid freeze quench EPR spectroscopy and has failed to reveal any radical intermediates. F3Y356-β2/CDP/ATP has also been examined with NH2Y731-α2 (or NH2Y730-α2) by stopped-flow kinetics from pH 6.5–9.2 and revealed rate constants for NH2Y• formation that support a change in rate limiting step at elevated pH. The results together with kinetic simulations provide a guide for future studies to detect radical intermediates in the pathway. PMID:21182280

  19. Up-conversion routines of Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} and YOF phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sangmoon; Yang, Wonseok; Park, Chu-Young; Noh, Minhee; Choi, Seulki; Park, Dahye; Jang, Ho Seong; Cho, So-Hye

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Single-phase optical materials of Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8}:Er and YOF:Er were prepared. • Effective spectral converting properties were observed in Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8}:Er,Yb. • 980 nm diode laser was irradiated for up-converting analysis. • A multi-photon process in the phosphors was investigated. - Abstract: Optical materials composed of a Y{sub 6(1−p−q)}Er{sub 6p}Yb{sub 6q}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} (p = 0.001–0.1, q = 0.005–0.1) solid solution with Y{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}OF were prepared via a solid-state reaction using excess NH{sub 4}F flux at 950 °C for 30 min. X-ray diffraction patterns of Y{sub 6(1−p−q)}Er{sub 6p}Yb{sub 6q}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} and Y{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}OF were compared upon altering the synthesis temperature and the molar ratio of the NH{sub 4}F flux to the Y{sup 3+} (Er{sup 3+}, Yb{sup 3+}) ions. The effective spectral-conversion properties of Er{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3+}–Yb{sup 3+} ions in Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} phosphors were monitored during excitation with a 980 nm wavelength diode-laser. Selection of appropriate Er{sup 3+} and/or Yb{sup 3+} concentrations in the Y{sub 6}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} structure led to achievement of the desired up-conversion emission, from the green to the red regions of the spectra. Furthermore, the mechanism of up-conversion in the phosphors was described by an energy-level schematic. Up-conversion emission spectra and the dependence of the emission intensity on pump power (between 193 and 310 mW) in the Y{sub 6(0.995−q)}Er{sub 0.03}Yb{sub 6q}O{sub 5}F{sub 8} phosphors were also investigated.

  20. Thermal Characterization and Analysis of A123 Systems Battery Cells, Modules and Packs: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-243

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.

    2012-03-01

    In support of the A123 Systems battery development program with USABC/DOE, NREL provided technical support in thermal characterization, analysis and management of batteries. NREL's effort was part of Energy Storage Project funded by DOE Vehicle Technologies Program. The purpose of this work was for NREL to perform thermal characterization and analysis of A123 Systems cells and modules with the aim for Al23 Systems to improve the thermal performance of their battery cells, modules and packs.

  1. Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil-fuel-related materials employing mass spectrometry. Final report, September 30, 1976-September 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Scheppele, S E

    1982-05-01

    A document was prepared which assessed the state-of-the art in the mass spectrometric characterization of fossil fuel materials and the relevance of these data to the fossil fuel industry. A Kratos DS50 SM data system was successfully interfaced to a CEC 21-110B mass spectrometer. Communications between the NOVA 3/12 computer in the data system and the OSU central computer were established. A Grant Comparator/Microdensitometer was acquired and made operational. Plans were developed and hardware acquired for interfacing the densitometer to the NOVA 3/12 computer. A quartz direct introduction probe was acquired for the CEC 21-110B. A temperature controller for the probe was acquired and interfaced to the slow speed ADC on the auxillary board in the data system/mass spectrometer interface. The combined FI/EI source was modified to operate in the FD mode and an apparatus was fabricated for conditioning FD emitters. A CSI supergrater 3 was interfaced to the PE 3920 gas chromatograph. The upgraded facility was used to develop mass spectrometric methods for the characterization of fossil fuel materials and to apply methods to the characterization of these materials. Activities included: (1) initial development of field-ionization mass spectrometry for the characterization of saturated hydrocarbons, (2) computerization of the technique of probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry, (3) initation of the development of a new method for the computer assisted assignment of formulas to ion masses, (4) characterization of neutral fractions from a hydrotreated tar-sands oil, and (5) characterization of coal-derived oils and asphaltenes.

  2. State-of-the-art study of resource characterization and planning for underground coal mining. Final technical report as of June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D.; Ingham, W.; Kauffman, P.

    1980-06-01

    With the rapid developments taking place in coal mining technology and due to high investment costs, optimization of the structure of underground coal mines is crucial to the success of the mining project. The structure of a mine, once it is developed, cannot be readily changed and has a decisive influence on the productivity, safety, economics, and production capacity of the mine. The Department of Energy desires to ensure that the resource characterization and planning activity for underground coal mining will focus on those areas that offer the most promise of being advanced. Thus, this project was undertaken by Management Engineers Incorporated to determine the status in all aspects of the resource characterization and planning activities for underground coal mining as presently performed in the industry. The study team conducted a comprehensive computerized literature search and reviewed the results. From this a selection of the particularly relevant sources were annotated and a reference list was prepared, catalogued by resource characterization and mine planning activity. From this data, and discussions with industry representatives, academia, and research groups, private and federal, an assessment and evaluation was made of the state-of-the-art of each element in the resource characterization and mine planning process. The results of this analysis lead to the identifcation of areas requiring research and, specifically, those areas where DOE research efforts may be focused.

  3. Laser-spectroscopy characterization of materials for frequency-agile solid-state laser systems. Final report, 15 Jan 88-14 Jan 91

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, R.C.

    1991-03-15

    This research involves the use of laser spectroscopy techniques to investigate materials which include laser crystals such as Cr{sup 3+}-doped alexandrite, emerald, garnets, and glass ceramics as well as Nd{sup 3+}-doped garnets and germinates and Ho{sup 3+}-doped fluorides. In addition, photorefractive processes were studied in potassium niobate crystals and in rare earth doped glasses. Some of the results of major importance from this work are: (1) The characterization of the properties of laser-induced gratings in glasses; (2) The elucidation of the effects of dopant ions on the photorefractive response of potassium niobate; (3) The observation of a new type of picosecond nonlinear optical response in potassium niobate associated with scattering from a Nb hopping mode; (4) The characterization of the properties of energy migration and radiationless relaxation processes in Cr{sup 3+} doped laser crystals; (5) The characterization of the pumping dynamics and lasing properties of Ho{sup 3+} in BaYb{sub 2}F{sub 8}; and (6) The characterization of the pumping dynamics and lasing properties of several Nd{sup 3+}-doped crystals.

  4. Photophysical properties of ESIPT inspired fluorescent 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione and its derivative: Experimental and DFT based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Mininath S.; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2015-01-01

    The excited-state intramolecular proton transfer chromophores 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione and 2-(4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione are synthesized from 4,5-diamino-N-methylphthalimide. The photophysical behavior of the synthesized chromophores was studied using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy in the polar and non-polar solvents. The synthesized o-hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole derivatives are fluorescent and very sensitive to the solvent polarity. These dyes are thermally stable up to 317 °C. Density Functional Theory computations have been used to understand the structural, molecular, electronic and photophysical properties of the chromophores. The experimental absorption and emission wavelengths are in good agreement with the computed vertical excitation and theoretical emission obtained by Density Functional Theory and Time Dependant Density Functional Theory.

  5. Folate Deficiency Triggers an Oxidative-Nitrosative Stress-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death and Impedes Insulin Biosynthesis in RINm5F Pancreatic Islet β–Cells: Relevant to the Pathogenesis of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Huei; Chen, Chia-Hui; Mau, Shin-Yi; Ho, Chun-Te; Chang, Pey-Jium; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that folic acid (folate) deficiency (FD) may be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of a variety of oxidative stress-triggered chronic degenerative diseases including diabetes, however, the direct evidence to lend support to this hypothesis is scanty. For this reason, we set out to study if FD can trigger the apoptotic events in an insulin-producing pancreatic RINm5F islet β cells. When these cells were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature proceeding through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. In addition to evoke oxidative stress, FD condition could also trigger nitrosative stress through a NF-κB-dependent iNOS-mediated overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). The latter compound could then trigger depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca2+) store leading to cytosolic Ca2+ overload and caused ER stress as evidence by the activation of CHOP expression. Furthermore, FD-induced apoptosis of RINm5F cells was found to be correlated with a time-dependent depletion of intracellular gluthathione (GSH) and a severe down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. Along the same vein, we also demonstrated that FD could severely impede RINm5F cells to synthesize insulin and their abilities to secret insulin in response to glucose stimulation were appreciably hampered. Even more importantly, we found that folate replenishment could not restore the ability of RINm5F cells to resynthesize insulin. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis that FD is a legitimate risk factor for the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24223745

  6. Folate deficiency triggers an oxidative-nitrosative stress-mediated apoptotic cell death and impedes insulin biosynthesis in RINm5F pancreatic islet β-cells: relevant to the pathogenesis of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hung-Chih; Chiou, Jeng-Fong; Wang, Yu-Huei; Chen, Chia-Hui; Mau, Shin-Yi; Ho, Chun-Te; Chang, Pey-Jium; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that folic acid (folate) deficiency (FD) may be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of a variety of oxidative stress-triggered chronic degenerative diseases including diabetes, however, the direct evidence to lend support to this hypothesis is scanty. For this reason, we set out to study if FD can trigger the apoptotic events in an insulin-producing pancreatic RINm5F islet β cells. When these cells were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature proceeding through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. In addition to evoke oxidative stress, FD condition could also trigger nitrosative stress through a NF-κB-dependent iNOS-mediated overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). The latter compound could then trigger depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca(2+)) store leading to cytosolic Ca(2+) overload and caused ER stress as evidence by the activation of CHOP expression. Furthermore, FD-induced apoptosis of RINm5F cells was found to be correlated with a time-dependent depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) and a severe down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression. Along the same vein, we also demonstrated that FD could severely impede RINm5F cells to synthesize insulin and their abilities to secret insulin in response to glucose stimulation were appreciably hampered. Even more importantly, we found that folate replenishment could not restore the ability of RINm5F cells to resynthesize insulin. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence to support the hypothesis that FD is a legitimate risk factor for the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:24223745

  7. Generation, detection and characterization of gas-phase transition metal aggregates and compounds. Final technical report, September 15, 1991--July 14, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Steimle, T.C.

    1994-11-12

    The goal of this research project has been to identify and characterize small gas-phase metal containing molecules and relate these properties to proposed reaction mechanisms. Of particular emphasis has been the elucidation of the mechanism for activation of C-H, N-H, S-H, and C-C bonds in CH{sub 4}, HCCH, H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} by platinum, titanium, molybdenum, and niobium.

  8. Initial field trials of the site characterization and analysis penetrometer system (SCAPS). Reconnaissance of Jacksonville Naval Air Station waste oil and solvents disposal site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, S.S.; Douglas, D.H.; Sharp, M.K.; Olsen, R.A.; Comes, G.D.

    1993-12-01

    At the request of the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC), Southern Division, Charleston, SC, the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) conducted the initial field trial of the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) at Jacksonville Naval Air Station (NAS), Jacksonville FL. This work was carried out by a field crew consisting of personnel from WES and the Naval Ocean Systems Center during the period of 16 July 1990 to 14 August 1990. The SCAPS investigation at the Jacksonville NAS has two primary objectives: (a) to provide data that could be useful in formulating remediation plans for the facility and (b) to provide for the initial field trial of the SCAPS currently under development by WES for the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA), now the U.S. Army Environmental Center. The original concepts for the SCAPS was to develop an integrated site screening characterization system whose capabilities would include (a) surface mapping, (b) geophysical surveys using magnetic, induced electromagnetic, and radar instruments, (c) measurements of soil strength, soil electrical resistivity, and laser-induced soil fluorometry Cone penetrometer, Site Characterization and Analysis Laser Induced Fluorescence(LIF), Penetrometer System(SCAPS) POL Contamination, using screening instrumentation mounted in a soil penetrometer, (d) soil and fluid samplers, and (e) computerized data acquisition, interpretation, and visualization. The goal of the SCAPS program is to provide detailed, rapid, and cost-effective surface and subsurface data for input to site assessment/remediation efforts.

  9. Rhenium complexes with weakly coordinating solvent ligands, cis[Re(PR{sub 3})(CO){sub 4}(L)][BAr{sub F}], L = CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, Et{sub 2}O, NC{sub 5}F{sub 5}: Decomposition to chloride-bridged dimers in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution

    SciTech Connect

    Huhmann-Vincent, J.; Scott, B.L.; Kubas, G.J.

    1999-01-11

    The solvent-coordinated complexes [cis-Re(CO){sub 4}(PR{sub 3})(S)][BAr{sub F}] (R = Ph, {sup i}Pr, Cy, BAr{sub F} = [B(3,5-(CF{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 6}H{sub 3}){sub 4}]{sup {minus}}) for S = Et{sub 2}O, CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, and NC{sub 5}F{sub 5} have been prepared from reaction of the neutral methyl precursors, cis-Re-(CO){sub 4}(PR{sub 3})(Me), with either [H(OEt{sub 2}){sub 2}][BAr{sub F}] or [Ph{sub 3}C][BAr{sub F}] in the appropriate solvent. A crystal structure of the complex [cis-Re(CO){sub 4}(P{sup i}Pr{sub 3})(ClCH{sub 2}Cl)][BAr{sub F}] shows that the dichloromethane ligand is coordinated through one chlorine, with an Re-Cl distance of 2.554(2) {angstrom}. The first example of a structurally characterized pentafluoropyridine complex of rhenium was also determined, [cis-Re(CO){sub 4}(P{sup i}Pr{sub 3})(NC{sub 5}F{sub 5})][BAr{sub F}], with an Re-N distance of 2.319(5) {angstrom}. Activation of C-Cl bonds in the dichloromethane complexes result in the formation of the chloride-bridged dimers, {l_brace}[cis-Re(CO){sub 4}(PR{sub 3})]{sub 2}({mu}-Cl){r_brace}{l_brace}BAr{sub f}{r_brace}, and the X-ray structures of the Ph and Cy derivatives were determined.

  10. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    DeTar, Carleton

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  11. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  12. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of novel polymers from non-petroleum sources for use in enhanced oil recovery. Final report, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Hogen-Esch, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are discussed for grafting of acrylamide to: (1) starch and related polysaccharides; and (2) cellulose solutions. In grafting acrylamide to various polysaccharide substrates such as okra polysaccharide, yellow dextrin, waxy corn starch, potato amylose, gum arabic, the efficiency of Ce/sup 4 +/ as initiator was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.89, depending on reaction conditions. Okra polysaccharide was isolated, characterized, and evaluated for use in enhanced oil recovery. A series of experiments designed to increase the viscosifying power of certain polymers by chain extension techniques has also been conducted. Characterization of the polymers by ultracentrifugation, size exclusion chromatography, membrane filtration, multi-cell equilibrium dialysis, and rheological studies has also been done. In grafting of acrylamide to cellulose solutions the following two courses were taken: (1) dissolution of cellulose in 70% aqueous zinc chloride, followed by Ce/sup 4 +/ initiated grafting of acrylamide, and (2) introduction of a 1,2-diol substituent onto the anhydroglucose units of the cellulose chain via dissolution of cellulose in concentrated aqueous NaOH, followed by treatment with glyceryl chlorohydrin. Considerable progress has been made via both approaches. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey, Mather AFB California. Final report, 28 November-9 December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.P.; Hedgecock, N.S.

    1989-10-01

    Personnel from the AFOEHL conducted a waste-water characterization and hazardous-waste technical assistance survey at MAFB from 28 Nov to 9 Dec 1988. The scope of this survey was to characterize the waste-water, address hazardous-waste-management practices, and explore opportunities for hazardous waste minimization. The waste water survey team analyzed the base's industrial effluent, effluent from oil/water separators, and storm water. The team performed a shop-by-shop evaluation of chemical-waste-management practices. Survey results showed that MAFB needs to improve its hazardous-waste-management program. Recommendations for improvement include: (1) Collecting two additional grab samples on separate days from the hospital discharge. Analyze for EPA Method 601 to determine if the grab sample from the survey gives a true indication of what is being discharged. (2) Locate the source and prevent mercury from the hospital from discharging into the sanitary sewer. (3) Dilute the soaps used for cleaning at the Fuels Lab, Building 7060. (4) Investigate the source of chromium from the Photo Lab. (5) Clean out the sewer system manhole directly downgradient from the Photo Lab. (6) Locate the source of contamination in the West Ditch Outfall. (7) Reconnect the two oil/water separators that discharge into the storm sewerage system. (8) Investigate the source of methylene chloride coming on the base. (9) Investigate the source of mercury at Fuel Cell Repair, building 7005.

  15. Characterization of extrinsic grain-boundary dislocations and grain-boundary dislocation sources by transmission electron microscopy. Final report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Murr, L E

    1981-06-01

    The microstructures attendant to specific peak strains along the strain axis of the stress-strain diagram for type 304 stainless steel and nickel have been examined and compared by transmission electron microscopy from epsilon = 0.05% to 55% in the former and from epsilon = 0.05% to 35% in the latter. The onset of flow is characterized by the emission of dislocations from grain boundary ledge source which form emission profiles resembling dislocation pileups in the stainless steel, and a random distribution of dislocations with evidence for very short emission profiles near the grain boundaries in nickel. At the engineering yield point (0.2%) every grain in the stainless steel shows evidence for dislocation emission profiles, while in the nickel every grain contains some dislocations distributed within the grain interior.

  16. Characterization of degraded EBR-II fuel from the ICPP-603 basin: National spent nuclear fuel program, FY 1999 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R. G.

    2000-04-17

    Characterization data is reported for sodium bonded Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel which had been stored underwater in containers since the late 1970's. Sixteen stainless steel storage containers were retrieved from the ICPP-603 storage pool at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. Ten of the containers had leaked water due to improper sealing. In the container chosen for detailed destructive analysis, the stainless steel cladding on the uranium alloy fuel had ruptured and fuel oxide particulate formed and filled the bottom of the container. Headspace gas analysis determined that greater than 99% hydrogen was present. Cesium-137, which had leached out of the fuel during the aqueous corrosion process, dominated the radionuclide source term of the water. The metallic sodium from the fuel element bond had reacted with the water, forming a caustic solution of NaOH.

  17. Final Report: Detection and Characterization of Underground Facilities by Stochastic Inversion and Modeling of Data from the New Generation of Synthetic Aperture Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W; Cunningham, C; Mellors, R; Templeton, D; Dyer, K; White, J

    2012-02-27

    Many clandestine development and production activities can be conducted underground to evade surveillance. The purpose of the study reported here was to develop a technique to detect underground facilities by broad-area search and then to characterize the facilities by inversion of the collected data. This would enable constraints to be placed on the types of activities that would be feasible at each underground site, providing a basis the design of targeted surveillance and analysis for more complete characterization. Excavation of underground cavities causes deformation in the host material and overburden that produces displacements at the ground surface. Such displacements are often measurable by a variety of surveying or geodetic techniques. One measurement technique, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), uses data from satellite-borne (or airborne) synthetic aperture radars (SARs) and so is ideal for detecting and measuring surface displacements in denied access regions. Depending on the radar frequency and the acquisition mode and the surface conditions, displacement maps derived from SAR interferograms can provide millimeter- to centimeter-level measurement accuracy on regional and local scales at spatial resolution of {approx}1-10 m. Relatively low-resolution ({approx}20 m, say) maps covering large regions can be used for broad-area detection, while finer resolutions ({approx}1 m) can be used to image details of displacement fields over targeted small areas. Surface displacements are generally expected to be largest during or a relatively short time after active excavation, but, depending on the material properties, measurable displacement may continue at a decreasing rate for a considerable time after completion. For a given excavated volume in a given geological setting, the amplitude of the surface displacements decreases as the depth of excavation increases, while the area of the discernable displacement pattern increases. Therefore, the

  18. In-situ characterization of growth and interfaces in a-Si:H devices. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, R.W.; Wronski, C.R.; An, I.; Lu, Y.; Nguyen, H.V.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes work to identify materials parameters that can quantitatively describe the solar cell performance correctly in the initial and stabilized states and are consistent with a microscopic model of the metastable defect site. The objective is to be accomplished by applying results of in-situ analyses of a-Si:H surfaces and the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)/p/i interfaces to complement the present understanding of the electronic properties of materials and devices. A second objective of the program is to demonstrate, characterize, and understand improved doped and undoped ``wide-gap`` materials for use in achieving 15% stabilized photovoltaic modules (``wide-gap`` materials are defined as those materials with a band gap of at least 1.9 eV).

  19. Characterization of broadband regional distance seismograms: Use of global, open data to study regions of interest. Final technical report, 15 July 1992-15 January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, T.C.; Beck, S.L.

    1995-06-01

    This research undertook scientific problem inherent in the monitoring of a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty; establishing confidence that the seismograms from small and moderate-sized events are understood, thus, identifiable. This requires an understanding of broadband regional distance seismic phases from both explosions and earthquakes, the excitation of the various phases, and their dependence on source. Data from open broadband stations across the Andean Cordillera were used in research to evaluate the utility of the spectral characteristics of regional distance seismo-grams of phase ratio pairs (Pg/Lg; Pn/Lg). The entire regional waveforms for seismic events traversing the Andes were modeled providing detail of crustal thickness, the average crustal velocity, and propagation efficiency. Further, this report details research to treat a single regional distance station as a seismic observatory and to establish a relative location procedure in which to locate smaller magnitude events relative to an established epicentral coordinate. Finally, the results are reported of a temporary broadband deployment used to record the DOE hosted Non-Proliferation Experiment; exploration of how geologic environment changes affects discriminants.

  20. Final technical report for project titled Quantitative Characterization of Cell Aggregation/Adhesion as Predictor for Distribution and Transport of Microorganisms in Subsurface Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, April Z; Wan, Kai-tak

    2014-09-02

    This project aims to explore and develop enabling methodology and techniques for nano-scale characterization of microbe cell surface contact mechanics, interactions and adhesion quantities that allow for identification and quantification of indicative properties related to microorganism migration and transport behavior in porous media and in subsurface environments. Microbe transport has wide impact and therefore is of great interest in various environmental applications such as in situ or enhanced subsurface bioremediation,filtration processes for water and wastewater treatments and protection of drinking water supplies. Although great progress has been made towards understanding the identities and activities of these microorganisms in the subsurface, to date, little is known of the mechanisms that govern the mobility and transport of microorganisms in DOE’s contaminated sites, making the outcomes of in situ natural attenuation or contaminant stability enhancement unpredictable. Conventionally, movement of microorganisms was believed to follows the rules governing solute (particle) transport. However, recent studies revealed that cell surface properties, especially those pertaining to cell attachment/adhesion and aggregation behavior, can cause the microbe behavior to deviate from non-viable particles and hence greatly influence the mobility and distribution of microorganisms in porous media.This complexity highlights the need to obtain detailed information of cell-cell and cell-surface interactions in order to improve and refine the conceptual and quantitative model development for fate and transport of microorganisms and contaminant in subsurface. Traditional cell surface characterization methods are not sufficient to fully predict the deposition rates and transport behaviors of microorganism observed. A breakthrough of methodology that would allow for quantitative and molecular-level description of intrinsic cell surface properties indicative for cell

  1. FINAL REPORT FOR THE INITIAL SOLID PHASE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 2011 GRAB SAMPLES AND COMPOSITE FOR THE C-109 HARD HEEL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    PAGE JS; COOKE G; PESTOVICH JA

    2011-12-01

    On May 3, 2011, solid phase characterization subsamples were taken from six of the eight grab samples that had been collected from tank 241-C-109 in April, 2011 and delivered to the 222-S Laboratory. These subsamples were characterized in order to guide the creation of the composite for the C-109 hard heel study. Visual observation showed that there was a large variability in the physical characteristics of the eight individual grab samples. Several of the grab samples consisted of 'stone-like' cobbles (several > 25 mm in diameter) while the other grab samples were of a finer granular composition referred to as 'bulk material'. Half of the six subsamples taken for this initial SPC were of crushed cobbles and half were of the bulk material. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on all six subsamples, and X-ray diffraction was performed on all three of the 'bulk material' samples and one of the crushed cobble samples. The crushed cobbles were found to be composed primarily of gibbsite (Al[OHh]{sub 3}). Analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated gibbsite to be the only crystalline phase detected, and scanning electron microscopy showed the crushed cobbles to consist primarily of aggregates of euhedral to subhedral gibbsite crystals that were 20 to 100 {mu}m in size. The aggregates, having a moderate amount of pore space, were cemented primarily by recrystallized gibbsite making them resistant to crushing. The bulk material consisted of coarse to fine-grained pebble-sized (2 to 20 mm) particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed them to be a mixture of natrophosphate (Na{sub 7}[PO{sub 4}]{sub 2}F{center_dot}19[H{sub 2}O]) and gibbsite crystals in varying amounts in each of the three subsamples (i.e., some grab samples were primarily natrophosphate while others were mixed with gibbsite). The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the bulk material showed the crystals to be euhedral to anhedral (rounded) in shape. Trace phases, too minor to be detected by XRD

  2. Crystal structure of a binuclear nickel(II) complex constructed of 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and doubly deprotonated benzene-1,3,5-tri­carb­oxy­lic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ying; Hao, Xiang-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The title complex, [Ni2(C9H4O6)2(C13H8N4)2(H2O)4]·2H2O, bis­(μ-5-carb­oxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ato-κ2 O 1:O 1′)bis­[di­aqua(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline-κ2 N 7,N 8)nickel(II)] di­hydrate, was obtained under solvothermal conditions by the reaction of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) with Ni(NO3)2 in the presence of 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (IP). The crystal has triclinic (P-1) symmetry with a centrosymmetric binuclear nickel(II) cluster. The NiII atom is coordinated by two N atoms from a chelating 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ligand, two carboxyl­ate O atoms from two 5-carb­oxy­benzene-1,3-di­carboxyl­ate ligands and two water mol­ecules in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry. Two carboxyl­ate groups bridge two NiII cations, forming the binuclear complex. Extensive N—H⋯O, O—H⋯O and O—H⋯N hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal structure, forming a three-dimensional supermolecular framework. Weak π–π stacking is observed between parallel HBTC2− and IP ring systems, the face-to-face separation being 3.695 (2) Å. PMID:26029419

  3. The Functional Property Changes of Muscular Na(v)1.4 and Cardiac Na(v)1.5 Induced by Scorpion Toxin BmK AGP-SYPU1 Mutants Y42F and Y5F.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangxue; Xu, Yijia; Zhao, Mingyi; Wang, Fangyang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Jin, Yao; Liu, Yanfeng; Song, Yongbo; Zhang, Jinghai

    2015-05-19

    Scorpion toxins are invaluable therapeutic leads and pharmacological tools which influence the voltage-gated sodium channels. However, the details were still unclear about the structure-function relationship of scorpion toxins on VGSC subtypes. In the previous study, we reported one α-type scorpion toxin Bmk AGP-SYPU1 and its two mutants (Y5F and Y42F) which had been demonstrated to ease pain in mice acetic acid writhing test. However, the function of Bmk AGP-SYPU1 on VGSCs is still unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of BmK AGP-SYPU1 and its two mutants (Y5F and Y42F) on hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5 heterologously expressed CHO cell lines by using Na⁺-specialized fluorescent dye and whole-cell patch clamp. The data showed that BmK AGP-SYPU1 displayed as an activator of hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5, which might indeed contribute to its biotoxicity to muscular and cardiac system and exhibited the functional properties of both the α-type and β-type scorpion toxin. Notably, Y5F mutant exhibited lower activatory effects on hNa(v)1.4 and hNa(v)1.5 compared with BmK AGP-SYPU1. Y42F was an enhanced activator and confirmed that the conserved Tyr42 was the key amino acid involved in bioactivity or biotoxicity. These data provided a deep insight into the structure-function relationship of BmK AGP-SYPU1, which may be the guidance for engineering α-toxin with high selectivity on VGSC subtypes. PMID:25919575

  4. Elucidation of the Final Reactions of DIMBOA-Glucoside Biosynthesis in Maize: Characterization of Bx6 and Bx71[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jonczyk, Rafal; Schmidt, Holger; Osterrieder, Anne; Fiesselmann, Andreas; Schullehner, Katrin; Haslbeck, Martin; Sicker, Dieter; Hofmann, Diana; Yalpani, Nasser; Simmons, Carl; Frey, Monika; Gierl, Alfons

    2008-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids were identified in the early 1960s as secondary metabolites of the grasses that function as natural pesticides and exhibit allelopathic properties. Benzoxazinoids are synthesized in seedlings and stored as glucosides (glcs); the main aglucone moieties are 2,4-dihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA) and 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA). The genes of DIBOA-glc biosynthesis have previously been isolated and the enzymatic functions characterized. Here, the enzymes for conversion of DIBOA-glc to DIMBOA-glc are identified. DIBOA-glc is the substrate of the dioxygenase BENZOXAZINLESS6 (BX6) and the produced 2,4,7-trihydroxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-(4H)-one-glc is metabolized by the methyltransferase BX7 to yield DIMBOA-glc. Both enzymes exhibit moderate Km values (below 0.4 mm) and kcat values of 2.10 s−1 and 0.25 s−1, respectively. Although BX6 uses a glucosylated substrate, our localization studies indicate a cytoplasmic localization of the dioxygenase. Bx6 and Bx7 are highest expressed in seedling tissue, a feature shared with the other Bx genes. At present, Bx6 and Bx7 have no close relatives among the members of their respective gene families. Bx6 and Bx7 map to the cluster of Bx genes on the short arm of chromosome 4. PMID:18192444

  5. Waste water/storm water characterization and toxicity identification evaluation, Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas. Final report, 22 Apr-3 May 91

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, R.P.; Holck, A.R.; Acker, A.M.

    1991-12-01

    A wastewater characterization survey was conducted at Sheppard AFB TX from 22 April 1991 to 3 May 1991 by personnel from the Water Quality and Environmental Biology Functions of Armstrong Laboratory. Quantitative Data were also collected during a rain event to assess the quality of the storm water runoff from Sheppard AFB. Biomonitoring of the influent and effluent to the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) was also performed to identify the toxic fraction(s) in the wastewater causing periodic failures in biomonitoring. A qualitative odor survey was also performed to determine if the source of a pungent, onion-like odor could be identified. Measurable concentrations of industrial solvents were found in the wastewater, indicating that some industrial wastes are entering the sanitary sewer system. Phenol concentrations greater than the permitted 50 micrograms per liter were found in many of the sampling sites. The toxic fraction identified in the WWTP influent was an organic electrophile, possibly a petroleum hydrocarbon, oil, grease, or surfactant. The identity of the odor was not conclusively determined, but solids lying in the manholes are thought to be decomposing and emitting noxious gases.

  6. Structure of coal: new approaches to characterizing organonitrogen and organosulfur functionalities in coal and coal liquids. Final report. [Finnigan triple quadrupole mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the application of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to the analysis of coal-related materials. A Finnigan Triple State Quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for most of the results obtained in this study. Both collision energy (0 to 30 eV) and collision gas pressure (0 to 2.5 mtorr, typically argon) have significant effects on the spectra. Increasing the collision energy or collision pressure results in an increased fragmentation of the selected ion. The analytical utility of different chemical ionization (CI) reagent gases is shown. The MS/MS spectra of a selected ion obtained by isobutane and ammonia CI are identical, which paves the way for development of MS/MS libraries. A library is being developed especially for the analysis of coal-related materials. Three principal MS/MS scan modes (daughter, parent and neutral loss) are utilized in the analysis of coal-related materials. Parent and neutral loss scans characterize the complex mixture for particular chemical moieties (functional groups, structure type), while daughter scans are used for identification of specific components. SRC II was the principal sample studied by CI. Laser desorption methodology for coal analysis was developed. Other fuel-related materials were examined to generalize the analytical methodology being developed for the coal-related materials, including shale oil and diesel exhaust particulates. 35 references, 50 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Preparation, characterization, and utilization of electrodes coated with polymeric networks formed by gamma-radiation crosslinking. Final report, 1 August 1982-31 January 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.; Mark, J.E.

    1987-04-01

    The preparation, characterization, and application of electrodes with specific chemical properties that are imparted by surface modification with polymer networks are the long-range goals of this research. Networks that are formed by crosslinking with gamma radiation were evaluated with respect to swelling in aqueous solution, retention of polymer in the network, permeability, and the effect of radiation dosage on all of these properties through its control of crosslinking. Ionic water-soluble polymers such as polydiallyl dimethyl ammonium cholride, poly vinylbenzyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, ploystyrene sulfonic acid, sodium salt and polyacrylic acid, which would ordinarily dissolve from the electrode surface in aqueous solution unless crosslinked into a network, and several neutral polymers such as polyacrylonitrile, polyethyleneimine, polydimethylsiloxane and poly vinyl alcohol investigated. The covalent attachment of organic and inorganic redox mediators and enzymes to networks by gamma irradiation of a mixture of polymer and the agent have been investigated. Network-coated electrodes with the appropriate properties are being developed for specific applications that required a stable, easily fabricated, fouling-resistant, rapidly responding, sensitive, and selective electrode.

  8. Final Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    This final chapter provides observations about institutional research in community colleges derived from the preceding chapters and the issue editors' own experiences. Taken as a whole, the chapters in this issue, as well as the editors' experiences, suggest several observations about institutional research in community colleges. These include the…

  9. Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

  10. Characterization of Contaminant Transport using Naturally-Occurring U-Series Disequilibria - Final Report - 05/01/1997 - 04/30/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Murrell, Michael T.; Ku, Teh-Lung

    2001-04-30

    The interactions of mixed wastes containing radionuclides with solid rock surface and the mobility of the radionuclides in aquifer systems depend not only on the chemistry of the nuclides and the physico-chemical effects of radioactive decay, but also on the site-specific hydrogeology. Thus, to characterize contaminant transport, it is best to cross-check figures derived from any small-scale laboratory experiments over limited times with that obtained from field-oriented, natural analog studies. We propose such a study using the naturally-occurring U and Th decay-series disequilibria. The work of ours and other researchers have shown that the parent/daughter disequilibrium patterns existing in groundwater systems can be modeled in terms of local nuclide mass balance to arrive at such information as the rock-water contact time (fluid flow) and rates of contaminant transport, taking into account the retardation effect due to nuclide/rock interaction contaminants at INEL by grouping them into three categories, represented by isotopes of (1) Th and Pa, (2) U and (3) Ra. Mass spectrometric measurements of these elements will be emphasized in order to minimize sample size requirements and to maximize precision. Results will form the data base for a model code for computing: (1) Fluid residence time (transport rates) in the basalt aquifers at various locations, (2) The in-situ adsorption and desorption rate constants, as well as the retardation factors, of various radionuclide wastes, and (3) Rock dissolution rate and its relation to preferential flow and contamination transport in the fractured rock.

  11. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Characterization of Pump Flow at the Grand Coulee Dam Pumping Station for Fish Passage, 2004-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, T.; Duncan, J.; Johnson, R.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Bonneville Power Administration to characterize the conditions fish experience when entrained in pump flow at the Grand Coulee Dam. PNNL conducted field studies at Grand Coulee Dam in 2004 using the Sensor Fish to measure the acceleration and pressure conditions that might be experienced by fish that pass through pumps at Grand Coulee Dam's Pump-Generating Plant and are transported up into the feeder canal leading to Banks Lake. The probability that fish would be struck by the Pump-Generating Plant's new nine-bladed turbines was also estimated. Our measurements showed relatively low turbulence except in the immediate vicinity of the runner environment. The lowest and highest pressures experienced by the Sensor Fish were 6.4 and 155 psi (the pressure gauge saturated at 155 psi). The probability of strike was also calculated, based on the average length of hatchery-reared juvenile kokanee (land-locked sockeye). Strike probabilities ranged from 0.0755 for 2.36-inch fish to 0.3890 for 11.8-inch fish. The probability of strike estimates indicate that the majority (77%) of recently released hatchery kokanee would be carried through the test pump without being struck and most likely with low risk of injury resulting from pressure and turbulence exposure. Of the 23% that might be struck it is expected that 60% would arrive in Banks Lake without visible external injuries. Thus more than 90% of entrained fish could be expected to arrive in Banks Lake without significant injury, assuming that no kokanee were injured or killed by pressure exposure during passage.

  12. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Volume III (of 4): Characterization and simulation of representative resources. Final report, February 14, 1995--October 13, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1997-01-13

    Significant innovations have been made in seismic processing and reservoir simulation. In addition, significant advances have been made in deviated and horizontal drilling technologies. Effective application of these technologies along with improved integrated resource management methods offer opportunities to significantly increase Gulf of Mexico production, delay platform abandonments, and preserve access to a substantial remaining oil target for both exploratory drilling and advanced recovery processes. In an effort to illustrate the impact that these new technologies and sources of information can have upon the estimates of recoverable oil in the Gulf of Mexico, additional and detailed data was collected for two previously studied reservoirs: a South March Island reservoir operated by Taylor Energy and Gulf of Mexico reservoir operated by Mobil, whose exact location has been blind-coded at their request, and an additional third representative reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico, the KEKF-1 reservoir in West Delta Block 84 Field. The new data includes reprocessed 2-D seismic data, newly acquired 3-D data, fluid data, fluid samples, pressure data, well test data, well logs, and core data/samples. The new data was used to refine reservoir and geologic characterization of these reservoirs. Further laboratory investigation also provided additional simulation input data in the form of PVT properties, relative permeabilities, capillary pressures, and water compatibility. Geologic investigations were also conducted to refine the models of mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysts and reservoir engineers. These results were also used, in part, to assist in the recharacterization of these reservoirs.

  13. Characterization of superconducting and magnetic materials with muon spin rotation and neutron scattering. Progress report, March 1996--August 1997 and final report, June 1988--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Stronach, C.E.; Noakes, D.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report represents the culmination of over nine years of research activity in the study of superconducting and magnetically ordered materials using the muon spin rotation ({mu}SR) and neutron scattering techniques. Because all the activities that took place up until March 1996 have been covered in previous annual reports, this final report includes only a brief overview of activities prior to that date, and concentrates on the period from March 1996 through August 1997. The primary activity undertaken in this project has been studies of high-temperature superconductors and their close chemical relatives with the {mu}SR technique. These experiments extend from early work done with a relatively primitive muon beam at the AGS of Brookhaven National Laboratory and large polycrystalline samples of the earliest known high-{Tc} materials to studies of very small high-purity single crystals of the best high-{Tc} materials currently available using the highest quality surface muon beams and specially-designed low-background spectrometers at the Tri-University Meson Facility (TRIUMF) in the past three years. During the period since the last annual report five {mu}SR experiments were done at TRIUMF with DOE support. A study of single-crystal high-temperature superconductors was done in July 1996. A study of the quasicrystal materials Gd{sub 8}Mg{sub 42}Zn{sub 50} and Tb{sub 8}Mg{sub 42}Zn{sub 50} was done by D.R. Noakes in collaboration with G.M. Kalvius of the Technical University of Munich and R. Waeppling of Uppsala University during the first week of December 1996. During the second week of December 1996 a study of the cryocrystals CH{sub 4} and CF{sub 4} was done by D.R. Noakes in collaboration with S. Storchak of Moscow State University and J.H. Brewer of the University of British Columbia. A study of high-{Tc} superconductors was done at TRIUMF during the third week of December 1996 by C.E. Stronach and D.R. Noakes.

  14. Final Project Report, DE-SC0001280, Characterizing the Combined Roles of Iron and Transverse Mixing on Uranium Bioremediation in Groundwater using Microfluidic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Finneran, Kevin; Werth, Charles; Strathmann, Timothy

    2015-01-10

    In situ bioremediation of U(VI) involves amending groundwater with an appropriate electron donor and limiting nutrients to promote biological reduction to the less soluble and mobile U(IV) oxidation state. Groundwater flow is laminar; mixing is controlled by hydrodynamic dispersion. Recent studies indicate that transverse dispersion along plume margins can limit mixing of the amended electron donor and accepter (such as U(VI) in remediation applications). As a result, microbial growth, and subsequently contaminant reaction, may be limited to these transverse mixing zones during bioremediation. The primary objective of this work was to characterize the combined effects of hydrology, geochemistry, and biology on the (bio)remediation of U(VI). Our underlying hypothesis was that U(VI) reaction in groundwater is controlled by transverse mixing with an electron donor along plume margins, and that iron bioavailability in these zones affects U(VI) reduction kinetics and U(IV) re-oxidation. Our specific objectives were to a) quantify reaction kinetics mediated by biological versus geochemical reactions leading to U(VI) reduction and U(IV) re-oxidation, b) understand the influence of bioavailable iron on U(VI) reduction and U(IV) re-oxidation along the transverse mixing zones, c) determine how transverse mixing limitations and the presence of biomass in pores affects these reactions, and d) identify how microbial populations that develop along transverse mixing zones are influenced by the presence of iron and the concentration of electron donor. In the completed work, transverse mixing zones along plume margins were re-created in microfluidic pore networks, referred to as micromodels. We conducted a series of experiments that allowed us to distinguish among the hydraulic, biological, and geochemical mechanisms that contribute to U(VI) reduction, U(IV) re-oxidation, and U(VI) abiotic reaction with the limiting biological nutrient HP042-. This systematic approach may lead to a

  15. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Paul Drake

    2001-11-30

    This final report describes work involving 22 investigators from 11 institutions to explore the dynamics present in supernova explosions by means of experiments on the Omega laser. The specific experiments emphasized involved the unstable expansion of a spherical capsule and the coupling of perturbations at a first interface to a second interface by means of a strong shock. Both effects are present in supernovae. The experiments were performed at Omega and the computer simulations were undertaken at several institutions. B139

  16. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, Gary E.

    2013-04-23

    This is the final report of a two year project entitled "Governing Nanotechnology Risks and Benefits in the Transition to Regulation: Innovative Public and Private Approaches." This project examined the role of new governance or "soft law" mechanisms such as codes of conduct, voluntary programs and partnership agreements to manage the risks of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology. A series of published or in publication papers and book chapters are attached.

  17. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Normanly, J.

    1999-11-29

    The primary goal was the characterization of tryptophan (Trp)-independent biosynthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Our work and that of others indicates that indole is a precursor to IAA in a Trp-independent pathway and the objectives of this grant have been the isolation of indole-metabolizing genes from Arabidopsis.

  18. Upper Critical Field, Critical Current Density and Activation Energy of the New La1-xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2 (x = 0.2, 0.8) Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalai Selvan, Ganesan; Singh Thakur, Gohil; Manikandan, Krishnan; Uwatoko, Yoshia; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, Laxmi Chand; Ganguli, Ashok Kumar; Arumugam, Sonachalam

    2015-12-01

    Critical current density (Jc), thermal activation energy (U0), and upper critical field (Hc2) of La1-xSmxO0.5F0.5BiS2 (x = 0.2, 0.8) superconductors are investigated from magnetic field dependent ρ(T) studies. The estimated upper critical field (Hc2) has low values of 1.04 T for x = 0.2 and 1.41 T for x = 0.8. These values are lower than Sm free LaO0.5F0.5BiS2 superconductor (1.9 T). The critical current density (Jc) is estimated to be 1.35 × 105 and 5.07 × 105 A/cm2 (2 K) for x = 0.2 and 0.8 respectively, using the Bean's model. The thermal activation energy (U0/kB) is 61 K for x = 0.2 and 140 K for x = 0.8 as calculated from Arrhenius plots at low magnetic field (1 T) and indicates a strong flux pinning potential which might be co-existing with applied magnetic field.

  19. Superconductivity in La1‑x Sm x O0.5F0.5BiS2 (x  =  0.2, 0.8) under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalai Selvan, G.; Thakur, Gohil S.; Manikandan, K.; Banerjee, A.; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Arumugam, S.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the pressure effect on the newly discovered samarium-doped La1‑x Sm x O0.5F0.5BiS2 superconductors. More than a threefold increase in T c (10.3 K) is observed with external pressure (at ~1.74 GPa at a rate of 4.08 K GPa‑1) for x  =  0.2 composition. There is a concomitant large improvement in the quality of the superconducting transition. Beyond this pressure T c decreases monotonously at the rate of  ‑2.09 K GPa‑1. In the x  =  0.8 sample, we do not observe any enhancement in T c with the application of pressure (up to 1.76 GPa). The semiconducting behavior observed in the normal-state resistivity of both samples is significantly subdued with the application of pressure which, if interpreted by invoking the thermal activation process, implies that the activation energy gap of the carriers is significantly reduced with pressure. We believe these observations should generate further interest in La1‑x Sm x O0.5F0.5BiS2 superconductors.

  20. Photophysical properties of ESIPT inspired fluorescent 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione and its derivative: experimental and DFT based approach.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Mininath S; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2015-01-25

    The excited-state intramolecular proton transfer chromophores 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione and 2-(4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methylimidazo[4,5-f]isoindole-5,7(1H,6H)-dione are synthesized from 4,5-diamino-N-methylphthalimide. The photophysical behavior of the synthesized chromophores was studied using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy in the polar and non-polar solvents. The synthesized o-hydroxyphenyl benzimidazole derivatives are fluorescent and very sensitive to the solvent polarity. These dyes are thermally stable up to 317 °C. Density Functional Theory computations have been used to understand the structural, molecular, electronic and photophysical properties of the chromophores. The experimental absorption and emission wavelengths are in good agreement with the computed vertical excitation and theoretical emission obtained by Density Functional Theory and Time Dependant Density Functional Theory. PMID:25108369

  1. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, John T.

    1998-01-01

    Our accomplishments during the tenure of the grant include the chemical-petrographic characterization of chondrules from the highly unequilibrated ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite LEW85332, the examination of matrix materials in several unequilibrated ordinary chondrites, the exploration of the possibility that amoeboid olivine inclusions in CO chondrites were formed by the chondrule forming process at high nebular temperatures, and the interpretation of our results and those of others in terms of nebular agglomeration and parent-body compaction.

  2. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Stephen

    2014-08-31

    Uranium-containing and thorium-containing compounds have been produced using a laser ablation source. Spectral transitions from these compounds in the 6 GHz to 18 GHz frequency region have been recorded using advanced techniques in Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The pure rotational spectrum of thorium (II) oxide is particularly strong and rotational transitions have been observed in highly excited vibrational states. These measurements have allowed a further characterization of the molecules potential energy well.

  3. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph T. Hupp

    2008-11-17

    The premise of this project was that coordination chemistry could be used to devise new kinds of microporous materials and that these materials could exhibit nanoscale porosity and selective chemical separation capabilities. Our initial materials focus was on aggregates of discrete hollow molecules, especially molecular squares. Subsequently our focus turned largely toward permanently microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Our approach emphasized coupling predictive & explanative computational modeling to materials design, synthesis, and property characterization.

  4. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  5. Heavy perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: Atmospheric histories and top-down global emission estimates for C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Rigby, M. L.; Baasandorj, M.; Muhle, J.; Harth, C.; Salameh, P.; Steele, P.; Leist, M.; Krummel, P. B.; Burkholder, J. B.; Fraser, P.; Weiss, R. F.; Prinn, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    The high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs) - perfluorobutane (C4F10), perfluoropentane (C5F12), perfluorohexane (C6F14), perfluoroheptane (C7F16) and perfluorooctane (C8F18) - are potent greenhouse gases with global warming potentials of ~ 9000 for a 100 year time horizon [Forster et al., 2007]. Currently, the heavy PFCs are regulated under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). However, no atmospheric observations or top-down emission estimates for these gases have been published. In this study, atmospheric histories of the heavy PFCs were determined through new measurements of the Cape Grim Air Archive and a collection of Northern Hemispheric archive flasks using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) cryogenic preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system "Medusa" [Miller et al., 2008]. Furthermore, global top-down emissions were estimated from 1973-2010 based on the atmospheric histories using an inverse method and the 3-D chemical transport model, Model of OZone and Related Tracers (MOZARTv4.5) [Emmons et al., 2009]. Comparison of the top-down emission estimates with bottom-up estimates from the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGARv4.1) shows EDGARv4.1 emission estimates are underestimated by orders of magnitude for C4F10 and C5F12 [European Commission, 2009]. The bottom-up estimates from EDGARv4.1 are comparable to the top-down estimates for C6F14 and C7F16; no bottom-up emission estimates are available for C8F18. Generally, UNFCCC reported inventories by countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol are 5 to 10 times lower than the top-down emission estimates for C4F10, C5F12 and C6F14 (C7F16 and C8F18 are not reported to the UNFCCC). The atmospheric histories and top-down emission estimates presented are the most accurate and comprehensive compiled so far for the high molecular weight PFCs. Furthermore, this study illustrates the importance of

  6. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer from a bio-active imidazole derivative 2-(1-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)phenol to a bioactive indoloquinolizine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Thanikachalam, Venugopal; Venkatesh Perumal, Marimuthu; Srinivasan, Natesan

    2011-06-01

    Novel donor imidazole derivative, 2-(1-phenyl-1H-imidazo [4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)-phenol (PIPP) was screened as highly sensitive chemisensor for transition metal ions and it can be used as a "multi-way" optically switchable material. Solvatochromic effects on the fluorescence behaviour of PIPP were studied in different solvents. The fluorescence of PIPP was highly sensitive to both the polarity as well as protic nature of the solvent. Fluorescence (Forster) resonance energy transfer (FRET) process from PIPP to a potent bioactive indoloquinolizine molecule was studied and it is argued that long-range dipole-dipole interaction is operating for the energy transfer mechanism. The energy transfer efficiency ( E) and the distance between the acceptor and the donor ( r0) have been determined.

  7. Prebiotics and age, but not probiotics affect the transformation of 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) by fecal microbiota - An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Czyżowska, Agata; Huben, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Kuberski, Sławomir; Otlewska, Anna; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens which are formed in meat cooked using high-temperature methods. The human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining health in humans of different ages, and especially in the elderly. However, the GI microbiota, whose metabolism and composition changes with age, may also be responsible for the activation of mutagenic substances reaching the colon with diet. Probiotics and prebiotics are promising in terms of reducing the destructive effects of HAAs. The aim of the study was to determine if fecal microbiota derived from the feces of 27 volunteers: infants (up to 18 months), adults (aged 23-39 years), the sub-elderly (aged 64-65 years), and the elderly (aged 76-87 years), and the presence of probiotics or prebiotics, affected the transformation of IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) to 7-OH-IQ (2-amino-3,6-dihydro-3-methyl-7H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline-7-one). The compounds were identified using LC-MS(n), NMR, and FTIR. Their genotoxicity was compared in the comet assay. Individual strains capable of IQ transformation were also identified. 7-OH-IQ was detected in six persons (two children and four elderly individuals). The degree of IQ conversion ranged from 26% (4-month-old girl) to 94% (81-year-old woman) of the initial quantity. Four Enterococcus isolates: two Enterococcus faecium and two Enterococcus faecalis strains, as well as one Clostridium difficile strain (LOCK 1030, from the culture collection) converted IQ to 7-OH-IQ. The genotoxicity of samples containing 7-OH-IQ was even three times higher (P < 0.05) than those with IQ and was correlated with the degree of IQ conversion and 7-OH-IQ concentration. PMID:27034248

  8. Etchback smear removal process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.H.

    1981-03-01

    A study evaluated variable limits for each chemical solution used in etchback smear removal on multilayer printed wiring boards (MLPWBs) to determine variables' influence on etchback behavior. Etchback smear removal is essential to fabricate about 40 different multilayer parts. However, erratic etchback behavior contributes to reduced yields among multilayer parts. The study, conducted on 172 multilayer printed wiring boards in 43 test runs, indicated that chemical interaction may not be a principal influence on etchback behavior. Study results also indicated that slight changes in process variables did not influence the presence of recessed conductors. The results verified the adequacy of existing tolerances on main process variables to produce uniformly etched holes.

  9. Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

    1993-08-01

    This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

  10. Characterization of metal cutting dynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.

    1997-11-01

    A Hardinge CNC lathe has been fitted with sensors and a data acquisition system for the measurement, processing and storage of accelerations and forces associated with orthogonal cutting. This system has been completely validated. Orthogonal cutting experiments were designed in order to study the effects of critical cutting parameters on machining dynamics. Three major experimental sets were conducted. In the first set the depth of cut was increased in a stepwise fashion, while the workpiece surface speed, the spindle speed, and the tool feedrate were maintained invariant. In the second and third sets, the spindle speed and feedrate were varied, respectively, while maintaining all the other parameters invariant. In total over two hundred orthogonal cutting experiments were performed. In each experiment, the two non-zero components of the tool acceleration and the two non-zero components of the cutting force were measured. Despite high noise levels, mutual information calculations with smoothing kernels and false nearest neighbor algorithms proved to be sufficiently robust to provide upper bounds on attractor dimension for all fifty data sets studied. These results prove that the infinite dimensional cutting process has an associated attractor of dimension {le} 4. This result is important as a guide to model construction. An analysis of the power spectral sideband structure proved that sideband spacing is identical to the turning frequency. This result was further substantiated through envelope detection techniques. A linear delay model was shown to emulate the experimental power spectrum and possess predictive capacity.

  11. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Robert C.; Kamon, Teruki; Toback, David; Safonov, Alexei; Dutta, Bhaskar; Dimitri, Nanopoulos; Pope, Christopher; White, James

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  12. Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 2 - hydrogenative and hydrothermal pretreatments and spectroscopic characterization using pyrolysis-GC-MS, CPMAS {sup 13}C NMR and FT-IR

    SciTech Connect

    Chunshan Song; Hatcher, P.G.; Saini, A.K.; Wenzel, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    It has been indicated by DOE COLIRN panel that low-temperature catalytic pretreatment is a promising approach to the development of an improved liquefaction process. This work is a fundamental study on effects of pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. The main objectives of this project are to study the coal structural changes induced by low-temperature catalytic and thermal pretreatments by using spectroscopic techniques; and to clarify the pretreatment-induced changes in reactivity or convertibility of coals. As the second volume of the final report, here we summarize our work on spectroscopic characterization of four raw coals including two subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals, tetrahydrofuran (THF)-extracted but unreacted coals, the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been thermally pretreated. in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent, and the coals (THF-insoluble parts) that have been catalytically pretreated in the presence of a dispersed Mo sulfide catalyst in the absence of any solvents and in the presence of either a hydrogen-donor solvent or a non-donor solvent.

  13. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Blasie; W.F. DeGrado; J.G. Saven; M.J. Therien

    2012-05-24

    The overall objective is to create robust artificial protein modules as scaffolds to control both (a) the conformation of novel cofactors incorporated into the modules thereby making the modules possess a desired functionality and (b) the organization of these functional modules into ordered macroscopic ensembles, whose macroscopic materials properties derive from the designed microscopic function of the modules. We focus on two specific types of cofactors for imparting functionality in this project; primarily nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores designed to exhibit extraordinary molecular hyperpolarizabilities, as well as donor-bridge-acceptor cofactors designed to exhibit highly efficient, 'through-bonds' light-induced electron transfer (LIET) over nano-scale distances. The ensembles range from 2-D to 3-D, designed to possess the degree of orientational and positional order necessary to optimize their macroscopic response, the latter ranging from liquid-crystalline or glass-like to long-range periodic. Computational techniques, firmly based in statistical thermodynamics, are utilized for the design the artificial protein modules, based on robust {alpha}-helical bundle motifs, necessarily incorporating the desired conformation, location, and environment of the cofactor. Importantly, this design approach also includes optimization of the interactions between the modules to promote their organization into ordered macroscopic ensembles in 2-D and 3-D via either directed-assembly or self-assembly. When long-range periodic order is required, the design can be optimized to result a specified lattice symmetry. The structure and functionality of the individual modules are fully characterized at the microscopic level, as well as that of the ensembles at the macroscopic level, employing modern experimental physical-chemical and computational techniques. These include, for example, multi-dimensional NMR, various pump-probe transient spectroscopies to ultrafast time

  14. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Benson

    2012-09-24

    This project combines outcrop-scale heterogeneity characterization, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations. The study is designed to test whether established dispersion theory accurately predicts the behavior of solute transport through heterogeneous media and to investigate the relationship between heterogeneity and the parameters that populate these models. The dispersion theory tested by this work is based upon the fractional advection-dispersion equation (fADE) model. Unlike most dispersion studies that develop a solute transport model by fitting the solute transport breakthrough curve, this project will explore the nature of the heterogeneous media to better understand the connection between the model parameters and the aquifer heterogeneity. Our work at the Colorado School of Mines was focused on the following questions: 1) What are the effects of multi-scale geologic variability on transport of conservative and reactive solutes? 2) Can those transport effects be accounted for by classical methods, and if not, can the nonlocal fractional-order equations provide better predictions? 3) Can the fractional-order equations be parameterized through a link to some simple observable geologic features? 4) Are the classical equations of transport and reaction sufficient? 5) What is the effect of anomalous transport on chemical reaction in groundwater systems? The work is predicated on the observation that upscaled transport is defined by loss of information, or spatio-temporal averaging. This averaging tends to make the transport laws such as Fick's 2nd-order diffusion equation similar to central limit theory. The fractional-order advection-dispersion equations rely on limit theory for heavy-tailed random motion that has some diverging moments. The equations predict larger tails of a plume in space and/or time than those predicted by the classical 2nd-order advection-dispersion equation. The heavy tails are often seen in plumes at field sites.

  15. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wessels, B. W.

    2002-08-02

    Final report for program on the study of structure and properties of epitaxial oxide films. The defect structure of epitaxial oxide thin films was investigated. Both binary and complex oxides were studied. Epitaxial oxides were synthesized by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD). This technique has been found to be highly versatile for the synthesis of a wide range of epitaxial oxide including dielectrics, ferroelectrics and high T{sub c} superconductors. Systems investigated include the binary oxides ZnO and TiO{sub 2} and ferroelectric oxides BaTiO{sub 3}, BaSrTiO{sub 3} and KNbO{sub 3}. Techniques used to evaluate the defect structure included deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photocapacitance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High purity, stoichiometric oxide films were deposited and their defect structure evaluated. Epitaxial ZnO was deposited at temperatures as low as 250 C. PL indicated only near band edge ultraviolet emission showing that both extrinsic and intrinsic point defects could be significantly lowered in OMCVD derived thin films compared to that of the bulk. This presumably was a result of low deposition temperatures and high purity starting materials. Ferroelectric oxides epitaxial thin films of BaTiO{sub 3} and the solid solution BaSrTiO{sub 3} were synthesized and the defect structure determined. Photocapacitance spectroscopy was developed to quantify electrically active defects in the oxides. Defects with concentrations as low as 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} were observed and their properties determined. A new model was developed for the electronic transport properties of intrinsic and extrinsic BaTiO{sub 3}. A transport model was proposed whereby conduction in La doped films occurs via hopping in localized states within a pseudogap formed between a lower Hubbard band and the conduction band edge. The influence of the size effect on the ferroelectric phase transition in the thin films was investigated. The

  16. FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Juergen Eckert; Anthony K. Cheetham

    2011-03-11

    Hydrogen storage systems based on the readily reversible adsorption of H{sub 2} in porous materials have a number of very attractive properties with the potential to provide superior performance among candidate materials currently being investigated were it not for the fact that the interaction of H{sub 2} with the host material is too weak to permit viable operation at room temperature. Our study has delineated in quantitative detail the structural elements which we believe to be the essential ingredients for the future synthesis of porous materials, where guest-host interactions are intermediate between those found in the carbons and the metal hydrides, i.e. between physisorption and chemisorption, which will result in H{sub 2} binding energies required for room temperature operation. The ability to produce porous materials with much improved hydrogen binding energies depends critically on detailed molecular level analysis of hydrogen binding in such materials. However, characterization of H{sub 2} sorption is almost exclusively carried by thermodynamic measurements, which give average properties for all the sites occupied by H{sub 2} molecules at a particular loading. We have therefore extensively utilized the most powerful of the few molecular level experimental probes available to probe the interactions of hydrogen with porous materials, namely inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectroscopy of the hindered rotations of the hydrogen molecules adsorbed at various sites, which in turn can be interpreted in a very direct way in by computational studies. This technique can relate spectral signatures of various H{sub 2} molecules adsorbed at binding sites with different degrees of interaction. In the course of this project we have synthesized a rather large number of entirely new hybrid materials, which include structural modifications for improved interactions with adsorbed hydrogen. The results of our systematic studies on many porous materials provide detailed

  17. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    White, John M.

    2007-04-24

    Under our grant, DE-FG02-03ER15480, "Early transition metal oxides as catalysts: crossing scales from clusters to single crystals to functioning materials," catalytic activity of high surface area, powdered transition metal oxides (TMO, e.g. vanadium, niobium, molybdenum, and tungsten) supported on Al2O3, SiO2, ZrO2 and TiO2 have been extensively studied. In contrast, virtually no studies have been conducted for TMOs supported on well-ordered, single-crystalline oxides. This is largely due to a number of experimental difficulties related to the preparation of well-ordered oxide surfaces and to the charging problems associated with electron based probes on insulators. In our experiments we have selected TiO2(110) as a well-ordered substrate. TiO2(110) is a semiconductor (EG = 3.0 eV) and as such it has been extensively studied using ensemble averaged, as well as atomically resolved probes.1 In this work our goal was to create a well characterized, WO3/TiO2(110) model catalyst and interrogate its chemical activity for reactions of interest to this program. Initial studies of the chemical activity of the WO3 clusters on TiO2(110) focused on the partial oxidation of CH3OH. Only molecular desorption of CH3OH was observed. For 1 ML of CH3OH adsorbed on clean TiO2(110), the fraction of CH3OH desorbing from Ti4+ (250-400K) and BBO (150-250 K) sites is approximately the same, similar to H2O desorption. For CH3OH desorption from WO3/TiO2(110), a larger fraction of CH3OH desorbs from oxygen terminated sites, suggesting that the Ti4+ sites were covered by WO3. Current studies of alcohol oxidation reactions focus on the higher alcohols, such as 2-propanol and 2?butanol. In other studies, we have explored the adsorption of formaldehyde as one of the potential products in the partial oxidation of CH3OH. A catalytic polymerization reaction resulting in the formation of trioxane (paraformaldehyde) was observed.

  18. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Susan S. Golden

    2005-03-31

    The originally funded project was geared to pursue research on regulation of photosystem II (PSII) in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. We characterized a locus, psfR, (psbA stimulating factor) that affects expression of the psbAI gene, which encodes the PSII protein D1. Over-expression of psfR, which encodes a protein with receiver and pseudo-receiver domains, acts at the promoter region to elevate expression of psbAI and a subset of other loci. We reoriented the remainder of the funding to make a greater impact through completion of a functional genomics project that had been initiated with funding from another agency. The goal is inactivation of each gene individually in the S. elongatus genome, and completion of the entire genome sequence. At the end of the project we will have screened all loci for involvement in circadian rhythms of gene expression and assembled an archived set of clones that can be used to create the mutations to screen for any other phenotype. During the project period we: (1) prepared a functional genomics website for S. elongatus PCC 7942 that posts sequences prior to GenBank release, and presents the strategy and progress for the genomics project (http://www.bio.tamu.edu/synecho/); (2) determined the sequence of and annotated the S. elongatus 46 kb plasmid, pANL; (3) submitted assembled sequences with annotation of 8 cosmid inserts to GenBank (313 kb), with sites of transposon insertions indicated; (4) mutagenized approximately an additional 600 kb of the genome (16 cosmids) and identified sequences flanking the mutations; (5) recombined mutagenesis substrates into the S. elongatus genome to produce gene inactivations (at the sites of transposon insertions) for approximately 415 kb of mutagenized sequence (85% of these have already been screened for circadian phenotypes) (6) identified the clpPIIclpX locus as important in determining circadian period; and (7) demonstrated effectiveness of antisense RNA for decreasing

  19. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, Fred C.

    2003-01-15

    species of flagellates, Spumella sp. and Bodo sp. (identifications are tentative) were isolated from South Oyster sediments by repetitive serial dilution/extinction method. Protistan cells were cultured with Cereal leaf Prescott medium and pelleted by centrifugation. Protistan DNAs were extracted with a DNA extraction kit (Sigma Co.) and the sequencing of their SSrDNA is underway. Finally, to follow up on our collaboration of Dr. Bill Johnson (Univ. of Utah), one of the co-PIs under the same NABIR umbrella, we are pleased to report we have successfully tested antibody-ferrographic capture of protists (See previous year's report for more background). Polyclonal FITC-conjugated antibody specific for a flagellate, Spumella sp., was produced by Rockland Inc., and we now are able to enumerate that species using ferrographic capture. There are, however, some issues of non-specific staining that remain to be resolved.

  20. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph H. Simmons; Tracie J. Bukowski

    2002-08-07

    determine if photocarriers could be collected. Thus, we tested a variety of semiconductor-glass nano-composite structures for photoconductivity. Tests were conducted in collaboration with the Laser Physics Division at Sandia National Laboratories. Nano-composite samples were formed consisting of Ge nanocrystals embedded in an indium-tin-oxide matrix. Photoconductivity measurements were conducted with exposure of the films to sub-bandgap and super-bandgap light. The results showed a clear photoconductivity effect arising from exposure to super-bandgap light only. These results suggest that the high-efficiency photovoltaic cell structure proposed in DOE sponsored U.S. Patent 5,720,827 is viable. The results of fabrication studies, structural characterization studies and photovoltaic measurements are presented in the report. This report is taken from a PhD dissertation of Tracie J. Bukowski submitted to the University of Florida in May 2002. ''The optical and photoconductive response in germanium quantum dots and indium tin oxide composite thin film structures,'' Dr. Bukowski conducted her PhD study under this grant at the University of Arizona and under Grant No DE-FG05-91ER45462 at the University of Florida, as well as during a two-year fellowship at Sandia National Laboratories.

  1. Imaging Nuclei of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells by Chiral Ruthenium(II) Complex Coordinated by 2-(4-Phenyacetylenephenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Fen-Yong; Zheng, Kang-Di; Mei, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    A pair of chiral ruthenium(II) complexes, Λ- and Δ-[Ru(bpy)2(p-BEPIP)](ClO4)2 [Λ- and Δ-RM0627; bpy = 2,2-bipyridine; p-BEPIP = 2-(4-phenyacetylenephenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline], were prepared using the Sonogashira coupling reaction under microwave irradiation. The study shows that Λ-RM0627 emitted strong phosphorescence in the range 500-700 nm with a maximum at 594 nm when excited at 365 nm (the Stokes shift is about 227 nm), which was mainly located in the cell nucleus with red phosphorescence. Further studies using real-time phosphorescence observation confirmed that Λ-RM0627 can be taken up quickly by MDA-MB-231 cells and enriched in the nucleus. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of Λ-RM0627 were also evaluated, and it was found that Λ-RM0627 slightly inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and HaCaT normal human epidermal cells and had little influence on the development of Zebrafish embryos at low concentration. In conclusion, the levoisomer of chiral ruthenium complexes can act as a potential phosphorescent probe that targets nuclei of living cells with low toxicity. PMID:27191197

  2. Three-step laser excitation of the 6p3/2ns, nd, ng autoionizing Rydberg levels via the 6p5f 1/2[5/2]2 level of lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahad, A.; Nadeem, A.; Bhatti, S. A.; Baig, M. A.

    2005-03-01

    Odd parity autoionizing Rydberg levels of atomic lead in the energy region above the 6p1/2 ionization threshold have been investigated using three-step laser excitation in conjunction with an atomic beam apparatus. The 6p3/2ns (J = 1, 2), 6p3/2nd (J = 1, 2, 3) and 6p3/2ng (J = 2, 3) levels have been observed from the 6p5f 1/2[5/2]2 intermediate level. Energy values and FWHM of forty levels belonging to the 6p3/2ns, 6p3/2nd and 6p3/2ng configurations are presented. Six levels based on the 6p3/2ng (5, 13 ≤n ≤15) configurations and three levels attached to the 6p3/28d configuration are reported for the first time. The present study of the low-lying autoionizing levels attached to the 6p3/25g (J = 2, 3) configuration completes the series adjacent to the 6p1/2 limit.

  3. Translesion Synthesis Past the C8- and N2-Deoxyguanosine Adducts of the Dietary Mutagen 2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in the NarI Recognition Sequence by Prokaryotic DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Stover, James S.; Chowdhury, Goutam; Zang, Hong; Guengerich, F. Peter; Rizzo, Carmelo J.

    2011-01-01

    2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is found in cooked meats and forms DNA adducts at the C8- and N2-positions of dGuo after appropriate activation. IQ is a potent inducer of frameshift mutations in bacteria and is carcinogenic in laboratory animals. We have incorporated both IQ-adducts into the G1-and G3-positions of the NarI recognition sequence (5′-G1G2CG3CC-3′), which is a hotspot for arylamine modification. The in vitro replication of the oligonucleotides was examined with Escherichia coli pol I Klenow fragment exo−, E. coli pol II exo−, and Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4), and the extension products were sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. Replication of the C8-adduct at the G3-position resulted in two-base deletions with all three polymerases, whereas error-free bypass and extension was observed at the G1-position. The N2-adduct was bypassed and extended by all three polymerases when positioned at the G1-position, and the error-free product was observed. The N2-adduct at the G3-position was more blocking and was bypassed and extended only by Dpo4 to produce an error-free product. These results indicate that the replication of the IQ-adducts of dGuo is strongly influenced by the local sequence and the regioisomer of the adduct. These results also suggest a possible role for pol II and IV in the error-prone bypass of the C8-IQ-adduct leading to frameshift mutations in reiterated sequences, whereas noniterated sequences result in error-free bypass. PMID:17112239

  4. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) generation or IL-1[beta]-induced intracellular NO production stimulates inhibitory auto-ADP-ribosylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in RINm5F cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dimmeler, S.; Bruene, B. ); Ankarcrona, M.; Nicotera, P. )

    1993-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates the auto-ADP-ribosylation of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) which results in the inhibition of enzyme activity. In the present work the authors show that addition of exogenous NO or IL-1[beta]-induced intracellular NO generation cause GAPDH ADP-ribosylation and inhibition of enzyme activity. Incubation of RINm5F cells with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for 18 h caused a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of GAPDH activity. Half-maximal inhibition of GAPDH activity was observed with 80 [mu]M of the NO donor, with maximal inhibition after roughly 6 h of incubation. In parallel, SNP induced endogenous ADP-ribosylation of GAPDH measured by a decreased incorporation of [[sup 32]P]ADP-ribose from [[sup 32]P]NAD[sup +] in the cytosol of the SNP-treated cells. Stimulation of endogenous NO production by inducing the NO synthase by exposure to the cytokine IL-1[beta] results in decreased GAPDH activity. IL-1[beta] (10[sup [minus]9] M) inhibited GAPDH activity about 55%, compared with control values. Production of nitrite and inhibition of GAPDH was reversed by the NAD[sup +] synthease inhibitor N[sub G]-monomethyl-L-arginine, indicating the endogenous generated NO was the effective molecule. Again, GAPDH inhibition was associated with NO-stimulated endogenous ADP-ribosylation of the enzyme Western blot analysis of GAPDH excluded degradation of GAPDH by NO. NO-stimulated auto-ADP-ribosylation resulted in inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH and may be relevant as a cytotoxic effect of NO. In concert with its inhibitory actions on iron-sulfur enzymes like aconitase and electron transport proteins of the respiratory chain, NO may mediate autocytotoxic effect in [beta]-cells. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Beta-glucuronidase in human intestinal microbiota is necessary for the colonic genotoxicity of the food-borne carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in rats.

    PubMed

    Humblot, Christèle; Murkovic, Michaël; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Bensaada, Martine; Bouclet, Anthony; Andrieux, Claude; Anba, Jamila; Rabot, Sylvie

    2007-11-01

    2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a genotoxic/carcinogenic compound formed in meat and fish during cooking. Following absorption in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, IQ is mainly metabolized in the liver by xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Among them, UDP-glucuronosyl transferases lead to harmless glucuronidated derivatives that are partly excreted via the bile into the digestive lumen, where they come into contact with the resident microbiota. The purpose of this study is to investigate if microbial beta-glucuronidase could contribute to IQ genotoxicity by releasing reactive intermediates from IQ glucuronides. We constructed a beta-glucuronidase-deficient isogenic mutant from a wild-type Escherichia coli strain carrying the gene uidA encoding this enzyme and compared the genotoxicity of IQ in gnotobiotic rats monoassociated with the wild-type or the mutant strain. The Comet assay performed on colonocytes and hepatocytes showed that the presence of beta-glucuronidase in the digestive lumen dramatically increased (3-fold) the genotoxicity of IQ in the colon. This deleterious effect was paralleled by slight modifications of the pharmacokinetics of IQ. The urinary and faecal excretion of the parent compound and its conjugated derivatives reached a maximum 24-48 h after gavage in rats harbouring the beta-glucuronidase-deficient strain. In rats associated with the wild-type strain, the kinetics of urinary excretion showed a biphasic curve with a second, smaller peak after 144 h. This is the first in vivo demonstration that bacterial beta-glucuronidase plays a pivotal role in the genotoxicity of a common food-borne carcinogen. PMID:17660508

  6. Cytochrome P450-Mediated Metabolism and DNA Binding of 2-Amino-1,7-dimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline and its Carcinogenic Isomer 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Turesky, Robert J.; Bessette, Erin E.; Dunbar, Deborah; Liberman, Rosa G.; Skipper, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    2-Amino-1,7-dimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline (MeIgQx) is a recently discovered heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that is formed during the cooking of meats. MeIgQx is an isomer of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), a rodent carcinogen and possible human carcinogen that also occurs in cooked meats. MeIgQx is a bacterial mutagen but knowledge about its metabolism and carcinogenic potential is lacking. Metabolism studies on MeIgQx and MeIQx were conducted with human and mouse liver microsomes, and recombinant human P450s. DNA binding studies were also investigated in mice to ascertain the genotoxic potential of MeIgQx in comparison to MeIQx. Both HAAs underwent comparable rates of N-oxidation to form genotoxic N-hydroxylated metabolites with mouse liver microsomes (0.2 - 0.3 nmol/min/mg protein). The rate of N-oxidation of MeIQx was 4-fold greater than the rate of N-oxidation of MeIgQx with human liver microsomes (1.7 vs 0.4 nmol/min/mg protein). The rate of N-oxidation, by recombinant human P450 1A2, was comparable for both substrates (6 pmol/min/pmol P450 1A2). MeIgQx also underwent N-oxidation by human P450s 1A1 and 1B1 at appreciable rates, whereas MeIQx was poorly metabolized by these P450s. The potential of MeIgQx and MeIQx to form DNA adducts was assessed in female C57BL/6 mice given [14C]-MeIgQx (10 μCi, 9.68 mg/kg body wt) or [14C]-MeIQx (10 μCi, 2.13 mg/kg body wt). DNA adduct formation in liver, pancreas and colorectum was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry at 4, 24 or 48 h post-treatment. Variable levels of adducts were detected in all organs. The adduct levels were similar for both HAAs, when adjusted for dose, and ranged from 1 to 600 adducts per 107 nucleotides per mg/kg dose. Thus, MeIgQx undergoes metabolic activation and binds to DNA at levels that are comparable to MeIQx. Given the high amounts of MeIgQx formed in cooked meats, further investigations are warranted to assess the carcinogenic potential of this HAA. PMID

  7. Formation, reactivity, and photorelease of metal bound nitrosyl in [Ru(trpy)(L)(NO)](n+) (trpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, L = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline).

    PubMed

    Maji, Somnath; Sarkar, Biprajit; Patra, Malay; Das, Atanu Kumar; Mobin, Shaikh M; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2008-04-21

    Nitrosyl complexes with {Ru-NO} (6) and {Ru-NO} (7) configurations have been isolated in the framework of [Ru(trpy)(L)(NO)] ( n+ ) [trpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, L = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5- f]1,10-phenanthroline] as the perchlorate salts [ 4](ClO 4) 3 and [ 4](ClO 4) 2, respectively. Single crystals of protonated material [ 4-H (+)](ClO 4) 4.2H 2O reveal a Ru-N-O bond angle of 176.1(7) degrees and triply bonded N-O with a 1.127(9) A bond length. Structures were also determined for precursor compounds of [ 4] (3+) in the form of [Ru(trpy)(L)(Cl)](ClO 4).4.5H 2O and [Ru(trpy)(L-H)(CH 3CN)](ClO 4) 3.H 2O. In agreement with largely NO centered reduction, a sizable shift in nu(NO) frequency was observed on moving from [ 4] (3+) (1953 cm (-1)) to [ 4] (2+) (1654 cm (-1)). The Ru (II)-NO* in isolated or electrogenerated [ 4] (2+) exhibits an EPR spectrum with g 1 = 2.020, g 2 = 1.995, and g 3 = 1.884 in CH 3CN at 110 K, reflecting partial metal contribution to the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO); (14)N (NO) hyperfine splitting ( A 2 = 30 G) was also observed. The plot of nu(NO) versus E degrees ({RuNO} (6) --> {RuNO} (7)) for 12 analogous complexes [Ru(trpy)(L')(NO)] ( n+ ) exhibits a linear trend. The electrophilic Ru-NO (+) species [ 4] (3+) is transformed to the corresponding Ru-NO 2 (-) system in the presence of OH (-) with k = 2.02 x 10 (-4) s (-1) at 303 K. In the presence of a steady flow of dioxygen gas, the Ru (II)-NO* state in [ 4] (2+) oxidizes to [ 4] (3+) through an associatively activated pathway (Delta S++ = -190.4 J K (-1) M (-1)) with a rate constant ( k [s (-1)]) of 5.33 x 10 (-3). On irradiation with light (Xe lamp), the acetonitrile solution of paramagnetic [Ru(trpy)(L)(NO)] (2+) ([ 4] (2+)) undergoes facile photorelease of NO ( k NO = 2.0 x 10 (-1) min (-1) and t 1/2 approximately 3.5 min) with the concomitant formation of the solvate [Ru (II)(trpy)(L)(CH 3CN)] (2+) [ 2'] (2+). The photoreleased NO can be trapped as an Mb-NO adduct. PMID

  8. Verb-Final Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogihara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a typological study of verb-final languages, the purpose of which is to examine various grammatical phenomena in verb-final languages to discover whether there are correlations between the final position of the verb and other aspects of grammar. It examines how finality of the verb interacts with argument coding in simple…

  9. Neutron detection and characterization for non-proliferation applications using 3D computer optical memories [Use of 3D optical computer memory for radiation detectors/dosimeters. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gary W. Phillips

    2000-12-20

    We have investigated 3-dimensional optical random access memory (3D-ORAM) materials for detection and characterization of charged particles of neutrons by detecting tracks left by the recoil charged particles produced by the neutrons. We have characterized the response of these materials to protons, alpha particles and carbon-12 nuclei as a functions of dose and energy. We have observed individual tracks using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We are investigating the use of neural net analysis to characterize energetic neutron fields from their track structure in these materials.

  10. Hazardous-waste-characterization survey of unknown drums at the 21st Tactical Fighter Wing, Elmendorf and Shemya Air Force Bases, and Galena and King Salmon Airports, Alaska. Final report 2-13 Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    At the request of the USAF Regional Hospital Elmendorf/SGPB (PACAF), the Armstrong Laboratory, Occupational and Environmental Health Directorate, conducted a hazardous waste characterization survey of unknown drums at Elmendorf AFB from 2 Aug - 13 Aug 91. The scope of the survey was to sample and characterize drums of unknown material stored at Elmendorf AFB, Shemya AFB, and Galena and King Salmon Airports. Several waste streams were sampled at Elmendorf AFB to revalidate sample results from a previous survey.

  11. Final disposal room structural response calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.M.

    1997-08-01

    Finite element calculations have been performed to determine the structural response of waste-filled disposal rooms at the WIPP for a period of 10,000 years after emplacement of the waste. The calculations were performed to generate the porosity surface data for the final set of compliance calculations. The most recent reference data for the stratigraphy, waste characterization, gas generation potential, and nonlinear material response have been brought together for this final set of calculations.

  12. Excited state reaction dynamics of Ti(a{sup 5}F{sub J}) + O{sub 2} → TiO(A{sup 3}Φ, B{sup 3}Π, C{sup 3}Δ) + O studied by a crossed-beam velocity map imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Honma, Kenji Tanaka, Yuhki

    2015-04-21

    Oxidation reactions of the gas-phase titanium atom in its excited state with oxygen molecule, Ti(a{sup 5}F{sub J}) + O{sub 2} → TiO(A{sup 3}Φ, B{sup 3}Π, C{sup 3}Δ) + O, were studied by a crossed-beam velocity map imaging technique at 14.3 kJ/mol of collision energy. Metastable excited Ti, Ti(a{sup 5}F{sub J}), was generated by an optical pumping method and the reaction products were detected by single photon-ionization followed by a time-of-flight mass analysis and a two dimensional detection. Three wavelengths were selected to ionize electronically excited TiO{sup ∗}, TiO(A{sup 3}Φ, B{sup 3}Π, C{sup 3}Δ). Time sliced images were measured, and angular and speed distributions of TiO{sup ∗} were determined. In all three ionization wavelengths, the angular distributions showed a forward-backward symmetry with low intensity at the sideway direction. The speed distributions were represented by the distributions based on the statistical energy partition into products. These results suggested that the reaction of Ti(a{sup 5}F{sub J}) to form TiO(B) and TiO(C) proceeds via a long-lived intermediate and confirmed that the mechanism proposed by the previous chemiluminescence study.

  13. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 4, Task 5, Operation of PFH on beneficiated shale, Task 6, Environmental data and mitigation analyses and Task 7, Sample procurement, preparation, and characterization: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The objective of Task 5 (Operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydro-Retorting (PFH) on Beneficiated Shale) was to modify the PFH process to facilitate its use for fine-sized, beneficiated Eastern shales. This task was divided into 3 subtasks: Non-Reactive Testing, Reactive Testing, and Data Analysis and Correlations. The potential environment impacts of PFH processing of oil shale must be assessed throughout the development program to ensure that the appropriate technologies are in place to mitigate any adverse effects. The overall objectives of Task 6 (Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses) were to obtain environmental data relating to PFH and shale beneficiation and to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the integrated PFH process. The task was divided into the following four subtasks. Characterization of Processed Shales (IGT), 6.2. Water Availability and Treatment Studies, 6.3. Heavy Metals Removal and 6.4. PFH Systems Analysis. The objective of Task 7 (Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization) was to procure, prepare, and characterize raw and beneficiated bulk samples of Eastern oil shale for all of the experimental tasks in the program. Accomplishments for these tasks are presented.

  14. In vitro sperm characterization and development of a sperm cryopreservation method using directional solidification in the killer whale (Orcinus orca).

    PubMed

    Robeck, T R; Gearhart, S A; Steinman, K J; Katsumata, E; Loureiro, J D; O'Brien, J K

    2011-07-15

    Research was conducted to characterize seminal traits and to develop a sperm cryopreservation method using directional freezing (DF) for the killer whale (Orcinus orca). Experiments evaluated effects of: (i) freezing rate (SLOW, MED, FAST) by diluent (BF5F, Biladyl®, EYC) in 0.5 mL straws; and (ii) freezing method (straw or DF) by glycerol (3, 6, or 9% final concentration, v:v) on in vitro sperm quality. Fresh ejaculates (n = 161) were (mean ± SD) 7.8 ± 7.4 mL at 740 × 10(6) sperm/mL with 92.2 ± 6.3% total motility (TM), 85.4 ± 6.9% progressive motility (PM), 89.6 ± 9.0% viability and 89.8 ± 9.2% acrosome integrity. Samples frozen using straws by the MED or SLOW method were improved (P < 0.05) over FAST across all diluents. At 3 h post thaw (PT), TM, PM, Rapid motility (RM), VAP, VCL, ALH and viability for 3% and 6% glycerol were improved (P < 0.05) over 9% glycerol. Directional freezing samples at 0 h and 3 h PT, at all glycerol concentrations, displayed higher (P < 0.001) TM, PM, RM, VAP, VSL, VCL and viability /intact acrosomes (PI/FITC-PNA) than straw. These data provided the first information on ejaculate characteristics and the development of a semen cryopreservation method using DF in the killer whale. PMID:21496896

  15. Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part V. Pyrite size/form/microlithotype distribution in western Kentucky prepared coals and in channel samples from western Kentucky and western Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Frankle, K.A.; Hower, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Pyrite and marcasite distribution has been characterized in several western Kentucky coals, western Pennsylvania coals, and coals from western Kentucky preparation plants using three parameters of size, morphology, and microlithotype association. A classification system was developed to provide a consistent method for recording different pyrite/marcasite types. Sulfides were microscopically measured and placed in one of six size divisions (<5, 5 to 10, 10 to 40, 40 to 75, 75 to 100, or >150..mu..m) rather than absolute size. Five categories (euhedral, framboidal, dendritic, massive, or cleat) describe pyrite/marcasite morphology. The third parameter identifies the microlithotype (vitrite, clarite, inertite, liptite, durite, vitrinertite, trimacerite, or carbominerite) in which the pyrite occurs (not including the measured sulfide). Carbominerite is a mineral/organic association dominated by mineral matter. The percentage of each variable represents the total number of counts per sample and not the volume of pyrite. Throughout the studies, both sulfides are collectively referred to as pyrite unless otherwise specified. This paper describes the different studies which were undertaken to test the usefulness of this pyrite classification system. Systematic trends in pyrite variability were determined for the Springfield coal and Herrin of western Kentucky. Pyrite characterization of the Lower Kittanning coal from western Pennsylvania shows that certain pyrite morphologies can be an expression of the environments deposition of coal bodies. Studies of western Kentucky prepared coals demonstrate that pyrite characterization apparently can provide a method for predicting pyrite behavior and the extent of pyrite removal for specific coals. 77 references, 15 figures, 19 tables.

  16. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions. PMID:26934755

  17. NARSTO Texas Final Report

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-06

    Final Report for the Texas PM2.5 Sampling and Analysis Study (March 11, ... Tropp,et al, 1998     NOTE: The Final Report is separated into the following PDF files: Section 1: ... Mass and Chemical Composition (PDF) Section 5: Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations and Section 6 Bibliography (PDF) ...

  18. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of army smokes in an aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate and terrestrial ecological effects of fog oil obscurant smokes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; Fellows, R.J.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of fog oil (FO) smoke obscurants were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on an exposure scenario, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of fog oil smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters, such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and three soil types. 29 refs., 35 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. Final report, Ames Mobile Laboratory Project: The development and operation of instrumentation in a mobile laboratory for in situ, real-time screening and characterization of soils using the laser ablation sampling technique

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.S.; Braymen, S.D.

    1995-01-27

    The main focus of the Ames Laboratory`s Technology Integration Program, TIP, from May 1991 through December 1994 was the development, fabrication, and demonstration of a mobile instrumentation laboratory incorporating rapid in situ sampling systems for safe, rapid, and cost effective soil screening/characterization. The Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies, MDLEST, containing the analysis instrumentation, along with surface and subsurface sampling probe prototypes employing the laser ablation sampling technique were chosen to satisfy the particular surface and subsurface soil characterization needs of the various Department of Energy facilities for determining the extent of heavy metal and radionuclide contamination. The MDLEST, a 44 foot long 5th wheel trailer, is easily configured for the analysis instrumentation and sampling system required for the particular site work. This mobile laboratory contains all of the utilities needed to satisfy the operating requirements of the various instrumentation installed. These utilities include, an electric generator, a chilled water system, process gases, a heating/air conditioning system, and computer monitoring and automatic operating systems. Once the MDLEST arrives at the job site, the instrumentation is aligned and calibration is completed, sampling and analysis operations begin. The sample is acquired, analyzed and the results reported in as little as 10 minutes. The surface sampling probe is used in two modes to acquire samples for analysis. It is either set directly on the ground over the site to be sampled, in situ sampling, or in a special fixture used for calibrating the sampling analysis system with standard soil samples, having the samples brought to the MDLEST. The surface sampling probe was used to in situ sample a flat concrete surface (nondestructively) with the ablated sample being analyzed by the instrumentation in the MDLEST.

  20. Cassini's Grand Finale: The Final Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda; Edgington, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The Cassini-Huygens mission, a joint collaboration between NASA, ESA and the Italian Space Agency, is approaching its last year of operations after nearly 12 years in orbit around Saturn. Cassini will send back its final bits of unique data on September 15th, 2017 as it plunges into Saturn's atmosphere, vaporizing and satisfying planetary protection requirements. Before that time Cassini will continue its legacy of exploration and discovery with 12 close flybys of Titan in 2016 and 2017 that will return new science data as well as sculpt the inclinations and periods of the final orbits. Even though all of our close icy satellite flybys, including those of Enceladus, are now completed, numerous Voyager-class flybys (<100,000 km) of Mimas and Enceladus remain as well as some of our best flybys of the tiny ring moons. Cassini will also continue to study seasonal and temporal changes in the system as northern summer solstice approaches. In November 2016 Cassini will transition to a series of orbits with peripases just outside Saturn's F ring. These 20 orbits will include close flybys of some tiny ring moons and excellent views of the F ring and outer A ring. The 126th and final close flyby of Titan will propel Cassini across Saturn's main rings and into its final orbits. Cassini's Grand Finale, starting in April 2017, is comprised of 22 orbits at an inclination of 63 degrees. Cassini will repeatedly dive between the innermost rings and the upper atmosphere of the planet providing insights into fundamental questions unattainable during the rest of the mission. Cassini will be the first spacecraft to explore this region. These close orbits provide the highest resolution observations of both the rings and Saturn, and direct in situ sampling of the ring particles, composition, plasma, Saturn's exosphere and the innermost radiation belts. Saturn's gravitational field will be measured to unprecedented accuracy, providing information on the interior structure of the planet

  1. A simple synthesis and characterization of binary Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and its final decomposition product CoFeP 4O 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonchom, Banjong; Danvirutai, Chanaiporn; Vittayakorn, Naratip

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of binary Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O by a simple, rapid and cost-effective method using CoCO 3-Fe(c)-H 3PO 4 system in water-acetone media at ambient temperature. Thermal transformation of the synthesized powder was investigated by TG/DTG/DTA and DSC techniques, which indicate that its final decomposed product was a binary cobalt iron cyclotetraphosphate CoFeP 4O 12. The FTIR and XRD results of the synthesized Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and the decomposed CoFeP 4O 12 indicate the pure monoclinic phases with space group P2 1/n and C2/c, respectively. The morphologies of Co 0.5Fe 0.5(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and CoFeP 4O 12 powders appear non-uniform particle shapes and high agglomerates, which are different from the cases of the single compounds M(H 2PO 4) 2·2H 2O and M 2P 4O 12 (where M = Co, Fe). The magnetic properties of the studied compounds are superparamagnetic behaviors, which are important for specific applications. The physical properties of the studied powders are comparable with those reported in our previous study, affected by medium and condition of preparation method.

  2. Natural gas resource characterization study of the Mesaverde group in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming: A strategic plan for the exploitation of tight gas sands. Final report, September 1993-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    This final report summarizes work completed during the contract on developing an innovative exploration and production strategy for the Mesaverde Group tight gas sands in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Thorough investigation of the processes affecting the sources and reservoirs of this gas resource has been undertaken in order to establish the critical parameters that determine how gas accumulates in gas-saturated, anomalously pressured rocks and that affect the successful and efficient exploitation of tight gas sands. During the contract, IER researchers have (1) developed a natural gas exploration paradigm that can be be used to create improved exploitation strategies for the Mesaverde Group tight gas sands, thereby lowing exploration risk; (2) detected and delineated sweet spots using 2-D and 3-D models of well log responses, petrographic and petrophysical studies, water chemistry analyses, and natural frature studies; (3) investigated the relationship of natural fractures and lineaments to hydrocarbon production in the GGRB; (4) created an expanded database for the GGRB; (5) prioritized volunteered experimental drill sites in the GGRB for potential cooperative research and development; and (6) participated in joint studies on a horizontal well completion in the Almond Formation, Echo Springs field, Washakie Basin.

  3. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL

  4. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Vitkus

    2008-04-07

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC’s Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007.

  5. Problem definition study on techniques and methodologies for evaluating the chemical and toxicological properties of combustion products of gun systems: Volume 2, Facility criteria for the chemical and toxicological characterization of gun exhaust: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Gayle, T.M.; Lore, J.D.; Ross, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Rifles and large-caliber guns generate exhaust emissions as a result of combustion of propellant mixtures. Combustion occurs under high temperature and pressure inside the gun until the projectile is ejected from the barrel. Chemical transformations continue to occur after the gases are ejected from the muzzle. The resulting exhaust emissions are a complex mixture of chemical species. The rifle and gun are ubiquitous to the military. Every soldier is likely to receive some exposure to the exhaust products. Unfortunately, information about the chemical and toxicological properties of the weapons exhaust mixture is limited. This is so, in part, because laboratory duplication of the gun environment, particularly for large-caliber weapons, is an untested but inherently complex task. In order to efficiently focus research efforts, a two phase study was initiated. In the first phase, a literature evaluation of techniques and methodologies was undertaken. In this, the second phase, the criteria for a facility dedicated to the controlled generation, chemical and physical characterization, and toxicological evaluation of weapons produced exhaust are defined.

  6. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, task 17208: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J. W.; Marra, J. C.

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  7. Melt processed crystalline ceramic waste forms for advanced nuclear fuel cycles: CRP T21027 1813: Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms, Task 17208: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J. W.; Marra, J. C.

    2015-08-26

    A multi-phase ceramic waste form is being developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by reprocessing commercial spent nuclear. The envisioned waste stream contains a mixture of transition, alkali, alkaline earth, and lanthanide metals. Ceramic waste forms are tailored (engineered) to incorporate waste components as part of their crystal structure based on knowledge from naturally found minerals containing radioactive and non-radioactive species similar to the radionuclides of concern in wastes from fuel reprocessing. The ability to tailor ceramics to mimic naturally occurring crystals substantiates the long term stability of such crystals (ceramics) over geologic timescales of interest for nuclear waste immobilization [1]. A durable multi-phase ceramic waste form tailored to incorporate all the waste components has the potential to broaden the available disposal options and thus minimize the storage and disposal costs associated with aqueous reprocessing. This report summarizes results from three years of work on the IAEA Coordinated Research Project on “Processing technologies for high level waste, formulation of matrices and characterization of waste forms” (T21027), and specific task “Melt Processed Crystalline Ceramic Waste Forms for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles” (17208).

  8. Copper(II) ion catalytic oxidation of o-phenylenediamine and characterization, X-ray crystal structure and solution studies of the final product [DAPH][H3O][Cu(dipic)2]·3H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Khaled; Rezvani, Ali Reza; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Abdul Razak, Ibrahim; Refahi, Masoud; Moghimi, Abolghasem; Rosli, Mohd Mustaqim

    2015-09-01

    The complex [DAPH][H3O][Cu(dipic)2]·3H2O, (1) (dipicH2 = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and DAP = 2,3-diaminophenazine) was prepared from the reaction of Cu(NO3)2·2H2O with mixture of o-phenylenediamine (OPD) and 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid in water. The complex was characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, UV-Vis and the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal system is monoclinic with the space group P21/c. This complex is stabilized in the solid state by an extensive network of hydrogen bonds between crystallized water, anionic and cationic fragments, which form a three-dimensional network. Furthermore, hydrogen bonds, π⋯π and Csbnd O⋯π stacking interactions seem to be effective in stabilizing the crystal structures. The protonation constants of dipic (L) and DAP (Q), the equilibrium constants for the dipic-DAP proton transfer system and the stoichiometry and stability constants of binary complexes including each of ligands (dipic, DAP) in presence Cu2+ ion, ternary complexes including, both of ligands (dipic-DAP) in presence of metal ion were calculated in aqueous solutions by potentiometric pH titration method using the Hyperquad2008 program. The stoichiometry of the most complexes species in solution was found to be very similar to the solid-state of cited metal ion complex.

  9. Cassini's Grand Finale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, Scott G.; Spilker, Linda J.

    2016-07-01

    After more than a decade exploring Saturn and its moons, the Cassini mission is in its closing act. Cassini's last year is an encore performance stuffed with science, including a final plunge into Saturn's atmosphere.

  10. Endeavour's Final Voyage

    NASA Video Gallery

    After nearly two decades of achievements in space, Endeavour makes one last reach for the stars on its 25th and final mission, STS-134. This webcast examines the mission to come and explores the st...

  11. Final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  12. Expedition 34 Final Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 34 crew members conduct final training at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center before their Dec. 19 launch to the International Space Station. Flight Engineers Chris Hadfield, Roman...

  13. Aurora final report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, Dross; Amedeo, Conti

    2013-12-06

    Final Technical report detailing the work done by Nuvera and its partners to fulfill the goals of the program "Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks" (a.k.a. AURORA)

  14. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of Army smokes in the aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate, and terrestrial ecological effects of red phosphorus-butyl rubber and white phosphorus obscurant smokes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; McFadden, K.M.; Li, S.M.W.; Thomas, B.L.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Bean, R.M.; Carlile, D.W.

    1987-10-01

    An evaluation of the terrestrial transport, transformations and ecological effects of phosphorus (red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP/BR)) smoke obscurant was performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A similar evaluation using white phosphorus (WP) smoke/obscurant is currently proceeding. The objective is to characterize the effects of smokes and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of representative of soils of those sites; and (3) soil microbiological communities. The influence and interactions of smoke/obscurant concentration, relative humidity (25%, 60%, 90% and simulated rain) and wind speed of 0.22 to 4.45 m/s by smoke is assessed. Five plant species and four soils were exposed to both single and repeated doses of RP/BR smokes in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory ''P-3'' rated recirculating environmental wind tunnel. Detailed results for RP/BR and limited results for WP are presented. Toxicity symptoms for plants exposed for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours to concentrations of RP/BR ranging from 200 mg/m/sup 3/ included leaf tip burn, leaf curl, leaf abscission and drop, floral abortion, chlorosis, neucrotic spotting, wilting, desiccation and dieback. Grass and bushbean were the most sensitive. The intensity and duration of these effects varied. Soils effects data suggest that there is an increase in the mobility of selected trace elements after exposure; however, this effect appears to be ameliorated with time. Soil microbial community effects show a reduction in the production of nitrate after soil is exposed to RP/BR smoke. Most of the plant, soil and soil microbial effects are transient in nature and are somewhat less intense resulting from repeated exposures; however, there is evidence that some of these environmental impacts may be persistent. 43 refs., 44 figs., 67 tabs.

  15. Characterization of the organization of the genome of methanogens and development of genetic exchange systems for Methanococcus vannielii: Final report for the period July 1, 1981-June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Reeve, J.N.; Frea, J.I.

    1987-10-01

    The goals of this contract were to characterize gene organization and expression in methane microorganisms and to develop gene transfer systems for these unusual anaerobes. Antibiotic resistant mutants were isolated, potential shuttle vectors constructed and a number of methanogen genes cloned which when functionally expressed in Escherichia coli complemented auxotrophic mutations of eubacterial species. DNA sequencing of cloned genes was used to establish evolutionary relationships between methanogens and showed the conservation of DNA sequences in archaebacterial, eubacterial and eucaryotic species. Sequencing demonstrated that methanogens use the standard genetic code, have polypeptide-encoding genes organized into operons, initiate translation using ribosome binding sites (RBS) and terminate transcription by forming double-stranded loops in RNA molecules. All these are molecular biological features typical of eubacteria. In contrast, the presence of conserved sequences and protection of DNA from nuclease digestion by bound methanogen-derived RNA polymerases indicated that methanogen promoters do not resemble eubacterial promoters. The initial cloning and sequencing of amino-acid and purine biosynthetic genes from methanogens provided the necessary background information to undertake cloning and analysis of genes which encode enzymes directly involved in methanogenesis. The most abundant enzyme in all methanogens is methyl coenzyme-M reductase which catalyzes the terminal reaction in methanogenesis. The genes which encode the subunits of component C of this enzyme in Methanococcus vannielii have been cloned and sequenced. Their organization and structure indicates that, in vivo, component C may contain previously unrecognized subunits and its synthesis may be regulated at the level of translation. Genes encoding subunits of the major non-F/sub 420/ reducing hydrogenase of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum have also been cloned and sequenced. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  16. 10 CFR 950.37 - Final agreement or final decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Final agreement or final decision. 950.37 Section 950.37 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Dispute Resolution Process § 950.37 Final agreement or final decision. (a) If the parties reach a Final Agreement on a...

  17. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  18. Characterization of experimental dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peffley, Nicholas L.; Goumilevski, Alexei G.; Cawthrone, A. B.; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2000-07-01

    Laboratory models of geophysical magnetic field production require new experi-mental characterization methods. Self-generating liquid metal magnetic dynamos are explored using two new experiments. Kinematic dynamo studies lead us to charac-terize the magnetic field dynamics in terms of eigenvalues and eigenfrequencies of the induction equation. Observing the decay of magnetic field pulses indicates the real part of the leading eigenvalue of the induction equation, while a chirp magnetic field diagnoses the imaginary part of the eigenvalue. Finally, a single-frequency applied magnetic field characterizes the structure of the velocity field. These measurements provide a new means to characterize and measure the approach to self-generation. We present data from numerical simulations and laboratory experiments using these techniques.

  19. Characterization of ichthyoplankton within the U.S. Geological Survey's Northeastern Gulf of Mexico study area - based on analysis of Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) Sampling Surveys, 1982-1999. NEGOM ichthyoplankton synopsis final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyczkowski-Shultz, Joanne; Hanisko, David S.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Dennis, George D., III

    2004-01-01

    This synthesis was undertaken to characterize the occurrence and abundance of fish eggs and larvae in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico (NEGOM) and to assess the region's relative importance in the early life history of fishes as compared to the entire U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Data for 66 selected taxa from 1,166 bongo and neuston net samples at 72 localities [comprising the UGSG NEGOM Ichthyoplankton Synopsis (UNIS) Study Area] were analyzed. These data were taken during annual Southeast Area Monitoring and Assessment Program (SEAMAP) gulfwide surveys from 1982-1999, and were summarized by the NMFS to accomplish this objective. Comparison of the UNIS Study Area with the overall SEAMAP survey area revealed that the larvae of 16 taxa occurred more frequently and were relatively more abundant in the UNIS Study Area than the entire SEAMAP survey area while for other taxa occurrence and relative abundance were comparable. These taxa represented fishes from mesopelagic, continental shelf, and reef assemblages reflecting the wide diversity of habitats available in the NEGOM and included the young of two important resource taxa, Rhomboplites aurorubens (vermilion snapper) and Seriola spp. (amberjacks). Distinct distribution patterns were observed among larvae in the UNIS Study Area that appear to be associated with the presence of the DeSoto Canyon. One notable pattern was the predominance of certain taxa to either the west or east of longitude 86.5-87.0o W. Larvae of several characteristic reef-fish families were most common to the east of this apparent zoogeographic faunal discontinuity. An alternative pattern was seen among taxa whose larvae occurred primarily at locations over depth contours outlining the canyon. Additionally, the UNIS Study Area contributed more fish eggs, total larvae, and zooplankton to survey totals than would be expected from the number of samples taken in the study area. This pattern was more evident during spring than fall surveys. It may relate to

  20. Quantification of the carcinogens 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl- and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in food using a combined assay based on gas chromatography-negative ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Murray, S; Lynch, A M; Knize, M G; Gooderham, M J

    1993-07-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay has been developed for the measurement of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in food. Stable isotope-labelled analogues of MeIQx and PhIP are used as internal standards and the synthesis of deuterated PhIP is described. The mass spectrometer is operated in the electron-capture negative ion chemical ionisation mode and the amines are chromatographed as their di-3,5-bistrifluoromethylbenzyl derivatives. All three compounds can be measured in a single chromatographic run and detection limits of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 ng/g for MeIQx, DiMeIQx and PhIP, respectively, in food are obtained. Various home-cooked and commercially prepared foodstuffs were analysed with this assay and several were found to contain measurable amounts of one or more of the three amines. These results are presented and discussed. PMID:8376502

  1. Outer Continental Shelf environmental assessment program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 38

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This final report of a study of the environmental characterization of the North Aleutian Shelf nearshore region includes: characterization, processes, and vulnerability to development; and annotated bibliography and keyword index.

  2. Project Adobe. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Curen, Sallie A.

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of Project Adobe, the New Mexico Parent Training and Information Center, which provides information, support, education and training to families with school-aged children with disabilities in their local communities. Achievements include: (1) completion and printing of a booklet on the…

  3. GENIE final state interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dytman, Steven

    2015-10-15

    Final state interactions are an important component of any neutrino-nucleus Monte Carlo program. GENIE has 2 FSI programs which serve different purposes. Each has fair-good agreement with a wide range of hadron-nucleus data. Recent improvements and planned advancements are described.

  4. Space Station Final Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's conception of what the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) will look like when it is fully built and deployed. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  5. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Chris

    2014-11-13

    The project, Capital Investment to Fund Equipment Purchases and Facility Modifications to Create a Sustainable Future for EnergyXchange served to replace landfill gas energy with alternative energy resources, primarily solar and wood waste. This is the final project closeout report.

  6. Perception of Final Lengthening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary

    A series of phonetic production and perception experiments were designed to describe the phonological or phonetic domains of two effects in spoken English: final lengthening, generally interpreted as a mark for the edge of some linguistically-defined unit of speech production, and stress-timed shortening, generally interpreted as evidence for…

  7. Rosetta: The Final Furlong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, I. P.; Andrews, D. J.; Barber, S. J.; Sheridan, S.; Morgan, G. H.; Morse, A. D.

    2014-09-01

    By the time of the meeting, the Rosetta spacecraft will have formally arrived at its target comet, and final landing site selection will be in progress. One of the instruments that will be sent down to the surface of the comet is Ptolemy (a GC-MS).

  8. Final Prep on SSME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Alvin Pittman Sr., lead electronics technician with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Janine Cuevas, a mechanical technician with PWR, perform final preparations on the space shuttle main engine tested Oct. 25, 2005, at NASA's Stennis Space Center. It was the first main engine test since Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf Coast on Aug. 29.

  9. GENIE final state interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytman, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Final state interactions are an important component of any neutrino-nucleus Monte Carlo program. GENIE has 2 FSI programs which serve different purposes. Each has fair-good agreement with a wide range of hadron-nucleus data. Recent improvements and planned advancements are described.

  10. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Buttry, Daniel A

    2012-11-06

    We adapted and refined a synthesis of gold nanoparticles of type, Au101(PPh3)21Cl5 (Au101). In our hands, this method routinely gave fairly high yields of Au101 NPs. These NPs were characterized using several techniques, including TEM, AFM/STM and various NMR measurements, including solid state methods. We also used a simpler citrate-based preparation of Au NPs. We immobilized the Au NPs on carbon and characterized their electrochemical behavior. In addition, we prepared and characterized tin oxide NPs that were capped with phosphonic acid capping ligands. Our goal in this part of the project was to expand the NMR methods available to study ligand complexation in non-metallic NP materials that may be of interest as electrochemical materials. The use of tin oxide as a host material for tin metal that could be used to alloy of Li in battery anodes was the motivation for our interest in these types of materials.

  11. Caregivers program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts, with changes, the interim final rule concerning VA's Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers. VA administers this program to provide certain medical, travel, training, and financial benefits to caregivers of certain veterans and servicemembers who were seriously injured during service on or after September 11, 2001. Also addressed in this rulemaking is the Program of General Caregiver Support Services that provides support services to caregivers of veterans from all eras who are enrolled in the VA health care system. Specifically, changes in this final rule include a requirement that Veterans be notified in writing should a Family Caregiver request revocation (to no longer be a Family Caregiver), an extension of the application timeframe from 30 days to 45 days for a Family Caregiver, and a change in the stipend calculation to ensure that Primary Family Caregivers do not experience unexpected decreases in stipend amounts from year to year. PMID:25581943

  12. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Mike, J., P.E.

    2012-08-30

    The STI product is the Final Technical Report from ReliOn, Inc. for contract award DE-EE0000487: Recovery Act PEM Fuel Cell Systems Providing Emergency Reserve and Backup Power. The program covered the turnkey deployment of 431 ReliOn fuel cell systems at 189 individual sites for AT&T and PG&E with ReliOn functioning as the primary equipment supplier and the project manager. The Final Technical Report provides an executive level summary, a comparison of the actual accomplishments vs. the goals and objectives of the project, as well as a summary of the project activity from the contract award date of August 1, 2009 through the contract expiration date of December 31, 2011. Two photos are included in the body of the report which show hydrogen storage and bulk hydrogen refueling technologies developed as a result of this program.

  13. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Stephen A.

    2005-10-27

    In this final technical report, a summary of work is provided. Work toward an improved representation of frontal clouds in global climate models occurred. This involved analysis of cloud variability in ARM observations and the careful contrast of single column model solutions with ARM data. In addition, high resolution simulations of frontal clouds were employed to diagnosis processes that are important for the development of frontal clouds.

  14. Geolocation Technologies Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Magnoli, D E

    2003-06-02

    This paper is the final report for LL998 In Situ Sensing Subtask 7 (Geo-location) undertaken for NNSA NA-22 enabling technologies R&D for Counterproliferation Detection. A few state-of-the-art resolution parameters are presented for accelerometers, indoor and outdoor GPS (Global Positioning Satellite) systems, and INSs (Inertial Navigation Systems). New technologies are described, including one which has demonstrated the ability to track within a building to a resolution of under a foot.

  15. 5f Magnetism--Specific Features And Boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Havela, Ladislav; Maskova, Silvie; Adamska, Anna; Pesicka, J.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Shick, Alexander; Gouder, Thomas; Kim-Ngan, N.-H.; Balogh, Adam G.

    2011-06-30

    Magnetism of light actinides exhibits fascinating and potentially useful features. One of them is a giant anisotropy of the two-ion type, apparent mostly in U-based systems. Here we demonstrate on the example of U{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn and its hydride the anisotropy switches over the direction of U moments on a very fine scale. The study of amorphous sputter deposited UFe{sub x} films reveals how the Curie temperature can be tuned so as to exceed the room temperature.

  16. Tank 40 Final SB7b Chemical Characterization Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2012-11-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) was taken from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB7b WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals and fissile constituents. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB7b sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle over the weekend. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 558 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass ? 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma ? atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma ? mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB7b supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH{sup -}/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC) analyses, and Cs-137 gamma scan. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for IC, TIC/TOC, and total base/free OH-/other base analyses. Activities for U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 were determined from the ICP-MS data for the aqua regia digestions of the Tank 40 WAPS slurry using the specific activity of each isotope. The Pu-241 value was determined from a Pu-238/-241 method.

  17. TANK 40 FINAL SB4 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J

    2008-01-30

    A sample of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for elemental and chemical composition including noble metals. These analyses along with the WAPS analyses will help define the composition of the sludge currently in Tank 40 which is currently being fed to DWPF and will become part of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). At SRNL the 3-L Tank 40 SB4 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 280 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Three glass standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, and cold vapor atomic absorption (CV-AA) analysis. Equivalent dilutions of the peroxide fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB4 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for ion chromatography (IC), total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC), and total base analyses. A sample of Tank 40 SB4 decant was collected by carefully removing the supernate phase from a settled sample. This decant was not filtered prior to performing a warm nitric acid digestion of the material in order to measure the Si content by ICP-AES. Three Si standards, a blank, and a matrix standard were prepared and submitted along with the Tank 40 samples. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results reported here: (1) The elemental composition of this sample and the analyses conducted here are reasonable and consistent with DWPF batch data measurements; (2) There was no measurable Si in samples of Tank 40 decant; and (3) Ag and the Ru, Rh, and Pd noble metal concentrations agree well with the estimate used for the SB4 70/30 blend of SB3 and Tank 51 performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells.

  18. CVD silicon carbide characterization. Final report, August 1992-October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, G.A.; Iden, D.

    1994-08-01

    Chemically vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide is a candidate material for high quality ground and space-based mirror substrates and high quality reflective optics. Statistically valid material property data has not been available, however, to make durability and lifetime predictions for such optics. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the Weibull and slow crack growth parameters for CVD silicon carbide. Specimens were cut from various locations in a 25 mm thick, 50 cm diameter piece of SiC to analyze bulk material property homogeneity. Flexural strength was measured using a four-point bend technique. In addition to mechanical testing for strength, hardness, and fracture toughness, the material crystallography and microstructure were studied. Thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, optical absorption, and infrared reflectivity measurements were also conducted. Raman spectroscopy was used to check for any residual stress. Test results show this CVD silicon carbide is a high-purity, homogeneous, fine-grained substrate material with very good mechanical, optical, and thermal properties.

  19. Processing and characterization of functionally gradient ceramic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Day, M.E.; Sengupta, L.C.; Ngo, E.; Stowell, S.; Lancto, R.

    1994-02-01

    Tape casting of ceramic materials offers the flexibility of gradually altering the electronic or structural properties of two dissimilar systems in order to improve their compatibility. This research outlines the processing and fabrication of two systems-of functionally gradient materials. The systems are both electronic ceramic composites consisting Ba(1-x)Sr(x)TiO3 (BSTO) and alumina or a second oxide additive. These composites would be used in phased array antenna systems, therefore, the electronic properties of the material have specific requirements in the microwave frequency regions. The composition of the tapes are varied to provide a graded dielectric constant, which gradually increases from that of air (dielectric constant = 1) to that of the ceramic (dielectric constant = 1500). This allows maximum penetration of incident microwave radiation as well as minimum energy dissipation and insertion loss into the entire phase shifting device.

  20. Tank 40 Final Sludge Batch 8 Chemical Characterization Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-09-19

    A sample of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB8 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition, including noble metals, and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB8. At SRNL, the 3-L Tank 40 SB8 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 553 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent slurry sample preparations. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon(r) vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB8 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH-/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC) analyses. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for IC, TIC/TOC, and total base/free OH-/other base analyses. Activities for U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 were determined from the ICP-MS data for the aqua regia digestions of the Tank 40 WAPS slurry using the specific activity of each isotope. The Pu-241 value was determined from a Pu-238/-241 method developed by SRNL AD and previously described.

  1. TANK 40 FINAL SB7B CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.

    2012-03-15

    A sample of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) was taken from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB7b WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB7b. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB7b sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle over the weekend. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 558 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB7b supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH{sup -}/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC) analyses, and Cs-137 gamma scan. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for IC, TIC/TOC, and total base/free OH{sup -}/other base analyses. Activities for U-233, U-235, and Pu-239 were determined from the ICP-MS data for the aqua regia digestions of the Tank 40 WAPS slurry using the specific activity of each isotope. The Pu-241 value was determined from a Pu-238/-241 method developed by SRNL AD and previously described. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results reported here: (1) The ratios of the major elements for the SB7b WAPS sample are different from those measured for the SB7a WAPS sample. There is less Al and Mn relative to Fe than the previous sludge batch. (2) The elemental composition of this sample and the analyses conducted here are reasonable and consistent with DWPF batch data measurements in light of DWPF pre-sample concentration and SRAT product heel contributions to the DWPF SRAT receipt analyses. The element ratios for Al/Fe, Ca/Fe, Mn/Fe, and U/Fe agree within 10% between this work and the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipt analyses. (3) Sulfur in the SB7b WAPS sample is 82% soluble, slightly less than results reported for SB3, SB4, and SB6 samples but unlike the 50% insoluble sulfur observed in the SB5 WAPS sample. In addition, 23% of the soluble sulfur is not present as sulfate in SB7b. (4) The average activities of the fissile isotopes of interest in the SB7b WAPS sample are (in {mu}Ci/g of total dried solids): 4.22E-02 U-233, 6.12E-04 U-235, 1.08E+01 Pu-239, and 5.09E+01 Pu-241. The full radionuclide composition will be reported in a future document. (5) The fission product noble metal and Ag concentrations appear to have largely peaked in previous DWPF sludge batches, with the exception of Ru, which still shows a slight increase in SB7b.

  2. Northeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crusal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented on the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process.

  3. Southeastern Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geological disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geological factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, postemplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major ground-water discharge zones, ground-water resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on the age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline bodies; ground-water resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies.

  4. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  5. Characterization of fluid flow in naturally fractured reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.D.

    1981-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a four month study of the characteristics of multiphase flow in naturally fractured porous media. An assessment and evaluation of the literature was carried out and a comprehensive list of references compiled on the subject. Mathematical models presented in the various references cited were evaluated along with the stated assumptions or those inherent in the equations. Particular attention was focused upon identifying unique approaches which would lead to the formulation of a general mathematical model of multiphase/multi-component flow in fractured porous media. A model is presented which may be used to more accurately predict the movement of multi-phase fluids through such type formations. Equations of motion are derived for a multiphase/multicomponent fluid which is flowing through a double porosity, double permeability medium consisting of isotropic primary rock matrix blocks and an anisotropic fracture matrix system. The fractures are assumed to have a general statistical distribution in space and orientation. A general distribution function, called the fracture matrix function is introduced to represent the statistical nature of the fractures.

  6. TANK 40 FINAL SB6 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.

    2010-08-13

    A sample of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) was taken from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS), and a portion of the sample was designated for SB6 processing studies. The SB6 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals and fissile composition, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB6. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB6 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids were allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 485 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples.

  7. THz transceiver characterization : LDRD project 139363 final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wanke, Michael Clement; Cich, Michael Joseph; Reno, John Louis; Fuller, Charles T.; Wendt, Joel Robert; Lee, Mark; Grine, Albert D.

    2009-09-01

    LDRD Project 139363 supported experiments to quantify the performance characteristics of monolithically integrated Schottky diode + quantum cascade laser (QCL) heterodyne mixers at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These integrated mixers are the first all-semiconductor THz devices to successfully incorporate a rectifying diode directly into the optical waveguide of a QCL, obviating the conventional optical coupling between a THz local oscillator and rectifier in a heterodyne mixer system. This integrated mixer was shown to function as a true heterodyne receiver of an externally received THz signal, a breakthrough which may lead to more widespread acceptance of this new THz technology paradigm. In addition, questions about QCL mode shifting in response to temperature, bias, and external feedback, and to what extent internal frequency locking can improve stability have been answered under this project.

  8. Characterization of aerodynamic drag force on single particles: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, S.R.

    1987-10-01

    An electrodynamic balance was used to measure the drag coefficient and also to record the size and shape of spheres, and coal and oil shale particles (100 ..mu..m to 200 ..mu..m in size). The electrodynamic balance consisted of a central, and two end electrodes. The resulting electric field stably suspended a charged particle. A suspended particle, back illuminated by a light emitting diode, was viewed by a video camera. The image was analyzed for particle position control and was calibrated to give the diameter of spheres, or the area equivalent diameter of nonspherical particles. The drag coefficient was calculated from the air velocity and the dc voltage required to keep the particle at the balance center. The particle Reynolds number varied from 0.2 to 13. Three particles each of coal and oil shale were captured and photographed by a scanning electron microscope and the motion of all the particles was recorded on video tape. Drag coefficient vs Reynolds number data for spheres agreed well with correlations. Data for thirteen particles each of coal and oil shale indicated a power law relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number. All these particles exhibited higher drag than spheres and were also observed to rotate. The rotation, however, did not affect the drag coefficient. The choice of characteristic dimension affects the drag characteristics of oil shale more strongly than for coal, owing to the flake-like shape of oil shale. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a ``heterogeneity matrix`` based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  10. Dynamic nuclear polarization in coal characterization: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1988-12-31

    The overall goal of this project was the development and application of new NMR techniques, based primarily on dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), for elucidating organic structural details in coal samples. 1 fig.

  11. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    drucker, jeff

    2014-08-18

    This project investigated the fundamental science of nanowire epitaxy using vapor-liquid-solid growth in the silicon-germanium material system. Ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV CVD) was the primary deposition method. Nanowires grown using UHV CVD were characterized ex situ using scanning electron microscopy and a variety of transmission electron microscopy techniques. In situ transmission electron microscopy was also employed to monitor growth in real time and was instrumental in elucidating growth mechanisms.

  12. MAGGIE Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Siuzdak, Gary

    2012-11-05

    The mass spectrometry component of the MAGGIE effort included the generation of novel GTL technologies and comprehensive characterization to elucidate functional relationships and pathways. Toward this goal Component 4 has generated unique surface-based mass spectrometry and bioinformatic technologies as well as helped identified new biological interactions. The informatics and analytical technology platforms that we developed as well as the biochemistry that it has been developed for, are presented in detail in the attached document.

  13. SPECTROMICROSCOPY. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    DAVID, N.

    1999-12-01

    We have developed a prototype Cotiocal Hyperspectral Imaging Raman Microscope (CHIRM). The prototype consists of state of the art optical imaging hardware and integrated image acquisition and analysis software. We have tested this integrated instrument on a range of applications, including biomedical (red blood cell molecular imaging), weapons components characterization and novel molecular materials structure (artificial membranes). This new technology is clearly a highly versatile method for molecular specific imaging.

  14. Large Block Test Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  15. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans. PMID:22950145

  16. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sobecky, Patricia A; Taillefert, Martial

    2013-03-29

    This final technical report describes results and findings from a research project to examine the role of microbial phosphohydrolase enzymes in naturally occurring subsurface microorganisms for the purpose of promoting the immobilization of the radionuclide uranium through the production of insoluble uranium phosphate minerals. The research project investigated the microbial mechanisms and the physical and chemical processes promoting uranium biomineralization and sequestration in oxygenated subsurface soils. Uranium biomineralization under aerobic conditions can provide a secondary biobarrier strategy to immobilize radionuclides should the metal precipitates formed by microbial dissimilatory mechanisms remobilize due to a change in redox state.

  17. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Simon Silver

    2009-05-28

    The work done with DOE support during this 15 year period was extensive and successful. It is best summarized by the list of 58 publications (below) which reported progress made with DOE support. These are from the grant period and a few more recent reporting on grant research. Mostly these are primary research reports in reviewed journals. There are also, however, many summary reviews in review journals and in scientific monographs, as they also are key places for reporting research progress. What we did during this grant period (and much longer) was to characterize genetic determinants for bacterial resistances to additional toxic heavy metals of DOE concern, through starting with phenotypic properties of the resistant bacteria to DNA sequence determination and characterization of the genes involved. Over the years (and as shown in the list of publications), the toxic metal-forming elements we have studied included Ag, As, Cd, Cr, and Hg. In each case, we started with basically nothing (or very little) known, progressed through quite detailed understanding, until other laboratory groups also became strongly involved in related studies. More recently, with DOE support, we were the first laboratory group in the world to identify genes for bacterial resistance to silver salts (sil genes) and the closely related silver-and-copper resistance genes cus. This was initially reported in detail in Gupta et al. (1999; see publications list below). We also identified the first toxic metal 'gene island' (multiple transcripts and perhaps 25 genes each in need of detailed study) which encodes the subunits of arsenite oxidase (which we called aso; Silver and Phung, 2005; but most other researchers have subsequently settled on aox for the gene mnemonic). Both of these systems were firsts. Now a few years later, a search on GenBank shows that each is now represented by gene families with more than a dozen examples that have been identified and sequenced. Most of the additional

  18. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Josef Michl

    2011-10-31

    In this project we have established guidelines for the design on organic chromophores suitable for producing high triplet yields via singlet fission. We have proven their utility by identifying a chromophore of a structural class that had never been examined for singlet fission before, 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, and demonstrating in two independent ways that a thin layer of this material produces a triplet yield of 200% within experimental error. We have also designed a second chromophore of a very different type, again of a structural class that had not been examined for singlet fission before, and found that in a thin layer it produces a 70% triplet yield. Finally, we have enhanced the theoretical understanding of the quantum mechanical nature of the singlet fission process.

  19. Final Meeting of NACA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Final meeting of National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, August 21, 1958. After the launch of the Soviet Union's Sputnik I satellite in October 1957, the United States realized that it needed a space program to keep up with the technological advancements made by the Soviets. On July 29, 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed Public Law 85-568 and established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). T. Keith Glennan was sworn in as the first Administrator of NASA on August 19, 1958, and by October 1, the official effective date of the new agency, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was absorbed by NASA. Left to right: T. Keith Glennan, NASA Administrator; Mr. Preston R. Bassett, member of the NACA Committee on Aerodynamics; Mr. Charles J. McCarthy, Chairman of the Board, Chance Vought Aircraft, Inc.

  20. FINAL/ SCIENTIFIC TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Henry; Singh, Suminderpal

    2006-08-28

    The overall objective of the Chattanooga fuel cell demonstrations project was to develop and demonstrate a prototype 5-kW grid-parallel, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system that co-produces hydrogen, based on Ion America’s technology. The commercial viability of the 5kW SOFC system was tested by transporting, installing and commissioning the SOFC system at the Alternative Energy Laboratory at the University of Tennessee – Chattanooga. The system also demonstrated the efficiency and the reliability of the system running on natural gas. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of DOE technology validation milestones from the Technology Validation section of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. Results of the project can be found in the final technical report.

  1. Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    The Final Scientific EFNUDAT Workshop - organized by the CERN/EN-STI group on behalf of n_TOF Collaboration - will be held at CERN, Geneva (Switzerland) from 30 August to 2 September 2010 inclusive.EFNUDAT website: http://www.efnudat.euTopics of interest include: Data evaluationCross section measurementsExperimental techniquesUncertainties and covariancesFission propertiesCurrent and future facilities  International Advisory Committee: C. Barreau (CENBG, France)T. Belgya (IKI KFKI, Hungary)E. Gonzalez (CIEMAT, Spain)F. Gunsing (CEA, France)F.-J. Hambsch (IRMM, Belgium)A. Junghans (FZD, Germany)R. Nolte (PTB, Germany)S. Pomp (TSL UU, Sweden) Workshop Organizing Committee: Enrico Chiaveri (Chairman)Marco CalvianiSamuel AndriamonjeEric BerthoumieuxCarlos GuerreroRoberto LositoVasilis Vlachoudis Workshop Assistant: Géraldine Jean

  2. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Tanis

    2005-11-25

    This document comprises the final technical report for atomic collisions research supported by DOE grant No. DE-FG02-87ER13778 from September 1, 2001 through August 31, 2004. The research involved the experimental investigation of excitation and charge-changing processes occurring in ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions. Major emphases of the study were: (1) interference effects resulting from coherent electron emission in H2, (2) production of doubly vacant K-shell (hollow ion) states due to electron correlation, and (3) formation of long-lived metastable states in electron transfer processes. During the period of the grant, this research resulted in 23 publications, 12 invited presentations, and 39 contributed presentations at national and international meetings and other institutions. Brief summaries of the completed research are presented below.

  3. AIPM Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Mookken

    2006-06-30

    The final AIPM project report consists of six sections. Each section includes information on the original AIPM project and extension work on the high temperature design. The first section (1) provides an overview of the program and highlights the significant targets to meet at the end of the program. The next section (2) summarizes the significant technical accomplishments by the SEMIKRON AIPM team during the course of the project. Greater technical details are provided in a collection of all the quarterly reports which can be found in the appendix. Section three (3) presents some the more significant technical data collected from technology demonstrators. Section four (4) analyzes the manufacturing cost or economic aspects of producing 100,000 units/yr. Section five (5) describes the commercialization efforts of the AIPM technology into the automotive market. The last section (6) recommends follow on work that will build on the efforts and achievements of the AIPM program.

  4. Final cook temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Matthews, Michael; Glasco, Marc

    2006-04-01

    Fully cooked, ready-to-eat products represent one of the fastest growing markets in the meat and poultry industries. Modern meat cooking facilities typically cook chicken strips and nuggets at rates of 6000 lbs per hour, and it is a critical food safety issue to ensure the products on these lines are indeed fully cooked. Common practice now employs oven technicians to constantly measure final cook temperature with insertion-type thermocouple probes. Prior research has demonstrated that thermal imagery of chicken breasts and other products can be used to predict core temperature of products leaving an oven. In practice, implementation of a system to monitor core temperature can be difficult for several reasons. First, a wide variety of products are typically produced on the same production line and the system must adapt to all products. Second, the products can be often hard to find because they often leave the process in random order and may be touching or even overlapping. Another issue is finite measurement time which is typically only a few seconds. Finally, the system is subjected to a rigorous sanitation cycle and must hold up under wash down conditions. To address these problems, a calibrated 320x240 micro-bolometer camera was used to monitor the temperature of formed, breaded poultry products on a fully cooked production line for a period of one year. The study addressed the installation and operation of the system as well as the development of algorithms used to identify the product on a cluttered conveyor belt. It also compared the oven tech insertion probe measurements to the non-contact monitoring system performance.

  5. Coal repository. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The Coal Repository Project was initiated in 1980 by the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center to provide a centralized system for the collection of well characterized coal samples, and distribution to organizations involved in the chemical beneficiation of coal and related research. TRW Energy Development Group, together with its subcontractor Commercial Testing and Engineering Company, established the Coal Repository at the TRW Capistrano Chemical Facility, which is the location of the DOE-owned Multi-Use Fuel and Energy Processes Test Plant (MEP). Twenty tons each of three coals (Illinois No. 6, Kentucky No. 11 (West), and Pittsburgh No. 8 (from an Ohio mine)) were collected, characterized, and stored under a nitrogen atmosphere. Ten tons of each coal are 3/8-inch x 0, five tons of each are 14-mesh x 0, and five tons of each are 100-mesh x 0. Although TRW was within budget and on schedule, Department of Energy funding priorities in this area were altered such that the project was terminated prior to completion of the original scope of work. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Xiaoxing

    2014-09-09

    The objective of this project is to develop a MgB2 superconducting RF (SRF) cavity technology. Compared to the currently-used SRF material niobium, MgB2 has a much higher Tc of 40 K, a lower residual resistivity (< 0.1 µΩcm), and a higher thermodynamic critical field Hc. SRF cavities with MgB2 coatings have the potentials for higher Q, higher gradient, and higher operation temperatures. A MgB2 SRF technology can significantly reduce the operating costs of particle accelerators when these potentials are realized. In this project, we have made significant progresses in the deposition of large-area (2” diameter) MgB2 films for RF characterizations, deposition of MgB2 films on metal substrates including Nb, Mo, Ta, and stainless steel, enhancement of Hc1 with decreasing MgB2 film thickness, fabrication and characterization of MgB2/MgO multilayers, and deposition of MgB2 films of excellent superconducting properties on the wall of a 6-GHz RF cavity. These results have laid foundation for a MgB2 superconducting SRF cavity technology.

  7. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Timothy S.

    2013-09-10

    The biochemistry of bacterial proteins involved in redox transformations of metals and minerals is, without dispute, an important area of research. Nevertheless, most studies on bacterial metal transformation have focused not on biochemistry but on genetics and genomics. The objective of this research is to better understand the role of conformation change in electron transfer from cytochromes to minerals, a process that underpins respiratory metal reduction by bacteria in nature and in bioremediation strategies, including reductive immobilization of radioactive contaminants. Our DOE-funded work is specifically focused on answering long-standing questions about the biochemical behavior of these very interesting proteins, and our findings thus far have already made impacts in the fields of environmental microbiology and biogeochemistry. Among the key findings from the project are 1) Successful large-scale production of biomass for protein isolation; 2) Purification of several c-type cytochromes for biochemical study; 3) Characterization of these proteins using spectrophotometric and electrochemical techniques; 4) Examination of protein conformational change and redox activity towards metal oxides using a small mass cytochrome c from Acidiphilium cryptum; 5) Proteomic characterization of A. cryptum biofilms; 6) Training of 2 undergraduate research assistants; 7) Publications and several meeting presentations.

  8. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aristos Aristidou Natureworks); Robert Kean; Tom Schechinger; Stuart Birrell; Jill Euken

    2007-10-01

    The two main objectives of this project were: 1) to develop and test technologies to harvest, transport, store, and separate corn stover to supply a clean raw material to the bioproducts industry, and 2) engineer fermentation systems to meet performance targets for lactic acid and ethanol manufacturers. Significant progress was made in testing methods to harvest corn stover in a “single pass” harvest mode (collect corn grain and stover at the same time). This is technically feasible on small scale, but additional equipment refinements will be needed to facilitate cost effective harvest on a larger scale. Transportation models were developed, which indicate that at a corn stover yield of 2.8 tons/acre and purchase price of $35/ton stover, it would be unprofitable to transport stover more than about 25 miles; thus suggesting the development of many regional collection centers. Therefore, collection centers should be located within about 30 miles of the farm, to keep transportation costs to an acceptable level. These collection centers could then potentially do some preprocessing (to fractionate or increase bulk density) and/or ship the biomass by rail or barge to the final customers. Wet storage of stover via ensilage was tested, but no clear economic advantages were evident. Wet storage eliminates fire risk, but increases the complexity of component separation and may result in a small loss of carbohydrate content (fermentation potential). A study of possible supplier-producer relationships, concluded that a “quasi-vertical” integration model would be best suited for new bioproducts industries based on stover. In this model, the relationship would involve a multiyear supply contract (processor with purchase guarantees, producer group with supply guarantees). Price will likely be fixed or calculated based on some formula (possibly a cost plus). Initial quality requirements will be specified (but subject to refinement).Producers would invest in harvest

  9. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF RISKS POSED BY COMBUSTOR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk characterization is the final step of the risk assessment process as practiced in the U.S. EPA. In risk characterization, the major scientific evidence and "bottom-line" results from the other components of the risk assessment process, hazard identification, dose-response as...

  11. Characterization techniques for surface-micromachined devices

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, W.P.; Smith, N.F.; Irwin, L.; Tanner, D.M.

    1998-08-01

    Using a microengine as the primary test vehicle, the authors have examined several aspects of characterization. Parametric measurements provide fabrication process information. Drive signal optimization is necessary for increased microengine performance. Finally, electrical characterization of resonant frequency and quality factor can be more accurate than visual techniques.

  12. Final technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel J. Candes

    2007-11-06

    In the last two dcades or so, many multiscale algorthms have been proposed to enable large scale computations which were thought as nearly intractable. For example, the fast multipole algorithm and other similar ideas have allowed to considerably speed up fundamental computations in electromagnetism, and many other fields. The thesis underlying this proposal is that traditional multiscale methods have been well-developed and it is clear that we now need new ideas in areas where traditional spatial multiscaling is ill-suited. In this context, the proposal argues that clever phase-space computations is bound to plan a crucial role in advancing algorithms and high-performance scientific computing. Our research past accomplishments have shown the existence of ideas beyond the traditional scale-space viewpoint such as new multiscale geometric representations of phase-space. We have shown that these clever representations lead to enhanced sparsity. We have shown that enhanced sparsity has significant important implications both for analysis, and for numerical applications, where sparsity allows for faster algorithms. We have implemented these ideas and built computational tools to be used as new building blocks of a new generation of wave propagation solvers. Finally, we have deployed these ideas into novel algorithms. In this last year, we assembled all these techniques and made significant progress in solving a variety of computational problems, which we then applied in selected areas of considerable scientific interest.

  13. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriy Y. Anistratov; Marvin L. Adams; Todd S. Palmer; Kord S. Smith; Kevin Clarno; Hikaru Hiruta; Razvan Nes

    2003-08-04

    OAK B202 Final Technical Report. The present generation of reactor analysis methods uses few-group nodal diffusion approximations to calculate full-core eigenvalues and power distributions. The cross sections, diffusion coefficients, and discontinuity factors (collectively called ''group constants'') in the nodal diffusion equations are parameterized as functions of many variables, ranging from the obvious (temperature, boron concentration, etc.) to the more obscure (spectral index, moderator temperature history, etc.). These group constants, and their variations as functions of the many variables, are calculated by assembly-level transport codes. The current methodology has two main weaknesses that this project addressed. The first weakness is the diffusion approximation in the full-core calculation; this can be significantly inaccurate at interfaces between different assemblies. This project used the nodal diffusion framework to implement nodal quasidiffusion equations, which can capture transport effects to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The second weakness is in the parameterization of the group constants; current models do not always perform well, especially at interfaces between unlike assemblies. The project developed a theoretical foundation for parameterization and homogenization models and used that theory to devise improved models. The new models were extended to tabulate information that the nodal quasidiffusion equations can use to capture transport effects in full-core calculations.

  14. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Velasco, Mayda

    2013-11-01

    This work is focused on the design and construction of novel beam diagnostic and instrumentation for charged particle accelerators required for the next generation of linear colliders. Our main interest is in non-invasive techniques. The Northwestern group of Velasco has been a member of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) collaboration since 2003, and the beam instrumentation work is developed mostly at this facility1. This 4 kW electron beam facility has a 25-170 MeV electron LINAC. CTF3 performed a set of dedicated measurements to finalize the development of our RF-Pickup bunch length detectors. The RF-pickup based on mixers was fully commissioned in 2009 and the RF-pickup based on diodes was finished in time for the 2010-11 data taking. The analysis of all the data taken in by the summer of 2010 was finish in time and presented at the main conference of the year, LINAC 2010 in Japan.

  15. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Fridman

    2005-06-01

    This DOE project DE-FC36-04GO14052 ''Plasma Pilot Plant Test for Treating VOC Emissions from Wood Products Plants'' was conducted by Drexel University in cooperation with Georgia-Pacific (G-P) and Kurchatov Institute (KI). The objective of this project was to test the Plasma Pilot Plant capabilities in wood industry. The final goal of the project was to replace the current state-of-the-art, regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology by Low-Temperature Plasma Technology (LTPT) in paper and wood industry for Volatile Organic Components (VOC) destruction in High Volume Low Concentration (HVLC) vent emissions. MetPro Corporation joined the team as an industrial partner from the environmental control business and a potential leader for commercialization. Concurrent Technology Corporation (CTC) has a separate contract with DOE for this technology evaluation. They prepared questionnaires for comparison of this technology and RTO, and made this comparison. These data are presented in this report along with the description of the technology itself. Experiments with the pilot plant were performed with average plasma power up to 3.6 kW. Different design of the laboratory and pilot plant pulsed coronas, as well as different analytical methods revealed many new peculiarities of the VOC abatement process. The work reported herein describes the experimental results for the VOCs removal efficiency with respect to energy consumption, residence time, water effect and initial concentration.

  16. Final Report to DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail Gultepe

    2012-05-15

    This final report summarizes the accomplished goals and provide a list of the publications and presentations made during the project. The goals of the project were accomplished through the various publications submitted to Journals and presentations done at the DOE and international meetings and conferences. The 8 journal articles related to the goals of this project were accepted or submitted. The 23 presentations related to goals of the project were presented at the meetings. There were some minor changes regarding to project goals because of issues encountered during the analysis of the data. For example, a total water probe sensor mounted on the Convair-580 that can be used for defining mixed phase conditions and parameterization, had some problems to estimate magnitude of total water mass, and this resulted in issues providing an accurate parameterization for cloud fraction. Variability related aerosol number concentrations and their composition for direct and indirect effects were studied and published. Results were given to explain aerosol and ice microphysical effects on climate change studies. It is suggested that developed parameterizations should consider the variability in aerosol and ice parameters over the Arctic regions.

  17. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander Pigarov

    2012-06-05

    This is the final report for the Research Grant DE-FG02-08ER54989 'Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts'. The UCSD group including: A.Yu. Pigarov (PI), S.I. Krasheninnikov and R.D. Smirnov, was working on modeling of the impact of lithium coatings on edge plasma parameters in NSTX with the multi-species multi-fluid code UEDGE. The work was conducted in the following main areas: (i) improvements of UEDGE model for plasma-lithium interactions, (ii) understanding the physics of low-recycling divertor regime in NSTX caused by lithium pumping, (iii) study of synergistic effects with lithium coatings and non-diffusive ballooning-like cross-field transport, (iv) simulation of experimental multi-diagnostic data on edge plasma with lithium pumping in NSTX via self-consistent modeling of D-Li-C plasma with UEDGE, and (v) working-gas balance analysis. The accomplishments in these areas are given in the corresponding subsections in Section 2. Publications and presentations made under the Grant are listed in Section 3.

  18. MIST final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gloudemans, J.R. )

    1991-08-01

    The multiloop integral system test (MIST) was part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock Wilcox-designed plants. MIST was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral system facilities to addresss the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the once-through integral system (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST program is reported in eleven volumes; Volumes 2 through 8 pertain to groups of Phase 3 tests by type, Volume 9 presents inter-group comparisons. Volume 10 provides comparisons between the RELAP5 MOD2 calculations and MIST observations, and Volume 11 (with addendum) presents the later, Phase 4 tests. This is Volume 1 of the MIST final report, a summary of the entire MIST program. Major topics include: test advisory grop (TAG) issues; facility scaling and design; test matrix; observations; comparisons of RELAP5 calculations to MIST observations; and MIST versus the TAG issues. 11 refs., 29 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Enhanced superconductors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.B.

    1992-05-01

    One of the major challenges facing high temperature superconductors is the making of non-brittle materials. Based on the successful discovery of high temperature perovskite superconductors, a new class of superconducting materials is hypothesized. The proposed class will be mechanically tough and may have high critical temperatures. The proposed material will be inexpensive to manufacture and easily formed into wires and bands. The project's research goal was to detect a superconducting transition in a specific material within this proposed new class. Substantial progress was made toward this objective. In Phase I a major milestone, the bulk conversion of a precursor material, was successfully accomplished. The second model precursor polymer, Polychlorofluoroethylene (PCFE), was synthesized for this study. This allowed the possibility of making low defect polyfluoroacetylene. This synthesis route yielded poly(fluoroacetylene) with a significantly lower defect density when compared to HF-eliminated fluoropolymer films. The final phase of this work was directed to synthesis of poly(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-para-phenylene vinylene) (PTFPPV). While making significant progress in synthesizing conducting polymers with polar or polarizable groups, this study did not reach its ultimate goal of producing a model compound with all of the necessary chemical properties to test the exciton model of superconductivity.

  20. Tiger LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steich, D J; Brugger, S T; Kallman, J S; White, D A

    2000-02-01

    This final report describes our efforts on the Three-Dimensional Massively Parallel CEM Technologies LDRD project (97-ERD-009). Significant need exists for more advanced time domain computational electromagnetics modeling. Bookkeeping details and modifying inflexible software constitute a vast majority of the effort required to address such needs. The required effort escalates rapidly as problem complexity increases. For example, hybrid meshes requiring hybrid numerics on massively parallel platforms (MPPs). This project attempts to alleviate the above limitations by investigating flexible abstractions for these numerical algorithms on MPPs using object-oriented methods, providing a programming environment insulating physics from bookkeeping. The three major design iterations during the project, known as TIGER-I to TIGER-III, are discussed. Each version of TIGER is briefly discussed along with lessons learned during the development and implementation. An Application Programming Interface (API) of the object-oriented interface for Tiger-III is included in three appendices. The three appendices contain the Utilities, Entity-Attribute, and Mesh libraries developed during the project. The API libraries represent a snapshot of our latest attempt at insulated the physics from the bookkeeping.

  1. Electrocatalytic hydrocracking. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vaart, D.R. van der

    1992-06-01

    This report describes an electrocatalytic method for the chemical addition of hydrogen to a model hydrocarbon compound. In the method, hydrogen formed by water electrolysis at the counter electrode of an electrochemical cell is delivered via conduction through a proton-conducting solid electrolyte. The working electrode of the cell is, at the same time, a hydrocracking catalyst and therefore promotes the reaction of the hydrogen with the hydrocarbon. This process would have clear and distinct advantages over conventional hydroprocessing technologies in that the hydrogen concentration at the catalyst surface could be controlled and maintained by the applied electromotive force. This control would allow operation of the electrocatalytic reactor at ambient pressures instead of the extremely high hydrogen partial pressures required of conventional reactors. In addition, the direct delivery of hydrogen to the catalyst surface should inhibit coke formation and thus prolong the life of the catalyst. Finally, hydrogen utilization efficiencies should be greatly improved since the hydrogen is delivered directly to the reaction site thereby eliminating hydrogen solubility loss in the effluent stream. This report details the demonstration of (a) the ability of a solid electrolyte to perform as a catalyst, (b) the conduction of hydrogen through a solid electrolyte and (c) the simultaneous exploitation of these two properties. Hence, the essential concept of electrocatalytic hydrocracking has been demonstrated. An objective of future work in this area should be to determine whether the hydrocracking or hydrogenation reactions are actually enhanced during the electrocatalytic process when compared to the conventional catalytic process.

  2. Synthesis, structures and fluorescent properties of two novel lanthanide [Ln = Ce(III), Pr(III)] coordination polymers based on 1,3-benzenedicarboxylate and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Ni, Liang; yao, Jia

    2012-09-01

    Two structurally diverse coordination polymers [Ce2(m-BDC)2(m-HBDC)2(MOPIP)2·3/2H2O]n (1) and [Pr2(m-BDC)3(MOPIP)2·H2O]n(2) have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction of lanthanide chloride with mixed ligands benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid and 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (MOPIP). The crystal structures of the complexes are zipper-like chains of octacoordinate Ln3+ ions, in which Ln3+ ions are bridged in different coordination modes by m-BDC2+ and decorated by MOPIP ligands. These chains are further assembled into three-dimensional supramolecular framework by π⋯π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. The fluorescent property and thermal stability were also investigated. Additionally, Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis of complex 2 shows a weak covalent interaction between the coordinated atoms and Pr3+ ions.

  3. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Randolph

    2013-11-11

    Spider silks have the potential to provide new bio-inspired materials for numerous applications in bioenergetics and products ranging from protective clothing to artificial ligaments and tendons. A number of spider silk genes have been cloned and sequenced by the Lewis laboratory revealing the basis for understanding the key elements of spider silk proteins with respect to their materials performance. In particular, specific amino acid motifs have been identified which have been conserved for over 125 million years in all spiders that use their silk to physically trap prey. The key element in taking the next step toward generating bio-based materials from spider silks will be to move from the current descriptive data to predictive knowledge. Current efforts are focused on mimicking spider silk through synthetic proteins. In developing synthetic silk fibers, we first need to understand the complete secondary and tertiary structure of natural silk so that we can compare synthetic constructs to the natural material. Being able to compare the structure on a single fiber level is critical to the future of molecular directed mimic development because we can vary mechanical properties by different spinning methods. The new generation of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and neutron beamlines will allow, for the first time, determination of the molecular structure of silk fibers and synthetic mimics. We propose an exciting new collaborative research team working jointly between Argonne National Laboratory, Arizona State U. and the University of Wyoming to address the ?characterization of synthetic and natural spider silk fibers using x-ray and neutron diffraction.? Thus these new methodologies will provide understanding of current fibers and determine changes needed to produce fibers with specific properties. The following specific aims are proposed: ? Synthesize spider silk fibers with molecular structures mimicking that of natural silks. Test the mechanic properties of these

  4. MTX final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E.B.; Allen, S.L.; Brown, M.D.; Byers, J.A.; Casper, T.A.; Cohen, B.I.; Cohen, R.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Foote, J.H.; Hoshino, K.

    1994-01-01

    The MTX experiment was proposed in 1986 to apply high frequency microwaves generated by a free-electron laser (FEL) to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in a high field, high density tokamak. As the absorption of microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance requires high frequencies, the opportunity of applying a free-electron laser has appeal as the device is not limited to frequencies in the microwave or long millimeter wavelength regions, in contrast to many other sources. In addition, the FEL is inherently a high power source of microwaves, which would permit single units of 10 MW or more, optimum for reactors. Finally, it was recognized early in the study of the application of the FEL based on the induction linear accelerator, that the nonlinear effects associated with the intense pulses of microwaves naturally generated would offer several unique opportunities to apply ECRH to current drive, MHD control, and other plasma effects. It was consequently decided to adapt the induction accelerator based FEL to heating and controlling the tokamak, and to conduct experiments on the associated physics. To this end, the Alcator C tokamak was moved from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where it was installed in Building 431 and operated from March, 1989, until the conclusion of the experiment in October, 1992. The FEL, based on the ETA-11 accelerator and IMP wiggler was brought into operation by the LLNL Electron Beam Group and power injected into the tokamak during an experimental run in the Fall, 1989. Following an upgrade by the MTX group, a second experimental run was made lasting from the Winter, 1992 through the end of the experiment. Significant contributions to the ECRH experiments were made by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).

  5. Enthalpy studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mathias, P.M.; Stein, F.P.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the evaluation and enhancement of the enthalpy model developed for the SRC-I process (as well as the other coal-liquefaction processes). A preliminary version of the model was used in the Post-Baseline review of the SRC-I process design (Duffy et al., 1983), and the final version will be employed by APCI in the ASPEN PLUS Model of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant (APCI, 1984). ICRC, recognizing the need for thermophysical data on coal liquids and coal-fluid model compounds, embarked upon a 2-year experimental program. Specifically, the overall program objectives were to obtain vapor/liquid equilibrium (VLE) and enthalpy data to develop correlations and verify the designs of several important pieces of process equipment in the SRC-I demonstration plant. The enthalpy model uses a modification of the Peng-Robinson (1976) equation of state proposed by Mathias ad Copeman (1983). It was developed mainly from publicly available data on coal fluids and related model compounds (Mathias and Monks, 1982). The generalized (predictive) model has provided good agreement with experimental data on coal fluids. Surprisingly, the agreement with the data on model-compound mixtures is not as good. The practical conclusion is that, within the frame work of the present model, it is better to lump various types of components within the same pseudocomponent. The enthalpy model has achieved the main objective of an improved model for the design of several key heat exchangers in the SRC-I process. Further, the work has identified deficiencies in existing models, which suggest the focus of future research. 24 references.

  6. World Cup Final

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    On July 9, hundreds of millions of fans worldwide will be glued to their television sets watching the final match of the 2006 FIFA World Cup, played in Berlin's Olympic stadium (Olympiastadion). The stadium was originally built for the 1936 Summer Olympics. The Olympic Stadium seats 76,000,; its roof rises 68 meters over the seats and is made up of transparent panels that allow sunlight to stream in during the day.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 12.1 by 15.9 kilometers (7.5 by 9.5 miles) Location: 52.5 degrees North latitude, 13.3 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: October 15, 2005

  7. Metriwave final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Wyman

    1991-01-01

    The superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer is a device which is being used in the construction of very sensitive receivers in the millimeter and submillimeter wavelength regions. With its potential for conversion gain and quantum-limited performance, it is becoming a device of prime importance in radio astronomy as well as earth and planetary atmospheric research. Many of the parameters of the SIS mixer cannot be readily measured in the laboratory, however, since most commercially available test instruments use test signal powers large enough to saturate or destroy SIS junctions. Detailed here is the construction of a microwave network analyzer with extremely low test signal powers. The results of a development performed by Dynamics Technology, Inc., under a Phase 2 SBIR contract from NASA (NAS7-1025) are documented. The work resulted in a network analyzer to be delivered to workers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which should be capable of SIS mixer characterization in support of their ongoing work in this area.

  8. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, David B.

    2008-04-02

    This grant provided the basic funding that enabled me to carry out a detailed characterization of the proteins used by the aerobic soil bacterium, Thermobifida fusca, to degrade cellulose and to study the mechanisms used by T. fusca to regulate cellulase synthesis. This work resulted in 53 publications and led to the decision by The DOE Joint Genome Institute to sequence the T. fusca genome. T. fusca is now recognized as one of the best studied cellulolytic microorganisms and our work led to the discovery of a novel class of cellulases, processive endoglucanases, which are found in many cellulolytic bacteria including both aerobes and anaerobes. In addition, we were able to determine the mechanism by which Cel9A caused processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This research also helped to explain why many cellulolytic microorganisms produce two different exocellulases, as we showed that these enzymes have different specificities, with one attacking the reducing end of a cellulose chain and the other attacking the nonreducing end. Our work also provided additional evidence for the importance of a cellulose binding domain (carbohydrate binding module) [CBM] in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose.

  9. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Church, Bruce W

    2008-10-15

    Most prokaryotes of interest to DOE are poorly understood. Even when full genomic sequences are available, the function of only a small number of gene products are clear. The critical question is how to best infer the most probable network architectures in cells that are poorly characterized. The project goal is to create a computational hypothesis testing (CHT) framework that combines large-scale dynamical simulation, a database of bioinformatics-derived probable interactions, and numerical parallel architecture data-fitting routines to explore many “what if ?” hypotheses about the functions of genes and proteins within pathways and their downstream effects on molecular concentration profiles and corresponding phenotypes. From this framework we expect to infer signal transduction pathways and gene expression networks in prokaryotes. Detailed mechanistic models of E. Coli have been developed that directly incorporate DNA sequence information. The CHT framework is implemented in the NIEngine network inference software. NIEngine has been applied to recover gene regulatory networks in E. coli to assess performance. Application to Shewanel la oneidensi and other organism of interest DOE will be conducted in partnership with Jim Collin's Lab at Boston University and other academic partners. The CHT framework has also found broad application in the automated learning of biology for purposes of improving human health.

  10. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Laub

    2008-12-29

    Our team of investigators from MIT (Michael Laub) and Stanford (Harley McAdams and Lucy Shapiro) conducted a multi-faceted, systematic experimental analysis of the 106 Caulobacter two-component signal transduction system proteins (62 histidine kinases and 44 response regulators) to understand how they coordinate cell cycle progression, metabolism, and response to environmental changes. These two-component signaling proteins were characterized at the genetic, biochemical, and genomic levels. The results generated by our laboratories have provided numerous insights into how Caulobacter cells sense and respond to a myriad of signals. As nearly all bacteria use two-component signaling for cell regulation, the results from this project help to deepen our general understanding of bacterial signal transduction. The tools and approaches developed can be applied to other bacteria. In particular, work from the Laub laboratory now enables the systematic, rational rewiring of two-component signaling proteins, a major advance that stands to impact synthetic biology and the development of biosensors and other designer molecular circuits. Results are summarized from our work. Each section lists publications and publicly-available resources which result from the work described.

  11. (Unraveling photosystems: Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogorad, L.

    1987-01-09

    This project addresses the identification and characterization of thylakoid proteins and to understand their organization and function in photosynthesis. One segment of the work is to develop a reliable system for transforming, with foreign DNA, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803 (S. 6803), which carries out oxygenic photosynthesis in the same manner as higher plants do and is a facultative photoheterotroph. The second part of the program deals with identifying photosynthetic genes coded by chloroplast DNA in higher plants. In the course of sequencing maize chloroplast DNA, unidentified open reading frames for proteins have been encountered. The protein products of these genes are found in photosynthetic membranes of chloroplasts and cyanobacteria; in some cases traced to a functional thylakoid complex. To date, two S. 6803 genes corresponding to chloroplast genes for hitherto unrecognized thylakoid proteins have been identified and cloned. Another objective of the development of the transformation-gene deletion-gene replacement system is to be able to study functions of parts of a protein for which an individual gene codes and thus to understand the function of each component of the photosynthetic apparatus and its relationship with other proteins. We have explored the mechanism by which Cu/sup 2 +/ regulates the expression of plastocyanin vs cyt c/sub 552/ in Chlamydomonas rheinhardi. 65 refs.

  12. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pilewskie, Peter

    2009-05-27

    During the 1-year duration of this project a new Shortwave Spectrometer (SWS) was designed and developed for deployment at the Southern Great Plains Central Facility to measure zenith solar spectral radiance. The SWS is comprised of two Zeiss miniature monolithic spectrometers (MMS-1 and MMS-NIR) for visible and near-infrared detection in the wavelength range between 350 and 2250 nm. Spectral resolution is 8 nm for the MMS-1 and 12 nm for the MMS-NIR. The light collector is a narrow field of view (±1.5 º) collimator at the front end of a high-grade custom-made fiber optic bundle. The data acquisition and control system is a 933 MHz Pentium based PC in a PC104 format with a USB interface between the computer and the spectrometers. Spectral sampling rate is approximately 1 Hz. A prototype SWS was deployed at SGP in November and December 2004 and it collected zenith-sky solar spectra at 1 Hz continuously over a 29 day period. Prior to deployment it was calibrated and characterized at the NASA Ames Airborne Sensor Facility (ASF) using a 30 inch Integrating Sphere. The SWS was also calibrated using a portable 12 inch integrating sphere at the Central Facility. The testing and calibration procedures were developed during this implementation. The planning and scheduling for permanent installation of the new SWS as well as data processing, calibration, archiving, and distribution was conducted.

  13. 40 CFR 22.31 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final order. 22.31 Section 22.31... PERMITS Final Order § 22.31 Final order. (a) Effect of final order. A final order constitutes the final Agency action in a proceeding. The final order shall not in any case affect the right of the Agency...

  14. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bohdan W. Oppenheim; Rudolf Marloth

    2007-10-26

    Executive Summary The document contains Final Technical Report on the Industrial Assessment Center Program at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, covering the contract period of 9/1/2002 to 11/30/2006, under the contract DE-FC36-02GO 12073. The Report describes six required program tasks, as follows: TASK 1 is a summary of the assessments performed over the life of the award: 77 assessments were performed, 595 AR were recommended, covering a very broad range of manufacturing plants. TASK 2 is a description of the efforts to promote and increase the adoption of assessment recommendations and employ innovative methods to assist in accomplishing these goals. The LMU IAC has been very successful in accomplishing the program goals, including implemented savings of $5,141,895 in energy, $10,045,411 in productivity and $30,719 in waste, for a total of $15,218,025. This represents 44% of the recommended savings of $34,896,392. TASK 3 is a description of the efforts promoting the IAC Program and enhancing recruitment efforts for new clients and expanded geographic coverage. LMU IAC has been very successful recruiting new clients covering Southern California. Every year, the intended number of clients was recruited. TASK 4 describes the educational opportunities, training, and other related activities for IAC students. A total of 38 students graduated from the program, including 2-3 graduate students every semester, and the remainder undergraduate students, mostly from the Mechanical Engineering Department. The students received formal weekly training in energy (75%) and productivity (25). All students underwent extensive safety training. All students praised the IAC experience very highly. TASK 5 describes the coordination and integration of the Center activities with other Center and IAC Program activities, and DOE programs. LMU IAC worked closely with MIT, and SDSU IAC and SFSU IAC, and enthusiastically supported the SEN activities. TASK 6 describes other tasks

  15. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.C.

    1998-11-01

    This is a final report on the research activities carried out under the above grant at Dartmouth. During the period considered, the grant was identified as being for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics, considered as the most tractable theoretical framework in which the plasma problems associated with magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas could be studied. During the first part of the grant`s lifetime, the author was associated with Los Alamos National Laboratory as a consultant and the work was motivated by the reversed-field pinch. Later, when that program was killed at Los Alamos, the problems became ones that could be motivated by their relation to tokamaks. Throughout the work, the interest was always on questions that were as fundamental as possible, compatible with those motivations. The intent was always to contribute to plasma physics as a science, as well as to the understanding of mission-oriented confined fusion plasmas. Twelve Ph.D. theses were supervised during this period and a comparable number of postdoctoral research associates were temporarily supported. Many of these have gone on to distinguished careers, though few have done so in the context of the controlled fusion program. Their work was a combination of theory and numerical computation, in gradually less and less idealized settings, moving from rectangular periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions, through periodic straight cylinders and eventually, before the grant was withdrawn, to toroids, with a gradually more prominent role for electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The author never had access to a situation where he could initiate experiments and relate directly to the laboratory data he wanted. Computers were the laboratory. Most of the work was reported in referred publications in the open literature, copies of which were transmitted one by one to DOE at the time they appeared. The Appendix to this report is a bibliography of published work which was carried out under the

  16. ASEDRA Evaluation Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean James; Detwiler, Dr. Rebecca; Sjoden, Dr, Glenn E.

    2008-09-01

    The performance of the Advanced Synthetically Enhanced Detector Resolution Algorithm (ASEDRA) was evaluated by performing a blind test of 29 sets of gamma-ray spectra that were provided by DNDO. ASEDRA is a post-processing algorithm developed at the Florida Institute of Nuclear Detection and Security at the University of Florida (UF/FINDS) that extracts char-acteristic peaks in gamma-ray spectra. The QuickID algorithm, also developed at UF/FINDS, was then used to identify nuclides based on the characteristic peaks generated by ASEDRA that are inferred from the spectra. The ASEDRA/QuickID analysis results were evaluated with respect to the performance of the DHSIsotopeID algorithm, which is a mature analysis tool that is part of the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS). Data that were used for the blind test were intended to be challenging, and the radiation sources included thick shields around the radioactive materials as well as cargo containing naturally occurring radio-active materials, which masked emission from special nuclear materials and industrial isotopes. Evaluation of the analysis results with respect to the ground truth information (which was provided after the analyses were finalized) showed that neither ASEDRA/QuickID nor GADRAS could identify all of the radiation sources correctly. Overall, the purpose of this effort was primarily to evaluate ASEDRA, and GADRAS was used as a standard against which ASEDRA was compared. Although GADRAS was somewhat more accurate on average, the performance of ASEDRA exceeded that of GADRAS for some of the unknowns. The fact that GADRAS also failed to identify many of the radiation sources attests to the difficulty of analyzing the blind-test data that were used as a basis for the evaluation. This evaluation identified strengths and weaknesses of the two analysis approaches. The importance of good calibration data was also clear because the performance of both analysis methods was impeded by the

  17. Final Technical Report "Energy Partitioning in Elementary Chemical Reactions"

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Bersohn; James J. Valentini

    2005-10-03

    This is the final technical report of the subject grant. It describes the scientific results obtained during the reporting period. These results are focused on the reactions of atomic oxygen with terminal alkenes. We have studied the production of vinoxy in these reactions. We have characterized the energy disposal in the reactions and have elaborated the reaction mechanism.

  18. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, Alain J

    2009-12-31

    Final Technical Report for U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER55005 Nonlinear FLR Effects in Reduced Fluid Models Alain J. Brizard, Saint Michael's College The above-mentioned DoE grant was used to support research activities by the PI during a sabbatical leave from Saint Michael's College in 2009. The major focus of the work was the role played by guiding-center and gyrocenter (linear and nonlinear) polarization and magnetization effects in understanding transport processes in turbulent magnetized plasmas. The theoretical tools used for this work include Lie-transform perturbation methods and Lagrangian (variational) methods developed by the PI in previous work. The present final technical report lists (I) the peer-reviewed publications that were written based on work funded by the Grant; (II) invited and contributed conference presentations during the period funded by the Grant; and (III) seminars presented during the period funded by the Grant. I. Peer-reviewed Publications A.J. Brizard and N. Tronko, 2011, Exact momentum conservation for the gyrokinetic Vlasov- Poisson equations, Physics of Plasmas 18 , 082307:1-14 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3625554 ]. J. Decker, Y. Peysson, A.J. Brizard, and F.-X. Duthoit, 2010, Orbit-averaged guiding-center Fokker-Planck operator for numerical applications, Physics of Plasmas 17, 112513:1-12 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3519514]. A.J. Brizard, 2010, Noether derivation of exact conservation laws for dissipationless reduced fluid models, Physics of Plasmas 17, 112503:1-8 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3515303]. F.-X. Duthoit, A.J. Brizard, Y. Peysson, and J. Decker, 2010, Perturbation analysis of trapped particle dynamics in axisymmetric dipole geometry, Physics of Plasmas 17, 102903:1-9 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3486554]. A.J. Brizard, 2010, Exact energy conservation laws for full and truncated nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, Physics of Plasmas 17, 042303:1-11 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3374428]. A

  19. Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Charles R

    2012-12-31

    The response of dielectric material to electromagnetic waves in the millimeter wavelength range (30 to 300 GHz) has received relatively little study and the processes that give rise to absorption in this region are often poorly understood. Understanding the origin of absorption at these wavelengths has basic significance for solid state physics as well as importance for development of technology in this region of the RF spectrum. This project has provided high-quality data on the temperature dependence of the dielectric loss in high-purity, semi-insulating silicon carbide (HPSI SiC), a material that holds much promise for application, especially in devices that must operate in the high power and high frequency regime. Comparison of this experimental data with theoretical predictions for various loss processes provides convincing evidence that the loss in HPSI SiC arises almost entirely from intrinsic lattice loss (ILL) as described by Garin. Fitting the data to this model yields an accurate value for the Debye temperature that characterizes crystalline SiC. In addition, our results refute a previous study(2) which reported much higher loss, attributed to the presence of free charge. The quality of the data acquired in this project is clear evidence for the value of the experimental technique that was employed here. This technique combines the excitation of a high-quality open resonator by a phase-locked backward wave oscillator (BWO) with use of a spectrum analyzer to measure the change in the resonator response curve when the sample is inserted. This system has demonstrated consistent results for very challenging measurements and does not suffer from the artifacts that often arise when using other techniques that rely on thermal sources. The low absorption loss found in HPSI SiC, when combined with its other outstanding material properties, e.g. high thermal conductivity, high tensile strength, and high carrier mobility, should provide incentive for designers to

  20. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Michael C.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Lipids in food are subjected to many chemical reactions during processing and storage. While some of these reactions are desirable, others are undesirable; so, efforts are made to minimize the reactions and their effects. The laboratory deals with the characterization of fats and oils with respect to composition, structure, and reactivity.

  1. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Loren F. Goodrich

    2011-05-31

    to meet the aggressive performance goals. The latest high-performance Nb{sub 3}Sn wires are being designed with higher current densities, larger effective filament diameter, less Cu stabilizer, and, in some cases, larger wire diameters than ever before. In addition, some of the conductor designs and heat treatments cause the residual resistivity ratio (RRR, ratio of room temperature resistivity to the resistivity at 20 K) of the stabilizer to be less than 20. These parameters are pushing the conductors towards less intrinsic stability, into a region we call marginally stable. These parameters also create a whole series of challenges for routine I{sub c} testing on short-samples, even when tested with the sample immersed in liquid helium. High-current, variable-temperature I{sub c} measurements are even more difficult than those made in liquid helium because the sample is only cooled by flowing helium gas. Providing accurate I{sub c} results under these conditions requires a complex system that provide adequate cooling as well as uniform sample temperature. We have been make variable-temperature measurements for about 15 years, but we started to design the first high-current (at least 500 A), variable-temperature, variable-strain apparatus in late 2006. Our first critical-current measurements as a function of strain, temperature, and magnetic field, I{sub c}(B,T,{var_epsilon}), in a new single, unified apparatus (full matrix characterization) were made in the summer of 2008. This is the only such facility in the U.S. and it has some unique components that are not duplicated anywhere in the world. The compounding of all three variables (H, T, {var_epsilon}) makes an already labor and time intensive characterization very formidable; however, the results cannot be generated any other way and are needed to answer key questions about strain and temperature safety margins and about the reliability of using scaling laws based on small data sets to predict performance. In the

  2. In-Situ Radiation Detection Demonstration Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    MOHAGHEGHI,AMIR H.; REESE,ROBERT; MILLER,DAVID R.; MILLER,MARK LAVERNE; DUCE,STEPHEN

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has hundreds of facilities where radioactive materials have been used or are being used, including firing ranges, low-level radioactive waste disposal areas, and areas where past activities have resulted in environmental contamination. Affected sites range in size from a few acres to square miles. Impact to the DoD comes through military base closure and release to the public. It is important that radioactive contaminants are remediated to levels that result in acceptable risk to the public. Remediation requires characterization studies, e.g., sampling and surveys, to define the affected areas, removal actions, and final confirmatory sampling and surveys. Characterization of surface contamination concentrations has historically been performed using extensive soil sampling programs in conjunction with surface radiation surveys conducted with hand-held radiation monitoring equipment. Sampling is required within the suspect affected area and a large buffer area. Surface soil contaminant characterization using soil sampling and hand held monitoring are costly, time consuming, and result in long delays between submission of samples for analysis and obtaining of final results. This project took an existing, proven radiation survey technology that has had limited exposure and improved its capabilities by documenting correlation factors for various detector/radionuclide geometries that commonly occur in field surveys. With this tool, one can perform characterization and final release surveys much more quickly than is currently possible, and have detection limits that are as good as or better than current technology. This paper will discuss the capabilities of a large area plastic scintillation detector used in conjunction with a global positioning system (GPS) to improve site characterization, remediation, and final clearance surveys of the radioactively contaminated site. Survey results can rapidly identify areas that require remediation as

  3. Threat displays for final approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Chad Warren

    During periods of good visibility, airports can conduct Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches (CSPA) and simultaneously operate parallel runways separated by more than 750 feet. When visibility degrades to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) and pilots must fly exclusively by the instruments, the runway separation required to operate parallel runways increases to 3400 feet or more. For many airports around the country and the world this means the second runway must be closed and the airport operates at half capacity. To alleviate the delays caused by this capacity reduction many airports worldwide are planning to expand and build new runways. The projected cost of the ten largest airport projects in the United States is $8-16 Billion. Perhaps a less expensive solution can be found with innovative technology rather than real estate? This research presents the first ever design, implementation, and characterization of a synthetic vision display and the supporting flight system to attempt to achieve this solution. The display uses 3D graphics and an air to air datalink called Automatic Dependent Surveillance--Broadcast to present the pilot with the information necessary to aviate, navigate and monitor traffic. This thesis also documents the first series of flight experiments to test the applicability of synthetic vision displays to both runway incursion avoidance and CSPA. Finally, utilizing the results from the flight testing in a Monte Carlo analysis, the effect of deploying this display on minimum safe runway separation is calculated. It has been found that the minimum safe runway separation for IMC operation can safely be reduced to 1900 feet. If, in addition, significant changes are made in Air Traffic Control procedures for longitudinal aircraft spacing, the analysis shows that the display system presented herein will allow for runway separation of 1400 feet with no new restrictions on aircraft size or crosswind. Furthermore, with certain restrictions on

  4. Comparative DNA adduct formation and induction of colonic aberrant crypt foci in mice exposed to 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, and azoxymethane.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangyub; Guo, Jingshu; O'Sullivan, M Gerald; Gallaher, Daniel D; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that environmental factors, including diet and cigarette smoke, are involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer. Carcinogenic nitroso compounds (NOC), such as N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), are present in tobacco and processed red meat, and NOC have been implicated in colon cancer. Azoxymethane (AOM), commonly used for experimental colon carcinogenesis, is an isomer of NDMA, and it produces the same DNA adducts as does NDMA. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) formed during the combustion of tobacco and high-temperature cooking of meats are also associated with an elevated risk of colon cancer. The most abundant carcinogenic HAA formed in tobacco smoke is 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), whereas 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) is the most potent carcinogenic HAA formed during the cooking of meat and fish. However, the comparative tumor-initiating potential of AαC, MeIQ, and AOM is unknown. In this report, we evaluate the formation of DNA adducts as a measure of genotoxicity, and the induction of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and dysplastic ACF, as an early measure of carcinogenic potency of these compounds in the colon of male A/J mice. Both AαC and AOM induced a greater number of DNA adducts than MeIQ in the liver and colon. AOM induced a greater number of ACF and dysplastic ACF than either AαC or MeIQ. Conversely, based on adduct levels, MeIQ-DNA adducts were more potent than AαC- and AOM-DNA adducts at inducing ACF. Long-term feeding studies are required to relate levels of DNA adducts, induction of ACF, and colon cancer by these colon genotoxicants. PMID:26734915

  5. Short-term carcinogenicity testing of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) in E(mu)-pim-1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, I K; Mortensen, A; Kristiansen, E; van Kreijl, C; Adamson, R H; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1996-10-01

    The usefulness of transgenic E(mu)-pim-1 mice over-expressing the pim-1 oncogene in lymphoid tissues, as sensitive test organisms was studied in a short-term carcinogenicity study. The mice were fed standard diet Altromin 1314 supplemented either with 0.03% 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) for 7 months or with 0.03% 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) for 6 months. PhIP and IQ are heterocyclic amines formed during cooking of meat and fish and are mutagenic to bacteria and cultured mammalian cells. PhIP is a potent mouse lymphomagen, while IQ is a liver carcinogen and also causes lung tumors and tumors of the forestomach in mice. We found that transgenic E(mu)-pim-1 mice are highly susceptible to PhIP induced lymphomagenesis but do not respond to the IQ treatment. PhIP feeding of E(mu)-pim-1 mice not only increased the total number of T-cell lymphomas but also decreased the latency time compared to either transgenic or wild-type controls. The effect was most pronounced in the treated female E(mu)-pim-1 mice, which showed a higher incidence of PhIP induced T-cell lymphomas than transgenic males and a strongly reduced latency period after PhIP treatment compared to non-transgenic mice. Our results suggest that the transgenic E(mu)-pim-1 mouse may be a useful model for short-term carcinogenicity screening of potential genotoxic carcinogens having the lymphoid system as target tissue. The carcinogen IQ which does not have the lymphoid system as a target was not recognized in this model. PMID:8895492

  6. CEEM Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, John

    2014-11-26

    The mission of the Center for Energy Efficient Materials (CEEM) was to serve the Department of Energy and the nation as a center of excellence dedicated to advancing basic research in nano-structured materials and devices for applications to solar electricity, thermoelectric conversion of waste heat to electricity, and solidstate lighting. The foundation of CEEM was based on the unique capabilities of UCSB and its partner institutions to control, synthesize, characterize, model, and apply materials at the nanoscale for more efficient sustainable energy resources. This unique expertise was a key source of the synergy that unified the research of the Center. Although the Center’s focus was basic research, It’s longer-term objective has been to transfer new materials and devices into the commercial sector where they will have a substantial impact on the nation’s need for efficient sustainable energy resources. As one measure of the impact of the Center, two start-up companies were formed based on its research. In addition, Center participants published a total of 210 archival journal articles, of which 51 were exclusively sponsored by the DOE grant. The work of the Center was structured around four specific tasks: Organic Solar Cells, Solid-State Lighting, Thermoelectrics, and High Efficiency Multi-junction Photovoltaic devices. A brief summary of each follows – detailed descriptions are in Sections 4 & 5 of this report. Research supported through CEEM led to an important shift with respect to the choice of materials used for the fabrication of solution deposited organic solar cells. Solution deposition opens the opportunity to manufacture solar cells via economically-viable high throughput tools, such as roll to roll printing. Prior to CEEM, most organic semiconductors utilized for this purpose involved polymeric materials, which, although they can form thin films reliably, suffer from batch to batch variations due to the statistical nature of the chemical

  7. Optical characterization of ultra-sensitive TES bolometers for SAFARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audley, Michael D.; de Lange, Gerhard; Gao, Jian-Rong; Khosropanah, Pourya; Mauskopf, Philip D.; Morozov, Dmitry; Trappe, Neil A.; Doherty, Stephen; Withington, Stafford

    2014-07-01

    We have characterized the optical response of prototype detectors for SAFARI, the far-infrared imaging spectrometer for the SPICA satellite. SAFARI's three bolometer arrays will image a 2'×2' field of view with spectral information over the wavelength range 34—210 μm. SAFARI requires extremely sensitive detectors (goal NEP ~ 0.2 aW/√Hz), with correspondingly low saturation powers (~5 fW), to take advantage of SPICA's cooled optics. We have constructed an ultra-low background optical test facility containing an internal cold black-body illuminator and have recently added an internal hot black-body source and a light-pipe for external illumination. We illustrate the performance of the test facility with results including spectral-response measurements. Based on an improved understanding of the optical throughput of the test facility we find an optical efficiency of 60% for prototype SAFARI detectors.

  8. On Characterizing Particle Shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  9. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, Reiner; Urrutia, J. Manuel

    2009-09-08

    emissions are only observed in whistler spheromaks and FRCs but not in mirrors or asymmetric configurations lacking magnetic null lines. The collisionless electron energization in a toroidal null line usually produces non-Maxwellian distributions. Off the null axis electrons gain more perpendicular than parallel energy. Distributions with T{sub {perpendicular}} > T{sub {parallel}} lead to whistler instabilities which have been observed. A whistler spheromak is a source of high-frequency whistler emissions. These are usually small amplitude whistlers propagating in a complicated background magnetic field. The waves are emitted from a moving source. High frequency whistlers propagate faster than the spheromak, thus partly move ahead of it and partly in the reverse direction. In test wave experiments wave growth opposite to the direction of the hot electron flow has been observed, confirming that Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance instabilities account for the emission process. Propagating whistler mirrors produce no significant instabilities except when they interact with other fields which exhibit null lines. For example, a whistler mirror has been launched against a stationary FRC, resulting in strong FRC heating and whistler instabilities. In the whistler mirror configuration the antenna near-zone field produces a toroidal null line outside the coil which can also become a source for whistler emissions. Finally, nonlinear EMHD research has been extended to initially unmagnetized plasmas where a new nonlinear skin depth has been discovered. When a small-amplitude oscillating magnetic field is applied to a plasma the field penetration is governed by the skin depth, collisional or collisionless depending on frequency, collision frequency and plasma frequency. However, when the magnetic field increases the electrons become magnetized and the field penetration occurs in the whistler mode if the cyclotron frequency exceeds the oscillating frequency. This phenomenon has been

  10. 10 CFR 950.37 - Final agreement or final decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... settlement of the contract matter in dispute, made by the sponsor and the Program Administrator. (b) The parties agree that no appeal shall be taken or further review sought, and that the Final Agreement...

  11. Fat Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, Sean F.; Pike, Oscar A.

    Methods for characterizing edible lipids, fats, and oils can be separated into two categories: those developed to analyze bulk oils and fats, and those focusing on analysis of foodstuffs and their lipid extracts. In evaluating foodstuffs, it is usually necessary to extract the lipids prior to analysis. In these cases, if sufficient quantities of lipids are available, methods developed for bulk fats and oils can be utilized.

  12. Titanium/gold process characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Fajardo, L.S.

    1991-11-01

    Characterization of the titanium/gold (Ti/Au) deposition process used at the Allied-Signal Inc., Albuquerque Microelectronics Operation (AMO) was performed. Tests were conducted to set up evaporation parameters, correlate titanium and gold thicknesses to sheet resistance, improve thickness uniformity, and reduce frontside contamination of deposit material on product wafers. The Ti/Au process is the final step in the production of integrated circuits (ICs) at the AMO wafer fabrication facility. 3 figs.

  13. Final focus system for TLC

    SciTech Connect

    Oide, K.

    1988-11-01

    A limit of the chromaticity correction for the final focus system of a TeV Linear Collider (TLC) is investigated. As the result, it becomes possible to increase the aperture of the final doublet with a small increase of the horizontal US function. The new optics design uses a final doublet of 0.5 mm half-aperture and 1.4 T pole-tip field. The length of the system is reduced from 400 m to 200 m by several optics changes. Tolerances for various machine errors with this optics are also studied. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. ATR neutron spectral characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.W.; Anderl, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL provides intense neutron fields for irradiation-effects testing of reactor material samples, for production of radionuclides used in industrial and medical applications, and for scientific research. Characterization of the neutron environments in the irradiation locations of the ATR has been done by means of neutronics calculations and by means of neutron dosimetry based on the use of neutron activation monitors that are placed in the various irradiation locations. The primary purpose of this report is to present the results of an extensive characterization of several ATR irradiation locations based on neutron dosimetry measurements and on least-squares-adjustment analyses that utilize both neutron dosimetry measurements and neutronics calculations. This report builds upon the previous publications, especially the reference 4 paper. Section 2 provides a brief description of the ATR and it tabulates neutron spectral information for typical irradiation locations, as derived from the more historical neutron dosimetry measurements. Relevant details that pertain to the multigroup neutron spectral characterization are covered in section 3. This discussion includes a presentation on the dosimeter irradiation and analyses and a development of the least-squares adjustment methodology, along with a summary of the results of these analyses. Spectrum-averaged cross sections for neutron monitoring and for displacement-damage prediction in Fe, Cr, and Ni are given in section 4. In addition, section4 includes estimates of damage generation rates for these materials in selected ATR irradiation locations. In section 5, the authors present a brief discussion of the most significant conclusions of this work and comment on its relevance to the present ATR core configuration. Finally, detailed numerical and graphical results for the spectrum-characterization analyses in each irradiation location are provided in the Appendix.

  15. Deaths: Final Data for 2014.

    PubMed

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Murphy, Sherry L; Xu, Jiaquan; Tejada-Vera, Betzaida

    2016-06-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2014 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant mortality, and trends, by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, state of residence, and cause of death. PMID:27378572

  16. HINTS Puerto Rico: Final Report

    Cancer.gov

    This final report describes HINTS implementation in Puerto Rico. The report addresses sampling; staffing, training and management of data collection; calling protocol; findings from the CATI Operations, and sample weights.

  17. Final Vowel-Consonant-e.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmeister, Lou E.

    The utility value of the final vowel-consonant-e phonic generalization was examined using 2,715 common English words. When the vowel was defined as a single-vowel, the consonant as a single-consonant, and the final e as a single-e the generalization was found to be highly useful, contrary to other recent findings. Using the total sample of 2,715…

  18. Final State Interactions in GENIE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytman, S. A.; Meyer, A. S.

    2011-11-01

    Final state interactions (FSI) are an important part of all neutrino event generators because modern detectors are made of nuclei to maximize count rate. The incident neutrino will interact with one (or two) nucleons but the final state can be quite different because the hadrons will have further interactions in the residual nucleus. This has historically been one of the major differences between event generators. GENIE will now have 2 FSI codes which allow interesting comparisons for the first time.

  19. Vinasses: characterization and treatments.

    PubMed

    España-Gamboa, Elda; Mijangos-Cortes, Javier; Barahona-Perez, Luis; Dominguez-Maldonado, Jorge; Hernández-Zarate, G; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana

    2011-12-01

    The final products of the ethanol industry are alcoholic beverages, industrial ethanol and biofuels. They are produced by the same production process, which includes fermentation and distillation of raw materials which come from plant biomass. At the end of the distillation process a waste effluent is obtained called vinasse or stillage. The direct disposal of stillages on land or in groundwater (rivers, streams or lakes), or even for the direct irrigation of crops, pollutes the environment due to their high organic contents, dissolved solids and many other compounds which are toxic or could be contaminants under certain environmental conditions. This work reviews the characterization of vinasses from different feedstock sources and the main treatments for conditioning the soluble solids of vinasses before their disposal. PMID:21242176

  20. Characterizing extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.

    Transiting extrasolar planets provide the best current opportunities for characterizing the physical properties of extrasolar planets. In this review, I first describe the geometry of planetary transits, and methods for detecting and refining the observations of such transits. I derive the methods by which transit light curves and radial velocity data can be analyzed to yield estimates of the planetary radius, mass, and orbital parameters. I also show how visible-light and infrared spectroscopy can be valuable tools for understanding the composition, temperature, and dynamics of the atmospheres of transiting planets. Finally, I relate the outcome of a participatory lecture-hall exercise relating to one term in the Drake equation, namely the lifetime of technical civilizations.