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Sample records for 5hmc 5-formylcytosine 5fc

  1. 5-Formylcytosine can be a stable DNA modification in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Martin; Uribe-Lewis, Santiago; Yang, Xiaoping; Burgess, Heather E; Iurlaro, Mario; Reik, Wolf; Murrell, Adele; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2015-08-01

    5-Formylcytosine (5fC) is a rare base found in mammalian DNA and thought to be involved in active DNA demethylation. Here, we show that developmental dynamics of 5fC levels in mouse DNA differ from those of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), and using stable isotope labeling in vivo, we show that 5fC can be a stable DNA modification. These results suggest that 5fC has functional roles in DNA that go beyond being a demethylation intermediate.

  2. Base pairing and structural insights into the 5-formylcytosine in RNA duplex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Luo, Zhipu; He, Kaizhang; Delaney, Michael O; Chen, Doris; Sheng, Jia

    2016-06-01

    5-Formylcytidine (f(5)C), a previously discovered natural nucleotide in the mitochondrial tRNA of many species including human, has been recently detected as the oxidative product of 5-methylcytidine (m(5)C) through 5-hydroxymethylcytidine (hm(5)C) in total RNA of mammalian cells. The discovery indicated that these cytosine derivatives in RNA might also play important epigenetic roles similar as in DNA, which has been intensively investigated in the past few years. In this paper, we studied the base pairing specificity of f(5)C in different RNA duplex contexts. We found that the 5-formyl group could increase duplex thermal stability and enhance base pairing specificity. We present three high-resolution crystal structures of an octamer RNA duplex [5'-GUA(f(5)C)GUAC-3']2 that have been solved under three crystallization conditions with different buffers and pH values. Our results showed that the 5-formyl group is located in the same plane as the cytosine base and forms an intra-residue hydrogen bond with the amino group in the N4 position. In addition, this modification increases the base stacking between the f(5)C and the neighboring bases while not causing significant global and local structure perturbations. This work provides insights into the effects of 5-formylcytosine on RNA duplex. PMID:27079978

  3. Quantitative sequencing of 5-formylcytosine in DNA at single-base resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Michael J.; Marsico, Giovanni; Bachman, Martin; Beraldi, Dario; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the cytosine modifications 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and 5-formylcytosine (5fC) were found to exist in the genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of a wide range of mammalian cell types. It is now important to understand their role in normal biological function and disease. Here we introduce reduced bisulfite sequencing (redBS-Seq), a quantitative method to decode 5fC in DNA at single-base resolution, based on a selective chemical reduction of 5fC to 5hmC followed by bisulfite treatment. After extensive validation on synthetic and genomic DNA, we combined redBS-Seq and oxidative bisulfite sequencing (oxBS-Seq) to generate the first combined genomic map of 5-methylcytosine, 5hmC and 5fC in mouse embryonic stem cells. Our experiments revealed that in certain genomic locations 5fC is present at comparable levels to 5hmC and 5mC. The combination of these chemical methods can quantify and precisely map these three cytosine derivatives in the genome and will help provide insights into their function.

  4. Base pairing and structural insights into the 5-formylcytosine in RNA duplex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Luo, Zhipu; He, Kaizhang; Delaney, Michael O.; Chen, Doris; Sheng, Jia

    2016-01-01

    5-Formylcytidine (f5C), a previously discovered natural nucleotide in the mitochondrial tRNA of many species including human, has been recently detected as the oxidative product of 5-methylcytidine (m5C) through 5-hydroxymethylcytidine (hm5C) in total RNA of mammalian cells. The discovery indicated that these cytosine derivatives in RNA might also play important epigenetic roles similar as in DNA, which has been intensively investigated in the past few years. In this paper, we studied the base pairing specificity of f5C in different RNA duplex contexts. We found that the 5-formyl group could increase duplex thermal stability and enhance base pairing specificity. We present three high-resolution crystal structures of an octamer RNA duplex [5′-GUA(f5C)GUAC-3′]2 that have been solved under three crystallization conditions with different buffers and pH values. Our results showed that the 5-formyl group is located in the same plane as the cytosine base and forms an intra-residue hydrogen bond with the amino group in the N4 position. In addition, this modification increases the base stacking between the f5C and the neighboring bases while not causing significant global and local structure perturbations. This work provides insights into the effects of 5-formylcytosine on RNA duplex. PMID:27079978

  5. Tissue-Specific Differences in DNA Modifications (5-Hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-Formylcytosine, 5-Carboxylcytosine and 5-Hydroxymethyluracil) and Their Interrelationships

    PubMed Central

    Starczak, Marta; Modrzejewska, Martyna; Olinski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Background Replication-independent active/enzymatic demethylation may be an important process in the functioning of somatic cells. The most plausible mechanisms of active 5-methylcytosine demethylation, leading to activation of previously silenced genes, involve ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins that participate in oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine which can be further oxidized to 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine. Recently, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine was demonstrated to be a relatively stable modification, and the previously observed substantial differences in the level of this modification in various murine tissues were shown to depend mostly on cell proliferation rate. Some experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that 5-hydroxymethyluracil may be also generated by TET enzymes and has epigenetic functions. Results Using an isotope-dilution automated online two-dimensional ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, we have analyzed, for the first time, all the products of active DNA demethylation pathway: 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine, 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine, 5-formyl-2′-deoxycytidine and 5-carboxyl-2′-deoxycytidine, as well as 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxyuridine, in DNA isolated from various rat and porcine tissues. A strong significant inverse linear correlation was found between the proliferation rate of cells and the global level of 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine in both porcine (R2 = 0.88) and rat tissues (R2 = 0.83); no such relationship was observed for 5-formyl-2′-deoxycytidine and 5-carboxyl-2′-deoxycytidine. Moreover, a substrate-product correlation was demonstrated for the two consecutive steps of iterative oxidation pathway: between 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine and its product 5-formyl-2′-deoxycytidine, as well as between 5-formyl-2′-deoxycytidine and 5-carboxyl-2′-deoxycytidine (R2 = 0.60 and R2 = 0.71, respectively). Conclusions Good correlations within

  6. PSMA-specific theranostic nanoplex for combination of TRAIL gene and 5-FC prodrug therapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihang; Penet, Marie-France; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Banerjee, Sangeeta R; Pomper, Martin G; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2016-02-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality and there is a critical unmet need for effective treatments. We have developed a theranostic nanoplex platform for combined imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Our prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted nanoplex is designed to deliver plasmid DNA encoding tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), together with bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) as a prodrug enzyme. Nanoplex specificity was tested using two variants of human PC3 prostate cancer cells in culture and in tumor xenografts, one with high PSMA expression and the other with negligible expression levels. The expression of EGFP-TRAIL was demonstrated by fluorescence optical imaging and real-time PCR. Noninvasive (19)F MR spectroscopy detected the conversion of the nontoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) by bCD. The combination strategy of TRAIL gene and 5-FC/bCD therapy showed significant inhibition of the growth of prostate cancer cells and tumors. These data demonstrate that the PSMA-specific theranostic nanoplex can deliver gene therapy and prodrug enzyme therapy concurrently for precision medicine in metastatic prostate cancer.

  7. Oncosuppressive suicide gene virotherapy "PVH1-yCD/5-FC" for pancreatic peritoneal carcinomatosis treatment: NFκB and Akt/PI3K involvement.

    PubMed

    Réjiba, Soukaina; Bigand, Christelle; Parmentier, Celine; Masmoudi, Ahmed; Hajri, Amor

    2013-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is common in advanced pancreatic cancer. Despite current standard treatment, patients with this disease until recently were considered incurable. Cancer gene therapy using oncolytic viruses have generated much interest over the past few years. Here, we investigated a new gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) approach for an oncosuppressive virotherapy strategy using parvovirus H1 (PV-H1) which preferentially replicates and kills malignant cells. Although, PV-H1 is not potent enough to destroy tumors, it represents an attractive vector for cancer gene therapy. We therefore sought to determine whether the suicide gene/prodrug system, yCD/5-FC could be rationally combined to PV-H1 augmenting its intrinsic oncolytic activity for pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment. We showed that the engineered recombinant parvovirus rPVH1-yCD with 5-FC treatment increased significantly the intrinsic cytotoxic effect and resulted in potent induction of apoptosis and tumor growth inhibition in chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells. Additionally, the suicide gene-expressing PV-H1 infection reduced significantly the constitutive activities of NFκB and Akt/PI3K. Combination of their pharmacological inhibitors (MG132 and LY294002) with rPVH1-yCD/5-FC resulted in substantial increase of antitumor activity. In vivo, high and sustained expression of NS1 and yCD was observed in the disseminated tumor nodules and absent in normal tissues. Treatment of mice bearing intraperitoneal pancreatic carcinomatosis with rPVH1-yCD/5-FC resulted in a drastic inhibition of tumor cell spreading and subsequent increase in long-term survival. Together, the presented data show the improved oncolytic activity of wPV-H1 by yCD/5-FC and thus provides valuable effective and promising virotherapy strategy for prevention of tumor recurrence and treatment. In the light of this study, the suicide gene parvovirotherapy approach represents a new weapon in the war against

  8. 5-Formylcytosine Could Be a Semipermanent Base in Specific Genome Sites.

    PubMed

    Su, Meng; Kirchner, Angie; Stazzoni, Samuele; Müller, Markus; Wagner, Mirko; Schröder, Arne; Carell, Thomas

    2016-09-19

    5-Formyl-2'-deoxycytosine (fdC) is a recently discovered epigenetic base in the genome of stem cells, with yet unknown functions. Sequencing data show that the base is enriched in CpG islands of promoters and hence likely involved in the regulation of transcription during cellular differentiation. fdC is known to be recognized and excised by the enzyme thymine-DNA-glycosylase (Tdg). As such, fdC is believed to function as an intermediate during active demethylation. In order to understand the function of the new epigenetic base fdC, it is important to analyze its formation and removal at defined genomic sites. Here, we report a new method that combines sequence-specific chemical derivatization of fdC with droplet digital PCR that enables such analysis. We show initial data, indicating that the repair protein Tdg removes only 50 % of the fdCs at a given genomic site, arguing that fdC is a semipermanent base. PMID:27561097

  9. Genetic prerequisites for additive or synergistic actions of 5-fluorocytosine and fluconazole in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Paluszynski, John P; Klassen, Roland; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2008-10-01

    During applications of 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) and fluconazole (FLC), additive or synergistic action may even occur when primary resistance to 5FC is established. Here, we analysed conjoint drug action in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in genes known to be essential for 5FC or FLC function. Despite clear primary resistance, residual 5FC activity and additive 5FC+FLC action in cells lacking cytosine permease (Fcy2p) or uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (Fur1p) were detected. In contrast, Deltafcy1 mutants, lacking cytosine deaminase, became entirely resistant to 5FC, concomitantly losing 5FC+FLC additivity. Disruption of the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene (URA5) in the wild-type led to low-level 5FC tolerance, while an alternative orotate phosphoribosyltransferase, encoded by URA10, contributed to 5FC toxicity only in the Deltaura5 background. Remarkably, combination of Deltaura5 and Deltafur1 resulted in complete 5FC resistance. Thus, yeast orotate phosphoribosyltransferases are involved in 5FC metabolism. Similarly, disruption of the ergosterol Delta(5,6)-desaturase-encoding gene ERG3 resulted only in partial resistance to FLC, and concomitantly a synergistic effect with 5FC became evident. Full resistance to FLC occurred in Deltaerg3 Deltaerg11 double mutants and, simultaneously, synergism or even an additive effect with FLC and 5FC was no longer discernible. Since the majority of spontaneously occurring resistant yeast clones displayed residual sensitivity to either 5FC or FLC and those strains responded to combined drug treatment in a predictable manner, careful resistance profiling based on the findings reported here may help to address yeast infections by combined application of antimycotic compounds.

  10. The TET2 interactors and their links to hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Feng; Weeks, Ophelia; Yang, Feng-Chun; Xu, Mingjiang

    2016-01-01

    Ten-eleven translocation family proteins are dioxygenases that oxidize 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine in DNA, early steps of active DNA demethylation. TET2, the second member of TET protein family, is frequently mutated in patients with hematological malignancies, leading to aberrant DNA methylation profiling and decreased 5hmC levels. Located in the nucleus and acting as a DNA-modifying enzyme, TET2 is thought to exert its function via TET2-containing protein complexes. Identifying the interactome network of TET2 likely holds the key to uncover the mechanisms by which TET2 exerts its function in cells. Here, we review recent literature on TET2 interactors and discuss their possible roles in TET2 loss-mediated dysregulation of hematopoiesis and pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. PMID:26099018

  11. Charting oxidized methylcytosines at base resolution

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    DNA cytosine methylation (5-methylcytosines) represents a key epigenetic mark and is required for normal development. Iterative oxidation of 5mC by TET family of DNA dioxygenases generates three oxidized nucleotides, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxycytosine (5caC), in the mammalian genome. Recent advances in genomic mapping techniques for these oxidized bases suggest that 5hmC/5fC/5caC are not only functionally relevant to the process of active reversal of 5mC, but may also possess unique regulatory functions. This perspective highlights the potential gene regulatory functions of these oxidized cytosine bases in the mammalian genome, and discusses the principles and limitations of recently developed base-resolution mapping technologies. PMID:26333715

  12. Development of inhalable hyaluronan/mannitol composite dry powders for flucytosine repositioning in local therapy of lung infections.

    PubMed

    Costabile, G; d'Angelo, I; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, R; Mitidieri, E; Pompili, B; Del Porto, P; Leoni, L; Visca, P; Miro, A; Quaglia, F; Imperi, F; Sorrentino, R; Ungaro, F

    2016-09-28

    Flucytosine (5-fluorocytosine, 5-FC) is a fluorinated analogue of cytosine currently approved for the systemic treatment of fungal infections, which has recently demonstrated a very promising antivirulence activity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we propose novel inhalable hyaluronic acid (HA)/mannitol composite dry powders for repositioning 5-FC in the local treatment of lung infections, including those affecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Different dry powders were produced in one-step by spray-drying. Powder composition and process conditions were selected after in depth formulation studies aimed at selecting the 5-FC/HA/mannitol formulation with convenient aerosolization properties and drug release profile in simulated lung fluids. The optimized 5-FC/HA/mannitol powder for inhalation (HyaMan_FC#3) was effectively delivered from different breath-activated dry powder inhalers (DPI) already available to CF patients. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic assessment of fine particles suggested that the developed formulation well fit with a low-resistance DPI. HyaMan_FC#3 inhibited the growth of the fungus Candida albicans and the production of the virulence factor pyoverdine by P. aeruginosa at 5-FC concentrations that did not affect the viability of both wild type (16HBE14o-) and CF (CFBE41o-) human bronchial epithelial cells. Finally, pharmacokinetics of HyaMan_FC#3 inhalation powder and 5-FC solution after intratracheal administration in rats were compared. In vivo results clearly demonstrated that, when formulated as dry powder, 5-FC levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were significantly higher and sustained over time as compared to those obtained with the 5-FC solution. Of note, when the same 5-FC amount was administered intravenously, no significant drug amount was found in the lung at each time point from the injection. To realize a 5-FC lung concentration similar to that obtained by using HyaMan_FC#3

  13. Development of inhalable hyaluronan/mannitol composite dry powders for flucytosine repositioning in local therapy of lung infections.

    PubMed

    Costabile, G; d'Angelo, I; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, R; Mitidieri, E; Pompili, B; Del Porto, P; Leoni, L; Visca, P; Miro, A; Quaglia, F; Imperi, F; Sorrentino, R; Ungaro, F

    2016-09-28

    Flucytosine (5-fluorocytosine, 5-FC) is a fluorinated analogue of cytosine currently approved for the systemic treatment of fungal infections, which has recently demonstrated a very promising antivirulence activity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we propose novel inhalable hyaluronic acid (HA)/mannitol composite dry powders for repositioning 5-FC in the local treatment of lung infections, including those affecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Different dry powders were produced in one-step by spray-drying. Powder composition and process conditions were selected after in depth formulation studies aimed at selecting the 5-FC/HA/mannitol formulation with convenient aerosolization properties and drug release profile in simulated lung fluids. The optimized 5-FC/HA/mannitol powder for inhalation (HyaMan_FC#3) was effectively delivered from different breath-activated dry powder inhalers (DPI) already available to CF patients. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic assessment of fine particles suggested that the developed formulation well fit with a low-resistance DPI. HyaMan_FC#3 inhibited the growth of the fungus Candida albicans and the production of the virulence factor pyoverdine by P. aeruginosa at 5-FC concentrations that did not affect the viability of both wild type (16HBE14o-) and CF (CFBE41o-) human bronchial epithelial cells. Finally, pharmacokinetics of HyaMan_FC#3 inhalation powder and 5-FC solution after intratracheal administration in rats were compared. In vivo results clearly demonstrated that, when formulated as dry powder, 5-FC levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were significantly higher and sustained over time as compared to those obtained with the 5-FC solution. Of note, when the same 5-FC amount was administered intravenously, no significant drug amount was found in the lung at each time point from the injection. To realize a 5-FC lung concentration similar to that obtained by using HyaMan_FC#3

  14. Oncolytic Herpes simplex virus expressing yeast cytosine deaminase: relationship between viral replication, transgene expression, prodrug bioactivation

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Suguru; Kuroda, Toshihiko; Fuchs, Bryan C.; He, Xiaoying; Supko, Jeffrey G.; Schmitt, Anthony; McGinn, Christopher M.; Lanuti, Michael; Tanabe, Kenneth K.

    2011-01-01

    Yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) is a well-characterized prodrug/enzyme system that converts 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and has been combined with oncolytic viruses. However, in vivo studies of the interactions between 5-FC bioactivation and viral replication have not been previously reported, nor have the kinetics of transgene expression and the pharmacokinetics of 5-FC and 5-FU. We constructed a replication-conditional HSV-1 expressing yCD and examined cytotoxicity when 5-FC was initiated at different times after viral infection, and observed that earlier 5-FC administration led to greater cytotoxicity than later 5-FC administration in vitro and in vivo. Twelve days of 5-FC administration was superior to 6 days in animal models, but dosing beyond 12 days did not further enhance efficacy. Consistent with the dosing schedule results, both viral genomic DNA copy number and viral titers were observed to peak on Day 3 after viral injection and gradually decrease thereafter. The virus is replication-conditional and was detected in tumors for as long as 2 weeks after viral injection. The maximum relative extent of yCD conversion of 5-FC to 5-FU in tumors was observed on Day 6 after viral injection and it decreased progressively thereafter. The observation that 5-FU generation within tumors did not lead to appreciable levels of systemic 5-FU (<10 ng/ml) is important and has not been previously reported. The approaches used in these studies of the relationship between the viral replication kinetics, transgene expression, prodrug administration and anti-tumor efficacy are useful in the design of clinical trials of armed, oncolytic viruses. PMID:22076044

  15. Study of the metabolism of flucytosine in Aspergillus species by sup 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chouini-Lalanne, N.; Malet-Martino, M.C.; Martino, R.; Michel, G. )

    1989-11-01

    The metabolism of flucytosine (5FC) in two Aspergillus species (Aspergillus fumigatus and A. niger) was investigated by 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In intact mycelia, 5FC was found to be deaminated to 5-fluorouracil and then transformed into fluoronucleotides; the catabolite alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine was also detected in A. fumigatus. Neither 5-fluoroorotic acid nor 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate was detected in perchloric acid extracts after any incubation with 5FC. 5FC, 5-fluorouracil, and the classical fluoronucleotides 5-fluorouridine-5'-mono-, di-, and triphosphates were identified in the acid-soluble pool. Two hydrolysis products of 5-fluorouracil incorporated into RNA, 5-fluorouridine-2'-monophosphate and 5-fluorouridine-3'-monophosphate, were found in the acid-insoluble pool. No significant differences in the metabolic transformation of 5FC were noted in the two species of Aspergillus. The main pathway of 5FC metabolism in the two species of Aspergillus studied is thus the biotransformation into ribofluoronucleotides and the subsequent incorporation of 5-fluorouridine-5'-triphosphate into RNA.

  16. Distributive Processing by the Iron(II)/α-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Catalytic Domains of the TET Enzymes Is Consistent with Epigenetic Roles for Oxidized 5-Methylcytosine Bases.

    PubMed

    Tamanaha, Esta; Guan, Shengxi; Marks, Katherine; Saleh, Lana

    2016-08-01

    The ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins catalyze oxidation of 5-methylcytosine ((5m)C) residues in nucleic acids to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine ((5hm)C), 5-formylcytosine ((5f)C), and 5-carboxycytosine ((5ca)C). These nucleotide bases have been implicated as intermediates on the path to active demethylation, but recent reports have suggested that they might have specific regulatory roles in their own right. In this study, we present kinetic evidence showing that the catalytic domains (CDs) of TET2 and TET1 from mouse and their homologue from Naegleria gruberi, the full-length protein NgTET1, are distributive in both chemical and physical senses, as they carry out successive oxidations of a single (5m)C and multiple (5m)C residues along a polymethylated DNA substrate. We present data showing that the enzyme neither retains (5hm)C/(5f)C intermediates of preceding oxidations nor slides along a DNA substrate (without releasing it) to process an adjacent (5m)C residue. These findings contradict a recent report by Crawford et al. ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016 , 138 , 730 ) claiming that oxidation of (5m)C by CD of mouse TET2 is chemically processive (iterative). We further elaborate that this distributive mechanism is maintained for TETs in two evolutionarily distant homologues and posit that this mode of function allows the introduction of (5m)C forms as epigenetic markers along the DNA. PMID:27362828

  17. The hypomethylating agent Decitabine causes a paradoxical increase in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Basudev; McGovern, Andrew; Cui, Yi; Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Cho, Il-Hoon; Cooper, Bruce; Chevassut, Timothy; Lossie, Amy C; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2015-04-22

    The USFDA approved "epigenetic drug", Decitabine, exerts its effect by hypomethylating DNA, demonstrating the pivotal role aberrant genome-wide DNA methylation patterns play in cancer ontology. Using sensitive technologies in a cellular model of Acute Myeloid Leukemia, we demonstrate that while Decitabine reduces the global levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), it results in paradoxical increase of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) levels. Hitherto, the only biological mechanism known to generate 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC, involving oxidation of 5mC by members of Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET) dioxygenase family, was not observed to undergo any alteration during DAC treatment. Using a multi-compartmental model of DNA methylation, we show that partial selectivity of TET enzymes for hemi-methylated CpG dinucleotides could lead to such alterations in 5hmC content. Furthermore, we investigated the binding of TET1-catalytic domain (CD)-GFP to DNA by Fluorescent Correlation Spectroscopy in live cells and detected the gradual increase of the DNA bound fraction of TET1-CD-GFP after treatment with Decitabine. Our study provides novel insights on the therapeutic activity of DAC in the backdrop of the newly discovered derivatives of 5mC and suggests that 5hmC has the potential to serve as a biomarker for monitoring the clinical success of patients receiving DAC.

  18. Analysis of the machinery and intermediates of the 5hmC-mediated DNA demethylation pathway in aging on samples from the MARK-AGE Study

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Elisabetta; Zampieri, Michele; Malavolta, Marco; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Calabrese, Roberta; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Franceschi, Claudio; Hervonen, Antti; Koller, Bernhard; Bernhardt, Jürgen; Slagboom, P. Eline; Toussaint, Olivier; Sikora, Ewa; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Jansen, Eugène; Dollé, Martijn E.T.; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Sindlinger, Thilo; Bürkle, Alexander; Ciccarone, Fabio; Caiafa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Gradual changes in the DNA methylation landscape occur throughout aging virtually in all human tissues. A widespread reduction of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), associated with highly reproducible site-specific hypermethylation, characterizes the genome in aging. Therefore, an equilibrium seems to exist between general and directional deregulating events concerning DNA methylation controllers, which may underpin the age-related epigenetic changes. In this context, 5mC-hydroxylases (TET enzymes) are new potential players. In fact, TETs catalyze the stepwise oxidation of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), driving the DNA demethylation process based on thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG)-mediated DNA repair pathway. The present paper reports the expression of DNA hydroxymethylation components, the levels of 5hmC and of its derivatives in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of age-stratified donors recruited in several European countries in the context of the EU Project ‘MARK-AGE’. The results provide evidence for an age-related decline of TET1, TET3 and TDG gene expression along with a decrease of 5hmC and an accumulation of 5caC. These associations were independent of confounding variables, including recruitment center, gender and leukocyte composition. The observed impairment of 5hmC-mediated DNA demethylation pathway in blood cells may lead to aberrant transcriptional programs in the elderly. PMID:27587280

  19. TET proteins and 5-methylcytosine oxidation in hematological cancers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Myunggon; An, Jungeun; Pastor, William A; Koralov, Sergei B; Rajewsky, Klaus; Rao, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation has pivotal regulatory roles in mammalian development, retrotransposon silencing, genomic imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. Cancer cells display highly dysregulated DNA methylation profiles characterized by global hypomethylation in conjunction with hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands that presumably lead to genome instability and aberrant expression of tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. The recent discovery of ten-eleven-translocation (TET) family dioxygenases that oxidize 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) in DNA has led to profound progress in understanding the mechanism underlying DNA demethylation. Among the three TET genes, TET2 recurrently undergoes inactivating mutations in a wide range of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. TET2 functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor particularly in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies resembling chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in human. Here we review diverse functions of TET proteins and the novel epigenetic marks that they generate in DNA methylation/demethylation dynamics and normal and malignant hematopoietic differentiation. The impact of TET2 inactivation in hematopoiesis and various mechanisms modulating the expression or activity of TET proteins are also discussed. Furthermore, we also present evidence that TET2 and TET3 collaborate to suppress aberrant hematopoiesis and hematopoietic transformation. A detailed understanding of the normal and pathological functions of TET proteins may provide new avenues to develop novel epigenetic therapies for treating hematological malignancies.

  20. Isolation of Human Genomic DNA Sequences with Expanded Nucleobase Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Preeti; Maurer, Sara; Kubik, Grzegorz; Summerer, Daniel

    2016-08-10

    We report the direct isolation of user-defined DNA sequences from the human genome with programmable selectivity for both canonical and epigenetic nucleobases. This is enabled by the use of engineered transcription-activator-like effectors (TALEs) as DNA major groove-binding probes in affinity enrichment. The approach provides the direct quantification of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) levels at single genomic nucleotide positions in a strand-specific manner. We demonstrate the simple, multiplexed typing of a variety of epigenetic cancer biomarker 5mC with custom TALE mixes. Compared to antibodies as the most widely used affinity probes for 5mC analysis, i.e., employed in the methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) protocol, TALEs provide superior sensitivity, resolution and technical ease. We engineer a range of size-reduced TALE repeats and establish full selectivity profiles for their binding to all five human cytosine nucleobases. These provide insights into their nucleobase recognition mechanisms and reveal the ability of TALEs to isolate genomic target sequences with selectivity for single 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and, in combination with sodium borohydride reduction, single 5-formylcytosine nucleobases. PMID:27429302

  1. Role of Tet proteins in enhancer activity and telomere elongation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Falong; Liu, Yuting; Jiang, Lan; Yamaguchi, Shinpei

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation at the C-5 position of cytosine (5mC) is one of the best-studied epigenetic modifications and plays important roles in diverse biological processes. Iterative oxidation of 5mC by the ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of proteins generates 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). 5fC and 5caC are selectively recognized and excised by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), leading to DNA demethylation. Functional characterization of Tet proteins has been complicated by the redundancy between the three family members. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we generated mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) deficient for all three Tet proteins (Tet triple knockout [TKO]). Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) analysis revealed that Tet-mediated DNA demethylation mainly occurs at distally located enhancers and fine-tunes the transcription of genes associated with these regions. Functional characterization of Tet TKO ESCs revealed a role for Tet proteins in regulating the two-cell embryo (2C)-like state under ESC culture conditions. In addition, Tet TKO ESCs exhibited increased telomere–sister chromatid exchange and elongated telomeres. Collectively, our study reveals a role for Tet proteins in not only DNA demethylation at enhancers but also regulating the 2C-like state and telomere homeostasis. PMID:25223896

  2. Gadd45a promotes DNA demethylation through TDG

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Gu, Tian-Peng; Weber, Alain R.; Shen, Jia-Zhen; Li, Bin-Zhong; Xie, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Ruichuan; Guo, Fan; Liu, Xiaomeng; Tang, Fuchou; Wang, Hailin; Schär, Primo; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 (Gadd45) family members have been implicated in DNA demethylation in vertebrates. However, it remained unclear how they contribute to the demethylation process. Here, we demonstrate that Gadd45a promotes active DNA demethylation through thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) which has recently been shown to excise 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) generated in Ten-eleven-translocation (Tet)—initiated oxidative demethylation. The connection of Gadd45a with oxidative demethylation is evidenced by the enhanced activation of a methylated reporter gene in HEK293T cells expressing Gadd45a in combination with catalytically active TDG and Tet. Gadd45a interacts with TDG physically and increases the removal of 5fC and 5caC from genomic and transfected plasmid DNA by TDG. Knockout of both Gadd45a and Gadd45b from mouse ES cells leads to hypermethylation of specific genomic loci most of which are also targets of TDG and show 5fC enrichment in TDG-deficient cells. These observations indicate that the demethylation effect of Gadd45a is mediated by TDG activity. This finding thus unites Gadd45a with the recently defined Tet-initiated demethylation pathway. PMID:25845601

  3. Regulation of the Epigenome by Vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Young, Juan I.; Züchner, Stephan; Wang, Gaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that ascorbate, the dominant form of vitamin C under physiological pH conditions, influences the genome activity via regulating epigenomic processes. Ascorbate serves as a cofactor for ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenases that catalyze the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), further to 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), which are ultimately replaced by unmodified cytosine. The JmjC domain-containing histone demethylases also require ascorbate as a cofactor for histone demethylation. Thus, by primarily participating in the demethylation of both DNA and histones, ascorbate appears to be a mediator of the interface between the genome and environment. Furthermore, redox status has a profound impact on the bioavailability of ascorbate in the nucleus. In order to bridge the gap between redox biology and genomics, we suggest an interdisciplinary research field that can be termed “Redox Genomics” to study dynamic redox processes in health and diseases. This review examines the evidence and potential molecular mechanism of ascorbate in demethylation of the genome, while highlighting potential epigenetic roles of ascorbate in various diseases. PMID:25974700

  4. Effects of cytosine modifications on DNA flexibility and nucleosome mechanical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Thuy T. M.; Yoo, Jejoong; Dai, Qing; Zhang, Qiucen; He, Chuan; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Ha, Taekjip

    2016-02-01

    Cytosine can undergo modifications, forming 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) and its oxidized products 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC). Despite their importance as epigenetic markers and as central players in cellular processes, it is not well understood how these modifications influence physical properties of DNA and chromatin. Here we report a comprehensive survey of the effect of cytosine modifications on DNA flexibility. We find that even a single copy of 5-fC increases DNA flexibility markedly. 5-mC reduces and 5-hmC enhances flexibility, and 5-caC does not have a measurable effect. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these modifications promote or dampen structural fluctuations, likely through competing effects of base polarity and steric hindrance, without changing the average structure. The increase in DNA flexibility increases the mechanical stability of the nucleosome and vice versa, suggesting a gene regulation mechanism where cytosine modifications change the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA through their effects on DNA flexibility.

  5. Distributive Processing by the Iron(II)/α-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Catalytic Domains of the TET Enzymes Is Consistent with Epigenetic Roles for Oxidized 5-Methylcytosine Bases.

    PubMed

    Tamanaha, Esta; Guan, Shengxi; Marks, Katherine; Saleh, Lana

    2016-08-01

    The ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins catalyze oxidation of 5-methylcytosine ((5m)C) residues in nucleic acids to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine ((5hm)C), 5-formylcytosine ((5f)C), and 5-carboxycytosine ((5ca)C). These nucleotide bases have been implicated as intermediates on the path to active demethylation, but recent reports have suggested that they might have specific regulatory roles in their own right. In this study, we present kinetic evidence showing that the catalytic domains (CDs) of TET2 and TET1 from mouse and their homologue from Naegleria gruberi, the full-length protein NgTET1, are distributive in both chemical and physical senses, as they carry out successive oxidations of a single (5m)C and multiple (5m)C residues along a polymethylated DNA substrate. We present data showing that the enzyme neither retains (5hm)C/(5f)C intermediates of preceding oxidations nor slides along a DNA substrate (without releasing it) to process an adjacent (5m)C residue. These findings contradict a recent report by Crawford et al. ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016 , 138 , 730 ) claiming that oxidation of (5m)C by CD of mouse TET2 is chemically processive (iterative). We further elaborate that this distributive mechanism is maintained for TETs in two evolutionarily distant homologues and posit that this mode of function allows the introduction of (5m)C forms as epigenetic markers along the DNA.

  6. Simultaneous sequencing of oxidized methylcytosines produced by TET/JBP dioxygenases in Coprinopsis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Chavez, Lukas; Huang, Yun; Luong, Khai; Agarwal, Suneet; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Pastor, William A.; Hench, Virginia K.; Frazier-Bowers, Sylvia A.; Korol, Evgenia; Liu, Shuo; Tahiliani, Mamta; Wang, Yinsheng; Clark, Tyson A.; Korlach, Jonas; Pukkila, Patricia J.; Aravind, L.; Rao, Anjana

    2014-01-01

    TET/JBP enzymes oxidize 5-methylpyrimidines in DNA. In mammals, the oxidized methylcytosines (oxi-mCs) function as epigenetic marks and likely intermediates in DNA demethylation. Here we present a method based on diglucosylation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) to simultaneously map 5hmC, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine at near–base-pair resolution. We have used the method to map the distribution of oxi-mC across the genome of Coprinopsis cinerea, a basidiomycete that encodes 47 TET/JBP paralogs in a previously unidentified class of DNA transposons. Like 5-methylcytosine residues from which they are derived, oxi-mC modifications are enriched at centromeres, TET/JBP transposons, and multicopy paralogous genes that are not expressed, but rarely mark genes whose expression changes between two developmental stages. Our study provides evidence for the emergence of an epigenetic regulatory system through recruitment of selfish elements in a eukaryotic lineage, and describes a method to map all three different species of oxi-mCs simultaneously. PMID:25406324

  7. Detection of Modified Forms of Cytosine Using Sensitive Immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Abakir, Abdulkadir; Wheldon, Lee; Johnson, Andrew D; Laurent, Patrick; Ruzov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of cytosine bases (5-methylcytosine, 5mC) occurring in vertebrate genomes is usually associated with transcriptional silencing. 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) are the recently discovered modified cytosine bases produced by enzymatic oxidation of 5mC, whose biological functions remain relatively obscure. A number of approaches ranging from biochemical to antibody based techniques have been employed to study the genomic distribution and global content of these modifications in various biological systems. Although some of these approaches can be useful for quantitative assessment of these modified forms of 5mC, most of these methods do not provide any spatial information regarding the distribution of these DNA modifications in different cell types, required for correct understanding of their functional roles. Here we present a highly sensitive method for immunochemical detection of the modified forms of cytosine. This method permits co-detection of these epigenetic marks with protein lineage markers and can be employed to study their nuclear localization, thus, contributing to deciphering their potential biological roles in different experimental contexts. PMID:27585398

  8. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 2 Dysfunction Contributes to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine Depletion in Gastric Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Nan-Hua; Tsai, Chung-Yu; Tu, Ya-Ting; Wang, Kuo-Chiang; Kang, Chi-Hsiang; Chang, Po-Min; Li, Guan-Cheng; Lam, Hing-Chung; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Tsai, Kuo-Wang

    2016-08-01

    The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) family of enzymes comprises of the key functional metabolic enzymes in the Krebs cycle that catalyze the conversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). α-KG acts as a cofactor in the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). However, the relationship between 5hmC and IDH in gastric cancer remains unclear. Our study revealed that the 5hmC level was substantially lower and 5mC level was slightly higher in gastric cancer tissues; however, 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) levels did not change significantly in these tissues. We further examined the expression levels of IDH1 and IDH2 in gastric cancer tissues and observed that IDH2 levels were significantly lower in gastric cancer tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues. The ectopic expression of IDH2 can increase 5hmC levels in gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, our results suggested that IDH2 dysfunction is involved in 5hmC depletion during gastric cancer progression. PMID:27466503

  9. Deficient methylation and formylation of mt-tRNAMet wobble cytosine in a patient carrying mutations in NSUN3

    PubMed Central

    Van Haute, Lindsey; Dietmann, Sabine; Kremer, Laura; Hussain, Shobbir; Pearce, Sarah F.; Powell, Christopher A.; Rorbach, Joanna; Lantaff, Rebecca; Blanco, Sandra; Sauer, Sascha; Kotzaeridou, Urania; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Memari, Yasin; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Durbin, Richard; Mayr, Johannes A.; Frye, Michaela; Prokisch, Holger; Minczuk, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Epitranscriptome modifications are required for structure and function of RNA and defects in these pathways have been associated with human disease. Here we identify the RNA target for the previously uncharacterized 5-methylcytosine (m5C) methyltransferase NSun3 and link m5C RNA modifications with energy metabolism. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified loss-of-function mutations in NSUN3 in a patient presenting with combined mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiency. Patient-derived fibroblasts exhibit severe defects in mitochondrial translation that can be rescued by exogenous expression of NSun3. We show that NSun3 is required for deposition of m5C at the anticodon loop in the mitochondrially encoded transfer RNA methionine (mt-tRNAMet). Further, we demonstrate that m5C deficiency in mt-tRNAMet results in the lack of 5-formylcytosine (f5C) at the same tRNA position. Our findings demonstrate that NSUN3 is necessary for efficient mitochondrial translation and reveal that f5C in human mitochondrial RNA is generated by oxidative processing of m5C. PMID:27356879

  10. Screening for recombinants of Crambe abyssynica after transformation by the pMF1 marker-free vector based on chemical selection and meristematic regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Weicong; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Salentijn, Elma M. J.; Schaart, Jan G.; Cheng, Jihua; Denneboom, Christel; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Han; Visser, Richard G. F.; Huang, Bangquan; Van Loo, Eibertus N.; Krens, Frans A.

    2015-01-01

    The T-DNA region of pMF1 vector of marker-free system developed by Wageningen UR, has Recombinase R-LBD gene fusion and nptII and codA gene fusion between two recombination sites. After transformation applying dexamethasone (DEX) can activate the recombinase to remove the T-DNA fragment between recombination sites. The recombinant ought to be selected on 5-fluorocytocine (5-FC) because of codA converting 5-FC into 5-fluorouracil the toxic. A PMF1 vector was transformed into hexaploid species Crambe abyssinica. Two independent transformants were chosen for DEX-induced recombination and later 5-FC selection. In contrast to earlier pMF1 experiments, the strategy of stepwise selection based on meristematic regeneration was engaged. After a long period of 5-FC selection, recombinants were obtained successfully, but most of the survivors were wildtype and non-recombinant. The results revealed when applying the PMF1 marker-free system on C. abyssinica, 1) Increasing in the DEX concentration did not correspondingly enhance the success of recombination; 2) both of the DEX-induced recombination and 5-FC negative selection were apparently insufficient which was leading to the extremely high frequency in chimerism occurring for recombinant and non-recombinant cells in tissues; 3) the strategy of stepwise selection based on meristem tissue regeneration was crucial for successfully isolating the recombinant germplasm from the chimera. PMID:26358007

  11. Screening for recombinants of Crambe abyssynica after transformation by the pMF1 marker-free vector based on chemical selection and meristematic regeneration.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weicong; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E M; Salentijn, Elma M J; Schaart, Jan G; Cheng, Jihua; Denneboom, Christel; Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Han; Visser, Richard G F; Huang, Bangquan; Van Loo, Eibertus N; Krens, Frans A

    2015-09-11

    The T-DNA region of pMF1 vector of marker-free system developed by Wageningen UR, has Recombinase R-LBD gene fusion and nptII and codA gene fusion between two recombination sites. After transformation applying dexamethasone (DEX) can activate the recombinase to remove the T-DNA fragment between recombination sites. The recombinant ought to be selected on 5-fluorocytocine (5-FC) because of codA converting 5-FC into 5-fluorouracil the toxic. A PMF1 vector was transformed into hexaploid species Crambe abyssinica. Two independent transformants were chosen for DEX-induced recombination and later 5-FC selection. In contrast to earlier pMF1 experiments, the strategy of stepwise selection based on meristematic regeneration was engaged. After a long period of 5-FC selection, recombinants were obtained successfully, but most of the survivors were wildtype and non-recombinant. The results revealed when applying the PMF1 marker-free system on C. abyssinica, 1) Increasing in the DEX concentration did not correspondingly enhance the success of recombination; 2) both of the DEX-induced recombination and 5-FC negative selection were apparently insufficient which was leading to the extremely high frequency in chimerism occurring for recombinant and non-recombinant cells in tissues; 3) the strategy of stepwise selection based on meristem tissue regeneration was crucial for successfully isolating the recombinant germplasm from the chimera.

  12. A novel method to generate unmarked gene deletions in the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi using 5-fluorocytosine conditional lethality

    PubMed Central

    van der Geize, R.; de Jong, W.; Hessels, G. I.; Grommen, A. W. F.; Jacobs, A. A. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to efficiently generate unmarked in-frame gene deletions in Rhodococcus equi was developed, exploiting the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) by the action of cytosine deaminase (CD) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) enzymes. The opportunistic, intracellular pathogen R. equi is resistant to high concentrations of 5-FC. Introduction of Escherichia coli genes encoding CD and UPRT conferred conditional lethality to R. equi cells incubated with 5-FC. To exemplify the use of the codA::upp cassette as counter-selectable marker, an unmarked in-frame gene deletion mutant of R. equi was constructed. The supA and supB genes, part of a putative cholesterol catabolic gene cluster, were efficiently deleted from the R. equi wild-type genome. Phenotypic analysis of the generated ΔsupAB mutant confirmed that supAB are essential for growth of R. equi on cholesterol. Macrophage survival assays revealed that the ΔsupAB mutant is able to survive and proliferate in macrophages comparable to wild type. Thus, cholesterol metabolism does not appear to be essential for macrophage survival of R. equi. The CD-UPRT based 5-FC counter-selection may become a useful asset in the generation of unmarked in-frame gene deletions in other actinobacteria as well, as actinobacteria generally appear to be 5-FC resistant and 5-FU sensitive. PMID:18984616

  13. Cytosine deaminase adenoviral vector and 5-fluorocytosine selectively reduce breast cancer cells 1 million-fold when they contaminate hematopoietic cells: a potential purging method for autologous transplantation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sanchez, F; Pizzorno, G; Fu, S Q; Nanakorn, T; Krause, D S; Liang, J; Adams, E; Leffert, J J; Yin, L H; Cooperberg, M R; Hanania, E; Wang, W L; Won, J H; Peng, X Y; Cote, R; Brown, R; Burtness, B; Giles, R; Crystal, R; Deisseroth, A B

    1998-07-15

    Ad.CMV-CD is a replication incompetent adenoviral vector carrying a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-driven transcription unit of the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene. The CD transcription unit in this vector catalyzes the deamination of the nontoxic pro-drug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), thus converting it to the cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). This adenoviral vector prodrug activation system has been proposed for use in selectively sensitizing breast cancer cells, which may contaminate collections of autologous stem cells products from breast cancer patients, to the toxic effects of 5-FC, without damaging the reconstitutive capability of the normal hematopoietic cells. This system could conceivably kill even the nondividing breast cancer cells, because the levels of 5-FU generated by this system are 10 to 30 times that associated with systemic administration of 5-FU. The incorporation of 5-FU into mRNA at these high levels is sufficient to disrupt mRNA processing and protein synthesis so that even nondividing cells die of protein starvation. To test if the CD adenoviral vector sensitizes breast cancer cells to 5-FC, we exposed primary explants of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) and the established breast cancer cell (BCC) lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 to the Ad.CMV-CD for 90 minutes. This produced a 100-fold sensitization of these epithelial cells to the effects of 48 hours of exposure to 5-FC. We next tested the selectivity of this system for BCC. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), collected from cancer patients during the recovery phase from conventional dose chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression, were exposed to the Ad.CMV-CD for 90 minutes in serum-free conditions, little or no detectable conversion of 5-FC into 5-FU was seen even after 48 hours of exposure to high doses of 5-FC. In contrast, 70% of 5-FC was converted into the cytotoxic agent 5-FU when MCF-7 breast cancer cells (BCCs) were exposed to the same Ad.CMV-CD vector followed by 5-FC for

  14. Mechanistic insights into the recognition of 5-methylcytosine oxidation derivatives by the SUVH5 SRA domain

    PubMed Central

    Rajakumara, Eerappa; Nakarakanti, Naveen Kumar; Nivya, M. Angel; Satish, Mutyala

    2016-01-01

    5-Methylcytosine (5 mC) is associated with epigenetic gene silencing in mammals and plants. 5 mC is consecutively oxidized to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) by ten-eleven translocation enzymes. We performed binding and structural studies to investigate the molecular basis of the recognition of the 5 mC oxidation derivatives in the context of a CG sequence by the SET- and RING-associated domain (SRA) of the SUVH5 protein (SUVH5 SRA). Using calorimetric measurements, we demonstrate that the SRA domain binds to the hydroxymethylated CG (5hmCG) DNA duplex in a similar manner to methylated CG (5mCG). Interestingly, the SUVH5 SRA domain exhibits weaker affinity towards carboxylated CG (5caCG) and formylated CG (5fCG). We report the 2.6 Å resolution crystal structure of the SUVH5 SRA domain in a complex with fully hydroxymethyl-CG and demonstrate a dual flip-out mechanism, whereby the symmetrical 5hmCs are simultaneously extruded from the partner strands of the DNA duplex and are positioned within the binding pockets of individual SRA domains. The hydroxyl group of 5hmC establishes both intra- and intermolecular interactions in the binding pocket. Collectively, we show that SUVH5 SRA recognizes 5hmC in a similar manner to 5 mC, but exhibits weaker affinity towards 5 hmC oxidation derivatives. PMID:26841909

  15. Mammalian 5-formyluracil-DNA glycosylase. 2. Role of SMUG1 uracil-DNA glycosylase in repair of 5-formyluracil and other oxidized and deaminated base lesions.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, Aya; Matsubara, Mayumi; Hasegawa, Rei; Tanaka, Tamon; Kurisu, Satofumi; Terato, Hiroaki; Ohyama, Yoshihiko; Karino, Naoko; Matsuda, Akira; Ide, Hiroshi

    2003-05-01

    In the accompanying paper [Matsubara, M., et al. (2003) Biochemistry 42, 4993-5002], we have partially purified and characterized rat 5-formyluracil (fU)-DNA glycosylase (FDG). Several lines of evidence have indicated that FDG is a rat homologue of single-strand-selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase (SMUG1). We report here that rat and human SMUG1 (rSMUG1 and hSMUG1) expressed from the corresponding cDNAs indeed excise fU in single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA. The enzymes also excised uracil (U) and uracil derivatives bearing an oxidized group at C5 [5-hydroxyuracil (hoU) and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU)] in ssDNA and dsDNA but not analogous cytosine derivatives (5-hydroxycytosine and 5-formylcytosine) and other oxidized damage. The damage specificity and the salt concentration dependence of rSMUG1 (and hSMUG1) agreed well with those of FDG, confirming that FDG is rSMUG1. Consistent with the damage specificity above, hSMUG1 removed damaged bases from Fenton-oxidized calf thymus DNA, generating abasic sites. The amount of resulting abasic sites was about 10% of that generated by endonuclease III or 8-oxoguanine glycosylase in the same substrate. The HeLa cell extract and hSMUG1 exhibited a similar damage preference (hoU.G > hmU.A, fU.A), and the activities for fU, hmU, and hoU in the cell extract were effectively neutralized with hSMUG1 antibodies. These data indicate a dual role of hSMUG1 as a backup enzyme for UNG and a primary repair enzyme for a subset of oxidized pyrimidines such as fU, hmU, and hoU.

  16. Mutational analysis of the damage-recognition and catalytic mechanism of human SMUG1 DNA glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Mayumi; Tanaka, Tamon; Terato, Hiroaki; Ohmae, Eiji; Izumi, Shunsuke; Katayanagi, Katsuo; Ide, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Single-strand selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase (SMUG1), previously thought to be a backup enzyme for uracil-DNA glycosylase, has recently been shown to excise 5-hydroxyuracil (hoU), 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU) and 5-formyluracil (fU) bearing an oxidized group at ring C5 as well as an uracil. In the present study, we used site-directed mutagenesis to construct a series of mutants of human SMUG1 (hSMUG1), and tested their activity for uracil, hoU, hmU, fU and other bases to elucidate the catalytic and damage-recognition mechanism of hSMUG1. The functional analysis of the mutants, together with the homology modeling of the hSMUG1 structure based on that determined recently for Xenopus laevis SMUG1, revealed the crucial residues for the rupture of the N-glycosidic bond (Asn85 and His239), discrimination of pyrimidine rings through pi-pi stacking to the base (Phe98) and specific hydrogen bonds to the Watson-Crick face of the base (Asn163) and exquisite recognition of the C5 substituent through water-bridged (uracil) or direct (hoU, hmU and fU) hydrogen bonds (Gly87-Met91). Integration of the present results and the structural data elucidates how hSMUG1 accepts uracil, hoU, hmU and fU as substrates, but not other oxidized pyrimidines such as 5-hydroxycytosine, 5-formylcytosine and thymine glycol, and intact pyrimidines such as thymine and cytosine.

  17. The hypomethylating agent Decitabine causes a paradoxical increase in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in human leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Basudev; McGovern, Andrew; Cui, Yi; Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Cho, Il-Hoon; Cooper, Bruce; Chevassut, Timothy; Lossie, Amy C.; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The USFDA approved “epigenetic drug”, Decitabine, exerts its effect by hypomethylating DNA, demonstrating the pivotal role aberrant genome-wide DNA methylation patterns play in cancer ontology. Using sensitive technologies in a cellular model of Acute Myeloid Leukemia, we demonstrate that while Decitabine reduces the global levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC), it results in paradoxical increase of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) levels. Hitherto, the only biological mechanism known to generate 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC, involving oxidation of 5mC by members of Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET) dioxygenase family, was not observed to undergo any alteration during DAC treatment. Using a multi-compartmental model of DNA methylation, we show that partial selectivity of TET enzymes for hemi-methylated CpG dinucleotides could lead to such alterations in 5hmC content. Furthermore, we investigated the binding of TET1-catalytic domain (CD)-GFP to DNA by Fluorescent Correlation Spectroscopy in live cells and detected the gradual increase of the DNA bound fraction of TET1-CD-GFP after treatment with Decitabine. Our study provides novel insights on the therapeutic activity of DAC in the backdrop of the newly discovered derivatives of 5mC and suggests that 5hmC has the potential to serve as a biomarker for monitoring the clinical success of patients receiving DAC. PMID:25901663

  18. Hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidation of 5-methylcytosine in isolated and cellular DNA

    PubMed Central

    Madugundu, Guru S.; Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J. Richard

    2014-01-01

    The methylation and oxidative demethylation of cytosine in CpG dinucleotides plays a critical role in the regulation of genes during cell differentiation, embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. Despite its low abundance, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is a hotspot for mutations in mammalian cells. Here, we measured five oxidation products of 5mC together with the analogous products of cytosine and thymine in DNA exposed to ionizing radiation in oxygenated aqueous solution. The products can be divided into those that arise from hydroxyl radical (•OH) addition at the 5,6-double bond of 5mC (glycol, hydantoin and imidazolidine products) and those that arise from H-atom abstraction from the methyl group of 5mC including 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and 5-formylcytosine (5fC). Based on the analysis of these products, we show that the total damage at 5mC is about 2-fold greater than that at C in identical sequences. The formation of hydantoin products of 5mC is favored, compared to analogous reactions of thymine and cytosine, which favor the formation of glycol products. The distribution of oxidation products is sequence dependent in specific ODN duplexes. In the case of 5mC, the formation of 5hmC and 5fC represents about half of the total of •OH-induced oxidation products of 5mC. Several products of thymine, cytosine, 5mC, as well as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8oxoG), were also estimated in irradiated cells. PMID:24852253

  19. Transcriptional activation of transposable elements in mouse zygotes is independent of Tet3-mediated 5-methylcytosine oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Azusa; Matoba, Shogo; Zhang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The methylation state of the paternal genome is rapidly reprogrammed shortly after fertilization. Recent studies have revealed that loss of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in zygotes correlates with appearance of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). This process is mediated by Tet3 and the 5mC oxidation products generated in zygotes are gradually lost during preimplantation development through a replication-dependent dilution process. Despite these findings, the biological significance of Tet3-mediated oxidation of 5mC to 5hmC/5fC/5caC in zygotes is unknown. DNA methylation plays an important role in silencing gene expression including the repression of transposable elements (TEs). Given that the activation of TEs during preimplantation development correlates with loss of DNA methylation, it is believed that paternal DNA demethylation may have an important role in TE activation. Here we examined this hypothesis and found that Tet3-mediated 5mC oxidation does not have a significant contribution to TE activation. We show that the expression of LINE-1 (long interspersed nucleotide element 1) and ERVL (endogenous retroviruses class III) are activated from both paternal and maternal genomes in zygotes. Inhibition of 5mC oxidation by siRNA-mediated depletion of Tet3 affected neither TE activation, nor global transcription in zygotes. Thus, our study provides the first evidence demonstrating that activation of both TEs and global transcription in zygotes are independent of Tet3-mediated 5mC oxidation. PMID:23184059

  20. Hydroxyl-radical-induced oxidation of 5-methylcytosine in isolated and cellular DNA.

    PubMed

    Madugundu, Guru S; Cadet, Jean; Wagner, J Richard

    2014-06-01

    The methylation and oxidative demethylation of cytosine in CpG dinucleotides plays a critical role in the regulation of genes during cell differentiation, embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. Despite its low abundance, 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is a hotspot for mutations in mammalian cells. Here, we measured five oxidation products of 5mC together with the analogous products of cytosine and thymine in DNA exposed to ionizing radiation in oxygenated aqueous solution. The products can be divided into those that arise from hydroxyl radical (•OH) addition at the 5,6-double bond of 5mC (glycol, hydantoin and imidazolidine products) and those that arise from H-atom abstraction from the methyl group of 5mC including 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and 5-formylcytosine (5fC). Based on the analysis of these products, we show that the total damage at 5mC is about 2-fold greater than that at C in identical sequences. The formation of hydantoin products of 5mC is favored, compared to analogous reactions of thymine and cytosine, which favor the formation of glycol products. The distribution of oxidation products is sequence dependent in specific ODN duplexes. In the case of 5mC, the formation of 5hmC and 5fC represents about half of the total of •OH-induced oxidation products of 5mC. Several products of thymine, cytosine, 5mC, as well as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8oxoG), were also estimated in irradiated cells.

  1. Structure of Naegleria Tet-like dioxygenase (NgTet1) in complexes with a reaction intermediate 5-hydroxymethylcytosine DNA

    DOE PAGES

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Pais, June E.; Dai, Nan; Corrêa, Jr., Ivan R.; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yu; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2015-08-31

    The family of ten-eleven translocation (Tet) dioxygenases is widely distributed across the eukaryotic tree of life, from mammals to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi. Like mammalian Tet proteins, the Naegleria Tet-like protein, NgTet1, acts on 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and generates 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) in three consecutive, Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent oxidation reactions. The two intermediates, 5hmC and 5fC, could be considered either as the reaction product of the previous enzymatic cycle or the substrate for the next cycle. Here we present a new crystal structure of NgTet1 in complex with DNA containing a 5hmC. Along with the previously solvedmore » NgTet1–5mC structure, the two complexes offer a detailed picture of the active site at individual stages of the reaction cycle. In the crystal, the hydroxymethyl (OH-CH2-) moiety of 5hmC points to the metal center, representing the reaction product of 5mC hydroxylation. The hydroxyl oxygen atom could be rotated away from the metal center, to a hydrophobic pocket formed by Ala212, Val293 and Phe295. Such rotation turns the hydroxyl oxygen atom away from the product conformation, and exposes the target CH2 towards the metal-ligand water molecule, where a dioxygen O2 molecule would occupy to initiate the next round of reaction by abstracting a hydrogen atom from the substrate. The Ala212-to-Val (A212V) mutant profoundly limits the product to 5hmC, probably due to the reduced hydrophobic pocket size restricts the binding of 5hmC as a substrate.« less

  2. Structure of Naegleria Tet-like dioxygenase (NgTet1) in complexes with a reaction intermediate 5-hydroxymethylcytosine DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Pais, June E.; Dai, Nan; Corrêa, Jr., Ivan R.; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yu; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2015-08-31

    The family of ten-eleven translocation (Tet) dioxygenases is widely distributed across the eukaryotic tree of life, from mammals to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi. Like mammalian Tet proteins, the Naegleria Tet-like protein, NgTet1, acts on 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and generates 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) in three consecutive, Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent oxidation reactions. The two intermediates, 5hmC and 5fC, could be considered either as the reaction product of the previous enzymatic cycle or the substrate for the next cycle. Here we present a new crystal structure of NgTet1 in complex with DNA containing a 5hmC. Along with the previously solved NgTet1–5mC structure, the two complexes offer a detailed picture of the active site at individual stages of the reaction cycle. In the crystal, the hydroxymethyl (OH-CH2-) moiety of 5hmC points to the metal center, representing the reaction product of 5mC hydroxylation. The hydroxyl oxygen atom could be rotated away from the metal center, to a hydrophobic pocket formed by Ala212, Val293 and Phe295. Such rotation turns the hydroxyl oxygen atom away from the product conformation, and exposes the target CH2 towards the metal-ligand water molecule, where a dioxygen O2 molecule would occupy to initiate the next round of reaction by abstracting a hydrogen atom from the substrate. The Ala212-to-Val (A212V) mutant profoundly limits the product to 5hmC, probably due to the reduced hydrophobic pocket size restricts the binding of 5hmC as a substrate.

  3. TET2-mediated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine induces genetic instability and mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Emna; Talhaoui, Ibtissam; Cabagnols, Xenia; Della Valle, Véronique; Secardin, Lise; Rameau, Philippe; Bernard, Olivier A; Ishchenko, Alexander A; Abbes, Salem; Vainchenker, William; Saparbaev, Murat; Plo, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    The family of Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins is implicated in the process of active DNA demethylation and thus in epigenetic regulation. TET 1, 2 and 3 proteins are oxygenases that can hydroxylate 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) and further oxidize 5-hmC into 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC). The base excision repair (BER) pathway removes the resulting 5-fC and 5-caC bases paired with a guanine and replaces them with regular cytosine. The question arises whether active modification of 5-mC residues and their subsequent elimination could affect the genomic DNA stability. Here, we generated two inducible cell lines (Ba/F3-EPOR, and UT7) overexpressing wild-type or catalytically inactive human TET2 proteins. Wild-type TET2 induction resulted in an increased level of 5-hmC and a cell cycle defect in S phase associated with higher level of phosphorylated P53, chromosomal and centrosomal abnormalities. Furthermore, in a thymine-DNA glycosylase (Tdg) deficient context, the TET2-mediated increase of 5-hmC induces mutagenesis characterized by GC>AT transitions in CpG context suggesting a mutagenic potential of 5-hmC metabolites. Altogether, these data suggest that TET2 activity and the levels of 5-hmC and its derivatives should be tightly controlled to avoid genetic and chromosomal instabilities. Moreover, TET2-mediated active demethylation might be a very dangerous process if used to entirely demethylate the genome and might rather be used only at specific loci. PMID:27289557

  4. Arsenite Targets the Zinc Finger Domains of Tet Proteins and Inhibits Tet-Mediated Oxidation of 5-Methylcytosine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Jiang, Ji; Li, Lin; Amato, Nicholas J; Wang, Zi; Wang, Yinsheng

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a serious public health problem worldwide that brings more than 100 million people into the risk of arsenic exposure from groundwater and food contamination. Although there is accumulating evidence linking arsenic exposure with aberrant cytosine methylation in the global genome or at specific genomic loci, very few have investigated the impact of arsenic on the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) mediated by the Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of proteins. Owing to the high binding affinity of As(III) toward cysteine residues, we reasoned that the highly conserved C3H-type zinc fingers situated in Tet proteins may constitute potential targets for arsenic binding. Herein, we found that arsenite could bind directly to the zinc fingers of Tet proteins in vitro and in cells, and this interaction substantially impaired the catalytic efficiency of Tet proteins in oxidizing 5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5-foC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC). Treatments with arsenite also led to a dose-dependent decrease in the level of 5-hmC, but not 5-mC, in DNA isolated from HEK293T cells overexpressing the catalytic domain of any of the three Tet proteins and from mouse embryonic stem cells. Together, our study unveiled, for the first time, that arsenite could alter epigenetic signaling by targeting the zinc fingers of Tet proteins and perturbing the Tet-mediated oxidation of 5-mC in vitro and in cells. Our results offer important mechanistic understanding of arsenic epigenotoxicity and carcinogenesis in mammalian systems and may lead to novel approaches for the chemoprevention of arsenic toxicity.

  5. Phosphorylation of TET Proteins Is Regulated via O-GlcNAcylation by the O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase (OGT)*

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Christina; Göbel, Klaus; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Colantuoni, Christian; Wang, Mengxi; Müller, Udo; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Rottach, Andrea; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    TET proteins oxidize 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine and thus provide a possible means for active DNA demethylation in mammals. Although their catalytic mechanism is well characterized and the catalytic dioxygenase domain is highly conserved, the function of the regulatory regions (the N terminus and the low-complexity insert between the two parts of the dioxygenase domains) is only poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that TET proteins are subject to a variety of post-translational modifications that mostly occur at these regulatory regions. We mapped TET modification sites at amino acid resolution and show for the first time that TET1, TET2, and TET3 are highly phosphorylated. The O-linked GlcNAc transferase, which we identified as a strong interactor with all three TET proteins, catalyzes the addition of a GlcNAc group to serine and threonine residues of TET proteins and thereby decreases both the number of phosphorylation sites and site occupancy. Interestingly, the different TET proteins display unique post-translational modification patterns, and some modifications occur in distinct combinations. In summary, our results provide a novel potential mechanism for TET protein regulation based on a dynamic interplay of phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation at the N terminus and the low-complexity insert region. Our data suggest strong cross-talk between the modification sites that could allow rapid adaption of TET protein localization, activity, or targeting due to changing environmental conditions as well as in response to external stimuli. PMID:25568311

  6. Structure of Naegleria Tet-like dioxygenase (NgTet1) in complexes with a reaction intermediate 5-hydroxymethylcytosine DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Pais, June E.; Dai, Nan; Corrêa, Ivan R.; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yu; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    The family of ten-eleven translocation (Tet) dioxygenases is widely distributed across the eukaryotic tree of life, from mammals to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi. Like mammalian Tet proteins, the Naegleria Tet-like protein, NgTet1, acts on 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and generates 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) in three consecutive, Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent oxidation reactions. The two intermediates, 5hmC and 5fC, could be considered either as the reaction product of the previous enzymatic cycle or the substrate for the next cycle. Here we present a new crystal structure of NgTet1 in complex with DNA containing a 5hmC. Along with the previously solved NgTet1–5mC structure, the two complexes offer a detailed picture of the active site at individual stages of the reaction cycle. In the crystal, the hydroxymethyl (OH-CH2-) moiety of 5hmC points to the metal center, representing the reaction product of 5mC hydroxylation. The hydroxyl oxygen atom could be rotated away from the metal center, to a hydrophobic pocket formed by Ala212, Val293 and Phe295. Such rotation turns the hydroxyl oxygen atom away from the product conformation, and exposes the target CH2 towards the metal-ligand water molecule, where a dioxygen O2 molecule would occupy to initiate the next round of reaction by abstracting a hydrogen atom from the substrate. The Ala212-to-Val (A212V) mutant profoundly limits the product to 5hmC, probably because the reduced hydrophobic pocket size restricts the binding of 5hmC as a substrate. PMID:26323320

  7. Structural and mutation studies of two DNA demethylation related glycosylases: MBD4 and TDG.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideharu

    2014-01-01

    Two mammalian DNA glycosylases, methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) and thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), are involved in active DNA demethylation via the base excision repair pathway. Both MBD4 and TDG excise the mismatch base from G:X, where X is uracil, thymine, and 5-hydroxymethyluracil (5hmU). In addition, TDG excises 5mC oxidized bases i.e. when X is 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) not 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). A MBD4 inactive mutant and substrate crystal structure clearly explains how MBD4 glycosylase discriminates substrates: 5mC are not able to be directly excised, but a deamination process from 5mC to thymine is required. On the other hand, TDG is much more complicated; in this instance, crystal structures show that TDG recognizes G:X mismatch DNA containing DNA and G:5caC containing DNA from the minor groove of DNA, which suggested that TDG might recognize 5mC oxidized product 5caC like mismatch DNA. In mutation studies, a N157D mutation results in a more 5caC specific glycosylase, and a N191A mutation inhibits 5caC activity while that when X=5fC or T remains. Here I revisit the recent MBD4 glycos ylase domain co-crystal structures with DNA, as well as TDG glycosylase domain co-crystal structures with DNA in conjunction with its mutation studies.

  8. Treatment of exogenous Candida endophthalmitis in rabbits with oral fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Park, S S; D'Amico, D J; Paton, B; Baker, A S

    1995-04-01

    We investigated the efficacy of oral fluconazole, alone or in combination with oral flucytosine (5FC), in treating Candida endophthalmitis using a rabbit model. Albino rabbits were infected with an intravitreal inoculation of 1,000 CFU of susceptible Candida albicans and randomized 5 days later to receive treatment with oral fluconazole alone (80 mg/kg of body weight per day), a combination of fluconazole and 5FC (100 mg/kg/12 h), or no treatment. The treatment effect was assessed at 2 and 4 weeks after therapy by funduscopy, quantitative vitreous culture, and histopathology. Intravitreal levels of fluconazole, 2 to 24 h after the first dose, were measured to be > 10 times the MIC of the drug for C. albicans. Among rabbits treated with fluconazole for 2 weeks, 67% had a > 90% reduction in fungal load (P < 0.05) and 33% were sterile. After 4 weeks, all had a > 99% reduction in fungal load (P < 0.05) and 75% were sterile (P = 0.01). This treatment effect was unchanged 4 weeks after discontinuation of fluconazole. Among rabbits treated with fluconazole and 5FC for 2 weeks, 67% died during therapy. Among the surviving rabbits, 75% had a > 90% reduction in fungal load (P < 0.05) and 25% were sterile. We conclude that oral fluconazole may be useful for treatment of Candida endophthalmitis. Addition of 5FC was associated with high toxicity and minimal additional antifungal effect in our rabbit model.

  9. Hydrogen-bonding patterns in 5-fluoro­cytosine–melamine co-crystal (4/1)

    PubMed Central

    Mohana, Marimuthu; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas; Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; McMillen, Colin D.

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 4C4H4FN3O·C3H6N6, comprises of two independent 5-fluoro­cytosine (5FC) mol­ecules (A and B) and one half-mol­ecule of melamine (M). The other half of the melamine mol­ecule is generated by a twofold axis. 5FC mol­ecules A and B are linked through two different homosynthons [R 2 2(8) ring motif]; one is formed via a pair of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and the second via a pair of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. In addition to this pairing, the O atoms of 5FC mol­ecules A and B inter­act with the N2 amino group on both sides of the melamine mol­ecule, forming a DDAA array of quadruple hydrogen bonds and generating a supra­molecular pattern. The 5FC (mol­ecules A and B) and two melamine mol­ecules inter­act via N—H⋯O, N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O, N—H⋯N, C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds forming R 6 6(24) and R 4 4(15) ring motifs. The crystal structure is further strengthened by C—H⋯F, C—F⋯π and π–π stacking inter­actions. PMID:27375887

  10. Molecular mechanisms of primary resistance to flucytosine in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hope, William W; Tabernero, Lydia; Denning, David W; Anderson, Michael J

    2004-11-01

    Primary resistance in Candida albicans to flucytosine (5-FC) was investigated in 25 strains by identifying and sequencing the genes FCA1, FUR1, FCY21, and FCY22, which code for cytosine deaminase, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), and two purine-cytosine permeases, respectively. These proteins are involved in pyrimidine salvage and 5-FC metabolism. An association between a polymorphic nucleotide and resistance to 5-FC was found within FUR1 where the substitution of cytidylate for thymidylate at nucleotide position 301 results in the replacement of arginine with cysteine at amino acid position 101 in UPRT. Isolates that are homozygous for this mutation display increased levels of resistance to 5-FC, whereas heterozygous isolates have reduced susceptibility. Three-dimensional protein modeling of UPRT suggests that the Arg101Cys mutation disturbs the quaternary structure of the enzyme, which is postulated to compromise optimal enzyme activity. A single resistant isolate, lacking the above polymorphism in FUR1, has a homozygous polymorphism in FCA1 that results in a glycine-to-aspartate substitution at position 28 in cytosine deaminase.

  11. Behavioral and molecular neuroepigenetic alterations in prenatally stressed mice: relevance for the study of chromatin remodeling properties of antipsychotic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dong, E; Tueting, P; Matrisciano, F; Grayson, D R; Guidotti, A

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that mice born from dams stressed during pregnancy (PRS mice), in adulthood, have behavioral deficits reminiscent of behaviors observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorder patients. Furthermore, we have shown that the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus of adult PRS mice, like that of postmortem chronic SZ patients, are characterized by increases in DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), ten-eleven methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) and exhibit an enrichment of 5-methylcytosine (5MC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5HMC) at neocortical GABAergic and glutamatergic gene promoters. Here, we show that the behavioral deficits and the increased 5MC and 5HMC at glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (Gad1), reelin (Reln) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) promoters and the reduced expression of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and proteins corresponding to these genes in FC of adult PRS mice is reversed by treatment with clozapine (5 mg kg−1 twice a day for 5 days) but not by haloperidol (1 mg kg−1 twice a day for 5 days). Interestingly, clozapine had no effect on either the behavior, promoter methylation or the expression of these mRNAs and proteins when administered to offspring of nonstressed pregnant mice. Clozapine, but not haloperidol, reduced the elevated levels of DNMT1 and TET1, as well as the elevated levels of DNMT1 binding to Gad1, Reln and Bdnf promoters in PRS mice suggesting that clozapine, unlike haloperidol, may limit DNA methylation by interfering with DNA methylation dynamics. We conclude that the PRS mouse model may be useful preclinically in screening for the potential efficacy of antipsychotic drugs acting on altered epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, PRS mice may be invaluable for understanding the etiopathogenesis of SZ and BP disorder and for predicting treatment responses at early stages of the illness allowing for early detection and remedial intervention. PMID:26756904

  12. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Is a Prognostic Marker for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Cytosine Deaminase Gene and 5-Fluorocytosine Prodrug Therapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Taemoon; Na, Juri; Kim, Young-il; Chang, Da-Young; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyeonjin; Moon, Ho Eun; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Kim, Sung-Soo; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Paek, Sun Ha; Youn, Hyewon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a therapeutic strategy for recurrent malignant gliomas using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), expressing cytosine deaminase (CD), and prodrug 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) as a more specific and less toxic option. MSCs are emerging as a novel cell therapeutic agent with a cancer-targeting property, and CD is considered a promising enzyme in cancer gene therapy which can convert non-toxic 5-FC to toxic 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Therefore, use of prodrug 5-FC can minimize normal cell toxicity. Analyses of microarrays revealed that targeting DNA damage and its repair is a selectable option for gliomas after the standard chemo/radio-therapy. 5-FU is the most frequently used anti-cancer drug, which induces DNA breaks. Because dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) was reported to be involved in 5-FU metabolism to block DNA damage, we compared the survival rate with 5-FU treatment and the level of DPD expression in 15 different glioma cell lines. DPD-deficient cells showed higher sensitivity to 5-FU, and the regulation of DPD level by either siRNA or overexpression was directly related to the 5-FU sensitivity. For MSC/CD with 5-FC therapy, DPD-deficient cells such as U87MG, GBM28, and GBM37 showed higher sensitivity compared to DPD-high U373 cells. Effective inhibition of tumor growth was also observed in an orthotopic mouse model using DPD- deficient U87MG, indicating that DPD gene expression is indeed closely related to the efficacy of MSC/CD-mediated 5-FC therapy. Our results suggested that DPD can be used as a biomarker for selecting glioma patients who may possibly benefit from this therapy. PMID:27446484

  13. Ecology of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi in swimming pools and polluted and unpolluted streams.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Khaleel, Tayseer Kh M; Jamous, Rana M

    2002-01-01

    The biodiversity and richness of keratinophilic fungal communities including dermatophytes were assessed in three stream sites and three swimming pools in the Nablus district in Palestine, using hair baiting (HBT) and surface dilution plate (SDP) techniques, over 8- and 6-month periods, respectively. The effect of wastewater effluent and selected ecological factors on these fungi in relation to species diversity and population densities were also considered. Fifty keratinophilic fungal species were recovered from the aquatic habitats studied, of which 42 were recovered from stream sites and 22 from swimming pools. Of these fungi 6 were either dermatophytes (Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes) or dermatophyte related species (Chrysosporium merdarium, Ch. tropicum, Ch. keratinophilum and T. terrestre). The most frequently isolated species in the three pools were Acremonium strictum and Cladosporium cladosporioides, using Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA). The most abundant species were Acr. strictum, and Aspergillus flavus. However, only 4 species were isolated using the SDA medium amended with 5-flurocytosine (5-FC). The most frequent and abundant species in the three stream sites using SDA medium were Geotricum candidum, and Penicillium chrysogenum. The most frequent species in the three sites using the 5-FC medium, was Paecilomyces lilacinus. Using HBT, the most abundant and frequent species in the three stream sites were G. candidum, and Pa. lilacinus, on SDA medium, and Pa. lilacinus, and Gliocladium nigrovirens on the 5-FC medium. The 5-FC medium was more suitable for the isolation of dermatophytes and closely related species than the SDA medium; 6 were recovered on 5-FC, whereas only one on the SDA medium. Variation in the levels of keratinophilic fungal populations from the three stream sites sampled 5 times over an 8-month period, followed comparable fluctuation patterns. Wastewater affected fungal population densities with the highest

  14. Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Is a Prognostic Marker for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Cytosine Deaminase Gene and 5-Fluorocytosine Prodrug Therapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chung, Taemoon; Na, Juri; Kim, Young-Il; Chang, Da-Young; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyeonjin; Moon, Ho Eun; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Kim, Sung-Soo; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung; Paek, Sun Ha; Youn, Hyewon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a therapeutic strategy for recurrent malignant gliomas using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), expressing cytosine deaminase (CD), and prodrug 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC) as a more specific and less toxic option. MSCs are emerging as a novel cell therapeutic agent with a cancer-targeting property, and CD is considered a promising enzyme in cancer gene therapy which can convert non-toxic 5-FC to toxic 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Therefore, use of prodrug 5-FC can minimize normal cell toxicity. Analyses of microarrays revealed that targeting DNA damage and its repair is a selectable option for gliomas after the standard chemo/radio-therapy. 5-FU is the most frequently used anti-cancer drug, which induces DNA breaks. Because dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) was reported to be involved in 5-FU metabolism to block DNA damage, we compared the survival rate with 5-FU treatment and the level of DPD expression in 15 different glioma cell lines. DPD-deficient cells showed higher sensitivity to 5-FU, and the regulation of DPD level by either siRNA or overexpression was directly related to the 5-FU sensitivity. For MSC/CD with 5-FC therapy, DPD-deficient cells such as U87MG, GBM28, and GBM37 showed higher sensitivity compared to DPD-high U373 cells. Effective inhibition of tumor growth was also observed in an orthotopic mouse model using DPD- deficient U87MG, indicating that DPD gene expression is indeed closely related to the efficacy of MSC/CD-mediated 5-FC therapy. Our results suggested that DPD can be used as a biomarker for selecting glioma patients who may possibly benefit from this therapy. PMID:27446484

  15. Cytosine Deaminase/5-Fluorocytosine Exposure Induces Bystander and Radiosensitization Effects in Hypoxic Glioblastoma Cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jennifer K.; Hu, Lily J.; Wang Dongfang; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Deen, Dennis F. . E-mail: dennisdeen@juno.com

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: Treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is limited by therapeutic ratio; therefore, successful therapy must be specifically cytotoxic to cancer cells. Hypoxic cells are ubiquitous in GBM, and resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, and, thus, are logical targets for gene therapy. In this study, we investigated whether cytosine deaminase (CD)/5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) enzyme/prodrug treatment induced a bystander effect (BE) and/or radiosensitization in hypoxic GBM cells. Methods and Materials: We stably transfected cells with a gene construct consisting of the SV40 minimal promoter, nine copies of a hypoxia-responsive element, and the yeast CD gene. During hypoxia, a hypoxia-responsive element regulates expression of the CD gene and facilitates the conversion of 5-FC to 5-fluorouracil, a highly toxic antimetabolite. We used colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and immunofluorescence assays to assess for BE in co-cultures of CD-expressing clone cells and parent, pNeo- or green fluorescent protein-stably transfected GBM cells. We also investigated the radiosensitivity of CD clone cells treated with 5-FC under hypoxic conditions, and we used flow cytometry to investigate treatment-induced cell cycle changes. Results: Both a large BE and radiosensitization occurred in GBM cells under hypoxic conditions. The magnitude of the BE depended on the number of transfected cells producing CD, the functionality of the CD, the administered concentration of 5-FC, and the sensitivity of cell type to 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: Hypoxia-inducible CD/5-FC therapy in combination with radiation therapy shows both a pronounced BE and a radiosensitizing effect under hypoxic conditions.

  16. Targeted cytosine deaminase-uracil phosphoribosyl transferase suicide gene therapy induces small cell lung cancer specific cytotoxicity and tumor growth delay

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Camilla L.; Gjetting, Torben; Poulsen, Thomas T.; Cramer, Frederik; Roth, Jack A.; Poulsen, Hans S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant cancer for which there is no curable treatment and novel therapies are therefore in high demand. In the present study we investigated the therapeutic effect of transcriptionally targeted suicide gene therapy for SCLC based on the yeast cytosine deaminase (YCD) gene alone or fused with the yeast uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (YUPRT) gene followed by administration of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) prodrug Experimental design The YCD gene or the YCD-YUPRT gene was placed under regulation of the SCLC-specific promoter Insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1). Therapeutic effect was evaluated in vitro in SCLC cell lines and in vivo in SCLC xenografted nude mice using the non-viral nanoparticle, DOTAP:Cholesterol for transgene delivery. Results INSM1-YCD/5-FC and INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy induced high cytotoxicity in a range of SCLC cell lines. The highest therapeutic effect was obtained from the YCD-YUPRT fusion gene strategy. No cytotoxicity was induced after treatment of cell lines of other origin than SCLC. In addition the INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy was superior to an established suicide gene system consisting of the Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase (HSVTK) gene and prodrug Ganciclovir (GCV). The superior effect was in part due to massive bystander cytotoxicity of YCD-YUPRT-produced toxins. Finally, INSM1-YCD-YUPRT/5-FC therapy induced significant tumor growth delay in SCLC xenografts compared to control treated xenografts. Conclusions The current study is the first to test cytosine deaminase-based suicide gene therapy for SCLC and the first to demonstrate an anti-tumor effect from the delivery of suicide gene therapeutics for SCLC in vivo. PMID:20371678

  17. 5-Fluorocytosine combined with Fcy-hEGF fusion protein targets EGFR-expressing cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Keng-Hsueh; Shih, Yi-Sheng; Chang, Cheng Allen; Yen, Sang-Hue; Lan, Keng-Li

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGFR-expressing epithelial cancers account for significant portion of cancer deaths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGF-EGFR signaling pathway is validated as an important anticancer drug target. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EGF and Fcy fusion protein (Fcy-hEGF) can bind to EGFR and convert 5-FC to 5-FU. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fcy-hEGF combined with 5-FC preferentially inhibits EGFR-expressing cells viability. -- Abstract: Human epithelial cancers account for approximately 50% of all cancer deaths. This type of cancer is characterized by excessive activation and expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The EGFR pathway is critical for cancer cell proliferation, survival, metastasis and angiogenesis. The EGF-EGFR signaling pathway has been validated as an important anticancer drug target. Increasing numbers of targeted therapies against this pathway have been either approved or are currently under development. Here, we adopted a prodrug system that uses 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and human EGF (hEGF) fused with yeast cytosine deaminase (Fcy) to target EGFR-overexpressing cancer cells and to convert 5-FC to a significantly more toxic chemotherapeutic, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We cloned and purified the Fcy-hEGF fusion protein from Pichia pastoris yeast. This fusion protein specifically binds to EGFR with a similar affinity as hEGF, approximately 10 nM. Fcy-hEGF binds tightly to A431 and MDA-MB-468 cells, which overexpress EGFR, but it binds with a lower affinity to MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, which express lower levels of EGFR. Similarly, the viability of EGFR-expressing cells was suppressed by Fcy-hEGF in the presence of increasing concentrations of 5-FC, and the IC{sub 50} values for A431 and MDA-MB-468 were approximately 10-fold lower than those of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. This novel prodrug system, Fcy-hEGF/5-FC, might represent a promising addition to the available class of inhibitors that specifically target EGFR

  18. Collaborative investigation of broth microdilution and semisolid agar dilution for in vitro susceptibility testing of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Shawar, R; Paetznick, V; Witte, Z; Ensign, L G; Anaissie, E; LaRocco, M

    1992-08-01

    A study was performed in two laboratories to evaluate the effect of growth medium and test methodology on inter- and intralaboratory variations in the MICs of amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITRA), and the triazole Sch 39304 (SCH) against 14 isolates of Candida albicans. Testing was performed by broth microdilution and semisolid agar dilution with the following media, buffered to pH 7.0 with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS): buffered yeast nitrogen base (BYNB), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), RPMI 1640 medium (RPMI), and synthetic amino acid medium for fungi (SAAMF). Inocula were standardized spectrophotometrically, and endpoints were defined by the complete absence of growth for AMB and by no more than 25% of the growth in the drug-free control for all other agents. Comparative analyses of median MICs, as determined by each test method, were made for all drug-medium combinations. Both methods yielded similar (+/- 1 twofold dilution) median MICs for AMB in EMEM and RPMI, 5FC in all media, and FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. In contrast, substantial between-method variations in median MICs were seen for AMB in BYNB and SAAMF, FLU In BYNB, and ITRA and SCH in all media. Interlaboratory concordance of median MICs was good for AMB, 5FC, and FLU but poor for ITRA and SCH in all media. Endpoint determinations were analyzed by use of kappa statistical analyses for evaluating the strength of observer agreement. Moderate to almost perfect interlaboratory agreement occurred with AMB and 5FC in all media and with FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF, irrespective of the test method. Slight to almost perfect interlaboratory agreement occurred with ITRA and SCH in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF when tested by semisolid agar dilution but not broth microdilution. Kappa values assessing intralaboratory agreement between methods were high for 5FC in all media, for AMB in BYNB, ENEM, and RPMI, and for FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. One laboratory

  19. Collaborative investigation of broth microdilution and semisolid agar dilution for in vitro susceptibility testing of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Shawar, R; Paetznick, V; Witte, Z; Ensign, L G; Anaissie, E; LaRocco, M

    1992-01-01

    A study was performed in two laboratories to evaluate the effect of growth medium and test methodology on inter- and intralaboratory variations in the MICs of amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITRA), and the triazole Sch 39304 (SCH) against 14 isolates of Candida albicans. Testing was performed by broth microdilution and semisolid agar dilution with the following media, buffered to pH 7.0 with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS): buffered yeast nitrogen base (BYNB), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), RPMI 1640 medium (RPMI), and synthetic amino acid medium for fungi (SAAMF). Inocula were standardized spectrophotometrically, and endpoints were defined by the complete absence of growth for AMB and by no more than 25% of the growth in the drug-free control for all other agents. Comparative analyses of median MICs, as determined by each test method, were made for all drug-medium combinations. Both methods yielded similar (+/- 1 twofold dilution) median MICs for AMB in EMEM and RPMI, 5FC in all media, and FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. In contrast, substantial between-method variations in median MICs were seen for AMB in BYNB and SAAMF, FLU In BYNB, and ITRA and SCH in all media. Interlaboratory concordance of median MICs was good for AMB, 5FC, and FLU but poor for ITRA and SCH in all media. Endpoint determinations were analyzed by use of kappa statistical analyses for evaluating the strength of observer agreement. Moderate to almost perfect interlaboratory agreement occurred with AMB and 5FC in all media and with FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF, irrespective of the test method. Slight to almost perfect interlaboratory agreement occurred with ITRA and SCH in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF when tested by semisolid agar dilution but not broth microdilution. Kappa values assessing intralaboratory agreement between methods were high for 5FC in all media, for AMB in BYNB, ENEM, and RPMI, and for FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. One laboratory

  20. Collaborative investigation of broth microdilution and semisolid agar dilution for in vitro susceptibility testing of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Shawar, R; Paetznick, V; Witte, Z; Ensign, L G; Anaissie, E; LaRocco, M

    1992-08-01

    A study was performed in two laboratories to evaluate the effect of growth medium and test methodology on inter- and intralaboratory variations in the MICs of amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITRA), and the triazole Sch 39304 (SCH) against 14 isolates of Candida albicans. Testing was performed by broth microdilution and semisolid agar dilution with the following media, buffered to pH 7.0 with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS): buffered yeast nitrogen base (BYNB), Eagle's minimal essential medium (EMEM), RPMI 1640 medium (RPMI), and synthetic amino acid medium for fungi (SAAMF). Inocula were standardized spectrophotometrically, and endpoints were defined by the complete absence of growth for AMB and by no more than 25% of the growth in the drug-free control for all other agents. Comparative analyses of median MICs, as determined by each test method, were made for all drug-medium combinations. Both methods yielded similar (+/- 1 twofold dilution) median MICs for AMB in EMEM and RPMI, 5FC in all media, and FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. In contrast, substantial between-method variations in median MICs were seen for AMB in BYNB and SAAMF, FLU In BYNB, and ITRA and SCH in all media. Interlaboratory concordance of median MICs was good for AMB, 5FC, and FLU but poor for ITRA and SCH in all media. Endpoint determinations were analyzed by use of kappa statistical analyses for evaluating the strength of observer agreement. Moderate to almost perfect interlaboratory agreement occurred with AMB and 5FC in all media and with FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF, irrespective of the test method. Slight to almost perfect interlaboratory agreement occurred with ITRA and SCH in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF when tested by semisolid agar dilution but not broth microdilution. Kappa values assessing intralaboratory agreement between methods were high for 5FC in all media, for AMB in BYNB, ENEM, and RPMI, and for FLU in EMEM, RPMI, and SAAMF. One laboratory

  1. In vivo cancer gene therapy by adenovirus-mediated transfer of a bifunctional yeast cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Erbs, P; Regulier, E; Kintz, J; Leroy, P; Poitevin, Y; Exinger, F; Jund, R; Mehtali, M

    2000-07-15

    Direct transfer of prodrug activation systems into tumors was demonstrated to be an attractive method for the selective in vivo elimination of tumor cells. However, most current suicide gene therapy strategies are still handicapped by a poor efficiency of in vivo gene transfer and a limited bystander cell killing effect. In this study, we describe a novel and highly potent suicide gene derived from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytosine deaminase (FCY1) and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase genes (FUR1). This suicide gene, designated FCU1, encodes a bifunctional chimeric protein that combines the enzymatic activities of FCY1 and FUR1 and efficiently catalyzes the direct conversion of 5-FC, a nontoxic antifungal agent, into the toxic metabolites 5-fluorouracil and 5-fluorouridine-5'monophosphate, thus bypassing the natural resistance of certain human tumor cells to 5-fluorouracil. Unexpectedly, although the uracil phosphoribosyltransferase activity of FCU1 was equivalent to that encoded by FUR1, its cytosine deaminase activity was 100-fold higher than the one encoded by FCY1. As a consequence, tumor cells transduced with an adenovirus expressing FCU1 (Ad-FCU1) were sensitive to concentrations of 5-FC 1000-fold lower than the ones used for cells transduced with a vector expressing FCY1 (Ad-FCY1). Furthermore, bystander cell killing was also more effective in cells transduced with Ad-FCU1 than in cultures infected with Ad-FCY1 or Ad-FUR1, alone or in combination. Finally, intratumoral injections of Ad-FCU1 into allo- or xenogeneic tumors implanted s.c. into mice, with concomitant systemic administration of 5-FC, led to substantial delays in tumor growth. These unique properties make of the FCU1/5-FC prodrug activation system a novel and powerful candidate for cancer gene therapy strategies. PMID:10919655

  2. Evaluation of antifungal combination against Cryptococcus spp.

    PubMed

    Reichert-Lima, Franqueline; Busso-Lopes, Ariane F; Lyra, Luzia; Peron, Isabela Haddad; Taguchi, Hideaki; Mikami, Yuzuru; Kamei, Katsuiko; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Schreiber, Angelica Z

    2016-09-01

    The second cause of death among systemic mycoses, cryptococcosis treatment represents a challenge since that 5-flucytosine is not currently available in Brazil. Looking for alternatives, this study evaluated antifungal agents, alone and combined, correlating susceptibility to genotypes. Eighty Cryptococcus clinical isolates were genotyped by URA5 gene restriction fragment length polymorphism. Antifungal susceptibility was assessed following CLSI-M27A3 for amphotericin (AMB), 5-flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FCZ), voriconazole (VRZ), itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine (TRB). Drug interaction chequerboard assay evaluated: AMB + 5FC, AMB + FCZ, AMB + TRB and FCZ + TRB. Molecular typing divided isolates into 14 C. deuterogattii (VGII) and C. neoformans isolates were found to belong to genotype VNI (n = 62) and VNII (n = 4). C. neoformans VNII was significantly less susceptible than VNI (P = 0.0407) to AMB; C. deuterogattii was significantly less susceptible than VNI and VNII to VRZ (P < 0.0001). C. deuterogattii was less susceptible than C. neoformans VNI for FCZ (P = 0.0170), ITZ (P < 0.0001) and TRB (P = 0.0090). The combination FCZ + TRB showed 95.16% of synergistic effect against C. neoformans genotype VNI isolates and all combinations showed 100% of synergism against genotype VNII isolates, suggesting the relevance of cryptococcal genotyping as it is widely known that the various genotypes (now species) have significant impact in antifungal susceptibilities and clinical outcome. In difficult-to-treat cryptococcosis, terbinafine and different antifungal combinations might be alternatives to 5FC. PMID:27135278

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Suicide Gene Therapy with Adenosine Deaminase 5-Fluorocytosine Silmutaneously in in Vitro Cultures of Melanoma and Retinal Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sakkas, Antonios; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Domvri, Kalliopi; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Bougiouklis, Dimitris; Kakolyris, Stylianos; Zarampoukas, Thomas; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Meditskou, Soultana; Tsiouda, Theodora; Pezirkianidis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Local treatment as a treatment modality is gaining increased general acceptance over time. Novel drugs and methodologies of local administration are being investigated in an effort to achieve disease local control. Suicide gene therapy is a method that has been investigated as a local treatment with simultaneously distant disease control. In our current experiment we purchased HTB-70 (melanoma cell line, derived from metastatic axillary node) and CRL-2302 (human retinal epithelium) were from ATCC LGC Standards and Ancotil®, 2.5 g/250 ml (1 g/00ml) (5-Flucytosine) MEDA; Pharmaceuticals Ltd. UK. Adenosine Cytosine Deaminase (Ad.CD) was also used in order to convert the pro-drug 5-Flucytosine to the active 5-Fluoracil. Three different concentrations of 5-Flucytosine (5-FC) were administered (0.2ml, 0.8ml and 1.2ml). At indicated time-points (4h, 8h and 24h) cell viability and apoptosis were measured. Our concept was to investigate whether suicide gene therapy with Ad. CD-5-FC could be used with safety and efficiency as a future local treatment for melanoma located in the eye cavity. Indeed, our results indicated that in every 5-FC administration had mild cytotoxicity for the retinal cells, while increased apoptosis was observed for the melanoma cell line. PMID:24799955

  4. Quality control guidelines for National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards recommended broth macrodilution testing of amphotericin B, fluconazole, and flucytosine.

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, M A; Bale, M; Buschelman, B; Lancaster, M; Espinel-Ingroff, A; Rex, J H; Rinaldi, M G; Cooper, C R; McGinnis, M R

    1995-01-01

    Amphotericin B, fluconazole, and flucytosine (5FC) were tested in a multilaboratory study to establish quality control (QC) guidelines for yeast antifungal susceptibility testing. Ten candidate QC strains were tested in accordance with National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards M27-P guidelines against the three antifungal agents in each of six laboratories. Each laboratory was assigned a unique lot of RPMI 1640 broth medium as well as a lot of RPMI 1640 common to all of the laboratories. The candidate QC strains were tested 20 times each against the three antifungal agents in both unique and common lots of RPMI 1640. A minimum of 220 MICs per drug per organism were generated during the study. Overall, 95% of the MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, and 5FC fell within the desired 3 log2-dilution range (mode +/- 1 log2 dilution). Excellent performance with all three drugs was observed for Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. krusei ATCC 6258. With these strains, on-scale 3 log2-dilution ranges encompassing 96 to 99% of the MICs of all three drugs were established. These two strains are recommended for QC testing of amphotericin B, fluconazole, and 5FC. Reference ranges were also established for an additional four strains for use in method development and for training. Four strains failed to perform adequately for recommendation as either QC or reference strains. PMID:7615713

  5. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms of drug resistance in fungi.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, H

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of our understanding of resistance mechanisms of three major classes of antifungal drugs for systemic use, amphotericin B (AMPH), flucytosine (5-FC) and several azole antifungals, in particular fluconazole (FLCZ), at the molecular and cellular levels. Although the number of reports of AMPH- or 5-FC-resistant fungal species and strains is limited, several mechanisms of resistance have been described. AMPH-resistant Candida have a marked decrease in ergosterol content compared with AMPH-susceptible control isolates. A lesion in the UMP-pyrophosphorylase is the most frequent determinant of 5-FC resistance in C. albicans. Recently resistance of C. albicans to azoles has become an increasing problem. Extensive biochemical studies have highlighted a significant diversity in mechanisms conferring resistance to FLCZ and other azoles, which include alterations in sterol biosynthesis, target site, uptake and efflux. Among them, the most important mechanism clinically is reduced access of the drug to the intracellular P450 14 DM target, probably because of the action of a multidrug resistance efflux pump, and overproduction of that target. However, other possible resistance mechanisms for azoles remain to be identified.

  6. In vitro studies with combinations of 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Shadomy, S; Wagner, G; Espinel-Ingroff, E; Davis, B A

    1975-08-01

    Synergistic antifungal activity of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and amphotericin B was studied using an abbreviated checkerboard titration scheme. 5-FC was titrated in twofold increments (100 to 0.05 mug/ml) in the absence and presence of graded increments of amphotericin B (1.0. 0.5, 0.1, 0.05, and 0.01 mug/ml) in buffered yeast nitrogen base. A limited number of experiments were performed using expanded dual titration checkerboard schemes and growth curve studies. Forty-eight isolates of yeastlike organisms were tested; two were inhibited by the buffer system. Evidence of synergy, as indicated by a fourfold or greater reduction of the minimal inhibitory concentration of 5-FC in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of amphotericin B, was seen with 11 of 46 isolates, or 24%, at the fungistatic level and with three isolates, or 7% at the fungicidal level. Indifferent results were obtained for 44 and 74% of the isolates, respectively, at the fungistatic and fungicidal levels. Antagonism was observed with three isolates.

  7. Tumor-specific expression of shVEGF and suicide gene as a novel strategy for esophageal cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Wu, Hai-Jun; Liang, Yu; Liang, Xu-Jun; Huang, Hui-Chao; Zhao, Yan-Zhong; Liao, Qing-Chuan; Chen, Ya-Qi; Leng, Ai-Min; Yuan, Wei-Jian; Zhang, Gui-Ying; Peng, Jie; Chen, Yong-Heng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To develop a potent and safe gene therapy for esophageal cancer. METHODS: An expression vector carrying fusion suicide gene (yCDglyTK) and shRNA against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was constructed and delivered into EC9706 esophageal cancer cells by calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CPNP). To achieve tumor selectivity, expression of the fusion suicide gene was driven by a tumor-specific human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter. The biologic properties and therapeutic efficiency of the vector, in the presence of prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Both in vitro and in vivo testing showed that the expression vector was efficiently introduced by CPNP into tumor cells, leading to cellular expression of yCDglyTK and decreased VEGF level. With exposure to 5-FC, it exhibited strong anti-tumor effects against esophageal cancer. Combination of VEGF shRNA with the fusion suicide gene demonstrated strong anti-tumor activity. CONCLUSION: The shVEGF-hTERT-yCDglyTK/5-FC system provided a novel approach for esophageal cancer-targeted gene therapy. PMID:27340350

  8. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara as a vector for suicide gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Erbs, P; Findeli, A; Kintz, J; Cordier, P; Hoffmann, C; Geist, M; Balloul, J-M

    2008-01-01

    Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) has been used successfully to express various antigens for the development of vaccines. Here we show that MVA can also be used as an efficient vector for the transfer of suicide genes to cancer cells. We have generated a new and highly potent suicide gene, FCU1, which encodes a fusion protein derived from the yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase genes. We now describe the therapeutic benefit of using MVA to deliver and express the FCU1 gene in cancer cells. MVA-mediated transfer of the FCU1 gene to various human tumor cells results in the production of a bifunctional intracellular enzyme, such that exposure to the prodrug 5-FC suppresses the growth of the tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we report a more potent tumor growth delay at lower doses of 5-FC using MVA-FCU1 in comparison to adenovirus encoding FCU1. Prolonged therapeutic levels of cytotoxic 5-FU were detected in tumors in mice treated with both MVA-FCU1 and 5-FC while no detectable 5-FU was found in the circulation. This original combination between MVA and FCU1 represents a potentially safe and attractive therapeutic option to test in man. PMID:17992203

  9. Oncosuppressive Suicide Gene Virotherapy “PVH1-yCD/5-FC” for Pancreatic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Treatment: NFκB and Akt/PI3K Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Réjiba, Soukaina; Bigand, Christelle; Parmentier, Celine; Masmoudi, Ahmed; Hajri, Amor

    2013-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis is common in advanced pancreatic cancer. Despite current standard treatment, patients with this disease until recently were considered incurable. Cancer gene therapy using oncolytic viruses have generated much interest over the past few years. Here, we investigated a new gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) approach for an oncosuppressive virotherapy strategy using parvovirus H1 (PV-H1) which preferentially replicates and kills malignant cells. Although, PV-H1 is not potent enough to destroy tumors, it represents an attractive vector for cancer gene therapy. We therefore sought to determine whether the suicide gene/prodrug system, yCD/5-FC could be rationally combined to PV-H1 augmenting its intrinsic oncolytic activity for pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment. We showed that the engineered recombinant parvovirus rPVH1-yCD with 5-FC treatment increased significantly the intrinsic cytotoxic effect and resulted in potent induction of apoptosis and tumor growth inhibition in chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells. Additionally, the suicide gene-expressing PV-H1 infection reduced significantly the constitutive activities of NFκB and Akt/PI3K. Combination of their pharmacological inhibitors (MG132 and LY294002) with rPVH1-yCD/5-FC resulted in substantial increase of antitumor activity. In vivo, high and sustained expression of NS1 and yCD was observed in the disseminated tumor nodules and absent in normal tissues. Treatment of mice bearing intraperitoneal pancreatic carcinomatosis with rPVH1-yCD/5-FC resulted in a drastic inhibition of tumor cell spreading and subsequent increase in long-term survival. Together, the presented data show the improved oncolytic activity of wPV-H1 by yCD/5-FC and thus provides valuable effective and promising virotherapy strategy for prevention of tumor recurrence and treatment. In the light of this study, the suicide gene parvovirotherapy approach represents a new weapon in the war against

  10. Role of Glutamate 64 in the Activation of the Prodrug 5-fluorocytosine by Yeast Cytosine Deaminase†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jifeng; Sklenak, Stepan; Liu, Aizhuo; Felczak, Krzysztof; Wu, Yan; Li, Yue; Yan, Honggao

    2012-01-01

    Yeast cytosine deaminase catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine to uracil as well as the deamination of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) to the anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil. In this study, the role of Glu64 in the activation of the prodrug 5FC was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis, biochemical, NMR, and computational studies. Steady-state kinetics studies showed that the mutation of Glu64 causes a dramatic decrease in kcat and a dramatic increase in Km, indicating Glu64 is important for both binding and catalysis in the activation of 5FC. 19F-NMR experiments showed that binding of the inhibitor 5-fluoro-1H-pyrimidin-2-one (5FPy) to the wild type yCD causes an upfield shift, indicating that the bound inhibitor is in the hydrated form, mimicking the transition state or the tetrahedral intermediate in the activation of 5FC. However, binding of 5FPy to the E64A mutant enzyme causes a downfield shift, indicating that the bound 5FPy remains in an unhydrated form in the complex with the mutant enzyme. 1H and 15N NMR analysis revealed trans-hydrogen-bond D/H isotope effects on the hydrogen of the amide of Glu64, indicating that the carboxylate of Glu64 forms two hydrogen bonds with the hydrated 5FPy. ONIOM calculations showed that the wild type yCD complex with the hydrated form of the inhibitor 1H-pyrimidin-2-one is more stable than the initial binding complex, and in contrast, with the E64A mutant enzyme, the hydrated inhibitor is no longer favored and the conversion has higher activation energy as well. The hydrated inhibitor is stabilized in the wild-type yCD by two hydrogen bonds between it and the carboxylate of Glu64 as revealed by 1H and 15N NMR analysis. To explore the functional role of Glu64 in catalysis, deamination of cytosine catalyzed by the E64A mutant was investigated by ONIOM calculations. The results showed that without the assistance of Glu64, both proton transfers before and after the formation of the tetrahedral reaction

  11. Ethanol-induced changes in poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and neuronal developmental gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gavin, David P; Kusumo, Handojo; Sharma, Rajiv P; Guizzetti, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure has profound effects on neuronal growth and development. Poly-ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) enzymes are perhaps unique in the field of epigenetics in that they directly participate in histone modifications, transcription factor modifications, DNA methylation/demethylation and are highly inducible by ethanol. It was our hypothesis that ethanol would induce PARP enzymatic activity leading to alterations in neurodevelopmental gene expression. Mouse E18 cortical neurons were treated with ethanol, PARP inhibitors, and nuclear hormone receptor transcription factor PPARγ agonists and antagonists. Subsequently, we measured PARP activity and changes in Bdnf, OKSM (Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, c-Myc), DNA methylating/demethylating factors, and Pparγ mRNA expression, promoter 5-methylcytosine (5MC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5HMC), and PPARγ promoter binding. We found that ethanol reduced Bdnf4, 9a, and Klf4 mRNA expression, and increased c-Myc expression. These changes were reversed with a PARP inhibitor. In agreement with its role in DNA demethylation PARP inhibition increased 5MC levels at the c-Myc promoter. In addition, we found that inhibition of PARP enzymatic activity increased PPARγ promoter binding, and this corresponded to increased Bdnf and Klf4 mRNA expression. Our results suggest that PARP participates in DNA demethylation and reduces PPARγ promoter binding. The current study underscores the importance of PARP in ethanol-induced changes to neurodevelopmental gene expression. PMID:27497606

  12. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F; Hutchinson, Angela B; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S; Madory, James E; Werner, Barbara G

    2016-01-01

    Background.  To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods.  We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results.  From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions.  Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT.

  13. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F; Hutchinson, Angela B; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S; Madory, James E; Werner, Barbara G

    2016-01-01

    Background.  To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods.  We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results.  From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions.  Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT. PMID:26798766

  14. Ethanol-induced changes in poly (ADP ribose) polymerase and neuronal developmental gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gavin, David P; Kusumo, Handojo; Sharma, Rajiv P; Guizzetti, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure has profound effects on neuronal growth and development. Poly-ADP Ribose Polymerase (PARP) enzymes are perhaps unique in the field of epigenetics in that they directly participate in histone modifications, transcription factor modifications, DNA methylation/demethylation and are highly inducible by ethanol. It was our hypothesis that ethanol would induce PARP enzymatic activity leading to alterations in neurodevelopmental gene expression. Mouse E18 cortical neurons were treated with ethanol, PARP inhibitors, and nuclear hormone receptor transcription factor PPARγ agonists and antagonists. Subsequently, we measured PARP activity and changes in Bdnf, OKSM (Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, c-Myc), DNA methylating/demethylating factors, and Pparγ mRNA expression, promoter 5-methylcytosine (5MC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5HMC), and PPARγ promoter binding. We found that ethanol reduced Bdnf4, 9a, and Klf4 mRNA expression, and increased c-Myc expression. These changes were reversed with a PARP inhibitor. In agreement with its role in DNA demethylation PARP inhibition increased 5MC levels at the c-Myc promoter. In addition, we found that inhibition of PARP enzymatic activity increased PPARγ promoter binding, and this corresponded to increased Bdnf and Klf4 mRNA expression. Our results suggest that PARP participates in DNA demethylation and reduces PPARγ promoter binding. The current study underscores the importance of PARP in ethanol-induced changes to neurodevelopmental gene expression.

  15. Cytotoxic effect of replication-competent adenoviral vectors carrying L-plastin promoter regulated E1A and cytosine deaminase genes in cancers of the breast, ovary and colon.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Hakan; Zhang, Lixin; Tang, Yucheng; Deisseroth, Albert

    2003-05-01

    Prodrug activating transcription unit gene therapy is one of several promising approaches to cancer gene therapy. Combining that approach with conditionally replication-competent viral vectors that are truly tumor specific has been an important objective of recent work. In this study, we report the construction of a new conditionally replication-competent bicistronic adenoviral vector in which the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and the E1a gene are driven by the L-plastin tumor-specific promoter (AdLpCDIRESE1a). A similar vector driven by the CMV promoter has also been constructed (AdCMVCDIRESE1a) as a control. We have carried out in vitro cytotoxicity in carcinomas of the breast, ovary and colon, and in vivo efficacy studies with these vectors in an animal model of colon cancer. While the addition of the AdLpCDIRESE1a vector to established cancer cell lines showed significant cytotoxicity in tumor cells derived from carcinomas of the breast (MCF-7), colon (HTB-38) and ovary (Ovcar 5), no significant toxicity was seen in explant cultures of normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) exposed to this vector. The addition of 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) significantly increased the cytotoxicity in an additive fashion of both the AdLpCDIRESE1a and AdCMVCDIRESE1a vectors as well as that of the AdLpCD replication incompetent vector to established tumor cell lines. However, no significant cytotoxicity was observed with the addition of 5FC to explant cultures of normal human mammary epithelial cells that had been exposed to the L-plastin-driven vectors. Studies with mixtures of infected and uninfected tumor cell lines showed that the established cancer cell lines infected with the AdLpCDIRESE1a vector generated significant toxicity to surrounding uninfected cells (the "bystander effect") even at a ratio of 0.25 of infected cells to infected + uninfected cells in the presence of 5FC. The injection of the AdLpCDIRESE1a vector into subcutaneous deposits of human tumor nodules in the

  16. Antifungal agent susceptibilities and interpretation of Malassezia pachydermatis and Candida parapsilosis isolated from dogs with and without seborrheic dermatitis skin.

    PubMed

    Yurayart, Chompoonek; Nuchnoul, Noppawan; Moolkum, Pornsawan; Jirasuksiri, Supitcha; Niyomtham, Waree; Chindamporn, Ariya; Kajiwara, Susumu; Prapasarakul, Nuvee

    2013-10-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis and Candida parapsilosis are recognized as commensal yeasts on the skin of healthy dogs but also causative agents of eborrheic dermatitis, especially in atopic dogs. We determined and compared the susceptibility levels of yeasts isolated from dogs with and without seborrheic dermatitis (SD) using the disk diffusion method (DD) for itraconazole (ITZ), ketoconazole (KTZ), nystatin (NYS), terbinafine (TERB) and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and the broth microdilution method (BMD) for ITZ and KTZ. The reliability between the methods was assessed using an agreement analysis and linear regression. Forty-five M. pachydermatis and 28 C. parapsilosis isolates were identified based on physiological characteristics and an approved molecular analysis. By DD, all tested M. pachydermatis isolates were susceptible to ITZ, KTZ, NYS and TERB but resistant to 5-FC. Only 46 - 60% of the tested C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to KTZ, TERB and 5-FC, but ITZ and NYS were effective against all. By BMD, over 95% of M. pachydermatis isolates were susceptible to KTZ and ITZ with an MIC90 < 0.03 and 0.12 μg/ml, respectively. The frequency of KTZ- and ITZ-resistant C. parapsilosis was 29% and 7%, and the MIC90 values were 1 μg/ml and 0.5-1 μg/ml, respectively. Regarding the agreement analysis, 2.2% of minor errors were observed in M. pachydermatis and 0.2-1% of very major errors occurred among C. parapsilosis. There were no significant differences in the yeast resistance rates between dogs with and without SD. KTZ and ITZ were still efficacious for M. pachydermatis but a high rate of KTZ resistant was reported in C. parapsilosis. PMID:23547880

  17. Yeast Cytosine Deaminase Mutants with Increased Thermostability Impart Sensitivity to 5-Fluorocytosine

    PubMed Central

    Stolworthy, Tiffany S.; Korkegian, Aaron M.; Willmon, Candice L.; Ardiani, Andressa; Cundiff, Jennifer; Stoddard, Barry L.; Black, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Prodrug gene therapy (PGT) is a treatment strategy in which tumor cells are transfected with a 'suicide' gene that encodes a metabolic enzyme capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into a potent cytotoxin. One of the most promising PGT enzymes is cytosine deaminase (CD), a microbial salvage enzyme that converts cytosine to uracil. CD also converts 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) to 5-fluorouracil (5FU), an inhibitor of DNA synthesis and RNA function. Over 150 studies of cytosine deaminase-mediated PGT applications have been reported since 2000, all using wild-type enzymes. However, various forms of cytosine deaminase are limited by inefficient turnover of 5FC and/or limited thermostability. In a previous study we stabilized and extended the half-life of yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) by repacking of its hydrophobic core at several positions distant from the active site. Here we report that random mutagenesis of residues selected based on alignment with similar enzymes, followed by selection for enhanced sensitization to 5FC, also produces an enzyme variant (yCD-D92E) with elevated Tm values and increased activity half-life. The new mutation is located at the enzyme's dimer interface, indicating that independent mutational pathways can lead to an increase in the temperature that induces protein unfolding and aggregation in thermal denaturation experiments measured by circular dichroism spectroscopy, and an increase in the half-life of enzyme activity at physiological temperature, as well as more subtle effect on enzyme kinetics. Each independently derived set of mutations significantly improves the enzyme's performance in PGT assays both in cell culture and in animal models. PMID:18291415

  18. Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Opportunistic Fungi in the Genera Verruconis and Ochroconis

    PubMed Central

    Samerpitak, K.; Rijs, A. J. M. M.; Melchers, W. J. G.; Mouton, J. W.; Verweij, P. E.; de Hoog, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Species of Verruconis and species of Ochroconis are dematiaceous fungi generally found in the environment but having the ability to infect humans, dogs, cats, poultry, and fish. This study presents the antifungal susceptibility patterns of these fungi at the species level. Forty strains originating from clinical and environmental sources were phylogenetically identified at the species level by using sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS). In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against eight antifungals, using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. The geometric mean MICs for amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), and posaconazole (POS) and minimum effective concentrations (MECs) for caspofungin (CAS) and anidulafungin (AFG) across the Ochroconis and Verruconis species were as follows, in increasing order. For Verruconis species, the values (μg/ml) were as follows: AFG, 0.04; POS, 0.25; ITC, 0.37; AMB, 0.50; CAS, 0.65; VRC, 0.96; 5FC, 10.45; and FLC, 47.25. For Ochroconis species, the values (μg/ml) were as follows: AFG, 0.06; POS, 0.11; CAS, 0.67; VRC, 2.76; ITC, 3.94; AMB, 5.68; 5FC, 34.48; and FLC, 61.33. Antifungal susceptibility of Ochroconis and Verruconis was linked with phylogenetic distance and thermotolerance. Echinocandins and POS showed the greatest in vitro activity, providing possible treatment options for Ochroconis and Verruconis infections. PMID:24687495

  19. Photochemical internalization (PCI) enhanced nonviral transfection of tumor suppressor and pro-drug activating genes; a potential treatment modality for gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Frederick; Zamora, Genesis; Sun, Chung-Ho; Trinidad, Anthony; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen; Kwon, Young Jik; Hirschberg, Henry

    2014-03-01

    The overall objective of the research is to investigate the utility of photochemical internalization for the enhanced nonviral transfection of genes into cells. We have examined, in detail, the evaluation of photochemical internalization (PCI) as a method for the non-viral introduction of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN and the PCI mediated transfection of the cytosine deaminase (CD) pro drug activating gene into glioma cell monolayers and multi-cell tumor spheroids. Expression of the CD gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).

  20. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Combined with Cytosine Deaminase-Endostatin for Suppression of Liver Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Yu, Hui; An, Yan-Li; Chen, Hua-Jun; Jia, ZhenYu; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Transplantation of gene transfected endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) provides a novel method for treatment of human tumors. To study treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma using cytosine deaminase (CD)- and endostatin (ES)-transfected endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), mouse bone marrow-derived EPCs were cultured and transfected with Lenti6.3-CD-EGFP and Lenti6.3-ES-Monomer-DsRed labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. DiD (lipophilic fluorescent dye)-labeled EPCs were injected into normal mice and mice with liver carcinoma. The EPCs loaded with CD-ES were infused into the mice through caudal veins and tumor volumes were measured. The tumor volumes in the EPC + SPIO + CD/5-Fc + ES group were found to be smaller as a result and grew more slowly than those from the EPC + SPIO + LV (lentivirus, empty vector control) group. Survival times were also measured after infusion of the cells into the mice. The median survival time was found to be longer in the EPC + SPIO + CD/5-Fc + ES group than in the others. In conclusion, the EPCs transfected with CD-ES suppressed the liver carcinoma cells in vitro, migrated primarily to the carcinoma, inhibited tumor growth, and also extended the median survival time for the mice with liver carcinoma. PMID:27319212

  1. Macrophage mediated PCI enhanced gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Zamora, Genesis; Kwon, Young J.; Berg, Kristian; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a photodynamic therapy-based approach for improving the delivery of macromolecules and genes into the cell cytosol. Prodrug activating gene therapy (suicide gene therapy) employing the transduction of the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) gene into tumor cells, is a promising method. Expression of this gene within the target cell produces an enzyme that converts the nontoxic prodrug, 5-FC, to the toxic metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). 5-FC may be particularly suitable for brain tumors, because it can readily cross the bloodbrain barrier (BBB). In addition the bystander effect, where activated drug is exported from the transfected cancer cells into the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role by inhibiting growth of adjacent tumor cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are frequently found in and around glioblastomas. Monocytes or macrophages (Ma) loaded with drugs, nanoparticles or photosensitizers could therefore be used to target tumors by local synthesis of chemo attractive factors. The basic concept is to combine PCI, to enhance the ex vivo transfection of a suicide gene into Ma, employing specially designed core/shell NP as gene carrier.

  2. Targeted delivery of a suicide gene to human colorectal tumors by a conditionally replicating vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Foloppe, J; Kintz, J; Futin, N; Findeli, A; Cordier, P; Schlesinger, Y; Hoffmann, C; Tosch, C; Balloul, J-M; Erbs, P

    2008-10-01

    We have generated a thymidine kinase gene-deleted vaccinia virus (VV) (Copenhagen strain) that expressed the fusion suicide gene FCU1 derived from the yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase genes. Intratumoral inoculation of this thymidine kinase gene-deleted VV encoding FCU1 (VV-FCU1) in the presence of systemically administered prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) produced statistically significant reductions in the growth of subcutaneous human colon cancer in nude mice compared with thymidine kinase gene-deleted VV treatments or with control 5-fluorouracil alone. A limitation of prodrug therapies has often been the requirement for the direct injection of the virus into relatively large, accessible tumors. Here we demonstrate vector targeting of tumors growing subcutaneously following systemic administration of VV-FCU1. More importantly we also demonstrate that the systemic injection of VV-FCU1 in nude mice bearing orthotopic liver metastasis of a human colon cancer, with concomitant administration of 5-FC, leads to substantial tumor growth retardation. In conclusion, the insertion of the fusion FCU1 suicide gene potentiates the oncolytic efficiency of the thymidine kinase gene-deleted VV and represents a potentially efficient means for gene therapy of distant metastasis from colon and other cancers. PMID:18480846

  3. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: An Imaging Treatment Response Biomarker to Chemoradiotherapy in a Mouse Model of Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck1

    PubMed Central

    Hamstra, Daniel A; Lee, Kuei C; Moffat, Bradford A; Chenevert, Thomas L; Rehemtulla, Alnawaz; Ross, Brian D

    2008-01-01

    For the treatment of squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN), the assessment of treatment response is traditionally accomplished by volumetric measurements and has been suggested to be prognostic for an eventual response to treatment. An early evaluation response during the course of radiation therapy could provide an opportunity to tailor treatment to individual patients. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for the quantification of tissue water diffusion values, thus treatment-induced loss of tumor cells will result in the increase in water mobility at the microscopic level, which can be detected as an increase in tumor diffusion values before any volumetric changes occur. We evaluated the use of diffusion MRI as an imaging biomarker of treatment response in an orthotopic mouse model of SCCHN. Mice with murine squamous cells expressing the yeast transgene cytosine deaminase were treated with 5-fluorocytosine (5FC), ionizing radiation, and combined therapy and were compared with control animals both during and after treatment for changes in tumor volumes, diffusion values, and survival. Radiation therapy had minimal effect on volumetric growth rate, diffusion, or survival. Although 5FC and combination treatment resulted in similar reductions in tumor volumes, the combination treatment elicited a much greater increase in tumor diffusion values, which correlated with improved survival. Thus, diffusion MRI as an imaging biomarker has a potential for early evaluation of the response to chemoradiation treatment in SCCHN. PMID:19043529

  4. Markerless Gene Deletion with Cytosine Deaminase in Thermus thermophilus Strain HB27

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Hoffmann, Jana; Watzlawick, Hildegard

    2015-01-01

    We developed a counterselectable deletion system for Thermus thermophilus HB27 based on cytosine deaminase (encoded by codA) from Thermaerobacter marianensis DSM 12885 and the sensitivity of T. thermophilus HB27 to the antimetabolite 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC). The deletion vector comprises the pUC18 origin of replication, a thermostable kanamycin resistance marker functional in T. thermophilus HB27, and codA under the control of a constitutive putative trehalose promoter from T. thermophilus HB27. The functionality of the system was demonstrated by deletion of the bglT gene, encoding a β-glycosidase, and three carotenoid biosynthesis genes, CYP175A1, crtY, and crtI, from the genome of T. thermophilus HB27. PMID:26655764

  5. Photodynamic therapy-driven induction of suicide cytosine deaminase gene.

    PubMed

    Bil, Jacek; Wlodarski, Pawel; Winiarska, Magdalena; Kurzaj, Zuzanna; Issat, Tadeusz; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Wegiel, Barbara; Dulak, Jozef; Golab, Jakub

    2010-04-28

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of tumors is associated with induction of hypoxia that results in activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Several observations indicate that increased HIFs transcriptional activity in tumor cells is associated with cytoprotective responses that limit cytotoxic effectiveness of PDT. Therefore, we decided to examine whether this cytoprotective mechanism could be intentionally used for designing more efficient tumor cell cytotoxicity. To this end we transfected tumor cells with a plasmid vector carrying a suicide cytosine deaminase gene driven by a promoter containing hypoxia response elements (HRE). The presence of such a genetic molecular beacon rendered tumor cells sensitive to cytotoxic effects of a non-toxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC). The results of this study provides a proof of concept that inducible cytoprotective mechanisms can be exploited to render tumor cells more susceptible to cytotoxic effects of prodrugs activated by products of suicide genes.

  6. Stabilization of Aspergillus parasiticus cytosine deaminase by immobilization on calcium alginate beads improved enzyme operational stability.

    PubMed

    Zanna, H; Nok, A J; Ibrahim, S; Inuwa, H M

    2013-12-01

    Cytosine deaminase (CD) from Aspergillus parasiticus, which has half-life of 1.10 h at 37°C, was stabilized by immobilization on calcium alginate beads. The immobilized CD had pH and temperature optimum of 5 and 50°C respectively. The immobilized enzyme also stoichiometrically deaminated Cytosine and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) with the apparent K(M) values of 0.60 mM and 0.65 mM respectively, displaying activation energy of 10.72 KJ/mol. The immobilization of native CD on calcium alginate beads gave the highest yield of apparent enzymatic activity of 51.60% of the original activity and the enzymatic activity was lost exponentially at 37°C over 12 h with a half-life of 5.80 h. Hence, the operational stability of native CD can be improved by immobilization on calcium alginate beads.

  7. Targeting eradication of malignant cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yingbin; Cai, Shaoxi; Yang, Li; Yu, Shuhui; Jiang, Jiahuan; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Haoxing; Liu, Lan; Liu, Qun; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui; Sung, K.L. Paul

    2010-12-10

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.

  8. Anticancer effects of the engineered stem cells transduced with therapeutic genes via a selective tumor tropism caused by vascular endothelial growth factor toward HeLa cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Sun; Yi, Bo-Rim; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Seung U; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) expressing bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) and/or human interferon-beta (IFN-β) gene against HeLa cervical cancer and the migration factors of the GESTECs toward the cancer cells. Anticancer effect of GESTECs was examined in a co-culture with HeLa cells using MTT assay to measure cell viability. A transwell migration assay was performed so as to assess the migration capability of the stem cells to cervical cancer cells. Next, several chemoattractant ligands and their receptors related to a selective migration of the stem cells toward HeLa cells were determined by real-time PCR. The cell viability of HeLa cells was decreased in response to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), a prodrug, indicating that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a toxic metabolite, was converted from 5-FC by CD gene and it caused the cell death in a co-culture system. When IFN-β was additionally expressed with CD gene by these GESTECs, the anticancer activity was significantly increased. In the migration assay, the GESTECs selectively migrated to HeLa cervical cancer cells. As results of real-time PCR, chemoattractant ligands such as MCP-1, SCF, and VEGF were expressed in HeLa cells, and several receptors such as uPAR, VEGFR2, and c-kit were produced by the GESTECs. These GESTECs transduced with CD gene and IFN-β may provide a potential of a novel gene therapy for anticervical cancer treatments via their selective tumor tropism derived from VEGF and VEGFR2 expressions between HeLa cells and the GESTECs.

  9. Candida urinary tract infection and Candida species susceptibilities to antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Kayo; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to review Candida isolation from urine of urinary tract infection (UTI) patients over the recent 3 years at the Kobe University Hospital. We recorded the type of strain, the department where the patient was treated such as the intensive care unit (ICU), and combined isolation of Candida with other microorganisms. We investigated Candida isolation and susceptibilities to antifungal agents and analyzed the risk factors for combined isolation with other microorganisms. The most frequently isolated Candida was Candida albicans, which showed good (100%) susceptibilities to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and fluconazole (FLCZ) but not to voriconazole (VRCZ), followed by C. glabrata. ICU was the greatest source of Candida-positive samples, and the most relevant underlying diseases of ICU patients were pneumonia followed by renal failure and post liver transplantation status. Combined isolation with other bacteria was seen in 27 cases (42.9%) in 2009, 25 (33.3%) in 2010 and 31 (31.3%) in 2011 and comparatively often seen in non-ICU patients. Other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ over these 3 years (P=0.004). One hundred (97.1%) of 103 ICU cases were given antibiotics at the time of Candida isolation, and the most often used antibiotics were cefazolin or meropenem. In conclusion, C. albicans was representatively isolated in Candida UTI and showed good susceptibilities to 5-FC, FLCZ and VRCZ, but other candidas than C. albicans showed significantly decreased susceptibility to FLCZ in the change of these 3 years.

  10. Cytosine deaminase as a negative selectable marker for the microalgal chloroplast: a strategy for the isolation of nuclear mutations that affect chloroplast gene expression.

    PubMed

    Young, Rosanna E B; Purton, Saul

    2014-12-01

    Negative selectable markers are useful tools for forward-genetic screens aimed at identifying trans-acting factors that are required for expression of specific genes. Transgenic lines harbouring the marker fused to a gene element, such as a promoter, may be mutagenized to isolate loss-of-function mutants able to survive under selection. Such a strategy allows the molecular dissection of factors that are essential for expression of the gene. Expression of individual chloroplast genes in plants and algae typically requires one or more nuclear-encoded factors that act at the post-transcriptional level, often through interaction with the 5' UTR of the mRNA. To study such nuclear control further, we have developed the Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase gene codA as a conditional negative selectable marker for use in the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that a codon-optimized variant of codA with three amino acid substitutions confers sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) when expressed in the chloroplast under the control of endogenous promoter/5' UTR elements from the photosynthetic genes psaA or petA. UV mutagenesis of the psaA transgenic line allowed recovery of 5-FC-resistant, photosynthetically deficient lines harbouring mutations in the nuclear gene for the factor TAA1 that is required for psaA translation. Similarly, the petA line was used to isolate mutants of the petA mRNA stability factor MCA1 and the translation factor TCA1. The codA marker may be used to identify critical residues in known nuclear factors and to aid the discovery of additional factors required for expression of chloroplast genes. PMID:25234691

  11. The Miscoding Potential of 5-Hydroxycytosine Arises Due to Template Instability in the Replicative Polymerase Active Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zahn, Karl E.; Averill, April; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2012-07-18

    5-Hydroxycytosine (5-OHC) is a stable oxidation product of cytosine associated with an increased frequency of C {yields} T transition mutations. When this lesion escapes recognition by the base excision repair pathway and persists to serve as a templating base during DNA synthesis, replicative DNA polymerases often misincorporate dAMP at the primer terminus, which can lead to fixation of mutations and subsequent disease. To characterize the dynamics of DNA synthesis opposite 5-OHC, we initiated a comparison of unmodified dCMP to 5-OHC, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), and 5-methylcytosine (5-MEC) in which these bases act as templates in the active site of RB69 gp43, a high-fidelity DNA polymerase sharing homology with human replicative DNA polymerases. This study presents the first crystal structure of any DNA polymerase binding this physiologically important premutagenic DNA lesion, showing that while dGMP is stabilized by 5-OHC through normal Watson-Crick base pairing, incorporation of dAMP leads to unstacking and instability in the template. Furthermore, the electronegativity of the C5 substituent appears to be important in the miscoding potential of these cytosine-like templates. While dAMP is incorporated opposite 5-OHC {approx}5 times more efficiently than opposite unmodified dCMP, an elevated level of incorporation is also observed opposite 5-FC but not 5-MEC. Taken together, these data imply that the nonuniform templating by 5-OHC is due to weakened stacking capabilities, which allows dAMP incorporation to proceed in a manner similar to that observed opposite abasic sites.

  12. Synergistic effect of therapeutic stem cells expressing cytosine deaminase and interferon-beta via apoptotic pathway in the metastatic mouse model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bo-Rim; Kim, Seung U; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-02-01

    As an approach to improve treatment of breast cancer metastasis to the brain, we employed genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs, HB1.F3 cells) consisting of neural stem cells (NSCs) expressing cytosine deaminase and the interferon-beta genes, HB1.F3.CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β. In this model, MDA-MB-231/Luc breast cancer cells were implanted in the right hemisphere of the mouse brain, while pre-stained GESTECs with redfluorescence were implanted in the contralateral brain. Two days after stem cells injection, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) was administrated via intraperitoneal injection. Histological analysis of extracted brain confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of GESTECs in the presence of 5-FC based on reductions in density and aggressive tendency of breast cancer cells, as well as pyknosis, karyorrhexis, and karyolysis relative to a negative control. Additionally, expression of PCNA decreased in the stem cells treated group. Treatment of breast cancer cells with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) increased the expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative factor, BAX and p21 protein through phosphorylation of p53 and p38. Moreover, analysis of stem cell migratory ability revealed that MDA-MB-231 cells endogenously secreted VEGF, and stem cells expressed their receptor (VEGFR2). To confirm the role of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling in tumor tropism of stem cells, samples were treated with the VEGFR2 inhibitor, KRN633. The number of migrated stem cells decreased significantly in response to KRN633 due to Erk1/2 activation and PI3K/Akt inhibition. Taken together, these results indicate that treatment with GESTECs, particularly HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β co-expressing CD.IFN-β, may be a useful strategy for treating breast cancer metastasis to the brain in the presence of a prodrug.

  13. Preclinical evaluation of transcriptional targeting strategy for human hepatocellular carcinoma in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Sia, Kian Chuan; Huynh, Hung; Chung, Alexander Yaw Fui; Ooi, London Lucien Peng Jin; Lim, Kiat Hon; Hui, Kam Man; Lam, Paula Yeng Po

    2013-08-01

    Gene regulation of many key cell-cycle players in S-, G(2) phase, and mitosis results from transcriptional repression in their respective promoter regions during the G(0) and G(1) phases of cell cycle. Within these promoter regions are phylogenetically conserved sequences known as the cell-cycle-dependent element (CDE) and cell-cycle genes homology regions (CHR) sites. Thus, we hypothesize that transcriptional regulation of cell-cycle regulation via the CDE/CHR region together with liver-specific apolipoprotein E (apoE)-hAAT promoter could bring about a selective transgene expression in proliferating human hepatocellular carcinoma. We show that the newly generated vector AH-6CC-L2C could mediate hepatocyte-targeted luciferase gene expression in tumor cells and freshly isolated short-term hepatocellular carcinoma cultures from patient biopsy. In contrast, normal murine and human hepatocytes infected with AH-6CC-L2C expressed minimal or low luciferase activities. In the presence of prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), AH-6CC-L2C effectively suppressed the growth of orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma patient-derived xenograft mouse model via the expression of yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) that converts 5-FC to anticancer metabolite 5-fluoruracil. More importantly, we show that combination treatment of AH-6CC-L2C with an EZH2 inhibitor, DZNep, that targets EpCAM-positive hepatocellular carcinoma, can bring about a greater therapeutic efficacy compared with a single treatment of virus or inhibitor. Our study showed that targeting proliferating human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the transcriptional control of therapeutic gene could represent a feasible approach against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Generation and characterization of a human single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody against cytosine deaminase from Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mallano, Alessandra; Zamboni, Silvia; Carpinelli, Giulia; Santoro, Filippo; Flego, Michela; Ascione, Alessandro; Gellini, Mara; Tombesi, Marina; Podo, Franca; Cianfriglia, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    Background The ability of cytosine deaminase (CD) to convert the antifungal agent 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into one of the most potent and largely used anticancer compound such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) raised considerable interest in this enzyme to model gene or antibody – directed enzyme-prodrug therapy (GDEPT/ADEPT) aiming to improve the therapeutic ratio (benefit versus toxic side-effects) of cancer chemotherapy. The selection and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody in single chain fragment (scFv) format represents a powerful reagent to allow in in vitro and in vivo detection of CD expression in GDEPT/ADEPT studies. Results An enzymatic active recombinant CD from yeast (yCD) was expressed in E. coli system and used as antigen for biopanning approach of the large semi-synthetic ETH-2 antibody phage library. Several scFvs were isolated and specificity towards yCD was confirmed by Western blot and ELISA. Further, biochemical and functional investigations demonstrated that the binding of specific scFv with yCD did not interfere with the activity of the enzyme in converting 5-FC into 5-FU. Conclusion The construction of libraries of recombinant antibody fragments that are displayed on the surface of filamentous phage, and the selection of phage antibodies against target antigens, have become an important biotechnological tool in generating new monoclonal antibodies for research and clinical applications. The scFvH5 generated by this method is the first human antibody which is able to detect yCD in routinary laboratory techniques without interfering with its enzymatic function. PMID:18783590

  15. Correlating the Impact of Well-Defined Oligosaccharide Structures on Physical Stability Profiles of IgG1-Fc Glycoforms.

    PubMed

    More, Apurva S; Toprani, Vishal M; Okbazghi, Solomon Z; Kim, Jae H; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Tolbert, Thomas J; Volkin, David B

    2016-02-01

    As part of a series of articles in this special issue describing 4 well-defined IgG1-Fc glycoforms as a model system for biosimilarity analysis (high mannose-Fc, Man5-Fc, GlcNAc-Fc and N297Q-Fc aglycosylated), the focus of this work is comparisons of their physical properties. A trend of decreasing apparent solubility (thermodynamic activity) by polyethylene glycol precipitation (pH 4.5, 6.0) and lower conformational stability by differential scanning calorimetry (pH 4.5) was observed with reducing size of the N297-linked oligosaccharide structures. Using multiple high-throughput biophysical techniques, the physical stability of the Fc glycoproteins was then measured in 2 formulations (NaCl and sucrose) across a wide range of temperatures (10°C-90°C) and pH (4.0-7.5) conditions. The data sets were used to construct 3-index empirical phase diagrams and radar charts to visualize the regions of protein structural stability. Each glycoform showed improved stability in the sucrose (vs. salt) formulation. The HM-Fc and Man5-Fc displayed the highest relative stability, followed by GlcNAc-Fc, with N297Q-Fc being the least stable. Thus, the overall physical stability profiles of the 4 IgG1-Fc glycoforms also show a correlation with oligosaccharide structure. These data sets are used to develop a mathematical model for biosimilarity analysis (as described in a companion article by Kim et al. in this issue).

  16. Effects of Cationic Microbubble Carrying CD/TK Double Suicide Gene and αVβ3 Integrin Antibody in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiale; Zhou, Ping; Li, Lan; Zhang, Yan; Shao, Yang; Tang, Li; Tian, Shuangming

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), mostly derived from hepatitis or cirrhosisis, is one of the most common types of liver cancer. T-cell mediated immune response elicited by CD/TK double suicide gene has shown a substantial antitumor effect in HCC. Integrin αVβ3 over expresssion has been suggested to regulate the biology behavior of HCC. In this study, we investigated the strategy of incorporating CD/TK double suicide gene and anti-αVβ3 integrin monoclonal antibodies into cationic microbubbles (CMBsαvβ3), and evaluated its killing effect in HCC cells. Methods To improve the transfection efficiency of targeted CD/TK double suicide gene, we adopted cationic microbubbles (CMBs), a cationic delivery agent with enhanced DNA-carrying capacity. The ultrasound and high speed shearing method was used to prepare the non-targeting cationic microbubbles (CMBs). Using the biotin-avidin bridge method, αVβ3 integrin antibody was conjugated to CMBs, and CMBsαvβ3 was generated to specifically target to HepG2 cells. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the CMBsαvβ3 was detected by optical microscope and zeta detector. The conjugation of plasmid and the antibody in CMBsαvβ3 were examined by immunofluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. The binding capacities of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs to HCC HepG2 and normal L-02 cells were compared using rosette formation assay. To detect EGFP fluorescence and examine the transfection efficiencies of CMBsαvβ3 and CMBs in HCC cells, fluorescence microscope and contrast-enhanced sonography were adopted. mRNA and protein level of CD/TK gene were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. To evaluate the anti-tumor effect of CMBsαvβ3, HCC cells with CMBsαvβ3 were exposed to 5-flurocytosine / ganciclovir (5-FC/GCV). Then, cell cycle distribution after treatment were detected by PI staining and flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells death were detected by optical microscope and assessed by MTT assay and TUNEL

  17. 1,3,5-Triferrocenyl-2,4,6-tris(ethynylferrocenyl)-benzene--a new member of the family of multiferrocenyl-functionalized cyclic systems.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Ulrike; Filipczyk, Grzegorz; Hildebrandt, Alexander; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2014-11-21

    The consecutive synthesis of 1,3,5-triferrocenyl-2,4,6-tris(ethynylferrocenyl)benzene (6c) is described using 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4,6-I3-C6 (2) as starting compound. Subsequent Sonogashira C,C cross-coupling of 2 with FcC≡CH (3) in the molar ratio of 1:4 afforded solely 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (4c) (Fc = Fe(η(5)-C5H4)(η(5)-C5H5)). However, when 2 is reacted with 3 in a 1:3 ratio a mixture of 1,3,5-Cl3-2-(FcC≡C)-4,6-I2-C6 (4a) and 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4-(FcC≡C)2-6-I-C6 (4b) is obtained. Negishi C,C cross-coupling of 4c with FcZnCl (5) in the presence of catalytic amounts of [Pd(CH2C(CH3)2P(tC4H9)2)(μ-Cl)]2 gave 1,3-Cl2-5-Fc-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6a), 1-Cl-3,5-Fc2-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6b) and 1,3,5-Fc3-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6c) of which 6b is the main product. Column chromatography allowed the separation of these organometallic species. The structures of 4a,b and 6a in the solid state were determined by single crystal X-ray diffractometry showing a π–π interacting dimer (4b) and a complex π–π pattern for 6a. The electrochemical properties of 4a–c and 6a–c were studied by cyclic voltammetry (=CV) and square wave voltammetry (=SWV). It was found that the FcC≡C-substituted benzenes 4a–c show only one reversible redox event, indicating a simultaneous oxidation of all ferrocenyl units, whereby 4c is most difficult to oxidise (4a, E°′1 = 190, ΔEp = 71; 4b, E°′1 = 195, ΔEp = 59; 4c, E°′1 = 390, ΔEp = 59 mV). In case of 4c, the oxidation states 4c(n+) (n = 2, 3) are destabilised by the partial negative charge of the electronegative chlorine atoms, which compensates the repulsive electrostatic Fc+–Fc+ interactions with attractive electrostatic Fc+–Cl(δ−) interactions. When ferrocenyl units are directly attached to the benzene C6 core, organometallic 6a shows three, 6b five and 6c six separated reversible waves highlighting that the Fc units can separately be oxidised. UV-Vis/NIR spectroscopy allowed to determine IVCT absorptions (=Inter Valence

  18. 1,3,5-Triferrocenyl-2,4,6-tris(ethynylferrocenyl)-benzene--a new member of the family of multiferrocenyl-functionalized cyclic systems.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Ulrike; Filipczyk, Grzegorz; Hildebrandt, Alexander; Korb, Marcus; Lang, Heinrich

    2014-11-21

    The consecutive synthesis of 1,3,5-triferrocenyl-2,4,6-tris(ethynylferrocenyl)benzene (6c) is described using 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4,6-I3-C6 (2) as starting compound. Subsequent Sonogashira C,C cross-coupling of 2 with FcC≡CH (3) in the molar ratio of 1:4 afforded solely 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (4c) (Fc = Fe(η(5)-C5H4)(η(5)-C5H5)). However, when 2 is reacted with 3 in a 1:3 ratio a mixture of 1,3,5-Cl3-2-(FcC≡C)-4,6-I2-C6 (4a) and 1,3,5-Cl3-2,4-(FcC≡C)2-6-I-C6 (4b) is obtained. Negishi C,C cross-coupling of 4c with FcZnCl (5) in the presence of catalytic amounts of [Pd(CH2C(CH3)2P(tC4H9)2)(μ-Cl)]2 gave 1,3-Cl2-5-Fc-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6a), 1-Cl-3,5-Fc2-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6b) and 1,3,5-Fc3-2,4,6-(FcC≡C)3-C6 (6c) of which 6b is the main product. Column chromatography allowed the separation of these organometallic species. The structures of 4a,b and 6a in the solid state were determined by single crystal X-ray diffractometry showing a π–π interacting dimer (4b) and a complex π–π pattern for 6a. The electrochemical properties of 4a–c and 6a–c were studied by cyclic voltammetry (=CV) and square wave voltammetry (=SWV). It was found that the FcC≡C-substituted benzenes 4a–c show only one reversible redox event, indicating a simultaneous oxidation of all ferrocenyl units, whereby 4c is most difficult to oxidise (4a, E°′1 = 190, ΔEp = 71; 4b, E°′1 = 195, ΔEp = 59; 4c, E°′1 = 390, ΔEp = 59 mV). In case of 4c, the oxidation states 4c(n+) (n = 2, 3) are destabilised by the partial negative charge of the electronegative chlorine atoms, which compensates the repulsive electrostatic Fc+–Fc+ interactions with attractive electrostatic Fc+–Cl(δ−) interactions. When ferrocenyl units are directly attached to the benzene C6 core, organometallic 6a shows three, 6b five and 6c six separated reversible waves highlighting that the Fc units can separately be oxidised. UV-Vis/NIR spectroscopy allowed to determine IVCT absorptions (=Inter Valence

  19. Toxicity of Amphotericin B Deoxycholate-Based Induction Therapy in Patients with HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Bottomley, Christian; Loyse, Angela; Brouwer, Annemarie E.; Muzoora, Conrad; Taseera, Kabanda; Jackson, Arthur; Phulusa, Jacob; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; van der Horst, Charles; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; White, Nicholas J.; Wilson, Douglas; Wood, Robin; Meintjes, Graeme; Harrison, Thomas S.; Jarvis, Joseph N.

    2015-01-01

    Amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBd) is the recommended induction treatment for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM). Its use is hampered by toxicities that include electrolyte abnormalities, nephrotoxicity, and anemia. Protocols to minimize toxicity are applied inconsistently. In a clinical trial cohort of AmBd-based CM induction treatment, a standardized protocol of preemptive hydration and electrolyte supplementation was applied. Changes in blood counts, electrolyte levels, and creatinine levels over 14 days were analyzed in relation to the AmBd dose, treatment duration (short course of 5 to 7 days or standard course of 14 days), addition of flucytosine (5FC), and outcome. In the 368 patients studied, the hemoglobin levels dropped by a mean of 1.5 g/dl (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 1.9 g/dl) following 7 days of AmBd and by a mean of 2.3 g/dl (95% CI, 1.1 to 3.6 g/dl) after 14 days. Serum creatinine levels increased by 37 μmol/liter (95% CI, 30 to 45 μmol/liter) by day 7 and by 49 μmol/liter (95% CI, 35 to 64μmol/liter) by day 14 of AmBd treatment. Overall, 33% of patients developed grade III/IV anemia, 5.6% developed grade III hypokalemia, 9.5% had creatinine levels that exceeded 220 μmol, and 6% discontinued AmBd prematurely. The addition of 5FC was associated with a slight increase in anemia but not neutropenia. Laboratory abnormalities stabilized or reversed during the second week in patients on short-course induction. Grade III/IV anemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.3; P = 0.028) and nephrotoxicity (aOR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.8 to 11; P = 0.001) were risk factors for 10-week mortality. In summary, routine intravenous saline hydration and preemptive electrolyte replacement during AmBd-based induction regimens for HIV-associated CM minimized the incidence of hypokalemia and nephrotoxicity. Anemia remained a concerning adverse effect. The addition of flucytosine was not associated with increased neutropenia. Shorter AmBd courses

  20. Resistance Surveillance in Candida albicans: A Five-Year Antifungal Susceptibility Evaluation in a Brazilian University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Peron, Isabela Haddad; Reichert-Lima, Franqueline; Busso-Lopes, Ariane Fidelis; Nagasako, Cristiane Kibune; Lyra, Luzia; Moretti, Maria Luiza

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans caused 44% of the overall candidemia episodes from 2006 to 2010 in our university tertiary care hospital. As different antifungal agents are used in therapy and also immunocompromised patients receive fluconazole prophylaxis in our institution, this study aimed to perform an antifungal susceptibility surveillance with the C.albicans bloodstream isolates and to characterize the fluconazole resistance in 2 non-blood C.albicans isolates by sequencing ERG11 gene. The study included 147 C. albicans bloodstream samples and 2 fluconazole resistant isolates: one from oral cavity (LIF 12560 fluconazole MIC: 8μg/mL) and one from esophageal cavity (LIF-E10 fluconazole MIC: 64μg/mL) of two different patients previously treated with oral fluconazole. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to amphotericin B (AMB), 5-flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), caspofungin (CASP) was performed by broth microdilution methodology recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute documents (M27-A3 and M27-S4, CLSI). All blood isolates were classified as susceptible according to CLSI guidelines for all evaluated antifungal agents (MIC range: 0,125–1.00 μg/mL for AMB, ≤0.125–1.00 μg/mL for 5FC, ≤0.125–0.5 μg/mL for FLC, ≤0.015–0.125 μg/mL for ITC, ≤0.015–0.06 μg/mL for VRC and ≤0.015–0.125 μg/mL for CASP). In this study, we also amplified and sequenced the ERG11 gene of LIF 12560 and LIF-E10 C.albicans isolates. Six mutations encoding distinct amino acid substitutions were found (E116D, T128K, E266D, A298V, G448V and G464S) and these mutations were previously described as associated with fluconazole resistance. Despite the large consumption of antifungals in our institution, resistant blood isolates were not found over the trial period. Further studies should be conducted, but it may be that the very prolonged direct contact with the oral antifungal agent administered to the patient from which

  1. Strategies to Save 50% Site Energy in Grocery and General Merchandise Stores

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, A.; Hale, E.; Leach, M.

    2011-03-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology and main results of two recently published Technical Support Documents. These reports explore the feasibility of designing general merchandise and grocery stores that use half the energy of a minimally code-compliant building, as measured on a whole-building basis. We used an optimization algorithm to trace out a minimum cost curve and identify designs that satisfy the 50% energy savings goal. We started from baseline building energy use and progressed to more energy-efficient designs by sequentially adding energy design measures (EDMs). Certain EDMs figured prominently in reaching the 50% energy savings goal for both building types: (1) reduced lighting power density; (2) optimized area fraction and construction of view glass or skylights, or both, as part of a daylighting system tuned to 46.5 fc (500 lux); (3) reduced infiltration with a main entrance vestibule or an envelope air barrier, or both; and (4) energy recovery ventilators, especially in humid and cold climates. In grocery stores, the most effective EDM, which was chosen for all climates, was replacing baseline medium-temperature refrigerated cases with high-efficiency models that have doors.

  2. Influence of the prodrugs 5-fluorocytosine and CPT-11 on ovarian cancer cells using genetically engineered stem cells: tumor-tropic potential and inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Yon; Kim, Seung U; Leung, Peter C K; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) to produce suicide enzymes that convert non-toxic prodrugs to toxic metabolites selectively migrate toward tumor sites and reduce tumor growth. In the present study, we evaluated whether these GESTECs were capable of migrating to human ovarian cancer cells and examined the potential therapeutic efficacy of the gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy against ovarian cancer cells in vitro. The expression of cytosine deaminase (CD) or carboxyl esterase (CE) mRNA of GESTECs was confirmed by RT-PCR. A modified transwell migration assay was performed to determine the migratory capacity of GESTECs to ovarian cancer cells. GESTECs (HB1.F3.CD or HB1.F3.CE cells) engineered to express a suicide gene (CD or CE) selectively migrated toward ovarian cancer cells. A [(3)H] thymidine incorporation assay was conducted to measure the proliferative index. Treatment of human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line (SKOV-3, an ovarian adenocarcinoma derived from the ascites of an ovarian cancer patient) with the prodrugs 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) or camptothecin-11 (CPT-11) in the presence of HB1.F3.CD or HB1.F3.CE cells resulted in the inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth. Based on the data presented herein, we suggest that GESTECs expressing CD/CE may have a potent advantage to selectively treat ovarian cancers.

  3. Adenoviral-mediated imaging of gene transfer using a somatostatin receptor-cytosine deaminase fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Lears, K A; Parry, J J; Andrews, R; Nguyen, K; Wadas, T J; Rogers, B E

    2015-03-01

    Suicide gene therapy is a process by which cells are administered a gene that encodes a protein capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into an active toxin. Cytosine deaminase (CD) has been widely investigated as a means of suicide gene therapy owing to the enzyme's ability to convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, the extent of gene transfer is a limiting factor in predicting therapeutic outcome. The ability to monitor gene transfer, non-invasively, would strengthen the efficiency of therapy. In this regard, we have constructed and evaluated a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) containing the human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) fused with a C-terminal yeast CD gene for the non-invasive monitoring of gene transfer and therapy. The resulting Ad (AdSSTR2-yCD) was evaluated in vitro in breast cancer cells to determine the function of the fusion protein. These studies demonstrated that both the SSTR2 and yCD were functional in binding assays, conversion assays and cytotoxicity assays. In vivo studies similarly demonstrated the functionality using conversion assays, biodistribution studies and small animal positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. In conclusion, the fusion protein has been validated as useful for the non-invasive imaging of yCD expression and will be evaluated in the future for monitoring yCD-based therapy. PMID:25837665

  4. Ferrocene-containing chelating ligands. 1. Solution study, synthesis, crystal structure, and electronic properties of bis[l brace]N,N[prime]-ethylenebis((ferrocenylmethyl)amine)[r brace]copper(II) nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Benito, A.; Cano, J.; Martinez-Manez, R.; Soto, J.; Paya, J. ); Lloret, F.; Julve, M.; Faus, J.; Marcos, M.D. )

    1993-03-31

    The synthesis of the Schiff base N,N[prime]-ethylenebis((ferrocenylmethylidene)amine),([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 5]H[sub 5])Fe[([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 5]H[sub 4])CH[double bond]N(CH[sub 2])[sub 2]N[double bond]CH([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 5]H[sub 4])]Fe([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 5]H[sub 5]) (1), its parent amine ([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 5]H[sub 5])Fe[([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 5]H[sub 4])CH[sub 2]NH(CH[sub 2])[sub 2]NHCH[sub 2]([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 5]H[sub 4])]Fe([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 5]H[sub 5]),Fc[sub 2]L (2), and the complex [Cu(Fc[sub 2]L)[sub 2](NO[sub 3])[sub 2

  5. Sensing Small Changes in Protein Abundance: Stimulation of Caco-2 Cells by Human Whey Proteins.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Judy K; McConnell, Elizabeth J; Lohe, Kimberly J; Maria, Sarah D; McMahon, Robert J; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approaches have largely facilitated our systemic understanding of cellular processes and biological functions. Cutoffs in protein expression fold changes (FCs) are often arbitrarily determined in MS-based quantification with no demonstrable determination of small magnitude changes in protein expression. Therefore, many biological insights may remain veiled due to high FC cutoffs. Herein, we employ the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line Caco-2 as a model system to demonstrate the dynamicity of tandem-mass-tag (TMT) labeling over a range of 5-40% changes in protein abundance, with the variance controls of ± 5% FC for around 95% of TMT ratios when sampling 9-12 biological replicates. We further applied this procedure to examine the temporal proteome of Caco-2 cells upon exposure to human whey proteins (WP). Pathway assessments predict subtle effects due to WP in moderating xenobiotic metabolism, promoting proliferation and various other cellular functions in differentiating enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. This demonstration of a sensitive MS approach may open up new perspectives in the system-wide exploration of elusive or transient biological effects by facilitating scrutiny of narrow windows of proteome abundance changes. Furthermore, we anticipate this study will encourage more investigations of WP on infant gastrointestinal tract development.

  6. Suzaku monitoring of the Wolf-Rayet binary WR 140 around periastron passage: An approach for quantifying the wind parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Yasuharu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Tsuboi, Yohko; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael; Pollock, Andy M. T.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Williams, Peredur M.; Dougherty, Sean; Pittard, Julian

    2015-12-01

    Suzaku observations of the Wolf-Rayet (W-R) binary WR 140 (WC7pd+O5.5fc) were made at four different times around periastron passage in 2009 January. The spectra changed in shape and flux with the phase. As periastron approached, the column density of the low-energy absorption increased, which indicates that the emission from the wind-wind collision plasma was absorbed by the dense W-R wind. The spectra can be mostly fitted with two different components: a warm component with kBT = 0.3-0.6 keV and a dominant hot component with kBT ˜ 3 keV. The emission measure of the dominant, hot component is not inversely proportional to the distance between the two stars. This can be explained by the O star wind colliding before it has reached its terminal velocity, leading to a reduction in its wind momentum flux. At phases closer to periastron, we discovered a cool plasma component in a recombining phase, which is less absorbed. This component may be a relic of the wind-wind collision plasma, which was cooled down by radiation, and may represent a transitional stage in dust formation.

  7. New low molecular weight polycation-based nanoparticles for effective codelivery of pDNA and drug.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Yu, Bingran; Hu, Hao; Hu, Yang; Zhao, Na-Na; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2014-10-22

    The development of new cationic nanoparticles that are safe and effective for biomedical applications has attracted considerable attention. Low molecular weight polycations generally exhibit low toxicity; however, their poor efficiency in drug delivery systems hampers their application. In this work, a series of new low molecular weight 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazolyl)pyridinyl (BIP)-terminated ethanolamine-functionalized poly(glycidyl methacrylate)s (BIP-PGEAs) were readily fabricated for effective codelivery of a gene and a drug. The BIP-PGEAs could form well-defined cationic nanoparticles (NPs) in an aqueous solution. They could effectively bind pDNA with an appropriate particle size and ζ-potential. More importantly, the BIP-PGEA NPs demonstrated much higher transfection efficiencies than linear PGEA (L-PGEA) and the traditional "gold-standard" branched polyethylenimine (25 kDa). Moreover, the BIP-PGEA NPs could effectively entrap a hydrophobic anticancer drug such as 10-hydroxy camptothecin (CPT). The synergistic antitumor effect of the BIP-PGEA-CPT NPs was demonstrated by employing a suicide gene therapy system, which contained cytosine deaminase and 5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC). The present strategy for preparing well-defined cationic nanoparticles from low-molecular-weight polycations could provide an intriguing method to produce new multifunctional, therapeutic NPs.

  8. Contribution of Human FcγRs to Disease with Evidence from Human Polymorphisms and Transgenic Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Caitlin; Gouel-Chéron, Aurélie; Jönsson, Friederike; Bruhns, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of human IgG antibodies predominantly rely on a family of receptors for the Fc portion of IgG, FcγRs: FcγRI, FcγRIIA, FcγRIIB, FcγRIIC, FcγRIIIA, FcγRIIIB, FcRL5, FcRn, and TRIM21. All FcγRs bind IgG at the cell surface, except FcRn and TRIM21 that bind IgG once internalized. The affinity of FcγRs for IgG is determined by polymorphisms of human FcγRs and ranges from 2 × 104 to 8 × 107 M−1. The biological functions of FcγRs extend from cellular activation or inhibition, IgG-internalization/endocytosis/phagocytosis to IgG transport and recycling. This review focuses on human FcγRs and intends to present an overview of the current understanding of how these receptors may contribute to various pathologies. It will define FcγRs and their polymorphic variants, their affinity for human IgG subclasses, and review the associations found between FcγR polymorphisms and human pathologies. It will also describe the human FcγR-transgenic mice that have been used to study the role of these receptors in autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic disease models. PMID:24910634

  9. Oncolytic virotherapy with an armed vaccinia virus in an orthotopic model of renal carcinoma is associated with modification of the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Fend, Laetitia; Remy-Ziller, Christelle; Foloppe, Johann; Kempf, Juliette; Cochin, Sandrine; Barraud, Luc; Accart, Nathalie; Erbs, Philippe; Fournel, Sylvie; Préville, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oncolytic virotherapy is an emergent promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. We have constructed a vaccinia virus (WR strain) deleted for thymidine kinase (TK) and ribonucleotide reductase (RR) genes that expressed the fusion suicide gene FCU1 derived from the yeast cytosine deaminase and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase genes. We evaluated this construct (VV-FCU1) in the orthotopic model of renal carcinoma (RenCa). Systemic administration of VV-FCU1 resulted in orthotopic tumor growth inhibition, despite temporary expression of viral proteins. VV-FCU1 treatment was associated with an infiltration of tumors by CD8+ T lymphocytes and a decrease in the proportion of infiltrating Tregs, thus modifying the ratio of CD8+/CD4+ Treg in favor of CD8+cytotoxic T cells. We demonstrated that VV-FCU1 treatment prolonged survival of animals implanted with RenCa cells in kidney. Depletion of CD8+ T cells abolished the therapeutic effect of VV-FCU1 while depletion of CD4+ T cells enhanced its protective activity. Administration of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) resulted in a sustained control of tumor growth but did not extend survival. This study shows the importance of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vaccinia virus-mediated oncolytic virotherapy and suggests that this approach may be evaluated for the treatment of human renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27057460

  10. Activation of multiple chemotherapeutic prodrugs by the natural enzymolome of tumour-localised probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lehouritis, Panos; Stanton, Michael; McCarthy, Florence O; Jeavons, Matthieu; Tangney, Mark

    2016-01-28

    Some chemotherapeutic drugs (prodrugs) require activation by an enzyme for efficacy. We and others have demonstrated the ability of probiotic bacteria to grow specifically within solid tumours following systemic administration, and we hypothesised that the natural enzymatic activity of these tumour-localised bacteria may be suitable for activation of certain such chemotherapeutic drugs. Several wild-type probiotic bacteria; Escherichia coli Nissle, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus species, were screened against a panel of popular prodrugs. All strains were capable of activating at least one prodrug. E. coli Nissle 1917 was selected for further studies because of its ability to activate numerous prodrugs and its resistance to prodrug toxicity. HPLC data confirmed biochemical transformation of prodrugs to their toxic counterparts. Further analysis demonstrated that different enzymes can complement prodrug activation, while simultaneous activation of multiple prodrugs (CB1954, 5-FC, AQ4N and Fludarabine phosphate) by E. coli was confirmed, resulting in significant efficacy improvement. Experiments in mice harbouring murine tumours validated in vitro findings, with significant reduction in tumour growth and increase in survival of mice treated with probiotic bacteria and a combination of prodrugs. These findings demonstrate the ability of probiotic bacteria, without the requirement for genetic modification, to enable high-level activation of multiple prodrugs specifically at the site of action. PMID:26655063

  11. Adenoviral-Mediated Imaging of Gene Transfer Using a Somatostatin Receptor-Cytosine Deaminase Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lears, Kimberly A.; Parry, Jesse J.; Andrews, Rebecca; Nguyen, Kim; Wadas, Thaddeus J.; Rogers, Buck E.

    2015-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy is a process by which cells are administered a gene that encodes a protein capable of converting a nontoxic prodrug into an active toxin. Cytosine deaminase (CD) has been widely investigated as a means of suicide gene therapy due to the enzyme’s ability to convert the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) into the toxic compound 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). However, the extent of gene transfer is a limiting factor in predicting therapeutic outcome. The ability to monitor gene transfer, non-invasively, would strengthen the efficiency of therapy. In this regard, we have constructed and evaluated a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) containing the human somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) fused with a C-terminal yeast CD gene for the non-invasive monitoring of gene transfer and therapy. The resulting Ad (AdSSTR2-yCD) was evaluated in vitro in breast cancer cells to determine the function of the fusion protein. These studies demonstrated that the both the SSTR2 and yCD were functional in binding assays, conversion assays, and cytotoxicity assays. In vivo studies similarly demonstrated the functionality using conversion assays, biodistribution studies, and small animal positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging studies. In conclusion, the fusion protein has been validated as useful for the non-invasive imaging of yCD expression and will be evaluated in the future for monitoring yCD-based therapy. PMID:25837665

  12. Mannan induces ROS-regulated, IL-17A–dependent psoriasis arthritis-like disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Khmaladze, Ia; Kelkka, Tiina; Guerard, Simon; Wing, Kajsa; Pizzolla, Angela; Saxena, Amit; Lundqvist, Katarina; Holmdahl, Meirav; Nandakumar, Kutty Selva; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis (Ps) and psoriasis arthritis (PsA) are poorly understood common diseases, induced by unknown environmental factors, affecting skin and articular joints. A single i.p. exposure to mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced an acute inflammation in inbred mouse strains resembling human Ps and PsA-like disease, whereas multiple injections induced a relapsing disease. Exacerbation of disease severity was observed in mice deficient for generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, restoration of ROS production, specifically in macrophages, ameliorated both skin and joint disease. Neutralization of IL-17A, mainly produced by γδ T cells, completely blocked disease symptoms. Furthermore, mice depleted of granulocytes were resistant to disease development. In contrast, certain acute inflammatory mediators (C5, Fcγ receptor III, mast cells, and histamine) and adaptive immune players (αβ T and B cells) were redundant in disease induction. Hence, we propose that mannan-induced activation of macrophages leads to TNF-α secretion and stimulation of local γδ T cells secreting IL-17A. The combined action of activated macrophages and IL-17A produced in situ drives neutrophil infiltration in the epidermis and dermis of the skin, leading to disease manifestations. Thus, our finding suggests a new mechanism triggered by exposure to exogenous microbial components, such as mannan, that can induce and exacerbate Ps and PsA. PMID:25136095

  13. Dexamethasone Regulates EphA5, a Potential Inhibitory Factor with Osteogenic Capability of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Okawa, Atsushi; Sotome, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the importance of quality management procedures for the handling of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and provided evidence for the existence of osteogenic inhibitor molecules in BMSCs. One candidate inhibitor is the ephrin type-A receptor 5 (EphA5), which is expressed in hBMSCs and upregulated during long-term culture. In this study, forced expression of EphA5 diminished the expression of osteoblast phenotypic markers. Downregulation of endogenous EphA5 by dexamethasone treatment promoted osteoblast marker expression. EphA5 could be involved in the normal growth regulation of BMSCs and could be a potential marker for replicative senescence. Although Eph forward signaling stimulated by ephrin-B-Fc promoted the expression of ALP mRNA in BMSCs, exogenous addition of EphA5-Fc did not affect the ALP level. The mechanism underlying the silencing of EphA5 in early cultures remains unclear. EphA5 promoter was barely methylated in hBMSCs while histone deacetylation could partially suppress EphA5 expression in early-passage cultures. In repeatedly passaged cultures, the upregulation of EphA5 independent of methylation could competitively inhibit osteogenic signal transduction pathways such as EphB forward signaling. Elucidation of the potential inhibitory function of EphA5 in hBMSCs may provide an alternative approach for lineage differentiation in cell therapy strategies and regenerative medicine. PMID:27057165

  14. Reconstitution of Fusion Proteins in Supported Lipid Bilayers for the Study of Cell Surface Receptor-Ligand Interactions in Cell-Cell Contact.

    PubMed

    Ghosh Moulick, R; Afanasenkau, D; Choi, S-E; Albers, J; Lange, W; Maybeck, V; Utesch, T; Offenhäusser, A

    2016-04-12

    Bioactive molecules such as adhesion ligands, growth factors, or enzymes play an important role in modulating cell behavior such as cell adhesion, spreading, and differentiation. Deciphering the mechanism of ligand-mediated cell adhesion and associated signaling is of great interest not only for fundamental biophysical investigations but also for applications in medicine and biotechnology. In the presented work, we developed a new biomimetic platform that enables culturing primary neurons and testing cell surface-receptor ligand interactions in cell-cell contacts as, e.g., in neuronal synapses. This platform consists of a supported lipid bilayer modified with incorporated neuronal adhesion proteins conjugated with the Fc-domain of IgG (ephrin A5 Fc-chimera). We extensively characterized properties of these protein containing bilayers using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), and immunostaining. We conclude that the Fc-domain is the part responsible for the incorporation of the protein into the bilayer. The biomimetic platform prepared by this new approach was able to promote neuronal cell adhesion and maintain growth as well as facilitate neuronal maturation as shown by electrophysiological measurements. We believe that our approach can be extended to insert other proteins to create a general culture platform for neurons and other cell types. PMID:26986674

  15. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester enhances TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via CHOP-induced death receptor 5 upregulation in hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells.

    PubMed

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Park, Sang Rul; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Gi-Young

    2016-07-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) exhibits various pharmaceutical properties, including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-cancer, and anti-oxidative activity. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been a promising anti-cancer agent that preferentially induces cancer cell apoptosis with negligible cytotoxicity toward normal cells. Therefore, the present study investigated whether CAPE promotes TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity in hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells. The present study demonstrated that CAPE sensitized TRAIL-mediated cell death in Hep3B carcinoma cells. The percentages of the apoptotic cells and annexin-V(+) cells significantly increased in combined treatment with CAPE and TRAIL (CAPE/TRAIL). Treatment with pancaspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, attenuated CAPE/TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the combined treatment triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis. Additionally, we found that CAPE stimulated the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) and treatment with DR5/Fc chimera protein significantly blocked CAPE/TRAIL-induced apoptosis, which indicates that CAPE/TRAIL stimulated apoptosis through the binding of TRAIL to DR5. Moreover, expression of transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) markedly increased in response to CAPE and transient knockdown of CHOP abolished CAPE/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. These results suggest that CHOP is a key regulator in CAPE/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Taken together, the present study found that CAPE significantly enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in Hep3B carcinoma cells and suggested that CAPE has promising potential in chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinomas. PMID:27260301

  16. TBBPA exposure during a sensitive developmental window produces neurobehavioral changes in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiangfei; Tanguay, Robert L; Xiao, Yanyan; Haggard, Derik E; Ge, Xiaoqing; Jia, Yinhang; Zheng, Yi; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang; Lin, Kuangfei

    2016-09-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), is a ubiquitous contaminant in the environment and in the human body. This study demonstrated that zebrafish embryos exposed to TBBPA during a sensitive window of 8-48 h post-fertilization (hpf) displayed morphological malformations and mortality. Zebrafish exposed exclusively between 48 and 96 hpf were phenotypically normal. TBBPA was efficiently absorbed and accumulated in zebrafish embryos, but was eliminated quickly when the exposure solution was removed. Larval behavior assays conducted at 120 hpf indicated that exposure to 5 μM TBBPA from 8 to 48 hpf produced larvae with significantly lower average activity and speed of movement in the normal condition than in those exposed from 48 to 96 hpf. Specifically, 8-48 hpf-exposed larvae spent significantly less time in both activity bursts and gross movements compared to control or 48-96 hpf exposed larvae. Consistent with the motor deficits, TBBPA induced apoptotic cell death, delayed cranial motor neuron development, inhibited primary motor neuron development and loosed muscle fiber during the early developmental stages. To further explore TBBPA-induced developmental and neurobehavioral toxicity, RNA-Seq analysis was used to identify early transcriptional changes following TBBPA exposure. In total, 1969 transcripts were significantly differentially expressed (P < 0.05, FDR < 0.05, 1.5-FC) upon TBBPA exposure. Functional and pathway analysis of the TBBPA transcriptional profile identified biological processes involved in nerve development, muscle filament sliding and contraction, and extracellular matrix disassembly and organization changed significantly. In addition, TBBPA also led to an elevation in the expression of genes encoding uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferases (ugt), which could affect thyroxine (T4) metabolism and subsequently lead to neurobehavioral changes. In summary, TBBPA exposure

  17. PSMA-Targeted Theranostic Nanoplex for Prostate Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Li, Cong; Banerjee, Sangeeta R.; Winnard, Paul T.; Artemov, Dmitri; Glunde, Kristine; Pomper, Martin G.; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.

    2014-01-01

    Theranostic imaging, where diagnosis is combined with therapy, is particularly suitable for a disease that is as complex as cancer, especially now that genomic and proteomic profiling can provide an extensive “fingerprint” of each tumor. With such information, theranostic agents can be designed to personalize treatment and minimize damage to normal tissue. Here we have developed a nanoplex platform for theranostic imaging of prostate cancer (PCa). In these proof-of-principle studies, a therapeutic nanoplex containing multimodal imaging reporters was targeted to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is expressed on the cell surface of castrate-resistant PCa. The nanoplex was designed to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) along with a prodrug enzyme to PSMA-expressing tumors. Each component of the nanoplex was carefully selected to evaluate its diagnostic aspect of PSMA imaging and its therapeutic aspects of siRNA-mediated down-regulation of a target gene and the conversion of a prodrug to cytotoxic drug, using noninvasive multimodality imaging. Studies performed using two variants of human PC3-PCa cells and tumors, one with high PSMA expression level and another with negligible expression levels, demonstrated PSMA-specific uptake. In addition, down-regulation of the selected siRNA target, choline kinase (Chk), and the conversion of the nontoxic prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) were also demonstrated with noninvasive imaging. The nanoplex was well-tolerated and did not induce liver or kidney toxicity or a significant immune response. The nanoplex platform described can be easily modified and applied to different cancers, receptors, and pathways to achieve theranostic imaging, as a single agent or in combination with other treatment modalities. PMID:22866897

  18. Therapeutic potential of stem cells expressing suicide genes that selectively target human breast cancer cells: evidence that they exert tumoricidal effects via tumor tropism (review).

    PubMed

    Yi, Bo-Rim; Choi, Kelvin J; Kim, Seung U; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2012-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide and is classified into ductal and lobular carcinoma. Breast cancer as well as lobular carcinoma is associated with various risk factors such as gender, age, female hormone exposure, ethnicity, family history and genetic risk factor-associated genes. Genes associated with a high risk of developing breast cancer include BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, PTEN, CHEK2 and ATM. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone therapy are used to treat breast cancer but these therapies, except for surgery, have many side-effects such as alopecia, anesthesia, diarrhea and arthralgia. Gene-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (GEPT) or suicide gene therapy, may improve the therapeutic efficacy of conventional cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy without side-effects. GEPT most often involves the use of a viral vector to deliver a gene not found in mammalian cells and that produces enzymes which can convert a relatively non-toxic prodrug into a toxic agent. Examples of these systems include cytosine deaminase/5-fluorocytosine (CD/5-FC), carboxyl esterase/irinotecan (CE/CPT-11), and thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV). Recently, therapies based on genetically engineered stem cells (GESTECs) using a GEPT system have received a great deal of attention for their clinical and therapeutic potential to treat breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential of GESTECs via tumor tropism effects and therapeutic efficacy against several different types of cancer cells. GESTECs represent a useful tool for treating breast cancer without inducing injuries associated with conventional therapeutic modalities.

  19. Inflammation-driven malnutrition: a new screening tool predicts outcome in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Irene; Prager, Matthias; Valentini, Luzia; Büning, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent feature in Crohn's disease (CD), affects patient outcome and must be recognised. For chronic inflammatory diseases, recent guidelines recommend the development of combined malnutrition and inflammation risk scores. We aimed to design and evaluate a new screening tool that combines both malnutrition and inflammation parameters that might help predict clinical outcome. In a prospective cohort study, we examined fifty-five patients with CD in remission (Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) <200) at 0 and 6 months. We assessed disease activity (CDAI, Harvey-Bradshaw index), inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), faecal calprotectin (FC)), malnutrition (BMI, subjective global assessment (SGA), serum albumin, handgrip strength), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis) and administered the newly developed 'Malnutrition Inflammation Risk Tool' (MIRT; containing BMI, unintentional weight loss over 3 months and CRP). All parameters were evaluated regarding their ability to predict disease outcome prospectively at 6 months. At baseline, more than one-third of patients showed elevated inflammatory markers despite clinical remission (36·4 % CRP ≥5 mg/l, 41·5 % FC ≥100 µg/g). Prevalence of malnutrition at baseline according to BMI, SGA and serum albumin was 2-16 %. At 6 months, MIRT significantly predicted outcome in numerous nutritional and clinical parameters (SGA, CD-related flares, hospitalisations and surgeries). In contrast, SGA, handgrip strength, BMI, albumin and body composition had no influence on the clinical course. The newly developed MIRT was found to reliably predict clinical outcome in CD patients. This screening tool might be used to facilitate clinical decision making, including treatment of both inflammation and malnutrition in order to prevent complications.

  20. Advanced Running Performance by Genetic Predisposition in Male Dummerstorf Marathon Mice (DUhTP) Reveals Higher Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP) Related mRNA Expression in the Liver and Higher Serum Levels of Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Brenmoehl, Julia; Walz, Christina; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Schwerin, Manfred; Fuellen, Georg; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Long-term-selected DUhTP mice represent a non-inbred model for inborn physical high-performance without previous training. Abundance of hepatic mRNA in 70-day male DUhTP and control mice was analyzed using the Affymetrix mouse array 430A 2.0. Differential expression analysis with PLIER corrected data was performed using AltAnalyze. Searching for over-representation in biochemical pathways revealed cholesterol metabolism being most prominently affected in DUhTP compared to unselected control mice. Furthermore, pathway analysis by AltAnalyze plus PathVisio indicated significant induction of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver of DUhTP mice versus unselected control mice. In contrast, gluconeogenesis was partially inactivated as judged from the analysis of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance in DUhTP mice. Analysis of mRNA transcripts related to steroid hormone metabolism inferred elevated synthesis of progesterone and reduced levels of sex steroids. Abundance of steroid delta isomerase-5 mRNA (Hsd3b5, FC 4.97) was increased and steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase mRNA (Cyp17a1, FC -11.6) was massively diminished in the liver of DUhTP mice. Assessment of steroid profiles by LC-MS revealed increased levels of progesterone and decreased levels of sex steroids in serum from DUhTP mice versus controls. Analysis of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance indicates that sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) may play a major role in metabolic pathway activation in the marathon mouse model DUhTP. Thus, results from bioinformatics modeling of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance correlated with direct steroid analysis by mass spectrometry and further indicated functions of SREBP-1 and steroid hormones for endurance performance in DUhTP mice. PMID:26799318

  1. Nanostructured self-assembly materials from neat and aqueous solutions of C18 lipid pro-drug analogues of Capecitabine—a chemotherapy agent. Focus on nanoparticulate cubosomes™ of the oleyl analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Xiaojuan; Moghaddam, Minoo J.; Sagnella, Sharon M.; Conn, Charlotte E.; Mulet, Xavier; Danon, Stephen J.; Waddington, Lynne J.; Drummond, Calum J.

    2014-09-24

    A series of prodrug analogues based on the established chemotherapy agent, 5-fluorouracil, have been prepared and characterized. C18 alkyl and alkenyl chains with increasing degree of unsaturation were attached to the N4 position of the 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) base via a carbamate bond. Physicochemical characterization of the prodrug analogues was carried out using a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, cross-polarized optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and small-angle X-ray scattering. The presence of a monounsaturated oleyl chain was found to promote lyotropic liquid crystalline phase formation in excess water with a fluid lamellar phase observed at room temperature and one or more bicontinuous cubic phases at 37 °C. The bulk phase was successfully dispersed into liposomes or cubosomes at room and physiological temperature respectively. In vitro toxicity of the nanoparticulate 5-FCOle dispersions was evaluated against several normal and cancer cell types over a 48 h period and exhibited an IC50 of -100 μM against all cell types. The in vivo efficacy of 5-FCOle cubosomes was assessed against the highly aggressive mouse 4T1 breast cancer model and compared to Capecitabine (a water-soluble commercially available 5-FU prodrug) delivered at the same dosages. After 21 days of treatment, the 0.5 mmol 5-FCOle treatment group exhibited a significantly smaller average tumour volume than all other treatment groups including Capecitabine at similar dosage. These results exemplify the potential of self-assembled amphiphile prodrugs for delivery of bioactives in vivo.

  2. MRI phenotypes with high neurodegeneration are associated with peripheral blood B-cell changes.

    PubMed

    Comabella, Manuel; Cantó, Ester; Nurtdinov, Ramil; Río, Jordi; Villar, Luisa M; Picón, Carmen; Castilló, Joaquín; Fissolo, Nicolás; Aymerich, Xavier; Auger, Cristina; Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier

    2016-01-15

    Little is known about the mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the role of peripheral blood cells in this neurodegenerative component. We aimed to correlate brain radiological phenotypes defined by high and low neurodegeneration with gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from MS patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 64 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) were classified into radiological phenotypes characterized by low (N = 27) and high (N = 37) neurodegeneration according to the number of contrast-enhancing lesions, the relative volume of non-enhancing black holes on T1-weighted images, and the brain parenchymal fraction. Gene expression profiling was determined in PBMC using microarrays, and validation of selected genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). B-cell immunophenotyping was conducted by flow cytometry. Microarray analysis revealed the B-cell specific genes FCRL1, FCRL2, FCRL5 (Fc receptor-like 1, 2 and 5 respectively), and CD22 as the top differentially expressed genes between patients with high and low neurodegeneration. Levels for these genes were significantly down-regulated in PBMC from patients with MRI phenotypes characterized by high neurodegeneration and microarray findings were validated by PCR. In patients with high neurodegeneration, immunophenotyping showed a significant increase in the expression of the B-cell activation markers CD80 in naïve B cells (CD45+/CD19+/CD27-/IgD+), unswitched memory B cells (CD45+/CD19+/CD27+/IgD+), and switched memory B cells (CD45+/CD19+/CD27+/IgD-), and CD86 in naïve and switched memory B cells. These results suggest that RRMS patients with radiological phenotypes showing high neurodegeneration have changes in B cells characterized by down-regulation of B-cell-specific genes and increased activation status. PMID:26604134

  3. Inflammation-driven malnutrition: a new screening tool predicts outcome in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Irene; Prager, Matthias; Valentini, Luzia; Büning, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent feature in Crohn's disease (CD), affects patient outcome and must be recognised. For chronic inflammatory diseases, recent guidelines recommend the development of combined malnutrition and inflammation risk scores. We aimed to design and evaluate a new screening tool that combines both malnutrition and inflammation parameters that might help predict clinical outcome. In a prospective cohort study, we examined fifty-five patients with CD in remission (Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) <200) at 0 and 6 months. We assessed disease activity (CDAI, Harvey-Bradshaw index), inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), faecal calprotectin (FC)), malnutrition (BMI, subjective global assessment (SGA), serum albumin, handgrip strength), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis) and administered the newly developed 'Malnutrition Inflammation Risk Tool' (MIRT; containing BMI, unintentional weight loss over 3 months and CRP). All parameters were evaluated regarding their ability to predict disease outcome prospectively at 6 months. At baseline, more than one-third of patients showed elevated inflammatory markers despite clinical remission (36·4 % CRP ≥5 mg/l, 41·5 % FC ≥100 µg/g). Prevalence of malnutrition at baseline according to BMI, SGA and serum albumin was 2-16 %. At 6 months, MIRT significantly predicted outcome in numerous nutritional and clinical parameters (SGA, CD-related flares, hospitalisations and surgeries). In contrast, SGA, handgrip strength, BMI, albumin and body composition had no influence on the clinical course. The newly developed MIRT was found to reliably predict clinical outcome in CD patients. This screening tool might be used to facilitate clinical decision making, including treatment of both inflammation and malnutrition in order to prevent complications. PMID:27546478

  4. A novel platform for engineering blood-brain barrier-crossing bispecific biologics.

    PubMed

    Farrington, Graham K; Caram-Salas, Nadia; Haqqani, Arsalan S; Brunette, Eric; Eldredge, John; Pepinsky, Blake; Antognetti, Giovanna; Baumann, Ewa; Ding, Wen; Garber, Ellen; Jiang, Susan; Delaney, Christie; Boileau, Eve; Sisk, William P; Stanimirovic, Danica B

    2014-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents the access of therapeutic antibodies to central nervous system (CNS) targets. The engineering of bispecific antibodies in which a therapeutic "arm" is combined with a BBB-transcytosing arm can significantly enhance their brain delivery. The BBB-permeable single-domain antibody FC5 was previously isolated by phenotypic panning of a naive llama single-domain antibody phage display library. In this study, FC5 was engineered as a mono- and bivalent fusion with the human Fc domain to optimize it as a modular brain delivery platform. In vitro studies demonstrated that the bivalent fusion of FC5 with Fc increased the rate of transcytosis (Papp) across brain endothelial monolayer by 25% compared with monovalent fusion. Up to a 30-fold enhanced apparent brain exposure (derived from serum and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetic profiles) of FC5- compared with control domain antibody-Fc fusions after systemic dosing in rats was observed. Systemic pharmacological potency was evaluated in the Hargreaves model of inflammatory pain using the BBB-impermeable neuropeptides dalargin and neuropeptide Y chemically conjugated with FC5-Fc fusion proteins. Improved serum pharmacokinetics of Fc-fused FC5 contributed to a 60-fold increase in pharmacological potency compared with the single-domain version of FC5; bivalent and monovalent FC5 fusions with Fc exhibited similar systemic pharmacological potency. The study demonstrates that modular incorporation of FC5 as the BBB-carrier arm in bispecific antibodies or antibody-drug conjugates offers an avenue to develop pharmacologically active biotherapeutics for CNS indications.

  5. Effects of future climate and land use scenarios on riverine source water quality.

    PubMed

    Delpla, Ianis; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2014-09-15

    Surface water quality is particularly sensitive to land use practices and climatic events that affect its catchment. The relative influence of a set of watershed characteristics (climate, land use, morphology and pedology) and climatic variables on two key water quality parameters (turbidity and fecal coliforms (FC)) was examined in 24 eastern Canadian catchments at various spatial scales (1 km, 5 km, 10 km and the entire catchment). A regression analysis revealed that the entire catchment was a better predictor of water quality. Based on this information, linear mixed effect models for predicting turbidity and FC levels were developed. A set of land use and climate scenarios was considered and applied within the water quality models. Four land use scenarios (no change, same rate of variation, optimistic and pessimistic) and three climate change scenarios (B1, A1B and A2) were tested and variations for the near future (2025) were assessed and compared to the reference period (2000). Climate change impacts on water quality remained low annually for this time horizon (turbidity: +1.5%, FC: +1.6%, A2 scenario). On the other hand, the influence of land use changes appeared to predominate. Significant benefits for both parameters could be expected following the optimistic scenario (turbidity: -16.4%, FC: -6.3%; p < 0.05). However, pessimistic land use scenario led to significant increases on an annual basis (turbidity: +11.6%, FC: +15.2%; p < 0.05). Additional simulations conducted for the late 21st century (2090) revealed that climate change impacts could become equivalent to those modeled for land use for this horizon.

  6. The EphA8 Receptor Regulates Integrin Activity through p110γ Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase in a Tyrosine Kinase Activity-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changkyu; Park, Soochul

    2001-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that ephrins may function in a kinase-independent Eph receptor pathway. Here we report that expression of EphA8 in either NIH 3T3 or HEK293 cells enhanced cell adhesion to fibronectin via α5β1- or β3 integrins. Interestingly, a kinase-inactive EphA8 mutant also markedly promoted cell attachment to fibronectin in these cell lines. Using a panel of EphA8 point mutants, we have demonstrated that EphA8 kinase activity does not correlate with its ability to promote cell attachment to fibronectin. Analysis using EphA8 extracellular and intracellular domain mutants has revealed that enhanced cell adhesion is dependent on ephrin A binding to the extracellular domain and the juxtamembrane segment of the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor. EphA8-promoted adhesion was efficiently inhibited by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor. Additionally, we found that EphA8 had associated PI 3-kinase activity and that the p110γ isoform of PI 3-kinase is associated with EphA8. In vitro binding experiments revealed that the EphA8 juxtamembrane segment was sufficient for the formation of a stable complex with p110γ. Similar results were obtained in assay using cells stripped of endogenous ephrin A ligands by treatment with preclustered ephrin A5-Fc proteins. In addition, a membrane-targeted lipid kinase-inactive p110γ mutant was demonstrated to stably associate with EphA8 and suppress EphA8-promoted cell adhesion to fibronectin. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of a novel mechanism by which the EphA8 receptor localizes p110γ PI 3-kinase to the plasma membrane in a tyrosine kinase-independent fashion, thereby allowing access to lipid substrates to enable the signals required for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. PMID:11416136

  7. Solution pH change in non-uniform alternating current electric fields at frequencies above the electrode charging frequency

    PubMed Central

    An, Ran; Massa, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    AC Faradaic reactions have been reported as a mechanism inducing non-ideal phenomena such as flow reversal and cell deformation in electrokinetic microfluidic systems. Prior published work described experiments in parallel electrode arrays below the electrode charging frequency (fc), the frequency for electrical double layer charging at the electrode. However, 2D spatially non-uniform AC electric fields are required for applications such as in plane AC electroosmosis, AC electrothermal pumps, and dielectrophoresis. Many microscale experimental applications utilize AC frequencies around or above fc. In this work, a pH sensitive fluorescein sodium salt dye was used to detect [H+] as an indicator of Faradaic reactions in aqueous solutions within non-uniform AC electric fields. Comparison experiments with (a) parallel (2D uniform fields) electrodes and (b) organic media were employed to deduce the electrode charging mechanism at 5 kHz (1.5fc). Time dependency analysis illustrated that Faradaic reactions exist above the theoretically predicted electrode charging frequency. Spatial analysis showed [H+] varied spatially due to electric field non-uniformities and local pH changed at length scales greater than 50 μm away from the electrode surface. Thus, non-uniform AC fields yielded spatially varied pH gradients as a direct consequence of ion path length differences while uniform fields did not yield pH gradients; the latter is consistent with prior published data. Frequency dependence was examined from 5 kHz to 12 kHz at 5.5 Vpp potential, and voltage dependency was explored from 3.5 to 7.5 Vpp at 5 kHz. Results suggest that Faradaic reactions can still proceed within electrochemical systems in the absence of well-established electrical double layers. This work also illustrates that in microfluidic systems, spatial medium variations must be considered as a function of experiment time, initial medium conditions, electric signal potential, frequency, and spatial

  8. Ephrin-A5 acts as a repulsive cue for migrating cortical interneurons.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Geraldine; Garcez, Patricia; Rudolph, Judith; Niehage, Ronny; Weth, Franco; Lent, Roberto; Bolz, Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Cortical interneurons are born in the germinative zones of the ganglionic eminences in the subpallium, and migrate tangentially in spatially and temporally well-defined corridors into the neocortex. Because ephrin-A5 is expressed in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the ganglionic eminences at these developmental stages, we examined the possible effects of this molecule on interneuron migration. Double-immunocytochemistry of dissociated neurons from the medial ganglionic eminences (MGE) revealed that calbindin-positive cells express the EphA4-receptor. In situ, EphA4 is strongly expressed in the subventricular zone of the ganglionic eminences. Using different in vitro assays, we found that ephrin-A5 acts as a repellent cue for MGE neurons. We then examined interneuron migration in slice overlay experiments, where MGE-derived explants from enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic mice were homotopically grafted into host slices from wild-type littermate embryos. In these in vitro preparations, interneurons recapitulated in vivo cell migration in several respects. However, interneurons in brain slices also migrated in the VZ of the ganglionic eminences, a region that is strictly avoided in vivo. In situ hybridizations revealed that ephrin-A5 became downregulated in the VZ in vitro. When recombinant ephrin-A5-Fc was added to the slices, it preferentially bound to the VZ, and migrating MGE neurons avoided the VZ as in vivo. The restoration of the normal migration pathway in slices required ephrin-A5 clustering and signalling of Src family kinases. Together, these experiments suggest that ephrin-A5 acts as an inhibitory flank that contributes to define the pathway of migrating interneurons. PMID:18662335

  9. Synthesis, X-ray structure of ferrocene bearing bis(Zn-cyclen) complexes and the selective electrochemical sensing of TpT.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhanghua; Torriero, Angel A J; Belousoff, Matthew J; Bond, Alan M; Spiccia, Leone

    2009-10-19

    The new ligand, [Fc(cyclen)(2)] (5) (Fc=ferrocene, cyclen=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane), and corresponding Zn(II) complex receptor, [Fc{Zn(cyclen)(CH(3)OH)}(2)](ClO(4))(4) (1), consisting of a ferrocene moiety bearing one Zn(II)-cyclen complex on each cyclopentadienyl ring, have been designed and prepared through a multi-step synthesis. Significant shifts in the (1)H NMR signals of the ferrocenyl group, cf. ferrocene and a previously reported [Fc{Zn(cyclen)}](2+) derivative, indicated that the two Zn(II)-cyclen units in 1 significantly affect the electronic properties of the cyclopentadienyl rings. The X-ray crystal structure shows that the two positively charged Zn(II)-cyclen complexes are arranged in a trans like configuration, with respect to the ferrocene bridging unit, presumably to minimise electrostatic repulsion. Both 5 and 1 can be oxidized in 1:4 CH(2)Cl(2)/CH(3)CN and Tris-HCl aqueous buffer solution under conditions of cyclic voltammetry to give a well defined ferrocene-centred (Fc(0/+)) process. Importantly, 1 is a highly selective electrochemical sensor of thymidilyl(3'-5')thymidine (TpT) relative to other nucleobases and nucleotides in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 7.4). The electrochemical selectivity, detected as a shift in reversible potential of the Fc(0/+) component, is postulated to result from a change in the configuration of bis(Zn(II)-cyclen) units from a trans to a cis state. This is caused by the strong 1:1 binding of the two deprotonated thymine groups in TpT to different Zn(II) centres of receptor 1. UV-visible spectrophotometric titrations confirmed the 1:1 stoichiometry for the 1:TpT adduct and allowed the determination of the apparent formation constant of 0.89+/-0.10x10(6) M(-1) at pH 7.4.

  10. Facile metalation of Hbzq by [cis-Pt(C6F5)2(thf)2]: a route to a pentafluorophenyl benzoquinolate solvate complex that easily coordinates terminal alkynes. Spectroscopic and optical properties.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Jesús R; Lalinde, Elena; Moreno, M Teresa; Sánchez, Sergio; Torroba, Javier

    2012-11-01

    A new neutral cyclometalated platinum(II) solvate complex [cis-Pt(bzq)(C(6)F(5))(acetone)] (1) has been prepared by easy C-H activation of 7,8-benzo[h]quinoline on the coordination sphere of [cis-Pt(C(6)F(5))(2)(thf)(2)] (thf = tetrahydrofuran). The study of the reaction pathway has led us to the preparation of the bis(Hbzq) product [cis-Pt(C(6)F(5))(2)(Hbzq)(2)] (2) and the benzoquinoline-benzoquinolate derivative [Pt(bzq)(C(6)F(5))(Hbzq)] (3). This latter complex has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, showing the occurrence of π···π intermolecular stacking interactions associated to the deprotonated bzq units. The acetone molecule in [cis-Pt(bzq)(C(6)F(5))(acetone)] can be easily displaced by alkynes, allowing the synthesis of the first reported η(2)-alkyne-cycloplatinate complexes [Pt(bzq)(C(6)F(5))(η(2)-RC≡CR')] (R = H, R' = Ph 4, (t)Bu 5, Fc 6; R = R' = Ph 7), which have been fully characterized spectroscopically and by DFT studies. These alkyne complexes are only moderately stable in solution, and all attempts to obtain crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were fruitless. Nevertheless, in the case of the ferrocenyl derivative, crystals of complex [Pt(κN:η(2)-bzq-C≡CFc)(C(6)F(5))(μ-κC(α):η(2)-C≡CFc)Pt(bzq)(C(6)F(5))] (8), containing an unusual alkynyl-functionalized benzoquinoline chelate ligand, were systematically obtained. All complexes (except those containing the ferrocenyl fragment) present emissive properties in solution and solid state (77 K), related, in general, with intraligand (bzq) excited states with some mixing (3)MLCT character, as supported by theoretical calculations. In solid state at room temperature, aggregation induced emission (AIE) is observed likely generated by intermolecular π···π stacking, as supporting by DFT calculations on 3(2). Interestingly, both types of excited states ((3)IL/(3)MLCT and AIE) seem to be close in energy in complexes 1 and 3, which show a significant luminescent thermochromism

  11. Evaluation of blue light exposure to beta brainwaves on simulated night driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purawijaya, Dandri Aly; Fitri, Lulu Lusianti; Suprijanto

    2015-09-01

    Numbers of night driving accident in Indonesia since 2010 are exponentially rising each year with total of loss more than 50 billion rupiah. One of the causes that contribute to night driving accident is drowsiness. Drowsiness is affected by circadian rhythm resulted from the difference of blue light quality and quantity between night and day. Blue light may effect on human physiology through non-visual pathway by suppressing melatonin hormone suppression that influence drowsiness. Meanwhile, the production of hormones and other activities in brain generate bioelectrical activity such as brainwaves and can be recorded using Electroencephalograph (EEG). Therefore, this research objective is to evaluate the effect of blue light exposure to beta brainwave emergence during night driving simulation to a driver. This research was conducted to 4 male subjects who are able to drive and have a legitimate car driving license. The driving simulator was done using SCANIA Truck Driving Simulator on freeform driving mode in dark environment. Subjects drove for total 32 minutes. The data collections were taken in 2 days with 16 minutes for each day. The 16 minutes were divided again into 8 minutes adaptation in dark and 8 minutes for driving either in blue light exposure or in total darkness. While driving the simulation, subjects' brainwaves were recorded using EEG EMOTIV 14 Channels, exposed by LED monochromatic blue light with 160 Lux from source and angle 45o and sat 1 m in front of the screen. Channels used on this research were for visual (O1; O2), cognition (F3; F4; P7; P8), and motor (FC5; FC6). EEG brainwave result was filtered with EEGLab to obtain beta waves at 13 - 30 Hz frequencies. Results showed that beta waves response to blue light varied for each subject. Blue light exposure either increased or decreased beta waves in 2 minutes pattern and maintaining beta waves on cognition and motor area in 3 out of 4 subjects. Meanwhile, blue light exposure did not maintain

  12. Additive inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection with the soluble sialoadhesin and CD163 receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Guo, Rui; He, Shan; Zhang, Xinyu; Xia, Xiaoli; Sun, Huaichang

    2014-01-22

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important swine disease to the swine industry worldwide. Current PRRS vaccines are only partially effective and new vaccine development faces great challenges. Sialoadhesin (Sn) and CD163 are the two essential receptors for PRRSV infection of porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM). To investigate the feasibility of the soluble viral receptors for PRRS control, in the present study we generated recombinant adenovirus (rAd) expressing the four N-terminal Ig-like domains of porcine Sn (Sn4D), the fifth SRCR domain (SRCR5) or domains 5-9 (SRCR59) of porcine CD163 as porcine Fc (pFc) fusion proteins. Efficient expression of the soluble viral receptors in the rAd-transduced cells was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. To detect their antiviral activities, the soluble viral receptors were purified from the media of rAd-transduced cells and identified by Western blotting. The viral binding assay showed that the soluble receptors Sn4D-Fc and SRCR59-Fc, but not SRCR5-Fc and the control pFc, were able to bind to PRRSV particles. The viral infection blocking assays showed that co-treatment of PRRSV with different concentrations of Sn4D-Fc and SRCR59-Fc proteins resulted in a much higher (72.1%-77.6%) reduction in PRRSV-positive cell number than the single protein treatment (45.1%-60.0% or 44.0%-56.2%). To investigate the feasibility of delivering the soluble viral receptors to PAM, two pig cell lines were transduced with rAd-Sn4D-Fc and/or rAd-SRCR59-Fc using a transwell culture system. PAM cells were infected with PRRSV and then co-cultured with the rAd-transduced cells. Viral titration assay showed that co-cultivation of the infected PAM with rAd-Sn4D-Fc- and rAd-SRCR59-Fc-transduced cells resulted in much higher (by ∼3.5 log) reduction in the viral titers (TCID50) than that of co-cultivation with the single vector-transduced cells (by ∼1.0 log). Further studies showed that the rAd co