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Sample records for 5kw vortex-flow reactor

  1. Vortex flow hysteresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, A. M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the hysteresis associated with various vortex flow transition points and to determine the effect of planform geometry. The transition points observed consisted of the appearance (or disappearance) of trailing edge vortex burst and the transition to (or from) flat plate or totally separated flows. Flow visualization with smoke injected into the vortices was used to identify the transitions on a series of semi-span models tested in a low speed tunnel. The planforms tested included simple deltas (55 deg to 80 deg sweep), cranked wings with varying tip panel sweep and dihedral, and a straked wing. High speed movies at 1000 frames per second were made of the vortex flow visualization in order to better understand the dynamics of vortex flow, burst and transition.

  2. High Speed Vortex Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.

    2000-01-01

    A review of the research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data reviewed is for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft. These data are presented and discussed relative to the design of future vehicles. Also presented is a brief historical review of the extensive body of high-speed vortex flow research from the 1940s to the present in order to provide perspective of the NASA LaRC's high-speed research results. Data are presented which show the types of vortex structures which occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures to vehicle performance and control is discussed. The data presented shows the presence of both small- and large scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices and the downstream fins. It was shown that these vortex flow interference effects could be both positive and negative. Data are shown which highlights the effect that leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber has on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. The observed flow fields for delta wings (i.e. separation bubble, classical vortex, vortex with shock, etc.) are discussed in the context of' aircraft design. And data have been shown that indicate that aerodynamic performance improvements are available by considering vortex flows as a primary design feature. Finally a discussing of a design approach for wings which utilize vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speed is presented.

  3. Effect of vortex flows on ammonia oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Beskov, V.S.; Shpinel', E.E.

    1988-09-01

    The oxidation of ammonia over platinum sieve catalysts was investigated given the vortex flows found in industrial contact units. Mathematical and physical models were used to assess the influence of vortices on ammonia oxidation. The flow pattern of the ammonia-air mixture in the reactor was modeled as a stream with a partial recycle. It is shown that vortex flows reduce the conversion of ammonia to nitrogen monoxide and increase the passage of unconverted ammonia through the catalyst sieve. Over long contact periods, the main effect of vortices is to increase the passage of unconverted ammonia, which may lead to the formation of explosive compounds.

  4. Vortex flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H. B.; Campbell, J. F.; Young, A. D. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The principal emphasis of the meeting was to be on the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads. This report shows that a substantial amount of the papers covering this area were received from a wide range of countries, together with an attendance that was even more diverse. In itself, this testifies to the current interest in the subject and to the appropriateness of the Panel's choice of topic and approach. An attempt is made to summarize each paper delivered, and to relate the contributions made in the papers and in the discussions to some of the important aspects of vortex flow aerodynamics. This reveals significant progress and important clarifications, but also brings out remaining weaknesses in predictive capability and gaps in understanding. Where possible, conclusions are drawn and areas of continuing concern are identified.

  5. Vortex Flow Aerodynamics, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. F. (Editor); Osborn, R. F. (Editor); Foughner, J. T., Jr. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Vortex modeling techniques and experimental studies of research configurations utilizing vortex flows are discussed. Also discussed are vortex flap investigations using generic and airplane research models and vortex flap theoretical analysis and design studies.

  6. Vortex Flows at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Allen, Jerry M.

    2003-01-01

    A review of research conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) into high-speed vortex flows during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s is presented. The data are for flat plates, cavities, bodies, missiles, wings, and aircraft with Mach numbers of 1.5 to 4.6. Data are presented to show the types of vortex structures that occur at supersonic speeds and the impact of these flow structures on vehicle performance and control. The data show the presence of both small- and large-scale vortex structures for a variety of vehicles, from missiles to transports. For cavities, the data show very complex multiple vortex structures exist at all combinations of cavity depth to length ratios and Mach number. The data for missiles show the existence of very strong interference effects between body and/or fin vortices. Data are shown that highlight the effect of leading-edge sweep, leading-edge bluntness, wing thickness, location of maximum thickness, and camber on the aerodynamics of and flow over delta wings. Finally, a discussion of a design approach for wings that use vortex flows for improved aerodynamic performance at supersonic speeds is presented.

  7. Control of submersible vortex flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Donaldson, C. D.

    1990-01-01

    Vortex flows produced by submersibles typically unfavorably influence key figures of merit such as acoustic and nonacoustic stealth, control effectiveness/maneuverability, and propulsor efficiency/body drag. Sources of such organized, primarily longitudinal, vorticity include the basic body (nose and sides) and appendages (both base/intersection and tip regions) such as the fairwater, dive planes, rear control surfaces, and propulsor stators/tips. Two fundamentally different vortex control approaches are available: (1) deintensification of the amplitude and/or organization of the vortex during its initiation process; and (2) downstream vortex disablement. Vortex control techniques applicable to the initiation region (deintensification approach) include transverse pressure gradient minimization via altered body cross section, appendage dillets, fillets, and sweep, and various appendage tip and spanload treatment along with the use of active controls to minimize control surface size and motions. Vortex disablement can be accomplished either via use of control vortices (which can also be used to steer the vortices off-board), direct unwinding, inducement of vortex bursting, or segmentation/tailoring for enhanced dissipation. Submersible-applicable vortex control technology is also included derived from various aeronautical applications such as mitigation of the wing wake vortex hazard and flight aircraft maneuverability at high angle of attack as well as the status of vortex effects upon, and mitigation of, nonlinear control forces on submersibles. Specific suggestions for submersible-applicable vortex control techniques are presented.

  8. Vortex flow for a holographic superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Kengo; Okamura, Takashi

    2011-03-15

    We investigate energy dissipation associated with the motion of the scalar condensate in a holographic superconductor model constructed from the charged scalar field coupled to the Maxwell field. Upon application of constant magnetic and electric fields, we analytically construct the vortex-flow solution and find the vortex-flow resistance near the second-order phase transition where the scalar condensate begins. The characteristic feature of the nonequilibrium state agrees with the one predicted by the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) theory. We evaluate the kinetic coefficient in the TDGL equation along the line of the second-order phase transition. At zero magnetic field, the other coefficients in the TDGL equation are also evaluated just below the critical temperature.

  9. Gliding arc in tornado using a reverse vortex flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kalra, Chiranjeev S.; Cho, Young I.; Gutsol, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander; Rufael, Tecle S.

    2005-02-01

    The present article reports a new gliding arc (GA) system using a reverse vortex flow ('tornado') in a cylindrical reactor (gliding arc in tornado, or GAT), as used to preserve the main advantages of traditional GA systems and overcome their main drawbacks. The primary advantages of traditional GA systems retained in the present GAT are the possibility to generate transitional plasma and to avoid considerable electrode erosion. In contrast to a traditional GA, the new GAT system ensures much more uniform gas treatment and has a significantly larger gas residence time in the reactor. The present article also describes the design of the new reactor and its stable operation regime when the variation of GAT current is very small. These features are understood to be very important for most viable applications. Additionally the GAT provides near-perfect thermal insulation from the reactor wall, indicating that the present GAT does not require the reactor wall to be constructed of high-temperature materials. The new GAT system, with its unique properties such as a high level of nonequilibrium and a large residence time, looks very promising for many industrial applications including fuel conversion, carbon dioxide conversion to carbon monoxide and oxygen, surface treatment, waste treatment, flame stabilization, hydrogen sulfide treatment, etc.

  10. Gliding arc in tornado using a reverse vortex flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Chiranjeev S.; Cho, Young I.; Gutsol, Alexànder; Fridman, Alexander; Rufael, Tecle S.

    2005-02-01

    The present article reports a new gliding arc (GA) system using a reverse vortex flow ("tornado") in a cylindrical reactor (gliding arc in tornado, or GAT), as used to preserve the main advantages of traditional GA systems and overcome their main drawbacks. The primary advantages of traditional GA systems retained in the present GAT are the possibility to generate transitional plasma and to avoid considerable electrode erosion. In contrast to a traditional GA, the new GAT system ensures much more uniform gas treatment and has a significantly larger gas residence time in the reactor. The present article also describes the design of the new reactor and its stable operation regime when the variation of GAT current is very small. These features are understood to be very important for most viable applications. Additionally the GAT provides near-perfect thermal insulation from the reactor wall, indicating that the present GAT does not require the reactor wall to be constructed of high-temperature materials. The new GAT system, with its unique properties such as a high level of nonequilibrium and a large residence time, looks very promising for many industrial applications including fuel conversion, carbon dioxide conversion to carbon monoxide and oxygen, surface treatment, waste treatment, flame stabilization, hydrogen sulfide treatment, etc.

  11. Numerical Study of Tip Vortex Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer; Hafez, Mohamed

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and summary of the many different research work related to tip vortex flows and wake/trailing vortices as applied to practical engineering problems. As a literature survey paper, it outlines relevant analytical, theoretical, experimental and computational study found in literature. It also discusses in brief some of the fundamental aspects of the physics and its complexities. An appendix is also included. The topics included in this paper are: 1) Analytical Vortices; 2) Experimental Studies; 3) Computational Studies; 4) Wake Vortex Control and Management; 5) Wake Modeling; 6) High-Lift Systems; 7) Issues in Numerical Studies; 8) Instabilities; 9) Related Topics; 10) Visualization Tools for Vertical Flows; 11) Further Work Needed; 12) Acknowledgements; 13) References; and 14) Appendix.

  12. Calculation of vortex flows on complex configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.; Rao, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    The calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of complex configurations having strongly coupled vortex flows is a non-linear problem requiring iterative solution techniques. This paper discusses the use of a low-order panel method as a means of obtaining practical solutions to such problems. The panel method is based on piecewise constant source and doublet quadrilateral panels and uses the internal Dirichlet boundary condition of zero perturbation potential. The problems of predicting vortex/surface interaction and vortex separation are discussed. Some example calculations are included but further test cases have yet to be carried out, in particular for comparisons with experimental data. The problem of convergence on the iterative calculation for the shape of the free vortex sheet is addressed and a preprocessor routine, based on an unsteady, two-dimensional version of the panel method, is put forward as a cost-effective way of generating an initial vortex structure for use as a starting solution for general configurations.

  13. Scalar Mixing In A Vortex Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, P.; Villermaux, E.; Leweke, T.

    We present experimental and theoretical results on the evolution of a scalar blob em- bedded in the velocity field of one or two vortices, a configuration relevant to geo- physical mixing in particular. We first follow the evolution of the scalar in one vortex. The scalar blob rolls up into a spiral and then diffuses rapidly, much faster than in the absence of a vortex flow. A simple model predicts that the maximal scalar concentration decreases in time as t-3 , after a mixing time which scales like Pe1 /2 /3 (where Pe = /D is the Peclet number). This hyper-diffusion process is due to the coupled presence of stretching and diffusion, and is in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results. In contrast with this temporal variation of the scalar, the model predicts that the proba- bility distribution functions (PDF) of the scalar are almost stationnary. The agreement between experimental and theoretical PDF is excellent. Finally, we report on the evolution of the PDF of a scalar during the merging of two vortices and on the comparison law of the concentration PDF's associated with each vortices, both in laminar and turbulent situations.

  14. Boundary Layers in Laminar Vortex Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Glenn Leslie

    A detailed experimental study of the flow in an intense, laminar, axisymmetric vortex has been conducted in the Purdue Tornado Vortex Simulator. The complicated nature of the flow in the boundary layer of laboratory vortices and presumably on that encountered in full-scale tornadoes has been examined. After completing a number of modifications to the existing facility to improve the quality of the flow in the simulator, hot-film anemometry was employed for making velocity-component and turbulence-intensity measurements of both the free-stream and boundary layer portions of the flow. The measurements represent the first experimental boundary layer investigation of a well-defined vortex flow to appear in the literature. These results were compared with recent theoretical work by Burggraf, Stewartson and Belcher (1971) and with an exact similarity solution for line-sink boundary layers developed by the author. A comparison is also made with the numerical simulation of Wilson (1981) in which the boundary conditions were matched to those of the present experimental investigation. Expressions for the vortex core radius, the maximum tangential velocity and the maximum pressure drop are given in terms of dimensionless modeling parameters. References. Burggraf, O. R., K. Stewartson and R. Belcher, Boundary layer. induced by a potential vortex. Phys. Fluids 14, 1821-1833 (1971). Wilson, T., M. S. thesis, Vortex Boundary Layer Dynamics, Univ. Calif. Davis (1981).

  15. Computation of leading-edge vortex flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsome, R. W.; Thomas, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The simulation of the leading edge vortex flow about a series of conical delta wings through solution of the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations is studied. The occurrence, the validity, and the usefulness of separated flow solutions to the Euler equations of particular interest. Central and upwind difference solutions to the governing equations are compared for a series of cross sectional shapes, including both rounded and sharp tip geometries. For the rounded leading edge and the flight condition considered, viscous solutions obtained with either central or upwind difference methods predict the classic structure of vortical flow over a highly swept delta wing. Predicted features include the primary vortex due to leading edge separation and the secondary vortex due to crossflow separation. Central difference solutions to the Euler equations show a marked sensitivity to grid refinement. On a coarse grid, the flow separates due to numerical error and a primary vortex which resembles that of the viscous solution is predicted. In contrast, the upwind difference solutions to the Euler equations predict attached flow even for first-order solutions on coarse grids. On a sufficiently fine grid, both methods agree closely and correctly predict a shock-curvature-induced inviscid separation near the leeward plane of symmetry. Upwind difference solutions to the Navier-Stokes and Euler equations are presented for two sharp leading edge geometries. The viscous solutions are quite similar to the rounded leading edge results with vortices of similar shape and size. The upwind Euler solutions predict attached flow with no separation for both geometries. However, with sufficient grid refinement near the tip or through the use of more accurate spatial differencing, leading edge separation results. Once the leading edge separation is established, the upwind solution agrees with recently published central difference solutions to the Euler equations.

  16. Accumulated span loadings of an arrow wing having vortex flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. Subba

    1989-01-01

    The vortex flow over an arrow wing is theoretically investigated using the free-vortex-sheet method. The sectional lift coefficient and accumulated span loadings, which are important in determining the root bending moment, are calculated. The longitudinal stability variation is also estimated.

  17. Status of CFD validation on the vortex flow experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Hitzel, S. M.; Schmatz, M. A.; Schwarz, W.; Hilgenstock, A.; Scherr, S.

    1988-12-01

    The vortex flow phenomena developing at highly swept wings by leading edge separation are of great interest for fighter and missile aerodynamics. While panel methods are already known for more than a decade to satisfactorily model the roll-up of the corresponding vortex sheets at subsonic speed, Euler methods became available in the early 80's for predicting these effects also in the transonic and supersonic speed ranges. Subsequent trials to validate such transonic vortex flow computations revealed the experimental data basis to be very poor for high speeds and, in consequence, the International Vortex Flow Experiment on Euler Code Validation was set up. More recently, also three dimensional Navier-Stokes codes could be applied in order to clarify the role of viscous effects and to investigate in detail the neglect of those in the Euler solutions. A survey is presented on the Euler code validation based on the Symposium on the IVFE in 1986 and additional insight is given into some related Euler and Navier-Stokes work done in West Germany more recently.

  18. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Separated and Vortex Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Richard J. Goldstein

    2004-05-27

    This document summarizes the research performance done at the Heat Transfer Laboratory of the University of Minnesota on heat transfer and energy separation in separated and vortex flow supported by DOE in the period September 1, 1998--August 31, 2003. Unsteady and complicated flow structures in separated or vortex flows are the main reason for a poor understanding of heat transfer under such conditions. The research from the University of Minnesota focused on the following important aspects of understanding such flows: (1) Heat/mass transfer from a circular cylinder; (2) study of energy separation and heat transfer in free jet flows and shear layers; and (3) study of energy separation on the surface and in the wake of a cylinder in crossflow. The current study used three different experimental setups to accomplish these goals. A wind tunnel and a liquid tunnel using water and mixtures of ethylene glycol and water, is used for the study of prandtl number effect with uniform heat flux from the circular cylinder. A high velocity air jet is used to study energy separation in free jets. A high speed wind tunnel, same as used for the first part, is utilized for energy separation effects on the surface and in the wake of the circular cylinder. The final outcome of this study is a substantial advancement in this research area.

  19. The statistical properties of vortex flows in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Kato, Yoshiaki; Steiner, Oskar

    2015-08-01

    Rotating magnetic field structures associated with vortex flows on the Sun, also known as “magnetic tornadoes”, may serve as waveguides for MHD waves and transport mass and energy upwards through the atmosphere. Magnetic tornadoes may therefore potentially contribute to the heating of the upper atmospheric layers in quiet Sun regions.Magnetic tornadoes are observed over a large range of spatial and temporal scales in different layers in quiet Sun regions. However, their statistical properties such as size, lifetime, and rotation speed are not well understood yet because observations of these small-scale events are technically challenging and limited by the spatial and temporal resolution of current instruments. Better statistics based on a combination of high-resolution observations and state-of-the-art numerical simulations is the key to a reliable estimate of the energy input in the lower layers and of the energy deposition in the upper layers. For this purpose, we have developed a fast and reliable tool for the determination and visualization of the flow field in (observed) image sequences. This technique, which combines local correlation tracking (LCT) and line integral convolution (LIC), facilitates the detection and study of dynamic events on small scales, such as propagating waves. Here, we present statistical properties of vortex flows in different layers of the solar atmosphere and try to give realistic estimates of the energy flux which is potentially available for heating of the upper solar atmosphere

  20. Analysis and control of asymmetric vortex flows and supersonic vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1991-01-01

    Topics relative to the analysis and control of asymmetric vortex flow and supersonic vortex breakdown are discussed. Specific topics include the computation of compressible, quasi-axisymmetric slender vortex flow and breakdown; supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown; and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes asymmetric solutions for cones and cone-cylinder configurations.

  1. Implementation of Parallel Computing Technology to Vortex Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Mainframe supercomputers such as the Cray C90 was invaluable in obtaining large scale computations using several millions of grid points to resolve salient features of a tip vortex flow over a lifting wing. However, real flight configurations require tracking not only of the flow over several lifting wings but its growth and decay in the near- and intermediate- wake regions, not to mention the interaction of these vortices with each other. Resolving and tracking the evolution and interaction of these vortices shed from complex bodies is computationally intensive. Parallel computing technology is an attractive option in solving these flows. In planetary science vortical flows are also important in studying how planets and protoplanets form when cosmic dust and gases become gravitationally unstable and eventually form planets or protoplanets. The current paradigm for the formation of planetary systems maintains that the planets accreted from the nebula of gas and dust left over from the formation of the Sun. Traditional theory also indicate that such a preplanetary nebula took the form of flattened disk. The coagulation of dust led to the settling of aggregates toward the midplane of the disk, where they grew further into asteroid-like planetesimals. Some of the issues still remaining in this process are the onset of gravitational instability, the role of turbulence in the damping of particles and radial effects. In this study the focus will be with the role of turbulence and the radial effects.

  2. Structure of leading-edge vortex flows including vortex breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the structure of leading-edge vortex flows on thin sharp-edged delta wings was carried out at low Reynolds numbers. Flow-visualization techniques were used to study the topology of the vortex and the phenomenon of vortex breakdown. Seven-hole probe-wake surveys and laser-doppler-anemometer measurements were obtained and compared. Delta wings with sweep angles of 70, 75, 80, and 85/sup 0/ were tested at angles of attack of 10, 20, 30, and 40/sup 0/. The test were conducted in a Reynolds number range of 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ to 6.4 x 10/sup 5/. Smoke-flow visualization revealed the presence of small Kelvin-Helmholtz type vortical structures in the shear layer of a leading-edge vortex. These shear-layer vortices follow a helical path and grow in the streamwise direction as they wind into the vortex core where the individual shear layers merge. The phenomenon of vortex breakdown was studied using high-speed cinema photography. The bubble and spiral types of breakdown were observed and appear to represent the extremes in a continuum of breakdown forms.

  3. Technical Evaluation Report, Part A - Vortex Flow and High Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, James M.

    2003-01-01

    A symposium entitled Vortex Flow and High Angle of Attack was held in Loen, Norway, from May 7 through May 11, 2001. The Applied Vehicle Technology (AVT) panel, under the auspices of the Research and Technology Organization (RTO), sponsored this symposium. Forty-eight papers, organized into nine sessions, addressed computational and experimental studies of vortex flows pertinent to both aircraft and maritime applications. The studies also ranged from fundamental fluids investigations to flight test results, and significant results were contributed from a broad range of countries. The principal emphasis of this symposium was on "the understanding and prediction of separation-induced vortex flows and their effects on military vehicle performance, stability, control, and structural design loads." It was further observed by the program committee that "separation- induced vortex flows are an important part of the design and off-design performance of conventional fighter aircraft and new conventional or unconventional manned or unmanned advanced vehicle designs (UAVs, manned aircraft, missiles, space planes, ground-based vehicles, and ships)." The nine sessions addressed the following topics: vortical flows on wings and bodies, experimental techniques for vortical flows, numerical simulations of vortical flows, vortex stability and breakdown, vortex flows in maritime applications, vortex interactions and control, vortex dynamics, flight testing, and vehicle design. The purpose of this paper is to provide brief reviews of these papers along with some synthesizing perspectives toward future vortex flow research opportunities. The paper includes the symposium program. (15 refs.)

  4. Boundary selection of stable wavenumbers in Taylor-vortex flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linek, Marcus; Ahlers, Guenter

    1996-11-01

    Non-rotating rigid ends in Taylor-vortex flow (TVF) with a rotating inner and stationary outer cylinder produce large-amplitude Ekman vortices which pin the phase of the pattern. The band of stable wavenumbers is then limited by a bulk instability, namely the Eckhaus instability. For small ɛ, this leads to a stable wavenumber band of order ɛ ^1/2 where ɛ ≡ (f - f_c)/fc with f the inner-cylinder speed and fc the value of f for the onset of TVF. When one of the ends of a vertical TVF system has a free surface, the vortex amplitude adjacent to this surface is considerably reduced and the phase pinning is weaker. Experimentally we find that this can lead to a different instability mechanism consisting of losses or gains of vortices at the free boundary. This mechanism yields a more narrow wavenumber band of order ɛ, as predicted by Cross et al.^1 Specifically we find that TVF is stable for wavenumbers k over the range λ- ɛ < (k - k_c)/kc < λ+ ɛ where kc is the value of k at onset. We find that λ - ~= - 0.55 and λ + ~= 0.70 in a system with a radius ratio η = 0.75. A detailed calculation of λ_+,- would be most interesting. Supported by NSF Grant No. DMR94-19168, and by the Deutsche Agentur für Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA).l ^1 M.C. Cross, P.G. Daniels, P.C. Hohenberg, and E.D. Siggia, J. Fluid Mech.127, 155 (1983).

  5. Alleviation of fuselage form drag using vortex flows: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, A.

    1987-09-15

    The concept of using vortex generators to reduce the fuselage form drag of transport aircraft combines the outflow from the plane of symmetry which is induced by the rotational component of the vortex flow with the energization of the boundary layer to reduce the momentum thickness and to delay or eliminate flow separation. This idea was first advanced by the author in 1981. Under a DOE grant, the concept was validated in wind tunnel tests of approximately 1:17 scale models of fuselages of Boeing 747 and Lockheed C-5 aircraft. The search for the minimum drag involved three vortex generator configurations with three sizes of each in six locations clustered in the aft regions of the fuselages at the beginning of the tail upsweep. The local Reynolds number, which is referred to the length of boundary layer run from the nose, was approximately 10{sup 7} so that a fully developed turbulent boundary layer was present. Vortex generator planforms ranged from swept tapered, through swept straight, to swept reverse tapered wings whose semi-spans ranged from 50% to 125% of the local boundary layer thickness. Pitch angles of the vortex generators were varied by inboard actuators under the control of an external proportional digital radio controller. It was found that certain combinations of vortex generator parameters increased drag. However, with certain configurations, locations, and pitch angles of vortex generators, the highest drag reductions were 3% for the 747 and about 6% for the C-5, thus confirming the arguments that effectiveness increases with the rate of upsweep of the tail. Greatest gains in performance are therefore expected on aft loading military transports. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Space shuttle orbiter flow visualization study. [water tunnel study of vortex flow during atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The vortex flows generated at subsonic speed during the final portion of atmospheric reentry were defined using a 0.01 scale model of the orbiter in a diagnostic water tunnel. Flow visualization photographs were obtained over an angle-of-attack range to 40 deg and sideslip angles up to 10 deg. The vortex flow field development, vortex path, and vortex breakdown characteristics were determined as a function of angle-of-attack at zero sideslip. Vortex flows were found to develop on the highly swept glove, on the wing, and on the upper surface of the fuselage. No significant asymmetries were observed at zero sideslip in the water tunnel tests. The sensitivity of the upper surface vortex flow fields to variations in sideslip angle was also studied. The vortex formed on the glove remained very stable in position above the wing up through the 10 deg of sideslip tested. There was a change in the vortex lifts under sideslip due to effective change in leading-edge sweep angles. Asymmetric flow separation occurred on the upper surface of the fuselage at small sideslip angles. The influence of vortex flow fields in sideslip on the lateral/ directional characteristics of the orbiter is discussed.

  7. Generation of two-dimensional dust vortex flows in a direct current discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Giichiro; Iizuka, Satoru; Kamimura, Tetsuo; Sato, Noriyoshi

    2009-05-15

    The two-dimensional dust vortex flows are observed in a direct current discharge plasma near the edge of a metal plate which is situated in the dust-particle levitation region. Applying negative dc potential to the metal plate, dust particles are strongly accelerated toward the metal plate edge, and two symmetric dust vortex flows are generated on both sides of the metal plate. Numerical calculation including the effect of the ion drag force well demonstrates the dust vortex formation as in the experiment. A mechanism of the dust vortex generation could be explained by effect of an asymmetry of ion drag force near the metal plate.

  8. Initial Experiments and Analysis of Blunt-Edge Vortex Flows. Chapter 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, James M.

    2009-01-01

    A review is presented of the initial experimental results and analysis that formed the basis the Vortex Flow Experiment 2 (VFE-2). The focus of this work was to distinguish the basic effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, angle of attack, and leading edge bluntness on separation-induced leading-edge vortex flows that are common to slender wings. Primary analysis is focused on detailed static surface pressure distributions, and the results demonstrate significant effects regarding the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.

  9. Visualization of longitudinal vortex flow in an enhanced heat transfer tube

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiao-wei; Yan, Huan; Meng, Ji-an; Li, Zhi-xin

    2007-05-15

    Longitudinal vortex flow was visualized in an enlarged DDIR tube (discrete double inclined ribs on the inner surface). The experiments were conducted in a water tunnel using dye injection. Two kinds of ribs with different widths were investigated. The visualizations showed counter rotating longitudinal vortex pairs formed by the discrete double inclined ribs. The vortex intensity increased with increasing Reynolds numbers while the length over which the vortices were observed along the flow direction decreased with increasing Reynolds numbers for Re = 1000-2000. The vortex intensity and vortex flow length were also strongly affected by the rib dimensions. (author)

  10. Removal of volatile organic compounds from air streams by making use of a microwave plasma burner with reverse vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji H.; Ma, Suk H.; Cho, Chang H.; Hong, Yong C.; Ahn, Jae Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma burner for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from polluted air streams. This study focused on the destruction of the VOCs in the high flow rate polluted streams required for industrial use. Plasma flames were sustained by injecting liquefied natural gas (LNG), which is composed of CH4, into the microwave plasma torch. With its high temperature and high density of atomic oxygen, the microwave torch attained nearly complete combustion of LNG, thereby providing a large-volume, high-temperature plasma flame. The plasma flame was applied to reactors in which the polluted streams were in one of two vortex flows: a conventional vortex reactor (CVR) or a reverse vortex reactor (RVR). The RVR, using a plasma power of 2 kW and an LNG flow of 20 liters per minute achieved a destruction removal efficiency (DRE) of 98% for an air flow rate of 5 Nm3/min polluted with 550 pm of VOCs.. For the same experimental parameters, the CVR provided a DRE of 90.2%. We expect that this decontamination system will prove effective in purifying contaminated air at high flow rates.

  11. Floating Pressure Conversion of Two 3.5 KW, 20 K, Helium Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, J.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Creel, J.; Norton, R.; Linza, R.; Vargas, G.; Lauterbach, J.; Urbin, J.; Howe, D.

    2010-04-01

    Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5 KW at 20 K, are used at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryogenic-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. New changes to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the control issues that necessitated the controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle "floating pressure" control technology. The controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology was the first application on a helium gas refrigeration system. Previous implementations of the floating pressure technology have been on 4 K liquefaction and refrigeration systems, which have stored liquid helium volumes that have level indications used for varying the pressure levels (charge) in the system for capacity modulation. The upgrades have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e. at various loads in the vacuum chambers). The performance data of the two systems, pre and post upgrading are presented.

  12. FLOATING PRESSURE CONVERSION AND EQUIPMENT UPGRADES OF TWO 3.5KW, 20K, HELIUM REFRIGERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Homan, V. Ganni, A. Sidi-Yekhlef, J. Creel, R. Norton, R. Linza, G. Vargas, J. Lauterbach, J. Urbin, D. Howe

    2010-04-01

    Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5 KW at 20 K, are used at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryogenic-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. New changes to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the control issues that necessitated the controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle “floating pressure” control technology. The controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology was the first application on a helium gas refrigeration system. Previous implementations of the floating pressure technology have been on 4 K liquefaction and refrigeration systems, which have stored liquid helium volumes that have level indications used for varying the pressure levels (charge) in the system for capacity modulation. The upgrades have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e. at various loads in the vacuum chambers). The performance data of the two systems, pre and post upgrading are presented.

  13. Floating Pressure Conversion and Equipment Upgrades of Two 3.5kw, 20k, Helium Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, Jonathan; Linza, Robert; Garcia, Sam; Vargas, Gerardo; Lauterbach, John; Ganni, Venkatarao (Rao); Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Creel, Jonathan; Norton, Robert; Urbin, John; Howe, Don

    2008-01-01

    Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5KW at 20K, are used at NASA s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryo-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. Equipment refurbishment and upgrades to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the mechanical and control issues that necessitated the equipment refurbishment and controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle "floating pressure" control technology. The upgrades -- the controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology and the newly refurbished equipment -- have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e.: at various loads in the vacuum chambers). Capabilities, configuration, and performance data pre, and post, upgrading will be presented.

  14. Numerical analysis of the Taylor-Vortex flow of a slightly rarefied gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Kazuo; Kagaya, Ryo; Kosuge, Shingo; Yoshida, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    The axisymmetric Taylor-vortex flow of a rarefied gas between two coaxial circular cylinders, a rotating inner cylinder and a resting outer one, is investigated numerically for small Knudsen numbers on the basis of the compressible Navier-Stokes (CNS) equations and their appropriate slip boundary conditions. The accuracy of the result as an approximate solution to the Boltzmann equation is confirmed by comparing it with the result obtained by the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for Knudsen numbers of the order of 10-2. The flow field for smaller Knudsen numbers (of the order of 10-3) exhibits a boundary-layer like structure near the cylinders. It is shown that, compared with the cylindrical Couette flow, the velocity slip in the circumferential direction is enhanced in the Taylor-vortex flow.

  15. Stability and dissipation of laminar vortex flow in superfluid 3He-B.

    PubMed

    Eltsov, V B; de Graaf, R; Heikkinen, P J; Hosio, J J; Hänninen, R; Krusius, M; L'vov, V S

    2010-09-17

    A central question in the dynamics of vortex lines in superfluids is dissipation on approaching the zero temperature limit T→0. From both NMR measurements and vortex filament calculations, we find that vortex flow remains laminar up to large Reynolds numbers Re{α}∼10(3) in a cylinder filled with 3He-B. This is different from viscous fluids and superfluid 4He, where the corresponding responses are turbulent. In 3He-B, laminar vortex flow is possible in the bulk volume even in the presence of sizable perturbations from axial symmetry to below 0.2Tc. The laminar flow displays no excess dissipation beyond mutual friction, which vanishes in the T→0 limit, in contrast with turbulent vortex motion where dissipation has been earlier measured to approach a large T-independent value at T≲0.2Tc.

  16. Definition of the unsteady vortex flow over a wing/body configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, S. G.; Debry, B.; Lenakos, J.; Caplin, J.; Komerath, N. M.

    1991-01-01

    A problem of current interest in computational aerodynamics is the prediction of unsteady vortex flows over aircraft at high angles of attack. A six-month experimental effort was conducted at the John H. Harper Wind Tunnel to acquire qualitative and quantitative information on the unsteady vortex flow over a generic wing-body configuration at high angles of attack. A double-delta flat-plate wing with beveled edges was combined with a slender sharp-nosed body-of-revolution fuselage to form the generic configuration. This configuration produces a strong attached leading edge vortex on the wing, as well as sharply-peaked flow velocity spectra above the wing. While it thus produces flows with several well-defined features of current interest, the model was designed for efficiency of representation in computational codes. A moderate number of surface pressure ports and two unsteady pressure sensors were used to study the pressure distribution over the wing and body surface at high angles of attack; the unsteady pressure sensing did not succeed because of inadequate signal-to-noise ratio. A pulsed copper vapor laser sheet was used to visualize the vortex flow over the model, and vortex trajectories, burst locations, mutual induction of vortex systems from the forebody, strake, and wing, were quantified. Laser Doppler velocimetry was used to quantify all 3 components of the time-average velocity in 3 data planes perpendicular to the freestream direction. Statistics of the instantaneous velocity were used to study intermittency and fluctuation intensity. Hot-film anemometry was used to study the fluctuation energy content in the velocity field, and the spectra of these fluctuations. In addition, a successful attempt was made to measure velocity spectra, component by component, using laser velocimetry, and these were compared with spectra measured by hot-film anemometry at several locations.

  17. Recent advances in applying Free Vortex Sheet theory to the estimation of vortex flow aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.; Schoonover, W. E., Jr.; Frink, N. T.

    1982-01-01

    Free Vortex Sheet theory has been applied to a variety of configurations for the estimation of three-dimensional pressure distributions for wings developing separation-induced leading-edge vortex flows. Correlations with experiment show reasonable estimates for the effects of compressibility, side-slip, side edges, swept-wing blast-induced loads, and leading-edge vortex flaps. Theoretical studies expand upon these correlations to show general aerodynamic trends. Consideration is also given to simple, yet effective techniques which expedite convergence and therefore reduce computational expense.

  18. Effects of Passive Porosity on Interacting Vortex Flows At Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2000-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the effects of passive surface porosity on vortex flow interaction about a general research fighter configuration at supersonic speeds. Optical flow measurement and flow visualization techniques were used and included pressure-sensitive paint (PSP), schlieren, and laser vapor screen (LVS) These techniques were combined with force and moment and conventional electronically-scanned pressure (ESP) measurements to quantify and to visualize the effects of flow-through porosity applied to a wing leading-edge extension (LEX) mounted to a 65 deg cropped delta wing model.

  19. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Khairul; Fagan, Amy; Mankbadi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tip vortex flow from a NACA0012 airfoil, pitched periodically at various frequencies, is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Initially, data for stationary airfoil held fixed at various angles-of-attack are gathered. Flow visualization pictures as well as detailed cross-sectional properties areobtained at various streamwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity as well as various turbulent stresses. Preliminary data are also acquired for periodically pitched airfoil. These results are briefly presented in this extended abstract.

  20. Asymmetrical reverse vortex flow due to induced-charge electro-osmosis around carbon stacking structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugioka, Hideyuki

    2011-05-01

    Broken symmetry of vortices due to induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) around stacking structures is important for the generation of a large net flow in a microchannel. Following theoretical predictions in our previous study, we herein report experimental observations of asymmetrical reverse vortex flows around stacking structures of carbon posts with a large height (~110 μm) in water, prepared by the pyrolysis of a photoresist film in a reducing gas. Further, by the use of a coupled calculation method that considers boundary effects precisely, the experimental results, except for the problem of anomalous flow reversal, are successfully explained. That is, unlike previous predictions, the precise calculations here show that stacking structures accelerate a reverse flow rather than suppressing it for a microfluidic channel because of the deformation of electric fields near the stacking portions; these structures can also generate a large net flow theoretically in the direction opposite that of a previous prediction for a standard vortex flow. Furthermore, by solving the one-dimensional Poisson-Nernst-Plank (PNP) equations in the presence of ac electric fields, we find that the anomalous flow reversal occurs by the phase retardation between the induced diffuse charge and the tangential electric field. In addition, we successfully explain the nonlinearity of the flow velocity on the applied voltage by the PNP analysis. In the future, we expect to improve the pumping performance significantly by using stacking structures of conductive posts along with a low-cost process.

  1. The use of linearized-aerodynamics and vortex-flow methods in aircraft design /invited paper/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with selected linearized-aerodynamic and vortex-flow methods as applied to aircraft design problems at high subsonic speeds. In particular, the NASA Vortex Lattice and Modified Multhopp methods are the linearized techniques employed, and the suction analogy is used to provide estimates associated with vortex-flow aerodynamics. Many examples are given as to how researchers at Langley have used these methods to design the high subsonic, wing-mean-camber shapes for various configurations such as a supersonic transport, high-aspect-ratio transport, trapezoidal fighter wing, strake wing, tandem wing, joined wing, delta wing, and slender cranked wing. Many of these have been built, tested, and have had their data compared with theory. In addition, a technique for defining efficiently performing strake planforms for use in strake-wing combinations is discussed, and further improvements in wing design are outlined. The latter may be obtained by using higher-ordered linear panel methods as well as nonlinear-transonic methods.

  2. Characterization of the left atrial vortex flow by two-dimensional transesophageal contrast echocardiography using particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu-Hwan; Son, Jang-Won; Park, Won-Jong; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ung; Park, Jong-Seon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Kim, Young-Jo; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Hong, Geu-Ru

    2013-01-01

    This article is the first clinical investigation of the quantitative left atrial (LA) vortex flow by two-dimensional (2-D) transesophageal contrast echocardiography (2-D-TECE) using vector particle image velocimetry (PIV). The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of LA vortex flow analysis and to characterize and quantify the LA vortex flow in controls and in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Thirty-five controls and 30 patients with AF underwent transesophageal contrast echocardiography. The velocity vector was estimated by particle image velocimetry. The morphology and pulsatility of the LA vortex flow were compared between the control and AF groups. In all patients, quantitative LA vortex flow analysis was feasible. In the control group, multiple, pulsatile, compact and elliptical-shaped vortices were seen in the periphery of the LA. These vortices were persistently maintained and vectors were directed toward the atrioventricular inflow. In the AF group, a large, merged, lower pulsatile and round-shaped vortex was observed in the center of the LA. In comparisons of vortex parameters, the relative strength was significantly lower in the AF group (1.624 ± 0.501 vs. 2.105 ± 0.226, p < 0.001). It is feasible to characterize and quantify the LA vortex flow by transesophageal contrast echocardiography in patients with AF, which offers a new method to obtain additional information on LA hemodynamics. The approach has the potential for early detection of the LA dysfunction and in decisions regarding treatment strategy and guiding anticoagulation treatment in patients with AF.

  3. Modeling of Vortex Flows in Direct Current (DC) Electric Arc Furnace with Different Bottom Electrode Positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazak, Oleg

    2013-10-01

    This article is devoted to the numerical modeling of electrovortex and convection flows in the direct current (DC) electric arc furnace with a different position of the bottom electrode. The electromagnetic, temperature, and hydrodynamic distribution parameters are given. The shear stress on the fettle area is offered as a criterion for the estimation of vortex flow influence on the increased wearing of the fettle. It is shown that lifting the bottom electrode above the fettle surface at the electrode radius leads to the decrease of shear stress on the fettle area by 30 pct. Putting the bottom electrode lower than the fettle surface by the distance equal to the electrode radius and its expanding by the same distance reduces the stress by 10 pct.

  4. A study of scattering, production, and stimulated emission of sound by vortex flows. [Bernouli enthalpy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The basic theory of aeroacoustics of homentropic fluid media is applied to the problems of sound scattering, production, and stimulated emission. A general theory of scattering from low speed three-dimensional vortex flows is presented. Specific results are given for the horseshoe vortex and vortex ring. The noise of an elementary corotating vortex pair in various flows is calculated. It is shown that a potential flow and shear flow can substantially increase the basic pair noise. Small reverse shears can annihilate vortex pairs and eliminate the pair noise mechanism. The pair results are used to explain qualitatively the operation of noise suppression devices. The stimulated emission of a single vortex pair and four and six vortex arrays is demonstrated. The results for six vortices illustrate how external pure tones can amplify the broadband noise of a jet in agreement with recent experimental evidence.

  5. A nonintrusive method of quantifying flow visualization data in vortex flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sei, Vincent J.

    1994-12-01

    The High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) as well as other similar flight test aircraft have been using smoke flow visualization techniques to characterize the vortex flow created by leading edge extensions and the forebody. With the advent of video measurement techniques, this type of flow visualization can not only provide a qualitative assessment of the flow but also a quantitative measure to be used to validate computational fluid dynamic codes and wind tunnel test. One of the major drawbacks to employing video imaging was the introduction of false motion due to camera movement in flight. A relative motion approach using fixed targets along with the flow visualization scheme was utilized to remove unwanted motion. The relative motion algorithm was tested using a laboratory test setup where cameras underwent both translational and rotational motion to simulate both wing bending and torsion. The method was effective in removing both motions with only a slight loss of accuracy.

  6. Measurements of the unsteady vortex flow over a wing-body at angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debry, Benoit; Komerath, Narayanan M.; Liou, Shiuh-Guang; Caplin, J.; Lenakos, Jason

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the unsteady vortex flow over a wing-body at high angles of attack were carried out on a generic test model of a pointed body of revolution with double-delta wings. Vortex patterns and trajectories were quantified from digitized laser sheet video images. The velocity-field measurements showed the jetlike flow in the unburst vortex, unsteady secondary structures below the primary core, and then the reversed flow in the burst vortex. Results of hot-film anemometry revealed the presence of peak frequencies in the velocity spectra over the wing and near the trailing edge, which varied linearly with freestream speed and increased as the measurement point moved upstream. Good Strouhal correlation was found with previous results obtained for a smaller generic wing-body model.

  7. Standard test case for a low-speed, turbulent junction vortex flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, F. J.

    1991-01-01

    The mean flow structure upstream, around within, and in the near wake of a turbulent junction or horseshoe vortex is reported for an incompressible subsonic flow. Measurements of the primitive variables of velocity and pressure are reported on all surfaces bounding the region of the vortex flow and on three transverse and one streamwise plane within the flowfield itself for comparisons between the measured and any calculated flow variables. Detailed surface flow visualizations and some direct force measurements of surface shear stress are also available. The data is a highly detailed, coherent, self-consistent set offered to the computational fluid mechanics community as a standard test case for the evaluation of the capability of numerical solvers intended for predicting the flowfield in such a complex, separated, three-dimensional turbulent flow. This data base is available for copying to user supplied tapes or for transmission via BITNET, as well as in two National Technical Information Service (NTIS) reports.

  8. A dilation-driven vortex flow in sheared granular materials explains a rheometric anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaraj, K. P.; Nott, Prabhu R.

    2016-01-01

    Granular flows occur widely in nature and industry, yet a continuum description that captures their important features is yet not at hand. Recent experiments on granular materials sheared in a cylindrical Couette device revealed a puzzling anomaly, wherein all components of the stress rise nearly exponentially with depth. Here we show, using particle dynamics simulations and imaging experiments, that the stress anomaly arises from a remarkable vortex flow. For the entire range of fill heights explored, we observe a single toroidal vortex that spans the entire Couette cell and whose sense is opposite to the uppermost Taylor vortex in a fluid. We show that the vortex is driven by a combination of shear-induced dilation, a phenomenon that has no analogue in fluids, and gravity flow. Dilatancy is an important feature of granular mechanics, but not adequately incorporated in existing models. PMID:26864086

  9. Oxygen transport and cell viability in an annular flow bioreactor: comparison of laminar Couette and Taylor-vortex flow regimes.

    PubMed

    Curran, Stephen J; Black, Richard A

    2005-03-30

    Rotating wall vessel bioreactors have been proposed as a means of controlling the fluid dynamic environment during long-term culture of mammalian cells and engineered tissues. In this study, we show how the delivery of oxygen to cells in an annular flow bioreactor is enhanced by the forced convective transport afforded by Taylor vortex flows. A fiberoptic oxygen probe with negligible lag time was used to measure the dissolved oxygen concentration in real time and under carefully controlled aeration conditions. From these data, the overall mass transfer coefficients were calculated and mass transport correlations determined under laminar Couette flow conditions and discrete Taylor vortex flow regimes, including laminar, wavy, and turbulent flows. While oxygen transport in Taylor vortex flows was significantly greater, and the available oxygen exceeded that consumed by murine fibroblasts in free suspension, the proportion of cells that remained viable decreased with increasing Reynolds number (101.8 < Rei < 1018), which we attribute to the action of fluid shear stresses on the cells as opposed to any limitation in mass transport. Nevertheless, the results of this study suggest that laminar Taylor-vortex flow regimes provide an effective means of maintaining the levels of oxygen transport required for long-term cell culture. PMID:15696514

  10. The influence of current collectors on Tayler instability and electro-vortex flows in liquid metal batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, N.; Galindo, V.; Stefani, F.; Weier, T.; Priede, J.

    2015-01-15

    The Tayler instability (TI) is a kink-type flow instability which occurs when the electrical current through a conducting fluid exceeds a certain critical value. Originally studied in the astrophysical context, the instability was recently discussed as a possible limiting factor for the upward scalability of liquid metal batteries. In this paper, we continue our efforts to simulate this instability for liquid metals within the framework of an integro-differential equation approach. The original solver is enhanced by multi-domain support with Dirichlet-Neumann partitioning for the static boundaries. Particular focus is laid on the detailed influence of the axial electrical boundary conditions on the characteristic features of the Tayler instability and, second, on the occurrence of electro-vortex flows and their relevance for liquid metal batteries. Electro-vortex flows might pose a larger risk to the integrity of the battery than the TI.

  11. Prediction of Transonic Vortex Flows Using Linear and Nonlinear Turbulent Eddy Viscosity Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    Three-dimensional transonic flow over a delta wing is investigated with a focus on the effect of transition and influence of turbulence stress anisotropies. The performance of linear eddy viscosity models and an explicit algebraic stress model is assessed at the start of vortex flow, and the results compared with experimental data. To assess the effect of transition location, computations that either fix transition or are fully turbulent are performed. To assess the effect of the turbulent stress anisotropy, comparisons are made between predictions from the algebraic stress model and the linear eddy viscosity models. Both transition location and turbulent stress anisotropy significantly affect the 3D flow field. The most significant effect is found to be the modeling of transition location. At a Mach number of 0.90, the computed solution changes character from steady to unsteady depending on transition onset. Accounting for the anisotropies in the turbulent stresses also considerably impacts the flow, most notably in the outboard region of flow separation.

  12. Development of a FBG vortex flow sensor for high-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, L. K.; Schiferli, W.; Nieuwland, R. A.; Franzen, A.; den Boer, J. J.; Jansen, T. H.

    2011-05-01

    A robust fibre optic flow sensor has been developed to measure liquid or gas flows at ambient temperatures up to 300 ºC and pressures up to 100 bar. While such environmental conditions are typical in pressurized steam systems in the oil and gas industry (downhole and surface), wider applications are envisaged. The flow sensor uses a specially-designed bluff body to generate vortex-induced pressure fluctuations as a function of flow. The pressure fluctuations result in mechanical strain fluctuations in the sensor plate which is attached to the bluff-body. This is detected by means of a Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG). The frequency of the pressure fluctuations is proportional to the flow velocity and is measured by analyzing the spectrum of the FBG sensor signal. Flow velocity measurements ranging from ~1 m/s to ~25 m/s have been demonstrated. Special mechanical design, gluing and packaging processes have been developed to enable applications at high temperatures and high pressures (HPHT). Although the working principle is the same as for conventional vortex flow meters, this flow sensor does not require electronics, which is a great advantage at high temperatures.

  13. SUNRISE/IMaX OBSERVATIONS OF CONVECTIVELY DRIVEN VORTEX FLOWS IN THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Bonet, J. A.; Marquez, I.; Almeida, J. Sanchez; Pillet, V. MartInez; Palacios, J.; Domingo, V.; Solanki, S. K.; Gandorfer, A.; Barthol, P.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Knoelker, M.

    2010-11-10

    We characterize the observational properties of the convectively driven vortex flows recently discovered on the quiet Sun, using magnetograms, Dopplergrams, and images obtained with the 1 m balloon-borne SUNRISE telescope. By visual inspection of time series, we find some 3.1 x 10{sup -3} vortices Mm{sup -2} minute{sup -1}, which is a factor of {approx}1.7 larger than previous estimates. The mean duration of the individual events turns out to be 7.9 minutes, with a standard deviation of 3.2 minutes. In addition, we find several events appearing at the same locations along the duration of the time series (31.6 minutes). Such recurrent vortices show up in the proper motion flow field map averaged over the time series. The typical vertical vorticities are {approx_lt}6 x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}, which corresponds to a period of rotation of some 35 minutes. The vortices show a preferred counterclockwise sense of rotation, which we conjecture may have to do with the preferred vorticity impinged by the solar differential rotation.

  14. Temporal evolution characteristics of an annular-mode gliding arc discharge in a vortex flow

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Tian-Liang; Liu, Jing-Lin; Li, Xiao-Song; Liu, Jin-Bao; Song, Yuan-Hong; Xu, Yong; Zhu, Ai-Min

    2014-05-15

    An annular-mode gliding arc discharge powered by a 50 Hz alternating current (ac) supply was studied in a vortex flow of dry and humid air. Its temporal evolution characteristics were investigated by electrical measurement, temporally resolved imaging, and temporally resolved optical emission spectroscopic measurements. Three discharge stages of arc-ignition, arc-gliding, and arc-extinction were clearly observed in each half-cycle of the discharge. During the arc-gliding stage, the intensity of light emission from the arc root at the cathode was remarkably higher than that at other areas. The spectral intensity of N{sub 2}(C{sup 3}Π{sub u}−B{sup 3}Π{sub g}) during the arc-ignition stage was much higher than that during the arc-gliding stage, which was contrary to the temporal evolutions of spectral intensities for N{sub 2}{sup +}(B{sup 2}Σ{sub u}{sup +}−X{sup 2}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) and OH(A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}−X{sup 2}Π{sub i}). Temporally resolved vibrational and rotational temperatures of N{sub 2} were also presented and decreased with increasing the water vapor content.

  15. Control of Interacting Vortex Flows at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds Using Passive Porosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2003-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 8-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (TPT) to determine the effects of passive surface porosity on vortex flow interactions about a general research fighter configuration at subsonic and transonic speeds. Flow- through porosity was applied to a wind leading-edge extension (LEX) mounted to a 65 deg cropped delta wind model to promote large nose-down pitching moment increments at high angles of attack. Porosity decreased the vorticity shed from the LEX, which weakened the LEX vortex and altered the global interactions of the LEX and wing vortices at high angles of attack. Six-component forces and moments and wing upper surface static pressure distributions were obtained at free- stream Mach numbers of 0.50, 0.85, and 1.20, Reynolds number of 2.5(10(exp-6) per foot, angles of attack up to 30 deg and angles of sideslip to plus or minus 8 deg. The off-surface flow field was visualized in selected cross-planes using a laser vapor screen flow visualization technique. Test data were obtained with a centerline vertical tail and with alternate twin, wing-mounted vertical fins having 0 deg and 30 deg cant angles. In addition, the porosity of the LEX was compartmentalized to determine the sensitivity of the vortex- dominated aerodynamics to the location and level of porosity applied to the LEX.

  16. Investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of wings having vortex flow using different numerical codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. S.; Goglia, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of highly sweptback wings having separation-induced vortex flow were investigated by employing different numerical codes with a view to determining some of the capabilities and limitations of these codes. Flat wings of various configurations-strake wing models, cropped, diamond, arrow and double delta wings, were studied. Cambered and cranked planforms have also been tested. The theoretical results predicted by the codes were compared with the experimental data, wherever possible, and found to agree favorably for most of the configurations investigated. However, large cambered wings could not be successfully modeled by the codes. It appears that the final solution in the free vortex sheet method is affected by the selection of the initial solution. Accumulated span loadings estimated for delta and diamond wings were found to be unusual in comparison with attached flow results in that the slopes of these load curves near the leading edge do not tend to infinity as they do in the case of attached flow.

  17. Burning invariant manifolds in time-periodic and time-aperiodic vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, Savannah; Solomon, Tom

    2014-11-01

    We present experiments that study reaction fronts in a flow composed of a single, translating vortex. The fronts are produced by the excitable Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical reaction, and the vortex flow is driven magnetohydrodynamically by a radial current in a thin fluid layer above a Nd-Fe-Bo magnet. The magnet is mounted on a pair of perpendicular translation stages, allowing for controlled, two-dimensional movement of the magnet and the resulting vortex. We study reaction fronts that pin to the vortex for time-independent flows (produced by moving the vortex with a constant velocity) and for time-periodic and time-aperiodic flows produced by oscillating the vortex laterally. The steady-state front shape is analyzed in terms of burning invariant manifolds (BIMs) that act as one-way barriers against any propagating reaction fronts. For time independent and time-periodic flows, the location of the BIMs are calculated numerically and are compared with experimental images of the pinned reaction fronts. We investigate extensions of this BIM approach for analyzing fronts in time-aperiodic flows. Supported by NSF Grants DMR-1004744, DMR-1361881 and PHY-1156964.

  18. Pressure-Sensitive Paint Investigation of Double-Delta Wing Vortex Flow Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Gonzalez, Hugo A.

    2005-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique was applied in a wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley Research Center 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to quantify the effect of wing fillets on the global vortex-induced surface static pressure field about a sharp leading-edge 76 deg/40 deg double delta wing, or strake-wing, model at subsonic and transonic speeds. Global calibrations of the PSP were obtained at M = 0.50, 0.70, 0.85, 0.95, and 1.20, a Reynolds number per unit length of 2.0 million, and angles of attack from 10 degrees to 30 degrees using an in-situ method featuring the simultaneous acquisition of electronically-scanned pressures (ESP) at discrete locations on the model. The mean error in the PSP measurements relative to the ESP data was approximately 2 percent or less at M = 0.50 to 0.85 but increased to several percent at M = 0.95 and 1.20. The PSP pressure distributions and pseudo-colored planform view pressure maps clearly revealed the vortex-induced pressure signatures at all Mach numbers and angles of attack. Small fillets having a parabolic or diamond planform situated at the strake-wing intersection were designed to manipulate the vortical flows by, respectively, removing the leading-edge discontinuity or introducing additional discontinuities. The fillets caused global changes in the vortex-dominated surface pressure field that were effectively captured in the PSP measurements. The vortex surface pressure signatures were compared to available off-surface vortex cross-flow structures obtained using a laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization technique. The fillet effects on the PSP pressure distributions and the observed leading-edge vortex flow characteristics were consistent with the trends in the measured lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients.

  19. Pressure-Sensitive Paint Investigation of Double-Delta Wing Vortex Flow Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Gonzalez, Hugo A.

    2004-01-01

    A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique was applied in a wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley Research Center 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to quantify the effect of wing fillets on the global vortex-induced surface static pressure field about a sharp leading-edge 76o/40o double delta wing, or strake-wing, model at subsonic and transonic speeds. Global calibrations of the PSP were obtained at M = 0.50, 0.70, 0.85, 0.95, and 1.20, a Reynolds number per unit length of 2.0 million, and angles of attack from 10 degrees to 20 degrees using an in-situ method featuring the simultaneous acquisition of electronically-scanned pressures (ESP) at discrete locations on the model. The mean error in the PSP measurements relative to the ESP data was approximately 2 percent or less at M = 0.50 to 0.85 but increased to several percent at M =0.95 and 1.20. The PSP pressure distributions and pseudo-colored planform view pressure maps clearly revealed the vortex-induced pressure signatures at all Mach numbers and angles of attack. Small fillets having a parabolic or diamond planform situated at the strake-wing intersection were designed to manipulate the vortical flows by, respectively, removing the leading-edge discontinuity or introducing additional discontinuities. The fillets caused global changes in the vortex-dominated surface pressure field that were effectively captured in the PSP measurements. The vortex surface pressure signatures were compared to available off-surface vortex cross-flow structures obtained using a laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization technique. The fillet effects on the PSP pressure distributions and the observed leading-edge vortex flow characteristics were consistent with the trends in the measured lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients.

  20. Clinical impact of quantitative left atrial vortex flow analysis in patients with atrial fibrillation: a comparison with invasive left atrial voltage mapping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Myung; Hong, Geu-Ru; Pak, Hui-Nam; Shim, Chi Young; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Kim, Minji; Chung, Namsik

    2015-08-01

    Recently, left atrial (LA) vortex flow analysis using contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been shown to be feasible and has demonstrated significant differences in vortex flow morphology and pulsatility between normal subjects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the relationship between LA vortex flow and electrophysiological properties and the clinical significance of LA vortex flow are unknown. The aims of this study were (1) to compare LA vortex flow parameters with LA voltage and (2) to assess the predictive value of LA vortex flow parameters for the recurrence of AF after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Thirty-nine patients with symptomatic non-valvular AF underwent contrast TEE before undergoing RFCA for AF. Quantitative LA vortex flow parameters were analyzed by Omega flow (Siemens Medical Solution, Mountain View, CA, USA). The morphology and pulsatility of LA vortex flow were compared with electrophysiologic parameters that were measured invasively. Hemodynamic, electrophysiological, and vortex flow parameters were compared between patients with and without early recurrence of AF after RFCA. Morphologic parameters, including LA vortex depth, length, width, and sphericity index were not associated with LA voltage or hemodynamic parameters. The relative strength (RS), which represents the pulsatility power of LA, was positively correlated with LA voltage (R = 0.53, p = 0.01) and LA appendage flow velocity (R = 0.73, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with LA volume index (R = -0.56, p < 0.001). Patients with recurrent AF after RFCA showed significantly lower RS (1.7 ± 0.2 vs 1.9 ± 0.4, p = 0.048) and LA voltage (0.9 ± 0.7 vs 1.7 ± 0.8, p = 0.004) than patients without AF recurrence. In the relatively small LA dimension group (LA volume index ≤ 33 ml/m(2)), RS was significantly lower (2.1 ± 0.3 vs 1.7 ± 0.1, p = 0.029) in patients with the recurrent AF. Quantitative LA vortex flow analysis, especially RS

  1. Clinical impact of quantitative left atrial vortex flow analysis in patients with atrial fibrillation: a comparison with invasive left atrial voltage mapping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Myung; Hong, Geu-Ru; Pak, Hui-Nam; Shim, Chi Young; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Kim, Minji; Chung, Namsik

    2015-08-01

    Recently, left atrial (LA) vortex flow analysis using contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been shown to be feasible and has demonstrated significant differences in vortex flow morphology and pulsatility between normal subjects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the relationship between LA vortex flow and electrophysiological properties and the clinical significance of LA vortex flow are unknown. The aims of this study were (1) to compare LA vortex flow parameters with LA voltage and (2) to assess the predictive value of LA vortex flow parameters for the recurrence of AF after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Thirty-nine patients with symptomatic non-valvular AF underwent contrast TEE before undergoing RFCA for AF. Quantitative LA vortex flow parameters were analyzed by Omega flow (Siemens Medical Solution, Mountain View, CA, USA). The morphology and pulsatility of LA vortex flow were compared with electrophysiologic parameters that were measured invasively. Hemodynamic, electrophysiological, and vortex flow parameters were compared between patients with and without early recurrence of AF after RFCA. Morphologic parameters, including LA vortex depth, length, width, and sphericity index were not associated with LA voltage or hemodynamic parameters. The relative strength (RS), which represents the pulsatility power of LA, was positively correlated with LA voltage (R = 0.53, p = 0.01) and LA appendage flow velocity (R = 0.73, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with LA volume index (R = -0.56, p < 0.001). Patients with recurrent AF after RFCA showed significantly lower RS (1.7 ± 0.2 vs 1.9 ± 0.4, p = 0.048) and LA voltage (0.9 ± 0.7 vs 1.7 ± 0.8, p = 0.004) than patients without AF recurrence. In the relatively small LA dimension group (LA volume index ≤ 33 ml/m(2)), RS was significantly lower (2.1 ± 0.3 vs 1.7 ± 0.1, p = 0.029) in patients with the recurrent AF. Quantitative LA vortex flow analysis, especially RS

  2. Numerical simulation of tip clearance leakage vortex flow characteristic in axial flow pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, W. D.; Li, T. T.; Zhang, D. S.; Tian, F.; Zhang, G. J.

    2012-11-01

    Tip Leakage Vortex (TLV) in axial flow pump is mainly cased by the leakage flow entraining with the main stream of the blade suction side, which could interfere with the main flow field of the whole passage and the performance of pump. The low pressure area of vortex nuclear also cause the cavitation, which often induce the noise, vibration and cavitation erosion on the end wall of the impeller. The steady turbulent flow fields of the tip clearance region at different conditions with different blade tip clearance sizes (0.15 mm, 0.50 mm, 1.50 mm and 3.00mm) were simulated based on the ANSYS CFX software. The application of the different turbulent models were compared and analyzed in the whole passage flow simulation and choose a turbulent model which can adapt the tip leakage vortex flow in the axial flow pump. Furthermore, the flow fields under different tip clearance sizes were simulated, the relationship of the flow field structure and size of the tip clearance was analyzed. The numerical results show that: The SST k-ω turbulent model can predict the energy characteristics of the model pump accurately, adapt the shear flow of the adverse pressure gradient and predict the tip leakage flow very well; With the increase of the mass flow, the start position of the tip leakage vortex cores remove from near the leading edge to the trailing edge along the shroud of the blade, and the strength of the vortex cores decreased; The energy characteristic decrease with the increase of the tip clearance; The positive-slope point arrive earlier when the tip above the 1.5mm; With the increase of the tip clearance, the start position of the tip leakage vortex cores remove from near the leading edge to the trailing edge along the shroud of the blade, the pressure of the vortex cores decrease, the strength of the vortex entrainment is bigger; The leakage vortex within the tip clearance of the axial flow pump enhances as the blade tip clearance size is more than 0.50 mm, and the

  3. Subscale Ship Airwake Studies Using Novel Vortex Flow Devices with Smoke, Laser-Vapor-Screen and Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Landman, Drew; Swift, Russell S.; Parikh, Paresh C.

    2007-01-01

    Ships produce vortices and air-wakes while either underway or stationary in a wind. These flow fields can be detrimental to the conduction of air operations in that they can adversely impact the air vehicles and flight crews. There are potential solutions to these problems for both frigates/destroyers and carriers through the use of novel vortex flow or flow control devices. This appendix highlights several devices which may have application and points out that traditional wind-tunnel testing using smoke, laser-vapor screen, and Particle Image Velocimetry can be useful in sorting out the effectiveness of different devices.

  4. Application of computational fluid dynamics to the study of vortex flow control for the management of inlet distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Gibb, James

    1992-01-01

    A study is presented to demonstrate that the Reduced Navier-Stokes code RNS3D can be employed effectively to develop a vortex generator installation that minimizes engine face circumferential distortion by controlling the development of secondary flow. The necessary computing times are small enough to show that similar studies are feasible within an analysis-design environment with all its constraints of costs and time. This study establishes the nature of the performance enhancements that can be realized with vortex flow control, and indicates a set of aerodynamic properties that can be utilized to arrive at a successful vortex generator installation design.

  5. Mode bifurcation control of a magnetic fluid on Taylor-Couette vortex flow with small aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, D.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.; Takeda, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The study of Taylor-Couette vortex flow with small aspect ratio is great interesting. Additionally, the importance of magnetic fluids has been increasing in the engineering applications of various fields, and this leads to increase the interests to investigate the flow of magnetic fluids, which have the reactivity to magnetic field. Then Taylor-Couette vortex flow with magnetic fluids is expected to control the flow pattern and the mode bifurcation by using magnetic field. Recently, the velocity information of various flow fields is available by using Ultrasonic Velocity Profiler (UVP). Hence, the method for investigating the flow fields in the magnetic fluids has also been available. In this study, the flow structure of a magnetic fluid in a concentric annular geometry with an aspect ratio of 3 and a radius ratio of 0.6 was investigated for an inner cylinder rotation. Axial velocity distributions of the flow field were measured using the UVP measuring technique. In the UVP measurement, an ultrasonic with basic frequency of 8 MHz and beam diameter of 3 mm was used. A non-uniform magnetic field was applied to the flow field using a permanent magnet located on the outside of the vessel, and the transitions of flow field with a magnet were investigated by using UVP.

  6. Characterization and Quantification of Vortex Flow in the Human Left Ventricle by Contrast Echocardiography Using Vector Particle Image Velocimetry

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Geu-Ru; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Tonti, Giovanni; Li, Peng; Wei, Zhao; Kim, Jin Kyung; Baweja, Abinav; Liu, Shizhen; Chung, Namsik; Houle, Helene; Narula, Jagat; Vannan, Mani A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to: 1) assess the feasibility of left ventricular (LV) vortex flow analysis using contrast echocardiography (CE); and 2) characterize and quantify LV vortex flow in normal subjects and patients with LV systolic dysfunction. BACKGROUND Vortices that form during LV filling have specific geometry and anatomical locations that are critical determinants of directed blood flow during ejection. Therefore, it is clinically relevant to assess the vortex flow patterns to better understand the LV function. METHODS Twenty-five patients (10 normal and 15 patients with abnormal LV systolic function) underwent CE with intravenous contrast agent, Definity (Bristol-Myers Squibb Medical Imaging, Inc., North Billerica, Massachusetts). The velocity vector and vorticity were estimated by particle image velocimetry. Average vortex parameters including vortex depth, transverse position, length, width, and sphericity index were measured. Vortex pulsatility parameters including relative strength, vortex relative strength, and vortex pulsation correlation were also estimated. RESULTS Vortex depth and vortex length were significantly lower in the abnormal LV function group (0.443 ± 0.04 vs. 0.482 ± 0.06, p < 0.05; 0.366 ± 0.06 vs. 0.467 ± 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Vortex width was greater (0.209 ± 0.05 vs. 0.128 ± 0.06, p < 0.01) and sphericity index was lower (1.86 ± 0.5 vs. 3.66 ± 0.6, p < 0.001) in the abnormal LV function group. Relative strength (1.13 ± 0.4 vs. 2.10 ± 0.8, p < 0.001), vortex relative strength (0.57 ± 0.2 vs. 1.19 ± 0.5, p < 0.001), and vortex pulsation correlation (0.63 ± 0.2 vs. 1.31 ± 0.5, p < 0.001) were significantly lower in the abnormal LV function group. CONCLUSIONS It was feasible to quantify LV vorticity arrangement by CE using particle image velocimetry in normal subjects and those with LV systolic dysfunction, and the vorticity imaging by CE may serve as a novel approach to depict vortex, the principal

  7. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  8. Cultivation of the photosynthesis microorganism in a Taylor-Couette Vortex Flow with a small aspect ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, H.; Yasui, S.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.

    2009-02-01

    This study focuses on the dynamics of the Taylor-Couette Vortex Flow (TVF) in a photo-bioreactor in which CO2 is changed to O2 with high efficiency by the photosynthesis ability of micro algae. Stirring by means of a screw propeller is generally used for a simple agitation. However, the problem is that there exists a very high shearing flow region just near the propeller, which causes the destruction of the alga cell by the shearing force. In contrast, the TVF mixing is expected to reduce such a local and random shearing force because of their column of steady and orderly vortices. In this study, the relationship between the microorganism growth rate and the flow structures in dilute suspensions of a TVF is investigated and the flow characteristics are measured by using an ultrasonic velocity profiler with a small aspect ratio of 3.

  9. Evaluation of vortex flow in left ventricle by echo-dynamography and phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takanori; Kameyama, Takeyoshi; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Khmyrova, Elena; Kurokawa, Takafumi; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2012-01-01

    Echo-dynamography (EDG) is a method for visualizing left ventricular (LV) blood flow based on cardiac Doppler measurement in which blood flow component perpendicular to the ultrasonic beam is deduced by applying fluid dynamics theories to two-dimensional (2D) distribution of blood flow component along the ultrasonic beam. EDG has been validated by numerical simulation and particle image velocimetry of model circulation. However, these validations were too simple to reproduce unstable and asymmetrical flow in a beating heart. In the present study, EDG is compared with three-directional (3D) blood flow distribution on the same plane obtained with phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PCMRA) for clinical validation. Moreover, the location and vorticity of the vortex flow in LV are measured quantitatively and the relation to echocardiographic parameters of systolic and diastolic functions is discussed. 3D components of blood flow on a plane were obtained with triple scans of the same plane with ECG trigger and breath holding; 1) phase encode (x-axis), 2) read out (y-axis) and 3) slice selection (z-axis). After the acquisition of MRA dataset, color Doppler dataset of the same plane was acquired and 2D velocity distribution was obtained with EDG in MATLAB programs. EDG and PCMRA showed similar velocity vector distribution and formation of LV vortex flow. The vortex at mid diastolic phase was strongly affected by early diastolic filling while the vortex at isometric contraction was affected by atrial filling. EDG gained a new insight on systolic-diastolic coupling from the view point of LV blood flow such as LV vortex formation. PMID:23366476

  10. Stabilization of buoyancy-driven unstable vortex flow in mixed convection of air in a rectangular duct by tapering its top plate

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, W.S.; Lin, W.L.; Yin, C.P.; Lin, C.L.; Lin, T.F.

    2000-02-01

    At high buoyancy-to-inertia ratio frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment, the buoyancy-driven secondary vortex flow in a forced laminar flow through a bottom heated rectangular duct is rather unstable. Heat transfer augmentation associated with the buoyancy-driven vortex flow is desirable and welcome in many technological applications in which the efficient energy transport is of major concern. Here, stabilization of the buoyancy-driven unstable mixed convective vortex air flow in a bottom heated rectangular duct by tapering its top plate is investigated experimentally. Specifically, the duct is tapered so that its aspect ratio at the duct inlet is 4 and gradually raised to 12 at the exit of the duct. In the study the secondary flow in the duct is visualized and the steady and transient thermal characteristics of the flow are examined by measuring the spanwise distributions of the time-average temperature. The effects of the Reynolds and Grashof numbers on the vortex flow structure are studied in detail. Moreover, the spanwise-averaged Nusselt numbers for the horizontal rectangular and tapering ducts are also measured and compared. Furthermore, the time records of the air temperature are obtained to further detect the temporal stability of the flow. Over the ranges of the Re and Gr investigated for 5 {le} Re {le} 102 and 1.0 x 10{sup 4} {le} Gr {le} 1.7 x 10{sup 5}, the vortex flow induced in the rectangular duct exhibits temporal transition from a steady laminar to time periodic and then to chaotic state at increasing buoyancy-to-inertia ratio. Substantial change in the spatial structure of the vortex flow is also noted to accompany this temporal transition. The results for the tapering duct indicate that more vortex rolls can be induced due to the increase in the aspect ratio of the duct with the axial distance. But the vortex rolls are weaker and are completely stabilized by the tapering of the top plate.

  11. Vortex flows with suspended separation regions and long-range untwisted central jets

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovich, G.N.; Trofimov, R.S.

    1988-05-01

    A study is made of possible physicoaerodynamic configurations of vortical flow with suspended separation regions and untwisted central jets. Such flows are encountered in power plants (heat exchangers, combustion chambers, and chemical reactors) and in nature (tornadoes). The basic configurations of several flows of this type are described, including the structure of a flow formed by coaxial cocurrent twisted jets, the flow in a conical swirl chamber with the formation of an untwisted long-range axial jet, the flow pattern in a gas turbine engine chamber, and some considerations regarding the aerodynamics of a tornado.

  12. Turbulent Vortex-Flow Simulation Over a 65 deg Sharp and Blunt Leading-Edge Delta Wing at Subsonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffari, Farhad

    2005-01-01

    Turbulent thin-layer, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, based on a multi-block structured grid, are presented for a 65 deg delta wing having either a sharp leading edge (SLE) or blunt leading edge (BLE) geometry. The primary objective of the study is to assess the prediction capability of the method for simulating the leading-edge flow separation and the ensuing vortex flow characteristics. Computational results are obtained for two angles of attack of approximately 13 and 20 deg, at free-stream Mach number of 0.40 and Reynolds number of 6 million based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. The effects of two turbulence models of Baldwin-Lomax with Degani-Schiff (BL/DS) and the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) on the numerical results are also discussed. The computations also explore the effects of two numerical flux-splitting schemes, i.e., flux difference splitting (fds) and flux vector splitting (fvs), on the solution development and convergence characteristics. The resulting trends in solution sensitivity to grid resolution for the selected leading-edge geometries, angles of attack, turbulence models and flux splitting schemes are also presented. The validity of the numerical results is evaluated against a unique set of experimental wind-tunnel data that was obtained in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  13. Numerical simulation of formation of cyclone vortex flows in the intratropical zone of convergence and their early detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingalev, I. V.; Astaf'eva, N. M.; Orlov, K. G.; Chechetkin, V. M.; Mingalev, V. S.; Mingalev, O. V.

    2012-05-01

    Mechanisms of formation of cyclonic vortices in the tropical atmosphere of the Earth are investigated in the intratropical zone of convergence using numerical simulation made with the complete system of equations of gas dynamics taking into account transport of infrared radiation, phase transitions of water vapor into microdrops of water and ice particles, and sedimentation of these drops and ice particles in the field of gravity force. Observational data on the structure of dominant air streams, which are formed in the intratropical zone of convergence over the North Atlantic in the periods of its highest thermodynamic intensity and instability, are used in the initial and boundary conditions of the model. Formation of cyclonic vortex flows is obtained numerically at sufficiently strong bending of the intratropical zone of convergence. The results of numerical modeling are compared with the data of satellite microwave monitoring: global radio thermal fields of the Earth from the electronic collection GLOBAL-Field allowing one to study the structure of atmospheric motions in a wide range of space-time scales.

  14. Multi-wavelength Observations of Photospheric Vortex Flows in the Photosphere Using Ground-based and Space-borne Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, J.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Balmaceda, L. A.; Cabello, I.; Domingo, V.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we follow a series of papers on high-resolution observations of small-scale structures in the solar atmosphere (Balmaceda et al. 2009, 2010; Vargas Domínguez et al. 2011; Palacios et al. 2012; Domingo et al. 2012; Vargas Domínguez et al. 2015, Cabello et al., in prep), combining several multi-wavelength data series. These were acquired by both ground-based (SST) and space-borne (Hinode) instruments during the joint campaign of the Hinode Operation Program 14, in September 2007. Diffraction-limited SST data were taken in the G-band and G-cont, and were restored by the MFBD technique. Hinode instruments, on the other hand, provided multispectral data from SOT-FG in the CN band, and Mg I and Ca II lines, as well as from SOT-SP in the Fe I line. In this series of works we have thoroughly studied vortex flows and their statistical occurrences, horizontal velocity fields by means of Local Correlation Tracking (LCT), divergence and vorticity. Taking advantage of the high-cadence and high spatial resolution data, we have also studied bright point statistics and magnetic field intensification, highlighting the importance of the smallest-scale magnetic element observations.

  15. Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics to the Study of Vortex Flow Control for the Management of Inlet Distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Gibb, James

    1992-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that the Reduced Navier-Stokes code RNS3D can be used very effectively to develop a vortex generator installation for the purpose of minimizing the engine face circumferential distortion by controlling the development of secondary flow. The computing times required are small enough that studies such as this are feasible within an analysis-design environment with all its constraints of time and costs. This research study also established the nature of the performance improvements that can be realized with vortex flow control, and suggests a set of aerodynamic properties (called observations) that can be used to arrive at a successful vortex generator installation design. The ultimate aim of this research is to manage inlet distortion by controlling secondary flow through an arrangements of vortex generators configurations tailored to the specific aerodynamic characteristics of the inlet duct. This study also indicated that scaling between flight and typical wind tunnel test conditions is possible only within a very narrow range of generator configurations close to an optimum installation. This paper also suggests a possible law that can be used to scale generator blade height for experimental testing, but further research in this area is needed before it can be effectively applied to practical problems. Lastly, this study indicated that vortex generator installation design for inlet ducts is more complex than simply satisfying the requirement of attached flow, it must satisfy the requirement of minimum engine face distortion.

  16. A water tunnel flow visualization study of the vortex flow structures on the F/A-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Ramirez, Edgar J.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex flow structures occurring on the F/A-18 aircraft at high angles of attack were studied. A water tunnel was used to gather flow visualization data on the forebody vortex and the wing leading edge extension vortex. The longitudinal location of breakdown of the leading edge vortex was found to be consistently dependent on the angle of attack. Other parameters such as Reynolds number, model scale, and model fidelity had little influence on the overall behavior of the flow structures studied. The lateral location of the forebody vortex system was greatly influenced by changes in the angle of sideslip. Strong interactions can occur between the leading edge extension vortex and the forebody vortex. Close attention was paid to vortex induced flows on various airframe components of the F/A-18. Reynolds number and angle of attack greatly affected the swirling intensity, and therefore the strength of the studied vortices. Water tunnel results on the F/A-18 correlated well with those obtained in similar studies at both full and sub scale levels. The water tunnel can provide, under certain conditions, good simulations of realistic flows in full scale configurations.

  17. An assessment of viscous effects in computational simulation of benign and burst vortex flows on generic fighter wind-tunnel models using TEAM code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, Tim A.; Harris, Brenda W.; Raj, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    Vortex flows on a twin-tail and a single-tail modular transonic vortex interaction (MTVI) model, representative of a generic fighter configuration, are computationally simulated in this study using the Three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes Aerodynamic Method (TEAM). The primary objective is to provide an assessment of viscous effects on benign (10 deg angle of attack) and burst (35 deg angle of attack) vortex flow solutions. This study was conducted in support of a NASA project aimed at assessing the viability of using Euler technology to predict aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft configurations at moderate-to-high angles of attack in a preliminary design environment. The TEAM code solves the Euler and Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes equations on patched multiblock structured grids. Its algorithm is based on a cell-centered finite-volume formulation with multistage time-stepping scheme. Viscous effects are assessed by comparing the computed inviscid and viscous solutions with each other and experimental data. Also, results of Euler solution sensitivity to grid density and numerical dissipation are presented for the twin-tail model. The results show that proper accounting of viscous effects is necessary for detailed design and optimization but Euler solutions can provide meaningful guidelines for preliminary design of flight vehicles which exhibit vortex flows in parts of their flight envelope.

  18. An experimental analysis of critical factors involved in the breakdown process of leading edge vortex flows. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visser, Kenneth D.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental crosswire measurements of the flowfield above a 70 and 75 degree flat plate delta wing were performed at a Reynolds number of 250,000. Survey grids were taken normal to the platform at a series of chordwise locations for angles of attack of 20 and 30 degrees. Axial and azimuthal vorticity distributions were derived from the velocity fields. The dependence of circulation on distance from the vortex core as well as on chordwise location was examined. The effects of nondimensionalization in comparison with other experimental data was made. The circulation distribution scales with the local semispan and grows approximately linearly in the chordwise direction. For regions of the flow outside of the vortex subcore, the circulation at any chordwise station was observed to vary logarithmically with distance from the vortex axis. The circulation was also found to increase linearly with angle of incidence at a given chordwise station. A reduction in the local circulation about the vortex axis occurred at breakdown. The spanwise distribution of axial vorticity was severely altered through the breakdown region and the spanwise distribution of axial vorticity present appeared to reach a maximum immediately preceding breakdown. The local concentration of axial vorticity about the vortex axis was reduced while the magnitude of the azimuthal vorticity decreased throughout the breakdown zone. The axial vorticity components with a negative sense, found in the secondary vortex, remained unaffected by changes in wing sweep or angle of attack, in direct contrast to the positive components. The inclusion of the local wing geometry into a previously derived correlation parameter indicated that the circulation of growing leading edge vortex flows were similar at corresponding radii from the vortex axis. It was concluded that the flow over a delta wing, upstream of the breakdown regions and away from the apex and trailing edge regions, is conical. In addition, the dominating

  19. Wind tunnel investigation of vortex flows on F/A-18 configuration at subsonic through transonic speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    1991-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the David Taylor Research Center 7- by 10-Foot Transonic Tunnel of the wing leading-edge extension (LEX) and forebody vortex flows at subsonic and transonic speeds about a 0.06-scale model of the F/A-18. The primary goal was to improve the understanding and control of the vortical flows, including the phenomena of vortex breakdown and vortex interactions with the vertical tails. Laser vapor screen flow visualizations, LEX, and forebody surface static pressures, and six-component forces and moments were obtained at angles of attack of 10 to 50 degrees, free-stream Mach numbers of 0.20 to 0.90, and Reynolds numbers based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord of 0.96 x 10(exp 6) to 1.75 x 10(exp 6). The wind tunnel results were correlated with in-flight flow visualizations and handling qualities trends obtained by NASA using an F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) and by the Navy and McDonnell Douglas on F-18 aircraft with LEX fences added to improve the vertical tail buffet environment. Key issues that were addressed include the sensitivity of the vortical flows to the Reynolds number and Mach number; the reduced vertical tail excitation, and the corresponding flow mechanism, in the presence of the LEX fence; the repeatability of data obtained during high angle-of-attack wind tunnel testing of F-18 models; the effects of particle seeding for flow visualization on the quantitative model measurements; and the interpretation of off-body flow visualizations obtained using different illumination and particle seeding techniques.

  20. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A means is described for co-relating the essential physical requirements of a fission chain reaction in order that practical, compact, and easily controllable reactors can be built. These objects are obtained by employing a composition of fissionsble isotope and moderator in fluid form in which the amount of fissionsble isotcpe present governs the reaction. The size of the reactor is no longer a critical factor, the new criterion being the concentration of the fissionable isotope.

  1. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  2. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  3. The motion of Hurricane-like vortices determined by multi-scale interactions between the mesoscale vortex flow and its large-scale environment: a theoretical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Päschke, E.; Klein, R.

    2009-04-01

    Research in recent years have shown that multi-scale processes play a nontrivial role in tropical cyclone development, motion and structure. For example, important multi-scale processes that determine these vortex features arise from interactions between the vortex flow itself, its environmental flow, the Coriolis force due to the earth's rotation and diabatic effects as a consequence of moisture conversion processes occuring in convective cloud systems. Concerning the vortex motion it is well known that the large-scale environmental flow acts as a steering flow. Beta-gyres arising from interactions between the vortex flow and the earth's vorticity field contribute to a deviation of the storm track from the steering flow. Interactions between mesoscale vortices and small scale convective systems are assumed to be responsible for the tendency of tropical cyclones to meander about a mean path, which can be seen in long-range observations based on modern satellite techniques. The structure and intensity changes of tropical cyclones strongly depend from both diabatic effects and the environmental flow. For instance, it is observed that an unfavourable condition for a hurricane to develop or survive is given by a strong vertical shear in the environmental flow. One common explanation for this is that the dispersion of heat as a consequence of disruption of organized pattern of convection by strong winds aloft is responsible for a weakening or limiting of the development of mature storms. We present a threedimensional model to describe the motion and structure of Hurricane strength H1/H2 vortices. From a theoretical point of view this model gives deeper insight how the mesoscale structure of the vortex itself affects the synoptic scale vortex motion and vice versa, while taking the influence of a vertically sheared environmental flow and diabatic effects due to moisture conversion processes into account. The derivation of the model equations is based on matched

  4. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  5. Results of a study of Mach number and Reynolds number effects on the lee side vortex flow field characteristics of an ogive-cylinder-frustum-cylinder at angles of attack to 25 degrees. Volume 2: Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    A listing of the data reduction computer program output for the analysis of the lee side vortex flow about an ogive-cylinder-frustum-cylinder is presented. A computed local flow property for the flow field location array at a specific body station and freestream condition is listed. Significant local flow properties are computed. The local circulation strengths in the radial and circumferential directions are analyzed.

  6. Conceptual design study of concentrator enhanced solar arrays for space applications. Performance evaluation of 5 KW and 20 KW systems in Si and GaAs at 1 AU employing a flat plate trough concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A simple, efficient and very lightweight preliminary design for a 5 KW and 20 KW BOL output concentrated array evolved and is described by drawings. The relative effectiveness of this design, as compared to an unconcentrated planar array of equal power output, was measured by comparing power to mass performance of and the solar cell area required by each. Improvements in power to mass performance as high as 42% together with array area size reduction of 57% are possible in GaAs systems. By contrast, when the same concentrator design is applied to silicon systems, no improvement in power to mass can be obtained although array area reductions as high as 35% are obtainable.

  7. Wind Tunnel Investigation of the Effects of Surface Porosity and Vertical Tail Placement on Slender Wing Vortex Flow Aerodynamics at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) to determine the effects of passive surface porosity and vertical tail placement on vortex flow development and interactions about a general research fighter configuration at supersonic speeds. Optical flow measurement and flow visualization techniques were used that featured pressure sensitive paint (PSP), laser vapor screen (LVS), and schlieren, These techniques were combined with conventional electronically-scanned pressure (ESP) and six-component force and moment measurements to quantify and to visualize the effects of flow-through porosity applied to a wing leading edge extension (LEX) and the placement of centerline and twin vertical tails on the vortex-dominated flow field of a 65 cropped delta wing model. Test results were obtained at free-stream Mach numbers of 1.6, 1.8, and 2.1 and a Reynolds number per foot of 2.0 million. LEX porosity promoted a wing vortex-dominated flow field as a result of a diffusion and weakening of the LEX vortex. The redistribution of the vortex-induced suction pressures contributed to large nose-down pitching moment increments but did not significantly affect the vortex-induced lift. The trends associated with LEX porosity were unaffected by vertical tail placement. The centerline tail configuration generally provided more stable rolling moments and yawing moments compared to the twin wing-mounted vertical tails. The strength of a complex system of shock waves between the twin tails was reduced by LEX porosity.

  8. Measurement of vortex flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdevitt, T. Kevin; Ambur, Todd A.; Orngard, Gary M.; Owen, F. Kevin

    1992-01-01

    A 3-D laser fluorescence anemometer (LFA) was designed, built, and demonstrated for use in the Langley 16 x 24 inch Water Tunnel. Innovative optical design flexibility combined with compact and portable data acquisition and control systems were incorporated into the instrument. This will allow its use by NASA in other test facilities. A versatile fiber optic system facilities normal and off-axis laser beam alignment, removes mirror losses and improves laser safety. This added optical flexibility will also enable simple adaptation for use in the adjacent jet facility. New proprietary concepts in transmitting color separation, light collection, and novel prism separation of the scattered light was also designed and built into the system. Off-axis beam traverse and alignment complexity led to the requirement for a specialized, programmable transverse controller, and the inclusion of an additional traverse for the off-axis arm. To meet this challenge, an 'in-house' prototype unit was designed and built and traverse control software developed specifically for the water tunnel traverse applications. A specialized data acquisition interface was also required. This was designed and built for the LFA system.

  9. Vortex flow in nature and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugt, H. J.

    The occurrence and characteristics of vortices in flows are explored comprehensively, including historical observations and representations dated several millenia BC. Attention is given to the development of the scientific concept of vortices, and the basic concepts and kinematics of vortices are reviewed, as are the properties of simple vortices. The genesis and behavior of vorticity is traced through separation, instability, and turbulence. Fluid flow in a rotating system is explored, as are stratification in the ocean and atmosphere, circulations in the atmosphere, ocean, and earth, and the features of single vortices in the atmosphere and oceans. Hurrican formations are investigated, together with extraterrestrial vortices in planetary atmospheres, stars, and galaxies. A plethora of photographs and illustrations is presented, including drawings by Leonardo da Vinci.

  10. Analysis of vortex flow through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanipour, Fatemeh

    2012-05-01

    This study presents a numerical analysis of a two-dimensional flow propagating through porous media. The vortical flow is produced by a piston-cylinder vortex ring generator. The objective is to understand the flow behavior in porous media as a function of impingement velocity and porous media properties, e.g. porosity and permeability. The results show that the formation of vortices and flow pattern in porous media strongly depend on the permeability of the porous media but only has a weak dependence on the porosity and Reynolds number. The average vorticity over the porous media is calculated for various velocities, porosities and permeabilities. The results reveal that when Reynolds number is low, neither porosity nor permeability have any significant effect on average vorticity. However for high Reynolds numbers, the average vorticity is affected by permeability but not by porosity.

  11. Minimizing or eliminating refueling of nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Doncals, Richard A.; Paik, Nam-Chin; Andre, Sandra V.; Porter, Charles A.; Rathbun, Roy W.; Schwallie, Ambrose L.; Petras, Diane S.

    1989-01-01

    Demand for refueling of a liquid metal fast nuclear reactor having a life of 30 years is eliminated or reduced to intervals of at least 10 years by operating the reactor at a low linear-power density, typically 2.5 kw/ft of fuel rod, rather than 7.5 or 15 kw/ft, which is the prior art practice. So that power of the same magnitude as for prior art reactors is produced, the volume of the core is increased. In addition, the height of the core and it diameter are dimensioned so that the ratio of the height to the diameter approximates 1 to the extent practicable considering the requirement of control and that the pressure drop in the coolant shall not be excessive. The surface area of a cylinder of given volume is a minimum if the ratio of the height to the diameter is 1. By minimizing the surface area, the leakage of neutrons is reduced. By reducing the linear-power density, increasing core volume, reducing fissile enrichment and optimizing core geometry, internal-core breeding of fissionable fuel is substantially enhanced. As a result, core operational life, limited by control worth requirements and fuel burnup capability, is extended up to 30 years of continuous power operation.

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor in which at least a portion of the moderator is in the form of movable refractory balls is described. In addition to their moderating capacity, these balls may serve as carriers for fissionable material or fertile material, or may serve in a coolant capacity to remove heat from the reactor. A pneumatic system is used to circulate the balls through the reactor.

  15. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  16. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Mills, C.B.

    1961-11-21

    A neutronic reactor in which neutron moderation is achieved primarily in its reflector is described. The reactor structure consists of a cylindrical central "island" of moderator and a spherical moderating reflector spaced therefrom, thereby providing an annular space. An essentially unmoderated liquid fuel is continuously passed through the annular space and undergoes fission while contained therein. The reactor, because of its small size, is particularly adapted for propulsion uses, including the propulsion of aircraft. (AEC)

  18. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1958-04-22

    A nuclear reactor for isotope production is described. This reactor is designed to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux in a region adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the center of the reactor. The core of the reactor is generally centrally located with respect tn a surrounding first reflector, constructed of beryllium. The beryllium reflector is surrounded by a second reflector, constructed of graphite, which, in tune, is surrounded by a conventional thermal shield. Water is circulated through the core and the reflector and functions both as a moderator and a coolant. In order to produce a greatsr maximum thermal neutron flux adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the core, the reactor is designed so tbat the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the materials in the reflector is approximately twice the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the material of the core of the reactor.

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.; Johnson, H.W.

    1961-04-01

    BS>A nuclear reactor incorporating fuel rods passing through a moderator and including tubes of a material of higher Thermal conductivity than the fuel in contact with the fuel is described. The tubes extend beyond the active portion of the reactor into contant with a fiuld coolant.

  1. Reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Hista, J. C.

    1984-09-18

    Reactor building comprising a vessel shaft anchored in a slab which is peripherally locked. This reactor building comprises a confinement enclosure within which are positioned internal structures constituted by an internal structure floor, a vessel shaft, a slab being positioned between the general floor and the internal structure floor, the vesse

  2. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.

    1960-04-01

    A nuclear reactor is described consisting of blocks of graphite arranged in layers, natural uranium bodies disposed in holes in alternate layers of graphite blocks, and coolant tubes disposed in the layers of graphite blocks which do not contain uranium.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  6. Chemical Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hurwitz, H. Jr.; Brooks, H.; Mannal, C.; Payne, J.H.; Luebke, E.A.

    1959-03-24

    A reactor of the heterogeneous, liquid cooled type is described. This reactor is comprised of a central region of a plurality of vertically disposed elongated tubes surrounded by a region of moderator material. The central region is comprised of a central core surrounded by a reflector region which is surrounded by a fast neutron absorber region, which in turn is surrounded by a slow neutron absorber region. Liquid sodium is used as the primary coolant and circulates through the core which contains the fuel elements. Control of the reactor is accomplished by varying the ability of the reflector region to reflect neutrons back into the core of the reactor. For this purpose the reflector is comprised of moderator and control elements having varying effects on reactivity, the control elements being arranged and actuated by groups to give regulation, shim, and safety control.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  9. REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  10. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1959-01-13

    A neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled tvpe is described. The reactor is comprised of a pressure vessel containing the moderator and a plurality of vertically disposed channels extending in spaced relationship through the moderator. Fissionable fuel material is placed within the channels in spaced relationship thereto to permit circulation of the coolant fluid. Separate means are provided for cooling the moderator and for circulating a fluid coolant thru the channel elements to cool the fuel material.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Dietrich, J.R.

    1961-06-20

    A water-soluble non-volatile poison may be introduced into a reactor to nullify excess reactivity. The poison is removed by passing a side stream of the water containing the soluble poison to an evaporation chamber. The vapor phase is returned to the reactor to decrease the concentration of soluble poison and the liquid phase is returned to increase the concentration of soluble poison.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  15. Research reactors - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.; Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors of the heterogeneous water cooled type, and in particular to a fuel element charging and discharging means therefor. In the embodiment illustrated the reactor contains horizontal, parallel coolant tubes in which the fuel elements are disposed. A loading cart containing a magnzine for holding a plurality of fuel elements operates along the face of the reactor at the inlet ends of the coolant tubes. The loading cart is equipped with a ram device for feeding fuel elements from the magazine through the inlot ends of the coolant tubes. Operating along the face adjacent the discharge ends of the tubes there is provided another cart means adapted to receive irradiated fuel elements as they are forced out of the discharge ends of the coolant tubes by the incoming new fuel elements. This cart is equipped with a tank coataining a coolant, such as water, into which the fuel elements fall, and a hydraulically operated plunger to hold the end of the fuel element being discharged. This inveation provides an apparatus whereby the fuel elements may be loaded into the reactor, irradiated therein, and unloaded from the reactor without stopping the fiow of the coolant and without danger to the operating personnel.

  17. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1957-10-01

    A reactor of the type which preferably uses plutonium as the fuel and a liquid moderator, preferably ordinary water, and which produces steam within the reactor core due to the heat of the chain reaction is described. In the reactor shown the fuel elements are essentially in the form of trays and are ventically stacked in spaced relationship. The water moderator is continuously supplied to the trays to maintain a constant level on the upper surfaces of the fuel element as it is continually evaporated by the heat. The steam passes out through the spaces between the fuel elements and is drawn off at the top of the core. The fuel elements are clad in aluminum to prevent deterioration thereof with consequent contamimation of the water.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  20. Bioconversion reactor

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  1. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1962-04-24

    A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

  2. Catalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for loading and unloading rod type fuel elements of a neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, solld moderator, liquid cooled type. In the embodiment illustrated, the fuel rods are disposed in vertical coolant channels in the reactor core. The fuel rods are loaded and unloaded through the upper openings of the channels which are immersed in the coolant liquid, such as water. Unloading is accomplished by means of a coffer dam assembly having an outer sleeve which is placed in sealing relation around the upper opening. A radiation shield sleeve is disposed in and reciprocable through the coffer dam sleeve. A fuel rod engaging member operates through the axial bore in the radiation shield sleeve to withdraw the fuel rod from its position in the reactor coolant channel into the shield, the shield snd rod then being removed. Loading is accomplished in the reverse procedure.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.

    1963-01-01

    This patent covers a power-producing nuclear reactor in which fuel rods of slightly enriched U are moderated by heavy water and cooled by liquid metal. The fuel rods arranged parallel to one another in a circle are contained in a large outer closed-end conduit that extends into a tank containing the heavy water. Liquid metal is introduced into the large conduit by a small inner conduit that extends within the circle of fuel rods to a point near the lower closed end of the outer conduit. (AEC) Production Reactors

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1957-09-24

    Reactors of the type employing plates of natural uranium in a moderator are discussed wherein the plates are um-formly disposed in parallel relationship to each other thereby separating the moderator material into distinct and individual layers. Each plate has an uninterrupted sunface area substantially equal to the cross-sectional area of the active portion of the reactor, the particular size of the plates and the volume ratio of moderator to uranium required to sustain a chain reaction being determinable from the known purity of these materials and other characteristics such as the predictable neutron losses due to the formation of radioactive elements of extremely high neutron capture cross section.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  7. Particle-fluid interactions in rotor-generated vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauleder, Jürgen; Leishman, J. Gordon

    2014-03-01

    An investigation was made into the particle-laden turbulent flow produced by a rotor hovering in ground effect over a mobile sediment bed. Measurements of the two-phase flow were made using time-resolved particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry as the rotor wake and its embedded vorticity approached and interacted with the sediment bed. Mobilized particles of 45-63 μm diameter (estimated to have a particle Reynolds number of <30 and a Stokes number of about 60) were individually identified and tracked in the resulting flow, with the objective of relating any changes in the vortical flow and turbulence characteristics of the carrier flow phase to the action of the dispersed particle phase. It was observed that, in general, a two-way coupling between the flow phases was produced near the ground, and in some cases, the coupling was very significant. Specifically, it was shown that the uplifted particles altered the carrier flow near the sediment bed, leading to an earlier distortion of the external flow induced by the blade tip vortices and to the accelerated diffusion of the vorticity they contained. The uplifted particles were also seen to modify the overall turbulence field, and when sufficient particle concentrations built up, the particles began to attenuate the turbulence levels. Even in regions with lower particle concentrations, turbulence was found to be attenuated by the indirect action of the particles because of the distortions made to the tip vortices, which were otherwise a significant source of turbulence production. After the tip vortices had diffused further downstream, the uplifted particles were also found to increase the anisotropy of turbulence in the flow.

  8. Computation of hypersonic vortex flows with an Euler model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruneau, Charles-Henri; Laminie, Jacques; Chattot, Jean-Jacques

    The variational approach of the steady Euler equations presented at the loth ICNMFD [1] is extended to the treatment of supersonic and hypersonic flows by introducing the energy equation inthe least-squares formulation. The approximation is made with cubic or prismatic linear finite elements and the results are presented for flows around a rectangular flat plate or a thin delta wing for various Mach numbers and angles of attack. They show the occurrence of vortical flows on the upper surface of the wings due to the sharp edges.

  9. Navier-Stokes computations of horseshoe vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, G. B.; Piquet, J.

    1992-07-01

    Computation of the incompressible 3D turbulent viscous flow about an aerofoil/flat plate junction is reviewed. An iterative, fully decoupled technique is applied to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations written in a nonorthogonal curvilinear body-fitted coordinate system. The existing experimental databases are used to compare the numerical outputs of the computational method with experimental results involving massive separation.

  10. Start-up vortex flow past an accelerated flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling; Nitsche, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Viscous flow past a finite flat plate accelerating in the direction normal to itself is studied numerically. The plate moves with nondimensional speed tp, where p = 0, 1/2, 1, 2. The work focuses on resolving the flow at early to moderately large times and determining the dependence on the acceleration parameter p. Three stages in the vortex evolution are identified and quantified. The first stage, referred to as the Rayleigh stage [Luchini and Tognaccini, "The start-up vortex issuing from a semi-infinite flat plate," J. Fluid Mech. 455, 175-193 (2002)], consists of a vortical boundary layer of roughly uniform thickness surrounding the plate and its tip, without any separating streamlines. This stage is present only for p > 0, for a time-interval that scales like p3, as p → 0. The second stage is one of self-similar growth. The vortex trajectory and circulation satisfy inviscid scaling laws, the boundary layer thickness satisfies viscous laws. The self-similar trajectory starts immediately after the Rayleigh stage ends and lasts until the plate has moved a distance d = 0.5 to 1 times its length. Finally, in the third stage, the image vorticity due to the finite plate length becomes relevant and the flow departs from self-similar growth. The onset of an instability in the outer spiral vortex turns is also observed, however, at least for the zero-thickness plate considered here, it is shown to be easily triggered numerically by underresolution. The present numerical results are compared with experimental results of Pullin and Perry ["Some flow visualization experiments on the starting vortex," J. Fluid Mech. 97, 239-255 (1980)], and numerical results of Koumoutsakos and Shiels ["Simulations of the viscous flow normal to an impulsively started and uniformly accelerated flat plate," J. Fluid Mech. 328, 177-227 (1996)].

  11. Vortex flow and cavitation in diesel injector nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriotis, A.; Gavaises, M.; Arcoumanis, C.

    Flow visualization as well as three-dimensional cavitating flow simulations have been employed for characterizing the formation of cavitation inside transparent replicas of fuel injector valves used in low-speed two-stroke diesel engines. The designs tested have incorporated five-hole nozzles with cylindrical as well as tapered holes operating at different fixed needle lift positions. High-speed images have revealed the formation of an unsteady vapour structure upstream of the injection holes inside the nozzle volume, which is referred to as . Computation of the flow distribution and combination with three-dimensional reconstruction of the location of the strings inside the nozzle volume has revealed that strings are found at the core of recirculation zones; they originate either from pre-existing cavitation sites forming at sharp corners inside the nozzle where the pressure falls below the vapour pressure of the flowing liquid, or even from suction of outside air downstream of the hole exit. Processing of the acquired images has allowed estimation of the mean location and probability of appearance of the cavitating strings in the three-dimensional space as a function of needle lift, cavitation and Reynolds number. The frequency of appearance of the strings has been correlated with the Strouhal number of the vortices developing inside the sac volume; the latter has been found to be a function of needle lift and hole shape. The presence of strings has significantly affected the flow conditions at the nozzle exit, influencing the injected spray. The cavitation structures formed inside the injection holes are significantly altered by the presence of cavitation strings and are jointly responsible for up to 10% variation in the instantaneous fuel injection quantity. Extrapolation using model predictions for real-size injectors operating at realistic injection pressures indicates that cavitation strings are expected to appear within the time scales of typical injection events, implying significant hole-to-hole and cycle-to-cycle variations during the corresponding spray development.

  12. Steady axisymmetric vortex flows with swirl and shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elcrat, Alan R.; Fornberg, Bengt; Miller, Kenneth G.

    A general procedure is presented for computing axisymmetric swirling vortices which are steady with respect to an inviscid flow that is either uniform at infinity or includes shear. We consider cases both with and without a spherical obstacle. Choices of numerical parameters are given which yield vortex rings with swirl, attached vortices with swirl analogous to spherical vortices found by Moffatt, tubes of vorticity extending to infinity and Beltrami flows. When there is a spherical obstacle we have found multiple solutions for each set of parameters. Flows are found by numerically solving the Bragg-Hawthorne equation using a non-Newton-based iterative procedure which is robust in its dependence on an initial guess.

  13. Model of Pressure Distribution in Vortex Flow Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielczarek, Szymon; Sawicki, Jerzy M.

    2015-06-01

    Vortex valves belong to the category of hydrodynamic flow controls. They are important and theoretically interesting devices, so complex from hydraulic point of view, that probably for this reason none rational concept of their operation has been proposed so far. In consequence, functioning of vortex valves is described by CFD-methods (computer-aided simulation of technical objects) or by means of simple empirical relations (using discharge coefficient or hydraulic loss coefficient). Such rational model of the considered device is proposed in the paper. It has a simple algebraic form, but is well grounded physically. The basic quantitative relationship, which describes the valve operation, i.e. dependence between the flow discharge and the circumferential pressure head, caused by the rotation, has been verified empirically. Conformity between calculated and measured parameters of the device allows for acceptation of the proposed concept.

  14. High resolution solutions of the Euler equations for vortex flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murman, E. M.; Powell, K. G.; Rizzi, A.

    1985-01-01

    Solutions of the Euler equations are presented for M = 1.5 flow past a 70-degree-swept delta wing. At an angle of attack of 10 degrees, strong leading-edge vortices are produced. Two computational approaches are taken, based upon fully three-dimensional and conical flow theory. Both methods utilize a finite-volume discretization solved by a pseudounsteady multistage scheme. Results from the two approaches are in good agreement. Computations have been done on a 16-million-word CYBER 205 using 196 x 56 x 96 and 128 x 128 cells for the two methods. A sizable data base is generated, and some of the practical aspects of manipulating it are mentioned. The results reveal many interesting physical features of the compressible vortical flow field and also suggest new areas needing research.

  15. Reverse vortex flow in near-surface explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.; Whitaker, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    Nuclear explosions conducted near the ground surface but higher than about 5 to 6 m/kt/sup 1/3/ produce a reverse flow (downward along the symmetry axis) after the shock wave is reflected from the ground. This reverse flow persists until destroyed by the buoyant rise of the fireball on time scales of several seconds. Six calculations of bursts with scaled heights-of-burst ranging upward from 15 m/kt/sup 1/3/ are described. The height of the reverse flow is a simple function of the burst height and explosion yield.

  16. Simulation and phases of macroscopic particles in vortex flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Heath Eric

    Granular materials are an interesting class of media in that they exhibit many disparate characteristics depending on conditions. The same set of particles may behave like a solid, liquid, gas, something in-between, or something completely unique depending on the conditions. Practically speaking, granular materials are used in many aspects of manufacturing, therefore any new information gleaned about them may help refine these techniques. For example, learning of a possible instability may help avoid it in practical application, saving machinery, money, and even personnel. To that end, we intend to simulate a granular medium under tornado-like vortex airflow by varying particle parameters and observing the behaviors that arise. The simulation itself was written in Python from the ground up, starting from the basic simulation equations in Poschel [1]. From there, particle spin, viscous friction, and vertical and tangential airflow were added. The simulations were then run in batches on a local cluster computer, varying the parameters of radius, flow force, density, and friction. Phase plots were created after observing the behaviors of the simulations and the regions and borders were analyzed. Most of the results were as expected: smaller particles behaved more like a gas, larger particles behaved more like a solid, and most intermediate simulations behaved like a liquid. A small subset formed an interesting crossover region in the center, and under moderate forces began to throw a few particles at a time upward from the center in a fountain-like effect. Most borders between regions appeared to agree with analysis, following a parabolic critical rotational velocity at which the parabolic surface of the material dips to the bottom of the mass of particles. The fountain effects seemed to occur at speeds along and slightly faster than this division. [1] Please see thesis for references.

  17. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.

    1976-08-17

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield.

  18. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, John T.

    1977-01-25

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Weinberg, A.M.; Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1959-10-27

    BS>A reactor cooled by water, biphenyl, helium, or other fluid with provision made for replacing the fuel rods with the highest plutonium and fission product content without disassembling the entire core and for promptly cooling the rods after their replacement in order to prevent build-up of heat from fission product activity is described.

  20. Sonochemical Reactors.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1962-12-25

    A reactor is described comprising a plurality of horizontal trays containing a solution of a fissionable material, the trays being sleeved on a vertical tube which contains a vertically-reciprocable control rod, a gas-tight chamber enclosing the trays, and means for conducting vaporized moderator from the chamber and for replacing vaporized moderator in the trays. (AEC)

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1958-10-01

    The design of control rods for nuclear reactors are described. In this design the control rod consists essentially of an elongated member constructed in part of a neutron absorbing material and having tube means extending therethrough for conducting a liquid to cool the rod when in use.

  3. Sonochemical Reactors.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation. PMID:27573503

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1960-09-27

    A unit assembly is described for a neutronic reactor comprising a tube and plurality of spaced parallel sandwiches in the tube extending lengthwise thereof, each sandwich including a middle plate having a central opening for plutonium and other openings for fertile material at opposite ends of the plate.

  5. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-08-19

    A neuclear reactor is described of the heterogeneous type and employing replaceable tubular fuel elements and heavy water as a coolant and moderator. A pluraltty of fuel tubesa having their axes parallel, extend through a tank type pressure vessel which contatns the liquid moderator. The fuel elements are disposed within the fuel tubes in the reaetive portion of the pressure vessel during normal operation and the fuel tubes have removable plug members at each end to permit charging and discharging of the fuel elements. The fuel elements are cylindrical strands of jacketed fissionable material having helical exterior ribs. A bundle of fuel elements are held within each fuel tube with their longitudinal axes parallel, the ribs serving to space them apart along their lengths. Coolant liquid is circulated through the fuel tubes between the spaced fuel elements. Suitable control rod and monitoring means are provided for controlling the reactor.

  7. REACTOR MONITORING

    DOEpatents

    Bugbee, S.J.; Hanson, V.F.; Babcock, D.F.

    1959-02-01

    A neutron density inonitoring means for reactors is described. According to this invention a tunnel is provided beneath and spaced from the active portion of the reactor and extends beyond the opposite faces of the activc portion. Neutron beam holes are provided between the active portion and the tunnel and open into the tunnel near the middle thereof. A carriage operates back and forth in the tunnel and is adapted to convey a neutron detector, such as an ion chamber, and position it beneath one of the neutron beam holes. This arrangement affords convenient access of neutron density measuring instruments to a location wherein direct measurement of neutron density within the piles can be made and at the same time affords ample protection to operating personnel.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wade, E.J.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to a reflector means for a neutronic reactor. A reflector comprised of a plurality of vertically movable beryllium control members is provided surrounding the sides of the reactor core. An absorber of fast neutrons comprised of natural uramum surrounds the reflector. An absorber of slow neutrons surrounds the absorber of fast neutrons and is formed of a plurality of beryllium blocks having natural uranium members distributcd therethrough. in addition, a movable body is positioned directly below the core and is comprised of a beryllium reflector and an absorbing member attached to the botiom thereof, the absorbing member containing a substance selected from the goup consisting of natural urantum and Th/sup 232/.

  9. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  10. REACTOR UNLOADING

    DOEpatents

    Leverett, M.C.

    1958-02-18

    This patent is related to gas cooled reactors wherein the fuel elements are disposed in vertical channels extending through the reactor core, the cooling gas passing through the channels from the bottom to the top of the core. The invention is a means for unloading the fuel elements from the core and comprises dump values in the form of flat cars mounted on wheels at the bottom of the core structure which support vertical stacks of fuel elements. When the flat cars are moved, either manually or automatically, for normal unloading purposes, or due to a rapid rise in the reproduction ratio within the core, the fuel elements are permtted to fall by gravity out of the core structure thereby reducing the reproduction ratio or stopping the reaction as desired.

  11. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Warren R.

    1978-05-30

    A graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Koch, L.J.; Rice, R.E. Jr.; Denst, A.A.; Rogers, A.J.; Novick, M.

    1961-12-01

    An active portion assembly for a fast neutron reactor is described wherein physical distortions resulting in adverse changes in the volume-to-mass ratio are minimized. A radially expandable locking device is disposed within a cylindrical tube within each fuel subassembly within the active portion assembly, and clamping devices expandable toward the center of the active portion assembly are disposed around the periphery thereof. (AEC)

  13. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.B.

    1960-01-01

    A reactor is described which comprises a tank, a plurality of coaxial steel sleeves in the tank, a mass of water in the tank, and wire grids in abutting relationship within a plurality of elongated parallel channels within the steel sleeves, the wire being provided with a plurality of bends in the same plane forming adjacent parallel sections between bends, and the sections of adjacent grids being normally disposed relative to each other.

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A core structure for neutronic reactors adapted for the propulsion of aircraft and rockets is offered. The core is designed for cooling by gaseous media, and comprises a plurality of hollow tapered tubular segments of a porous moderating material impregniated with fissionable fuel nested about a common axis. Alternate ends of the segments are joined. In operation a coolant gas passes through the porous structure and is heated.

  16. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Ruano, W.J.

    1957-12-10

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which utilize elongited rod type fuel elements immersed in a liquid moderator and shows a design whereby control of the chain reaction is obtained by varying the amount of moderator or reflector material. A central tank for containing liquid moderator and fuel elements immersed therein is disposed within a surrounding outer tank providing an annular space between the two tanks. This annular space is filled with liquid moderator which functions as a reflector to reflect neutrons back into the central reactor tank to increase the reproduction ratio. Means are provided for circulating and cooling the moderator material in both tanks and additional means are provided for controlling separately the volume of moderator in each tank, which latter means may be operated automatically by a neutron density monitoring device. The patent also shows an arrangement for controlling the chain reaction by injecting and varying an amount of poisoning material in the moderator used in the reflector portion of the reactor.

  17. Nuclear Reactors. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: How Reactors Work; Reactor Design; Research, Teaching, and Materials Testing; Reactors (Research, Teaching and Materials); Production Reactors; Reactors for Electric Power…

  18. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  19. REACTOR COMPONETN

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor fuel element comprised of a slug of fissionable material disposed in a sheath of corrosion resistantmaterial is described. The sheath is in the form of a tubular container closed at one end and is in tight-fitting engagement with the peripheral sunface of the slug. An inner cap is insented into the open end of the sheath against the slug, which end is then bent around the inner cap and welded thereto. An outer cap is then welded around its peripheny to the bent portion of the container.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  1. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  2. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  3. Control Means for Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Manley, J. H.

    1961-06-27

    An apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a tank just below the reactor, tubes extending from the tank into the reactor, and a thermally expansible liquid neutron absorbent material in the tank. The liquid in the tank is exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor which heats the liquid causing it to expand into the reactor when the neutron flux in the reactor rises above a predetermincd danger point. Boron triamine may be used for this purpose.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, H.B.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor of the type speclfically designed for the irradiation of materials is discussed. In this design a central cyllndrical core of moderating material ls surrounded by an active portlon comprlsed of an annular tank contalning fissionable material immersed ln a liquid moderator. The active portion ls ln turn surrounded by a reflector, and a well ls provided in the center of the core to accommodate the materlals to be irradiated. The over-all dimensions of the core ln at least one plane are equal to or greater than twice the effective slowing down length and equal to or less than twlce the effective diffuslon length for neutrons in the core materials.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1957-09-17

    A reactor of the type having coolant liquid circulated through clad fuel elements geometrically arranged in a solid moderator, such as graphite, is described. The core is enclosed in a pressure vessel and suitable shielding, wherein means is provided for circulating vapor through the core to superheat the same. This is accomplished by drawing off the liquid which has been heated in the core due to the fission of the fuel, passing it to a nozzle within a chamber where it flashes into a vapor, and then passing the vapor through separate tubes extending through the moderator to pick up more heat developed in the core due to the fission of the fuel, thereby producing superheated vapor.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1962-12-18

    A power plant is described comprising a turbine and employing round cylindrical fuel rods formed of BeO and UO/sub 2/ and stacks of hexagonal moderator blocks of BeO provided with passages that loosely receive the fuel rods so that coolant may flow through the passages over the fuels to remove heat. The coolant may be helium or steam and fiows through at least one more heat exchanger for producing vapor from a body of fluid separate from the coolant, which fluid is to drive the turbine for generating electricity. By this arrangement the turbine and directly associated parts are free of particles and radiations emanating from the reactor. (AEC)

  7. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  8. Reactor safety method

    DOEpatents

    Vachon, Lawrence J.

    1980-03-11

    This invention relates to safety means for preventing a gas cooled nuclear reactor from attaining criticality prior to start up in the event the reactor core is immersed in hydrogenous liquid. This is accomplished by coating the inside surface of the reactor coolant channels with a neutral absorbing material that will vaporize at the reactor's operating temperature.

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR MANIPULATING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1962-08-01

    A cable connecting a control rod in a reactor with a motor outside the reactor for moving the rod, and a helical conduit in the reactor wall, through which the cable passes are described. The helical shape of the conduit prevents the escape of certain harmful radiations from the reactor. (AEC)

  10. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, Wallace B.

    2004-03-16

    A nuclear reactor comprising a cylindrical pressure vessel, an elongated annular core centrally disposed within and spaced from the pressure vessel, and a plurality of ducts disposed longitudinally of the pressure vessel about the periphery thereof, said core comprising an annular active portion, an annular reflector just inside the active portion, and an annular reflector just outside the active a portion, said annular active portion comprising rectangular slab, porous fuel elements radially disposed around the inner reflector and extending the length of the active portion, wedge-shaped, porous moderator elements disposed adjacent one face of each fuel element and extending the length of the fuel element, the fuel and moderator elements being oriented so that the fuel elements face each other and the moderator elements do likewise, adjacent moderator elements being spaced to provide air inlet channels, and adjacent fuel elements being spaced to provide air outlet channels which communicate with the interior of the peripheral ducts, and means for introducing air into the air inlet channels which passes through the porous moderator elements and porous fuel elements to the outlet channel.

  11. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  12. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Charles D.; Davison, Brian H.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur.

  13. Attrition reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.; Davison, B.H.

    1993-09-28

    A reactor vessel for reacting a solid particulate with a liquid reactant has a centrifugal pump in circulatory flow communication with the reactor vessel for providing particulate attrition, resulting in additional fresh surface where the reaction can occur. 2 figures.

  14. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  16. Reactor System Transient Code.

    1999-07-14

    RELAP3B describes the behavior of water-cooled nuclear reactors during postulated accidents or power transients, such as large reactivity excursions, coolant losses or pump failures. The program calculates flows, mass and energy inventories, pressures, temperatures, and steam qualities along with variables associated with reactor power, reactor heat transfer, or control systems. Its versatility allows one to describe simple hydraulic systems as well as complex reactor systems.

  17. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  18. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  19. Efficient Silicon Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Hill, D. M.; Jewett, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    High-purity silicon efficiently produced and transferred by continuous two-cycle reactor. New reactor operates in relatively-narrow temperature rate and uses large surfaces area to minimize heat expenditure and processing time in producing silicon by hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane. Two cycles of reactor consists of silicon production and removal.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  1. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Don

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SHIELDING

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1961-07-11

    A special hydrogenous concrete shielding for reactors is described. In addition to Portland cement and water, the concrete essentially comprises 30 to 60% by weight barytes aggregate for enhanced attenuation of fast neutrons. The biological shields of AEC's Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor and Materials Testing Reactor are particular embodiments.

  3. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1995-01-01

    An improved vortex reactor system for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor.

  4. Advanced Test Reactor Tour

    ScienceCinema

    Miley, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory is the foremost nuclear materials test reactor in the world. This virtual tour describes the reactor, how experiments are conducted, and how spent nuclear fuel is handled and stored. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Neutron behavior, reactor control, and reactor heat transfer. Volume four

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume four covers neutron behavior (neutron absorption, how big are nuclei, neutron slowing down, neutron losses, the self-sustaining reactor), reactor control (what is controlled in a reactor, controlling neutron population, is it easy to control a reactor, range of reactor control, what happens when the fuel burns up, controlling a PWR, controlling a BWR, inherent safety of reactors), and reactor heat transfer (heat generation in a nuclear reactor, how is heat removed from a reactor core, heat transfer rate, heat transfer properties of the reactor coolant).

  6. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  7. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  8. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  9. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  10. High temperature reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulera, I. V.; Sinha, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of high temperature reactors, nuclear energy, in addition to producing electricity, has shown enormous potential for the production of alternate transport energy carrier such as hydrogen. High efficiency hydrogen production processes need process heat at temperatures around 1173-1223 K. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), is currently developing concepts of high temperature reactors capable of supplying process heat around 1273 K. These reactors would provide energy to facilitate combined production of hydrogen, electricity, and drinking water. Compact high temperature reactor is being developed as a technology demonstrator for associated technologies. Design has been also initiated for a 600 MWth innovative high temperature reactor. High temperature reactor development programme has opened new avenues for research in areas like advanced nuclear fuels, high temperature and corrosion resistant materials and protective coatings, heavy liquid metal coolant technologies, etc. The paper highlights design of these reactors and their material related requirements.

  11. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  12. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  13. HORIZONTAL BOILING REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-11-18

    Reactors of the boiling water type are described wherein water serves both as the moderator and coolant. The reactor system consists essentially of a horizontal pressure vessel divided into two compartments by a weir, a thermal neutronic reactor core having vertical coolant passages and designed to use water as a moderator-coolant posltioned in one compartment, means for removing live steam from the other compartment and means for conveying feed-water and water from the steam compartment to the reactor compartment. The system further includes auxiliary apparatus to utilize the steam for driving a turbine and returning the condensate to the feed-water inlet of the reactor. The entire system is designed so that the reactor is self-regulating and has self-limiting power and self-limiting pressure features.

  14. Modelling of biofilm reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, A.; Grasmick, A.; Elmaleh, S.

    1982-10-01

    Comprehensive models of biofilm reactors are developed. Model I assumes a zero-order reaction of a limiting substrate and a diffusional mass transport through the biofilm; in the diffusion-controlled regime the model is fully characterized by one parameter alpha. From this model the conversion of substrate or reactor efficiency can be calculated, for continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and plug flow reactors respectively, as follows: EA = )alpha(alpha + 2)) 1/2 - alpha; and Ep = (2 alpha) 1/2 - alpha/2: Validation of the model is tested for different experimental systems. Model II includes liquid film mass transfer resistance. The conversion gap between plug flow reactors and CSTRs is always lower than 25% and, as a first approximation, the biofilm reactor design does not then require accurate residence time distribution measurements. (Refs. 23).

  15. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  16. Thermionic space reactors overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wetch, J.R.; Britt, E.J.; Fitzpatrick, G.O.; Rasor, N.S.

    1983-08-01

    The multi-national development of thermionic reactor systems is summarized in the context of the past general space nuclear reactor program and the recent renewed interest in space nuclear power. Comparison of various alternate reactor space power systems indicates that only the in-core thermionic reactor approach has the performance and growth potential required to provide the power levels potentially needed for shuttle-launchable systems by the year 2000 at reactor coolant and system temperatures that are near the current state-of-the-art. It is concluded that all shuttle- launchable high power space reactor systems require high-temperature, long-endurance nuclear fuels, and that high priority characterization and development of such fuels is essential to successfully realize power systems that can enable the space missions presently being considered.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Dreffin, R.S.

    1959-12-15

    A control means for a nuclear reactor is described. Particularly a device extending into the active portion of the reactor consisting of two hollow elements coaxially disposed and forming a channel therebetween, the cross sectional area of the channel increasing from each extremity of the device towards the center thereof. An element of neutron absorbing material is slidably positionable within the inner hollow element and a fluid reactor poison is introduced into the channel defined by the two hollow elements.

  18. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Goett, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A system is described which includes a neutronic reactor containing a dispersion of fissionable material in a liquid moderator as fuel and a conveyor to which a portion of the dispersion may be passed and wherein the self heat of the slurry evaporates the moderator. Means are provided for condensing the liquid moderator and returning it to the reactor and for conveying the dried fissionable material away from the reactor.

  19. Improved vortex reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    An improved vortex reactor system is described for affecting fast pyrolysis of biomass and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) feed materials comprising: a vortex reactor having its axis vertically disposed in relation to a jet of a horizontally disposed steam ejector that impels feed materials from a feeder and solids from a recycle loop along with a motive gas into a top part of said reactor. 12 figs.

  20. THERMAL NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1960-01-12

    A novel thermal reactor was designed in which a first reflector formed from a high atomic weight, nonmoderating material is disposed immediately adjacent to the reactor core. A second reflector composed of a moderating material is disposed outwardly of the first reflector. The advantage of this novel reflector arrangement is that the first reflector provides a high slow neutron flux in the second reflector, where irradiation experiments may be conducted with a small effect on reactor reactivity.

  1. FLOW SYSTEM FOR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1963-06-11

    A reactor is designed with means for terminating the reaction when returning coolant is below a predetermined temperature. Coolant flowing from the reactor passes through a heat exchanger to a lower reservoir, and then circulates between the lower reservoir and an upper reservoir before being returned to the reactor. Means responsive to the temperature of the coolant in the return conduit terminate the chain reaction when the temperature reaches a predetermined minimum value. (AEC)

  2. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  3. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  4. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1959-02-10

    A reactor system incorporating a reactor of the heterogeneous boiling water type is described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a core submerged adwater in the lower half of a pressure vessel and two distribution rings connected to a source of water are disposed within the pressure vessel above the reactor core, the lower distribution ring being submerged adjacent to the uppcr end of the reactor core and the other distribution ring being located adjacent to the top of the pressure vessel. A feed-water control valve, responsive to the steam demand of the load, is provided in the feedwater line to the distribution rings and regulates the amount of feed water flowing to each distribution ring, the proportion of water flowing to the submerged distribution ring being proportional to the steam demand of the load. This invention provides an automatic means exterior to the reactor to control the reactivity of the reactor over relatively long periods of time without relying upon movement of control rods or of other moving parts within the reactor structure.

  6. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  7. The Integral Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I. ); Lineberry, M.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, since 1984, has been developing the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). This paper will describe the way in which this new reactor concept came about; the technical, public acceptance, and environmental issues that are addressed by the IFR; the technical progress that has been made; and our expectations for this program in the near term. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  9. Operating US power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.G.

    1982-07-01

    The operation of US power reactors during March and April 1982 is summarized. Events of special note are discussed in the text, and the operational performance of all licensed power reactors is presented. These data are taken from the monthly Operating Units Status Report prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  10. Compact torsatron reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, J.F.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Tolliver, J.S.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1988-05-01

    Low-aspect-ratio torsatron configurations could lead to compact stellarator reactors with R/sub 0/ = 8--11m, roughly one-half to one-third the size of more conventional stellarator reactor designs. Minimum-size torsatron reactors are found using various assumptions. Their size is relatively insensitive to the choice of the conductor parameters and depends mostly on geometrical constraints. The smallest size is obtained by eliminating the tritium breeding blanket under the helical winding on the inboard side and by reducing the radial depth of the superconducting coil. Engineering design issues and reactor performance are examined for three examples to illustrate the feasibility of this approach for compact reactors and for a medium-size (R/sub 0/ approx. = 4 m,/bar a/ /approx lt/ 1 m) copper-coil ignition experiment. 26 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. REACTOR FUEL SCAVENGING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1962-04-10

    A process for removing fission products from reactor liquid fuel without interfering with the reactor's normal operation or causing a significant change in its fuel composition is described. The process consists of mixing a liquid scavenger alloy composed of about 44 at.% plutoniunm, 33 at.% lanthanum, and 23 at.% nickel or cobalt with a plutonium alloy reactor fuel containing about 3 at.% lanthanum; removing a portion of the fuel and scavenger alloy from the reactor core and replacing it with an equal amount of the fresh scavenger alloy; transferring the portion to a quiescent zone where the scavenger and the plutonium fuel form two distinct liquid layers with the fission products being dissolved in the lanthanum-rich scavenger layer; and the clean plutonium-rich fuel layer being returned to the reactor core. (AEC)

  12. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  13. Reactor neutrino monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuillier, D.

    2009-03-01

    Nuclear reactors are the most intense man-controlled sources of antineutrinos and as such have hosted number of key physics experiments, from the antineutrino discovery to modern oscillation measurements. At the present time, both detection technology and understanding of fundamental physics are mature enough to think about antineutrinos as a new tool for reactor monitoring. We describe below how antineutrinos can provide online information on reactor operation and amount of plutonium accumulated in the core. Reactors are the only sources of plutonium on earth and this element can be chemically separated from the rest of the nuclear fuel and diverted into nuclear weapons. We present in the next sections the unique features antineutrino detectors could provide to safeguards agencies such as IAEA. We review the worldwide efforts to develop small ( 1m scale) antineutrino detectors dedicated to automated and non-intrusive reactor monitoring.

  14. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  15. Slurry reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. ); Akgerman, A. ); Smith, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  17. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, Ronald J.; Land, John T.; Misvel, Michael C.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled.

  18. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.

    1994-06-07

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.

  19. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    DOEpatents

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mitrovski, Svetlana M.

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  20. CONTROL FOR NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Lichtenberger, H.V.; Cameron, R.A.

    1959-03-31

    S>A control rod operating device in a nuclear reactor of the type in which the control rod is gradually withdrawn from the reactor to a position desired during stable operation is described. The apparatus is comprised essentially of a stop member movable in the direction of withdrawal of the control rod, a follower on the control rod engageable with the stop and means urging the follower against the stop in the direction of withdrawal. A means responsive to disengagement of the follower from the stop is provided for actuating the control rod to return to the reactor shut-down position.

  1. REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    MacNeill, J.H.; Estabrook, J.Y.

    1960-05-10

    A reactor control system including a continuous tape passing through a first coolant passageway, over idler rollers, back through another parallel passageway, and over motor-driven rollers is described. Discrete portions of fuel or poison are carried on two opposed active sections of the tape. Driving the tape in forward or reverse directions causes both active sections to be simultaneously inserted or withdrawn uniformly, tending to maintain a more uniform flux within the reactor. The system is particularly useful in mobile reactors, where reduced inertial resistance to control rod movement is important.

  2. COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Binner, C.R.; Wilkie, C.B.

    1958-03-18

    This patent relates to a design for a reactor of the type in which a fluid coolant is flowed through the active portion of the reactor. This design provides for the cooling of the shielding material as well as the reactor core by the same fluid coolant. The core structure is a solid moderator having coolant channels in which are disposed the fuel elements in rod or slug form. The coolant fluid enters the chamber in the shield, in which the core is located, passes over the inner surface of said chamber, enters the core structure at the center, passes through the coolant channels over the fuel elements and out through exhaust ducts.

  3. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL SYSTEMS

    DOEpatents

    Thamer, B.J.; Bidwell, R.M.; Hammond, R.P.

    1959-09-15

    Homogeneous reactor fuel solutions are reported which provide automatic recombination of radiolytic gases and exhibit large thermal expansion characteristics, thereby providing stability at high temperatures and enabling reactor operation without the necessity of apparatus to recombine gases formed by the radiolytic dissociation of water in the fuel and without the necessity of liquid fuel handling outside the reactor vessel except for recovery processes. The fuels consist of phosphoric acid and water solutions of enriched uranium, wherein the uranium is in either the hexavalent or tetravalent state.

  4. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  5. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1958-10-14

    Methods of controlling reactors are presented. Specifically, a plurality of neutron absorber members are adjustably disposed in the reactor core at different distances from the center thereof. The absorber members extend into the core from opposite faces thereof and are operated by motive means coupled in a manner to simultaneously withdraw at least one of the absorber members while inserting one of the other absorber members. This feature effects fine control of the neutron reproduction ratio by varying the total volume of the reactor effective in developing the neutronic reaction.

  7. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1961-10-24

    A reactor core, comprised of vertical stacks of hexagonal blocks of beryllium oxide having axial cylindrical apertures extending therethrough and cylindrical rods of a sintered mixture of uranium dioxide and beryllium oxide, is described. (AEC)

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL COMPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Thurber, W.C.

    1961-01-10

    Uranium-aluminum alloys in which boron is homogeneously dispersed by adding it as a nickel boride are described. These compositions have particular utility as fuels for neutronic reactors, boron being present as a burnable poison.

  10. Molten metal reactors

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  11. Compact power reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wetch, Joseph R.; Dieckamp, Herman M.; Wilson, Lewis A.

    1978-01-01

    There is disclosed a small compact nuclear reactor operating in the epithermal neutron energy range for supplying power at remote locations, as for a satellite. The core contains fuel moderator elements of Zr hydride with 7 w/o of 93% enriched uranium alloy. The core has a radial beryllium reflector and is cooled by liquid metal coolant such as NaK. The reactor is controlled and shut down by moving portions of the reflector.

  12. Future reactor experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Liangjian

    2015-07-15

    The non-zero neutrino mixing angle θ{sub 13} has been discovered and precisely measured by the current generation short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments. It opens the gate of measuring the leptonic CP-violating phase and enables the neutrino mass ordering. The JUNO and RENO-50 proposals aim at resolving the neutrino mass ordering using reactors. The experiment design, physics sensitivity, technical challenges as well as the progresses of those two proposed experiments are reviewed in this paper.

  13. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, CW

    1980-08-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory from October 1 through December 31, 1979, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, lspra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  14. F Reactor Inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2014-10-29

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  15. F Reactor Inspection

    ScienceCinema

    Grindstaff, Keith; Hathaway, Boyd; Wilson, Mike

    2016-07-12

    Workers from Mission Support Alliance, LLC., removed the welds around the steel door of the F Reactor before stepping inside the reactor to complete its periodic inspection. This is the first time the Department of Energy (DOE) has had the reactor open since 2008. The F Reactor is one of nine reactors along the Columbia River at the Department's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, where environmental cleanup has been ongoing since 1989. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, the Department completes surveillance and maintenance activities of cocooned reactors periodically to evaluate the structural integrity of the safe storage enclosure and to ensure confinement of any remaining hazardous materials. "This entry marks a transition of sorts because the Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program, for the first time, was responsible for conducting the entry and surveillance and maintenance activities," said Keith Grindstaff, Energy Department Long-Term Stewardship Program Manager. "As the River Corridor cleanup work is completed and transitioned to long-term stewardship, our program will manage any on-going requirements."

  16. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION

    DOEpatents

    West, J.M.; Weills, J.T.

    1960-03-15

    A method is given for operating a nuclear reactor having a negative coefficient of reactivity to compensate for the change in reactor reactivity due to the burn-up of the xenon peak following start-up of the reactor. When it is desired to start up the reactor within less than 72 hours after shutdown, the temperature of the reactor is lowered prior to start-up, and then gradually raised after start-up.

  18. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  19. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    SciTech Connect

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  20. EBT reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Santoro, R. T.; Spong, D. A.; Uckan, T.; Owen, L. W.; Barnes, J. M.; McBride, J. B.

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a recent ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor study that includes ring and core plasma properties with consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. Within this operating window, physics and engineering systems analysis and cost sensitivity studies indicate that reactors with <..beta../sub core/> approx. 6 to 10%, P approx. 1200 to 1700 MW(e), wall loading approx. 1.0 to 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/, and recirculating power fraction (including ring-sustaining power and all other reactors auxiliaries) approx. 10 to 15% are possible. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters. These include, but are not limited to, the use of: (1) supplementary coils or noncircular mirror coils to improve magnetic geometry and reduce size, (2) energetic ion rings to improve ring power requirements, (3) positive potential to enhance confinement and reduce size, and (4) profile control to improve stability and overall fusion power density.

  1. REACTOR AND NOVEL METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.J.; Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-06-24

    A nuclear reactor of the type which uses a liquid fuel and a method of controlling such a reactor are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of a tank for containing the liquid fuel such as a slurry of discrete particles of fissionnble material suspended in a heavy water moderator, and a control means in the form of a disc of neutron absorbirg material disposed below the top surface of the slurry and parallel thereto. The diameter of the disc is slightly smaller than the diameter of the tank and the disc is perforated to permit a flow of the slurry therethrough. The function of the disc is to divide the body of slurry into two separate portions, the lower portion being of a critical size to sustain a nuclear chain reaction and the upper portion between the top surface of the slurry and the top surface of the disc being of a non-critical size. The method of operation is to raise the disc in the reactor until the lower portion of the slurry has reached a critical size when it is desired to initiate the reaction, and to lower the disc in the reactor to reduce the size of the lower active portion the slurry to below criticality when it is desired to stop the reaction.

  2. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    DOEpatents

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  3. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  4. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  5. A NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, E.A.; Vandenberg, L.B.

    1959-09-01

    A nuclear reactor for producing thermoelectric power is described. The reactor core comprises a series of thermoelectric assemblies, each assembly including fissionable fuel as an active element to form a hot junction and a thermocouple. The assemblies are disposed parallel to each other to form spaces and means are included for Introducing an electrically conductive coolant between the assemblies to form cold junctions of the thermocouples. An electromotive force is developed across the entire series of the thermoelectric assemblies due to fission heat generated in the fuel causing a current to flow perpendicular to the flow of coolant and is distributed to a load outside of the reactor by means of bus bars electrically connected to the outermost thermoelectric assembly.

  6. Dynamic bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stormo, K.E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix. 27 figs.

  7. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  8. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Stormo, Keith E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  9. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Lazarus, Jonathan D.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extends from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  10. Heat dissipating nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, A.; Lazarus, J.D.

    1985-11-21

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor containment adapted to retain and cool core debris in the unlikely event of a core meltdown and subsequent breach in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel is seated in a cavity which has a thick metal sidewall that is integral with a thick metal basemat at the bottom of the cavity. The basemat extends beyond the perimeter of the cavity sidewall. Underneath the basemat is a porous bed with water pipes and steam pipes running into it. Water is introduced into the bed and converted into steam which is vented to the atmosphere. A plurality of metal pilings in the form of H-beams extend from the metal base plate downwardly and outwardly into the earth.

  11. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  12. Compact reactor design automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassersharif, Bahram; Gaeta, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    A conceptual compact reactor design automation experiment was performed using the real-time expert system G2. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the utility of an expert system in design; in particular, reactor design. The experiment consisted of the automation and integration of two design phases: reactor neutronic design and fuel pin design. The utility of this approach is shown using simple examples of formulating rules to ensure design parameter consistency between the two design phases. The ability of G2 to communicate with external programs even across networks provides the system with the capability of supplementing the knowledge processing features with conventional canned programs with possible applications for realistic iterative design tools.

  13. REACTOR CONTROL DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Graham, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A wholly mechanical compact control device is designed for automatically rendering the core of a fission reactor subcritical in response to core temperatures in excess of the design operating temperature limit. The control device comprises an expansible bellows interposed between the base of a channel in a reactor core and the inner end of a fuel cylinder therein which is normally resiliently urged inwardly. The bellows contains a working fluid which undergoes a liquid to vapor phase change at a temperature substantially equal to the design temperature limit. Hence, the bellows abruptiy expands at this limiting temperature to force the fuel cylinder outward and render the core subcritical. The control device is particularly applicable to aircraft propulsion reactor service. (AEC)

  14. Merchant Marine Ship Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sankovich, M. F.; Mumm, J. F.; North, Jr, D. C.; Rock, H. R.; Gestson, D. K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements that are confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass. (AEC)

  15. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  16. Advanced light water reactor requirements document: Chapter 4, Reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this chapter of the Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Plant Requirements Document is to establish utility requirements for the design of the Reactor Systems of Advanced LWR plants consistent with the objectives and principles of the ALWR program. The scope of this chapter covers the following for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR): reactor pressure vessel, nozzles and safe-ends, reactor internals, in-vessel portions of fluid systems (including reactor internal pumps (Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) piping and spargers), nuclear fuel, and the control rods and control rod drive system (including hydraulic supply and accumulators). Special tools required for reactor system maintenance, inspection and testing are also covered.

  17. Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest at Reactor Box Furnaces With Reactor Boxes and Repossessed Uranium in Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  18. Plug Flow Reactor Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Richard S.

    1996-07-30

    PLUG is a computer program that solves the coupled steady state continuity, momentum, energy, and species balance equations for a plug flow reactor. Both homogeneous (gas-phase) and heterogenous (surface) reactions can be accommodated. The reactor may be either isothermal or adiabatic or may have a specified axial temperature or heat flux profile; alternatively, an ambient temperature and an overall heat-transfer coefficient can be specified. The crosssectional area and surface area may vary with axial position, and viscous drag is included. Ideal gas behavior and surface site conservation are assumed.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1960-09-13

    A novel composite neutronic reactor control element is offered. The element comprises a multiplicity of sections arranged in end-to-end relationship, each of the sections having a markedly different neutron-reactive characteristic. For example, a three-section control element could contain absorber, moderator, and fuel sections. By moving such an element longitudinally through a reactor core, reactivity is decreased by the absorber, increased slightly by the moderator, or increased substantially by the fuel. Thus, control over a wide reactivity range is provided.

  20. MEANS FOR SHIELDING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Garrison, W.M.; McClinton, L.T.; Burton, M.

    1959-03-10

    A reactor of the heterageneous, heavy water moderated type is described. The reactor is comprised of a plurality of vertically disposed fuel element tubes extending through a tank of heavy water moderator and adapted to accommodate a flow of coolant water in contact with the fuel elements. A tank containing outgoing coolant water is disposed above the core to function is a radiation shield. Unsaturated liquid hydrocarbon is floated on top of the water in the shield tank to reduce to a minimum the possibility of the occurrence of explosive gaseous mixtures resulting from the neutron bombardment of the water in the shield tank.

  1. Perspectives on reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haskin, F.E.; Camp, A.L.

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  2. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1957-10-15

    Gas-cooled solid-moderator type reactors wherein the fissionable fuel and moderator materials are each in the form of solid pebbles, or discrete particles, and are substantially homogeneously mixed in the proper proportion and placed within the core of the reactor are described. The shape of these discrete particles must be such that voids are present between them when mixed together. Helium enters the bottom of the core and passes through the voids between the fuel and moderator particles to absorb the heat generated by the chain reaction. The hot helium gas is drawn off the top of the core and may be passed through a heat exchanger to produce steam.

  4. ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.

    1990-07-01

    This is a status report on technical progress relative to the tasks identified for the fifth year of Grant No. FG02-85-ER52118. The ARIES tokamak reactor study is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of the tokamak as an attractive fusion reactor with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The ARIES study is being coordinated by UCLA and involves a number of institutions, including RPI. The RPI group has been pursuing the following areas of research in the context of the ARIES-I design effort: MHD equilibrium and stability analyses; plasma-edge modeling and blanket materials issues. Progress in these areas is summarized herein.

  5. Plug Flow Reactor Simulator

    1996-07-30

    PLUG is a computer program that solves the coupled steady state continuity, momentum, energy, and species balance equations for a plug flow reactor. Both homogeneous (gas-phase) and heterogenous (surface) reactions can be accommodated. The reactor may be either isothermal or adiabatic or may have a specified axial temperature or heat flux profile; alternatively, an ambient temperature and an overall heat-transfer coefficient can be specified. The crosssectional area and surface area may vary with axial position,more » and viscous drag is included. Ideal gas behavior and surface site conservation are assumed.« less

  6. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  7. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  8. Fast quench reactor method

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.; Berry, Ray A.

    1999-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  9. Fast quench reactor method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.; Berry, R.A.

    1999-08-10

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a means of rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Metal halide reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. Reducing gas is added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream. 8 figs.

  10. THERMAL NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fenning, F.W.; Jackson, R.F.

    1957-09-24

    Nuclear reactors of the graphite moderated air cooled type in which canned slugs or rods of fissile material are employed are discussed. Such a reactor may be provided with a means for detecting dust particles in the exhausted air. The means employed are lengths of dust absorbent cord suspended in vertical holes in the shielding structure above each vertical coolant flow channel to hang in the path of the cooling air issuing from the channels, and associated spindles and drive motors for hauling the cords past detectors, such as Geiger counters, for inspecting the cords periodically. This design also enables detecting the individual channel in which a fault condition may have occurred.

  11. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Orsitto, Francesco Paolo

    2012-06-19

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  12. An Evaluation of the General Dynamics 20 Khz 5 Kw Breadboard for Space Station Electrical Power at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David K.; Kapustka, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    The results and observations are discussed of tests made on the General Dynamics 20 kHz Breadboard for Space Station Electrical Power. The General Dynamics 20 kHz system only is considered, and not the issue of the use of 20 kHz ac Power for Spacecraft Applications.

  13. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Inertial confinement fusion reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, T.G.; Bohachevsky, I.O.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of reactor cavity concepts, drivers, and energy conversion mechanisms are being considered to realize commercial applications of ICF. Presented in this paper are: (1) a review of reactor concepts with estimates of practically achievable pulse repetition rates; (2) a survey of drivers with estimates of the requirements on reactor conditions imposed by beam propagation characteristics; and (3) an assessment of compatible driver-reactor combinations.

  15. Reactor operation safety information document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  16. NRC Targets University Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) wants universities to convert to low-grade fuel in their research reactions. Researchers claim the conversion, which will bring U.S. reactors in line with a policy the NRC is trying to impress on foreigners, could be financially and scientifically costly. Impact of the policy is considered. (JN)

  17. Neutronic reactor thermal shield

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.

    1976-06-15

    1. The method of operating a water-cooled neutronic reactor having a graphite moderator which comprises flowing a gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide and helium, in which the helium comprises 40-60 volume percent of the mixture, in contact with the graphite moderator.

  18. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Picklesimer, M.L.; Thurber, W.C.

    1961-01-01

    A chemically nonreactive fuel composition for incorporation in aluminum- clad, plate type fuel elements for neutronic reactors is described. The composition comprises a mixture of aluminum and uranium carbide particles, the uranium carbide particles containing at least 80 wt.% UC/sub 2/.

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.

    1957-09-24

    The reactor radiation shield material is comprised of alternate layers of iron-containing material and compressed cellulosic material, such as masonite. The shielding material may be prefabricated in the form of blocks, which can be stacked together in ary desired fashion to form an effective shield.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, W.G.

    1959-06-01

    A reactor fuel pump is described which offers long life, low susceptibility to radiation damage, and gaseous fission product removal. An inert-gas lubricated bearing supports a journal on one end of the drive shsft. The other end has an impeller and expansion chamber which effect pumping and gas- liquid separation. (T.R.H.)

  2. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  3. University Reactor Instrumentation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vernetson, W.G.

    1992-11-01

    Recognizing that the University Reactor Instrumentation Program was developed in response to widespread needs in the academic community for modernization and improvement of research and training reactors at institutions such as the University of Florida, the items proposed to be supported by this grant over its two year period have been selected as those most likely to reduce foreed outages, to meet regulatory concerns that had been expressed in recent years by Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors or to correct other facility problems and limitations. Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG07-90ER129969 was provided to the University of Florida Training Reactor(UFTR) facility through the US Department of Energy's University Reactor Instrumentation Program. The original proposal submitted in February, 1990 requested support for UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment upgrades for seven items in the amount of $107,530 with $13,800 of this amount to be the subject of cost sharing by the University of Florida and $93,730 requested as support from the Department of Energy. A breakdown of the items requested and total cost for the proposed UFTR facility instrumentation and equipment improvements is presented.

  4. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  5. SYSTEM FOR UNLOADING REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Rand, A.C. Jr.

    1961-05-01

    An unloading device for individual vertical fuel channels in a nuclear reactor is shown. The channels are arranged in parallel rows and underneath each is a separate supporting block on which the fuel in the channel rests. The blocks are raounted in contiguous rows on an array of parallel pairs of tracks over the bottom of the reactor. Oblong hollows in the blocks form a continuous passageway through the middle of the row of blocks on each pair of tracks. At the end of each passageway is a horizontal grappling rod with a T- or L extension at the end next to the reactor of a length to permit it to pass through the oblong passageway in one position, but when rotated ninety degrees the head will strike one of the longer sides of the oblong hollow of one of the blocks. The grappling rod is actuated by a controllable reciprocating and rotating device which extends it beyond any individual block desired, rotates it and retracts it far enough to permit the fuel in the vertical channel above the block to fall into a handling tank below the reactor.

  6. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOEpatents

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.; Hutter, E.

    1959-08-01

    This patent relates to "shadow" control of a nuclear reactor. The control means comprises a plurality ot elongated rods disposed adjacent and parallel to each other, The morphology and effects of gases generated within sections of neutron absorbing materials and equal length sections of neutron permeable materials together with means for longitudinally pcsitioning the rcds relative to each other.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Stacy, J.T.

    1958-12-01

    A reactor fuel element having a core of molybdenum-uranium alloy jacketed in stainless steel is described. A barrier layer of tungsten, tantalum, molybdenum, columbium, or silver is interposed between the core and jacket to prevent formation of a low melting eutectic between uranium and the varlous alloy constituents of the stainless steel.

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1963-06-11

    A fuel plate is designed for incorporation into control rods of the type utilized in high-flux test reactors. The fuel plate is designed so that the portion nearest the poison section of the control rod contains about one-half as much fissionable material as in the rest of the plate, thereby eliminating dangerous flux peaking in that portion. (AEC)

  10. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Horning, W.A.; Lanning, D.D.; Donahue, D.J.

    1959-10-01

    A fuel slug for a reactor which acts as a safety device is described. The fuel slug is an aluminum tube with a foil lining the inside surface of the tube, the foil being fabricated of uranium in a lead matrix.

  12. NETL - Chemical Looping Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-24

    NETL's Chemical Looping Reactor unit is a high-temperature integrated CLC process with extensive instrumentation to improve computational simulations. A non-reacting test unit is also used to study solids flow at ambient temperature. The CLR unit circulates approximately 1,000 pounds per hour at temperatures around 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit.

  13. WATER BOILER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-11-22

    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  14. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  15. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  16. Neutronic Reactor Structure

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H. C.; Weinberg, A. M.

    1961-05-30

    The neutronic reactor is comprised of a core consisting of natural uranium and heavy water with a K-factor greater than unity. The core is surrounded by a reflector consisting of natural uranium and ordinary water with a Kfactor less than unity. (AEC)

  17. NEUTRONIC REACTOR STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Weinberg, A.M.; Vernon, H.C.

    1961-05-30

    A neutronic reactor is described. It has a core consisting of natural uranium and heavy water and having a K-factor greater than unity which is surrounded by a reflector consisting of natural uranium and ordinary water having a Kfactor less than unity.

  18. Cermet fuel reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, C.L.; Palmer, R.S.; Van Hoomissen, J.E.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.; Barner, J.O.

    1987-09-01

    Cermet fueled nuclear reactors are attractive candidates for high performance space power systems. The cermet fuel consists of tungsten-urania hexagonal fuel blocks characterized by high strength at elevated temperatures, a high thermal conductivity and resultant high thermal shock resistance. Key features of the cermet fueled reactor design are (1) the ability to achieve very high coolant exit temperatures, and (2) thermal shock resistance during rapid power changes, and (3) two barriers to fission product release - the cermet matrix and the fuel element cladding. Additionally, thre is a potential for achieving a long operating life because of (1) the neutronic insensitivity of the fast-spectrum core to the buildup of fission products and (2) the utilization of a high strength refractory metal matrix and structural materials. These materials also provide resistance against compression forces that potentially might compact and/or reconfigure the core. In addition, the neutronic properties of the refractory materials assure that the reactor remains substantially subcritical under conditions of water immersion. It is concluded that cermet fueled reactors can be utilized to meet the power requirements for a broad range of advanced space applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolytic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 5% of beryllium or magnesium dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolitic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 10% of an alkall metal dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  1. Nuclear reactor building

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed thereabove. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define therebetween an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin.

  2. Nuclear reactor building

    DOEpatents

    Gou, P.F.; Townsend, H.E.; Barbanti, G.

    1994-04-05

    A reactor building for enclosing a nuclear reactor includes a containment vessel having a wetwell disposed therein. The wetwell includes inner and outer walls, a floor, and a roof defining a wetwell pool and a suppression chamber disposed there above. The wetwell and containment vessel define a drywell surrounding the reactor. A plurality of vents are disposed in the wetwell pool in flow communication with the drywell for channeling into the wetwell pool steam released in the drywell from the reactor during a LOCA for example, for condensing the steam. A shell is disposed inside the wetwell and extends into the wetwell pool to define a dry gap devoid of wetwell water and disposed in flow communication with the suppression chamber. In a preferred embodiment, the wetwell roof is in the form of a slab disposed on spaced apart support beams which define there between an auxiliary chamber. The dry gap, and additionally the auxiliary chamber, provide increased volume to the suppression chamber for improving pressure margin. 4 figures.

  3. The First Reactor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin Allardice…

  4. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  5. REACTOR UNLOADING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, C.M.

    1957-08-20

    A means for remotely unloading irradiated fuel slugs from a neutronic reactor core and conveying them to a remote storage tank is reported. The means shown is specifically adapted for use with a reactor core wherein the fuel slugs are slidably held in end to end abutting relationship in the horizontal coolant flow tubes, the slugs being spaced from tae internal walls of the tubes to permit continuous circulation of coolant water therethrough. A remotely operated plunger at the charging ends of the tubes is used to push the slugs through the tubes and out the discharge ends into a special slug valve which transfers the slug to a conveying tube leading into a storage tank. Water under pressure is forced through the conveying tube to circulate around the slug to cool it and also to force the slug through the conveving tube into the storage tank. The slug valve and conveying tube are shielded to prevent amy harmful effects caused by the radioactive slug in its travel from the reactor to the storage tank. With the disclosed apparatus, all the slugs in the reactor core can be conveyed to the storage tank shortly after shutdown by remotely located operating personnel.

  6. EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Paget, J.A.; Koutz, S.L.; Stone, R.S.; Stewart, H.B.

    1963-12-24

    An emergency shutdown or scram apparatus for use in a nuclear reactor that includes a neutron absorber suspended from a temperature responsive substance that is selected to fail at a preselected temperature in excess of the normal reactor operating temperature, whereby the neutron absorber is released and allowed to fall under gravity to a preselected position within the reactor core is presented. (AEC)

  7. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  8. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  9. Reactor operations Brookhaven medical research reactor, Brookhaven high flux beam reactor informal monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Hauptman, H.M.; Petro, J.N.; Jacobi, O.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the April 1995 summary report on reactor operations at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor and the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor. Ongoing experiments/irradiations in each are listed, and other significant operations functions are also noted. The HFBR surveillance testing schedule is also listed.

  10. Perspectives on research reactor utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Brian; Dolan, Thomas J.; Laraia, Michele; Ritchie, Iain

    2002-01-01

    The current state of research reactors around the world is summarized using information from the Research Reactor Database. Some current trends of research reactors in advanced and developing countries are described. The need for strategic planning is emphasized, and elements of a typical strategic plan are presented. The problems of reactor lifetime extension, nuclear fuel cycle issues, and decommissioning are briefly discussed. It is concluded that research reactors will continue to be vital elements of the nuclear infrastructures in many countries, and that the IAEA can help countries solve their problems of utilization, safety, lifetime extension, fuel cycle, and decommissioning.

  11. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  12. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, N. S.

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

  13. Nuclear Reactor Kinetics and Control.

    SciTech Connect

    JEFFERY,; LEWINS, D.

    2009-07-27

    Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following legacy book for free distribution: Nuclear Reactor Kinetics and Control, Pergamon Press, London, 275 pages, 1978. 1. Introductory Review 2. Neutron and Precursor Equations 3. Elementary Solutions of the Kinetics Equations at Low Power 4. Linear Reactor Process Dynamics with Feedback 5. Power Reactor Control Systems 6. Fluctuations and Reactor Noise 7. Safety and Reliability 8. Non Linear Systems; Stability and Control 9. Analogue Computing Addendum: Jay Basken and Jeffery D. Lewins: Power Series Solution of the Reactor Kinetics Equations, Nuclear Science and Engineering: 122, 407-436 (1996) (authorized for distribution with the book: courtesy of the American Nuclear Society)

  14. N Reactor operational safety summary

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, G.R.; Quapp, W.J.; Ogden, D.M.

    1988-08-01

    This report is a safety summary of the N Reactor. Beginning with its conceptual design in the mid-1950`s, and throughout its 23 years of operation, continuous efforts have been made to ensure safe N Reactor operation and protection of the public health and safety. The N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report, completed in 1978(UNC1978), and its subsequent amendments document the safety bases of N Reactor. Following the April 1986 Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union, a major effort to confirm N Reactor safety and further increase its safety margin was initiated. This effort, called the Safety Enhancement Program, reassessed the N Reactor using the latest accepted analysis techniques and commercial light-water reactor guidelines, where applicable. 122 refs., 38 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  16. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1983-08-15

    A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.

  17. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-04-04

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  18. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M.

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  19. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  20. ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    De Boisblanc, D.R.; Thomas, M.E.; Jones, R.M.; Hanson, G.H.

    1958-10-21

    Heterogeneous reactors of the type which is both cooled and moderated by the same fluid, preferably water, and employs highly enriched fuel are reported. In this design, an inner pressure vessel is located within a main outer pressure vessel. The reactor core and its surrounding reflector are disposed in the inner pressure vessel which in turn is surrounded by a thermal shield, Coolant fluid enters the main pressure vessel, fiows downward into the inner vessel where it passes through the core containing tbe fissionable fuel assemblies and control rods, through the reflector, thence out through the bottom of the inner vessel and up past the thermal shield to the discharge port in the main vessel. The fuel assemblles are arranged in the core in the form of a cross having an opening extending therethrough to serve as a high fast flux test facility.

  1. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; Busey, H.M.

    1959-02-17

    Nuclear reactors of the homogeneous liquid fuel type are discussed. The reactor is comprised of an elongated closed vessel, vertically oriented, having a critical region at the bottom, a lower chimney structure extending from the critical region vertically upwardly and surrounded by heat exchanger coils, to a baffle region above which is located an upper chimney structure containing a catalyst functioning to recombine radiolyticallydissociated moderator gages. In operation the liquid fuel circulates solely by convection from the critical region upwardly through the lower chimney and then downwardly through the heat exchanger to return to the critical region. The gases formed by radiolytic- dissociation of the moderator are carried upwardly with the circulating liquid fuel and past the baffle into the region of the upper chimney where they are recombined by the catalyst and condensed, thence returning through the heat exchanger to the critical region.

  2. AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1958-05-27

    A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

  3. COMPOSITE NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Menke, J.R.

    1963-06-11

    This patent relates to a reactor having a core which comprises an inner active region and an outer active region, each region separately having a k effective less than one and a k infinity greater than one. The inner and outer regions in combination have a k effective at least equal to one and each region contributes substantially to the k effective of the reactor core. The inner region has a low moderator to fuel ratio such that the majority of fissions occurring therein are induced by neutrons having energies greater than thermal. The outer region has a high moderator to fuel ratio such that the majority of fissions occurring therein are induced by thermal neutrons. (AEC)

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Mims, L.S.

    1961-08-22

    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  5. Neutronic reactor construction

    DOEpatents

    Huston, Norman E.

    1976-07-06

    1. A neutronic reactor comprising a moderator including horizontal layers formed of horizontal rows of graphite blocks, alternate layers of blocks having the rows extending in one direction, the remaining alternate layers having the rows extending transversely to the said one direction, alternate rows of blocks in one set of alternate layers having longitudinal ducts, the moderator further including slotted graphite tubes positioned in the ducts, the reactor further comprising an aluminum coolant tube positioned within the slotted tube in spaced relation thereto, bodies of thermal-neutron-fissionable material, and jackets enclosing the bodies and being formed of a corrosion-resistant material having a low neutron-capture cross section, the bodies and jackets being positioned within the coolant tube so that the jackets are spaced from the coolant tube.

  6. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    DOEpatents

    Bhate, Suresh K.; Cooper, Martin H.; Riffe, Delmar R.; Kinney, Calvin L.

    1981-01-01

    An inherent shutdown system for a nuclear reactor having neutron absorbing rods affixed to an armature which is held in an upper position by a magnetic flux flowing through a Curie temperature material. The Curie temperature material is fixedly positioned about the exterior of an inner duct in an annular region through which reactor coolant flows. Elongated fuel rods extending from within the core upwardly toward the Curie temperature material are preferably disposed within the annular region. Upon abnormal conditions which result in high neutron flux and coolant temperature, the Curie material loses its magnetic permeability, breaking the magnetic flux path and allowing the armature and absorber rods to drop into the core, thus shutting down the fissioning reaction. The armature and absorber rods are retrieved by lowering the housing for the electromagnet forming coils which create a magnetic flux path which includes the inner duct wall. The coil housing then is raised, resetting the armature.

  7. In situ reactor

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Corey William; Blackwelder, David Bradley

    2004-01-27

    An in situ reactor for use in a geological strata, is described and which includes a liner defining a centrally disposed passageway and which is placed in a borehole formed in the geological strata; and a sampling conduit is received within the passageway defined by the liner and which receives a geological specimen which is derived from the geological strata, and wherein the sampling conduit is in fluid communication with the passageway defined by the liner.

  8. BioReactor

    2003-04-18

    BioReactor is a simulation tool kit for modeling networks of coupled chemical processes (or similar productions rules). The tool kit is implemented in C++ and has the following functionality: 1. Monte Carlo discrete event simulator 2. Solvers for ordinary differential equations 3. Genetic algorithm optimization routines for reverse engineering of models using either Monte Carlo or ODE representation )i.e., 1 or 2)

  9. REACTOR MODERATOR STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Greenstreet, B.L.

    1963-12-31

    A system for maintaining the alignment of moderator block structures in reactors is presented. Integral restraining grids are placed between each layer of blocks in the moderator structure, at the top of the uppermost layer, and at the bottom of the lowermost layer. Slots are provided in the top and bottom surfaces of the moderator blocks so as to provide a keying action with the grids. The grids are maintained in alignment by vertical guiding members disposed about their peripheries. (AEC)

  10. Nuclear reactor decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, J.

    1981-09-01

    Heat transfer and associated surfaces in nuclear reactors are decontaminated by treating the surface with ozone to oxidize acid -insoluble metal oxides to a more soluble state, removing oxidized solubilized metal oxides, and removing other surface oxides using low concentrations of decontaminating reagents. Ozone treatment has been found very effective with alloys having surface metal oxides rendered more easily dissolved by ozone oxidation especially with chromium or chromium-nickel containing alloys.

  11. Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, Dennis; Butler, Carey; West, Nicole; Cole, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) research program consist of: 1.Study core physics by adapting existing codes: MCNP4C - Monte Carlo code; COMBINE/VENTURE - diffusion theory; SCALE4 - Monte Carlo, with many utility codes. 2. Determine feasibility and study major design parameters: fuel selection, temperature and reflector sizing. 3. Study reactor kinetics: develop QCALC1 to model point kinetics; study dynamic behavior of the power release.

  12. REACTOR CONTROL DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, H.B.; Weiss, A.A.

    1959-08-18

    A shadow control device for controlling a nuclear reactor is described. The device comprises a series of hollow neutron-absorbing elements arranged in groups, each element having a cavity for substantially housing an adjoining element and a longitudinal member for commonly supporting the groups of elements. Longitudinal actuation of the longitudinal member distributes the elements along its entire length in which position maximum worth is achieved.

  13. LOADING MACHINE FOR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Simon, S.L.

    1959-07-01

    An apparatus is described for loading or charging slugs of fissionable material into a nuclear reactor. The apparatus of the invention is a "muzzle loading" type comprising a delivery tube or muzzle designed to be brought into alignment with any one of a plurality of fuel channels. The delivery tube is located within the pressure shell and it is also disposed within shielding barriers while the fuel cantridges or slugs are forced through the delivery tube by an externally driven flexible ram.

  14. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Heckman, T.P.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  15. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    DOEpatents

    McEdwards, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel.

  16. NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE DESIGN

    DOEpatents

    Mahlmeister, J.E.; Peck, W.S.; Haberer, W.V.; Williams, A.C.

    1960-03-22

    An improved core design for a sodium-cooled, graphitemoderated nuclear reactor is described. The improved reactor core comprises a number of blocks of moderator material, each block being in the shape of a regular prism. A number of channels, extending the length of each block, are disposed around the periphery. When several blocks are placed in contact to form the reactor core, the channels in adjacent blocks correspond with each other to form closed conduits extending the length of the core. Fuel element clusters are disposed in these closed conduits, and liquid coolant is forced through the annulus between the fuel cluster and the inner surface of the conduit. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the moderator blocks are in the form of hexagonal prisms with longitudinal channels cut into the corners of the hexagon. The main advantage of an "edge-loaded" moderator block is that fewer thermal neutrons are absorbed by the moderator cladding, as compared with a conventional centrally loaded moderator block.

  17. COMPARTMENTED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Cain, F.M. Jr.

    1962-09-11

    A method of making a nuclear reactor fuel element of the elongated red type is given wherein the fissionable fuel material is enclosed within a tubular metal cladding. The method comprises coating the metal cladding tube on its inside wall with a brazing alloy, inserting groups of cylindrical pellets of fissionable fuel material into the tube with spacing members between adjacent groups of pellets, sealing the ends of the tubes to leave a void space therewithin, heating the tube and its contents to an elevated temperature to melt the brazing alloy and to expand the pellets to their maximum dimensions under predetermined operating conditions thereby automatically positioning the spacing members along the tube, and finally cooling the tube to room temperature whereby the spacing disks become permanently fixed at their edges in the brazing alloy and define a hermetically sealed compartment for each fl group of fuel pellets. Upon cooling, the pellets contract thus leaving a space to accommodate thermal expansion of the pellets when in use in a reactor. The spacing members also provide lateral support for the tubular cladding to prevent collapse thereof when subjected to a reactor environment. (AEC)

  18. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic losses in the electrodes of full

  19. Emission of terahertz electromagnetic waves by vortex flow in high- Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiki, Masashi; Iizuka, Mikio; Minami, Kazuo; Tejima, Shogo; Nakamura, Hisashi

    2006-05-01

    Continuous terahertz electromagnetic waves have new applications in scientific and industrial fields such as medicine and information technology. Cuprate high-temperature superconductors have a layer structure, and form a naturally multi-connected Josephson junction system called intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ). In IJJ, there appears a new excitation called the Josephson plasma. Its frequency is in the region of terahertz inside the superconducting energy gap. The excited plasma wave is converted into an electromagnetic wave at sample surfaces. Therefore the IJJ has a great potential to generate terahertz continuous wave. Here we report the results of simulations to find the optimum condition for obtaining the strongest emission power of the terahertz waves. The simulations were carried out using our theory. Since the simulation uses very large-sized coupled nonlinear equations therefore difficult to compute, we used the fastest supercomputer named as Earth Simulator. We found that the quite intense continuous terahertz coherent wave is emitted from a small sample with high-energy efficiency.

  20. A study of the vortex flow over 76/40-deg double-delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhaagen, N. G.; Jenkins, L. N.; Kern, S. B.; Washburn, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel study of the flow about a 76/40-deg double-delta wing is described for angles of attack ranging from -10 to 25 deg and Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 Million. The study was conducted to provide data for the purpose of understanding the vortical flow behavior and for validating Computational Fluid Dynamics methods. Flow visualization tests have provided insight into the effect of the angle of attack and Reynolds number of the vortex-dominated flow both on and off of the surface of the double-delta wing. Upper surface pressure recordings from pressure orifices and Pressure Sensitive Paint have provided data on the pressures induced by the vortices. Flowfield surveys were carried out at an angle of attack of 10 deg by using a thin 5-hole probe. Numerical solutions of the compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations were conducted and compared to the experimental data.

  1. Heat transfer enhancement and vortex flow structure over a heated cylinder oscillating in the crossflow direction

    SciTech Connect

    Gau, C.; Wu, J.M.; Liang, C.Y.

    1999-11-01

    Experiments are performed to study the flow structure and heat transfer over a heated oscillating cylinder. Both flow visualization using a smoke wire and local heat transfer measurements around the cylinder were made. The excitation frequencies of the cylinder are selected at F{sub e}/F{sub n} = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3. These include excitations at harmonic, subharmonic, superharmonic, and non harmonic frequencies. Synchronization of vortex shedding with the cylinder excitation occurs not only at F{sub e}/F{sub n} = 1 but also at F{sub e}/F{sub n} = 3, which can greatly enhance the heat transfer. The simultaneous enhancement of heat transfer at the stagnation point, its downstream region, and the wake region of the flow suggests that different modes of instabilities occurring in the shear layer of the near wake are actually initiated and amplified far upstream in the stagnation point, which were suppressed in the accelerated flow region and re-amplified in the decelerated flow region. As long as the dominant mode of the instability is amplified by the excitation of cylinder, enhancement of heat transfer can be obtained. During the experiments, the Reynolds numbers vary from 1,600 to 4,800, the ratios of oscillation amplitude to diameter of the cylinder from 0.064 to 0.016.

  2. Invariant manifolds as barriers to the motion of bacteria in vortex flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, Minh; Lilienthal, Katie; Solomon, Tom

    We present experiments that study the motion of swimming bacteria (bacillus subtilis) in a time-independent flow in a microfluidic T-channel. Experiments are done with both wild-type and a genetically-mutated ``smooth swimming'' bacillus subtilis. We analyze the behavior of these bacteria in terms of invisible barriers, based on a theory of ``burning invariant manifolds'' that act as one-way barriers that impede the motion of reaction fronts in a fluid flow. We explore whether similar one-way barriers impede the motion of bacteria. Supported by NSF Grants DMR-1361881 and PHY-1156964.

  3. Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Evgeny A; Koshel, Konstantin V

    2015-10-01

    In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero-oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations. PMID:26520074

  4. Effect of a crystal-melt interface on Taylor-vortex flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Murray, B. T.; Glicksman, M. E.; Selleck, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    The linear stability of circular Couette flow between concentric infinite cylinders is considered for the case that the stationary outer cylinder is a crystal-melt interface rather than a rigid surface. A radial temperature difference is maintained across the liquid gap, and equations for heat transport in the crystal and melt phases are included to extend the ordinary formulation of this problem. The stability of this two-phase system depends on the Prandtl number. For small Prandtl number the linear stability of the two-phase system is given by the classical results for a rigid-walled system. For increasing values of the Prandtl number, convective heat transport becomes significant and the system becomes increasingly less stable. Previous results in a narrow-gap approximation are extended to the case of a finite gap, and both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric disturbance modes are considered. The two-phase system becomes less stable as the finite gap tends to the narrow-gap limit. The two-phase system is more stable to nonaxisymmetric modes with azimuthal wavenumber n = 1; the stability of these n = 1 modes is sensitive to the latent heat of fusion.

  5. Bifurcation analysis in a vortex flow generated by an oscillatory magnetic obstacle.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Alberto; Ramos, Eduardo; Cuevas, Sergio; Brøns, Morten

    2010-03-01

    A numerical simulation and a theoretical model of the two-dimensional flow produced by the harmonic oscillation of a localized magnetic field (magnetic obstacle) in a quiescent viscous, electrically conducting fluid are presented. Nonuniform Lorentz forces produced by induced currents interacting with the oscillating magnetic field create periodic laminar flow patterns that can be characterized by three parameters: the oscillation Reynolds number, Reomega, the Hartmann number, Ha, and the dimensionless amplitude of the magnetic obstacle oscillation, D. The analysis is restricted to oscillations of small amplitude and Ha=100. The resulting flow patterns are described and interpreted in terms of position and evolution of the critical points of the instantaneous streamlines. It is found that in most of the cycle, the flow is dominated by a pair of counter rotating vortices that switch their direction of rotation twice per cycle. The transformation of the flow field present in the first part of the cycle into the pattern displayed in the second half occurs via the generation of hyperbolic and elliptic critical points. The numerical solution of the flow indicates that for low frequencies (v.e. Reomega=1), two elliptic and two hyperbolic points are generated, while for high frequencies (v.e. Reomega=100), a more complex topology involving four elliptic and two hyperbolic points appear. The bifurcation map for critical points of the instantaneous streamline is obtained numerically and a theoretical model based on a local analysis that predicts most of the qualitative properties calculated numerically is proposed. PMID:20365856

  6. An examination of a group-velocity criterion for the breakdown of an idealized vortex flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, C. Y.; Widnall, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    The phenomenon of vortex breakdown is believed to be associated with a finite amplitude wave that has become trapped at the critical or breakdown location. The conditions at which the propagating waves become trapped at a certain axial location were examined by use of a group-velocity criterion implied by Landahl's general theory of wave trapping. An ideal vortex having constant vorticity and uniform axial velocity at the inlet of a slowly diverging duct was studied. The linear wave propagation analysis is applied to the base flow at several axial stations for several values of the ratio of swirl velocity to axial velocity at the inlet of the divergent duct, assuming a locally parallel flow. The dipsersion relations and hence the group velocities of both the symmetric (n = 0) and asymmetric modes (n = + or - 1) were investigated. The existence of a critical state in the flow (at which the group velocity vanishes), and its relationship to the stagnation point on the axis of the duct and to the occurrence of an irregular singularity in the equations governing wave propagation in the flow field are discussed.

  7. VORSTAB: A computer program for calculating lateral-directional stability derivatives with vortex flow effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward

    1985-01-01

    A computer program based on the Quasi-Vortex-Lattice Method of Lan is presented for calculating longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of nonplanar wing-body combination. The method is based on the assumption of inviscid subsonic flow. Both attached and vortex-separated flows are treated. For the vortex-separated flow, the calculation is based on the method of suction analogy. The effect of vortex breakdown is accounted for by an empirical method. A summary of the theoretical method, program capabilities, input format, output variables and program job control set-up are described. Three test cases are presented as guides for potential users of the code.

  8. Local parametric instability near elliptic points in vortex flows under shear deformation.

    PubMed

    Koshel, Konstantin V; Ryzhov, Eugene A

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of two point vortices embedded in an oscillatory external flow consisted of shear and rotational components is addressed. The region associated with steady-state elliptic points of the vortex motion is established to experience local parametric instability. The instability forces the point vortices with initial positions corresponding to the steady-state elliptic points to move in spiral-like divergent trajectories. This divergent motion continues until the nonlinear effects suppress their motion near the region associated with the steady-state separatrices. The local parametric instability is then demonstrated not to contribute considerably to enhancing the size of the chaotic motion regions. Instead, the size of the chaotic motion region mostly depends on overlaps of the nonlinear resonances emerging in the perturbed system. PMID:27586607

  9. Analysis and control of asymmetric vortex flows and supersonic vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1992-01-01

    The accomplishments which have been achieved in the present year covering the period from Dec. 1, 1991 until Nov. 30, 1992 are given. These accomplishments include publications, national and international presentations, NASA Research Highlights and presentations, and the research group supported under this grant.

  10. Feedback stabilization of vortex flows in a finite-length straight pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Gong, R.; Rusak, Z.; Xu, L.; Taylor, S.; Jeng, L.

    2012-11-01

    The properties of a recently proposed feedback stabilization method of swirling flows in a finite-length pipe are studied. In the natural case, when swirl is above a critical level, linearly unstable modes appear in sequence as swirl increases and evolve to a vortex breakdown state. Based on a long-wave approach, the feedback control methodology is shown to enforce decay of perturbation's kinetic energy and to quench all instability modes at above critical swirl. In the case of a solid-body rotation, the effectiveness of this control approach is further analyzed through a mode analysis of the full linearized flow control problem. We first establish the asymptotic decay of all modes with real growth rates. We then compute growth rates of all modes according to the linearized flow control problem for swirl up to 50% above critical level. Flow stabilization in the whole swirl range is demonstrated. However, control effectiveness is sensitive to choice of the control gain. An inadequate gain, either insufficient or excessive, could lead to a failure of control at high swirl levels. Predictions of controlled flow cases agree with numerical simulations using the full unsteady and axisymmetric Euler equations with fluidic actuation along the pipe wall. Rusak et al. JFM 2012.

  11. An adaptive embedded mesh procedure for leading-edge vortex flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Kenneth G.; Beer, Michael A.; Law, Glenn W.

    1989-01-01

    A procedure for solving the conical Euler equations on an adaptively refined mesh is presented, along with a method for determining which cells to refine. The solution procedure is a central-difference cell-vertex scheme. The adaptation procedure is made up of a parameter on which the refinement decision is based, and a method for choosing a threshold value of the parameter. The refinement parameter is a measure of mesh-convergence, constructed by comparison of locally coarse- and fine-grid solutions. The threshold for the refinement parameter is based on the curvature of the curve relating the number of cells flagged for refinement to the value of the refinement threshold. Results for three test cases are presented. The test problem is that of a delta wing at angle of attack in a supersonic free-stream. The resulting vortices and shocks are captured efficiently by the adaptive code.

  12. Non-analytic vortex core and non-linear vortex flow in bosonic superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, O.; Aleiner, I. L.

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the disorder limited motion of quantum vortices in a two-dimensional bosonic superfluid with a large healing length. It is shown that the excitations of low-energy degrees of freedom associated with the non-analytic reconstruction of the vortex core (Ann. Phys., 346 (2014) 195) determine strong non-linear effects in the vortex transport at velocities much smaller than Landau's critical velocity. Experiments are suggested to verify our predictions.

  13. Impact of nose-probe chines on the vortex flows about the F-16C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. M.; Erickson, G. E.; Straka, W. A.; Peters, S. E.; Maines, B. H.

    1990-01-01

    A 1/15-scale model of the F-16C aircraft was tested at subsonic and transonic speeds to determine the effects of small nose-probe chines on the high angle-of-attack aerodynamic and stability characteristics. Off-body flow visualization using a laser vapor screen technique and six-component forces and moments were obtained at freestream Mach numbers of 0.30, 0.60, and 0.80. The nose-probe chines generated strong vortices interacting with the vortices generated over the smooth forebody or over the strakes. These vortices in turn led to global flow unsteadiness and model dynamics at the high angles of attack. The test results underscore the sensitivity of the high angle-of-attack flow field to small geometry changes in the nose region.

  14. Experimental Study of Tip Vortex Flow from a Periodically Pitched Airfoil Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, KBMQ; Fagan, A. F.; Mankbadi, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a tip vortex from a NACA0012 airfoil is conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4x10(exp 4). Initially, data for a stationary airfoil held at various angles-of-attack (alpha) are gathered. Detailed surveys are done for two cases: alpha=10 deg with attached flow and alpha=25 deg with massive flow separation on the upper surface. Distributions of various properties are obtained using hot-wire anemometry. Data include mean velocity, streamwise vorticity and turbulent stresses at various streamwise locations. For all cases, the vortex core is seen to involve a mean velocity deficit. The deficit apparently traces to the airfoil wake, part of which gets wrapped by the tip vortex. At small alpha, the vortex is laminar within the measurement domain. The strength of the vortex increases with increasing alpha but undergoes a sudden drop around alpha (is) greater than 16 deg. The drop in peak vorticity level is accompanied by transition and a sharp rise in turbulence within the core. Data are also acquired with the airfoil pitched sinusoidally. All oscillation cases pertain to a mean alpha=15 deg while the amplitude and frequency are varied. An example of phase-averaged data for an amplitude of +/-10 deg and a reduced frequency of k=0.2 is discussed. All results are compared with available data from the literature shedding further light on the complex dynamics of the tip vortex.

  15. Ergodicity and spectral cascades in point vortex flows on the sphere.

    PubMed

    Dritschel, David G; Lucia, Marcello; Poje, Andrew C

    2015-06-01

    We present results for the equilibrium statistics and dynamic evolution of moderately large [n=O(10(2)-10(3))] numbers of interacting point vortices on the sphere under the constraint of zero mean angular momentum. For systems with equal numbers of positive and negative identical circulations, the density of rescaled energies, p(E), converges rapidly with n to a function with a single maximum with maximum entropy. Ensemble-averaged wave-number spectra of the nonsingular velocity field induced by the vortices exhibit the expected k(-1) behavior at small scales for all energies. Spectra at the largest scales vary continuously with the inverse temperature of the system. For positive temperatures, spectra peak at finite intermediate wave numbers; for negative temperatures, spectra decrease everywhere. Comparisons of time and ensemble averages, over a large range of energies, strongly support ergodicity in the dynamics even for highly atypical initial vortex configurations. Crucially, rapid relaxation of spectra toward the microcanonical average implies that the direction of any spectral cascade process depends only on the relative difference between the initial spectrum and the ensemble mean spectrum at that energy, not on the energy, or temperature, of the system. PMID:26172799

  16. Performance of high-area-ratio annular dump diffuser using suction-stabilized-vortex flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A short annular dump diffuser having a geometry conductive to formation of suction stabilized toroidal vortices in the region of abrupt area change was tested. The overall diffuser area ratio was 4.0 and the length to inlet height ratio was 2.0. Performance data were obtained at near ambient temperature and pressure for inlet Mach numbers of 0.18 and 0.30 with suction rates ranging from 0 to 18 percent of total inlet mass flowrate. Results show that the exit velocity profile could be readily biased toward either wall by adjustment of inner and outer wall suction rates. Symmetric exit velocity profiles were inherently unstable with a tendency to revert to a hub or tip bias. Diffuser effectiveness was increased from about 38 percent without suction to over 85 percent at a total suction rate of 10 to 12 percent. At the same time diffuser total pressure loss was reduced from 3.1 percent to 1.1 percent at an inlet Mach number of 0.3.

  17. Development of an aerodyanmic theory capable of predicting surface loads on slender wings with vortex flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloss, B. B.; Johnson, F. T.

    1976-01-01

    The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company developed an inviscid three-dimensional lifting surface method that shows promise in being able to accurately predict loads, subsonic and supersonic, on wings with leading-edge separation and reattachment.

  18. Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow.

    PubMed

    Ryzhov, Evgeny A; Koshel, Konstantin V

    2015-10-01

    In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero-oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations.

  19. Local parametric instability near elliptic points in vortex flows under shear deformation.

    PubMed

    Koshel, Konstantin V; Ryzhov, Eugene A

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of two point vortices embedded in an oscillatory external flow consisted of shear and rotational components is addressed. The region associated with steady-state elliptic points of the vortex motion is established to experience local parametric instability. The instability forces the point vortices with initial positions corresponding to the steady-state elliptic points to move in spiral-like divergent trajectories. This divergent motion continues until the nonlinear effects suppress their motion near the region associated with the steady-state separatrices. The local parametric instability is then demonstrated not to contribute considerably to enhancing the size of the chaotic motion regions. Instead, the size of the chaotic motion region mostly depends on overlaps of the nonlinear resonances emerging in the perturbed system.

  20. Local parametric instability near elliptic points in vortex flows under shear deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshel, Konstantin V.; Ryzhov, Eugene A.

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of two point vortices embedded in an oscillatory external flow consisted of shear and rotational components is addressed. The region associated with steady-state elliptic points of the vortex motion is established to experience local parametric instability. The instability forces the point vortices with initial positions corresponding to the steady-state elliptic points to move in spiral-like divergent trajectories. This divergent motion continues until the nonlinear effects suppress their motion near the region associated with the steady-state separatrices. The local parametric instability is then demonstrated not to contribute considerably to enhancing the size of the chaotic motion regions. Instead, the size of the chaotic motion region mostly depends on overlaps of the nonlinear resonances emerging in the perturbed system.

  1. Subsonic Aerodynamic Assessment of Vortex Flow Management Devices on a High-Speed Civil Transport Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Bryan A.; Applin, Zachary T.; Kemmerly, Guy T.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of leading-edge vortex management devices on the subsonic performance of a high-speed civil transport (HSCT) configuration was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Data were obtained over a Mach number range of 0.14 to 0.27, with corresponding chord Reynolds numbers of 3.08 x 10 (sup 6) to 5.47 x 10 (sup 6). The test model was designed for a cruise Mach number of 2.7. During the subsonic high-lift phase of flight, vortical flow dominates the upper surface flow structure, and during vortex breakdown, this flow causes adverse pitch-up and a reduction of usable lift. The experimental results showed that the beneficial effects of small leading-edge vortex management devices located near the model reference center were insufficient to substantially affect the resulting aerodynamic forces and moments. However, devices located at or near the wiring apex region demonstrated potential for pitch control with little effect on overall lift.

  2. Global chaotization of fluid particle trajectories in a sheared two-layer two-vortex flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhov, Evgeny A.; Koshel, Konstantin V.

    2015-10-15

    In a two-layer quasi-geostrophic approximation, we study the irregular dynamics of fluid particles arising due to two interacting point vortices embedded in a deformation flow consisting of shear and rotational components. The two vortices are arranged within the bottom layer, but an emphasis is on the upper-layer fluid particle motion. Vortices moving in one layer induce stirring of passive scalars in the other layer. This is of interest since point vortices induce singular velocity fields in the layer they belong to; however, in the other layer, they induce regular velocity fields that generally result in a change in passive particle stirring. If the vortices are located at stagnation points, there are three different types of the fluid flow. We examine how properties of each flow configuration are modified if the vortices are displaced from the stagnation points and thus circulate in the immediate vicinity of these points. To that end, an analysis of the steady-state configurations is presented with an emphasis on the frequencies of fluid particle oscillations about the elliptic stagnation points. Asymptotic relations for the vortex and fluid particle zero–oscillation frequencies are derived in the vicinity of the corresponding elliptic points. By comparing the frequencies of fluid particles with the ones of the vortices, relations between the parameters that lead to enhanced stirring of fluid particles are established. It is also demonstrated that, if the central critical point is elliptic, then the fluid particle trajectories in its immediate vicinity are mostly stable making it harder for the vortex perturbation to induce stirring. Change in the type of the central point to a hyperbolic one enhances drastically the size of the chaotic dynamics region. Conditions on the type of the central critical point also ensue from the derived asymptotic relations.

  3. A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.

  4. Experimental study of expansion and compression effects on the stability of Taylor vortex flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Ali, M. H.; Abd El-Maksoud, R. M.

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present experimental work is to determine the stability limits of Taylor cells by expanding and compressing the cells. The investigation was performed under laminar flow condition with a wide gap between an inner rotating cylinder and outer stationary cylinder. In order to allow the expansion and compression of the cells, the test rig was designed with a sliding upper end plate and a fixed lower end plate. The objectives are to determine the maximum and minimum size limits of each number of cells as well as the stability margin of them. Since, unstable cells have various oscillations and time dependent structures which change the behavior of the flow; the investigations of the stability limits is quite necessary to avoid the possible generation of unstable cells. In addition, the results are used to detect the number of cells that can be generated in the gap at different fluid column lengths. A stability map, locating the stability state of all possible numbers of cells, is assigned in the results. The map provides overlap zones between stable cells, in which the operating conditions will always lead to stable cells, even if the number of cells is changed by changing the initial conditions. Moreover, a rare phenomenon was observed during the compression process when the cells jumps unusually from six to two cells without passing through the four-cell mode.

  5. The molten salt reactor adventure

    SciTech Connect

    MacPherson, H.G.

    1985-08-01

    A personal history of the development of molten salt reactors in the United States is presented. The initial goal was an aircraft propulsion reactor, and a molten fluoride-fueled Aircraft Reactor Experiment was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1954. In 1956, the objective shifted to civilian nuclear power, and reactor concepts were developed using a circulating UF4-ThF4 fuel, graphite moderator, and Hastelloy N pressure boundary. The program culminated in the successful operation of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment in 1965 to 1969. By then the Atomic Energy Commission's goals had shifted to breeder development; the molten salt program supported on-site reprocessing development and study of various reactor arrangements that had potential to breed. Some commercial and foreign interest contributed to the program which, however, was terminated by the government in 1976. The current status of the technology and prospects for revived interest are summarized.

  6. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  7. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, B.A.; Donaldson, A.D.; Fincke, J.R.; Kong, P.C.

    1998-05-12

    A fast quench reactor includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This ``freezes`` the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage. 7 figs.

  8. Turning points in reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  9. Acceptability of reactors in space

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  10. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  11. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  12. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  13. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  14. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CHARGING AND DISCHARGING

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1959-07-14

    A method and arrangement is presented for removing a fuel element from a neutronic reactor tube through which a liquid coolant is being circulaled. The fuel element is moved into a section of the tube beyond the reactor proper, and then the coolant in the tube between the fuel element and the reactor proper is frozen, so that the fuel element may be removed from the tube without loss of the coolant therein. The method is particularly useful in the case of a liquid metal- cooled reactor.

  15. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  16. Reactor operations informal report, October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hauptman, H.M.; Petro, J.N.; Jacobi, O.; Lettieri, V.; Holden, N.; Ports, D.; Petricek, R.

    1994-10-01

    This monthly progress report is divided into two parts. Part one covers the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor and part two covers the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor. Information is given for each reactor covering the following areas: reactor operation; instrumentation; mechanical maintenance; occurrence reports; and reactor safety.

  17. Transport Reactor Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.A.; Shoemaker, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is currently evaluating hot gas desulfurization (HGD)in its on-site transport reactor facility (TRF). This facility was originally constructed in the early 1980s to explore advanced gasification processes with an entrained reactor, and has recently been modified to incorporate a transport riser reactor. The TRF supports Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power systems, one of METC`s advanced power generation systems. The HGD subsystem is a key developmental item in reducing the cost and increasing the efficiency of the IGCC concept. The TRF is a unique facility with high-temperature, high-pressure, and multiple reactant gas composition capability. The TRF can be configured for reacting a single flow pass of gas and solids using a variety of gases. The gas input system allows six different gas inputs to be mixed and heated before entering the reaction zones. Current configurations allow the use of air, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nitrogen, oxygen, steam, or any mixture of these gases. Construction plans include the addition of a coal gas input line. This line will bring hot coal gas from the existing Fluidized-Bed Gasifier (FBG) via the Modular Gas Cleanup Rig (MGCR) after filtering out particulates with ceramic candle filters. Solids can be fed either by a rotary pocket feeder or a screw feeder. Particle sizes may range from 70 to 150 micrometers. Both feeders have a hopper that can hold enough solid for fairly lengthy tests at the higher feed rates, thus eliminating the need for lockhopper transfers during operation.

  18. Rotating reactor studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Glyn O.

    1991-01-01

    Undesired gravitational effects such as convection or sedimentation in a fluid can sometimes be avoided or decreased by the use of a closed chamber uniformly rotated about a horizontal axis. In a previous study, the spiral orbits of a heavy or buoyant particle in a uniformly rotating fluid were determined. The particles move in circles, and spiral in or out under the combined effects of the centrifugal force and centrifugal buoyancy. A optimization problem for the rotation rate of a cylindrical reactor rotated about its axis and containing distributed particles was formulated and solved. Related studies in several areas are addressed. A computer program based on the analysis was upgraded by correcting some minor errors, adding a sophisticated screen-and-printer graphics capability and other output options, and by improving the automation. The design, performance, and analysis of a series of experiments with monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres in water were supported to test the theory and its limitations. The theory was amply confirmed at high rotation rates. However, at low rotation rates (1 rpm or less) the assumption of uniform solid-body rotation of the fluid became invalid, and there were increasingly strong secondary motions driven by variations in the mean fluid density due to variations in the particle concentration. In these tests the increase in the mean fluid density due to the particles was of order 0.015 percent. To a first approximation, these flows are driven by the buoyancy in a thin crescent-shaped depleted layer on the descending side of the rotating reactor. This buoyancy distribution is balanced by viscosity near the walls, and by the Coriolis force in the interior. A full analysis is beyond the scope of this study. Secondary flows are likely to be stronger for buoyant particles, which spiral in towards the neutral point near the rotation axis under the influence of their centrifugal buoyancy. This is because the depleted layer is

  19. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  20. FUEL ASSAY REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, B.I.; Sandmeier, H.A.; Martens, F.H.

    1962-12-25

    A reactor having maximum sensitivity to perturbations is described comprising a core consisting of a horizontally disposed, rectangular, annular fuel zone containing enriched uranium dioxide dispersed in graphite, the concentration of uranium dioxide increasing from the outside to the inside of the fuel zone, an internal reflector of graphite containing an axial test opening disposed within the fuel zone, an external graphite reflector, means for changing the neutron spectrum in the test opening, and means for measuring perturbations in the neutron flux caused by the introduction of different fuel elements into the test opening. (AEC)

  1. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  2. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  3. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  4. High flux reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lake, James A.; Heath, Russell L.; Liebenthal, John L.; DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R.; Leyse, Carl F.; Parsons, Kent; Ryskamp, John M.; Wadkins, Robert P.; Harker, Yale D.; Fillmore, Gary N.; Oh, Chang H.

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  5. FOOD IRRADIATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Leyse, C.F.; Putnam, G.E.

    1961-05-01

    An irradiation apparatus is described. It comprises a pressure vessel, a neutronic reactor active portion having a substantially greater height than diameter in the pressure vessel, an annular tank surrounding and spaced from the pressure vessel containing an aqueous indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution of approximately 600 grams per liter concentration, means for circulating separate coolants through the active portion and the space between the annular tank and the pressure vessel, radiator means adapted to receive the materials to be irradiated, and means for flowing the indium/sup 1//sup 1//sup 5/ sulfate solution through the radiator means.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.; Goett, J.J.

    1958-09-01

    A cover device is described for the fuel element receiving tube of a neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, water cooled type wherein said tubes are arranged in a moderator with their longitudinal axes vertical. The cover is provided with means to support a rod-type fuel element from the bottom thereof and means to lock the cover in place, the latter being adapted for remote operation. This cover device is easily removable and seals the opening in the upper end of the fuel tube against leakage of coolant.

  7. REACTOR COOLANT TUBE SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Morris, W.J.

    1958-12-01

    A plle-flattenlng control element and a fluid seal therefore to permit movement of the element into a liquld contnining region of a neutronlc reactor are described. The device consists of flattened, thin-walled aluminum tubing contalnlng a uniform mixture of thermal neutron absorbing material, and a number of soft rubber closures for the process tubes, having silts capable of passing the flattened elements therethrough, but effectively sealing the process tubes against fluld leaknge by compression of the rubber. The flattened tubing is sufficiently flexible to enable it to conform to the configuratlon of the annular spacing surrounding the fuel elements ln the process tubes.

  8. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-11-01

    Nuclear reactor core safety rod release apparatus comprises a control rod having a detent notch in the form of an annular peripheral recess at its upper end, a control rod support tube for raising and lowering the control rod under normal conditions, latches pivotally mounted on the control support tube with free ends thereof normally disposed in the recess in the control rod, and cam means for pivoting the latches out of the recess in the control rod when a scram condition occurs. One embodiment of the invention comprises an additional magnetically-operated latch for releasing the control rod under two different conditions, one involving seismic shock.

  9. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Meuschke, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced.

  10. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  11. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  12. Reactor refueling containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, J.E.; Meuschke, R.E.

    1995-05-02

    A method of refueling a nuclear reactor is disclosed whereby the drive mechanism is disengaged and removed by activating a jacking mechanism that raises the closure head. The area between the barrier plate and closure head is exhausted through the closure head penetrations. The closure head, upper drive mechanism, and bellows seal are lifted away and transported to a safe area. The barrier plate acts as the primary boundary and each drive and control rod penetration has an elastomer seal preventing excessive tritium gases from escaping. The individual instrumentation plugs are disengaged allowing the corresponding fuel assembly to be sealed and replaced. 2 figs.

  13. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  14. PINCHED PLASMA REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.A.; Suydam, R.; Tuck, J.L.

    1961-07-01

    BS>A plasma confining and heating reactor is described which has the form of a torus with a B/sub 2/ producing winding on the outside of the torus and a helical winding of insulated overlapping tunns on the inside of the torus. The inner helical winding performs the double function of shielding the plasma from the vitreous container and generating a second B/sub z/ field in the opposite direction to the first B/sub z/ field after the pinch is established.

  15. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    SciTech Connect

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Carl E.; Crouthamel, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element is described which has an outer cladding, a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material and a layer of oxygen gettering material on the inner surface of the cladding. The gettering material reacts with oxygen released by the fissionable material during irradiation of the core thereby preventing the oxygen from reacting with and corroding the cladding. Also described is an improved method for coating the inner surface of the cladding with a layer of gettering material.

  17. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  18. POWER BREEDER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Monson, H.O.

    1960-11-22

    An arrangement is offered for preventing or minimizing the contraction due to temperature rise, of a reactor core comprising vertical fuel rods in sodium. Temperature rise of the fuel rods would normally make them move closer together by inward bowing, with a resultant undesired increase in reactivity. According to the present invention, assemblies of the fuel rods are laterally restrained at the lower ends of their lower blanket sections and just above the middle of the fuel sections proper of the rods, and thus the fuel sections move apart, rather than together, with increase in temperature.

  19. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  20. Reactor system for upgrading light olefins in staged reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1991-05-28

    This patent describes a semicontinuous multistage catalytic system for conversion of light olefinic gas feedstock to distillate range hydrocarbons. It comprises: a first reactor means; means for passing hot feedstock vapor upwardly; fluid handling means; means for recovering from primary stage effluent stream; second reactor means; and fluid handling means for periodically interrupting flow.

  1. Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; J. Cahalan

    2009-09-01

    Fast Reactor Fuel Type and Reactor Safety Performance R. Wigeland , Idaho National Laboratory J. Cahalan, Argonne National Laboratory The sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor is currently being evaluated for the efficient transmutation of the highly-hazardous, long-lived, transuranic elements that are present in spent nuclear fuel. One of the fundamental choices that will be made is the selection of the fuel type for the fast reactor, whether oxide, metal, carbide, nitride, etc. It is likely that a decision on the fuel type will need to be made before many of the related technologies and facilities can be selected, from fuel fabrication to spent fuel reprocessing. A decision on fuel type should consider all impacts on the fast reactor system, including safety. Past work has demonstrated that the choice of fuel type may have a significant impact on the severity of consequences arising from accidents, especially for severe accidents of low probability. In this paper, the response of sodium-cooled fast reactors is discussed for both oxide and metal fuel types, highlighting the similarities and differences in reactor response and accident consequences. Any fast reactor facility must be designed to be able to successfully prevent, mitigate, or accommodate all consequences of potential events, including accidents. This is typically accomplished by using multiple barriers to the release of radiation, including the cladding on the fuel, the intact primary cooling system, and most visibly the reactor containment building. More recently, this has also included the use of ‘inherent safety’ concepts to reduce or eliminate the potential for serious damage in some cases. Past experience with oxide and metal fuel has demonstrated that both fuel types are suitable for use as fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. However, safety analyses for these two fuel types have also shown that there can be substantial differences in accident consequences due to the neutronic and

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE

    DOEpatents

    Thomson, W.B.; Corbin, A. Jr.

    1961-07-18

    An improved core for a gas-cooled power reactor which admits gas coolant at high temperatures while affording strong integral supporting structure and efficient moderation of neutrons is described. The multiplicities of fuel elements constituting the critical amassment of fissionable material are supported and confined by a matrix of metallic structure which is interspersed therebetween. Thermal insulation is interposed between substantially all of the metallic matrix and the fuel elements; the insulation then defines the principal conduit system for conducting the coolant gas in heat-transfer relationship with the fuel elements. The metallic matrix itseif comprises a system of ducts through which an externally-cooled hydrogeneous liquid, such as water, is circulated to serve as the principal neutron moderant for the core and conjointly as the principal coolant for the insulated metallic structure. In this way, use of substantially neutron transparent metals, such as aluminum, becomes possible for the supporting structure, despite the high temperatures of the proximate gas. The Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion program's "R-1" reactor design is a preferred embodiment.

  3. Reactor Operations informal monthly report December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Reactor operations at the MRR and HFBR reactors at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented for December 1994. Reactor run-time and power levels, instrumentation, mechanical maintenance, occurrence reports, and safety information are included.

  4. Reactor production of Thorium-229

    DOE PAGES

    Boll, Rose Ann; Murphy, Karen E.; Denton, David L.; Tamara J. Haverlock; Garland, Marc A.; Mirzadeh, Saed; Hogle, Susan; Owens, Allison

    2016-05-03

    Limited availability of 229Th for clinical applications of 213Bi necessitates investigation of alternative production routes. In reactor production, 229Th is produced from neutron transmutation of 226Ra, 228Ra, 227Ac and 228Th. Here, we evaluate irradiations of 226Ra, 228Ra, and 227Ac targets at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  5. Reactor production of Thoruim-229

    DOE PAGES

    Boll, Rose Ann; Murphy, Karen E.; Denton, David L.; Tamara J. Haverlock; Garland, Marc A.; Mirzadeh, Saed; Hogle, Susan; Owens, Allison

    2016-05-03

    Limited availability of 229Th for clinical applications of 213Bi necessitates investigation of alternative production routes. In reactor production, 229Th is produced from neutron transmutation of 226Ra, 228Ra, 227Ac and 228Th. Here, we evaluate irradiations of 226Ra, 228Ra, and 227Ac targets at the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor.

  6. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, S.

    1979-01-01

    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  7. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    1994-01-19

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-90) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation. It also contains selected recommended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. This library supersedes all earlier versions of IRDF.

  8. Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

  9. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-11-08

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream. 1 fig.

  10. Solvent refined coal reactor quench system

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved SRC reactor quench system using a condensed product which is recycled to the reactor and provides cooling by evaporation. In the process, the second and subsequent reactors of a series of reactors are cooled by the addition of a light oil fraction which provides cooling by evaporation in the reactor. The vaporized quench liquid is recondensed from the reactor outlet vapor stream.

  11. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  12. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Avrorin, E.N.; Rachkov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N.

    2013-07-01

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (authors)

  13. Nuclear Reactor Kinetics and Control.

    2009-07-27

    Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following legacy book for free distribution: Nuclear Reactor Kinetics and Control, Pergamon Press, London, 275 pages, 1978. 1. Introductory Review 2. Neutron and Precursor Equations 3. Elementary Solutions of the Kinetics Equations at Low Power 4. Linear Reactor Process Dynamics with Feedback 5. Power Reactor Control Systems 6. Fluctuations and Reactor Noise 7. Safety and Reliability 8. Non Linear Systems; Stability and Control 9. Analogue Computingmore » Addendum: Jay Basken and Jeffery D. Lewins: Power Series Solution of the Reactor Kinetics Equations, Nuclear Science and Engineering: 122, 407-436 (1996) (authorized for distribution with the book: courtesy of the American Nuclear Society)« less

  14. RADIATION FACILITY FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1961-12-12

    A radiation facility is designed for irradiating samples in close proximity to the core of a nuclear reactor. The facility comprises essentially a tubular member extending through the biological shield of the reactor and containing a manipulatable rod having the sample carrier at its inner end, the carrier being longitudinally movable from a position in close proximity to the reactor core to a position between the inner and outer faces of the shield. Shield plugs are provided within the tubular member to prevent direct radiation from the core emanating therethrough. In this device, samples may be inserted or removed during normal operation of the reactor without exposing personnel to direct radiation from the reactor core. A storage chamber is also provided within the radiation facility to contain an irradiated sample during the period of time required to reduce the radioactivity enough to permit removal of the sample for external handling. (AEC)

  15. Temperature effects on chemical reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouzi, M.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we had to study some characteristics of the chemical reactors, from which we can understand the reactor operation in different circumstances; from these and the most important factor that has a great effect on the reactor operation is the temperature, it is a mathematical processing of a chemical problem that was already studied, but it may be developed by introducing new strategies of control; in our case we deal with the analysis of a liquid-gas reactor which can make the flotation of the benzene to produce the ethylene; this type of reactors can be used in vast domains of the chemical industry, especially in refinery plants where we find the oil separation and its extractions whether they are gases or liquids which become necessary for industrial technology, especially in our century.

  16. Reactor for making uniform capsules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Anikumar, Amrutur V. (Inventor); Lacik, Igor (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a novel reactor for making capsules with uniform membrane. The reactor includes a source for providing a continuous flow of a first liquid through the reactor; a source for delivering a steady stream of drops of a second liquid to the entrance of the reactor; a main tube portion having at least one loop, and an exit opening, where the exit opening is at a height substantially equal to the entrance. In addition, a method for using the novel reactor is provided. This method involves providing a continuous stream of a first liquid; introducing uniformly-sized drops of the second liquid into the stream of the first liquid; allowing the drops to react in the stream for a pre-determined period of time; and collecting the capsules.

  17. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.

    1968-09-09

    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  18. FLUID MODERATED REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1957-10-22

    A reactor which utilizes fissionable fuel elements in rod form immersed in a moderator or heavy water and a means of circulating the heavy water so that it may also function as a coolant to remove the heat generated by the fission of the fuel are described. In this design, the clad fuel elements are held in vertical tubes immersed in heavy water in a tank. The water is circulated in a closed system by entering near the tops of the tubes, passing downward through the tubes over the fuel elements and out into the tank, where it is drawn off at the bottom, passed through heat exchangers to give up its heat and then returned to the tops of the tubes for recirculation.

  19. GAS COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Rodwell, W.

    1958-06-10

    A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consisting of a graphite reacting core and reflector structure supported in a containing vessel is described. A gas sealing means is included for sealing between the walls of the graphite structure and containing vessel to prevent the gas coolant by-passing the reacting core. The reacting core is a multi-sided right prismatic structure having a pair of parallel slots around its periphery. The containing vessel is cylindrical and has a rib on its internal surface which supports two continuous ring shaped flexible web members with their radially innermost ends in sealing engagement within the radially outermost portion of the slots. The core structure is supported on ball bearings. This design permits thermal expansion of the core stracture and vessel while maintainirg a peripheral seal between the tvo elements.

  20. Nuclear reactor control

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Warnick, Robert F.

    1982-01-01

    1. In a nuclear reactor incorporating a plurality of columns of tubular fuel elements disposed in horizontal tubes in a mass of graphite wherein water flows through the tubes to cool the fuel elements, the improvement comprising at least one control column disposed in a horizontal tube including fewer fuel elements than in a normal column of fuel elements and tubular control elements disposed at both ends of said control column, and means for varying the horizontal displacement of the control column comprising a winch at the upstream end of the control column and a cable extending through the fuel and control elements and attached to the element at the downstream end of the column.

  1. REACTOR MODERATOR STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Tudor, J.J.

    1963-08-01

    An improved moderator structure for nuclear reactors consists of moderator blocks arranged in horizontal layers to form a multiplicity of vertically stacked columns of blocks. The blocks in each vertical column are keyed together, and a ceramic grid is disposed between each horizontal layer of blocks. Pressure plates cover- the lateral surface of the moderator structure in abutting relationship with the peripheral terminal lengths of the ceramic grids. Tubular springs are disposed between the pressure plates and a rigid external support. The tubular springs have their axes vertically disposed to facilitate passage of coolant gas through the springs and are spaced apart a selected distance such that at sonae preselected point of spring deflection, the sides of the springs will contact adjacent springs thereby causing a large increase in resistance to further spring deflection. (AEC)

  2. REACTOR VIEWING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Monk, G.S.

    1959-01-13

    An optical system is presented that is suitable for viewing objects in a region of relatively high radioactivity, or high neutron activity, such as a neutronic reactor. This optical system will absorb neutrons and gamma rays thereby protecting personnel fronm the harmful biological effects of such penetrating radiations. The optical system is comprised of a viewing tube having a lens at one end, a transparent solid member at the other end and a transparent aqueous liquid completely filling the tube between the ends. The lens is made of a polymerized organic material and the transparent solid member is made of a radiation absorbent material. A shield surrounds the tube betwcen the flanges and is made of a gamma ray absorbing material.

  3. Nuclear reactor control apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sridhar, Bettadapur N.

    1983-10-25

    Nuclear reactor safety rod release apparatus comprises a ring which carries detents normally positioned in an annular recess in outer side of the rod, the ring being held against the lower end of a drive shaft by magnetic force exerted by a solenoid carried by the drive shaft. When the solenoid is de-energized, the detent-carrying ring drops until the detents contact a cam surface associated with the lower end of the drive shaft, at which point the detents are cammed out of the recess in the safety rod to release the rod from the drive shaft. In preferred embodiments of the invention, an additional latch is provided to release a lower portion of a safety rod under conditions that may interfere with movement of the entire rod.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, C.W.; Baumeister, E.B.

    1961-09-01

    A reactor fuel element utilizing fissionable fuel materials in plate form is described. This fuel element consists of bundles of fuel-bearing plates. The bundles are stacked inside of a tube which forms the shell of the fuel element. The plates each have longitudinal fins running parallel to the direction of coolant flow, and interspersed among and parallel to the fins are ribs which position the plates relative to each other and to the fuel element shell. The plate bundles are held together by thin bands or wires. The ex tended surface increases the heat transfer capabilities of a fuel element by a factor of 3 or more over those of a simple flat plate.

  5. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    W.D. Reese

    2004-02-24

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Howard, D.F.; Motta, E.E.

    1961-06-27

    A method for controlling the excess reactivity in a nuclear reactor throughout the core life while maintaining the neutron flux distribution at the desired level is described. The control unit embodies a container having two electrodes of different surface area immersed in an electrolytic solution of a good neutron sbsorbing metal ion such as boron, gadolinium, or cadmium. Initially, the neutron absorber is plated on the larger electrode to control the greater neutron flux of a freshly refueled core. As the fuel burns up, the excess reactivity decreases and the neutron absorber is then plated onto the smaller electrode so that the number of neutrons absorbed also decreases. The excess reactivity in the core may thus be maintained without the introduction of serious perturbations in the neutron flux distributibn.

  7. Staged anaerobic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.A.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an anaerobic biological reactor for digesting organic substances, particularly high strength industrial and municipal sewage, and producing commercial quality methane. The reactor consists of: a unitary vessel for containing liquid carrying the organic substances to be digested and has a liquid inlet and a liquid outlet; a device for maintaining the liquid in the vessel at a desired level; the capability of dividing the vessel into separate environmentally isolated compartments, adapted to contain a level of liquid having a gas space located above. Each of the compartments is primarily dedicated to the digestion of organic substances by a respectively different microorganism. At least one of the organisms is an acid forming type that digests organic substances and in so doing evolves CO/sub 2/ gas. At least one other of the microorganisms is a type that digests organic substances and in so doing evolves a relatively high quality methane gas; a method for establishing and maintaining the optimum environmental conditions within each of the respective compartments to promote the unique biological activity within that compartment; a way to regulate the pH level; a set of gas operated mixers in each compartment of the vessel for mixing the liquid contained therein to maintain a homogenous mixture; a way for delivering the CO/sub 2/ gas from one compartment to the mixer in the other compartment; a way for flowing and agitating the liquid from the inlet through the environmentally isolated compartments in a predetermined sequence to the outlet; and a method for collecting and removing methane gas evolved in the vessel.

  8. University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Purdue University Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Hewit

    2008-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at Purdue University Reactor. With this work completed and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, the INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture the lessons learned. The lessons learned process has allowed us to capture gaps, opportunities, and good practices, drawing from the project team’s experiences. These lessons will be used to raise the standard of excellence, effectiveness, and efficiency in all future conversion projects.

  9. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  10. Reactor service life extension program

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  11. Reactor service life extension program

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-12-31

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  12. Assessment of torsatrons as reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, J.F. ); Painter, S.L. )

    1992-12-01

    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R[sub 0] = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B[sup 0] = 4.8-7.5 T, B[sub max] (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

  13. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastrucutre TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Morrell

    2011-03-01

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  14. On reactor type comparisons for the next generation of reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Alesso, H.P.; Majumdar, K.C.

    1991-08-22

    In this paper, we present a broad comparison of studies for a selected set of parameters for different nuclear reactor types including the next generation. This serves as an overview of key parameters which provide a semi-quantitative decision basis for selecting nuclear strategies. Out of a number of advanced reactor designs of the LWR type, gas cooled type, and FBR type, currently on the drawing board, the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR) seem to have some edge over other types of the next generation of reactors for the near-term application. This is based on a number of attributes related to the benefit of the vast operating experience with LWRs coupled with an estimated low risk profile, economics of scale, degree of utilization of passive systems, simplification in the plant design and layout, modular fabrication and manufacturing. 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Altman, David A.; Singleton, Norman R.

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  16. DENSITY CONTROL IN A REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, J. Jr.

    1961-10-24

    A reactor is described in which natural-uranium bodies are located in parallel channels which extend through the graphite mass in a regular lattice. The graphite mass has additional channels that are out of the lattice and contain no uranium. These additional channels decrease in number per unit volume of graphite from the center of the reactor to the exterior and have the effect of reducing the density of the graphite more at the center than at the exterior, thereby spreading neutron activity throughout the reactor. (AEC)

  17. Nuclear reactor I

    DOEpatents

    Ference, Edward W.; Houtman, John L.; Waldby, Robert N.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor whose upper internals include provision for channeling the liquid metal flowing from the core-component assemblies to the outlet plenum in vertical paths in direction generally along the direction of the respective assemblies. The metal is channeled by chimneys, each secured to, and extending from, a grid through whose openings the metal emitted by a plurality of core-component assemblies encompassed by the grid flows. To reduce the stresses resulting from structural interaction, or the transmissive of thermal strains due to large temperature differences in the liquid metal emitted from neighboring core-component assemblies, throughout the chimneys and the other components of the upper internals, the grids and the chimneys are supported from the heat plate and the core barrel by support columns (double portal support) which are secured to the head plate at the top and to a member, which supports the grids and is keyed to the core barrel, at the bottom. In addition to being restrained from lateral flow by the chimneys, the liquid metal is also restrained from flowing laterally by a peripheral seal around the top of the core. This seal limits the flow rate of liquid metal, which may be sharply cooled during a scram, to the outlet nozzles. The chimneys and the grids are formed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant nickel-chromium-iron alloy which can withstand the stresses produced by temperature differences in the liquid metal. The chimneys are supported by pairs of plates, each pair held together by hollow stubs coaxial with, and encircling, the chimneys. The plates and stubs are a welded structure but, in the interest of economy, are composed of stainless steel which is not weld compatible with the refractory metal. The chimneys and stubs are secured together by shells of another nickel-chromium-iron alloy which is weld compatible with, and is welded to, the stubs and has about the same

  18. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  19. Conceptual design study of JSFR reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, T.; Katoh, A.; Chikazawa, Y.; Ohya, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Hara, H.; Akiyama, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is planning to adopt the new concepts of reactor building. One is that the steel plate reinforced concrete is adopted for containment vessel and reactor building. The other is the advanced seismic isolation system. This paper describes the detail of new concepts for JSFR reactor building and engineering evaluation of the new concepts. (authors)

  20. Computational Modeling of Multiphase Reactors.

    PubMed

    Joshi, J B; Nandakumar, K

    2015-01-01

    Multiphase reactors are very common in chemical industry, and numerous review articles exist that are focused on types of reactors, such as bubble columns, trickle beds, fluid catalytic beds, etc. Currently, there is a high degree of empiricism in the design process of such reactors owing to the complexity of coupled flow and reaction mechanisms. Hence, we focus on synthesizing recent advances in computational and experimental techniques that will enable future designs of such reactors in a more rational manner by exploring a large design space with high-fidelity models (computational fluid dynamics and computational chemistry models) that are validated with high-fidelity measurements (tomography and other detailed spatial measurements) to provide a high degree of rigor. Understanding the spatial distributions of dispersed phases and their interaction during scale up are key challenges that were traditionally addressed through pilot scale experiments, but now can be addressed through advanced modeling.

  1. METHOD OF OPERATING NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Untermyer, S.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for obtaining enhanced utilization of natural uranium in heavy water moderated nuclear reactors by charging the reactor with an equal number of fuel elements formed of natural uranium and of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction. The reactor is operated until the rate of burnup of plutonium equals its rate of production, the fuel elements are processed to recover plutonium, the depleted uranium is discarded, and the remaining uranium is formed into fuel elements. These fuel elements are charged into a reactor along with an equal number of fuel elements formed of uranium depleted in U/sup 235/ to the extent that the combination will just support a chain reaction, and reuse of the uranium is continued as aforesaid until it wlll no longer support a chain reaction when combined with an equal quantity of natural uranium.

  2. University Reactor Matching Grants Program

    SciTech Connect

    John Valentine; Farzad Rahnema; Said Abdel-Khalik

    2003-02-14

    During the 2002 Fiscal year, funds from the DOE matching grant program, along with matching funds from the industrial sponsors, have been used to support research in the area of thermal-hydraulics. Both experimental and numerical research projects have been performed. Experimental research focused on two areas: (1) Identification of the root cause mechanism for axial offset anomaly in pressurized water reactors under prototypical reactor conditions, and (2) Fluid dynamic aspects of thin liquid film protection schemes for inertial fusion reactor chambers. Numerical research focused on two areas: (1) Multi-fluid modeling of both two-phase and two-component flows for steam conditioning and mist cooling applications, and (2) Modeling of bounded Rayleigh-Taylor instability with interfacial mass transfer and fluid injection through a porous wall simulating the ''wetted wall'' protection scheme in inertial fusion reactor chambers. Details of activities in these areas are given.

  3. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  4. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  5. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, G.D.; Chick, L.A.; Kurosky, R.P.

    1998-01-06

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor. 10 figs.

  6. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  7. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  8. STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

    1963-07-16

    The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

  9. Unique features of space reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1990-01-01

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. FUEL ELEMENTS FOR NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.; Jette, E.R.

    1963-05-01

    A fuel element for a nuclear reactor is described that consists of a jacket containing a unitary core of fissionable material and a filling of a metal of the group consisting of sodium and sodium-potassium alloys. (AEC)

  11. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, F.E.

    1992-12-08

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom. 1 figure.

  12. Reactor core isolation cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Franklin E.

    1992-01-01

    A reactor core isolation cooling system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core, a drywell vessel, a containment vessel, and an isolation pool containing an isolation condenser. A turbine is operatively joined to the pressure vessel outlet steamline and powers a pump operatively joined to the pressure vessel feedwater line. In operation, steam from the pressure vessel powers the turbine which in turn powers the pump to pump makeup water from a pool to the feedwater line into the pressure vessel for maintaining water level over the reactor core. Steam discharged from the turbine is channeled to the isolation condenser and is condensed therein. The resulting heat is discharged into the isolation pool and vented to the atmosphere outside the containment vessel for removing heat therefrom.

  13. Overview of fusion reactor safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S.; Crocker, J. G.

    Use of deuterium-tritium fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control; (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment; (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions; (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices; and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

  14. Computational Modeling of Multiphase Reactors.

    PubMed

    Joshi, J B; Nandakumar, K

    2015-01-01

    Multiphase reactors are very common in chemical industry, and numerous review articles exist that are focused on types of reactors, such as bubble columns, trickle beds, fluid catalytic beds, etc. Currently, there is a high degree of empiricism in the design process of such reactors owing to the complexity of coupled flow and reaction mechanisms. Hence, we focus on synthesizing recent advances in computational and experimental techniques that will enable future designs of such reactors in a more rational manner by exploring a large design space with high-fidelity models (computational fluid dynamics and computational chemistry models) that are validated with high-fidelity measurements (tomography and other detailed spatial measurements) to provide a high degree of rigor. Understanding the spatial distributions of dispersed phases and their interaction during scale up are key challenges that were traditionally addressed through pilot scale experiments, but now can be addressed through advanced modeling. PMID:26134737

  15. Combustion synthesis continuous flow reactor

    DOEpatents

    Maupin, Gary D.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Kurosky, Randal P.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a reactor for combustion synthesis of inorganic powders. The reactor includes a reaction vessel having a length and a first end and a second end. The reaction vessel further has a solution inlet and a carrier gas inlet. The reactor further has a heater for heating both the solution and the carrier gas. In a preferred embodiment, the reaction vessel is heated and the solution is in contact with the heated reaction vessel. It is further preferred that the reaction vessel be cylindrical and that the carrier gas is introduced tangentially into the reaction vessel so that the solution flows helically along the interior wall of the reaction vessel. As the solution evaporates and combustion produces inorganic material powder, the carrier gas entrains the powder and carries it out of the reactor.

  16. Reactor vessel seal service fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ritz, W.C.

    1975-12-01

    An apparatus for the preparation of exposed sealing surfaces along the open rim of a nuclear reactor vessel comprised of a motorized mechanism for traveling along the rim and simultaneously brushing the exposed surfaces is described.

  17. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas of research

  18. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Upton, Hubert A.

    1994-01-01

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough.

  19. Reactor pressure vessel nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Upton, H.A.

    1994-10-04

    A nozzle for joining a pool of water to a nuclear reactor pressure vessel includes a tubular body having a proximal end joinable to the pressure vessel and a distal end joinable in flow communication with the pool. The body includes a flow passage therethrough having in serial flow communication a first port at the distal end, a throat spaced axially from the first port, a conical channel extending axially from the throat, and a second port at the proximal end which is joinable in flow communication with the pressure vessel. The inner diameter of the flow passage decreases from the first port to the throat and then increases along the conical channel to the second port. In this way, the conical channel acts as a diverging channel or diffuser in the forward flow direction from the first port to the second port for recovering pressure due to the flow restriction provided by the throat. In the backflow direction from the second port to the first port, the conical channel is a converging channel and with the abrupt increase in flow area from the throat to the first port collectively increase resistance to flow therethrough. 2 figs.

  20. Reactor Simulator Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Test Objectives Summary: a) Verify operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation & control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. b) Examine cooling & heat regeneration performance of the cold trap purification. c) Test the ALIP pump at voltages beyond 120V to see if the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s can be obtained in the RxSim. Testing Highlights: a) Gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively for operations (NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain). b) Instrumentation & Control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings and ramped within prescribed constraints. It effectively interacted with reactor simulator control model and defaulted back to temperature control mode if the transient fluctuations didn't dampen. c) Cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the minimum temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. d) ALIP produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  1. Reactor shroud joint

    DOEpatents

    Ballas, Gary J.; Fife, Alex Blair; Ganz, Israel

    1998-01-01

    A shroud for a nuclear reactor is described. In one embodiment, the shroud includes first and second shroud sections, and each shroud section includes a substantially cylindrical main body having a first end and a second end. With respect to each shroud section, a flange is located at the main body first end, and the flange has a plurality of bolt openings therein and a plurality of scalloped regions. The first shroud section is welded to the second shroud section, and at least some of the bolt openings in the first shroud section flange align with respective bolt openings in the second shroud section flange. In the event that the onset of inter-granular stress corrosion cracking is ever detected in the weld between the shroud section, bolts are inserted through bolt openings in the first shroud section flange and through aligned bolt openings the second shroud section flange. Each bolt, in one embodiment, has a shank section and first and second threaded end sections. Nuts are threadedly engaged to the threaded end sections and tightened against the respective flanges.

  2. Reactor shroud joint

    DOEpatents

    Ballas, G.J.; Fife, A.B.; Ganz, I.

    1998-04-07

    A shroud for a nuclear reactor is described. In one embodiment, the shroud includes first and second shroud sections, and each shroud section includes a substantially cylindrical main body having a first end and a second end. With respect to each shroud section, a flange is located at the main body first end, and the flange has a plurality of bolt openings therein and a plurality of scalloped regions. The first shroud section is welded to the second shroud section, and at least some of the bolt openings in the first shroud section flange align with respective bolt openings in the second shroud section flange. In the event that the onset of inter-granular stress corrosion cracking is ever detected in the weld between the shroud section, bolts are inserted through bolt openings in the first shroud section flange and through aligned bolt openings the second shroud section flange. Each bolt, in one embodiment, has a shank section and first and second threaded end sections. Nuts are threadedly engaged to the threaded end sections and tightened against the respective flanges. 4 figs.

  3. Solar solids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yudow, B.D.

    1986-02-24

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  4. Solar solids reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yudow, Bernard D.

    1987-01-01

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  5. Reactor Simulator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  6. Reactor antineutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haoqi

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are three flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 3×3 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, and one CP phase. Both θ12 and θ23 are known from previous experiments. θ13 was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive nonzero value in 2012. An improved measurement of the oscillation amplitude sin 22(θ 13) = 0.090+0.008-0.009 and the first direct measurement of the \\bar ν e mass-squared difference \\vertΔ m2ee\\vert\\big (2.59+0.19-0.20\\big )×10-3 eV2 were obtained recently. The large value of θ13 boosts the next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, such as JUNO and RENO-50.

  7. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  8. REACTOR CONTROL MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Lane, J.A.; Engberg, R.E.; Welch, J.M.

    1959-05-12

    A quick-releasing mechanism is described which may be used to rapidiy drop a device supported from beneath during normal use, such as a safety rod in a nuclear reactor. In accordance with this invention an electrical control signal, such as may be provided by radiation detection or other alarm condition sensing devices, is delivered to an electromagnetic solenoid, the armature of which is coupled to an actuating mechanism. The solenoid is energized when the mechanism is in its upper or cocked position. In such position, the mechanism engages a plurality of retaining balls, forcing them outward into engagement with a shoulder or recess in a corresponding section of a tubular extension on the upheld device. When the control signal to the solenoid suddenly ceases, the armature drops out, allowing the actuating mechanism to move slightly but rapidly under the force of a compressed spring. The weight of the device will urge the balls inward against a beveled portion of the actuating mechanism and away from the engaging section on the tubular extension, thus allowing the upheld device to fall freely under the influence of gravity.

  9. Automatic safety rod for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1988-01-01

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-core flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  10. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  11. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-09-24

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  12. Fast quench reactor and method

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Donaldson, Alan D.; Fincke, James R.; Kong, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    A fast quench reaction includes a reactor chamber having a high temperature heating means such as a plasma torch at its inlet and a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Reactants are injected into the reactor chamber. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle. This "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage.

  13. NCSU PULSTAR Reactor instrumentation upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, P.B.; Bilyj, S.J.

    1993-08-12

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University initiated an upgrade program at the NCSU PULSTAR Reactor in 1990. Twenty-year-old instrumentation is currently undergoing replacement with solid-state and current technology equipment. The financial assistance from the United States Department of Energy has been the primary source of support. This interim report provides the status of the first two phases of the upgrade program.

  14. [Reactor safety and human failure].

    PubMed

    Smidt, D

    1979-12-01

    Reactor safety is given by the reliable solution of 3 tasks: on-time shutdown, continuous decay-heat removal, safe containment. After describing the general strategy of their solution even under upset conditions the most important engineered safeguards of pressurized water reactors are summarized. The important problem of human failure is discussed in some more detail. For the example Harrisburg some difficulties, but also some technical countermeasures are illustrated. PMID:537639

  15. Reactor Application for Coaching Newbies

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-17

    RACCOON is a Moose based reactor physics application designed to engage undergraduate and first-year graduate students. The code contains capabilities to solve the multi group Neutron Diffusion equation in eigenvalue and fixed source form and will soon have a provision to provide simple thermal feedback. These capabilities are sufficient to solve example problems found in Duderstadt & Hamilton (the typical textbook of senior level reactor physics classes). RACCOON does not contain any advanced capabilities as found in YAK.

  16. Biological sludge stabilization reactor evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Corbitt, R.A.; Bowen, P.T.; Smith, P.E.

    1998-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion was chosen as the means to stabilize primary and thickened waste activated sludge for a 0.88 m{sup 3}/s (20 mgd) advanced wastewater reclamation facility. Two stage digestion was proposed to produce Class B sludge. Reactor shape was an important variable in design of the first stage digestion. Evaluation of conventional and egg shaped anaerobic digesters was performed. Based on the economic and non-economic criteria analysis, egg shaped reactors were selected.

  17. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  18. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2005-02-01

    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  19. The International Reactor Dosimetry File.

    2008-08-07

    Version 01 The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-2002) contains recommended neutron cross-section data to be used for reactor neutron dosimetry by foil activation and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. It also contains selected recom�mended values for radiation damage cross-sections and benchmark neutron spectra. Two related programs available from NEADB and RSICC are: SPECTER-ANL (PSR-263) & STAY’SL (PSR-113).

  20. Evaluation of Torsatrons as reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, J.F.; Gulec, K.; Miller, R.L.; El-Guebaly, L.

    1994-03-01

    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors. This scoping study, which uses an integrated cost-minimization code that incorporates costing and reactor component models self-consistently with a 1-D energy transport calculation, shows that a torsatron reactor could also be economically competitive with a tokamak reactor. The projected cost of electricity (COE) estimated using the Advanced Reactor Innovation and Evaluation Studies (ARIES) costing algorithms is 65.6 mill/kW(e)h in constant 1992 dollars for a reference 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor case. The COE is relatively insensitive (<10% variation) over a wide range of assumptions, including variations in the maximum field allowed on the coils, the coil elongation, the shape of the density profile, the beta limit, the confinement multiplier, and the presence of a large loss region for alpha particles. The largest variations in the COE occur for variations in the electrical power output demanded and the plasma-coil separation ratio.

  1. Propellant actuated nuclear reactor steam depressurization valve

    DOEpatents

    Ehrke, Alan C.; Knepp, John B.; Skoda, George I.

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear fission reactor combined with a propellant actuated depressurization and/or water injection valve is disclosed. The depressurization valve releases pressure from a water cooled, steam producing nuclear reactor when required to insure the safety of the reactor. Depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel enables gravity feeding of supplementary coolant water through the water injection valve to the reactor pressure vessel to prevent damage to the fuel core.

  2. Reactor operations: Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor. Informal report, July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Part one of this report gives the operating history for the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor for the month of July. Also included are the BMRR technical safety surveillance requirements record and the summary of BMRR irradiations for the month. Part two gives the operating histories for the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor and the Cold Neutron Source Facility for the month of July. Also included are the HFBR technical safety surveillance requirements record and the summary of HFBR irradiations for the month.

  3. Reactor operations: Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor. Informal report, June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Part one of this report gives the operating history of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor for the month of June. Also included are the BMRR technical safety surveillance requirements record and the summary of BMRR irradiations for the month. Part two gives the operating histories of the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor and the Cold Neutron Facility at HFBR for June. Also included are the HFBR technical safety surveillance requirements record and the summary of HFBR irradiations for the month.

  4. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M.

    1963-08-20

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of gas that moves downwardly within the inner shell and upwardly between it and the outer shell, and while thus being circulated the droplets are calcined to solids, whlch drop to the bottom without being deposited on the walls. (AEC) H03 H0233412 The average molecular weights of four diallyl phthalate polymer samples extruded from the experimental rheometer were redetermined using the vapor phase osmometer. An amine curing agent is required for obtaining suitable silver- filled epoxy-bonded conductive adhesives. When the curing agent was modified with a 47% polyurethane resin, its effectiveness was hampered. Neither silver nor nickel filler impart a high electrical conductivity to Adiprenebased adhesives. Silver filler was found to perform well in Dow-Corning A-4000 adhesive. Two cascaded hot-wire columns are being used to remove heavy gaseous impurities from methane. This purified gas is being enriched in the concentric tube unit to approximately 20% carbon-13. Studies to count low-level krypton-85 in xenon are continuing. The parameters of the counting technique are being determined. The bismuth isotopes produced in bismuth irradiated for polonium production are being determined. Preliminary data indicate the presence of bismuth207 and bismuth-210m. The light bismuth isotopes are probably produced by (n,xn) reactions bismuth-209. The separation of uranium-234 from plutonium-238 solutions was demonstrated. The bulk of the plutonium is removed by anion exchange, and the remainder is extracted from the uranium by solvent extraction techniques. About 99% of the plutonium can be removed in each thenoyltrifluoroacetone extraction. The viscosity, liquid density, and

  5. Reactor Simulator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise Jon

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz. Keywords: fission, space power, nuclear, liquid metal, NaK.

  6. Neutronic reactor thermal shield

    DOEpatents

    Lowe, Paul E.

    1976-06-15

    1. The combination with a plurality of parallel horizontal members arranged in horizontal and vertical rows, the spacing of the members in all horizontal rows being equal throughout, the spacing of the members in all vertical rows being equal throughout; of a shield for a nuclear reactor comprising two layers of rectangular blocks through which the members pass generally perpendicularly to the layers, each block in each layer having for one of the members an opening equally spaced from vertical sides of the block and located closer to the top of the block than the bottom thereof, whereby gravity tends to make each block rotate about the associated member to a position in which the vertical sides of the block are truly vertical, the openings in all the blocks of one layer having one equal spacing from the tops of the blocks, the openings in all the blocks of the other layer having one equal spacing from the tops of the blocks, which spacing is different from the corresponding spacing in the said one layer, all the blocks of both layers having the same vertical dimension or length, the blocks of both layers consisting of relatively wide blocks and relatively narrow blocks, all the narrow blocks having the same horizontal dimension or width which is less than the horizontal dimension or width of the wide blocks, which is the same throughout, each layer consisting of vertical rows of narrow blocks and wide blocks alternating with one another, each vertical row of narrow blocks of each layer being covered by a vertical row of wide blocks of the other layer which wide blocks receive the same vertical row of members as the said each vertical row of narrow blocks, whereby the rectangular perimeters of each block of each layer is completely out of register with that of each block in the other layer.

  7. FUSED REACTOR FUELS

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, S.W.

    1962-11-13

    This invention relates to a nuciear reactor fuel composition comprising (1) from about 0.01 to about 50 wt.% based on the total weight of said composition of at least one element selected from the class consisting of uranium, thorium, and plutonium, wherein said eiement is present in the form of at least one component selected from the class consisting of oxides, halides, and salts of oxygenated anions, with components comprising (2) at least one member selected from the class consisting of (a) sulfur, wherein the sulfur is in the form of at least one entity selected irom the class consisting of oxides of sulfur, metal sulfates, metal sulfites, metal halosulfonates, and acids of sulfur, (b) halogen, wherein said halogen is in the form of at least one compound selected from the class of metal halides, metal halosulfonates, and metal halophosphates, (c) phosphorus, wherein said phosphorus is in the form of at least one constituent selected from the class consisting of oxides of phosphorus, metal phosphates, metal phosphites, and metal halophosphates, (d) at least one oxide of a member selected from the class consisting of a metal and a metalloid wherein said oxide is free from an oxide of said element in (1); wherein the amount of at least one member selected from the class consisting of halogen and sulfur is at least about one at.% based on the amount of the sum of said sulfur, halogen, and phosphorus atom in said composition; and wherein the amount of said 2(a), 2(b) and 2(c) components in said composition which are free from said elements of uranium, thorium, arid plutonium, is at least about 60 wt.% based on the combined weight of the components of said composition which are free from said elements of uranium, thorium, and plutonium. (AEC)

  8. 78 FR 71675 - Update of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation's Electronic Operating Reactor Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Update of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation's Electronic Operating Reactor Correspondence... Regulatory Commission. Michele G. Evans, Director, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of...

  9. Update on reactors and reactor instruments in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. R.

    1991-10-01

    The 1980s have seen the commissioning of several medium flux (∼10 14 neutrons/cm 2s) research reactors in Asia. The reactors are based on indigenous design and development in India and China. At Dhruva reactor (India), a variety of neutron spectrometers have been established that have provided useful data related to the structure of high- Tc materials, phonon density of states, magnetic moment distributions and micellar aggregation during the last couple of years. Polarised neutron analysis, neutron interferometry and neutron spin echo methods are some of the new techniques under development. The spectrometers and associated automaton, detectors and neutron guides have all been indigenously developed. This paper summarises the developments and on-going activities in Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand.

  10. A novel sorbent for transport reactors and fluidized bed reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R.; Cesario, M.; Gershanovich, Y.; Sibold, J.; Windecker, B.

    1998-12-31

    Coal Fired Gasifier Combined Cycles (GCC) have both high efficiency and very low emissions. GCCs critically need a method of removing the H{sub 2}S produced from the sulfur in the coal from the hot gases. There has been extensive research on hot gas cleanup systems, focused on the use of a zinc oxide based sorbent (e.g., zinc titanate). TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing a novel sorbent with improved attrition resistance for transport reactors and fluidized bed reactors. The authors are testing sorbents at conditions simulating the operating conditions of the Pinon Pine clean coal technology plant. TDA sulfided several different formulations at 538 C and found several that have high sulfur capacity when tested in a fluidized bed reactor. TDA initiated sorbent regeneration at 538 C. The sorbents retained chemical activity with multiple cycles. Additional tests will be conducted to evaluate the best sorbent formulation.

  11. Thermal Reactor Code System for Reactor Design and Analysis.

    2003-04-21

    Version: 00 SRAC95 is a general purpose neutronics code system applicable to core analyses of various types of reactors, including cell calculation with burn up, core calculation for any type of thermal reactor; where core burn up calculation and fuel management were done by an auxiliary code. Since the publication of JAERI-1302 for the revised SRAC in 1986, a number of additions and modifications were made for nuclear data libraries and programs. In this version,more » many new functions and data are implemented to support nuclear design studies of advanced reactors. SRAC95 can be used for burnup credit analysis within the ORIGEN2 and SWAT (CCC-714) code system.« less

  12. UCLA program in reactor studies: The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The ARIES research program is a multi-institutional effort to develop several visions of tokamak reactors with enhanced economic, safety, and environmental features. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Four ARIES visions are currently planned for the ARIES program. The ARIES-1 design is a DT-burning reactor based on modest'' extrapolations from the present tokamak physics database and relies on either existing technology or technology for which trends are already in place, often in programs outside fusion. ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 are DT-burning reactors which will employ potential advances in physics. The ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs employ the same plasma core but have two distinct fusion power core designs; ARIES-2 utilize the lithium as the coolant and breeder and vanadium alloys as the structural material while ARIES-4 utilizes helium is the coolant, solid tritium breeders, and SiC composite as the structural material. Lastly, the ARIES-3 is a conceptual D-{sup 3}He reactor. During the period Dec. 1, 1990 to Nov. 31, 1991, most of the ARIES activity has been directed toward completing the technical work for the ARIES-3 design and documenting the results and findings. We have also completed the documentation for the ARIES-1 design and presented the results in various meetings and conferences. During the last quarter, we have initiated the scoping phase for ARIES-2 and ARIES-4 designs.

  13. SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, R.W.

    1963-03-01

    This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means including a plurality of process tubes traversing said tank for isolating said graphite from said sodium, fuel elements positioned in said process tubes, said core tank being supported in spaced relation to the walls and bottom of said reactor vessel and below the level of said sodium, neutron shielding means positioned adjacent said core tank between said core tank and the walls of said vessel, said neutron shielding means defining an annuiar volume adjacent the inside wall of said reactor vessel, inlet plenum means below said core tank for providing a passage between said annular volume and said process tubes, heat exchanger means removably supported from the first-named shielding means and positioned in said annular volume, and means for circulating said sodium over said neutron shielding means down through said heat exchanger, across said inlet plenum and upward through said process tubes, said last-named means including electromagnetic pumps located outside said vessel and supported on said vessel wall between said heat exchanger means and said inlet plenum means. (AEC)

  14. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  15. Antineutrino monitoring of thorium reactors

    DOE PAGES

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A.; Bernstein, Adam; Norman, Eric B.

    2016-09-30

    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuel types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring. Thorium molten salt reactors breed 233U, that if diverted constitute a direct use material as defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of 233U has been estimated for the first time, and the feasibility of detecting the diversion of 8 kg ofmore » 233U, within a 30 day timeliness goal has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos at a 25 m standoff. It was found that the diversion of a significant quantity of 233U could not be detected within the current IAEA timeliness detection goal using either tests. In conclusion, a rate-time based analysis exceeded the timeliness goal by 23 days, while a spectral based analysis exceeds this goal by 31 days.« less

  16. International Research Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Leopando, Leonardo; Warnecke, Ernst

    2008-01-15

    Many research reactors have been or will be shut down and are candidates for decommissioning. Most of the respective countries neither have a decommissioning policy nor the required expertise and funds to effectively implement a decommissioning project. The IAEA established the Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P) to help answer this need. It was agreed to involve the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) as model reactor to demonstrate 'hands-on' experience as it is just starting the decommissioning process. Other facilities may be included in the project as they fit into the scope of R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P and complement to the PRR-1 decommissioning activities. The key outcome of the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P will be the decommissioning of the PRR-1 reactor. On the way to this final goal the preparation of safety related documents (i.e., decommissioning plan, environmental impact assessment, safety analysis report, health and safety plan, cost estimate, etc.) and the licensing process as well as the actual dismantling activities could provide a model to other countries involved in the project. It is expected that the R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P would initiate activities related to planning and funding of decommissioning activities in the participating countries if that has not yet been done.

  17. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  18. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Cloelle G S; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R; Butler, Caitlyn S

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional 'H-cell' reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs.

  19. Simplifying microbial electrosynthesis reactor design.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Cloelle G S; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodward, Trevor; Lovley, Derek R; Butler, Caitlyn S

    2015-01-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, an artificial form of photosynthesis, can efficiently convert carbon dioxide into organic commodities; however, this process has only previously been demonstrated in reactors that have features likely to be a barrier to scale-up. Therefore, the possibility of simplifying reactor design by both eliminating potentiostatic control of the cathode and removing the membrane separating the anode and cathode was investigated with biofilms of Sporomusa ovata. S. ovata reduces carbon dioxide to acetate and acts as the microbial catalyst for plain graphite stick cathodes as the electron donor. In traditional 'H-cell' reactors, where the anode and cathode chambers were separated with a proton-selective membrane, the rates and columbic efficiencies of microbial electrosynthesis remained high when electron delivery at the cathode was powered with a direct current power source rather than with a potentiostat-poised cathode utilized in previous studies. A membrane-less reactor with a direct-current power source with the cathode and anode positioned to avoid oxygen exposure at the cathode, retained high rates of acetate production as well as high columbic and energetic efficiencies. The finding that microbial electrosynthesis is feasible without a membrane separating the anode from the cathode, coupled with a direct current power source supplying the energy for electron delivery, is expected to greatly simplify future reactor design and lower construction costs. PMID:26029199

  20. Antineutrino monitoring of thorium reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A.; Bernstein, Adam; Norman, Eric B.

    2016-09-01

    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuel types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring. Thorium molten salt reactors breed 233U, that if diverted constitute a direct use material as defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of 233U has been estimated for the first time, and the feasibility of detecting the diversion of 8 kg of 233U, within a 30 day timeliness goal has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos at a 25 m standoff. It was found that the diversion of a significant quantity of 233U could not be detected within the current IAEA timeliness detection goal using either tests. A rate-time based analysis exceeded the timeliness goal by 23 days, while a spectral based analysis exceeds this goal by 31 days.