Science.gov

Sample records for 5l x70 steel

  1. Influence of Ti addition on the hydrogen induced cracking of API 5L X70 hot-rolled pipeline steel in acid sour media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Joonoh; Park, Chulbong; Kim, Seong-Ju

    2012-08-01

    In this study, Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) testing of high strength API 5L grade X70 linepipe hot rolled steel containing Ti was performed to investigate the effects of (Nb, Ti, V)(C, N) particles on HIC susceptibility. By controlling chemical composition and hot rolling parameters, experimental steel with Bainitic ferrite and Bainite microstructures was fabricated. HIC testing was carried out within an acidic condition (pH=2.7±0.1) according to NACE standards with test results showing cracking propagated along coarse (Nb, Ti, V)(C, N) particles at mid-thickness. This is mainly due to centerline segregation and hydrogen blistering between matrix and coarse (Nb, Ti, V)(C, N) particles without external stress.

  2. Investigating the effect of heat treatment on hydrogen permeation behavior of API X-70 steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirband, Zeynab; Shishesaz, Mohammad Reza; Ashrafi, Ali

    2012-06-01

    Pipeline steels absorb different amounts of hydrogen during transportation of sour oil and gas. Since hydrogen-related damages such as hydrogen-induced cracking are strongly affected by hydrogen permeation behavior of steels, the purpose of this study determined to investigate hydrogen permeation behavior in API X-70 pipeline steel using electrochemical permeation method. The effect of heat treatment was also considered. It was found that hydrogen diffusivity increased by annealing the X-70 and it was decreased by normalizing. The condition was reverse for hydrogen apparent solubility. Finally, it was concluded that change in hydrogen diffusivity can be attributed to changes in grain size due to heat treatment.

  3. Pitting Initiation and Propagation of X70 Pipeline Steel Exposed to Chloride-Containing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zixuan; Kan, Bo; Li, Jinxu; Su, Yanjing; Qiao, Lijie; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion-induced pitting initiation mechanisms in X70 steel were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), immersion and electrochemical polarization tests in chloride-containing ion solutions. There are three inclusion types in the X70 steel. Corrosion test results indicated that pitting corrosion resistance of type A inclusion < type C inclusion < type B inclusion, i.e., (Mn, Ca)S < matrix < (Al, Ca)O. SKPFM test results show that the type A inclusion exhibited both lower and higher potentials than the matrix, while the type B inclusion exhibited higher potential than the matrix. The corrosion test and the SKPFM potential test results are consistent. Potentiodynamic polarization results indicate that the type A and C are active inclusions, while the type B is an inactive inclusion. Three kinds of possible mechanisms of inclusion-induced pitting corrosion are established for the X70 steel. PMID:28902156

  4. Effect of different microstructural parameters on hydrogen induced cracking in an API X70 pipeline steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohtadi-Bonab, M. A.; Eskandari, M.; Karimdadashi, R.; Szpunar, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the surface and cross section of an as-received API X70 pipeline steel was studied by SEM and EDS techniques in order to categorize the shape and morphology of inclusions. Then, an electrochemical hydrogen charging using a mixed solution of 0.2 M sulfuric acid and 3 g/l ammonium thiocyanate has been utilized to create hydrogen cracks in X70 steel. After hydrogen charging experiments, the cross section of this steel has been accurately checked by SEM in order to find out hydrogen cracks. The region of hydrogen cracks was investigated by SEM and EBSD techniques to predict the role of different microstructural parameters involving hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) phenomenon. The results showed that inclusions were randomly distributed in the cross section of tested specimens. Moreover, different types of inclusions in as-received X70 steel were found. However, only inclusions which were hard, brittle and incoherent with the metal matrix, such as manganese sulfide and carbonitride precipitates, were recognized to be harmful to HIC phenomenon. Moreover, HIC cracks propagate dominantly in transgraular manner through differently oriented grains with no clear preferential trend. Moreover, a different type of HIC crack with about 15-20 degrees of deviation from the rolling direction was found and studied by EBSD technique and role of micro-texture parameters on HIC was discussed.

  5. Electrochemical Behavior and Stress Corrosion Sensitivity of X70 Steel Under Disbonded Coatings in Korla Soil Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hongchang; Wang, Luntao; Wang, Huiru; Zheng, Wenru; Zhang, Dawei; Du, Cuiwei

    2016-11-01

    The corrosion of X70 pipeline steel under a model disbonded coating was studied in a simulated solution of Korla soil by combining in situ electrochemical measurements at different locations in the crevice and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) sensitivity analyses in the corresponding simulated environments. The results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the corrosion product resistance R t and charge transfer resistance R ct of X70 steel first increased and then decreased with increasing distance from the opening of the crevice in the disbonded coating. Scanning electron micrographs showed that pitting in the crevice became more severe at deeper locations in the crevice. Slow strain rate tests showed that the lowest SCC sensitivity of X70 steel was found at 15 cm away from the opening, and the highest SCC sensitivity was at the end of the crevice.

  6. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Welded API X70 Pipeline Steel in Simulated Underground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Y.; Du, C. W.; Li, C.; Wang, F. M.; Li, X. G.

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of welded API X70 pipeline steel in simulated underground water using the slow strain rate test, fractographic characterization by scanning electron microscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. SCC susceptibility of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) is demonstrated to be dependent on two factors: the effect of the microstructure in the HAZ on electrochemical reactions and the effect of the mechanical property on SCC occurrence. Electrochemical experiments indicate that the microstructures in the HAZ, especially the softened microstructure, can significantly facilitate the processes of hydrogen evolution when cathodic potential is positive to -1050 mVSCE. However, when the cathodic potential is below -1050 mVSCE, the cathode current densities of different microstructures are close to one another and greatly increase because of the decrease of the applied potentials. The SCC behavior is consistent with the electrochemical results. Under -650 and -850 mVSCE, SCC is most likely to occur in the softened region, and under -1200 mVSCE, SCC occurs in both the softened and hardened regions.

  7. Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Grade X70 Steel Linepipe Produced by Non-conventional Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natividad, C.; García, R.; López, V. H.; Falcón, L. A.; Salazar, M.

    A nonconventional heat treatment in API X70 steel samples was carried out by heating the steel up to 1050 °C and holding for 30 min at this temperature. Subsequently, the samples were cooled in water and air. There has been recently a growing demand for higher-grade linepipes that can help to reduce the total cost of long linepipes. The application of high-strength linepipes such as API X70 and X80 grades has been increasing in recent years. The use of high-strength linepipe steels improves the efficiency of transportation by enabling large volumes under high internal pressure. Increasing yield strength and therefore thinner wall thickness enable the industry to reduce the costs of all components through the limitation of string weight. In this work, an API X70 has been developed through nonconventional heat treatment to create the suitable microstructure (acicular ferrite) which provides good toughness and sour service properties due to the bainite obtained in the microstructure. To assess the effect of the heat treatment, mechanical properties were evaluated. These results were related with the microstructures and precipitate distribution in the steel.

  8. Influence of crystallographic texture in X70 pipeline steels on toughness anisotropy and delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jabr, Haytham M.

    The effects of microstructure and crystallographic texture in four commercially-produced API X70 pipeline steels and their relation to planar anisotropy of toughness and delamination were evaluated. The experimental steels were processed through either a hot strip mill, a Steckel mill, or a compact strip mill. Different processing routes were selected to obtain plates with potential variations in the microstructure and anisotropic characteristics. Tensile and Charpy impact testing were used to evaluate the mechanical properties in three orientations: longitudinal (L), transverse (T) and diagonal (D) with respect to the rolling direction to evaluate mechanical property anisotropy. The yield and tensile strengths were higher in the T orientation and toughness was lower in the D orientation for all plates. Delamination was observed in some of the ductile fracture surfaces of the impact samples. To further study the splitting behavior and effects on impact toughness, a modified impact test (MCVN) specimen with side grooves was designed to intensify induced stresses parallel to the notch root and thus facilitate evaluation of delamination. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) were used to evaluate the grain size, microstructural constituents, and crystallographic texture to determine the factors leading to delamination and the anisotropy in toughness. The ferrite grain size is mainly responsible for the differences in DBTTs between the L and T orientations. The higher DBTT in the D orientation observed in pipeline steels is attributed to crystallographic texture. The higher DBTT in the D direction is due to the higher volume fraction of grains having their {100} planes parallel or close to the primary fracture plane for the D orientation. An equation based on a new "brittleness parameter," based on an assessment of grain orientations based on EBSD data, was developed to predict the changes in DBTTs with respect to sample

  9. Static Recrystallized Grain Size of Coarse-Grained Austenite in an API-X70 Pipeline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Qingyun; Li, Guiyan; Li, Dahang

    2013-12-01

    The effects of initial grain size and strain on the static recrystallized grain size of coarse-grained austenite in an API-X70 steel microalloyed with Nb, V, and Ti were investigated using a Gleeble-3800 thermomechanical simulator. The results indicate that the static recrystallized grain size of coarse-grained austenite decreases with decreasing initial grain size and increasing applied strain. The addition of microalloying elements can lead to a smaller initial grain size for hot deformation due to the grain growth inhibition during reheating, resulting in decreasing of static recrystallized grain size. Based on the experimental data, an equation for the static recrystallized grain size was derived using the least square method. The grain sizes calculated using this equation fit well with the measured ones compared with the equations for fine-grained austenite and for coarse-grained austenite of Nb-V microalloyed steel.

  10. Anodic Dissolution Behavior of the Crack Tip of X70 Pipeline Steel in Near-Neutral pH Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhongyu; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Zhiyong; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xin

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the anodic dissolution behavior of the fresh metal surface at crack tip of X70 steel in near-neutral pH environment was investigated using galvanic corrosion simulation method. The solution environment, strain, strain rate, hydrogen enrichment, and fresh metal surface at the crack tip were considered. Corrosion current of the specimen during fast stretching increased linearly with plastic strain. The increment and increase rate of the corrosion current during plastic deformation stage were dependent on the strain rate. Combining Faraday's law and crack tip strain rate equation, the crack growth rate (CGR) induced by the anodic dissolution of the fresh metal surface was calculated. Results show that CGR caused by anodic dissolution was roughly one order lower than that measured on the compact tensile specimen under cyclic load. This finding indicated that hydrogen embrittlement may play a dominate role in stress corrosion crack propagation of pipeline steels in near-neutral pH environment.

  11. Corrosion behavior of X-70 pipe steel in near-neutral pH solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, L.; Cheng, Y. F.

    2007-08-01

    The mechanism of near-neutral pH stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of natural gas pipelines has not been well-established since the first accident was found in the 1980s. In particular, the role of hydrogen in near-neutral pH SCC has remained unknown. In this work, cyclic voltammetry was used to comprehensively investigate the fundamentals of the electrochemical corrosion reactions occurring at the steel/solution interface in diluted, 5% CO 2/N 2-purged, near-neutral pH bicarbonate solutions. It is shown that there is no stable oxide film formed on the steel surface in near-neutral pH solution. The dissolution-based cracking mechanism does not apply for near-neutral pH SCC of pipelines. The formation of a metastable Fe(OH) 2 deposit layer shows a catalytic activity on hydrogen evolution reaction, indicating that a significant amount of hydrogen could be generated under near-neutral pH condition. The presence of corrosive anions in the soil electrolyte enhances both the anodic polarization of the steel and the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction, resulting in an increased hydrogen evolution rate. The introduction of oxygen could form a stable oxide film on the surface of steel, resulting in the loss of the surface catalytic effect on hydrogen evolution reaction. Thus, a hydrogen-based mechanism does not apply for SCC in the presence of oxygen.

  12. Homopolar pulse welding of API 5L carbon steel linepipe

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, P.; Carnes, R.; Harville, M.

    1994-12-31

    Homopolar pulse welding (HPW) is a resistance welding process being investigated as a method to rapidly join API 5L carbon steel linepipe. The target application for this investigation is deepwater offshore pipeline construction utilizing the J-lay method, which requires a rapid one-shot welding process for economic feasibility. HPW utilizes the high current, low-voltage pulse produced by a homopolar generator to rapidly resistance heat the interface between abutting workpieces, and follows that pulse with an upset action to produce a weld. A large number of controllable parameters affecting the quality of the resultant weld are present in the process. Three inch nominal diameter, schedule 160 API 5L X-52 pipe sections were welded in this series while controlling variations in generator discharge speed electrode location and upsetting parameters. Welding current voltage and temperature curves were recorded for the welds. Tensile and Charpy V-notch impact specimens were machined from each weld and tested. Weld cross-sections were macroscopically examined. By delaying the application of the forging action, the `white line` or decarburized zone commonly found in high frequency resistance or flash butt welds was eliminated. Weld tensile strength was found to be primarily dependent on generator discharge speed (heat input). Electrode distance from the weld interface was found to be the critical factor determining weld zone cooling rate. HPW parameters can be selected to produce welds without the `white line` or decarburized zone commonly found in high frequency resistance and flash butt welds. Full tensile strength welds are easily achieved providing two conditions are met: sufficient heat input is supplied and a nominal upsetting action is applied within a few seconds of the discharge current peak. Electrode location provides control over the weld zone cooling rate.

  13. Effects of Molybdenum and Vanadium Addition on Tensile and Charpy Impact Properties of API X70 Linepipe Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Min; Shin, Sang Yong; Lee, Hakcheol; Hwang, Byoungchul; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Nack J.

    2007-08-01

    This study is concerned with the effects of V and Mo addition on tensile and Charpy impact properties of API X70 linepipe steels. Twelve kinds of steel specimens were produced by varying V and Mo additions and rolling conditions. The addition of V and Mo promoted the formation of acicular ferrite (AF), banitic ferrite (BF), and martensite-austenite (MA) constituents, while suppressing the formation of polygonal ferrite (PF) or pearlite (P). The tensile test results indicated that the tensile strength of the specimens rolled in the two-phase region increased with the addition of V and Mo, while the yield strength did not vary much in these specimens except the water-cooled specimens, which showed the increased yield strength with addition of Mo. The tensile strength of specimens rolled in the single-phase region followed by water cooling increased with increasing V and Mo contents. The yield strength, however, did not vary much with increasing V content or with addition of Mo to the low-V alloy. In these specimens, a substantial increase in the strengths was achieved only when Mo was added to the high-V alloy. The specimens rolled in the single-phase region had higher upper-shelf energy (USE) and lower ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) than the specimens rolled in the two-phase region, because their microstructures were composed of AF and fine PF. According to the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis data, the effective grain size in AF was determined by crystallographic packets composed of a few fine grains having similar orientations. Thus, the decreased DBTT in the specimens rolled in the single-phase region could be explained by the decrease in the overall effective grain size due to the presence of AF having smaller effective grain size.

  14. Effect of pH Value on the Electrochemical and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of X70 Pipeline Steel in the Dilute Bicarbonate Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. Y.; Wang, L. W.; Ma, H. C.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.; Wang, X.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, effects of pH value on the electrochemical and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of X70 pipeline steel in the dilute bicarbonate solutions were investigated using electrochemical measurements, slow strain rate tensile tests and surface analysis techniques. Decrease of the solution pH from 6.8 to 6.0 promotes the anodic dissolution and cathodic reduction simultaneously. Further decrease of the pH value mainly accelerates the cathodic reduction of X70 pipeline steel. As a result, when the solution pH decreases form 6.8 to 5.5, SCC susceptibility decreases because of the enhancement of the anodic dissolution. When the solution pH decreases from 5.5 to 4.0, SCC susceptibility increases gradually because of the acceleration of cathodic reactions.

  15. Bauschinger effect on API 5L B and X56 steel plates under repeating bending load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Icho Y.; Korda, Akhmad A.

    2017-01-01

    During steel pipe fabrication, hot rolled coil steel will undergo coiling and uncoiling process, where the steel plate is bent repeatedly. When cyclic loading is imposed on steel, tensile and compressive stress will occur in it resulting in softening caused by Bauschinger effect. This research is focused on Bauschinger effect and cyclic loading during coiling and uncoiling process on API 5L B and API 5L X56 steel. Both types of steel were given repeated bend loading with variation in loading cycle and the curvature radius. The steel's response was then observed by using tensile testing, microhardness testing, and microstructure observation. A decrease in yield strength is observed during lower cycles and on smaller radii. After higher loading cycle, the yield strength of the steel was increased. Microhardness testing also reported similar results on the subsurface part of the steel where loading is at its highest.

  16. Fracture-Toughness Analysis in Transition-Temperature Region of Three American Petroleum Institute X70 and X80 Pipeline Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sang Yong; Woo, Kuk Je; Hwang, Byoungchul; Kim, Sangho; Lee, Sunghak

    2009-04-01

    The fracture toughness in the transition-temperature region of three American Petroleum Institute (API) X70 and X80 pipeline steels was analyzed in accordance with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E1921-05 standard test method. The elastic-plastic cleavage fracture toughness ( K Jc ) was determined by three-point bend tests, using precracked Charpy V-notch (PCVN) specimens; the measured K Jc values were then interpreted by the three-parameter Weibull distribution. The fracture-toughness test results indicated that the master curve and the 98 pct confidence curves explained the variation in the measured fracture toughness well. The reference temperatures obtained from the fracture-toughness test and index temperatures obtained from the Charpy impact test were lowest in the X70 steel rolled in the two-phase region, because this steel had smaller effective grains and the lowest volume fraction of hard phases. In this steel, few hard phases led to a higher resistance to cleavage crack initiation, and the smaller effective grain size led to a higher possibility of crack arrest, thereby resulting in the best overall fracture properties. Measured reference temperatures were then comparatively analyzed with the index temperatures obtained from the Charpy impact test, and the effects of microstructures on these temperatures were discussed.

  17. Characterization of HAZ of API X70 Microalloyed Steel Welded by Cold-Wire Tandem Submerged Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadijoo, Mohsen; Kenny, Stephen; Collins, Laurie; Henein, Hani; Ivey, Douglas G.

    2017-03-01

    High-strength low-carbon microalloyed steels may be adversely affected by the high-heat input and thermal cycle that they experience during tandem submerged arc welding. The heat-affected zone (HAZ), particularly the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ), i.e., the region adjacent to the fusion line, has been known to show lower fracture toughness compared with the rest of the steel. The deterioration in toughness of the CGHAZ is attributed to the formation of martensite-austenite (M-A) constituents, local brittle zones, and large prior austenite grains (PAG). In the present work, the influence of the addition of a cold wire at various wire feed rates in cold-wire tandem submerged arc welding, a recently developed welding process for pipeline manufacturing, on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the HAZ of a microalloyed steel has been studied. The cold wire moderates the heat input of welding by consuming the heat of the trail electrode. Macrostructural analysis showed a decrease in the CGHAZ size by addition of a cold wire. Microstructural evaluation, using both tint etching optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, indicated the formation of finer PAGs and less fraction of M-A constituents with refined morphology within the CGHAZ when the cold wire was fed at 25.4 cm/min. This resulted in an improvement in the HAZ impact fracture toughness. These improvements are attributed to lower actual heat introduced to the weldment and lower peak temperature in the CGHAZ by cold-wire addition. However, a faster feed rate of the cold wire at 76.2 cm/min adversely affected the toughness due to the formation of slender M-A constituents caused by the relatively faster cooling rate in the CGHAZ.

  18. Characterization of HAZ of API X70 Microalloyed Steel Welded by Cold-Wire Tandem Submerged Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadijoo, Mohsen; Kenny, Stephen; Collins, Laurie; Henein, Hani; Ivey, Douglas G.

    2017-05-01

    High-strength low-carbon microalloyed steels may be adversely affected by the high-heat input and thermal cycle that they experience during tandem submerged arc welding. The heat-affected zone (HAZ), particularly the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ), i.e., the region adjacent to the fusion line, has been known to show lower fracture toughness compared with the rest of the steel. The deterioration in toughness of the CGHAZ is attributed to the formation of martensite-austenite (M-A) constituents, local brittle zones, and large prior austenite grains (PAG). In the present work, the influence of the addition of a cold wire at various wire feed rates in cold-wire tandem submerged arc welding, a recently developed welding process for pipeline manufacturing, on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the HAZ of a microalloyed steel has been studied. The cold wire moderates the heat input of welding by consuming the heat of the trail electrode. Macrostructural analysis showed a decrease in the CGHAZ size by addition of a cold wire. Microstructural evaluation, using both tint etching optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, indicated the formation of finer PAGs and less fraction of M-A constituents with refined morphology within the CGHAZ when the cold wire was fed at 25.4 cm/min. This resulted in an improvement in the HAZ impact fracture toughness. These improvements are attributed to lower actual heat introduced to the weldment and lower peak temperature in the CGHAZ by cold-wire addition. However, a faster feed rate of the cold wire at 76.2 cm/min adversely affected the toughness due to the formation of slender M-A constituents caused by the relatively faster cooling rate in the CGHAZ.

  19. Research on Soft Reduction Amount Distribution to Eliminate Typical Inter-dendritic Crack in Continuous Casting Slab of X70 Pipeline Steel by Numerical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ke; Wang, Chang; Liu, Guo-liang; Ding, Ning; Sun, Qi-song; Tian, Zhi-hong

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the formation of one kind of typical inter-dendritic crack around triple point region in continuous casting(CC) slab during the operation of soft reduction, fully coupled 3D thermo-mechanical finite element models was developed, also plant trials were carried out in a domestic continuous casting machine. Three possible types of soft reduction amount distribution (SRAD) in the soft reduction region were analyzed. The relationship between the typical inter-dendritic cracks and soft reduction conditions is presented and demonstrated in production practice. Considering the critical strain of internal crack formation, a critical tolerance for the soft reduction amount distribution and related casing parameters have been proposed for better contribution of soft reduction to the internal quality of slabs. The typical inter-dendritic crack around the triple point region had been eliminated effectively through the application of proposed suggestions for continuous casting of X70 pipeline steel in industrial practice.

  20. Evolution of weld metal microstructure in shielded metal arc welding of X70 HSLA steel with cellulosic electrodes: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Ghomashchi, Reza Costin, Walter; Kurji, Rahim

    2015-09-15

    The microstructure of weld joint in X70 line pipe steel resulted from shielded metal arc welding with E6010 cellulosic electrodes is characterized using optical and electron microscopy. A range of ferritic morphologies have been identified ranging from polygonal inter- and intra-prior austenite grains allotriomorphic, idiomorphic ferrites to Widmanstätten, acicular and bainitic ferrites. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis using Image Quality (IQ) and Inverse Pole Figure (IPF) maps through superimposition of IQ and IPF maps and measurement of percentages of high and low angle grain boundaries was identified to assist in differentiation of acicular ferrite from Widmanstätten and bainitic ferrite morphologies. In addition two types of pearlitic structures were identified. There was no martensite detected in this weld structure. The morphology, size and chemistry of non-metallic inclusions are also discussed briefly. - Highlights: • Application of EBSD reveals orientation relationships in a range of phases for shielded metal arc welding of HSLA steel. • Nucleation sites of various ferrite morphologies identified • Formation of upper and lower bainite and their morphologies.

  1. The Effect of Chemical Composition on Microstructure and Properties of Intercritically Reheated Coarse-Grained Heat-Affected Zone in X70 Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhixiong; Kuzmikova, Lenka; Li, Huijun; Barbaro, Frank

    2013-12-01

    The current study investigates the effect of different levels of Ti, N, and Ti/N ratios on microstructure and properties in the intercritically reheated coarse-grained heat-affected zone (ICCGHAZ) of two-pass submerged arc welds in API 5L grade X70 pipe. Gleeble simulation was employed to reproduce the ICCGHAZ of actual welds. Hardness and Charpy V-notch (CVN) tests were performed on the simulated samples. The microstructure of simulated ICCGHAZ was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). LePera color etching technique was employed to identify and quantify the martensitic-austenitic (M-A) constituent. Results show that the simulated ICCGHAZ exhibited extremely low toughness, but in the studied range of Ti and N, there was no correlation with Ti/N ratio. The beneficial effect of near-stoichiometric Ti/N ratio observed in coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) did not translate to ICCGHAZ. This was because of the negative effect of the blocky M-A constituent formed on prior austenite grain boundaries.

  2. Influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise in API5L steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P.; Pérez-Benítez, J. A.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Caleyo, F.; Mehboob, N.; Grössinger, R.; Hallen, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work studies the influence of the maximum applied magnetic field on the angular dependence of the energy of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise signal in three different API5L pipeline steels. The results show that the shape of the angular dependence of the Magnetic Barkhausen Noise energy changes with the increase of the amplitude of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon is a consequence of the presence of unlike magnetization processes at different magnitudes of the applied magnetic field. The outcomes reveal the importance of controlling the value of the maximum applied field as parameter for the improvement of the MBN angular dependence measurements.

  3. Corrosion rate of API 5L Gr. X60 multipurpose steel pipeline under combined effect of water and crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Jian; Wang, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Multipurpose pipeline is often seriously corroded during its service life, and the phenomenon is more prominent once the transportation medium is changed. Electrochemical polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy of the API 5L Gr. X60 steel pipeline's corrosion process in sedimentary water with different ion types and their concentrations have been studied in this work. The results showed that the corrosion rates were found to be 0.00418 and 0.00232 mm/a for pure water and crude oil, respectively. However, for the mixtures of water and crude oil (with water content increased from 0.2 vol% to 10 vol%), the corrosion rate increased consistently and reached a maximum value of 0.15557 mm/a for 10 vol% water in crude oil. The effect of the concentration of various ions, namely, chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate in (oil/water) mixtures on the corrosion rate was characterized by weight-loss method. The results showed that with increasing the ions' concentrations, the corresponding exchange current density increased significantly. The results were further supported by the observations of corrosion morphology using scanning electron microscopy and are helpful in devising guidelines which would help in reducing corrosion in multipurpose transport pipelines involving a change of transported medium during their service life.

  4. Effect of artificial aging on the microstructure of weldment on API 5L X-52 steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas-Arista, B. . E-mail: bvarista26@yahoo.com.mx; Hallen, J.M. . E-mail: j_hallen@yahoo.com; Albiter, A. . E-mail: aalbiter@imp.mx

    2007-08-15

    The effects of artificial aging on the microstructure in the weldment of an API 5L X-52 steel pipe were studied. Aging was performed at 250 deg. C over a period of 1000 h and values were recorded at every 100 h intervals. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed precipitation strengthening from nearly circular Nb-C containing nanoparticles for the base metal and heat affected zone, and cementite for the weld metal. The largest amount of precipitation in the weldment zone was obtained at 500 h, due to peak-aging, which showed the highest particle density. The weld metal was more susceptible to aging, exhibiting the highest increase in precipitation at 500 h, followed by the heat affected zone. After 500 h, the deterioration in the microstructure was caused by the coarsening of particles due to over-aging. The base metal showed the larger increment in particle size after 900 h of aging accompanied by a bigger decrease in fine particles than in the weld metal.

  5. The Effect of Temperature and Acid Gas Loading on Corrosion Behavior of API 5L X52 Carbon Steel in Amine Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, M.; Lalehparvar, M. M.; Ghassemi, A.

    2016-05-01

    The effect of temperature and H2S concentration on amine corrosion of API 5L X52 carbon steel in a CO2-saturated 25 wt.% diethanolamine solution was investigated via electrochemical techniques. It was found that increase in temperature from 25 to 80 °C resulted in severe increase in corrosion rate from 0.88 to 16.24 mpy due to increase in degradation rate of amine. Also, it was concluded that increase in H2S concentration led to increase in corrosion rate because of formation of more heat stable amine salts. The effect of temperature on corrosion rate was more significant than acid gas loading.

  6. Utilization of nondestructive electrochemical techniques in characterizing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of API-5L X65 carbon linepipe steel: Laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Abbas, F.; Kakpovbia, A.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.; Spear, J.

    2012-05-01

    Nondestructive electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) corrosion of API 5L X65 linepipe steel. These techniques included Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), open circuit potential (OCP) and linear polarization resistance (Rp). OCP trend showed anodic polarization of 67 mV between the biotic media with reference to abiotic media. These shifts were attributed to the cathodic side reactions produced by the metabolic activity of SRB. Through circuit modeling, EIS results were used to interpret the real time interactions between the electrode, biofilm and solution interfaces.

  7. Effect of Annealing Treatments on the Microstructure and Texture Development in API 5L X60 Microalloyed Pipeline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joodaki, R.; Alavi Zaree, S. R.; Gheisari, Kh.; Eskandari, M.

    2017-05-01

    Effect of annealing treatments at 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 °C on the microstructure, texture, grain boundary characteristic and recrystallization fraction of Nb-microalloyed X60 steel is evaluated by using x-ray diffraction and EBSD techniques. The results indicate that bimodal as-received microstructure is changed to a homogeneous equiaxed grain structure above annealing at 1000 °C. Macro-texture investigations depict that increasing annealing temperature results in considerable variation of texture intensity, especially at 1200 °C. Maximum intensity corresponds to {001}<310>, Goss, copper texture components as well as near γ-fiber at 1200 °C. Recrystallization analysis shows that volume fraction of recrystallization noticeably is increased by annealing temperature at 1200 °C. Recrystallized grains are mainly oriented along γ-fiber, especially close to {111}<112> texture component. Moreover, coincidence site lattice (CSL) analysis shows that the effect of annealing temperature on the volume fraction of Σ3 boundary is negligible.

  8. F-5-L Boat Seaplane : performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, W S

    1922-01-01

    Performance characteristics for the F-5-L Boat Seaplane are given. Characteristic curves for the RAF-6 airfoil and the F-5-L wings, parasite resistance and velocity data, engine and propeller characteristics, effective and maximum horsepower, and cruising performance are discussed.

  9. Marine Structural Steel Toughness Data Bank. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-28

    A A588 GR A K11430 1-12 A588 Gr B A588 Gr B K12043 1-12 A588 Gr C A588 Gr C K11538 1-12 A537-A A537 Gr A K02400 1-13 API 5L Gr X60 1-14 A656-70 A656...steel A710 and HSLA 80 containing primarily Cu, Ni, Cr and Mo; " Medium to high strength low alloy steels A537, CG-537, A656, A737, ABS-EH36, and API ... API 5L Gr X70 1-5 HSLA 80 1-6 ABS-EH36 A131 Gr EH36 K11852 1-7 A514E A514 Gr E K21604 1-8 A36 A36 1-9 BS 4360 Gr 50D 1-10 HY100 -K32045 1-11 A588-81 Gr

  10. Effect of Hyperbaric Chamber Gas on Transformation Texture of the API-X70 Pipeline Weld Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, Amin S.; Østby, Erling; Akselsen, Odd M.

    2012-09-01

    The development of the texture components in the X70 weld metal under several shielding environments was investigated using the electron-backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) techniques. A new method for assigning the reference direction (RD), transverse direction (TD), and normal direction (ND) was introduced based on the morphological orientation of the grains. The analyses showed that different shielding gases affect the weld metal texture and microstructure. The shielding environment with pure argon shows the highest orientational pole density values and dominant acicular ferrite microstructure. It was observed that the distribution of misorientation angle and special coincidence site lattice (CSL) grain boundaries play significant roles in determining the tensile characteristics of the weld samples. Moreover, the bainite lattice orientation was found dependent on the directional heat flow unlike the other detected constituents.

  11. Effects of Heat-Affected Zone Microstructure on Fracture Toughness of Two X70 Pipe Girth Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong-Yeob; Amirkhiz, Babak Shalchi; Gravel, Jean-Philippe; Wang, Yiyu; Li, Leijun; Zavadil, Renata; Liang, Jie; Liu, Pei; He, Anqiang; Arafin, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    In the previous study, unstable brittle crack extensions were observed during ductile tearing from all the single-edge notched bend [SE(B)] specimens with an initial crack placed in heat-affected zone (HAZ), machined from one of the two studied X70 pipe girth welds, performed at 258 K (-15 °C). Thus their microstructures and properties have been investigated using optical microscopy, microhardness measurement, and advanced scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy so as to (1) characterize their metallographic properties including crystallographic texture and (2) correlate them with the unstable brittle crack occurrence and propagation. The results suggest that HAZ softening—strength loss—is a major factor responsible for the cleavage occurrence in the given HAZ specimens as it could induce a large local strain concentration by limiting plasticity in base metal when a ductile crack crosses from the HAZ to the base metal. The HAZ softening seems to be associated with the disappearance of pearlite packets in the HAZ region, which presumably occurred during welding, for the given material. High angle grain boundaries in the fine-grained HAZ appear to affect the direction of cleavage propagation at the point of cleavage initiation ( i.e., pop-in).

  12. Elevated temperature mechanical properties of line pipe steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Taylor Roth

    The effects of test temperature on the tensile properties of four line pipe steels were evaluated. The four materials include a ferrite-pearlite line pipe steel with a yield strength specification of 359 MPa (52 ksi) and three 485 MPa (70 ksi) yield strength acicular ferrite line pipe steels. Deformation behavior, ductility, strength, strain hardening rate, strain rate sensitivity, and fracture behavior were characterized at room temperature and in the temperature range of 200--350 °C, the potential operating range for steels used in oil production by the steam assisted gravity drainage process. Elevated temperature tensile testing was conducted on commercially produced as-received plates at engineering strain rates of 1.67 x 10 -4, 8.33 x 10-4, and 1.67 x 10-3 s-1. The acicular ferrite (X70) line pipe steels were also tested at elevated temperatures after aging at 200, 275, and 350 °C for 100 h under a tensile load of 419 MPa. The presence of serrated yielding depended on temperature and strain rate, and the upper bound of the temperature range where serrated yielding was observed was independent of microstructure between the ferrite-pearlite (X52) steel and the X70 steels. Serrated yielding was observed at intermediate temperatures and continuous plastic deformation was observed at room temperature and high temperatures. All steels exhibited a minimum in ductility as a function of temperature at testing conditions where serrated yielding was observed. At the higher temperatures (>275 °C) the X52 steel exhibited an increase in ductility with an increase in temperature and the X70 steels exhibited a maximum in ductility as a function of temperature. All steels exhibited a maximum in flow strength and average strain hardening rate as a function of temperature. The X52 steel exhibited maxima in flow strength and average strain hardening rate at lower temperatures than observed for the X70 steels. For all steels, the temperature where the maximum in both flow

  13. Analysis of High Temperature Ductility of Pipeline Steel and Application to ASP® Production Line in Angang Steel Co. Ltd.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yong; Zhang, Xiang-chun; Li, Zhen; Wei, Yuan; Wen, Tie-guang

    In this study, Gleeble1500 thermodynamic simulator was applied to test high temperature ductility characteristics of X70 pipeline steel produced by continuous casters in ASP® production line of Angang Steel Co. Ltd.. Furthermore, the phase structure, fractography and fracture mechanism were analyzed. In production practice, the continuous casting process simulation software which was developed according to this caster was used to calculate temperature field and solid phase fraction. Based on the test results of pipeline steel, the cooling algorithm was optimized for guaranteeing surface quality of pipeline steel slab.

  14. The influence of macrofouling on the corrosion behaviour of API 5L X65 carbon steel.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Luciana V R; Coutinho, Ricardo; Cavalcanti, Eduardo H S; Benchimol, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Seawater is a complex corrosive system, and biofouling is one of the factors that influences corrosion processes. The behaviour of corrosion associated with the development of macrofouling was investigated during the first 6 months of the successional process. Three treatments were compared: the 'Control' treatment (absence of macrofouling); 'Community' treatment, and 'Barnacle' treatment, where other macroorganisms were excluded. In the Community treatment, the dominant organisms were filamentous macroalgae (23.73%), barnacles (17.51%), hydroids (16.96%) and encrusting bryozoans (9.58%). In the Barnacle treatment, the cover varied between 39.38% and 62.50%. The corrosion potential ranged from -665.75 to -517.50 mV(Ag/AgC l((KCl))) and could not be associated with fouling development. The highest corrosion rate in the control suggests that macrofouling provides a protection against mass loss. The highest percentage of localised attacks was found in the Community treatment. This may indicate that not only barnacles, but also other organisms induce localised corrosion.

  15. Effects of Ultra Fast Cooling on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Pipeline Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yong; Li, Qun; Wang, Zhao-dong; Wang, Guo-dong

    2015-09-01

    X70 (steel A) and X80 (steel B) pipeline steels were fabricated by ultra fast cooling (UFC). UFC processing improves not only ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), yield ratio (YS/UTS), and total elongation of both steels, but also their Charpy absorbed energy ( A K) as well. The microstructures of both steels were all composed of quasi polygonal, acicular ferrite (AF), and granular bainite. MA islands (the mixtures of brittle martensite and residual austenite) are more finely dispersed in steel B, and the amount of AF in steel B is much more than that in steel A. The strength of steel B is higher than that of steel A. This is mainly attributed to the effect of the ferrite grain refinement which is resulted from UFC processing. The finely dispersed MA islands not only provide dispersion strengthening, but also reduce loss of impact properties to pipeline steels. UFC produces low-temperature transformation microstructures containing larger amounts of AFs. The presence of AF is a crucial factor in achieving desired mechanical properties for both steels. It is suggested that the toughness of the experimental steel increases with increasing the amount of AF.

  16. Structural basis for acyl-group discrimination by human Gcn5L2

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Alison E.; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Gcn5 is a conserved acetyltransferase that regulates transcription by acetylating the N-terminal tails of histones. Motivated by recent studies identifying a chemically diverse array of lysine acyl modifications in vivo, the acyl-chain specificity of the acetyltransferase human Gcn5 (Gcn5L2) was examined. Whereas Gcn5L2 robustly catalyzes lysine acetylation, the acyltransferase activity of Gcn5L2 becomes progressively weaker with increasing acyl-chain length. To understand how Gcn5 discriminates between different acyl-CoA molecules, structures of the catalytic domain of human Gcn5L2 bound to propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA were determined. Although the active site of Gcn5L2 can accommodate propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA without major structural rearrangements, butyryl-CoA adopts a conformation incompatible with catalysis that obstructs the path of the incoming lysine residue and acts as a competitive inhibitor of Gcn5L2 versus acetyl-CoA. These structures demonstrate how Gcn5L2 discriminates between acyl-chain donors and explain why Gcn5L2 has weak activity for acyl moieties that are larger than an acetyl group. PMID:27377381

  17. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 19 February 2009 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 ii SUMMARY Five high strength and four stainless steels have been studied, identifying their

  18. Prp19 Arrests Cell Cycle via Cdc5L in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Renzheng; Xue, Ruyi; Qu, Di; Yin, Jie; Shen, Xi-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19) is involved in many cellular events including pre-mRNA processing and DNA damage response. Recently, it has been identified as a candidate oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of Prp19 in tumor biology is still elusive. Here, we reported that Prp19 arrested cell cycle in HCC cells via regulating G2/M transition. Mechanistic insights revealed that silencing Prp19 inhibited the expression of cell division cycle 5-like (Cdc5L) via repressing the translation of Cdc5L mRNA and facilitating lysosome-mediated degradation of Cdc5L in HCC cells. Furthermore, we found that silencing Prp19 induced cell cycle arrest could be partially resumed by overexpressing Cdc5L. This work implied that Prp19 participated in mitotic progression and thus could be a promising therapeutic target of HCC. PMID:28387715

  19. Bax-PGAM5L-Drp1 complex is required for intrinsic apoptosis execution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjuan; Jing, Linlin; Wang, Quanshi; Lin, Chung-Chih; Chen, Xiaoting; Diao, Jianxin; Liu, Yuanliang; Sun, Xuegang

    2015-10-06

    Intrinsic apoptosis eliminates cells with damaged DNA and cells with dysregulated expression of oncogene. PGAM5, a member of the phosphoglycerate mutase family, has two splicing variants: PGAM5L (the long form) and PGAM5S (the short form). It has been well established that PGAM5 is at the convergent point of multiple necrosis pathways. However, the role of PGAM5 in intrinsic apoptosis is still controversial. Here we report that the PGAM5L, but not PGAM5S is a prerequisite for the activation of Bax and dephosphorylation of Drp1 in arenobufagin and staurosporine induced intrinsic apoptosis. Knockdown of PGAM5L inhibits the translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and reduces mitochondrial fission. The interaction between PGAM5L and Drp1 was observed in both arenobufagin and staurosporine treated HCT116 cells, but not in HCT116 Bax(-/-) cells. Bax transfection rescues the formation of the triplex in both arenobufagin and staurosporine stimulated HCT116 Bax(-/-) cells. Arenobufagin shows remarkable anti-cancer effects both in orthotropic and heterotropic CRC models and demonstrates less toxic effects as compared with that of cisplatin. Bax-PGAM5L-Drp1 complex is detected in arenobufagin and staurosporine treated CRC cells in vitro and in arenobufagin and cisplatin treated tumor in vivo as well. In summary, our results demonstrate that Bax-PGAM5L-Drp1 complex is required for intrinsic apoptosis execution.

  20. Bax-PGAM5L-Drp1 complex is required for intrinsic apoptosis execution

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Chen, Xiaoting; Diao, Jianxin; Liu, Yuanliang; Sun, Xuegang

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic apoptosis eliminates cells with damaged DNA and cells with dysregulated expression of oncogene. PGAM5, a member of the phosphoglycerate mutase family, has two splicing variants: PGAM5L (the long form) and PGAM5S (the short form). It has been well established that PGAM5 is at the convergent point of multiple necrosis pathways. However, the role of PGAM5 in intrinsic apoptosis is still controversial. Here we report that the PGAM5L, but not PGAM5S is a prerequisite for the activation of Bax and dephosphorylation of Drp1 in arenobufagin and staurosporine induced intrinsic apoptosis. Knockdown of PGAM5L inhibits the translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and reduces mitochondrial fission. The interaction between PGAM5L and Drp1 was observed in both arenobufagin and staurosporine treated HCT116 cells, but not in HCT116 Bax−/− cells. Bax transfection rescues the formation of the triplex in both arenobufagin and staurosporine stimulated HCT116 Bax−/− cells. Arenobufagin shows remarkable anti-cancer effects both in orthotropic and heterotropic CRC models and demonstrates less toxic effects as compared with that of cisplatin. Bax-PGAM5L-Drp1 complex is detected in arenobufagin and staurosporine treated CRC cells in vitro and in arenobufagin and cisplatin treated tumor in vivo as well. In summary, our results demonstrate that Bax-PGAM5L-Drp1 complex is required for intrinsic apoptosis execution. PMID:26356820

  1. Mapping Sri Lankan EQ-5D-3L to EQ-5D-5L Value Sets.

    PubMed

    Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Chen, Gang; Byrnes, Josh; Scuffham, Paul A

    2017-05-01

    Quality-adjusted life-years are the common outcome measure in contemporary economic evaluations in health care. Due to the limitations of the sensitivity of the EQ-5D-3L in specific disease conditions, the EuroQoL group has developed a new EQ-5D-5L classification system with 3,125 health states. This study estimated the Sri Lankan value set for the EQ-5D-5L using a crosswalk methodology. The EuroQoL group had developed a crosswalk methods to obtain interim value set for the EQ-5D-5L health states using available EQ-5D-3L values. This was achieved by mapping EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L ratings through cross tabulations by each dimension level. Using above official EuroQoL crosswalk probabilities, an interim value set for the Sri Lankan EQ-5D-5L health states were generated based upon the Sri Lankan EQ-5D-3L value set (which was estimated using time trade-off method: n= 780). Comparison were conducted between the Sri Lankan EQ-5D-5L values and other countries. The Sri Lankan EQ-5D-5L recorded utility value of -0.73 for the worst health state and 0.85 for a best possible utility for a health state other than the full health. The UK (mean= 0.4) and Japanese (mean = 0.45) EQ-5D-5L mean utility values were higher than the Sri Lankan values (mean = 0.07). However, Thailand median values (0.21) were closer to the Sri Lankan median values (0.14) than the UK (0.41) or Japan (0.45). This study produced the Sri Lankan EQ-5D-5L interim value set using crosswalk methods. Currently, this is the only EQ-5D-5L value set available for the South Asian region. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. CD5L/AIM regulates lipid biosythesis and restrains Th17 cell pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Yosef, Nir; Gaublomme, Jellert; Wu, Chuan; Lee, Youjin; Clish, Clary B.; Kaminski, Jim; Xiao, Sheng; Horste, Gerd Meyer Zu; Pawlak, Mathias; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Joller, Nicole; Karwacz, Katarzyna; Zhu, Chen; Ordovas-Montanes, Maria; Madi, Asaf; Wortman, Ivo; Miyazaki, Toru; Sobel, Raymond A.; Park, Hongkun; Regev, Aviv; Kuchroo, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Th17 cells play a critical role in host defense against extracellular pathogens and tissue homeostasis, but can induce autoimmunity. The mechanisms implicated in balancing ‘pathogenic’ and ‘non-pathogenic’ Th17 cell states remain largely unknown. We used single-cell RNA-seq to identify CD5L/AIM as a regulator expressed in ‘non-pathogenic’ but not in ‘pathogenic’ Th17 cells. Although CD5L does not affect Th17 differentiation, it is a functional switch that regulates the pathogenicity of Th17 cells. Loss of CD5L converts ‘non-pathogenic’ Th17 cells into ‘pathogenic’ cells that induce autoimmunity. CD5L mediates this effect by modulating the intracellular lipidome, altering fatty acid composition, and restricting cholesterol biosynthesis, and thus ligand availability for Rorγt, the master transcription factor of Th17 cells. Our study identifies CD5L as a critical regulator of the Th17 cell functional state and highlights the importance of lipid metabolism in balancing immune protection and disease induced by T cells. PMID:26607793

  3. Corrosion of two oxide-covered steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz-Tonhauser, Melissa

    Determining the corrosive response of pipeline steel under laboratory immersion conditions can be difficult when an adequate reproduction of feild conditions is required. The difficulty is multiplied when testing an oxide-covered surface. Corrosion standards do not adequately cover testing oxide-covered steels. Methodology is developed to test the corrosive response of oxide-covered steels, especially pre-immersion surface oxides such as millscale. The methodology focuses on open-circuit potential monitoring, polarization, mass loss and surface examination. Procedures are recommended for specimen preparation, equipment to handle hostile media, test sequencing, specimen cleaning, and preparation for post-immersion examination. Long standing belief's regarding the interaction of millscale in the corrosive response of a steel originating from pre-1950's steel immersed in sea water that have propagated are: the presence of millscale causes pitting and scatter in corrosive testing results or is negligible due to quick removal. Results from A36 and X70 steels in dearated high chloride ion containing environments indicate that an adjustment of historical industry perspectives of millscale is required. Millscale does not cause pitting. Pitting is material/environment dependent. A material/environment that is prone to pitting will, at least initially, experience a concentration of the corrosion at breaks in the millscale. The presence of millscale does not ensure pitting will occur. Scatter in the corrosion parameters determined from mass loss and polarizations are not related to the presence or absence of millscale but due to a combination of testing methodology and material/environment. Removal of millscale is material/environment dependent requiring very acidic conditions to negate the interaction in the materials corrosive response. The presence of millscale can be enhanced by oxide growth during immersion.

  4. Stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the stainless steels for high-strength, heat-resistant or corrosion-resistant applications. It is a treatment of the properties and selection of stainless steels. Up-to-date information covers physical, mechanical and chemical properties of all stainless grades, including the new ferritic and duplex grades. The book covers physical metallurgy as well as processing and service characteristics, including service in corrosive environments. It deals with wrought and cast stainless steels and reviews fabrication from cold-forming to powder metallurgy.

  5. Large scale validation of the M5L lung CAD on heterogeneous CT datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Torres, E. E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it; Fiorina, E.; Pennazio, F.; Peroni, C.; Saletta, M.; Cerello, P. E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it; Camarlinghi, N.; Fantacci, M. E.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: M5L, a fully automated computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection and segmentation of lung nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT), is presented and validated on several image datasets. Methods: M5L is the combination of two independent subsystems, based on the Channeler Ant Model as a segmentation tool [lung channeler ant model (lungCAM)] and on the voxel-based neural approach. The lungCAM was upgraded with a scan equalization module and a new procedure to recover the nodules connected to other lung structures; its classification module, which makes use of a feed-forward neural network, is based of a small number of features (13), so as to minimize the risk of lacking generalization, which could be possible given the large difference between the size of the training and testing datasets, which contain 94 and 1019 CTs, respectively. The lungCAM (standalone) and M5L (combined) performance was extensively tested on 1043 CT scans from three independent datasets, including a detailed analysis of the full Lung Image Database Consortium/Image Database Resource Initiative database, which is not yet found in literature. Results: The lungCAM and M5L performance is consistent across the databases, with a sensitivity of about 70% and 80%, respectively, at eight false positive findings per scan, despite the variable annotation criteria and acquisition and reconstruction conditions. A reduced sensitivity is found for subtle nodules and ground glass opacities (GGO) structures. A comparison with other CAD systems is also presented. Conclusions: The M5L performance on a large and heterogeneous dataset is stable and satisfactory, although the development of a dedicated module for GGOs detection could further improve it, as well as an iterative optimization of the training procedure. The main aim of the present study was accomplished: M5L results do not deteriorate when increasing the dataset size, making it a candidate for supporting radiologists on large

  6. Application of EQ-5D-5L questionnaire in patients suffering from urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gordillo, M A; Collado-Mateo, D; Olivares, P R; Adsuar, J C

    2016-09-01

    Urinary incontinence is associated with reduced quality of life and given the high prevalence of people with this condition, it could be useful to know the impact of having urinary incontinence on physical, psychological and social aspects. The Spanish value set of EQ-5D was used to assign single scores to the EQ-5D-5L health states. EQ-5D-5L is a health-related quality of life questionnaire, which allows assessing health status. The aim of this study was to provide normative values of EQ-5D-5L in a population sample with urinary incontinence. Cross-sectional study. A total of 965 people with urinary incontinence (297 men and 668 women) were included in this study. EQ-5D-5L index, VAS and health status are showed in the current study considering gender, age group, region, marital status, smoking status, net monthly incomes of household and educational level. Higher prevalence was observed in women (69.22%) compared with men (30.78%). Mean (SD) EQ-5D-5L utility index and VAS score were 0.58 (0.40) and 53.91 (22.16), respectively, for overall population. The 16.1% (155 people) reported perfect health status (11111). The utility equivalent to set values 55555 was not reported by anyone. This study provides normative values of EQ-5D-5L in a Spanish population sample with urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Large scale validation of the M5L lung CAD on heterogeneous CT datasets.

    PubMed

    Torres, E Lopez; Fiorina, E; Pennazio, F; Peroni, C; Saletta, M; Camarlinghi, N; Fantacci, M E; Cerello, P

    2015-04-01

    M5L, a fully automated computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection and segmentation of lung nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT), is presented and validated on several image datasets. M5L is the combination of two independent subsystems, based on the Channeler Ant Model as a segmentation tool [lung channeler ant model (lungCAM)] and on the voxel-based neural approach. The lungCAM was upgraded with a scan equalization module and a new procedure to recover the nodules connected to other lung structures; its classification module, which makes use of a feed-forward neural network, is based of a small number of features (13), so as to minimize the risk of lacking generalization, which could be possible given the large difference between the size of the training and testing datasets, which contain 94 and 1019 CTs, respectively. The lungCAM (standalone) and M5L (combined) performance was extensively tested on 1043 CT scans from three independent datasets, including a detailed analysis of the full Lung Image Database Consortium/Image Database Resource Initiative database, which is not yet found in literature. The lungCAM and M5L performance is consistent across the databases, with a sensitivity of about 70% and 80%, respectively, at eight false positive findings per scan, despite the variable annotation criteria and acquisition and reconstruction conditions. A reduced sensitivity is found for subtle nodules and ground glass opacities (GGO) structures. A comparison with other CAD systems is also presented. The M5L performance on a large and heterogeneous dataset is stable and satisfactory, although the development of a dedicated module for GGOs detection could further improve it, as well as an iterative optimization of the training procedure. The main aim of the present study was accomplished: M5L results do not deteriorate when increasing the dataset size, making it a candidate for supporting radiologists on large scale screenings and clinical programs.

  8. Structure, Stability, and Reorganization of 0.5 L0 Topography in Block Copolymer Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Maher, Michael J; Self, Jeffrey L; Stasiak, Pawel; Blachut, Gregory; Ellison, Christopher J; Matsen, Mark W; Bates, Christopher M; Willson, C Grant

    2016-11-22

    The structure, stability, and reorganization of lamella-forming block copolymer thin film surface topography ("islands" and "holes") were studied under boundary conditions driving the formation of 0.5 L0 thick structures at short thermal annealing times. Self-consistent field theory predicts that the presence of one perfectly neutral surface renders 0.5 L0 topography thermodynamically stable relative to 1 L0 thick features, in agreement with previous experimental observations. The calculated through-film structures match cross-sectional scanning electron micrographs, collectively demonstrating the pinning of edge dislocations at the neutral surface. Remarkably, near-neutral surface compositions exhibit 0.5 L0 topography metastability upon extended thermal treatment, slowly transitioning to 1 L0 islands or holes as evidenced by optical and atomic force microscopy. Surface restructuring is rationalized by invoking commensurability effects imposed by slightly preferential surfaces. The results described herein clarify the impact of interfacial interactions on block copolymer self-assembly and solidify an understanding of 0.5 L0 topography, which is frequently used to determine neutral surface compositions of considerable importance to contemporary technological applications.

  9. Mapping and direct valuation: do they give equivalent EQ-5D-5L index scores?

    PubMed

    Luo, Nan; Cheung, Yin Bun; Ng, Raymond; Lee, Chun Fan

    2015-10-05

    Utility values of health states defined by health-related quality of life instruments can be derived from either direct valuation ('valuation-derived') or mapping ('mapping-derived'). This study aimed to compare the utility-based EQ-5D-5L index scores derived from the two approaches as a means to validating the mapping function developed by van Hout et al for the EQ-5D-5L instrument. This was an observational study of 269 breast cancer patients whose EQ-5D-5L index scores were derived from both methods. For comparing discriminatory ability and responsiveness to change, multivariable regression models were used to estimate the effect sizes of various health indicators on the index scores. Agreement and test-retest reliability were examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Whenever appropriate, the 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) were compared to predefined equivalence margins. The mean difference in and ICC between the valuation- and mapping-derived EQ-5D-5L index scores were 0.015 (90% CI = 0.006 to 0.024) and 0.915, respectively. Discriminatory ability and responsiveness of the two indices were equivalent in 13 of 15 regression analyses. However, the mapping-derived index score was lower than the valuation-derived index score in patients experiencing extreme health problems, and the test-retest reliability of the former was lower than the latter, for example, their ICCs differed by 0.121 (90% CI = 0.051 to 0.198) in patients who reported no change in performance status in the follow-up survey. This study provided the first evidence supporting the validity of the mapping function for converting EQ-5D-5L profile data into a utility-based index score.

  10. Large scale validation of the M5L lung CAD on heterogeneous CT datasets

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Torres, E.; Fiorina, E.; Pennazio, F.; Peroni, C.; Saletta, M.; Camarlinghi, N.; Fantacci, M. E.; Cerello, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: M5L, a fully automated computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection and segmentation of lung nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT), is presented and validated on several image datasets. Methods: M5L is the combination of two independent subsystems, based on the Channeler Ant Model as a segmentation tool [lung channeler ant model (lungCAM)] and on the voxel-based neural approach. The lungCAM was upgraded with a scan equalization module and a new procedure to recover the nodules connected to other lung structures; its classification module, which makes use of a feed-forward neural network, is based of a small number of features (13), so as to minimize the risk of lacking generalization, which could be possible given the large difference between the size of the training and testing datasets, which contain 94 and 1019 CTs, respectively. The lungCAM (standalone) and M5L (combined) performance was extensively tested on 1043 CT scans from three independent datasets, including a detailed analysis of the full Lung Image Database Consortium/Image Database Resource Initiative database, which is not yet found in literature. Results: The lungCAM and M5L performance is consistent across the databases, with a sensitivity of about 70% and 80%, respectively, at eight false positive findings per scan, despite the variable annotation criteria and acquisition and reconstruction conditions. A reduced sensitivity is found for subtle nodules and ground glass opacities (GGO) structures. A comparison with other CAD systems is also presented. Conclusions: The M5L performance on a large and heterogeneous dataset is stable and satisfactory, although the development of a dedicated module for GGOs detection could further improve it, as well as an iterative optimization of the training procedure. The main aim of the present study was accomplished: M5L results do not deteriorate when increasing the dataset size, making it a candidate for supporting radiologists on large

  11. Effect of Celluclast 1.5L on the Physicochemical Characterization of Gold Kiwifruit Pectin

    PubMed Central

    Yuliarti, Oni; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K. T.; Mawson, John A.; Brennan, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Celluclast 1.5L concentration on the physicochemical characterization of gold kiwifruit pectin was evaluated. Varying the enzyme concentration affected the pectin yield and pectin physicochemical properties. The viscosity of extracted pectin was largely dependent on the enzyme concentration. Celluclast 1.5L with medium concentration exhibited the highest viscosity. Varying the enzyme concentration also influenced the molecular weight distribution. High molecular weight (Mw) pectin (1.65 × 106 g/mol) was obtained when the medium concentration was used. Overall, the study clearly reflects the importance of taking into consideration the amount of cellulytic enzyme added in order to determine the final quality of pectin. PMID:22072895

  12. Sample size determination for EQ-5D-5L value set studies.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Mihir; Xu, Ying; Luo, Nan; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2017-08-19

    The EuroQol 5-Dimension (EQ-5D) is a widely used health status instrument for cost-utility analysis of healthcare interventions. Recently, its 5-Level version (EQ-5D-5L) and a protocol for conducting valuation of its health states were developed. We propose four approaches for estimating the sample size for EQ-5D-5L valuation according to the standardized procedures of the protocol. The first approach is for estimating mean health state utility values with a desired precision level using a regression model. The second approach, empirical in nature, determines a sample size based on mean absolute error in predicting health state values using a large-scale reference study. The last two approaches are for assessing the significance of regression coefficients of health state descriptors and to estimate the regression coefficients with a desired precision for predicting health state utility values. Using data from a Singaporean study, we estimated parameters that are useful for sample size determination, including the design effect. Each of the approaches was illustrated with examples and pragmatic recommendations were provided. Capitalizing on the EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol, we proposed four sample size estimation approaches which can help to decide an appropriate sample size for a value set study.

  13. NORMATIVE VALUES OF EQ-5D-5L FOR DIABETES PATIENTS FROM SPAIN.

    PubMed

    Collado Mateo, Daniel; García Gordillo, Miguel A; Olivares, Pedro R; Adsuar, José C

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la diabetes es una enfermedad metabólica que puede conllevar una reducción de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. El EQ-5D es un cuestionario genérico de calidad de vida relacionada con la salud basado en preferencias sociales. Este cuestionario ha sido muy utilizado en pacientes con diabetes. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente artículo es informar sobre los valores normativos del cuestionario EQ-5D-5L en personas españolas con diabetes. Métodos: se utilizaron datos de la Encuesta Española de Salud (2011/2012). Un total de 1.857 personas con diabetes participaron en la encuesta. La puntuación del EQ-5D-5L se ha reflejado en función del sexo, región (incluyendo las 17 comunidades autónomas y las 2 ciudades autónomas de España), y 8 grupos de edad. Resultados: la media del índice de utilidad para toda la muestra fue de 0,742. Esta fue mejor para hombres (0,826) que para mujeres (0,673). Resultados similares se observaron en la Escala Visual Analógica. El efecto techo fue mucho mayor en hombres (44,83%) que en mujeres (24,41%). Conclusiones: el presente estudio recoge datos normativos representativos del EQ-5D-5L en España de personas con diabetes.

  14. Valuation and Modeling of EQ-5D-5L Health States Using a Hybrid Approach.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Goñi, Juan M; Pinto-Prades, Jose L; Oppe, Mark; Cabasés, Juan M; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro; Rivero-Arias, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    The EQ-5D instrument is the most widely used preference-based health-related quality of life questionnaire in cost-effectiveness analysis of health care technologies. Recently, a version called EQ-5D-5L with 5 levels on each dimension was developed. This manuscript explores the performance of a hybrid approach for the modeling of EQ-5D-5L valuation data. Two elicitation techniques, the composite time trade-off, and discrete choice experiments, were applied to a sample of the Spanish population (n=1000) using a computer-based questionnaire. The sampling process consisted of 2 stages: stratified sampling of geographic area, followed by systematic sampling in each area. A hybrid regression model combining composite time trade-off and discrete choice data was used to estimate the potential value sets using main effects as starting point. The comparison between the models was performed using the criteria of logical consistency, goodness of fit, and parsimony. Twenty-seven participants from the 1000 were removed following the exclusion criteria. The best-fitted model included 2 significant interaction terms but resulted in marginal improvements in model fit compared to the main effects model. We therefore selected the model results with main effects as a potential value set for this methodological study, based on the parsimony criteria. The results showed that the main effects hybrid model was consistent, with a range of utility values between 1 and -0.224. This paper shows the feasibility of using a hybrid approach to estimate a value set for EQ-5D-5L valuation data.

  15. Quality Control Process for EQ-5D-5L Valuation Studies.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Goñi, Juan M; Oppe, Mark; Slaap, Bernhard; Busschbach, Jan J V; Stolk, Elly

    2017-03-01

    The values of the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) are elicited using composite time trade-off and discrete choice experiments. Unfortunately, data quality issues and interviewer effects were observed in the first few EQ-5D-5L valuation studies. To prevent these issues from occurring in later studies, the EuroQol Group established a cyclic quality control (QC) process. To describe this QC process and show its impact on data quality. A newly developed QC tool provided information about protocol compliance, interviewer effects, and mean values by health state severity. In a cyclic process, this information is initially used to evaluate whether new interviewers meet minimal quality requirements and later to provide feedback about how their performance may be improved. To investigate the impact of this cyclic process, we compared the quality of the data in Dutch and Spanish valuation studies that did not have this QC process with that in the follow-up studies in the same countries that used the QC process. Data quality was measured using protocol violations, variability between interviewers, the proportion of inconsistent responders, and clustering of composite time trade-off values. In Spain, protocol violations were reduced from 87% in the valuation study to 5% in the follow-up study and in the Netherlands from 20% to 8%. In both countries, interviewers performed more homogeneously in the follow-up studies. The number of inconsistent respondents was reduced by 23.2% in Spain and 23.6% in the Netherlands. Values were less clustered in the follow-up studies. The implementation of a strict QC process in EQ-5D-5L valuation studies increases interviewer protocol compliance and promotes data quality. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Steel Rattler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudo, Robert A.; Stotts, Larry G.

    1997-07-01

    Steel Rattler is a multi-phased project to determine the feasibility of using commercial off-the-shelf components in an advanced acoustic/seismic unattended ground sensor. This project is supported by the Defense Intelligence Agency through Sandia National Laboratories as the lead development agency. Steel Rattler uses advanced acoustic and seismic detection algorithms to categorize and identify various heavy vehicles down to the number of cylinders in the engine. This detection is accomplished with the capabilities of new, high-speed digital signal processors which analyze both acoustic and seismic data. The resulting analysis is compared against an onboard library of known vehicles and a statistical match is determined. An integrated thermal imager is also employed to capture digital thermal images for subsequent compression and transmission. Information acquired by Steel Rattler in the field is transmitted in small packets by a built-in low-power satellite communication system. The ground station receivers distribute the coded information to multiple analysis sites where the information is reassembled into coherent messages and images.

  17. The human CD5L/AIM-CD36 axis: A novel autophagy inducer in macrophages that modulates inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Sanjurjo, Lucía; Amézaga, Núria; Aran, Gemma; Naranjo-Gómez, Mar; Arias, Lilibeth; Armengol, Carolina; Borràs, Francesc E; Sarrias, Maria-Rosa

    2015-01-01

    CD5L (CD5 molecule-like) is a secreted glycoprotein that participates in host response to bacterial infection. CD5L influences the monocyte inflammatory response to the bacterial surface molecules lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) by inhibiting TNF secretion. Here we studied the intracellular events that lead to macrophage TNF inhibition by human CD5L. To accomplish this goal, we performed functional analyses with human monocytic THP1 macrophages, as well as with peripheral blood monocytes. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) reversed the inhibitory effect of CD5L on TNF secretion. Among the various PtdIns3K isoforms, our results indicated that CD5L activates PtdIns3K (whose catalytic subunit is termed PIK3C3), a key modulator involved in autophagy. Further analysis revealed a concomitant enhancement of autophagy markers such as cellular LC3-II content, increased LC3 puncta, as well as LC3-LysoTracker Red colocalization. Moreover, electron microscopy showed an increased presence of cytosolic autophagosomes in THP1 macrophages overexpressing CD5L. Besides preventing TNF secretion, CD5L also inhibited IL1B and enhanced IL10 secretion. This macrophage anti-inflammatory pattern of CD5L was reverted upon silencing of autophagy protein ATG7 by siRNA transfection. Additional siRNA experiments in THP1 macrophages indicated that the induction of autophagy mechanisms by CD5L was achieved through cell-surface scavenger receptor CD36, a multiligand receptor expressed in a wide variety of cell types. Our data represent the first evidence that CD36 is involved in autophagy and point to a significant contribution of the CD5L-CD36 axis to the induction of macrophage autophagy.

  18. Microstructure and Mechanism of Strengthening of Microalloyed Pipeline Steel: Ultra-Fast Cooling (UFC) Versus Laminar Cooling (LC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Wang, X.; Hu, W.; Kang, J.; Yuan, G.; Di, H.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2016-06-01

    A novel thermo-mechanical controlled processing (TMCP) schedule involving ultra-fast cooling (UFC) technique was used to process X70 (420 MPa) microalloyed pipeline steel with high strength-high toughness combination. A relative comparison is made between microstructure and mechanical properties between conventionally processed (CP) and ultra-fast cooled (UFC) pipeline steels, together with differences in strengthening mechanisms with respect to both types of processes. UFC-processed steel exhibited best combination of strength and good toughness compared to the CP process. The microstructure of CP pipeline steel mainly consisted of acicular ferrite (AF), bainitic ferrite (BF), and dispersed secondary martensite/austenite (M/A) constituent and a small fraction of fine quasi-polygonal ferrite. In contrast, the microstructure of UFC-processed pipeline steel was predominantly composed of finer AF, BF, and dispersed M/A constituent. The primary strengthening mechanisms in UFC pipeline steel were grain size strengthening and dislocation strengthening with strength increment of ~277 and ~151 MPa, respectively. However, the strengthening contribution in CP steel was related to grain size strengthening, dislocation strengthening, and precipitation strengthening, and the corresponding strength increments were ~212, ~149 and ~86 MPa, respectively. The decrease in strength induced by reducing Nb and Cr in UFC pipeline steel was compensated by enhancing the contribution of grain size strengthening in the UFC process. In conclusion, cooling schedule of UFC combined with LC is a promising method for processing low-cost pipeline steels.

  19. Effect of Spot and Stud Welding on ESR 4340 Steel Armor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    ESR ) 4340 steel armor. MATERIALS The armor used in this program was commercially produced ESR 4340 steeL in thicknesses of...N — AO—AO5k 025 ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER WATERTO——ETC F/S 13/5 EFFECT OF SPOT AND STUD WELDING ON ESR 14314 0 STEEL ARMOR. (U...5 lAD I ~ EFFECT OF SPOT~AND STUD WELDING ON ESR 434O~ STEEL ARMOR~ ~~ - /, ‘ , ~ . ~~~ — ~ — ~~~ — , ~~~~~~ ——-...—- ( -~~/ ~~~ - ‘~/ ~~~ ‘ .

  20. The Microstructure Evolution of Dual-Phase Pipeline Steel with Plastic Deformation at Different Strain Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, L. K.; Xu, T.; Zhang, J. M.; Wang, H. T.; Tong, M. X.; Zhu, R. H.; Zhou, G. S.

    2017-07-01

    Tensile properties of the high-deformability dual-phase ferrite-bainite X70 pipeline steel have been investigated at room temperature under the strain rates of 2.5 × 10-5, 1.25 × 10-4, 2.5 × 10-3, and 1.25 × 10-2 s-1. The microstructures at different amount of plastic deformation were examined by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Generally, the ductility of typical body-centered cubic steels is reduced when its stain rate increases. However, we observed a different ductility dependence on strain rates in the dual-phase X70 pipeline steel. The uniform elongation (UEL%) and elongation to fracture (EL%) at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1 increase about 54 and 74%, respectively, compared to those at 2.5 × 10-5 s-1. The UEL% and EL% reach to their maximum at the strain rate of 2.5 × 10-3 s-1. This phenomenon was explained by the observed grain structures and dislocation configurations. Whether or not the ductility can be enhanced with increasing strain rates depends on the competition between the homogenization of plastic deformation among the microconstituents (ultra-fine ferrite grains, relatively coarse ferrite grains as well as bainite) and the progress of cracks formed as a consequence of localized inconsistent plastic deformation.

  1. Complement C5a receptors C5L2 and C5aR in renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ina V; Bohner, Annika; Boor, Peter; Shagdarsuren, Erdenechimeg; Raffetseder, Ute; Lammert, Frank; Floege, Jürgen; Ostendorf, Tammo; Weber, Susanne N

    2017-09-13

    Complement factor C5a has two known receptors, C5aR mediating pro-inflammatory effects and C5L2, a potential C5a scavenger. We previously identified C5a/C5aR signaling as a potent profibrotic pathway in the kidney. Here we tested for the first time the role of C5L2 in renal fibrosis. In unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced kidney fibrosis, the expression of C5aR and C5L2 increased similarly and gradually as fibrosis progressed and was particularly prominent in injured dilated tubules. Genetic deficiency of either C5aR or C5L2 significantly reduced UUO-induced tubular injury. Expression of key pro-inflammatory mediators, however, significantly increased in C5L2- compared to C5aR-deficient mice, but this had no effect on the number of renal infiltrating macrophages or T-cells. Moreover, in C5L2-/--mice the cytokine and MMP-inhibitor TIMP-1 was specifically enhanced. Consequently, in C5L2-/--mice the degree of renal fibrosis was similar to WT, albeit with reduced mRNA expression of some fibrosis-related genes. In contrast, C5aR-/--mice had significantly reduced renal fibrosis compared to WT- and C5L2-/--mice in UUO. In vitro experiments with primary tubular cells demonstrated, that deficiency for either C5aR or C5L2 led to a significantly reduced expression of tubular injury- and fibrosis-markers. Vice versa, stimulation of WT tubular cells with C5a significantly induced the expression of these markers, whereas absence of either receptor abolished this induction. In conclusion, in experimental renal fibrosis C5L2 and C5aR both contribute to tubular injury, and, while C5aR acts profibrotic, C5L2 does not play a role in extracellular matrix accumulation, arguing against C5L2 functioning simply as a decoy receptor. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology.

  2. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  3. Translation, validity and reliability of the British Sign Language (BSL) version of the EQ-5D-5L.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Katherine D; Pilling, Mark; Davies, Linda; Belk, Rachel; Nassimi-Green, Catherine; Young, Alys

    2016-07-01

    To translate the health questionnaire EuroQol EQ-5D-5L into British Sign Language (BSL), to test its reliability with the signing Deaf population of BSL users in the UK and to validate its psychometric properties. The EQ-5D-5L BSL was developed following the international standard for translation required by EuroQol, with additional agreed features appropriate to a visual language. Data collection used an online platform to view the signed (BSL) version of the tests. The psychometric testing included content validity, assessed by interviewing a small sample of Deaf people. Reliability was tested by internal consistency of the items and test-retest, and convergent validity was assessed by determining how well EQ-5D-5L BSL correlates with CORE-10 BSL and CORE-6D BSL. The psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-5L BSL are good, indicating that it can be used to measure health status in the Deaf signing population in the UK. Convergent validity between EQ-5D-5L BSL and CORE-10 BSL and CORE-6D BSL is consistent, demonstrating that the BSL version of EQ-5D-5L is a good measure of the health status of an individual. The test-retest reliability of EQ-5D-5L BSL, for each dimension of health, was shown to have Cohen's kappa values of 0.47-0.61; these were in the range of moderate to good and were therefore acceptable. This is the first time EQ-5D-5L has been translated into a signed language for use with Deaf people and is a significant step forward towards conducting studies of health status and cost-effectiveness in this population.

  4. A novel mutation in C5L2 gene was associated with hyperlipidemia and retinitis pigmentosa in a Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicated that hyperlipidemia was associated with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We aimed to identify the mutations in the C5L2 gene which was reported to be associated with hyperlipidemia in a Chinese family with (RP). Methods The Proband from the family was screened for mutations in the C5L2 gene that was known to cause hyperlipidemia. Cosegregation analysis was performed in the available family members. Linkage analysis was performed for one missense mutation to calculate the likelihood of its pathogenicity. One hundred and fifty unrelated, healthy Chinese subjects were screened to exclude nonpathogenic polymorphisms. Results By direct sequencing method, we identified a novel mutation (Thr196Asn) in C5L2 gene. In this family, each affected family members with RP showed a heterozygous mutation in the C5L2 gene. And all the carriers with heterozygous mutation have increased serum lipid levels in this family. Conclusions The present study has extended the mutation spectrum of C5L2, and Thr196Asn mutations in C5L2 were associated with RP and serum lipid levels. PMID:24885523

  5. Hydrogen Induced Damage in Pipeline Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Garrett R.

    The hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) resistance of several grades of plate steels was investigated using electrolytic hydrogen charging. HIC generated by electrolytic charging was also compared to the industrial standard test for HIC, the NACE standard TM0284. The electrolytic charging (EC) apparatus was designed to optimize the reproducibility of the HIC results and the robustness of the components during long charging times. A characterization study on the EC apparatus was undertaken. Alterations to applied current density and charging time were conducted on a highly susceptible plate steel, 100XF, to assess HIC damage as a function of charging conditions. Intermediate current densities of 10 to 15 mA/cm2 produced the greatest extent of cracking without significant corrosion related surface damage. The hydrogen charging time did not greatly affect the extent and depth of cracking for test times between 24 to 48 hours. Thus, for subsequent experiments, the applied current density was set to 15 mA/cm2 and the charging time was set to 24 hours. Plate steel grades X52, X60, X70, and 100XF were prestrained in tension to various levels and then electrolytically charged with hydrogen or tested with the NACE standard TM0284 test (solution A) saturated with H2S(g) to induce HIC. Prestrain was introduced to assess its impact on HIC. Hydrogen damage was quantified with the crack ratios defined in the NACE Standard TM0284. The results from the EC and NACE methods were very comparable to one, with respect to the magnitude of cracking and the trends between alloy and pre-strain conditions observed. Both methods showed that HIC substantially increased for the high strength 100XF steel compared to the lower strength alloys. This is consistent with NACE recommendations for HIC resistance steels, which suggests that alloy strength should be less than 116 ksi (800 MPa) or 248 HV (22 HRC). The HIC results were largely independent of the pre-strain levels imposed within the

  6. Ultrahigh carbon steels, Damascus steels, and superplasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1997-04-01

    The processing properties of ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) have been studied at Stanford University over the past twenty years. These studies have shown that such steels (1 to 2.1% C) can be made superplastic at elevated temperature and can have remarkable mechanical properties at room temperature. It was the investigation of these UHCSs that eventually brought us to study the myths, magic, and metallurgy of ancient Damascus steels, which in fact, were also ultrahigh carbon steels. These steels were made in India as castings, known as wootz, possibly as far back as the time of Alexander the Great. The best swords are believed to have been forged in Persia from Indian wootz. This paper centers on recent work on superplastic UHCSs and on their relation to Damascus steels. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Strengthening Mechanisms and Their Relative Contributions to the Yield Strength of Microalloyed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junfang; Omotoso, Oladipo; Wiskel, J. Barry; Ivey, Douglas G.; Henein, Hani

    2012-09-01

    Microalloyed steels are used widely in oil and gas pipelines. They are a class of high-strength, low-carbon steels that contain small additions (in amounts less than 0.1 wt pct) of Nb, Ti, and/or V. The steels may contain other alloying elements, such as Mo, in amounts exceeding 0.1 wt pct. Precipitation in these steels can be controlled through thermomechanical-controlled processing, leading to precipitates with sizes that range from several microns to a few nanometers. Microalloyed steels have good strength, good toughness, and excellent weldability, which are attributed in part to the presence of the nanosized carbide and carbonitride precipitates. Because of their fine sizes, wide particle size distribution, and low volume fractions, conventional microscopic methods are not satisfactory for quantifying these precipitates. Matrix dissolution is a promising alternative to extract the precipitates for quantification. Relatively large volumes of material can be analyzed so that statistically significant quantities of precipitates of different sizes are collected. In this article, the microstructure features of a series of microalloyed steels (X70, X80, and X100) as well as a Grade 100 steel are characterized using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A chemical dissolution technique is used to extract the precipitates from the steels. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are combined to analyze the chemical composition of these precipitates. Rietveld refinement of the XRD patterns is used to quantify fully the relative amounts of these precipitates. The size distribution of the nanosized precipitates is quantified using dark-field imaging (DF) in the TEM. The effects of microalloying content, finish rolling temperature (FRT), and coiling temperature (CT)/interrupted cooling temperature (ICT) on the grain size and the amount of nanoprecipitation are discussed. Individual strengthening contributions from grain

  8. Cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the EQ-5D-5L items for English-speaking Asians in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Luo, N; Wang, Y; How, C H; Wong, K Y; Shen, L; Tay, E G; Thumboo, J; Herdman, M

    2015-06-01

    To investigate how the response labels of the 5-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) items are interpreted and used by English-speaking Chinese and non-Chinese Singaporeans, as a means to assessing whether those items are cross-culturally equivalent health-status measures in this Asian population. In face-to-face interviews, Chinese, Malay and Indian visitors to a primary care institution in Singapore were asked to rate the relative severity conveyed by EQ-5D-5L response labels, each containing the keyword of 'no(t),' 'slight(ly),' 'moderate(ly),' 'severe(ly),' or 'unable'/'extreme(ly),' using a 0-100 numerical rating scale. Participants were also asked to describe 25 hypothetical health states using the EQ-5D-5L response labels. Differences between Chinese and Malay/Indian participants in label interpretation and selection were examined using multivariate regression analysis to adjust for participant characteristics. The differences in adjusted mean severity scores for individual EQ-5D-5L labels between Chinese (n = 148) and non-Chinese (Malay: n = 53; Indian: n = 56) participants ranged from 0.0 to 9.0. The relative severity of the labels to the participants supported the ordinality of the EQ-5D-5L response labels and was similar across ethnic groups. Chinese and non-Chinese participants selected similar response labels to describe each hypothetical health state, with the adjusted odds ratios of selecting any type of the five response labels for non-Chinese versus Chinese participants ranging from 0.92 to 1.15 (p > 0.05 for all). The EQ-5D-5L items are likely to generate equivalent health outcomes between English-speaking Chinese and non-Chinese Singaporeans.

  9. Adhesions of extracellular surface-layer associated proteins in Lactobacillus M5-L and Q8-L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingchun; Xiang, Xinling; Lu, Qianhui; Zhang, Lanwei; Ma, Fang; Wang, Linlin

    2016-02-01

    Surface-layer associated proteins (SLAP) that envelop Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei M5-L and Lactobacillus casei Q8-L cell surfaces are involved in the adherence of these strain to the human intestinal cell line HT-29. To further elucidate some of the properties of these proteins, we assessed the yields and expressions of SLAP under different incubation conditions. An efficient and selective extraction of SLAP was obtained when cells of Lactobacillus were treated with 5 M LiCl at 37°C in aerobic conditions. The SLAP of Lactobacillus M5-L and Q8-L in cell extracts were visualized by SDS-PAGE and identified by Western blotting with sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin-labeled HT-29 cells as adhesion proteins. Atomic force microscopy contact imaging revealed that Lactobacillus strains M5-L and Q8-L normally display a smooth, homogeneous surface, whereas the surfaces of M5-L and Q8-L treated with 5 M LiCl were rough and more heterogeneous. Analysis of adhesion forces revealed that the initial adhesion forces of 1.41 and 1.28 nN obtained for normal Lactobacillus M5-L and Q8-L strains, respectively, decreased to 0.70 and 0.48 nN, respectively, following 5 M LiCl treatment. Finally, the dominant 45-kDa protein bands of Lactobacillus Q8-L and Lactobacillus M5-L were identified as elongation factor Tu and surface antigen, respectively, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

  10. Quality of life profile and psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We assessed health-related quality of life (HRQOL), its associated factors, and examined measurement properties of the EuroQol - 5 Dimensions - 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) in HIV/AIDS patients. Methods A cross-sectional multi-site survey was conducted in 1016 patients (age: 35.4 ± 7.0 years; 63.8% male) in three epicenters of Vietnam. Internal consistency reliability, convergent validity, and discriminative validity of the EQ-5D-5L and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were evaluated. Tobit censored regression models were used to identify predictors of HRQOL in HIV/AIDS patients. Results The mean EQ-5D-5L single index and VAS were 0.65 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.63; 0.67) and 70.3 (95% CI = 69.2; 71.5). Cronbach’s alpha of five dimensions was 0.85. EQ-5D-5L has a good convergent validity with VAS (0.73). It discriminated patients at different HIV/AIDS stages, duration of ART, and CD4 cell count. Predictors of poorer HRQOL included being female, lower education level, unemployment, alcohol and drug use, CD4<200 cells/mL, and advanced HIV/AIDS stages. Conclusion The EQ-5D-5L has good measurement properties in HIV/AIDS patients and holds potentials for monitoring ART outcomes. Integration of HRQOL measurement using EQ-5D-5L in HIV/AIDS clinical practice could be helpful for economic evaluation of HIV/AIDS interventions. PMID:23116130

  11. Study on (100-x)(70Li2S-30P2S5)-xLi2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Penghao; Ding, Fei; Xu, Zhibin; Liu, Jiaquan; Liu, Xingjiang; Xu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    A novel glass-ceramic electrolyte of (100-x)(70Li2S-30P2S5)-xLi2ZrO3 (x = 0, 1, 2, 5) is successfully prepared by a vibratory ball-milling method and followed by a heat-treatment process. Composition of the ternary sulfide electrolyte and the heat-treatment process are optimized by physical characterizations and electrochemical measurements. The testing results show that the optimal substitution quantity of Li2ZrO3 into the Li2S-P2S5 electrolyte substrate is 1 mol %. An appropriate heat-treatment temperature of 99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte is 285 °C. Among the as-prepared ternary electrolyte samples, 99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte may exhibit the highest conductivity of 2.85 × 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature, which is much higher than that of the 70Li2S-30P2S5 glass-ceramic electrolyte. Compared to that of the all-solid-state lithium-ion battery of LiCoO2/70Li2S-30P2S5/In-Li, discharge capacities of all-solid-state lithium-ion battery of LiCoO2/99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3/In-Li may increase 41.0% at the 10th charge-discharge cycle and 21.9% at the 50th charge-discharge cycle, respectively. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries reveal that addition of Li2ZrO3 into the Li2S-P2S5 electrolyte substrate may decrease the interfacial resistance between the electrodes and solid electrolyte. The improvement of electrochemical performances of 99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte is ascribed to both the stable crystal structure and a high lithium-ion diffusion coefficient of Li2ZrO3.

  12. C5L2 and C5aR interaction in adipocytes and macrophages: insights into adipoimmunology.

    PubMed

    Poursharifi, Pegah; Lapointe, Marc; Pétrin, Darlaine; Devost, Dominic; Gauvreau, Danny; Hébert, Terence E; Cianflone, Katherine

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation characterized by increased infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. C5aR-like receptor 2 (C5L2) has been identified as a receptor for acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) and the inflammatory factor C5a, which also binds C5aR. The present study examines the effects of ligands ASP and C5a on interactions between the receptors C5L2 and C5aR in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and J774 macrophages. BRET experiments indicate that C5L2 and C5aR form homo- and heterodimers in transfected HEK 293 cells, which were stable in the presence of ligand. Cell surface receptor levels of C5L2 and C5aR increased during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation; both receptors are also highly expressed in J774 macrophages. Using confocal microscopy to evaluate endogenous receptors in adipocytes following stimulation with ASP or C5a, C5L2 is internalized with increasing perinuclear colocalization with C5aR. There is little C5a-dependent colocalization in macrophages. While adipocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) increased C5L2-C5aR colocalization in macrophages, this was blocked by C5a. ASP stimulation increased Akt (Ser(473)) phosphorylation in both cell types; C5a induced slight Akt phosphorylation in adipocytes with less effect in macrophages. ASP, but not C5a, increased fatty acid uptake/esterification in adipocytes. C5L2-C5aR homodimerization versus heterodimerization may thus contribute to differential responses obtained following ASP vs C5a stimulation of adipocytes and macrophages, providing new insights into the complex interaction between these two cell types within adipose tissue. Studying the mechanisms involved in the differential responses of C5L2-C5aR activation based on cell type will further our understanding of inflammatory processes in obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comminuting irradiated ferritic steel

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Roger E.; Straalsund, Jerry L.; Chin, Bryan A.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of comminuting irradiated ferritic steel by placing the steel in a solution of a compound selected from the group consisting of sulfamic acid, bisulfate, and mixtures thereof. The ferritic steel is used as cladding on nuclear fuel rods or other irradiated components.

  14. Welding Rustproof Steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, W

    1929-01-01

    The following experimental results will perhaps increase the knowledge of the process of welding rustproof steels. The experiments were made with two chrome-steel sheets and with two chrome-steel-nickel sheets having the composition shown in Table I.

  15. Mechanical Property Data 15-5PH (H1025) Stainless Steel Alloy: Hot-Rolled Plate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    fatigue data of unnotched 15 - 5PH stainless steel (H1025, longitudinal). - ~ ~ 5 l5PH Stumhuts Sisa Pmae. Csinuutae M al 110 -- R*01,Kf-3.0 R.T. 100 1.00...40 - 00 Lsishii. of. cruam Figure 2. Axial load fatigue data of notched 15 -SPH stainless steel (H1025, longitudinal). 3 I 20 15 - 5PH Stainless Stee...600 020 ; I I a -ALI AT 4W4C002 100 TO0 6W 30O 0 4 -5 0 07 Ufetime, Nw Cycles Figure 4. Axial load fatigue data of notched 15 - 5PH stainless steel

  16. The EQ-5D-5L health status questionnaire in COPD: validity, responsiveness and minimum important difference

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Claire M; Longworth, Louise; Lord, Joanne; Canavan, Jane L; Jones, Sarah E; Kon, Samantha S C; Man, William D-C

    2016-01-01

    Background The EQ-5D, a generic health status questionnaire that is widely used in health economic evaluation, was recently expanded to the EQ-5D-5L to address criticisms of unresponsiveness and ceiling effect. Aims To describe the validity, responsiveness and minimum important difference of the EQ-5D-5L in COPD. Methods Study 1: The validity of the EQ-5D-5L utility index and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was compared with four established disease-specific health status questionnaires and other measures of disease severity in 616 stable outpatients with COPD. Study 2: The EQ-5D-5L utility index and EQ-VAS were measured in 324 patients with COPD before and after 8 weeks of pulmonary rehabilitation. Distribution and anchor-based approaches were used to estimate the minimum important difference. Results There were moderate-to-strong correlations between utility index and EQ-VAS with disease-specific questionnaires (Pearson's r=0.47–0.72). A ceiling effect was seen in 7% and 2.6% of utility index and EQ-VAS. Utility index decreased (worsening health status) with indices of worsening disease severity. With rehabilitation, mean (95% CI) changes in utility index and EQ-VAS were 0.065 (0.047 to 0.083) and 8.6 (6.5 to 10.7), respectively, with standardised response means of 0.39 and 0.44. The mean (range) anchor estimates of the minimum important difference for utility index and EQ-VAS were 0.051 (0.037 to 0.063) and 6.9 (6.5 to 8.0), respectively. Conclusions The EQ-5D-5L is a valid and responsive measure of health status in COPD and may provide useful additional cost-effectiveness data in clinical trials. PMID:27030578

  17. C5L2, the Second C5a Anaphylatoxin Receptor, Suppresses LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruobing; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Craig; Gerard, Norma P

    2016-11-01

    LPS-induced lung injury in the mouse is one of the most robust experimental models used for studies of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome in humans. Prior clinical and experimental studies support an important role for complement activation, particularly production of C5a, in the pathophysiology of human ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome. In the mouse model, however, the precise role of C5a and its receptors is unclear. C5L2, an enigmatic second receptor for C5a, has been characterized, and results have generated substantial debate regarding its in vivo function. Our previous work with human neutrophils revealed a unique role for C5L2 in negatively modulating C5a-C5a receptor (C5aR)-mediated cellular activation, in which antibody-mediated blockade of C5L2 resulted in augmented C5a-C5aR responses. Here, we demonstrate that C5L2(-/-) mice (BALB/c background) administered intranasal LPS exhibit significantly more airway edema and hemorrhage than do wild-type animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenates have significantly more neutrophils and myeloperoxidase activity, as well as proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. When a blocking antibody against the C5aR was administered before LPS administration, the increased neutrophilic infiltration and cytokine levels were reversed. Thus, our data show not only that C5a contributes significantly to LPS-induced ALI in the mouse, but also that C5L2 plays an important antiinflammatory role in this model through actions resulting at least in part from negative modulation of C5a receptor activation.

  18. The steel scrap age.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  19. Methods of forming steel

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  20. Acetylation of mitochondrial proteins by GCN5L1 promotes enhanced fatty acid oxidation in the heart.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Dharendra; Zhang, Manling; Manning, Janet R; Guimarães, Danielle A; Stoner, Michael W; O'Doherty, Robert M; Shiva, Sruti; Scott, Iain

    2017-08-01

    Lysine acetylation is a reversible posttranslational modification and is particularly important in the regulation of mitochondrial metabolic enzymes. Acetylation uses acetyl-CoA derived from fuel metabolism as a cofactor, thereby linking nutrition to metabolic activity. In the present study, we investigated how mitochondrial acetylation status in the heart is controlled by food intake and how these changes affect mitochondrial metabolism. We found that there was a significant increase in cardiac mitochondrial protein acetylation in mice fed a long-term high-fat diet and that this change correlated with an increase in the abundance of the mitochondrial acetyltransferase-related protein GCN5L1. We showed that the acetylation status of several mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes (long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) and a pyruvate oxidation enzyme (pyruvate dehydrogenase) was significantly upregulated in high-fat diet-fed mice and that the increase in long-chain and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase acetylation correlated with increased enzymatic activity. Finally, we demonstrated that the acetylation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation proteins was decreased after GCN5L1 knockdown and that the reduced acetylation led to diminished fatty acid oxidation in cultured H9C2 cells. These data indicate that lysine acetylation promotes fatty acid oxidation in the heart and that this modification is regulated in part by the activity of GCN5L1.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Recent research has shown that acetylation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes has greatly contrasting effects on their activity in different tissues. Here, we provide new evidence that acetylation of cardiac mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes by GCN5L1 significantly upregulates their activity in diet-induced obese mice. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. A program of methodological research to arrive at the new international EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol.

    PubMed

    Oppe, Mark; Devlin, Nancy J; van Hout, Ben; Krabbe, Paul F M; de Charro, Frank

    2014-06-01

    To describe the research that has been undertaken by the EuroQol Group to improve current methods for health state valuation, to summarize the results of an extensive international pilot program, and to outline the key elements of the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire valuation protocol, which is the culmination of that work. To improve on methods of health state valuation for the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, we investigated the performance of different variants of time trade-off and discrete choice tasks in a multinational setting. We also investigated the effect of three modes of administration on health state valuation: group interviews, online self-completion, and face-to-face interviews. The research program provided the basis for the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire valuation protocol. Two different types of tasks are included to derive preferences: a newly developed composite time trade-off task and a forced-choice paired comparisons discrete choice task. Furthermore, standardized blocked designs for the selection of the states to be valued by participants were created and implemented together with all other elements of the valuation protocol in a digital aid, the EuroQol Valuation Technology, which was developed in conjunction with the protocol. The EuroQol Group has developed a standard protocol, with accompanying digital aid and interviewer training materials, that can be used to create value sets for the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. The use of a well-described, consistent protocol across all countries enhances the comparability of value sets between countries, and allows the exploration of the influence of cultural and other factors on health state values. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A qualitative examination of the content validity of the EQ-5D-5L in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Matza, Louis S; Boye, Kristina S; Stewart, Katie D; Curtis, Bradley H; Reaney, Matthew; Landrian, Amanda S

    2015-12-01

    The EQ-5D is frequently used to derive utilities for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite widely available quantitative psychometric data on the EQ-5D, little is known about content validity in this population. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study was to examine content validity of the EQ-5D in patients with T2D. Patients with T2D in the UK completed concept elicitation interviews, followed by administration of the EQ-5D-5L and cognitive interviewing focused on the instrument's relevance, clarity, and comprehensiveness. A total of 25 participants completed interviews (52.0 % male; mean age = 53.5 years). Approximately half (52 %) reported that the EQ-5D-5L was relevant to their experience with T2D. When asked if each individual item was relevant to their experience with T2D, responses varied widely (24.0 % said the self-care item was relevant; 68.0 % said the anxiety/depression item was relevant). Participants frequently said items were not relevant to themselves, but could be relevant to patients with more severe diabetes. Most participants (92.0 %) reported that T2D and/or its treatment/monitoring requirements had an impact on their quality of life that was not captured by the EQ-5D-5L. Common missing concepts included food awareness/restriction (n = 13, 52.0 %); activities (n = 11, 44.0 %); emotional functioning other than depression/anxiety (n = 8, 32.0 %); and social/relationship functioning (n = 8, 32.0 %). The results highlight strengths and potential limitations of the EQ-5D-5L, including missing content that could be important for some patients with T2D. Suggestions for addressing limitations are provided.

  3. Maraging Steel Machining Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-23

    APR 2007 2. REPORT TYPE Technical, Success Story 3. DATES COVERED 01-12-2006 to 23-04-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Maraging Steel Machining...consumers of cobalt-strengthened maraging steel . An increase in production requires them to reduce the machining time of certain operations producing... maraging steel ; Success Stories 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 1 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 1 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  4. A Time Trade-off-derived Value Set of the EQ-5D-5L for Canada.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Gaebel, Kathy; Bansback, Nick; Bryan, Stirling; Ohinmaa, Arto; Poissant, Lise; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    The 5-level version of the EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) was recently developed. A number of preference-based scoring systems are being developed for several countries around the world. To develop a value set for the EQ-5D-5L based on societal preferences in Canada. We used age, sex, and education quota sampling from the general population from 4 cities across Canada. Composite time trade-off (cTTO) and traditional time trade-off (tTTO) were used as the main elicitation technique. A total of 86 EQ-5D-5L health states grouped into 10 blocks were valued using cTTO, whereas a subset of 18 severe states was also valued using tTTO. Participants meeting predefined inconsistency criteria were excluded from the analyses. For the value set development, we used tTTO and positive cTTO values, while censoring negative and zero cTTO values at zero. Models with the main effects presented using linear terms combined with various additional terms were estimated. The preferred model was selected based primarily on logically ordered coefficients, and secondly model fit. Of the 1209 participants who completed the interview, 136 met criteria that excluded them from the primary analyses. The demographics and socioeconomic status of the remaining 1073 participants were similar to the Canadian general population. The preferred model has 5 linear terms for the main effects, a term for level 4 or 5 for each dimension, and a term for the squared total number of level 4 or 5 beyond the first. For this preferred model, the health utilities ranged from -0.148 for the worst (55555) to 0.949 for the best (11111) EQ-5D-5L states. This is the first TTO-based value set of the EQ-5D-5L for Canada. It can be used to support the health utility estimation in economic evaluations for reimbursement decision making in Canada.

  5. Welding irradiated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.; Chandler, G.T.; Nelson, D.Z.; Franco-Ferreira, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Conventional welding processes produced severe underbead cracking in irradiated stainless steel containing 1 to 33 appm helium from n,a reactions. A shallow penetration overlay technique was successfully demonstrated for welding irradiated stainless steel. The technique was applied to irradiated 304 stainless steel that contained 10 appm helium. Surface cracking, present in conventional welds made on the same steel at the same and lower helium concentrations, was eliminated. Underbead cracking was minimal compared to conventional welding methods. However, cracking in the irradiated material was greater than in tritium charged and aged material at the same helium concentrations. The overlay technique provides a potential method for repair or modification of irradiated reactor materials.

  6. The Steel Band.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Describes studying the steel drum, an import from Trinidad, as an instrument of intellectual growth. Describes how developing a steel drum band provided Montessori middle school students the opportunity to experience some important feelings necessary to emotional growth during this difficult age: competence, usefulness, independence, and…

  7. Steel Industry Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  8. High Nitrogen Stainless Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-19

    Hydrogen Embrittlement in Steel by the Increment Loading Technique. Fractography: After the stress-life fatigue tests, the fracture surface morphology...study was conducted to clarify the mechanical properties and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of high nitrogen stainless steel (HNSS) plates...Corrosion Cracking 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON

  9. Steel Industry Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidtke, N. W.; Averill, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from steel industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) coke production; (2) iron and steel production; (3) rolling operations; and (4) surface treatment. A list of 133 references is also presented. (NM)

  10. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  11. Marine Structural Steel Toughness Data Bank. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-31

    A588 GR A K11430 1-12A588 Gr B A588 Gr B K12043 1-12 A588 Gr C A588 Gr C K11538 1-12A537-A A537 Gr A K02400 1-13 API 5L Gr X60 1-14 A656-70 A656 Gr 70...and HSLA 80 containing primarily Cu, Ni, Cr and Mo; • Medium to high strength low alloy steels A537, CG-537, A656, A737, ABS-EH36, and API 5L...ASTM UNS PRIORITY NAME SPEC NUMBER HYS0 A543 Gr C(1) K31820 1-1 A710-A A710 Gr A K20747 1-2 CG A537M A537 Cl 1 K12437 1-3ABS-B A131 Gr B K02102 1-4 API

  12. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  13. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  14. A Head-to-Head Comparison of UK SF-6D and Thai and UK EQ-5D-5L Value Sets in Thai Patients with Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sakthong, Phantipa; Munpan, Wipaporn

    2017-03-13

    Little was known about the head-to-head comparison of psychometric properties between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L or the different value sets of EQ-5D-5L. Therefore, this study set out to compare the psychometric properties including agreement, convergent, and known-group validity between the SF-6D and the EQ-5D-5L using the real value sets from Thailand and the UK in patients with chronic diseases. 356 adults taking a medication for at least 3 months were identified from a university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, between July 2014 and March 2015. Agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Convergent validity was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L and EQ-VAS and SF-12v2. For known-groups validity, the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to examine the associations between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L and patient characteristics. Agreements between the SF-6D and the EQ-5D-5L using Thai and UK value sets were fair, with ICCs of 0.45 and 0.49, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed that the majority of the SF-6D index scores were lower than the EQ-5D-5L index scores. Both the EQ-5D-5L value sets were more related to the EQ-VAS and physical health, while the SF-6D was more associated with mental health. Both EQ-5D-5L value sets were more sensitive than the SF-6D in discriminating patients with different levels of more known groups except for adverse drug reactions. The SF-6D and both EQ-5D-5L value sets appeared to be valid but sensitive to different outcomes in Thai patients with chronic diseases.

  15. The Effect of Altitude Conditions on the Particle Emissions of a J85-GE-5L Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickey, June Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Particles from a J85-GE-5L turbojet engine were measured over a range of engine speeds at simulated altitude conditions ranging from near sea level to 45,000 ft and at flight Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.8. Samples were collected from the engine by using a specially designed probe positioned several inches behind the exhaust nozzle. A differential mobility particle sizing system was used to determine particle size. Particle data measured at near sea-level conditions were compared with Navy Aircraft Environmental Support Office (AESO) particle data taken from a GE-J85-4A engine at a sea-level static condition. Particle data from the J85 engine were also compared with particle data from a J85 combustor at three different simulated altitudes.

  16. Steel Pickling Inspection Checklist

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Checklist to establish whether a facility or operations within a facility are subject to and are in compliance with 40 C.F.R Part 63 Subpart CCC (Steel Pickling—HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants NESHAP).

  17. Structural Amorphous Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z. P.; Liu, C. T.; Thompson, J. R.; Porter, W. D.

    2004-06-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist’s dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed.

  18. Cobalt free maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Floreen, S.

    1984-04-17

    The subject invention is directed to ferrous-base alloys, particularly to a cobalt-free maraging steel of novel chemistry characterized by a desired combination of strength and toughness, notwithstanding that cobalt is non-essential.

  19. Glass Stronger than Steel

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Yarris, Lynn

    2011-03-28

    A new type of damage-tolerant metallic glass, demonstrating a strength and toughness beyond that of steel or any other known material, has been developed and tested by a collaboration of researchers from Berkeley Lab and Caltech.

  20. Validity, responsiveness, and minimal clinically important difference of EQ-5D-5L in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Poyu; Lin, Keh-Chung; Liing, Rong-Jiuan; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chang, Ku-Chou

    2016-06-01

    To examine the criterion validity, responsiveness, and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the EuroQoL 5-Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) and visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) in people receiving rehabilitation after stroke. The EQ-5D-5L, along with four criterion measures-the Medical Research Council scales for muscle strength, the Fugl-Meyer assessment, the functional independence measure, and the Stroke Impact Scale-was administered to 65 patients with stroke before and after 3- to 4-week therapy. Criterion validity was estimated using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Responsiveness was analyzed by the effect size, standardized response mean (SRM), and criterion responsiveness. The MCID was determined by anchor-based and distribution-based approaches. The percentage of patients exceeding the MCID was also reported. Concurrent validity of the EQ-Index was better compared with the EQ-VAS. The EQ-Index has better power for predicting the rehabilitation outcome in the activities of daily living than other motor-related outcome measures. The EQ-Index was moderately responsive to change (SRM = 0.63), whereas the EQ-VAS was only mildly responsive to change. The MCID estimation of the EQ-Index (the percentage of patients exceeding the MCID) was 0.10 (33.8 %) and 0.10 (33.8 %) based on the anchor-based and distribution-based approaches, respectively, and the estimation of EQ-VAS was 8.61 (41.5 %) and 10.82 (32.3 %). The EQ-Index has shown reasonable concurrent validity, limited predictive validity, and acceptable responsiveness for detecting the health-related quality of life in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation, but not for EQ-VAS. Future research considering different recovery stages after stroke is warranted to validate these estimations.

  1. A comparative study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron and X-65 steel in 4.0 wt % sodium chloride solution after different exposure intervals.

    PubMed

    Sherif, El-Sayed M

    2014-07-09

    In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions.

  2. Performance Steel Castings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    alloys , foundry, muzzle brake, supply center, tooling, sources Notice Distribution Statement A Format Information Report created in Microsoft Word...Development of Sand Properties 103 Advanced Modeling Dataset.. 105 High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) Steels 107 Steel Casting and Engineering Support...University, University of Northern Iowa, Non- Ferrous Founders’ Society, QuesTek, buyCASTINGS.com, Spokane Industries, Nova Precision Casting, Waukesha

  3. Life after Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  4. Joining Steel Armor - Intermix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    TARADCOM a d ki Lk A el B~ 0el RWET0 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12311 JOINING STEEL ARMOR - INTERMIX March 1979 U U * S* ’ "U .by B. . A.SCEV * U...authorized documents. O "if TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12311 JOINING STEEL ARMOR - INTERMIX BY B. A. SCHEVO March 1979 AMS: 3197..6D.4329 TARADCOM ARMOR AND...Intermix Process ...... ........ 3 Test Procedures - Intermix Armor ........ ......... 4 Mock Hull ................. ..................... 5 Results

  5. Ferrium M54 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-18

    release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Bare and Zn-14% Ni alloy coated Ferrium M54 steels were studied to...Ni alloy coating appears to provide the steel some protection against hydrogen embrittlement/SCC and corrosion fatigue in aqueous 3.5% NaCl...301-342-8069 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TIM-2014/292 ii SUMMARY Bare and Zn-14% Ni alloy

  6. Life after Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  7. Cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the 5-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Tan, Ngiap-Chuan; Tay, Ee-Guan; Thumboo, Julian; Luo, Nan

    2015-07-16

    This study aimed to assess the measurement equivalence of the 5-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) among the English, Chinese, and Malay versions. A convenience sample of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled from a public primary health care institution in Singapore. The survey questionnaire comprised the EQ-5D-5L and questions assessing participants' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the difference in EQ-5D-5L index (calculated using an interim algorithm) and EQ-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) scores across survey language (Chinese vs. English, Malay vs. English, and Malay vs. Chinese). Measurement equivalence was examined by comparing the 90% confidence interval of difference in the EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-VAS scores with a pre-determined equivalence margin. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the response patterns of the 5 Likert-type items of the EQ-5D-5L across survey language. Equivalence was demonstrated between the Chinese and English versions and between the Malay and English versions of the EQ-5D-5L index scores. Equivalence was also demonstrated between the Chinese and English versions and between the Malay and Chinese versions of the EQ-VAS scores. Equivalence could not be determined between the Malay and Chinese versions of the EQ-5D-5L index score and between the Malay and English versions of the EQ-VAS score. No significant difference was found in responses to EQ-5D-5L items between any languages, except that patients who chose to complete the Chinese version were more likely to report "no problems" in mobility compared to those who completed the Malay version of the questionnaire. This study provided evidence for the measurement equivalence of the different language versions of EQ-5D-5L in Singapore.

  8. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  9. Waste product profile: Steel cans

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1996-07-01

    Steel cans are made from tinplate steel, which is produced in basic oxygen furnaces. A thin layer of tin is applied to the can`s inner and outer surfaces to prevent rusting and protect food and beverage flavors. As a result, steel cans are often called tin cans. Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. Continued decreases in the amount of tin used in steel cans has lessened the importance of this market. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

  10. Castings, Steel, Homogenization of Steel Castings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-12-05

    diffraction pattern of quenched and tempered steel castings. 2. Calculations based upon known diffusion rates show: A. Practical homogenizing heat ...will be largely eliminated by either the usual heating for nuenching or a homo- genizing treatment. C. Interdendritic segregation of sulfur will...26 Appendix A - History of the Heat Treatment and Composition of Centrifugal Gun Castings at W-tertown Ar- sen-.l. ..... ..................... 2

  11. Profiles in garbage: Steel cans

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1998-02-01

    Steel mills are the largest market for steel cans. Integrated mills use the basic oxygen process to manufacture tinplate, appliances, car bodies, and steel framing. Electric arc furnaces use 100% scrap to produce steel shapes such as railroad ties and bridge spans. Electric arc furnaces are more geographically diverse and tend to have smaller capacities than basic oxygen furnaces. Detinners remove the tin from steel cans for resale to tin using industries. With less tin use in steel cans, the importance of the detinning market has declined substantially. Foundries use scrap as a raw material in making castings and molds for industrial users.

  12. View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  13. GCN5L1 modulates cross-talk between mitochondria and cell signaling to regulate FoxO1 stability and gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingdi; Scott, Iain; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Kaiyuan; Han, Kim; Chen, Yong; Gucek, Marjan; Sack, Michael N

    2017-09-12

    The mitochondrial enriched GCN5-like 1 (GCN5L1) protein has been shown to modulate mitochondrial protein acetylation, mitochondrial content and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Here we show that hepatic GCN5L1 ablation reduces fasting glucose levels and blunts hepatic gluconeogenesis without affecting systemic glucose tolerance. PEPCK and G6Pase transcript levels are downregulated in hepatocytes from GCN5L1 liver specific knockout mice and their upstream regulator, FoxO1 protein levels are decreased via proteasome-dependent degradation and via reactive oxygen species mediated ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. ERK inhibition restores FoxO1, gluconeogenic enzyme expression and glucose production. Reconstitution of mitochondrial-targeted GCN5L1 blunts mitochondrial ROS, ERK activation and increases FoxO1, gluconeogenic enzyme expression and hepatocyte glucose production. We suggest that mitochondrial GCN5L1 modulates post-translational control of FoxO1, regulates gluconeogenesis and controls metabolic pathways via mitochondrial ROS mediated ERK activation. Exploring mechanisms underpinning GCN5L1 mediated ROS signaling may expand our understanding of the role of mitochondria in gluconeogenesis control.Hepatic gluconeogenesis is tightly regulated at transcriptional level and is essential for survival during prolonged fasting. Here Wang et al. show that the mitochondrial enriched GCN5-like 1 protein controls hepatic glucose production by regulating FoxO1 protein levels via proteasome-dependent degradation and, in turn, gluconeogenic gene expression.

  14. Replacement steel windows

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Condren, S.J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the authors experiences in the investigation, design, and installation of replacement steel windows for two renovation projects at a major university in the northeast: a student residential complex and the law school. The authors review the construction of the existing walls (cast-in-place concrete barrier wall at the student residential complex and brick and stone masonry barrier wall at the law school), and the construction and performance of the original steel windows. To maintain the appearance of these architecturally significant buildings, the university elected to install replacement steel windows. The authors discuss special design consideration for steel windows (versus the more prevalent aluminum replacement window), including available window section profiles, corrosion protection, frame fabrication, and glazing design. The authors also review window flashing concepts they employed for the barrier wall construction, which has no drainage cavity. The authors summarize lessons learned during the window selection, design, fabrication, testing, and installation phases of the projects, and present recommendations for improved durability and water penetration resistance of steel windows.

  15. Superclean steel development

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, R.H.; McNaughton, W.P. )

    1989-12-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has actively encouraged and sponsored a number of research projects to develop a superclean 3.5NiCrMoV steel for low pressure turbine rotors. Such steel is highly resistant to temper embrittlement and will thus facilitate increased efficiency in electricity generation through the use of higher operating temperatures and improvements in design. The objective of this interim report was to integrate the results that have been generated to date worldwide in the pursuit of superclean steel. The report contains detailed findings that enable the interested utility to evaluate how the results affect utility decision making. A companion document has been written to summarize the findings from this technical report. The results indicate that steels with impurity contents typical of the superclean specification can be manufactured for production rotors with properties that equal or exceed those for conventional 3.5NiCrMoV rotors in every detail. Of particular interest are the results that the superclean steels appear to be virtually resistant to temper embrittlement to a temperature of 500 {degrees}C. 109 refs., 51 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Trends in steel technology. [Dual phase and HSLA steels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Dual phase steels, composite products, and microalloyed steels are making inroads in the automotive industry applications for bumpers, automotive parts, bodies, mechanical parts, suspension and steering equipment and truck bumpers. New steels are also used to support solar mirrors and cells, in corrosive environments in the oil and gas industry, fusion reactors, and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants. (FS)

  17. Scaled-up bioconversion of fish waste to liquid fertilizer using a 5 L ribbon-type reactor.

    PubMed

    Dao, Van Thingoc; Kim, Joong Kyun

    2011-10-01

    A scaled-up conversion process of fish waste to liquid fertilizer was performed in a 5 L ribbon-type reactor. Biodegradation was performed by inoculation of autoclaved fish waste with 5.84 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1) of mixed microorganisms for 96 h. As a result, the pH changed from 6.92 to 5.72, the cell number reached 7.28 × 10(5) CFU mL(-1), and approximately 430 g (28.3%) of fish waste was degraded. Analyses indicated that the 96 h culture of inoculated fish waste possessed comparable fertilizing ability to commercial fertilizers in hydroponic culture with amino acid contents of 6.91 g 100 g(-1). Therefore, the scaled-up production achieved a more satisfactory fish waste degradation rate (3.61 g h(-1)) than the flask-scale production (0.24 g h(-1)). The biodegraded broth of fish waste at room temperature did not undergo putrefaction for 6 months due to the addition of 1% lactate.

  18. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  19. Brazing titanium to stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

  20. Stainless steel tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, T.

    1995-12-31

    There is currently no recognized code or standard for the design, fabrication and construction of atmospheric and low pressure stainless steel tanks. At the present time these tanks are being designed to individual specifications, manufacturers standards or utilizing other codes and standards that may not be entirely applicable. Recognizing the need, the American Petroleum Institute will be publishing a new appendix to the API STD 650 Standard which will cover stainless steel tanks. The new Appendix was put together by a Task Group of selected individuals from the API Subcommittee of Pressure Vessels and Tanks from the Committee on Refinery Equipment. This paper deals with the development and basis of the new appendix. The new appendix will provide a much needed standard to cover the material, design, fabrication, erection and testing requirements for vertical, cylindrical, austenitic stainless steel aboveground tanks in nonrefrigerated service.

  1. A-3 steel work completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  2. A-3 steel work completed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-09

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  3. A-3 steel work completed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  4. Thermally Stable Nanocrystalline Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulme-Smith, Christopher Neil; Ooi, Shgh Woei; Bhadeshia, Harshad K. D. H.

    2017-10-01

    Two novel nanocrystalline steels were designed to withstand elevated temperatures without catastrophic microstructural changes. In the most successful alloy, a large quantity of nickel was added to stabilize austenite and allow a reduction in the carbon content. A 50 kg cast of the novel alloy was produced and used to verify the formation of nanocrystalline bainite. Synchrotron X-ray diffractometry using in situ heating showed that austenite was able to survive more than 1 hour at 773 K (500 °C) and subsequent cooling to ambient temperature. This is the first reported nanocrystalline steel with high-temperature capability.

  5. Microbial-Influenced Corrosion of Corten Steel Compared with Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel in Oily Wastewater by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Hamidreza; Alavi, Seyed Abolhasan; Fotovat, Meysam

    2015-07-01

    The microbial corrosion behavior of three important steels (carbon steel, stainless steel, and Corten steel) was investigated in semi petroleum medium. This work was done in modified nutrient broth (2 g nutrient broth in 1 L oily wastewater) in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mixed culture (as a biotic media) and an abiotic medium for 2 weeks. The behavior of corrosion was analyzed by spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods and at the end was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the degree of corrosion of Corten steel in mixed culture, unlike carbon steel and stainless steel, is less than P. aeruginosa inoculated medium because some bacteria affect Corten steel less than other steels. According to the experiments, carbon steel had less resistance than Corten steel and stainless steel. Furthermore, biofilm inhibits separated particles of those steels to spread to the medium; in other words, particles get trapped between biofilm and steel.

  6. Braze alloy spreading on steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, T. A.; Heine, R. W.; Lagally, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron microscopy (AEM) were employed to observe elemental surface decomposition resulting from the brazing of a copper-treated steel. Two types of steel were used for the study, stainless steel (treated with a eutectic silver-copper alloy), and low-carbon steel (treated with pure copper). Attention is given to oxygen partial pressure during the processes; a low enough pressure (8 x 10 to the -5th torr) was found to totally inhibit the spreading of the filler material at a fixed heating cycle. With both types of steel, copper treatment enhanced even spreading at a decreased temperature.

  7. Sensitization of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the corrosion rates of 18-8 stainless steels that have been sensitized at various temperatures and to show the application of phase diagrams. The laboratory instructor will assign each student a temperature, ranging from 550 C to 1050 C, to which the sample will be heated. Further details of the experimental procedure are detailed.

  8. 77 FR 30589 - SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP, SteelRiver Infrastructure Associates LLC, SteelRiver Infrastructure Fund North America LP, and Patriot Funding LLC--Control Exemption--Patriot Rail Corp., et al. SteelRiver Infrastructure Partners LP (SRIP LP), SteelRiver...

  9. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  10. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  11. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  12. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  13. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  14. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  15. 46 CFR 59.20-1 - Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. 59.20-1 Section 59... BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Castings § 59.20-1 Carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings. Defects in carbon-steel or alloy-steel castings may be repaired by welding. The...

  16. Coated 4340 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-26

    plasma vapor NAWCADPAX/TR-2013/252 2 deposition (reference 9), chemical vapor deposition, hot dip galvanizing, anodizing, composite coatings ...electroplating on 4340 steel. Assess the impact of substitute primer and sacrificial coating on corrosion fatigue and SCC, in particular leading ...alternative coatings qualified to MIL-PRE-23377 Class N and an electroplated zinc -nickel alloy passivated with a trivalent chromium solution which is

  17. Ultrahigh Carbon Steel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    ferrite grains, 0.5-2 pm, containing fine spheroidized cementite particles, they have been shown not only to be super - plastic at intermediate...utilized to prepare ferrous laminated composites with super - plastic properties at intermediate temperatures’ 19 Ŗ 1 and with very high impact resistance...as an alloying addition that could alter the super - plastic properties of UHC steels because of its influence on the thermodynam- ics of the Fe-C

  18. Nanoprecipitates in Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Lu, Zhao Ping; Shim, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    The creep strength of ferritic steels can be substantially improved by the incorporation of a high number density of nano-scale dispersoids. Examples for such alloys are the oxide dispersion strengthened steels MA956, MA957, and PM2000. The dispersoids in these steels contain Y and Ti, or Y and Al. They can be as small as a few nanometers in size. Processing is traditionally carried out by mechanical alloying of elemental or pre-alloyed powders mixed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The goal of the present research is to identify alternative ways of producing ultrafine dispersoids. One possible way is internal oxidation, in which reactive elements dissolved in a metallic matrix are selectively oxidized. Internal oxidation experiments were carried out with Fe-Y, Fe-Ti-Y, and Fe-Al-Y precursors. Microstructural analysis showed that dispersoid dimensions as small as 10 nm could be achieved. Atomized Fe-0.25 at% Y powder was internally oxidized and consolidated by hot forging. An increase in the high-temperature creep strength by {approx} 20% was observed. Since it is likely that the composition of the precursor alloys is crucial for maximizing the number density and thermal stability of the oxides, experiments allowing the rapid screening of different compositions have been initiated.

  19. Nanoprecipitates in Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Kad, Bimal

    2008-01-01

    The creep strength of ferritic steels can be substantially improved by the incorporation of a high number density of nano-scale dispersoids. Examples for such alloys are the oxide dispersion strengthened steels MA956, MA957, and PM2000. The dispersoids in these steels contain Y and Ti, or Y and Al. They can be as small as a few nanometers in size. Processing is traditionally carried out by mechanical alloying of elemental or pre-alloyed powders mixed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder. The goal of the present research is to identify alternative ways of producing ultrafine dispersoids. One possible way is internal oxidation, in which reactive elements dissolved in a metallic matrix are selectively oxidized. Internal oxidation experiments were carried out with Fe-Y, Fe-Ti-Y, and Fe-Al-Y precursors. Microstructural analysis showed that dispersoid dimensions as small as 10 nm could be achieved. Atomized Fe-0.25 at% Y powder was internally oxidized and consolidated by hot forging. An increase in the high-temperature creep strength by {approx} 20% was observed. Since it is likely that the composition of the precursor alloys is crucial for maximizing the number density and thermal stability of the oxides, experiments allowing the rapid screening of different compositions have been initiated.

  20. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  1. Mapping the SRS-22r questionnaire onto the EQ-5D-5L utility score in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carlos King Ho; Cheung, Prudence Wing Hang; Samartzis, Dino; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin

    2017-01-01

    This is a prospective study to establish prediction models that map the refined Scoliosis Research Society 22-item (SRS-22r) onto EuroQoL-5 dimension 5-level (EQ-5D-5L) utility scores in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Comparison of treatment outcomes in AIS can be determined by cost-utility analysis. However, the mainstay spine-specific health-related quality of life outcome measure, the SRS-22r questionnaire does not provide utility assessment. In this study, AIS patients were prospectively recruited to complete both the EQ-5D-5L and SRS-22r questionnaires by trained interviewers. Ordinary least squares regression was undertaken to develop mapping models, which the validity and robustness were assessed by using the 10-fold cross-validation procedure. EQ-5D-5L utility scores were regressed on demographics, Cobb angle, curve types, treatment modalities, and five domains of the SRS-22r questionnaire. Three models were developed using stepwise selection method. EQ-5D-5L scores were regressed on 1) main effects of SRS-22r subscale scores, 2) as per 1 plus squared and interaction terms, and 3) as per 2 plus demographic and clinical characteristics. Model goodness-of-fit was assessed using R-square, adjusted R-square, and information criteria; whereas the predictive performance was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and the proportion of absolute error within the threshold of 0.05 and 0.10. A total of 227 AIS patients with mean age of 15.6 years were recruited. The EQ-5D-5L scores were predicted by four domains of SRS-22r (main effects of 'Function', 'Pain', 'Appearance' and 'Mental Health', and squared term of 'Function' and 'Pain'), and Cobb angle in Model 3 with the best goodness-of-fit (R-square/adjusted R-square: 62.1%/60.9%). Three models demonstrated an acceptance predictive performance in error analysis applying 10-fold cross-validation to three models where RMSE and MAE were between 0.063-0.065 and between

  2. Measuring health-related quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: properties of the EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS-43 short form

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 43-item short form (PROMIS-43) and the five-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) are recently developed measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL) that have potentially broad application in evaluating treatments and capturing burden of respiratory-related diseases. The aims of this study were: (1) to examine their psychometric properties in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and (2) to identify dimensions of HRQL that differ and do not differ by lung function. Methods We conducted a multi-center, cross-sectional study (“COPD Outcomes-based Network for Clinical Effectiveness & Research Translation” [CONCERT]). We analyzed patients who met spirometric criteria for COPD, and completed EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS questionnaires. Disease severity was graded based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification. Pulmonary function test, PROMIS-43, EQ-5D (index score and EQ-Visual Analog Scale [EQ-VAS]), six minute walk test (6MWT), and three dyspnea scales (mMRC, Borg, FACIT-Dyspnea) were administered. Validity and reliability of EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS-43 were examined, and differences in HRQL by GOLD grade were assessed. Results Data from 670 patients with COPD were analyzed (mean age 68.5 years; 58% male). More severe COPD was associated with more problems with mobility, self-care and usual activities (all p-values <0.01) according to EQ-5D-5L. Related domains on EQ-5D-5L, PROMIS and clinical measures were moderately (r = 0.30-0.49) to strongly (r ≥ 0.50) correlated. A statistically significant trend of decreasing HRQL with more severe lung functions was observed for EQ-5D-5L index scores, EQ-VAS scores, and PROMIS physical function and social roles. Conclusions Results supported the validity of EQ-5D-5L and PROMIS-43 in COPD patients, and indicate that physical function and social activities decrease with level of lung function by GOLD

  3. A Qualitative Assessment of the Content Validity of the ICECAP-A and EQ-5D-5L and Their Appropriateness for Use in Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Thomas; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Lorgelly, Paula; Coast, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The ICECAP-A and EQ-5D-5L are two index measures appropriate for use in health research. Assessment of content validity allows understanding of whether a measure captures the most relevant and important aspects of a concept. This paper reports a qualitative assessment of the content validity and appropriateness for use of the eq-5D-5L and ICECAP-A measures, using novel methodology. Methods In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with research professionals in the UK and Australia. Informants were purposively sampled based on their professional role. Data were analysed in an iterative, thematic and constant comparative manner. A two stage investigation - the comparative direct approach - was developed to address the methodological challenges of the content validity research and allow rigorous assessment. Results Informants viewed the ICECAP-A as an assessment of the broader determinants of quality of life, but lacking in assessment of health-related determinants. The eq-5D-5L was viewed as offering good coverage of health determinants, but as lacking in assessment of these broader determinants. Informants held some concerns about the content or wording of the Self-care, Pain/Discomfort and Anxiety/Depression items (EQ-5D-5L) and the Enjoyment, Achievement and attachment items (ICECAP-A). Conclusion Using rigorous qualitative methodology the results suggest that the ICECAP-A and EQ-5D-5L hold acceptable levels of content validity and are appropriate for use in health research. This work adds expert opinion to the emerging body of research using patients and public to validate these measures. PMID:24367708

  4. Comparing the performance of the EQ-5D-3L and the EQ-5D-5L in young Portuguese adults.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lara N; Ferreira, Pedro L; Ribeiro, Filipa P; Pereira, Luis N

    2016-06-08

    Some studies have reported a ceiling effect in EQ-5D-3L, especially in healthy and/or young individuals. Recently, two further levels have been included in its measurement model (EQ-5D-5L). The purposes of this study were (1) to assess the properties of the EQ-5D-5L in comparison with the standard EQ-5D-3L in a sample of young adults, (2) to foreground the importance of collecting qualitative data to confirm, validate or refine the EQ-5D questionnaire items and (3) to raise questions pertaining to the wording in these questionnaire items. The data used came from a sample of respondents aged 30 or under (n = 624). They completed both versions of the EQ-5D, which were compared in terms of feasibility, level of inconsistency and ceiling effect. Agreement between the instruments was assessed using correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Known-groups validity of the EQ-5D-5L was also assessed using non-parametric tests. The discriminative properties were compared using receiver operating characteristic curves. Finally, four interviews were conducted for retrospective reports to elicit respondents' understanding and perceptions of the format, instructions, items, and responses. Quantitative results show a ceiling effect reduction of 25.3 % and a high level agreement between both indices. Known-groups validity was confirmed for the EQ-5D-5L. Explorative interviews indicated ambiguity and low degree of certainty in regards to conceptualizing differences between levels moderate-slight across three dimensions. The EQ-5D-5L performed better than the EQ-5D-3L. However, the explorative interviews demonstrated several limitations in the EQ-5D questionnaire wording and high context-dependent answers point to lack of illnesses' experience amongst young adults.

  5. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, W.A.; Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1998-07-14

    A process is described for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75 C and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (1) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (2) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (3) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (4) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte. 1 fig.

  6. Process for dezincing galvanized steel

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, William A.; Dudek, Frederick J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1998-01-01

    A process for removing zinc from galvanized steel. The galvanized steel is immersed in an electrolyte containing at least about 15% by weight of sodium or potassium hydroxide and having a temperature of at least about 75.degree. C. and the zinc is galvanically corroded from the surface of the galvanized steel. The material serving as the cathode is principally a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series. The corrosion rate may be accelerated by (i) increasing the number density of corrosion sites in the galvanized steel by mechanically abrading or deforming the galvanized steel, (ii) heating the galvanized steel to form an alloy of zinc on the surface of the galvanized steel, (iii) mixing the galvanized steel with a material having a standard electrode potential which is intermediate of the standard electrode potentials of zinc and cadmium in the electrochemical series, or (iv) moving the galvanized steel relative to itself and to the electrolyte while immersed in the electrolyte.

  7. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Gun Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    8217s HY80 and HY130 steels were checked for the critical hydrogen concentrations which were determined to be 6 ppm for HY8O steel 8 and 3 ppm for HY130...JOTC FILE COPY AD-A188 972 AD 1 TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-87030 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF GUN STEEL F’ GERALD L. SPFNCER DTIC DEC 1 5 1987 NOVEMBER...PtEtIOC COVERED HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEHENT OF GUN STEEL Final OG EOTNME 6. PERFORMINGORO EOTNME 7. A*JTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Gerald L

  8. High strength, tough alloy steel

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.

    1979-01-01

    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range (1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below 300.degree. C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  9. Induction heat treatment of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Semiatin, S.L.; Stutz, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the induction heating. After reviewing heat treating operations for steel and the principles of the heat treatment of steel, an overview of induction heat treating is provided. Next, consideration is given to equipment and equipment selection, coil design, power requirements and temperature control. A discussion of surface and through hardening of steel is provided, including information on frequency and power selection and quenching apparatus. Tempering is considered, followed by information on control of residual stresses, cracking, temper brittleness and the important metallurgical and hardness differences between induction and furnace treated steel.

  10. Valuation of the EQ-5D-5L with composite time trade-off for the German population - an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Kristina; von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias Graf; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2017-02-20

    The EuroQol Group has extended the severity levels of the EQ-5D from three to five (EQ-5D-5L). There are valuation studies worldwide planned in order to convert the EQ-5D-5L health states into a single preference-based summary score based on country-specific value sets of social health status preference valuations. The EuroQol Group developed an internationally standardised EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol. Based on the experiences of the first wave of valuation studies applying the protocol, a number of modifications to the implementation of composite time trade-off (cTTO) were proposed and tested in an exploratory study in Germany. The aim of the study is to test the improved EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol 1.1 and the implementation of three modifications: (1) introduction of ranking task, (2) separating time trade-off (TTO) tasks for health states "Better Than Dead"(BTD)/"Worse Than Dead" (WTD), (3) allow for removal of problematic valuations from the cTTO data (the feedback module). Data were collected in computer assisted personal interviews with 200 members of the German general public. In comparison to the first wave of valuation studies a higher data quality can be observed in both study arms: increasing number of WTD valuations, reduced inconsistencies for health state 55555 as well as higher values for mild health states. Comparing both study arms, mean observed cTTO value for severity 6 is higher in the test arm. The proportion of inconsistent cTTO responses is lower in the test arm than in the control arm and is further reduced by the feedback module. The ranking task prolongs the interview without the desired effect. Both study arms yielded higher data quality in comparison to the first wave of EQ-5D-5L valuation studies. The valuation protocol combined with an intensive interviewer training and close data monitoring showed a high feasibility and acceptability to the respondents of the general population as well as the interviewers in Germany. Based on the

  11. The industrial ecology of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  12. MINOS Detector Steel Magnetic Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Trendler and Walter F. Jaskierny

    1999-03-03

    Magnetic measurements were made on one steel plate of the MINOS far detector. The conventionally used technique of measuring sense coil voltage induced by step changes in excitation current voltage was successful in providing stable, repeatable measurements. Measurements were made at several locations on the steel and the results are presented.

  13. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Structural Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Somerday, Brian P.; San Marchi, Christopher W

    2014-08-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines; however, it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittlement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a well-established failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. This pressure cycling represents one of the key differences in operating conditions between current hydrogen pipelines and those anticipated in a hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Applying structural integrity models in design codes coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of the reliability/integrity of steel hydrogen pipelines subjected to pressure cycling. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of physics-based predictive models, which provide important insights such as the effects of microstructure on hydrogen-assisted fatigue crack growth. Successful implementation of these structural integrity and physics-based models enhances confidence in the design codes and enables decisions about materials selection and operating conditions for reliable and efficient steel hydrogen pipelines.

  14. Magnetoacoustic stress measurements in steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, M.; Utrata, D.; Allison, S. G.; Heyman, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Uniaxial stress effects on the low-field magnetoacoustic interaction have been studied using bulk compressional waves and Rayleigh surface waves in numerous steel samples having various impurity concentrations (Namkung et al., 1984). The results invariably showed that the initial slope of acoustic natural velocity variations, with respect to net induced magnetization parallel to the stress axis, is positive under tension and negative under compression. The results of current measurements in railroad rail steel having about 0.68 wt percent carbon content are typical for medium range carbon steels. The low-field natural velocity slope in this particular type of steel, which is almost zero when unstressed, becomes steeper with increased magnitude of stress in both directions. Hence, the nondestructive determination of the sign of residual stress in railroad wheels and rails is possible using this technique. This paper discusses the basic physical mechanism underlying the experimental observations and presents the results obtained in railroad rail steel.

  15. Does the Introduction of the Ranking Task in Valuation Studies Improve Data Quality and Reduce Inconsistencies? The Case of the EQ-5D-5L.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Goñi, Juan M; Rand-Hendriksen, Kim; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis

    2016-06-01

    Time trade-off (TTO)-based valuation studies for the three-level version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) typically started off with a ranking task (ordering the health states by preference). This was not included in the protocol for the five-level EQ-5D (EQ-5D-5L) valuation study. To test whether reintroducing a ranking task before the composite TTO (C-TTO) could help to reduce inconsistencies in C-TTO responses and improve the data quality. Respondents were randomly assigned to three study arms. The control arm was the present EQ-5D-5L study protocol, without ranking. The second arm (ranking without sorting) preceded the present protocol by asking respondents to rank the target health states using physical cards. The states were then valued in random order using C-TTO. In the third arm (ranking and sorting), the ranked states remained visible through the C-TTO tasks and the order of valuation was determined by the ranking. The study used only 10 EQ-5D-5L health states. We compared the C-TTO-based inconsistent pairs of health states and ties. The final sample size was 196 in the control arm, 205 in the ranking without sorting arm, and 199 in the ranking and sorting arm. The percentages of ties by respondents were 15.1%, 12.5%, and 12.6% for the control arm, the ranking without sorting arm, and the ranking and sorting arm, respectively. The extra cost for adding the ranking task was about 15%. The benefit does not justify the effort involved in the ranking task. For this reason, the addition of the ranking task to the present EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol is not an attractive option. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 2169 Steel Waveform Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnish, M.; Alexander, C.; Reinhart, W.; Brown, J.

    2013-06-01

    In support of efforts to develop multiscale models of materials, we performed eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn). These experiments provided shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were used, with samples 1 to 5 mm thick. The study focused on dynamic strength determination via the release/reshock paths. Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allowed release information to be determined from these free surface samples as well. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  17. Steel forgings: Second volume

    SciTech Connect

    Nisbett, E.G.; Melilli, A.S.

    1997-12-31

    Steel is supplied in many product forms, most of which are produced in terms of basic dimensions such as width and thickness, or diameter and with length describing quantity. Forgings and castings by contrast are diverse in shape and form and are individually made for a specific purpose, either as self contained units such as crankshafts, valve bodies or turbine rotors, or as discrete components to be fabricated into a larger assembly, as for example a nozzle for a pressure vessel. The specification and testing of forgings is therefore more varied, complex, and demanding than is the case for other product forms. This is augmented by the fact that forgings are often expected to give better reliability and service performance than can be expected when the same part is fabricated from sections of other steel product forms, if this were in fact practical. Given these unique circumstances the exchange of ideas on forging manufacturing techniques and experience, materials data and service experience has been an essential driving force in developing forging techniques and applications in every industrial field. The format of the symposium was similar to that of Williamsburg, focusing on the scope of the subcommittee in the areas of pressure vessel and nuclear forgings, turbine and generator forgings, general industrial forgings, and test methods for forgings. Separate abstracts were prepared for 17 papers.

  18. Connections: Superplasticity, Damascus Steels, Laminated Steels, and Carbon Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a description is given of the connections that evolved from the initial development of a family of superplastic plain carbon steels that came to be known as Ultra-High Carbon Steels (UHCS). It was observed that their very high carbon contents were similar, if not identical, to those of Damascus steels. There followed a series of attempts to rediscover how the famous patterns found on Damascus steels blades were formed. At the same time, in order to improve the toughness at room temperature of the newly-developed UHCS, laminated composites were made of alternating layers of UHCS and mild steel (and subsequently other steels and other metals). This led to a study of ancient laminated composites, the motives for their manufacture, and the plausibility of some of the claims relating to the number of layers in the final blades. One apparently ancient laminated composite, recovered in 1837 from the great pyramid of Giza which was constructed in about 2750 B.C., stimulated a carbon dating study of ancient steels. The modern interest in "Bladesmithing" has connections back to many of these ancient weapons.

  19. CTNNBL1 facilitates the association of CWC15 with CDC5L and is required to maintain the abundance of the Prp19 spliceosomal complex

    PubMed Central

    van Maldegem, Febe; Maslen, Sarah; Johnson, Christopher M.; Chandra, Anita; Ganesh, Karuna; Skehel, Mark; Rada, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    In order to catalyse the splicing of messenger RNA, multiple proteins and RNA components associate and dissociate in a dynamic highly choreographed process. The Prp19 complex is a conserved essential part of the splicing machinery thought to facilitate the conformational changes the spliceosome undergoes during catalysis. Dynamic protein interactions often involve highly disordered regions that are difficult to study by structural methods. Using amine crosslinking and hydrogen–deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry, we describe the architecture of the Prp19 sub-complex that contains CTNNBL1. Deficiency in CTNNBL1 leads to delayed initiation of cell division and embryonic lethality. Here we show that in vitro CTNNBL1 enhances the association of CWC15 and CDC5L, both core Prp19 complex proteins and identify an overlap in the region of CDC5L that binds either CTNNBL1 or CWC15 suggesting the two proteins might exchange places in the complex. Furthermore, in vivo, CTNNBL1 is required to maintain normal levels of the Prp19 complex and to facilitate the interaction of CWC15 with CDC5L. Our results identify a chaperone function for CTNNBL1 within the essential Prp19 complex, a function required to maintain the integrity of the complex and to support efficient splicing. PMID:26130721

  20. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  1. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  2. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  3. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  4. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for...

  5. Occupational Profiles in the European Steel Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Hans-Werner; And Others

    The steel industry in Europe has faced great changes, with resulting layoffs and restructuring. Now that the most basic changes seem to be over, it has become evident that the remaining steel industry requires more highly trained workers than was the case previously. Although steel maintenance employees were always highly skilled, steel production…

  6. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Koji

    2002-01-01

    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

  7. Hypereutectoid high-speed steels

    SciTech Connect

    Kremnev, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    Half of the tungsten and molybdenum contained in R6M5 and R18 steels is concentrated in the undissolved eutectic carbides hindering austenitic grain gowth in hardening and providing the necessary strength and impact strength. This article describes the tungsten-free low-alloy high-speed steel 11M5F with a chemical composition of 1.03-1.10% C, 5.2-5.7% Mo, 3.8-4.2% Cr, 1.3-1.7% V, 0.3-0.6% Si, and 0.3% Ce. The properties of 11M5F and R6M5 steels are examined and compared. The results of production and laboratory tests of the cutting properties of tools of the steels developed showed their high effectiveness, especially of 11M5F steel with 1% A1. The life of tools of the tungsten-free steels is two or three times greater than the life of tools of R6M5 steel.

  8. Mapping the SRS-22r questionnaire onto the EQ-5D-5L utility score in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Samartzis, Dino; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei; Cheung, Kenneth M. C.; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen

    2017-01-01

    This is a prospective study to establish prediction models that map the refined Scoliosis Research Society 22-item (SRS-22r) onto EuroQoL-5 dimension 5-level (EQ-5D-5L) utility scores in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Comparison of treatment outcomes in AIS can be determined by cost-utility analysis. However, the mainstay spine-specific health-related quality of life outcome measure, the SRS-22r questionnaire does not provide utility assessment. In this study, AIS patients were prospectively recruited to complete both the EQ-5D-5L and SRS-22r questionnaires by trained interviewers. Ordinary least squares regression was undertaken to develop mapping models, which the validity and robustness were assessed by using the 10-fold cross-validation procedure. EQ-5D-5L utility scores were regressed on demographics, Cobb angle, curve types, treatment modalities, and five domains of the SRS-22r questionnaire. Three models were developed using stepwise selection method. EQ-5D-5L scores were regressed on 1) main effects of SRS-22r subscale scores, 2) as per 1 plus squared and interaction terms, and 3) as per 2 plus demographic and clinical characteristics. Model goodness-of-fit was assessed using R-square, adjusted R-square, and information criteria; whereas the predictive performance was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and the proportion of absolute error within the threshold of 0.05 and 0.10. A total of 227 AIS patients with mean age of 15.6 years were recruited. The EQ-5D-5L scores were predicted by four domains of SRS-22r (main effects of ‘Function’, ‘Pain’, ‘Appearance’ and ‘Mental Health’, and squared term of ‘Function’ and ‘Pain’), and Cobb angle in Model 3 with the best goodness-of-fit (R-square/adjusted R-square: 62.1%/60.9%). Three models demonstrated an acceptance predictive performance in error analysis applying 10-fold cross-validation to three models where RMSE and MAE were between

  9. Effect of Stress on Corrosion at Crack Tip on Pipeline Steel in a Near-Neutral pH Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yao; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the local corrosion at crack tip on an API 5L X46 pipeline steel specimens was investigated under various applied loads in a near-neutral pH solution. Electrochemical measurements, including potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, combined with micro-electrochemical technique and surface characterization, were conducted to investigate the effect of stress on local anodic solution of the steel at the crack tip. The stress corrosion cracking of the steel was dominated by an anodic dissolution mechanism, while the effect of hydrogen was negligible. The applied load (stress) increased the corrosion rate at the crack tip, contributing to crack propagation. The deposit of corrosion products at the crack tip could protect somewhat from further corrosion. At sufficiently large applied loads such as 740 N in the work, it was possible to generate separated cathode and anode, further accelerating the crack growth.

  10. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  11. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions).

  12. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R.; Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B.

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  13. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1986-09-16

    A process is described for welding chromium-molybdenum steels which consist of: subjecting the steel to normalization by heating to above the transformation temperature and cooling in air; subjecting the steel to a partial temper by heating to a temperature less than a full temper; welding the steel using an appropriate filler metal; subjecting the steel to a full temper by heating to a temperature sufficient to optimize strength, reduce stress, increase ductility and reduce hardness.

  14. 2169 steel waveform experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, Michael David; Alexander, C. Scott; Reinhart, William Dodd; Brown, Justin L.

    2012-11-01

    In support of LLNL efforts to develop multiscale models of a variety of materials, we have performed a set of eight gas gun impact experiments on 2169 steel (21% Cr, 6% Ni, 9% Mn, balance predominantly Fe). These experiments provided carefully controlled shock, reshock and release velocimetry data, with initial shock stresses ranging from 10 to 50 GPa (particle velocities from 0.25 to 1.05 km/s). Both windowed and free-surface measurements were included in this experiment set to increase the utility of the data set, as were samples ranging in thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Target physical phenomena included the elastic/plastic transition (Hugoniot elastic limit), the Hugoniot, any phase transition phenomena, and the release path (windowed and free-surface). The Hugoniot was found to be nearly linear, with no indications of the Fe phase transition. Releases were non-hysteretic, and relatively consistent between 3- and 5-mmthick samples (the 3 mm samples giving slightly lower wavespeeds on release). Reshock tests with explosively welded impactors produced clean results; those with glue bonds showed transient releases prior to the arrival of the reshock, reducing their usefulness for deriving strength information. The free-surface samples, which were steps on a single piece of steel, showed lower wavespeeds for thin (1 mm) samples than for thicker (2 or 4 mm) samples. A configuration used for the last three shots allows release information to be determined from these free surface samples. The sample strength appears to increase with stress from ~1 GPa to ~ 3 GPa over this range, consistent with other recent work but about 40% above the Steinberg model.

  15. JPDR vessel steel examination

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Broadhead, B.L.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    There is a need to validate the results of irradiation effects research by the examination of material taken directly from the wall of a pressure vessel which has been irradiated during normal service. This task has been included with the HSSI Program to provide just such an evaluation of material from the wall of the pressure vessel from the JPDR. The JPDR was a small BWR that began operation in 1963. It operated until 1976, accumulating {approximately}17,000 h of operation, of which a little over 14,000 h were with the original 45-MWTh core, and the remaining fraction, late in life, with an upgraded 90-MWTh core. The pressure vessel of the JPDR, fabricated from A 302, grade B, modified steel with an internal weld overlay cladding of 304 stainless steel, is approximately 2 m ID and 73 mm thick. It was fabricated from two shell halves joined by longitudinal seam welds located 180{degrees} from each other. The rolling direction of the shell plates is parallel to the axis of the vessel. It operated at 273{degrees}C and reached a maximum fluence of about 2.3 x 10{sup 18} n/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The impurity contents in the base metal are 0.10 to 0.11% Cu and 0.010 to 0.017% P with a nickel content of 0.63 to 0.65%. Impurity contents of the weld metal are 0.11 to 0.14% Cu and 0.025 to 0.039% P with a nickel content of 0.59%.

  16. Fabrication of stainless steel foil utilizing chromized steel strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loria, Edward A.

    1980-10-01

    Stainless steel foil has properties which are, in many respects, unmatched by alternative thin films. The high strength to weight ratio and resistance to corrosion and oxidation at elevated temperatures are generally advantageous. The aerospace and automotive industries have used Type 430 and 304 foil in turbine engine applications. Foil around 2 mils (5.1 × 10-3 cm) thick has been appropriate for the recuperator or heat exchanger and this product has also been used in honeycomb and truss-core structures. Further, such foil has been employed as a wrap to protect tool steel parts from contamination during heat treating. A large part of the high cost of producing stainless steel foil by rolling is due to the complicated and expensive rolling mill and annealing equipment involved. A method will be described which produces (solid) stainless steel foil from chromized (coated) steel which can be cheaper than the conventional processing stainless steel, such as Type 430, from ingot to foil. Also, the material is more ductile and less work hardenable during processing to foil and consequently intermediate annealing treatments are eliminated and scrap losses minimized.

  17. Rebuilding Steam Turbine Generator Reduces Costs at a Steel Mill (Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC))

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Rebuilding steam turbine generator reduces costs at a steel mill. To remain competitive in the rapidly changing global marketplace, Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), the second largest producer of steel in the United States, was looking for...

  18. On the estimation of the magnetic easy axis in pipeline steels using magnetic Barkhausen noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Ortiz, P.; Pérez-Benitez, J. A.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Caleyo, F.; Hallen, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    A method for determination of the magnetic easy axis of the Roll Magnetic Anisotropy in API-5L steels is proposed. The method is based on the fact that the angular dependence of the energy corresponding to the main peak of the Magnetic Barkhausen signal presents uniaxial anisotropy with its easy axis parallel to the rolling direction, independently of the angular dependence of the magnetocrystalline energy in the materials. The proposal is also justified based on the analysis of the influence of microstructural changes, produced by hot-rolling on the domain wall dynamics.

  19. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline

  20. Extracellular histones are essential effectors of C5aR- and C5L2-mediated tissue damage and inflammation in acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Bosmann, Markus; Grailer, Jamison J.; Ruemmler, Robert; Russkamp, Norman F.; Zetoune, Firas S.; Sarma, J. Vidya; Standiford, Theodore J.; Ward, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how complement activation promotes tissue injury and organ dysfunction during acute inflammation. Three models of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by LPS, IgG immune complexes, or C5a were used in C57BL/6 mice, all models requiring availability of both C5a receptors (C5aR and C5L2) for full development of ALI. Ligation of C5aR and C5L2 with C5a triggered the appearance of histones (H3 and H4) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). BALF from humans with ALI contained H4 histone. Histones were absent in control BALF from healthy volunteers. In mice with ALI, in vivo neutralization of H4 with IgG antibody reduced the intensity of ALI. Neutrophil depletion in mice with ALI markedly reduced H4 presence in BALF and was highly protective. The direct lung damaging effects of extracellular histones were demonstrated by airway administration of histones into mice and rats (Sprague-Dawley), which resulted in ALI that was C5a receptor-independent, and associated with intense inflammation, PMN accumulation, damage/destruction of alveolar epithelial cells, together with release into lung of cytokines/chemokines. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated lung damage, edema and consolidation in histone-injured lungs. These studies confirm the destructive C5a-dependent effects in lung linked to appearance of extracellular histones.—Bosmann, M., Grailer, J. J., Ruemmler, R., Russkamp, N. F., Zetoune, F. S., Sarma, J. V., Standiford, T. J., Ward, P. A. Extracellular histones are essential effectors of C5aR- and C5L2-mediated tissue damage and inflammation in acute lung injury. PMID:23982144

  1. Health literacy and logical inconsistencies in valuations of hypothetical health states: results from the Canadian EQ-5D-5L valuation study.

    PubMed

    Al Sayah, Fatima; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Ohinmaa, Arto; Xie, Feng; Bansback, Nick

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association of health literacy with logical inconsistencies in time trade-off valuations of hypothetical health states described by the EQ-5D-5L classification system. Data from the EQ-5D-5L Canadian Valuation study were used. Health literacy was assessed using the Brief Health Literacy Screen. A health state valuation was considered logically inconsistent if a respondent gave the same or lower value for a very mild health state compared to the value given to 55555, or gave the same or lower value for a very mild health state compared to value assigned to the majority of the health states that are dominated by the very mild health state. Average age of respondents (N = 1209) was 48 (SD = 17) years, 45% were male, 7% reported inadequate health literacy, and 11% had a logical inconsistency. In adjusted analysis, participants with inadequate health literacy were 2.2 (95%CI: 1.2, 4.0; p = 0.014) times more likely to provide an inconsistent valuation compared to those with adequate health literacy. More specifically, those who had problems in "understanding written information" and "reading health information" were more likely to have a logical inconsistency compared to those who did not. However, lacking "confidence in completing medical forms" was not associated with logical inconsistencies. Health literacy was associated with logical inconsistencies in valuations of hypothetical health states described by the EQ-5D-5L classification system. Valuations studies should consider assessing health literacy, and explore better ways to introduce the valuation tasks or use simpler approaches of health preferences elicitation for individuals with inadequate health literacy.

  2. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  3. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-17

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  4. Fatigue handbook: Offshore steel structures

    SciTech Connect

    Almarnaess, A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Overview of Offshore Steel Structures; Loads on Ocean Structures; Fracture Mechanics As a Tool in Fatigue Analysis; Basic Fatigue Properties of Welded Joints; Significance of Defects; Improving the Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints; Effects of Marine Environment and Cathodic Protection on Fatigue of Structural Steels Fatigue of Tubular Joints; Unstable Fracture; Fatigue Life Calculations; and Fatigue in Building Codes Background and Applications.

  5. Process Hood Stand Support Steel

    SciTech Connect

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-04-03

    This package is written to comply with EN-6-035-00 for upgrade dedication of commercial grade items (CGI). The SNF-5953 CGI package provides the Technical evaluation to identify the critical characteristics and the acceptance criteria associated with the safety function of the Hood Stand Support Steel. Completion of the technical and quality requirements identified in the dedication package will provide enough data to be reasonably assured that CGI Hood Stand Support Steel will perform its SC function.

  6. Analysis of plasma nitrided steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Ferrante, J.; Honecy, F.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of plasma nitrided steels can be divided to two main categories - structural and chemical. Structural analysis can provide information not only on the hardening mechanisms but also on the fundamental processes involved. Chemical analysis can be used to study the kinetics for the nitriding process and its mechanisms. In this paper preliminary results obtained by several techniques of both categories are presented and the applicability of those techniques to the analysis of plasma-nitrided steels is discussed.

  7. Wear of steel by rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.; Pulford, C. T. R.

    1978-01-01

    Wear of a steel blade used as a scraper to abrade rubber surfaces has been found to take place much more rapidly on a cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber) surface than on a cis-polybutadiene surface, and much more rapidly in an inert atmosphere than in air. These observations are attributed to the direct attack upon steel of free-radical species generated by mechanical rupture of elastomer molecules during abrasion.

  8. Wear of steel by rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gent, A. N.; Pulford, C. T. R.

    1978-01-01

    Wear of a steel blade used as a scraper to abrade rubber surfaces has been found to take place much more rapidly on a cis-polyisoprene (natural rubber) surface than on a cis-polybutadiene surface, and much more rapidly in an inert atmosphere than in air. These observations are attributed to the direct attack upon steel of free-radical species generated by mechanical rupture of elastomer molecules during abrasion.

  9. Development of New Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Buck

    2005-08-30

    A new family of innovative martensitic stainless steels, 521-A, 521-B, and 521-C has been developed by Advanced Steel Technology, LLC (Trafford, PA) as high strength fastener (bolt) materials for use at moderate temperatures in turbine engines, including steam turbines, gas turbines, and aircraft engines. The primary objective of the development program was to create a martensitic stainless steel with high strength at moderate temperatures, and which could replace the expensive nickel-based superalloy IN 718 in some fasteners applications. A secondary objective was to replace conventional 12Cr steels such as AISI 422 used as blades, buckets and shafts that operate at intermediate temperatures in turbine engines with stronger steel. The composition of the new alloys was specifically designed to produce excellent mechanical properties while integrating heat treatment steps into production to reduce energy consumption during manufacturing. As a result, production costs and energy consumption during production of rolled bar products is significantly lower than conventional materials. Successful commercialization of the new alloys would permit the installed cost of certain turbine engines to be reduced without sacrificing high availability or operational flexibility, thereby enhancing the global competitiveness of U.S. turbine engine manufacturers. Moreover, the domestic specialty steel industry would also benefit through increased productivity and reduced operating costs, while increasing their share of the international market for turbine engine fasteners, blades, buckets and shafts.

  10. Recombinant C3adesArg/acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is highly bioactive: a critical evaluation of C5L2 binding and 3T3-L1 adipocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Lapointe, Marc; Gauvreau, Danny; Kalant, David; Cianflone, Katherine

    2009-10-01

    C5L2 is a recently identified receptor for C5a/C5adesArg, C3a and C3adesArg (ASP). C5a/C5adesArg bind with high affinity, with no identified activation. By contrast, some studies demonstrate C3a/ASP binding/activation to C5L2; others do not. Our aim is to critically evaluate ASP/C3adesArg-C5L2 binding and bioactivity. Cell-associated fluorescent-ASP (Fl-ASP) binding to C5L2 increased from transiently transfected5L2-HEK for both human C5L2 and mouse C5L2. Transfected C5L2-CHO cells had similar results. Endogenous C5L2 expression increased from 3T3-L1 preadipocytes<3T3-L1 adipocytes5L2-HEK (Fl-ASP sorted) and 3T3-L1 cells, blocking with 10% fetal calf serum, protamine sulfate or ovalbumin prevented (125)I-ASP non-specific binding (NSB, no cells), while albumin increased NSB. Binding to non-transfected HEK was comparable to NSB. Optimal specific binding was obtained at 20 degrees C (vs. 4 degrees C) in PBS or serum-free medium with K(d) 83.7+/-23.7 nM (C5L2-HEK), 66+/-15 nM (C5L2-CHO) and 76+/-14.3 nM (3T3-L1 preadipocytes); (125)I-C5a binding had greater affinity. Fl-ASP-C5L2 binding was comparable and concentration dependent (K(d) 31 nM (direct binding) and IC(50) 35 nM (competition binding) regardless of conditions). Recombinant ASP (rASP) produced in modified Escherichia coli Origami (DE3) (allowing folding and disulphide bridge formation), purified under non-denaturing conditions demonstrated 10x greater bioactivity vs. proteolytically derived plasma ASP for triglyceride synthesis and fatty acid uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and preadipocytes while adipose tissue from C5L2 KO mice was non-responsive. rASP stimulation of adipocyte BODIPY-fatty acid uptake demonstrated EC(50) 115+/-93 nM and maximal stimulation of 413+/-33%, p<0.001. ASP binding has distinct characteristics that lead to C5L2 activation and increased

  11. Extracellular histones are essential effectors of C5aR- and C5L2-mediated tissue damage and inflammation in acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Bosmann, Markus; Grailer, Jamison J; Ruemmler, Robert; Russkamp, Norman F; Zetoune, Firas S; Sarma, J Vidya; Standiford, Theodore J; Ward, Peter A

    2013-12-01

    We investigated how complement activation promotes tissue injury and organ dysfunction during acute inflammation. Three models of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by LPS, IgG immune complexes, or C5a were used in C57BL/6 mice, all models requiring availability of both C5a receptors (C5aR and C5L2) for full development of ALI. Ligation of C5aR and C5L2 with C5a triggered the appearance of histones (H3 and H4) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). BALF from humans with ALI contained H4 histone. Histones were absent in control BALF from healthy volunteers. In mice with ALI, in vivo neutralization of H4 with IgG antibody reduced the intensity of ALI. Neutrophil depletion in mice with ALI markedly reduced H4 presence in BALF and was highly protective. The direct lung damaging effects of extracellular histones were demonstrated by airway administration of histones into mice and rats (Sprague-Dawley), which resulted in ALI that was C5a receptor-independent, and associated with intense inflammation, PMN accumulation, damage/destruction of alveolar epithelial cells, together with release into lung of cytokines/chemokines. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated lung damage, edema and consolidation in histone-injured lungs. These studies confirm the destructive C5a-dependent effects in lung linked to appearance of extracellular histones.

  12. The Nop5-L7A-fibrillarin RNP complex and a novel box C/D containing sRNA of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1.

    PubMed

    Weisel, Jasmin; Wagner, Steffen; Klug, Gabriele

    2010-04-09

    RNA 2'O-methylation is a frequent modification of rRNA and tRNA and supposed to influence RNA folding and stability. Ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, containing the proteins Nop5, L7A, fibrillarin, and a box C/D sRNA, are guided for 2'O-methylation by interactions of their RNA component with their target RNA. In vitro complex assembly was analyzed for several thermophilic Archaea but in vivo studies are rare, even unavailable for halophilic Archaea. To analyze the putative box C/D RNP complex in the extremely halophilic Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 we performed pull-down analysis and identified the proteins Nop5, L7A, and fibrillarin and the tRNA(Trp) intron, as a typical box C/D sRNA of this RNP complex in vivo. We show for the first time a ribonucleolytic activity of the purified RNP complex proteins, as well as for the RNP complex containing pull-down fractions. Furthermore, we identified a novel RNA (OE4630R-3'sRNA) as part of the complex, containing the typical boxes C/D and C'/D' sequence motifs and being twice as abundant as the tRNA(Trp) intron. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Review on Cold-Formed Steel Connections

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Md Tahir, Mahmood; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed. PMID:24688448

  14. Review on cold-formed steel connections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Huei; Tan, Cher Siang; Mohammad, Shahrin; Tahir, Mahmood Md; Shek, Poi Ngian

    2014-01-01

    The concept of cold-formed light steel framing construction has been widespread after understanding its structural characteristics with massive research works over the years. Connection serves as one of the important elements for light steel framing in order to achieve its structural stability. Compared to hot-rolled steel sections, cold-formed steel connections perform dissimilarity due to the thin-walled behaviour. This paper aims to review current researches on cold-formed steel connections, particularly for screw connections, storage rack connections, welded connections, and bolted connections. The performance of these connections in the design of cold-formed steel structures is discussed.

  15. 38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  16. Method of Making Steel Strapping and Strip

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-10

    Fact sheet written for the Inventions and Innovation Program about a new method for making steel strapping and strip from rod stock produced from scrap steel. There is a large movement in the American steel industry to utilize more recycled steel. Recycled steel melted in the electric arc furnaces of mini-mills is being used as the source of raw materials for an increasing number of products, largely due to its lower price. However, conventional processes for producing steel strapping and cold-rolled strip steel restrict manufacturers from using more than 50% recycled steel. In addition, steel strapping and cold-rolled strip steel traditionally require many production steps. They are produced from primary steel that has been cast into slab, heated, rolled to achieve the desired thickness, and slit to the desired width. The slitting process produces microcracks along the edge of the strapping or strip, which reduce tensile strength. A new continuous process produces steel strapping and 1/2 inch to 6 inch strip steel from the rod and strip stock made from scrap steel in mini-mills. The new process creates steel strapping and strip with improved strength and quality due to the absence of microcracks caused by the conventional slitting process. The finished product is cheaper because of the lower cost associated with using rod ad lower conversion costs. In addition, the higher tensile strength of the product allows for thinner strapping. The process represents a new approach to producing any steel strapping used for bundling and packaging items for storage or transport. In addition, this innovative new process can be used to produce cold-rolled strip steel, a basic raw material for automobile parts, hardware, office equipment, and many other products.

  17. The microstructure of chromium-tungsten steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueh, R. L.; Maziasz, P. J.

    1989-03-01

    Chromium-tungsten steels are being developed to replace the Cr-Mo steels for fusion-reactor applications. Eight experimental steels were produced and examined by optical and electron microscopy. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9 and 12 pct were used. Steels with these chromium compositions and with 2 pct W and 0.25 pct V were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, three other 2.25Cr steels were produced as follows: an alloy with 2 pct W and 0 pct V and alloys with 0 and 1 pct W and 0.25 pct V. A 9Cr steel containing 2 pct W, 0.25 pct V, and 0.07 pct Ta also was studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1 pct. Two pct tungsten was required in the 2.25Cr steels to produce 100 pct bainite (no polygonal ferrite). The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100 pct martensite, but the 12Cr steel contained about 25 pct delta-ferrite. Precipitate morphology and precipitate types varied, depending on the chromium content. For the 2.25Cr steels, M3C and M7C3 were the primary precipitates; for the 9Cr and 12Cr steels, M23C6 was the primary precipitate. The 5Cr steel contained M7C3 and M23C6. All of the steels with vanadium also contained MC.

  18. Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kotecki, D.J.; Rajan, V.B.

    1997-02-01

    Submerged arc fillet welds between mild steel and Type 304 stainless steel, made with ER309L wire, may contain no ferrite and be at risk of hot cracking, or they may be sufficiently diluted that they transform to martensite with both hot cracking risk and low ductility. This situation is most prevalent when direct current electrode positive (DCEP) polarity is used and when the flange is the mild steel part of the T-joint. A flux that adds chromium to the weld can somewhat alleviate this tendency. Direct current electrode negative (DCEN) polarity greatly reduces this tendency by limiting dilution. Fillet weld compositions and dilutions are obtained for a number of welding conditions and fluxes.

  19. Nickel release from stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Haudrechy, P; Mantout, B; Frappaz, A; Rousseau, D; Chabeau, G; Faure, M; Claudy, A

    1997-09-01

    In 1994, a study of nickel release and allergic contact dermatitis from nickel-plated metals and stainless steels was published in this journal. It was shown that low-sulfur stainless steel grades like AISI 304, 316L or 430 (S < or = 0.007%) release less than 0.03 microgram/cm2/week of nickel in acid artificial sweat and elicit no reactions in patients already sensitized to nickel. In contrast, nickel-plated samples release around 100 micrograms/cm2/week of Ni and high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303-S approximately 0.3%) releases about 1.5 micrograms/cm2/week in this acid artificial sweat. Applied on patients sensitized to nickel, these metals elicit positive reactions in 96% and 14%, respectively, of the patients. The main conclusion was that low-sulfur stainless steels like AISI 304, 316L or 430, even when containing Ni, should not elicit nickel contact dermatitis, while metals having a mean corrosion resistance like a high-sulfur stainless steel (AISI 303) or nickel-plated steel should be avoided. The determining characteristic was in fact the corrosion resistance in chloride media, which, for stainless steels, is connected, among other factors, to the sulfur content. Thus, a question remained concerning the grades with an intermediate sulfur content, around 0.03%, which were not studied. They are the object of the study presented in this paper. 3 tests were performed: leaching experiments, dimethylglyoxime and HNO3 spot tests, and clinical patch tests; however, only stainless steels were tested: a low-sulfur AISI 304 and AISI 303 as references and 3 grades with a sulfur content around 0.03%: AISI 304L, AISI 304L added with Ca, AISI 304L+Cu. Leaching experiments showed that the 4 non-resulfurised grades released less than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week in acid sweat while the reulfurized AISI 303 released around or more than 0.5 microgram/cm2/week. This is explained by the poorer corrosion resistance of the resulfurized grade. Yet all these grades had the same

  20. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.754 - Structural steel assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Structural steel assembly. 1926.754 Section 1926.754 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.754 Structural steel...) Tripping hazards. Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing...

  5. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  6. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-29

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  7. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  8. High-temperature brazing of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Prevention of iron contamination of platens is eliminated by placing alumina/silica ceramic-fiber blankets between platens and carbon-steel plate. Carbon-steel plates provide rigidity and improve heat transfer.

  9. Electromechanical Surface Hardening of Tubing Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, L. V.; Fedorov, S. K.; Serzhant, A. A.; Golovin, V. V.; Systerov, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    Results of metallographic studies of the structure of steels 38G2S and 37G2F and steels of group D after electromechanical surface hardening of tube specimens over the external diameter are presented.

  10. Corrosion control of steel-reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, D. D. L.

    2000-10-01

    The methods and materials for corrosion control of steel-reinforced concrete are reviewed. The methods are steel surface treatment, the use of admixtures in concrete, surface coating on concrete, and cathodic protection.

  11. High-temperature brazing of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Heisman, R. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Prevention of iron contamination of platens is eliminated by placing alumina/silica ceramic-fiber blankets between platens and carbon-steel plate. Carbon-steel plates provide rigidity and improve heat transfer.

  12. New Development of HSLA Steels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-gang; Yang, Cai-fu; Shang, Cheng-jia

    During the last decade, the adjustment and upgrade of steel product structures always be very important tasks in China's iron and steel industry. Since there is a fast growth of steel production in China, a series of research achievements in the technology area of HSLA steels have been made and applied successfully in the actual production, and thereby promoted a rapid development and application of China's HSLA Steel products. However, The China's iron and steel industry is now facing the excess production capacity and under pressure from respects of resource, energy and environment, therefore, it would be an effective way to realize the sustainable development in China's iron and steel industry by strengthening the applications of HSLA steels continuously and positively.

  13. Determination of the non-recrystallization temperature (TNR) in multiple microalloyed steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homsher, Caryn Nicole

    Rolling mill metallurgists must be able to easily and accurately determine critical temperatures such as the non-recrystallization temperature (T NR) to properly plan rolling schedules for desired properties. Microalloyed steels have small additions of alloying elements such as V, Ti, and Nb, to improve mechanical properties through grain size control and precipitation strengthening. The value of TNR is based on both alloying elements and deformation parameters. To easily predict TNR, equations have been developed and utilized in the literature and industry. However, each equation has certain limitations which constrain its applicability. This study was completed using ten laboratory grade low-carbon microalloyed steels designed to meet the API X-70 specification with varying amounts of V, Nb, and Ti. Double-hit deformation tests were conducted on a Gleeble® 3500 system in the standard pocket-jaw configuration at the Colorado School of Mines to determine experimental values of TNR. Double-hit deformation tests involve cylindrical specimens in an axisymmetric compression test. The test method requires six steps: 1) reheat to ensure most precipitates dissolve back into solution, 2) cool to deformation temperature, 3) compress with given strain and strain rate, 4) hold for interpass time, 5) deform specimen again holding everything else constant, and 6) measure the percent recrystallized or percent fractional softening. The TNR is the temperature where fractional softening is equal to 20 %. Niobium plays the largest role in influencing TNR. Complex niobium-vanadium-carbonitride precipitates are believed to play a significant role increasing TNR in the Hi-V alloy The experimental values of TNR were compared with predicted values of TNR from four equations in the literature. The Bai 2011 equation was the most reliable of the existing empirical formulas considered, while the commonly used Boratto equation was not accurate in predicting the TNR for the alloys in this

  14. Developments in HSLA steel products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paules, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of microalloyed steels is expanding beyond its original emphasis on low-carbon, severely control-rolled strip and plate products. A variety of economical, high-strength, tough, as-rolled or as-forged microalloyed products are replacing more expensive heat-treated steels. Recrystallization-controlled rolling is being utilized to produce very fine ferrite grain sizes and good toughness in strip, plate and bar products processed with relatively high rolling temperatures. High-strength microalloyed long products such as railroad joint bars, truck frame rails and flat bars for truck trailer construction are replacing heat-treated parts. Microalloyed, medium-carbon forging steels are used extensively for automobile engine and suspension components. Fully pearlitic high-carbon rods are being microalloyed to enhance the properties of wire and springs.

  15. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - STRUCTURAL STEEL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    T. Misiak

    1996-06-26

    The purpose and objective of this analysis are to expand the level of detail and confirm member sizes for steel sets included in the Ground Support Design Analysis, Reference 5.20. This analysis also provides bounding values and details and defines critical design attributes for alternative configurations of the steel set. One possible configuration for the steel set is presented. This analysis covers the steel set design for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) entire Main Loop 25-foot diameter tunnel.

  16. Corrosion Behavior of Steel Fibrous Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    Crvtaiue wi ,rerse sido it necessaty m’d Identify by block number) steel fibrous concrete corrosion cracked fibrous concrete 20 ABST RACT (Continue...dissolved gas in liq- Although chloride ions affect the rate of steel corro- uids. sion in concrete , corrosion can occur without them. Verbeck has...repcrted that steel subjected to a concrete Corrosion of steel will not occur without water. Not environment normally develops a protective oxide film

  17. Emergency department crystalloid resuscitation of 1.5 L or more is associated with increased mortality in elderly and nonelderly trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Ley, Eric J; Clond, Morgan A; Srour, Marissa K; Barnajian, Moshe; Mirocha, James; Margulies, Dan R; Salim, Ali

    2011-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests a survival advantage in trauma patients who receive controlled or hypotensive resuscitation volumes. This study examines the threshold crystalloid volume that is an independent risk factor for mortality after trauma. This study analyzed prospectively collected data from a Level I Trauma Center between January 2000 and December 2008. Demographics and outcomes were compared in elderly (≥70 years) and nonelderly (<70 years) trauma patients who received crystalloid fluid in the emergency department (ED) to determine a threshold volume that was an independent predictor for mortality. A total of 3,137 patients who received crystalloid resuscitation in the ED were compared. Overall mortality was 5.2%. Mortality among the elderly population was 17.3% (41 deaths), whereas mortality in the nonelderly population was 4% (116 deaths). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, fluid volumes of 1.5 L or more were significantly associated with mortality in both elderly (odds ratio [OR]: 2.89, confidence interval [CI] [1.13-7.41], p=0.027) and nonelderly patients (OR: 2.09, CI [1.31-3.33], p=0.002). Fluid volumes up to 1 L were not associated with significantly increased mortality. At 3 L, mortality was especially pronounced in the elderly (OR: 8.61, CI [1.55-47.75] p=0.014), when compared with the nonelderly (OR=2.69, CI [1.53-4.73], p=0.0006). ED volume replacement of 1.5 L or more was an independent risk factor for mortality. High-volume resuscitations were associated with high-mortality particularly in the elderly trauma patient. Our finding supports the notion that excessive fluid resuscitation should be avoided in the ED and when required, operative intervention or intensive care admission should be considered.

  18. Speeding up the solar water disinfection process (SODIS) against Cryptosporidium parvum by using 2.5l static solar reactors fitted with compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Couso, H; Fontán-Sainz, M; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Ares-Mazás, E

    2012-12-01

    Water samples of 0, 5, and 100 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) spiked with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to natural sunlight in 2.5l static borosilicate solar reactors fitted with two different compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs), CPC1 and CPC1.89, with concentration factors of the solar radiation of 1 and 1.89, respectively. The global oocyst viability was calculated by the evaluation of the inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide and the spontaneous excystation. Thus, the initial global oocyst viability of the C. parvum isolate used was 95.3 ± 1.6%. Using the solar reactors fitted with CPC1, the global viability of oocysts after 12h of exposure was zero in the most turbid water samples (100 NTU) and almost zero in the other water samples (0.3 ± 0.0% for 0 NTU and 0.5 ± 0.2% for 5 NTU). Employing the solar reactors fitted with CPC1.89, after 10h exposure, the global oocyst viability was zero in the non-turbid water samples (0 NTU), and it was almost zero in the 5 NTU water samples after 8h of exposure (0.5 ± 0.5%). In the most turbid water samples (100 NTU), the global viability was 1.9 ± 0.6% after 10 and 12h of exposure. In conclusion, the use of these 2.5l static solar reactors fitted with CPCs significantly improved the efficacy of the SODIS technique as these systems shorten the exposure times to solar radiation, and also minimize the negative effects of turbidity. This technology therefore represents a good alternative method for improving the microbiological quality of household drinking water in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting EuroQoL 5 Dimensions 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) Utilities from Older People's Quality of Life Brief Questionnaire (OPQoL-Brief) Scores.

    PubMed

    Kaambwa, Billingsley; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2017-06-16

    Economic evaluation of healthcare treatment and services targeted at older people requires measurement of utility-based quality-of-life outcomes but it is not always possible to collect such outcome data. It may, however, be possible to estimate these outcomes using non-utility measures of quality of life where the latter have been collected. The objective of this study was to develop a regression-based algorithm to map a non-utility-based outcome, the Older People's Quality of Life brief questionnaire (OPQoL-brief), onto a utility-based outcome, the EuroQoL 5 Dimensions 5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L). The estimation sample comprised 330 community-based Australian older people (>65 years), while the validation sample consisted of 293 older people from a separate study. Six regression techniques were employed to estimate utilities from OPQoL-brief. The predictive accuracy of 54 regression models (six regression techniques × nine model specifications) was assessed using six criteria: mean absolute error (MAE), root mean squared error (RMSE), correlation, distribution of predicted utilities, distribution of residuals, and proportion of predictions with absolute errors <0.05. The 54 regression models predicted EQ-5D-5L utilities that performed differently when assessed by the six criteria. However, best results were obtained from an ordinary least squares (OLS) model where all 13 OPQoL-brief items were included as continuous variables (OLS 4). RMSE and MAE estimates for this model (0.2201 and 0.1638, respectively) were within the range of published estimates. It is possible to predict valid utilities from OPQoL-brief using regression methods. We recommend OLS model (4) for this exercise.

  20. Dealing with the health state 'dead' when using discrete choice experiments to obtain values for EQ-5D-5L heath states.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Goñi, Juan Manuel; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Errea, María; Stolk, Elly A; Herdman, Michael; Cabasés, Juan Manuel

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate two different methods to obtain a dead (0)--full health (1) scale for EQ-5D-5L valuation studies when using discrete choice (DC) modeling. The study was carried out among 400 respondents from Barcelona who were representative of the Spanish population in terms of age, sex, and level of education. The DC design included 50 pairs of health states in five blocks. Participants were forced to choose between two EQ-5D-5L states (A and B). Two extra questions concerned whether A and B were considered worse than dead. Each participant performed ten choice exercises. In addition, values were collected using lead-time trade-off (lead-time TTO), for which 100 states in ten blocks were selected. Each participant performed five lead-time TTO exercises. These consisted of DC models offering the health state 'dead' as one of the choices--for which all participants' responses were used (DCdead)--and a model that included only the responses of participants who chose at least one state as worse than dead (WTD) (DCWTD). The study also estimated DC models rescaled with lead-time TTO data and a lead-time TTO linear model. The DC(dead) and DCWTD models produced relatively similar results, although the coefficients in the DCdead model were slightly lower. The DC model rescaled with lead-time TTO data produced higher utility decrements. Lead-time TTO produced the highest utility decrements. The incorporation of the state 'dead' in the DC models produces results in concordance with DC models that do not include 'dead'.

  1. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  2. Recycling steel automatically - through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, W.J.

    1997-12-01

    Last year, more than 55 percent of all steel cans were recycled. But no matter how effective the local recycling programs may be, some steel cans and other steel products are overlooked and appear in MSW. This missed steel fraction is automatically recycled by resource recovery facilities through magnetic separation. More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. Recovering ferrous scrap clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities` environmental performance. Both the resource recovery and steel industries must heighten public awareness of the benefits of automatic steel recycling. Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a simple method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries` overall recycling efforts. This paper will discuss the status of steel can recycling in the United States, describe how recovered ferrous is beneficiated before recycling by the steel industry, and make recommendations for heightening awareness of the steel recycling contribution made by resource recovery facilities.

  3. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-24

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  4. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fabricated steel began arriving by truck Oct. 24 for construction of the A-3 Test Stand that will be used to test the engine for the nation's next generation of moon rockets. Within days workers from Lafayette Steel Erector Inc. began assembling the 16 steel stages needed on the foundation and footings poured in the previous year.

  5. Steeling and Resilience in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Donalyn

    2014-01-01

    Steel is an incredibly strong alloy of iron and carbon. Due to its incredible strength and durability, this resilient material is commonly used for constructing buildings. The transitive verb "steeling" is defined in Miriam-Webster dictionary as "to fill with resolution or determination, as in, she 'steeled herself to face the…

  6. Steeling and Resilience in Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, Donalyn

    2014-01-01

    Steel is an incredibly strong alloy of iron and carbon. Due to its incredible strength and durability, this resilient material is commonly used for constructing buildings. The transitive verb "steeling" is defined in Miriam-Webster dictionary as "to fill with resolution or determination, as in, she 'steeled herself to face the…

  7. Steel: Price and Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-31

    semi-finished slab steel. It has no U.S. production assets, though it acquired the leading Canadian producer, Dofasco , in January 2006 and earlier was...Bloomberg.com, “Mittal Makes $22.7 Bln. Unsolicited Bid for Arcelor” (Jan. 27, 2006); Wall St. Journal, “Arcelor Transfers Dofasco Unit to Block...Stelco 56 Canada Y 4.54 4.91 Dofasco 60 Canada Y 4.19 4.99 Steel Dynamics 76 USA Y 3.28 3.15 Altos Hornos de Mexico 78 Mexico Y 3.24 3.01 Ipsco 82 USA

  8. Metallography of maraging 350 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hutson, S.M.; Merten, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for etching maraging 350 steel with Glyceregia is described. Surface activation procedures are integral to this technique. Microstructural features revealed by this technique are compared with those obtained with Kalling's reagent, Fry's reagent, and 5% Nital, three etchants commonly used to reveal microstructures of maraging steels. Features which may be simultaneously revealed using Glyceregia include prior austenite grain boundaries, martensitic structure, precipitates, titanium carbo-nitrides, and reverted austenite. The other etchants examined in this investigation typically reveal only a few of the microstructural features detailed above at any one time. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-09-11

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate.

  10. Teaching Steel Connections Using an Interactive Virtual Steel Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moaveni, Saeed; Chou, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Steel connections play important roles in the integrity of a structure, and many structural failures are attributed to connection failures. Connections are the glue that holds a structure together. The failures of the Hartford Coliseum in 1977, the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City in 1980, and the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis in 2007 are all…

  11. Teaching Steel Connections Using an Interactive Virtual Steel Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moaveni, Saeed; Chou, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Steel connections play important roles in the integrity of a structure, and many structural failures are attributed to connection failures. Connections are the glue that holds a structure together. The failures of the Hartford Coliseum in 1977, the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City in 1980, and the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis in 2007 are all…

  12. Superhard Nanocrystalline Homometallic Stainless Steel on Steel for Seamless Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, Eric J.; Hafley, R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to deposit nanocrystalline stainless steel onto steel substrates (homometallic) for enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Homometallic coatings provide superior adhesion, and it has been shown that ultrafine-grained materials exhibit the increased hardness and decreased permeability desired for protective coatings. Nanocrystals will be produced by controlling nucleation and growth and use of an ion beam during deposition by e-beam evaporation or sputtering. Phase I is depositing 31 6L nanocrystalline stainless steel onto 31 6L stainless steel substrates. These coatings exhibit hardnesses comparable to those normally obtained for ceramic coatings such ZrO2, and possess the superior adhesion of seamless, homometallic coatings. Hardening the surface with a similar material also enhances adhesion, by avoiding problems associated with thermal and lattice mismatch. So far we have deposited nanocrystalline homometallic 316L stainless steel coatings by varying the ions and the current density of the ion beams. For all deposition conditions we have produced smooth, uniform, superhard coatings. All coatings exhibit hardness of at least 200% harder than that of bulk materials. Our measurements indicate that there is a direct relationship between nanohardness and the current density of the ion beam. Stress measurements indicate that stress in the films is increasingly proportional to current density of the ion beam. TEM, XPS, and XRD results indicate that the coated layers consist of FCC structure nanocrystallites with a dimension of about 10 to 20 nm. The Ni and Mo concentration of these coating are lower than those of bulk 316L but the concentration of Cr is higher.

  13. Bearing steels in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Tsubota, Kazuichi; Sato, Toshio; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Hiraoka, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Ryoji

    1998-12-31

    Oxygen content of bearing steel will be reduced to below 3 ppm in the year 2000 if the current trend for the reduction of oxygen in the steel continues. As a result, size of oxide inclusions will become smaller and the fatigue life will be doubled. From the viewpoint of life prediction, cleanliness evaluation methods currently used are not effective. Inclusion Rating Method by Statistics of Extreme is useful for both cleanliness evaluation and fatigue life prediction. Bearings made of suitably heat treated carbon steels or low alloy steels, which possess equivalent fatigue properties to bearing steels, will increase owing to the requirement for lower cost and better formability.

  14. Reduced-activation steels: Future development for improved creep strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueh, R. L.

    2008-08-01

    Reduced-activation steels for fusion applications were developed in the 1980s to replace the elevated-temperature commercial steels first considered. The new steels were patterned after the commercial steels, with the objective that the new steels have yield stress and ultimate tensile strength and impact toughness in a Charpy test comparable to or better than the steels they replaced. That objective was achieved in reduced-activation steels developed in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Although tensile and impact toughness of the reduced-activation steels exceed those of the commercial steels they were patterned after, their creep-rupture properties are inferior to some commercial steels they replaced. They are even more inferior to commercial steels developed since the 1980s. In this paper, compositional differences between reduced-activation steels and new commercial steels are examined, and compositions are proposed for development of new-and-improved reduced-activation steels.

  15. Precision machining of steel decahedrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, W. J.; Sealy, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Production of highly accurate decahedron prisms from hardened stainless steel is discussed. Prism is used to check angular alignment of mounting pads of strapdown inertial guidance system. Accuracies obtainable using recommended process and details of operation are described. Photographic illustration of production device is included.

  16. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included.

  17. Dendritic inhomogeneity of stainless maraging steels

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnikova, S.I.; Drobot, A.V.; Shmelev, A.Y.; Vukelich, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated dendritic inhomogeneity in industrial ingots 630 mm (steel I) in diameter and 500 mm (steel II) in diameter. The variation in the degree of dendritic inhomogeneity was investigated over the height of the ingots and across the sections on an MS-46 microprobe. It was established that the elements can be placed in the following order in accordance with the degree of reduction in the liquation factor: titanium, molybdenum, nickel, chromium, and cobalt. Titanium and molybdenum exhibit forward liquation in both steels, and chromium in steel II. The distribution of nickel and chromium in the steel I ingots and cobalt in the steel II ingots is unconventional. Dendritic inhomogeneity, which must be considered in assigning the heat treatment for finished articles, develops during the crystallization of stainless maraging steels.

  18. Thermal Linear Expansion of Nine Selected AISI Stainless Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    stainless steels. The nine selected stainless steels are AISI 303, 304, 304L, 316, 317, 321, 347, 410 , and 430. The recoended values Include the...point of the stainless steels. The nine selected stainless steels are AISI 303, 304, 304L, 316, 317, 321, 347, 410 , and 430. The recommended values...Stainless Steel..................................26 8. AISI 410 Stainless Steel..................................29 9. AISI 430 Stainless Steel

  19. Comparative Structural Strength Research of Hardened Carbon Steel and Hot-Rolled Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, A. V.; Zhakupov, A. N.; Kanayev, A. T.; Sikach, I. A.; Tugumov, K. K.

    2016-08-01

    Experiments on quantitative evaluation of fatigue strength showed that St5ps and St5sp carbon steels with A400 strength class can be fully applied for erection of constructions and buildings having cyclical loads during operation. Study of corrosion resistance of hardened carbon steel in comparison with hot-rolled alloy steel consists in difference in structures and hence, difference in intensity of electric and chemical processes featuring presence of steel in concrete. Structure of St5sp steel with A400 strength class in surface area has significantly less corrosion rate than ferritic-perlitic structure of 35GS steel with A400 strength class.

  20. Development and validation of a real time PCR for the detection of myxoma virus based on the diploid gene M000.5L/R.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Margarida Dias; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Fagulha, Maria Teresa; Ramos, Fernanda; Luís, Tiago; Fevereiro, Miguel

    2014-02-01

    The myxoma virus (MYXV) causes severe infections in European rabbits that may reach mortality rates up to 100% depending on the viral strain. The typical symptoms and lesions induced by the virus are usually enough to permit the correct clinical diagnosis. However, in peracute forms the infection may be accompanied by unspecific symptoms. Sudden death may also occur without evident clinical signs of myxomatosis. Likewise, a clinical diagnosis of atypical forms of myxomatosis (amyxomatous) is often complicated and delayed due to the scarceness of skin lesions. As the disease control often depends on an early and unequivocal diagnosis of MYXV, laboratorial methods play a relevant role in the confirmation of MYXV infection. This study describes the development and validation of a novel, high accurate real time polymerase chain reaction assay (rtPCR) for the detection of MYXV. Primers were designed to amplify a 125-bp within the gene M000.5L/R, which is duplicated in the termini of the genome and is unique among Leporipoxvirus. The assay was negative for SFV and other poxviruses and was able to detect 2.6 copies of MYXV DNA proving the effectiveness, specificity and sensitivity of this diagnosis tool. The rtPCR has been applied successfully in INIAV laboratory for routine diagnosis of myxomatosis since 2005. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. pH-control modes in a 5-L stirred-tank bioreactor for cell biomass and exopolysaccharide production by Tremella fuciformis spore.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hu; Cao, Chunxu; Zhang, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Yan; Zou, Weisheng

    2011-10-01

    The effect of pH-control modes on cell growth and exopolysaccharide production by Tremella fuciformis was evaluated in a 5-L bioreactor. The results show that the maximal dry cell weight (DCW) and exopolysaccharide production were 23.57 and 4.48 g L⁻¹ in pH-stat fermentation, where the maximal specific growth rate (μ(max)) and specific production rate of exopolysaccharide (P(P/X)) were 1.03 and 0.24 d⁻¹, respectively; under pH-shift cultivation, the maximal DCW and exopolysaccharide production were 30.57 and 3.90 g L⁻¹, where the μ(max) and P(P/X) were 1.21 and 0.06 d⁻¹. Unlike batch fermentation, maximal DCW and exopolysaccharide production merely reached 15.04 and 2.0 g L⁻¹, where the μ(max) and P(P/X) were 0.86 and 0.05 d⁻¹, respectively. These results suggest that a pH-stat strategy is a more efficient way of performing the fermentation process to increase exopolysaccharide production. Furthermore, this research has also proved that the three-stage pH-control mode is effective for cell growth.

  2. 5L-Scale Magnesio-Milling Reduction of Nanostructured SiO2 for High Capacity Silicon Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won Chul; Kim, Hye Jin; Lee, Hae In; Seo, Myung Won; Ra, Ho Won; Yoon, Sang Jun; Mun, Tae Young; Kim, Yong Ku; Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Bo Hwa; Kook, Jin Woo; Yoo, Chung-Yul; Lee, Jae Goo; Choi, Jang Wook

    2016-11-09

    Nanostructured silicon (Si) is useful in many applications and has typically been synthesized by bottom-up colloid-based solution processes or top-down gas phase reactions at high temperatures. These methods, however, suffer from toxic precursors, low yields, and impractical processing conditions (i.e., high pressure). The magnesiothermic reduction of silicon oxide (SiO2) has also been introduced as an alternative method. Here, we demonstrate the reduction of SiO2 by a simple milling process using a lab-scale planetary-ball mill and industry-scale attrition-mill. Moreover, an ignition point where the reduction begins was consistently observed for the milling processes, which could be used to accurately monitor and control the reaction. The complete conversion of rice husk SiO2 to high purity Si was demonstrated, taking advantage of the rice husk's uniform nanoporosity and global availability, using a 5L-scale attrition-mill. The resulting porous Si showed excellent performance as a Li-ion battery anode, retaining 82.8% of the initial capacity of 1466 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles.

  3. The TDH-GCN5L1-Fbxo15-KBP axis limits mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Donato, Valerio; Bonora, Massimo; Simoneschi, Daniele; Sartini, Davide; Kudo, Yasusei; Saraf, Anita; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Stadtfeld, Matthias; Pinton, Paolo; Pagano, Michele

    2017-03-20

    Self-renewing naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) contain few mitochondria, which increase in number and volume at the onset of differentiation. KBP (encoded by Kif1bp) is an interactor of the mitochondrial-associated kinesin Kif1Bα. We found that TDH, responsible for mitochondrial production of acetyl-CoA in mESCs, and the acetyltransferase GCN5L1 cooperate to acetylate Lys501 in KBP, allowing its recognition by and degradation via Fbxo15, an F-box protein transcriptionally controlled by the pluripotency core factors and repressed following differentiation. Defects in KBP degradation in mESCs result in an unscheduled increase in mitochondrial biogenesis, enhanced respiration and ROS production, and inhibition of cell proliferation. Silencing of Kif1Bα reverts the aberrant increase in mitochondria induced by KBP stabilization. Notably, following differentiation, Kif1bp(-/-) mESCs display impaired expansion of the mitochondrial mass and form smaller embryoid bodies. Thus, KBP proteolysis limits the accumulation of mitochondria in mESCs to preserve their optimal fitness, whereas KBP accumulation promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in differentiating cells.

  4. [Radioactivity monitoring of steel processing in Croatian steel mills and foundries].

    PubMed

    Sofilić, Tahir; Marjanović, Tihana; Rastovcan-Mioc, Alenka

    2006-03-01

    The last twenty years have seen a number of cases of radioactive pollution in metallurgical industry. Therefore many metal producers have implemented systematic monitoring of radioactivity in their production processes, especially in steel processing, steel being the most applied construction material with the annual world output of over billion tonnes. Learning from the experience of the best known steel producers in Europe and the world Croatian steel mills have introduced radioactivity surveillance and control systems for radioactive elements in steel scrap, semi-finished and finished products. This paper argues in favour of radioactivity surveillance and control systems in steel and steel castings production in Croatia, and describes current systems and solutions available. Since we lack our own standards and regulations to control both domestic and imported steel scrap, semi-finished products (crude steel, hot and cold rolled strip) and finished products, we need to start implementing radioactivity surveillance and control systems in our steel and steel castings production applying the current international recommendations and guidelines, until we build up our own monitoring system and adopt legislation on the national level. This paper gives an overview of the basic types of radioactivity surveillance and control systems, the most frequent requirements to be met, as well as of the measurement and information flow in their application in steel and steel castings production.

  5. Multicomponent Synthesis and Evaluation of New 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives of Dihydropyrimidinones as Acidic Corrosion Inhibitors for Steel.

    PubMed

    González-Olvera, Rodrigo; Román-Rodríguez, Viridiana; Negrón-Silva, Guillermo E; Espinoza-Vázquez, Araceli; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Santillan, Rosa

    2016-02-22

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of dihydropyrimidinones has been developed using two multicomponent reactions. The aldehyde-1,2,3-triazoles were obtained in good yields from in situ-generated organic azides and O-propargylbenzaldehyde. The target heterocycles were synthesized through the Biginelli reaction in which the aldehyde-1,2,3-triazoles reacted with ethyl acetoacetate and urea in the presence of Ce(OTf)₃ as the catalyst. The corrosion inhibition of steel grade API 5 L X52 in 1 M HCl by the synthesized compounds was investigated using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. The measurements revealed that these heterocycles are promising candidates to inhibit acidic corrosion of steel.

  6. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of HSLA-100 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    13 Figure 4. High Strength Bainite Strength Components .................... 20 Figure 5. Bainitic Steel Tempering and DBTT ...21 Figure 6. Tempered Bainite Steel Yield Stress and DBTT .................. 21 Figure 7. HSLA-100 Steel Yield Strength versus Aging...Energy at -84°C ............... 31 Figure 14. HSLA-100 Steel Lot GQH DBTT ............................ 31 Figure 15. HSLA-100 Steel Lot GQH Ductility

  7. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths (τ (app)) and slip coefficient (β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle (ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  8. Bond characteristics of steel fiber and deformed reinforcing steel bar embedded in steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslani, Farhad; Nejadi, Shami

    2012-09-01

    Steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (SFRSCC) is a relatively new composite material which congregates the benefits of the self-compacting concrete (SCC) technology with the profits derived from the fiber addition to a brittle cementitious matrix. Steel fibers improve many of the properties of SCC elements including tensile strength, ductility, toughness, energy absorption capacity, fracture toughness and cracking. Although the available research regarding the influence of steel fibers on the properties of SFRSCC is limited, this paper investigates the bond characteristics between steel fiber and SCC firstly. Based on the available experimental results, the current analytical steel fiber pullout model (Dubey 1999) is modified by considering the different SCC properties and different fiber types (smooth, hooked) and inclination. In order to take into account the effect of fiber inclination in the pullout model, apparent shear strengths ( τ ( app)) and slip coefficient ( β) are incorporated to express the variation of pullout peak load and the augmentation of peak slip as the inclined angle increases. These variables are expressed as functions of the inclined angle ( ϕ). Furthurmore, steel-concrete composite floors, reinforced concrete floors supported by columns or walls and floors on an elastic foundations belong to the category of structural elements in which the conventional steel reinforcement can be partially replaced by the use of steel fibers. When discussing deformation capacity of structural elements or civil engineering structures manufactured using SFRSCC, one must be able to describe thoroughly both the behavior of the concrete matrix reinforced with steel fibers and the interaction between this composite matrix and discrete steel reinforcement of the conventional type. However, even though the knowledge on bond behavior is essential for evaluating the overall behavior of structural components containing reinforcement and steel fibers

  9. A mortality study among mild steel and stainless steel welders.

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, J J; Wild, P; Haguenoer, J M; Faucon, D; De Gaudemaris, R; Mur, J M; Mereau, M; Gary, Y; Toamain, J P; Birembaut, Y

    1993-01-01

    A mortality study was carried out in conjunction with the European mortality study among welders coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The study was aimed at assessing risks for lung cancer in relation to exposure to asbestos, welding fumes containing chromium and nickel, and tobacco smoke. The study included a cohort of 2721 welders and an internal comparison group of 6683 manual workers employed in 13 factories in France. The mortality of the two cohorts was studied from 1975 to 1988 by the historical prospective method. Job histories of welders were traced including welding processes used, metals welded, and proportion of worktime spent in welding. Data on smoking habits were collected from medical records. The observed number of deaths were compared with those expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR)) based on national rates with adjustments for age, sex, and calendar time. The smoking habits of 87% of the whole study population were known. The distribution of welders and controls according to smoking was not statistically different. The overall mortality was slightly higher for welders (SMR = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.89-1.18) than for controls (SMR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99). For lung cancer, the SMR was 1.24 (95% CI 0.75-1.94) for welders, whereas the corresponding value was lower for controls (SMR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.68-1.26). The SMR for lung cancer was 1.59 among non-shipyard mild steel welders (95% CI 0.73-3.02). This contrasted with the results for all stainless steel welders (SMR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.19-2.69), and for stainless steel welders predominantly exposed to chromium VI (SMR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.12-3.71). Moreover, SMRs for lung cancer for mild steel welders tended to increase with duration of exposure and time since first exposure, leading to significant excesses for duration > or = 20 years and latency > or = 20 years. Such a pattern was not found for stainless steel welders. PMID:8457490

  10. Niobium in Microalloyed Rail Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    Rails generally do not have a homogeneous austenite grain structure across their sections because the degree of plastic strain achieved during hot-rolling depends on location. Here we explore a philosophy in which niobium microalloying may be introduced in order to thermomechanically process the material so that pancaked and refined austenite grains may eventually be achieved in the critical regions of the rail. The essential principle in alloy design involves the avoidance of coarse niobium carbide precipitates in the regions of the steel that contain chemical segregation caused by non-equilibrium solidification. Both pearlitic and cementite-free bainitic rails have been studied. The work is of generic value to the design of high-carbon microalloyed steels.

  11. Longer Life for Steel Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    IC 531 is a coating manufactured and marketed by Inorganic Coatings, Inc. The coating was developed by Goddard to protect structures at Kennedy Space Center. It is a high ratio potassium silicate formula. The coating is water based, nontoxic, and nonflammable. It generates no volatile organic compounds nor hazardous chemical waste, and bonds to steel in 30 minutes. At the present time, no one can say for sure how long IC 531's effective lifetime is. Some of the original Goddard test applications of 1976 are still going strong after lengthy exposure to the Sun, salt and moisture. Says IC in company literature: 'IC 531 offers virtually permanent protection for steel. We predict it will protect structures for well beyond 25 years. If necessary, it is infinitely maintainable; if damaged, it can easily be touched up with more IC 531.'

  12. Light microscopy of carbon steels

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, L.E.

    1998-12-31

    Containing over 1,200 representative micrographs and the information and explanatory text that makes them really useful: composition, condition, etchant, and magnification, and more than 100 graphs and tables, this how to book not only gives everyday working examples, but also discusses the relationship between the constitution, metallurgy, and microstructure of various carbon steel products. Written by a renowned expert in metallography, this definitive work is a must for all those working in this area. Contents include: nomenclature of phases and constituents; phase transformations; low-carbon irons and steels; annealing and normalizing; spheroidization and graphitization; austenitization; transformation of austenite; tempering of martensite; welding; surface oxidation, decarburation; and oxidation scaling; glossary of terms; etching methods; conversion tables.

  13. Underwater wet welding of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

  14. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  15. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  16. Welding of high chromium steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W B

    1928-01-01

    A brief description is given of different groups of high chromium steels (rustless iron and stainless steels) according to their composition and more generally accepted names. The welding procedure for a given group will be much the same regardless of the slight variations in chemical composition which may exist within a certain group. Information is given for the tensile properties (yield point and ultimate strength) of metal sheets and welds before and after annealing on coupons one and one-half inches wide. Since welds in rustless iron containing 16 to 18 percent chromium and 7 to 12 percent nickel show the best combination of strength and ductility in the 'as welded' or annealed condition, it is considered the best alloy to use for welded construction.

  17. Nano-composite stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  18. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  19. Powder Processing of Trip Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    60, 1967, p. 252-259. 2. AZRIN, M ., OLSON, G. B., and GAGNE, R. A. Inhomogeneous Deformation and Strain-Rate Effects in High-Strength TRIP Steels...Mat. Sci. Eng., v. 23, May 1976, p. 33^1. 3. ANTOLOVICH , S. D., and SINGH, B. On the Toughness Increment Associated with the Austenite to Martensite...1 ATTN: SCCR-2 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C. 20375 1 ATTN: Dr. J. M . Krafft - Code 8430 Chief of Naval Research, Arlington

  20. A study of Damascus steel

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, P.

    1995-02-16

    The Damascus sword has been an article of fascination for many years to blade collectors and metallurgists alike. The blades were given their name by Europeans who encountered these blades which originated from Damascus, Syria. They are best known for the appearance of the blade face. Genuine Damascus blades show swirling patterns of alternating light and dark regions which are due to the microstructure of the steel. The microstructure consists of arrays of well rounded cementite patterns in a matrix of either pearlite, bainite, or martensite. When this structure is etched the matrix will turn dark leaving the cementite particles light. Although many blades were produced over the centuries, while some of the process is known the making of a genuine Damascus blade today is generally considered a lost art. Many scientists have studied the subject in an attempt to understand the complex process by which the clustered arrays of cementite particles develop in the steel blades. The most prominent theories to date are presented in the General Introduction to this thesis. The thesis is divided into four main parts. In the first part, four proposed mechanisms of cementite cluster sheet formation as they relate to the banding theory are introduced. Experiments to investigate these mechanisms are presented. In Part II, collaborative research focused on the methodology of the reconstructed process for making Damascus steel is presented. In the third part, a study into the graphitization of the reconstructed blades is presented. In Part IV, experimental attempts at producing Damascus steel ingots in the laboratory are presented.

  1. Preparation and characterization of 304 stainless steel/Q235 carbon steel composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wenning; Feng, Lajun; Feng, Hui; Cao, Ying; Liu, Lei; Cao, Mo; Ge, Yanfeng

    The composite material of 304 stainless steel reinforced Q235 carbon steel has been prepared by modified hot-rolling process. The resulted material was characterized by scanning electron microscope, three-electrode method, fault current impact method, electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization curve measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that metallurgical bond between the stainless steel layer and carbon steel substrate has been formed. The composite material exhibited good electrical conductivity and thermal stability. The average grounding resistance of the composite material was about 13/20 of dip galvanized steel. There has no surface crack and bubbling formed after fault current impact. The composite material led to a significant decrease in the corrosion current density in soil solution, compared with that of hot dip galvanized steel and bare carbon steel. On the basis polarization curve and EIS analyses, it can be concluded that the composite material showed improved anti-corrosion property than hot-dip galvanized steel.

  2. 77 FR 67400 - RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a Division of RG Steel, LLC, Doing Business as Wheeling Corrugating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a Division of RG Steel, LLC, Doing Business as..., 2012, applicable to workers of RG Steel Wheeling, LLC, a division of RG Steel, LLC, doing business as... RG Steel, LLC, doing business as Wheeling Corrugating Company, Beech Bottom, West Virginia,...

  3. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  4. CTNNBL1 is a novel nuclear localization sequence-binding protein that recognizes RNA-splicing factors CDC5L and Prp31.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Karuna; Adam, Salome; Taylor, Benjamin; Simpson, Paul; Rada, Cristina; Neuberger, Michael

    2011-05-13

    Nuclear proteins typically contain short stretches of basic amino acids (nuclear localization sequences; NLSs) that bind karyopherin α family members, directing nuclear import. Here, we identify CTNNBL1 (catenin-β-like 1), an armadillo motif-containing nuclear protein that exhibits no detectable primary sequence homology to karyopherin α, as a novel, selective NLS-binding protein. CTNNBL1 (a single-copy gene conserved from fission yeast to man) was previously found associated with Prp19-containing RNA-splicing complexes as well as with the antibody-diversifying enzyme AID. We find that CTNNBL1 association with the Prp19 complex is mediated by recognition of the NLS of the CDC5L component of the complex and show that CTNNBL1 also interacts with Prp31 (another U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP-associated splicing factor) through its NLS. As with karyopherin αs, CTNNBL1 binds NLSs via its armadillo (ARM) domain, but displays a separate, more selective NLS binding specificity. Furthermore, the CTNNBL1/AID interaction depends on amino acids forming the AID conformational NLS with CTNNBL1-deficient cells showing a partial defect in AID nuclear accumulation. However, in further contrast to karyopherin αs, the CTNNBL1 N-terminal region itself binds karyopherin αs (rather than karyopherin β), suggesting a function divergent from canonical nuclear transport. Thus, CTNNBL1 is a novel NLS-binding protein, distinct from karyopherin αs, with the results suggesting a possible role in the selective intranuclear targeting or interactions of some splicing-associated complexes.

  5. Employing quality control and feedback to the EQ-5D-5L valuation protocol to improve the quality of data collection.

    PubMed

    Purba, Fredrick Dermawan; Hunfeld, Joke A M; Iskandarsyah, Aulia; Fitriana, Titi Sahidah; Sadarjoen, Sawitri S; Passchier, Jan; Busschbach, Jan J V

    2017-05-01

    In valuing health states using generic questionnaires such as EQ-5D, there are unrevealed issues with the quality of the data collection. The aims were to describe the problems encountered during valuation and to evaluate a quality control report and subsequent retraining of interviewers in improving this valuation. Data from the first 266 respondents in an EQ-5D-5L valuation study were used. Interviewers were trained and answered questions regarding problems during these initial interviews. Thematic analysis was used, and individual feedback was provided. After completion of 98 interviews, a first quantitative quality control (QC) report was generated, followed by a 1-day retraining program. Subsequently individual feedback was also given on the basis of follow-up QCs. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess improvements based on 7 indicators of quality as identified in the first QC and the QC conducted after a further 168 interviews. Interviewers encountered problems in recruiting respondents. Solutions provided were: optimization of the time of interview, the use of broader networks and the use of different scripts to explain the project's goals to respondents. For problems in interviewing process, solutions applied were: developing the technical and personal skills of the interviewers and stimulating the respondents' thought processes. There were also technical problems related to hardware, software and internet connections. There was an improvement in all 7 indicators of quality after the second QC. Training before and during a study, and individual feedback on the basis of a quantitative QC, can increase the validity of values obtained from generic questionnaires.

  6. Utilization of structural steel in buildings.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Muiris C; Allwood, Julian M

    2014-08-08

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10 000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is 'rationalization'-providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in 'embodied' carbon emissions.

  7. RESIDUAL STRESS IN HARDENED STEEL CYLINDERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ultimate strength of the steel and in some instances caused cracking, and (4) stress patterns of interrupted quench specimens were not consistent enough to warrant a conclusion. (Author)...A study was conducted to (1) measure residual stress in hardened steel solid cylinders, (2) correlate the stress values with heat treatments, and (3...develop a dissolution technique. Residual stress patterns for 12 solid cylinders of 4160 steel, heat treated by various methods, were determined

  8. Cadmium Alternatives for High-Strength Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-22

    FINAL REPORT Cadmium Alternatives for High-Strength Steel WP-200022 Steven A. Brown Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division Patuxent...ESTCP WP-0022 Final Report “Cadmium Alternatives for High-Strength Steel ” 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Testing was conducted for cadmium alternative coating systems IAW the “High Strength Steel Joint Test Protocol for

  9. Evaluation of the Benefits of HSLA Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    quenched and tempered steels , such as HY80 and HY1OO, require preheat and interpass temperature controls during welding of plates thicker than 1/2 inch...interpass tempera- tures and heat input limitations. Strict adherence to these requirements is mandatory to avoid cracking in hydrogen- sensitive steels ...requirement and excellent weldability of this steel will probably lower produc- tion costs and cracking -related repairs enough to overcome the slight

  10. Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-27

    Please complete the Award Information section below so that technical information can be related to a specific award. Please save the file using the...Technology, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 325-333, 2005. 4. Peter. J., Peaslee, K. D.. and Panda , D. "Thermomechanical processing of HSLA wide-flange steel beams...niobium precipitates in HSLA steel". Steel Research International, Vol. 75, No. 1 Lpp. 753-758. 2004. 20. Peter, Joerg; Peaslee, Kent D.; Panda Dhiren

  11. Recycling steel. Conducting a waste audit.

    PubMed

    Crawford, G

    1996-01-01

    This is the second in a series of three articles regarding steel can recycling from foodservice operations of healthcare facilities. This article highlights the basic methods of recycling steel cans, and includes information on conducting a waste audit and negotiating with a hauler regarding the benefits of recycling. The previous article discussed how steel is recycled across the country. The next article will convey a case history of actual foodservice recycling practice from a healthcare facility.

  12. Nonmetallic Inclusions in HSLA Steel Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    lowering the DBTT . Nickel prevents the hot shortness phenomenon often observed in copper-bearing steels . Nickel is also an austenite stabilizer. By lowering... STEEL WELDMENTS by Brent A. Douglas December, 1989 Thesis Advisor Alan G. Fox Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 90 ,-. S...ACCESSION NO. II. TITLE (Incude Security Claw fication) Nonmetallic Inclusions In HSLA Steel Weldments IZ. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Douglas, Brent A. 138

  13. Plate Rolling Modeling at Mill 5000 of OJSC ``Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel'' for Analysis and Optimization of Temperature Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salganik, V.; Shmakov, A.; Pesin, A.; Pustovoytov, D.

    2010-06-01

    Modeling of strip deflected mode and thermal state in rolling is an integral part of the technology and perspective rolling-mill machinery such as plate mill 5000 of the OJSC "Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel". To comprehend metal behavior in the deformation zone in the rough passes during plate rolling it is essential to assess the impact of various temperature factors on variations in field of stress and strain intensities as well as temperature fields in deformation. To do such researches in consideration of various software products and adequate results one of the most effective methods nowadays is regarded as the method of finite elements. The research shows modeling of roughing rolling of a pipe steel sheet with strength category X80 according to standard API-5L. In the research of the metal deflected mode software product DEFORM 2D has been used for the isothermal and nonisothermic process. The mathematical modeling allows revealing the impact of temperature field on the metal deflected mode in the rough passes in plate rolling. Supposedly, it is deformation heating that can have more impact on the ingot temperature profile in the finishing passes in controlled rolling of the pipe steel grades. It is defined by high percent reduction, rolling speeds; more area of heat exchange surface; less thickness and lower temperature of rolling. The results can be used to develop efficient modes of plate rolling of the pipe steels.

  14. Bending Properties of Al-Steel and Steel-Steel Composite Metal Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Judith A.; Vendra, Lakshmi J.; Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2010-11-01

    The performance of new composite metal foams (CMFs) under bending was evaluated with simultaneous acoustic emission (AE) monitoring on samples processed by cast and powder metallurgy (PM) techniques. The results showed high maximum strength in all samples up to 86 MPa with more ductile failure in PM samples. Acoustic emission behavior confirmed that the dominating failure mechanism of cast CMF is the brittle fracture of intermetallic phases that mostly exist at the interface of the steel spheres with the aluminum matrix, whereas in PM samples (100 pct steel), the failure is governed by the propagation of preexisting microporosities in the matrix resulting in a complete ductile failure. SEM imaging of the fracture surfaces supported these findings.

  15. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Bridge Steel Weldings With Glass-Steel Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzalev, V. N.; Semukhin, B. S.; Danilov, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    A new technology is developed for welding multi-span bridge constructions. The mechanical properties and structure of the low-carbon bridge steel welds have been studied. The welding parameters and application of steel-glass liners provide for long-term service of steel constructions in conformity with the welding industry specifications.

  16. Corrosion of stainless steel, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sedriks, A.J.

    1996-10-01

    The book describes corrosion characteristics in all the major and minor groups of stainless steels, namely, in austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation hardenable steels. Several chapters are spent on those special forms of corrosion that are investigated in the great detail in stainless steels, namely, pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. The influences of thermal treatment (heat affected zone cases), composition, and microstructure on corrosion are given good coverage. Corrosive environments include high temperature oxidation, sulfidation as well as acids, alkalis, various different petroleum plant environments, and even human body fluids (stainless steels are commonly used prosthetic materials).

  17. Recycling steel automatically -- through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. This last year, 121 resource recovery facilities combusted about 14% of the solid waste for communities across the US. Automatic recycling of steel clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities environmental performance through tangible recycling achievement. Even though about one out of every six steel cans is recycled automatically through resource recovery, not many people are aware of automatic recycling of steel cans through resource recovery. How many people know that their local resource recovery plant is insuring that virtually all of their food, beverage and general purpose cans--including paint and aerosol--are being recycled so easily and efficiently? Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a fundamentally simple and desirable method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries overall recycling efforts. This paper will provide the latest information on steel recycled automatically from resource recovery facilities within the total context of all recycling accomplished annually by the steel industry. Most important, recommendations are provided for building public awareness of the automatic steel recycling contribution made so solidly by resource recovery facilities.

  18. Modified 43XX Steels for High Toughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    AL AMMRC TR 80-20 MODIFIED 43XX STEELS FOR HIGH TOUGHNESS T CS.,•, °x ,•, o o,,o,,,sD T I W4 AftELECTE APRIL 1980 J N.J. Kar, V.F. Zackay and E.R...carried out. Isohra tasomions in these steels resulted inn bbaainni 11-v DI FOR Z 47 RITIOW OF I NOV695 IS OBSOLETE UCASFE SECURITY UCLASSIFIEDINOFTI PAGE...this investigation for Si-modified AISI 4330 steel appear to be superior to those for unmodified AISI 4340 and 300-M steels , whilst the strength-tough

  19. 30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  20. 37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT AT TIME OF ITS OPENING, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  1. North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  2. Steel shear walls, behavior, modeling and design

    SciTech Connect

    Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

    2008-07-08

    In recent years steel shear walls have become one of the more efficient lateral load resisting systems in tall buildings. The basic steel shear wall system consists of a steel plate welded to boundary steel columns and boundary steel beams. In some cases the boundary columns have been concrete-filled steel tubes. Seismic behavior of steel shear wall systems during actual earthquakes and based on laboratory cyclic tests indicates that the systems are quite ductile and can be designed in an economical way to have sufficient stiffness, strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity to resist seismic effects of strong earthquakes. This paper, after summarizing the past research, presents the results of two tests of an innovative steel shear wall system where the boundary elements are concrete-filled tubes. Then, a review of currently available analytical models of steel shear walls is provided with a discussion of capabilities and limitations of each model. We have observed that the tension only 'strip model', forming the basis of the current AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls, is not capable of predicting the behavior of steel shear walls with length-to-thickness ratio less than about 600 which is the range most common in buildings. The main reasons for such shortcomings of the AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls is that it ignores the compression field in the shear walls, which can be significant in typical shear walls. The AISC method also is not capable of incorporating stresses in the shear wall due to overturning moments. A more rational seismic design procedure for design of shear walls proposed in 2000 by the author is summarized in the paper. The design method, based on procedures used for design of steel plate girders, takes into account both tension and compression stress fields and is applicable to all values of length-to-thickness ratios of steel shear walls. The method is also capable of including the effect of

  3. Controlling DC permeability in cast steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, Aaran; Gerada, Chris; Brown, Neil; Clare, Adam

    2017-05-01

    Annealing (at multiple cooling rates) and quenching (with tempering) was performed on specimens of cast steel of varying composition. The aim was to devise a method for selecting the steel with the highest permeability, from any given range of steels, and then increasing the permeability by heat treatment. Metallographic samples were imaged using optical microscopy to show the effect of the applied heat treatments on the microstructure. Commonly cast steels can have DC permeability altered by the careful selection of a heat treatment. Increases of up to 381% were achieved by annealing using a cooling rate of 6.0 °C/min. Annealing was found to cause the carbon present in the steel to migrate from grain boundaries and from within ferrite crystals into adjacent pearlite crystals. The migration of the carbon resulted in less carbon at grain boundaries and within ferrite crystals reducing the number of pinning sites between magnetic domains. This gives rise to a higher permeability. Quenching then tempering was found to cause the formation of small ferrite crystals with the carbon content of the steel predominately held in the martensitic crystal structures. The results show that with any given range of steel compositions the highest baseline DC permeability will be found with the steel that has the highest iron content and the lowest carbon content. For the samples tested in this paper a cooling rate of 4.5 °C/min resulted in the relative permeability of the sample with the highest baseline permeability, AS4, increasing from 783 to 1479 at 0.5 T. This paper shows how heat treatments commonly applied to hypoeutectoid cast steels, to improve their mechanical performance, can be used to also enhance electromagnetic properties of these alloys. The use of cast steels allows the creation of DC components for electrical machines not possible by the widely used method of stacking of electrical grade sheet steels.

  4. A Comparison of the Validity and Responsiveness of the EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D for Measuring Health Spillovers: A Study of the Family Impact of Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Bhadhuri, Arjun; Jowett, Sue; Jolly, Kate; Al-Janabi, Hareth

    2017-05-01

    The "health spillover" of patient illness on family members is important to capture in economic evaluation. This study compares the construct validity and responsiveness of 2 widely used health-related quality-of-life instruments, the EQ-5D-5L and SF-6D, in capturing health spillover effects for family members with and without an informal care role (carers and noncarers). Construct validity and responsiveness were assessed using data from a 2012 UK survey of the family impact of meningitis-related sequelae. Construct validity was assessed by testing associations between family members' health status and variables anticipated to be associated with spillover effects (patient health status and informal care). Responsiveness was assessed by testing associations between the longitudinal change in family members' health status and longitudinal change in patient health and caring hours. Among noncarers, both the EQ-5D-5L and the SF-6D exhibited construct validity with 10 of the 11 associations that were hypothesized being statistically significant on both measures. There was less clear evidence of responsiveness of the measures for noncarers. Among carers, the EQ-5D-5L exhibited greater construct validity, as well as responsiveness, with respect to spillovers from patient health. This was evidenced by the EQ-5D-5L detecting 9 significant associations compared with 4 on the SF-6D. However, the SF-6D exhibited greater construct validity with respect to spillovers generated from informal care provision (5 associations significant compared with 2 on the EQ-5D-5L). Both the EQ-5D-5L and the SF-6D exhibited a degree of validity that could justify their use as measures of health-related quality-of-life spillovers on family members in economic evaluation.

  5. Corrosion Behavior of IF Steel in Various Media and Its Comparison with Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. P.; Moon, A. P.; Sengupta, S.; Deo, G.; Sangal, S.; Mondal, K.

    2015-05-01

    The present work discusses corrosion behavior of an interstitial-free (IF) steel in 0.6 M NaCl, 1 M NaOH, and 1 M HCl solutions, and its comparison with mild steel (MS). Dynamics polarization and AC Impedance Spectroscopy explain different polarization behaviors of the steel samples. All the steels were exposed to open atmosphere for 100 days, and to 0.6 M NaCl salt fog for 30 days. Scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Raman and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy were used to characterize microstructure of the steels, rust constituents, and morphologies. Corrosion behavior of the steels has close relation with the morphology and constituents of the rusts. It has been observed that the corrosion in the IF and MS steels is uniform in nature.

  6. Clean steel technology -- Fundamental to the development of high performance steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.D.

    1999-07-01

    The use of clean steel technology (low sulfur with calcium treatment for inclusion shape control) is a fundamental building block in the development of high performance plate steels. A brief review will be presented of the benefits of calcium treatment and its effect on non-metallic inclusions (sulfides and oxides) and reducing sulfur levels. During the past thirty years the requirements for low sulfur levels have been reduced from 0.010% maximum to 0.001% maximum. The effects of clean steel practices on specific properties will be reviewed including tensile ductility, Charpy V-notch and fracture toughness, fatigue crack propagation and hydrogen-induced-cracking resistance. Traditional low sulfur plate steel applications have included pressure vessels. offshore platforms, plastic injection molds and line-pipe skelp. More recent applications will be discussed including bridge steels, high strength structural steels to 130 ksi (897 MPa) minimum yield strength, 9% nickel steels for cryogenic applications, and military armor.

  7. High Strength Steel Welding Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    22000 C to 15000 C. - Kluken and Gr6ng [57] considered three major growth processes: collision, 0S diffusion, and Ostwald ripening. They excluded...0- zz * 22000 - * 21000 *20000 0 0 0 0 0 .51o.5225o . Figure 4.7 Temperature profiles at indicated heights for a UMAW process with 220-ppm hydrogen...steel weld metal. With increasing S100 -- 1 0.-Pt I -. , -s ll ie (XO oil - a - IS - 3S0 o 0.20 -- 30 t* \\+ 0~4xo- bg s0o 10 10 IV 60o I0D ISO 0o 0o OION

  8. [Initial stages of steel biocorrosion].

    PubMed

    Zhigletsova, S K; Rodin, V B; Kobelev, V S; Aleksandrova, N V; Rasulova, G E; Kholodenko, V P

    2000-01-01

    Initial stages of corrosion of mild steel induced by Klebsiela rhinoscleromatis BO2 were studied in various media. The effect of the microorganism was detected 8-10 h after inoculation. The number of viable cells were virtually unchanged within one month in all media, but the corrosive activity of the strain decreased. The corrosive activity of microorganisms can be determined by spectrophotometry even only after incubation for 24 h. At a low level of organic substrate, even strong colonization with microorganisms does not inevitably result in a significant damage to metals.

  9. Chromizing of 3Cr Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, Vilupanur; Harrison, Bradley; Koch, Jordan; Ly, Alexander; Schissler, Andrew; Pint, Bruce A; Haynes, James A

    2011-01-01

    Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N) was chromized by the halide-activated pack cementation (HAPC) process. Key process parameters, i.e., coating temperatures and pack compositions, were investigated. Ammonium chloride-activated packs in the 700-1000 C range produced coatings nominally in the 1-8 {micro}m range, as determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Coatings applied in the 900-1000 C temperature range resulted in Cr-rich coatings. The predominant phase in the coating was identified as Cr23C6 by X-ray diffraction. In addition, the presence of chromium nitride, Cr2N, was observed in the coating. The power generation industry is faced with an ever-increasing demand for energy while simultaneously having to reduce carbon emissions. These goals can be facilitated by increasing plant efficiency through the use of higher operating temperatures and pressures. Traditional construction materials, e.g., the ferritic Grade 22 high strength low alloy steel, are limited to operations below {approx} 550 C. Therefore, new materials are required for future plants designed to operate up to 650 C and possibly higher. These new materials need to have improved tensile strength, ductility, toughness, corrosion resistance, and creep properties at elevated temperatures. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating the oxidation and creep behavior of various coatings on Grade 315 steel (Fe-2.9 Cr-1.7 W-0.7 Mo-0.3 Mn-0.3 Si-0.2 V-0.1 Ni-0.13 C-0.01 N), a super-bainitic steel developed for superior creep properties. Thin, chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) aluminide coatings were used to compensate for the reduced corrosion and oxidation resistance that resulted from the low chromium content of the alloy. However, the aluminized Grade 315 alloys performed less-than-favorably under conditions relevant to fossil boilers, leading to the conclusion that higher chromium contents are required for the formation of

  10. Help for the Steel Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    A collaboration between NASA Lewis Research Center (LRC) and Gladwin Engineering resulted in the adaptation of aerospace high temperature metal technology to the continuous casting of steel. The continuous process is more efficient because it takes less time and labor. A high temperature material, once used on the X-15 research plane, was applied to metal rollers by a LRC developed spraying technique. Lewis Research Center also supplied mold prototype of metal composites, reducing erosion and promoting thermal conductivity. Rollers that previously cracked due to thermal fatigue, lasted longer. Gladwin's sales have increased, and additional NASA-developed innovations are anticipated.

  11. Multiple Impacts on Monolithic Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    Two-dimensional computer code , . Eulerian computer code Shaped-charge penetration Multiple impact .6, ABYRAC• ( - ms i N twSMW Mni/ffir b? Wok nuftd...material was copper with a yield stress in shear of 1.3 kbar. Before impact, the velocity of the penetrators was 5.0 km/s and the diameter, 3 mm. The steel...target was semi-infinite with a yield stress in shear of 6.8 kbar. Five impact situations were considered: (1) one impact by a 27.0- m-long penetrator

  12. Titanium "irons" and titanium "steels"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstov, S. A.; Tkachenko, S. V.; Kuz'menko, N. N.

    2009-01-01

    Special features of the structure and properties of promising structural alloys based on the Ti-Si system are described. The similarity of the diagrams of phase equilibria of the Fe-Si and Fe-C systems makes it possible to classify the alloys of the Ti-Si system into titanium "steels" and "irons" depending on the silicon content. Results of studies of the effects of alloying, heat treatment, and thermomechanical treatment on the phase and structural transformations and on some properties of alloys based on the Ti-Si system are presented.

  13. METHOD FOR JOINING ALUMINUM TO STAINLESS STEEL

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, L.C.

    1960-05-24

    Aluminum may be joined to stainless steel without the use of flux by tinning the aluminum with a tin solder containing 1% silver and 1% lead, tinning the stainless steel with a 50% lead 50% tin solder, and then sweating the tinned surfaces together.

  14. Chem I Supplement: Chemistry of Steel Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Neal

    1980-01-01

    Provides information about the chemistry of steel making applicable to teaching secondary school science. Generalized chemical reactions describe the manufacture of steel from iron ore. Also discussed are raw materials, processing choices, and how various furnaces (blast, direct reduction, open hearth, basic oxygen, electric) work. (CS)

  15. Mineral resource of the month: steel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    About 96 million metric tons of steel was produced in the United States last year — more than any other metal. And the $3.46 billion of iron and steel scrap exported was also the highest of any metal scrap export, helping to reduce the U.S. trade deficit.

  16. African Drum and Steel Pan Ensembles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunkett, Mark E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to develop both African drum and steel pan ensembles providing information on teacher preparation, instrument choice, beginning the ensemble, and lesson planning. Includes additional information for the drum ensembles. Lists references and instructional materials, sources of drums and pans, and common note layout/range for steel pan…

  17. Ellie Mannette: Master of the Steel Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elliot ("Ellie") Mannette who has played a major role in the development and application of steel drums. States that he has spent most of his life designing and teaching the steel drums. Covers interview topics and background information on Mannette. (CMK)

  18. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J. ); Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J. )

    1992-01-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  19. A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.; Kellner, A.W.; Harrison, J.

    1992-08-01

    In response to the several-fold increase in consumption of galvanized steel in the last decade and the problems associated with refurnacing larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is electrowon as dendritic powder. The process is effective for zinc, lead, aluminum, and cadmium removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 1,000 tons of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap is under construction. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials and environmental compliance costs to steel- and iron-makers, may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant, and may enable EAF production of flat products without use of DRI or pig iron. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap.

  20. Low Mn alloy steel for cryogenic service

    DOEpatents

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Niikura, M.

    A ferritic cryogenic steel which has a relatively low (about 4 to 6%) manganese content and which has been made suitable for use at cryogenic temperatures by a thermal cycling treatment followed by a final tempering. The steel includes 4 to 6% manganese, 0.02 to 0.06% carbon, 0.1 to 0.4% molybdenum and 0 to 3% nickel.

  1. History dependence of magnetomechanical properties of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melquiond, F.; Mouroux, A.; Jouglar, J.; Vuillermoz, P. L.; Weinstock, H.

    1996-05-01

    Magnetomechanical measurements using a superconducting SQUID magnetic gradiometer and a tensile-testing machine have been performed on a variety of steel specimens to determine the change in magnetization due to applied stress and the possible application of the observed behavior as a new form of nondestructive evaluation in steel. This study builds on earlier related measurements.

  2. Why Not Start a Steel Band?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    1995-01-01

    Suggests expanding the eclectic nature of a band program by creating a steel band, a Caribbean-based percussion ensemble. The steel band complements multicultural education and attracts students to the music program. Discusses maintenance, repertoire, and performance. Includes classification of pans and a list of schools with established programs.…

  3. Forming "dynamic" membranes on stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, C. A.; Gaddis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    "Dynamic" zirconium polyacrylic membrane is formed directly on stainless steel substrate without excessive corrosion of steel. Membrane is potentially useful in removal of contaminated chemicals from solution through reversed osmosis. Application includes use in filtration and desalination equipment, and in textile industry for separation of dyes from aqueous solvents.

  4. Ellie Mannette: Master of the Steel Drum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svaline, J. Marc

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Elliot ("Ellie") Mannette who has played a major role in the development and application of steel drums. States that he has spent most of his life designing and teaching the steel drums. Covers interview topics and background information on Mannette. (CMK)

  5. Method for welding chromium molybdenum steels

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1986-01-01

    Chromium-molybdenum steels exhibit a weakening after welding in an area adjacent to the weld. This invention is an improved method for welding to eliminate the weakness by subjecting normalized steel to a partial temper prior to welding and subsequently fully tempering the welded article for optimum strength and ductility.

  6. The Mechanical Metallurgy of Armour Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    battlefield threats and continue to be highly competitive armour materials . The relationship between armour steel mechanical properties, specifically...their mechanical metallurgy, and ballistic performance is explained, where such performance is primarily determined by material strength, hardness and...armour materials . However, the factors that are most important for the ballistic and structural performance of armour steels are not commonly well

  7. Diffusion brazing nickel-plated stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    To bond parts, sandwich assembly is made up of aluminum core, aluminum face sheet with brazing alloy interface, and nickel plated stainless steel part. Sandwich is placed between bottom and top glide sheet that is placed in stainless steel retort where assembly is bonded at 580 C.

  8. Chem I Supplement: Chemistry of Steel Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Neal

    1980-01-01

    Provides information about the chemistry of steel making applicable to teaching secondary school science. Generalized chemical reactions describe the manufacture of steel from iron ore. Also discussed are raw materials, processing choices, and how various furnaces (blast, direct reduction, open hearth, basic oxygen, electric) work. (CS)

  9. Diffusion brazing nickel-plated stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    To bond parts, sandwich assembly is made up of aluminum core, aluminum face sheet with brazing alloy interface, and nickel plated stainless steel part. Sandwich is placed between bottom and top glide sheet that is placed in stainless steel retort where assembly is bonded at 580 C.

  10. Tubercles and Localized Corrosion on Carbon Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    with symbiotic relationships and nutrient cycling. Miller and Tiller [14] indicated, "iron bacteria , which, together with the ferric hydroxide...conclude localized corrosion directly under the tubercles or a role for bacteria in their formation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS tubercle, carbon steel... bacteria in their formation. Introduction It is well established that tubercles formed on austenitic 300 series (304 or 316) stainless steel in

  11. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Syed Altaf; Kumar, Vadivel; Jayaram, Prithviraj

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires. Materials and Methods: We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets – titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel – using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated canine retraction was undertaken to evaluate the difference in frictional resistance between titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires. Results and Conclusion: We compared the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires, with the help of Instron Universal Testing Machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's “t” test, and post hoc multiple range test at level of <0.05 showed statistically significant difference in the mean values of all groups. Results demonstrated that the titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets of 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot had no significant variations in frictional résistance. The self-ligating bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the other groups. The titanium bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the stainless steel brackets. PMID:23066253

  12. The comparison of frictional resistance in titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets using stainless steel and TMA archwires: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Syed Altaf; Kumar, Vadivel; Jayaram, Prithviraj

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA) archwires. We compared the frictional resistance in 0.018 slot and 0.022 slot of the three brackets - titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel - using stainless steel archwires and TMA archwires. An in vitro study of simulated canine retraction was undertaken to evaluate the difference in frictional resistance between titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires. We compared the frictional resistance of titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and conventional stainless steel brackets, using stainless steel and TMA archwires, with the help of Instron Universal Testing Machine. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's "t" test, and post hoc multiple range test at level of <0.05 showed statistically significant difference in the mean values of all groups. Results demonstrated that the titanium, self-ligating stainless steel, and stainless steel brackets of 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot had no significant variations in frictional résistance. The self-ligating bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the other groups. The titanium bracket with TMA archwires showed relatively less frictional resistance compared with the stainless steel brackets.

  13. Stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehemann, R. F.

    1985-11-01

    The similarities and differences in the stress corrosion cracking response of ferritic and austenitic stainless steels in chloride solutions will be examined. Both classes of materials exhibit a cracking potential: similar transient response (to loading) of the potential in open circuit tests or the current in potentiostatic tests and similar enrichment of chromium and depletion of iron in the film associated with localized corrosion processes. The ferritic steels are more resistant to localized corrosion than are the austenitic steels, which is responsible for the difference in the influence of prior thermal and mechanical history on cracking susceptibility of the two types of steel. Similarities in the fractography of stress corrosion cracks and those produced by brittle delayed failure during cathodic charging of the ferritic steels indicate that hydrogen embrittlement is involved in the failure process.

  14. Hydrogen transport in iron and steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louthan, M. R., Jr.; Derrick, R. G.; Donovan, J. A.; Caskey, G. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The permeabilities of protium, deuterium, and tritium in foil specimens of Marz grade iron, 4130 steel, Armco iron, HP-9-4-20, and T-1 steels were studied at hydrogen pressures between 0.02 and 0.5 MPa over the temperature range 260-700 K. The permeability was measured by a pressure-rise method, deuterium counting with a detector, and radioactivity counting. Good agreement is found between the measurement techniques used. It is shown that the permeabilities of protium, deuterium, and tritium in iron and T-1 steel at temperatures as low as 260 K are in good agreement with the equation proposed by Gonzalez (1967). However, the permeabilities of HP-9-4-20 and 4130 steel to hydrogen are typically lower than predicted. The isotope effect on hydrogen permeability of HP-9-4-20, 4130 and T-1 steels, and high-purity iron can be estimated by an inverse square root of mass correction.

  15. Remagnetization and Cementation of Unconsolidated Sediments in the Mallik 5L-38 Well (Canadian Arctic) by Solute Exclusion During Gas Hydrate Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, T. S.; Enkin, R. J.; Esteban, L.

    2007-05-01

    Bulk magnetic properties provide a sensitive measure of sedimentary diagenesis related to the stability and growth of gas hydrates. The deposit at Mallik (Mackenzie Delta, Canadian Arctic) occurs in unconsolidated Tertiary sands, but is absent in interstratified silt layers. A detailed sampling of the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 5L-38 core tested the use of magnetic properties for detecting diagenetic changes related to the hydrate. Petrographic studies reveal that the sands are well sorted and clean, with quartz > chert >> muscovite and little fines content. Excepting a few rare bands of indurated dolomite in the midst of the gas hydrate zone, there is little or no cementation in the sands. Detrital magnetite is the dominant magnetic mineral, comprising up to a few percent of the sand grain population. In contrast, the muddier layers have a somewhat different detrital grain composition, richer in lithic (sedimentary and metamorphic) grains, feldspar, and clays. They are extensively diagenetically altered (to as much as 30- 40%) and cemented with carbonates, clays, chlorite and the iron sulphide greigite (the dominant magnetic mineral). The greigite is recognized by its isotropic creamy-white reflectance, cubic to prismatic habit, and characteristic tarnish to faintly bluish bireflectant mackinawite. Habits range from disseminated cubes and colliform masses to inflationary massive sulphide veins and clots. Rare detrital grains of magnetite were observed among the silt grains, but never in a reaction relationship or overgrown. Instead the greigite has nucleated separately, in tensional fractures and granular masses up to 4 mm across. In this particular sediment sequence, being so quartz and chert rich, there is insufficient local source for the introduced cements (calcite, dolomite, greigite, clays, jarosite), so ions must have been introduced by fluid flow. Magnetic studies reveal a bi-modal character related to the lithology (sands versus silts) and their magnetic

  16. An understanding of HSLA-65 plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, K.

    2006-02-01

    HSLA-65 plate steels can be produced using one of five plate manufacturing techniques: normalizing, controlled rolling (CR), controlled rolling followed by accelerated cooling (CR-AC), direct quenching and tempering (DQT), or conventional quenching and tempering (Q&T). The HSLA-65 steels are characterized by low carbon content and low alloy content, and they exhibit a low carbon equivalent that allows improved plate weldability. These characteristics in turn (a) provide the steel plate with a refined microstructure that ensures high strength and toughness; (b) eliminate or substantially reduce the need for preheating during welding; (c) resist susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) in the weld heat affected zone (HAZ) when fusion (arc) welded using low heat-input conditions; and (d) depending on section thickness, facilitate high heat-input welding (about 2 kJ/mm) without significant loss of strength or toughness in the HAZ. However, application of this plate manufacturing process and of these controls produces significant differences in the metallurgical structure and range of mechanical properties of the HSLA-65 plate steels both among themselves and versus conventional higher strength steel (HSS) plates. For example, among the HSLA-65 plate steels, those produced by Q&T exhibit minimal variability in mechanical properties, especially in thicker plates. Besides variability in mechanical properties depending on plate thickness, the CR and CR-AC plate steels exhibit a relatively higher yield strength to ultimate tensile strength (YS/UTS) ratio than do DQT and Q&T steels. Such differences in processing and properties of HSLA-65 plate steels could potentially affect the selection and control of various secondary fabrication practices, including arc welding. Consequently, fabricators must exercise extreme caution when transferring allowable limits of certified secondary fabrication practices from one type of HSLA-65 plate steel to another, even for the

  17. Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Casuccio; Michael Potter; Fred Schwerer; Dr. Richard J. Fruehan; Dr. Scott Story

    2005-12-30

    The objective of this study was to develop the Automated Steel Cleanliness Analysis Tool (ASCATTM) to permit steelmakers to evaluate the quality of the steel through the analysis of individual inclusions. By characterizing individual inclusions, determinations can be made as to the cleanliness of the steel. Understanding the complicating effects of inclusions in the steelmaking process and on the resulting properties of steel allows the steel producer to increase throughput, better control the process, reduce remelts, and improve the quality of the product. The ASCAT (Figure 1) is a steel-smart inclusion analysis tool developed around a customized next-generation computer controlled scanning electron microscopy (NG-CCSEM) hardware platform that permits acquisition of inclusion size and composition data at a rate never before possible in SEM-based instruments. With built-in customized ''intelligent'' software, the inclusion data is automatically sorted into clusters representing different inclusion types to define the characteristics of a particular heat (Figure 2). The ASCAT represents an innovative new tool for the collection of statistically meaningful data on inclusions, and provides a means of understanding the complicated effects of inclusions in the steel making process and on the resulting properties of steel. Research conducted by RJLG with AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) and SMA (Steel Manufactures of America) members indicates that the ASCAT has application in high-grade bar, sheet, plate, tin products, pipes, SBQ, tire cord, welding rod, and specialty steels and alloys where control of inclusions, whether natural or engineered, are crucial to their specification for a given end-use. Example applications include castability of calcium treated steel; interstitial free (IF) degasser grade slag conditioning practice; tundish clogging and erosion minimization; degasser circulation and optimization; quality assessment/steel cleanliness; slab, billet

  18. Superstrength of nanograined steel with nanoscale intermetallic precipitates transformed from shock-compressed martensitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hailiang; Yan, Ming; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Qiang; Godbole, Ajit; Li, Jintao; Su, Lihong; Kong, Charlie

    2016-11-01

    An increasing number of industrial applications need superstrength steels. It is known that refined grains and nanoscale precipitates can increase strength. The hardest martensitic steel reported to date is C0.8 steel, whose nanohardness can reach 11.9 GPa through incremental interstitial solid solution strengthening. Here we report a nanograined (NG) steel dispersed with nanoscale precipitates which has an extraordinarily high hardness of 19.1 GPa. The NG steel (shock-compressed Armox 500T steel) was obtained under these conditions: high strain rate of 1.2 μs-1, high temperature rise rate of 600 Kμs-1 and high pressure of 17 GPa. The mean grain size achieved was 39 nm and reinforcing precipitates were indexed in the NG steel. The strength of the NG steel is expected to be ~3950 MPa. The discovery of the NG steel offers a general pathway for designing new advanced steel materials with exceptional hardness and excellent strength.

  19. Superstrength of nanograined steel with nanoscale intermetallic precipitates transformed from shock-compressed martensitic steel

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hailiang; Yan, Ming; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Qiang; Godbole, Ajit; Li, Jintao; Su, Lihong; Kong, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of industrial applications need superstrength steels. It is known that refined grains and nanoscale precipitates can increase strength. The hardest martensitic steel reported to date is C0.8 steel, whose nanohardness can reach 11.9 GPa through incremental interstitial solid solution strengthening. Here we report a nanograined (NG) steel dispersed with nanoscale precipitates which has an extraordinarily high hardness of 19.1 GPa. The NG steel (shock-compressed Armox 500T steel) was obtained under these conditions: high strain rate of 1.2 μs−1, high temperature rise rate of 600 Kμs−1 and high pressure of 17 GPa. The mean grain size achieved was 39 nm and reinforcing precipitates were indexed in the NG steel. The strength of the NG steel is expected to be ~3950 MPa. The discovery of the NG steel offers a general pathway for designing new advanced steel materials with exceptional hardness and excellent strength. PMID:27892460

  20. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists... and columns are not framed in at least two directions with solid web structural steel members, a...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists... and columns are not framed in at least two directions with solid web structural steel members, a...

  2. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  3. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2...

  4. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  5. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  6. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  7. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel...

  8. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  9. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  10. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel...

  11. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  12. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  13. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  14. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  15. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel...

  16. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel...

  17. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  18. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2 for a removable...

  19. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  20. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  1. 75 FR 8746 - Certain Steel Grating From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Steel Grating From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of certain steel gratings... ``certain steel grating, consisting of two or more pieces of steel, including load- bearing pieces and...

  2. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  3. 19 CFR 360.101 - Steel import licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steel import licensing. 360.101 Section 360.101 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.101 Steel import licensing. (a) In general. (1) All imports of basic steel...

  4. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  5. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  6. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  7. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists... and columns are not framed in at least two directions with solid web structural steel members, a...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists... and columns are not framed in at least two directions with solid web structural steel members, a...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.757 - Open web steel joists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open web steel joists. 1926.757 Section 1926.757 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.757 Open web steel joists... and columns are not framed in at least two directions with solid web structural steel members, a...

  11. Cryogenic treatment of steels. (Latest citations from Metadex). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of cryogenic temperatures to improve the properties of steels. Stainless steels, tool steels, electrical steels, and metal matrix composites are discussed. Citations cover fatigue life, wear resistance, tool life, and increased high temperature ductility. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Austenite grain coarsening in microalloyed steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuddy, L. J.; Raley, J. C.

    1983-10-01

    A uniform, fine-grain structure is essential in steels, particularly for strip and plate, that are to meet demands for high strength and toughness. To produce such microstructures, every step of the high-temperature processing of the steel must be carefully controlled, beginning with grain coarsening that occurs during reheating for slab rolling. Extremely coarse or nonuniform grain structures in the reheated slab are difficult to refine by subsequent hot working. Accordingly, the grain-coarsening behavior of laboratory heats of C-Mn-Si base steels and of such steels with additions of Al, V, Ti, or Nb was examined to understand the principles governing the behavior of this class of steels. The grain-coarsening temperature (the temperature at which abnormal or discontinuous growth occurs) varies with the type and concentration of the microalloy addition; an approximate relation is presented. Generally the grain-coarsening temperature increases with, but is lower than, the temperature required for complete dissolution of the microalloy carbide or nitride present. Thus, steels containing the very insoluble TiN coarsen at much higher temperatures than steels containing the more soluble VCN. These results agree qualitatively with predictions of models of grain-boundary pinning by precipitate particles.

  13. Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    In response to the increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last decade and the problems associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The dezinced ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant to continuously treat loose scrap, with a design capacity of 48,000 tonnes annually, has been in operation in East Chicago, Indiana since early in 1993. The first 450 t of scrap degalvanized in the pilot plant have residual zinc below 0.01% and sodium dragout below 0.01%. Use of degalvanized steel scrap decreases raw materials, environmental compliance, and opportunity costs to steel- and iron-makers. Availability of clean degalvanized scrap may enable integrated steel producers to recycle furnace dusts to the sinter plant and EAF shops to produce flat products without use of high quality scrap alternatives such as DRI, pig iron, or iron carbide. Recycling the components of galvanized steel scrap saves primary energy, decreases zinc imports, and adds value to the scrap. The quantities of zinc available by the year 2000 from prompt and obsolete automotive scrap win approach 25% of zinc consumed in the major automotive production centers of the world. Zinc recycling from galvanized steel scrap, either before or after scrap melting, will have to be implemented.

  14. Alloy dissolution in argon stirred steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Darryl Scott

    Alloying is required for the production of all steel products from small castings to large beams. Addition of large quantities of bulk alloys can result in alloy segregation and inconsistent alloy recovery. The objective of this research was to better understand alloy dissolution in liquid steel especially as it relates to Missouri S&Ts' patented continuous steelmaking process. A 45-kilogram capacity ladle with a single porous plug was used to evaluate the effect of four experimental factors on alloy dissolution: alloy species, alloy size or form, argon flow rate, and furnace tap temperature. Four alloys were tested experimentally including Class I low carbon ferromanganese, nickel and tin (as a surrogate for low melting alloys) and Class II ferroniobium. The alloys ranged in size and form from granular to 30 mm diameter lumps. Experimental results were evaluated using a theoretically based numerical model for the steel shell period, alloy mixing (Class I) and alloy dissolution (Class II). A CFD model of the experimental ladle was used to understand steel motion in the ladle and to provide steel velocity magnitudes for the numerical steel shell model. Experiments and modeling confirmed that smaller sized alloys have shorter steel shell periods and homogenize faster than larger particles. Increasing the argon flow rate shortened mixing times and reduced the delay between alloy addition and the first appearance of alloy in the melt. In addition, for every five degree increase in steel bath temperature the steel shell period was shortened by approximately four percent. Class II ferroniobium alloy dissolution was an order of magnitude slower than Class I alloy mixing.

  15. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  16. Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-05-01

    Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water.

  17. Strain hardening of steel EP836

    SciTech Connect

    Lyadskaya, A.A.; Lappa, R.M.; Spuskanyuk, V.Z.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigate the effect of different combinations of cold hydraulic pressing and heat treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of steel EP836 (03N17K10V10MT), containing 0.03% C, 16-17% Ni, 10-11.5% Co, 9.5-11.5% W, 1% Ti, 1% Mo, and 0.15% A1. Deformation of the unaged steel resulted in insignificant hardening without a decrease in plasticity; this agrees with the results of investigations of other steels of this class.

  18. Direct Alloying of Steel with Nickel Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nokhrina, O. I.; Rozhikhina, I. D.; Proshunin, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    A technology of alloying steel with nickel reduced from nickel concentrate is analysed and developed. Limits of reduction concentration areas are defined. An optimal composition of nickel concentrate pellets and a method of feeding them into the furnace are deduced from experiments. It is proved that when pellets made of nickel concentrate and coke are added into the charge during steel smelting by the technology of alloyed scrap remelting, nickel recovery achieves 92-95%. The technology was tested by smelting DSP-40 steel.

  19. Ultrahigh Carbon Steels and Their Laminates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT 11LitME NT NO. No. NO. NO I I TITLE tiAtluda Seca.r.ty Ck~iaialasonJ Ultrahigh Carbon Steels and their laminates...PROM Aug. 1984 To- Fe~r--9O February 1, 1906 1S. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Amore coinpetc tte of tie-program is: Low Density and Tough Steels with High...Hardenabihzty: Processing, Testing and Evaluation of UHC steels and their laminates 17 COSATI CODES Is.. SUBJECT TERMS (CoAtInai" on uvwrue iroleemary

  20. Thermal embrittlement of reactor vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.; Alexander, D.J.; Stoller, R.E.; Wang, J.A.; Odette, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    As a result of observations of possible thermal embrittlement from recent studies with welds removed from retired steam generators of the Palisades Nuclear Plant (PNP), an assessment was made of thermal aging of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under nominal reactor operating conditions. Discussions are presented on (1) data from the literature regarding relatively low-temperature thermal embrittlement of RPV steels; (2)relevant data from the US power reactor-embrittlement data base (PR-EDB); and (3)potential mechanisms of thermal embrittlement in low-alloy steels.

  1. Ultrasonic attenuation in pearlitic steel.

    PubMed

    Du, Hualong; Turner, Joseph A

    2014-03-01

    Expressions for the attenuation coefficients of longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves are developed for steel with pearlitic microstructure. This type of lamellar duplex microstructure influences attenuation because of the lamellar spacing. In addition, longitudinal attenuation measurements were conducted using an unfocused transducer with 10 MHz central frequency on the cross section of a quenched railroad wheel sample. The dependence of longitudinal attenuation on the pearlite microstructure is observed from the changes of longitudinal attenuation from the quenched tread surface to deeper locations. The results show that the attenuation value is lowest and relatively constant within the quench depth, then increases linearly. The experimental results demonstrate a reasonable agreement with results from the theoretical model. Ultrasonic attenuation provides an important non-destructive method to evaluate duplex microstructure within grains which can be implemented for quality control in conjunction with other manufacturing processes.

  2. Project B: Improved Liquid Steel Feed For Slab Casters

    SciTech Connect

    Brent S. Isaacson; Mike Slepian; Thomas Richter

    1998-10-01

    This report describes the completion of the development of an electromagnetic valve to control liquid steel flow for improved liquid steel feeding for slab casters. Achievements result from a joint research effort between Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, North American Refractories and U.S. Steel. This effort is part of the American Iron and Steel Institute's (AISI) Advanced Process Control Program, a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and fifteen North American steel makers.

  3. Steel pressure vessels for hydrostatic pressures to 50 kilobars.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, A; Whalley, E

    1978-07-01

    Cylindrical steel pressure vessels are described that can be used for hydrostatic pressures up to 50 kilobars. Monoblock vessels of 350 maraging steel can be used to 40 kilobars and compound vessels with an inner vessel of 350 maraging steel and an outer vessel of 300 maraging steel to 50 kilobars. Neither requires the cylinder to be end loaded, and so they are much easier to use than the more usual compound vessels with a tungsten carbide inner and steel outer vessel.

  4. Spheroidizing of medium carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, James Michael

    2000-11-01

    An investigation has been made of spheroidization of medium carbon steels used in the bolt industry. Two process cycles were considered. One was the intercritical cycle, widely used in industry, in which the steel was heated above the A1 temperature for approximately 2 hours and then cooled to 688°C (1270°F) and held for various periods. The other was a subcritical cycle that involved heating to 704°C (1300°F) for various times. Wire samples were 0.4-in. diameter AISI 1541, considered high in manganese and difficult to spheroidize. Although AISI 4037 is considered easier to spheroidize, this alloy was also tested due to its extensive industrial use. It was found that the intercritical cycle produced a somewhat faster drop in hardness. However, one hour of the subcritical cycle yielded greater ductility than 32 hours of the intercritical process, as measured by tensile tests. Similar ductility results were achieved using a new flare test. The level of spheroidization was defined in this study to be the percentage of carbide particles with aspect ratios less than 3. The subcritical cycle produced the same level of spheroidization in 1/2 hour as that reached by the intercritical cycle in 32 hours. Faster spheroidization of cementite plates in the subcritical process appears to be due to the fine pearlite generated by the current practice of rapid cooling off the hot mill. This advantage is lost in the intercritical process because the original pearlite is dissolved above the A1 temperature.

  5. Microstructural characterization in dissimilar friction stir welding between 304 stainless steel and st37 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jafarzadegan, M.; Feng, A.H.; Abdollah-zadeh, A.; Saeid, T.; Shen, J.; Assadi, H.

    2012-12-15

    In the present study, 3 mm-thick plates of 304 stainless steel and st37 steel were welded together by friction stir welding at a welding speed of 50 mm/min and tool rotational speed of 400 and 800 rpm. X-ray diffraction test was carried out to study the phases which might be formed in the welds. Metallographic examinations, and tensile and microhardness tests were used to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joint. Four different zones were found in the weld area except the base metals. In the stir zone of the 304 stainless steel, a refined grain structure with some features of dynamic recrystallization was evidenced. A thermomechanically-affected zone was characterized on the 304 steel side with features of dynamic recovery. In the other side of the stir zone, the hot deformation of the st37 steel in the austenite region produced small austenite grains and these grains transformed to fine ferrite and pearlite and some products of displacive transformations such as Widmanstatten ferrite and martensite by cooling the material after friction stir welding. The heat-affected zone in the st37 steel side showed partially and fully refined microstructures like fusion welding processes. The recrystallization in the 304 steel and the transformations in the st37 steel enhanced the hardness of the weld area and therefore, improved the tensile properties of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW produced sound welds between st37 low carbon steel and 304 stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SZ of the st37 steel contained some products of allotropic transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material in the SZ of the 304 steel showed features of dynamic recrystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The finer microstructure in the SZ increased the hardness and tensile strength.

  6. Stainless Steel Cladding Of Structural Steels By CO2 Laser Welding Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludovico, A.; Daurelio, G.; Arcamone, O.

    1989-01-01

    Steel cladding processes are usually performed in different ways: hot roll cladding, strip cladding, weld cladding, explosion forming. For the first time, a medium power (2 KW c.w.) CO2 laser was used to clad structural steels (Fe 37C), 3 and 5 mm thick, with austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304 and AISI 316), 0.5 and 1.5 mm thick. The cladding technique we have developed uses the laser penetration welding process.

  7. Operational parameter fields in hyperbaric plasma keyhole welding of mild steel line pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmeister, H.; Huismann, G.; Sommer, U.; Knagenhjelm, H.O.

    1996-12-01

    Based on recent work on orbital plasma keyhole welding of Duplex Stainless Steels and Low Carbon Martensitic 12--13% Cr-Steels, the capability of the plasma keyhole process for hyperbaric positional welding is explored. Based on respective nozzle geometry development, constant position welding of 100 mm OD 5 mm wall thickness St 35 pipe test pieces is carried out at constant welding speeds of 3mm/s at various constant currents and plasma Argon gas flow rates. As a result, the operational parameter fields are basically limited by lack of penetration (LOP) at too low gas flows and cutting (CT) together with dropping at too high gas flow rates. Based on present hyperbaric specifications for fabrication, limiting conditions for minimum root weld widths of 3mm and maximum root reinforcements of 2mm are established, for 11 and 41 bar as well as for the 3h, 6h and 12 h position. As common operating parameter sets for all positions, 135 A and 1.5 l/min plasma gas flow and 120 A and 1.8 l/min plasma gas flow are identified for 11 bar and 41 bar respectively.

  8. Evaluation of Direct Diode Laser Deposited Stainless Steel 316L on 4340 Steel Substrate for Aircraft Landing Gear Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2010-4149 EVALUATION OF DIRECT DIODE LASER DEPOSITED STAINLESS STEEL 316L ON 4340 STEEL SUBSTRATE FOR AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR...March 2010 – 01 March 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EVALUATION OF DIRECT DIODE LASER DEPOSITED STAINLESS STEEL 316L ON 4340 STEEL SUBSTRATE FOR...Code) N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Evaluation of Direct Diode Laser Deposited Stainless Steel 316L on

  9. Abbreviated annealing of high-speed steel

    SciTech Connect

    Zablotskii, V.K.; Bartel, G.P.

    1987-07-01

    The authors investigate the structural and phase transformations during the heating, holding, and cooling of high-speed steels of two basic groups: tungsten (R18, R12, R12F3, and R12F4K5) and tungsten-molybdenum (R6M5, 10R6M5, R6M5K5, R8M3, 10R8M3, and R8M3K6S) steels in the forged state. They propose a cooling regime with complete alpha-gamma recrystallization whose implementation at a Soviet steel plant has made it possible to reduce the duration of heat treatment and increase productivity by 20% in cutting the annealed high-speed steels.

  10. Clean Cast Steel Technology, Phase IV

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Bates

    2003-02-24

    The objective of the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program was to improve casting product quality by removing or minimizing oxide defects and to allow the production of higher integrity castings for high speed machining lines. Previous research has concentrated on macro-inclusions that break, chip, or crack machine tool cutters and drills and cause immediate shutdown of the machining lines. The overall goal of the project is to reduce the amount of surface macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions and improve the machinability of steel castings. Macro-inclusions have been identified by industrial sponsors as a major barrier to improving the quality and marketability of steel castings.

  11. Precise carbon control of fabricated stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, R.J.

    1975-12-01

    A process is described for controlling the carbon content of fabricated stainless steel components including the steps of heat treating the component in hydrogen atmospheres of varying dewpoints and carbon potentials.

  12. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-15

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  13. Hydrogen compatibility handbook for stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1983-06-01

    This handbook compiles data on the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of stainless steels and discusses this data within the context of current understanding of hydrogen compatibility of metals. All of the tabulated data derives from continuing studies of hydrogen effects on materials that have been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory over the past fifteen years. Supplementary data from other sources are included in the discussion. Austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation hardenable stainless steels have been studied. Damage caused by helium generated from decay of tritium is a distinctive effect that occurs in addition to the hydrogen isotopes protium and deuterium. The handbook defines the scope of our current knowledge of hydrogen effects in stainless steels and serves as a guide to selection of stainless steels for service in hydrogen.

  14. Steel - Structural, reinforcing; Pressure vessel, railway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book contains specifications for structural steel used in various constructions; concrete reinforcement; plate and forgings for boilers and pressure vesseles; rails, axles, wheels and other accessories for railway service.

  15. Graphitization in high carbon commercial steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, M. A.; Colás, R.; Valtierra, S.

    1998-08-01

    Graphitization kinetics in two commercial high carbon steels, AISI types 1075 and 1095, are studied by conducting a series of isothermal annealing treatments in the temperature range of 560 to 680‡ C for periods of time ranging from 20 to 500 h. The samples selected were collected along the processing route in a commercial production line dedicated to the fabrication of thin strip. The structures studied were those of hot rolling (consisting of fine pearlite), cold rolling (spheroidized carbides within a deformed ferritic matrix), and subcritical annealing (spheroidized carbides in undeformed ferrite). The samples obtained from hot rolled coils do not graphitize, whereas those cold rolled graphitize at a rate that depends on the type of steel and degree of deformation. No graphite was found in samples from the lower carbon steel, which were subcritically annealed, although they were observed in specimens from the other steel, which were cold rolled to a reduction of 50% prior to the subcritical annealing.

  16. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaluzny, J. A.; Grimm, C.; Passarelli, D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  17. TiC-reinforced cast Cr steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Schrems, K. K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5-4.5Ti, and 1-1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  18. Development of a carburizing stainless steel alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, D.E. )

    1994-06-01

    A new carburizing stainless steel alloy that resists corrosion, heat, and fatigue has been developed for bearing and gear applications. Pyrowear 675 Stainless alloy is vacuum induction melted and vacuum arc remelted (VIM/VAR) for aircraft-quality cleanliness. Test results show that it has corrosion resistance similar to that of AISI Type 440-C stainless, and its rolling fatigue resistance is superior to that of AISI M50 (UNS K88165). In contrast to alloy gear steels and Type 440C, Pyrowear 675 maintains case hardness of HRC 60 at operating temperatures up to 200 C (400 F). Impact and fracture toughness are superior to that of other stainless bearing steels, which typically are relatively brittle and can break under severe service. Toughness is also comparable or superior to conventional noncorrosion-resistant carburizing bearing steels, such as SAE Types 8620 and 9310.

  19. TiC reinforced cast Cr steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Schrems, K.K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5–4.5Ti, and 1–1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  20. TiC reinforced cast chromium steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N.; Rawers, James C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2003-11-01

    A series of new titanium carbide reinforced cast chromium steels were developed for wear applications. Objective of the program was to enhance wear resistant alloys and, if possible, improve mechanical properties. The new steels which were melted in a vacuum induction furnace contained 12 Cr, 3-5 Ti, 1-2 C in weight percent. Alloying with Ti changed the precipitate microstructure from Cr carbide to TiC dispersed in a martensitic matrix. Yield strength and impact resistance improved with Ti alloying. Wear rates of the cast Cr/TiC steels, (determined from high- and low-stress abrasion tests, erosion test, and scratch tests) were generally lower than both the as-cast and heat-treated AISI type 440°C steel and were often further reduced by increasing the Ti alloy concentration. The exceptions were the erosion test for which all materials had similar wear rate.

  1. High performance corrosion-resistant structural steels

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, F.B.; Ferry, B.N.; Beblo, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    A new corrosion-resistant structural steel named Duracorr was developed for low maintenance when compared to conventional structural steels. The new stainless steel is a dual phase composition between the established 12% Cr, ferritic T409 and martensitic T410 grades. Attractive combinations of hardness, strength, toughness, weldability and formability are derived from a microstructure that is a dual phase mixture of ferrite and martensite. The Duracorr composition, UNS S41003, provides for a microstructure of ferrite and austenite to be present throughout the hot rolling process. Cooling to room temperature causes transformation of the austenite to martensite. Subsequent tempering of the steel creates minimum mechanical properties of 275 MPa (40 ksi) yield strength and 455 MPa (66 ksi) tensile strength with room temperature longitudinal Charpy impact values typically greater than 34 J (25 ft-lbs).

  2. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-06-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  3. High strength and high toughness steel

    DOEpatents

    Parker, Earl R.; Zackay, Victor F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural steel which possess both high strength and high toughness and has particular application of cryogenic uses. The steel is produced by the utilization of thermally induced phase transformation following heating in a three-phase field in iron-rich alloys of the Fe-Ni-Ti system, with a preferred composition of 12% nickel, 0.5% titanium, the remainder being iron.

  4. High strength, high ductility low carbon steel

    DOEpatents

    Koo, Jayoung; Thomas, Gareth

    1978-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility low carbon steel consisting essentially of iron, 0.05-0.15 wt% carbon, and 1-3 wt% silicon. Minor amounts of other constituents may be present. The steel is characterized by a duplex ferrite-martensite microstructure in a fibrous morphology. The microstructure is developed by heat treatment consisting of initial austenitizing treatment followed by annealing in the (.alpha. + .gamma.) range with intermediate quenching.

  5. Diffraction Measurements on CPF Steel Fatigue Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-30

    I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I - 535 - Diffraction Measurements on CPF Steel Fatigue Samples by Percy Clark*, Tom...to the formation of a detectable fatigue crack, a series of hourglass shaped specimens were fabricated from 350WT steel , cyclically loaded to...were made between these experiments and earlier less successful similar experiments conducted on HY80 samples. The limitations and potential for the

  6. Occupational rhinitis due to steel welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Castano, Roberto; Suarthana, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to welding fumes is a recognized respiratory hazard. Occupational asthma but not occupational rhinitis has been documented in workers exposed to steel welding fumes. We report a 26-year-old male with work-related rhinitis symptoms as well as lower airways symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma and metal fume fever associated with exposure to steel welding fumes. The diagnosis of occupational rhinitis was confirmed by specific inhalation challenge.

  7. Analysis of plasma-nitrided steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Ferrante, J.; Honecy, F.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of plasma nitrided steels can be divided to two main categories - structural and chemical. Structural analysis can provide information not only on the hardening mechanisms but also on the fundamental processes involved. Chemical analysis can be used to study the kinetics for the nitriding process and its mechanisms. In this paper preliminary results obtained by several techniques of both categories are presented and the applicability of those techniques to the analysis of plasma-nitrided steels is discussed.

  8. Thermal treatment of dissimilar steels' welded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulina, A. A.; Denisova, A. S.; Gradusov, I. N.; Ryabinkina, P. A.; Rushkovets, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper combinations of chrome-nickel steel and high-carbon steel, produced by flash butt welding after heat treatment, are investigated. Light and electron microscopic studies show that the welded joints after heat treatment have a complex structure consisting of several phases as initial welded joints. A martensite structure in welded joints after thermal treatment at 300... 800 °C has been found.

  9. Stainless Steels’ Resistance to Hydroerosion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-30

    Omel’chenko, engineer, S. L. Millichenko, A. G. Aleksandrov, Candidates of Technical Sciences Thanks to a high corrosion resistance stainless steels have...has great significance. The resistance to hydroerosion of several of the most common types of stainless steels which have roughly the same corrosion ...the failure is first localized in the ferrite phase and occurs by means of plastic deformation and the development of fatigue micro- cracks both

  10. Rinne revisited: steel versus aluminum tuning forks.

    PubMed

    MacKechnie, Cheryl A; Greenberg, Jesse J; Gerkin, Richard C; McCall, Andrew A; Hirsch, Barry E; Durrant, John D; Raz, Yael

    2013-12-01

    (1) Determine whether tuning fork material (aluminum vs stainless steel) affects Rinne testing in the clinical assessment of conductive hearing loss (CHL). (2) Determine the relative acoustic and mechanical outputs of 512-Hz tuning forks made of aluminum and stainless steel. Prospective, observational. Outpatient otology clinic. Fifty subjects presenting May 2011 to May 2012 with negative or equivocal Rinne in at least 1 ear and same-day audiometry. Rinne test results using aluminum and steel forks were compared and correlated with the audiometric air-bone gap. Bench top measurements using sound-level meter, microphone, and artificial mastoid. Patients with CHL were more likely to produce a negative Rinne test with a steel fork than with an aluminum fork. Logistic regression revealed that the probability of a negative Rinne reached 50% at a 19 dB air-bone gap for stainless steel versus 27 dB with aluminum. Bench top testing revealed that steel forks demonstrate, in effect, more comparable air and bone conduction efficiencies while aluminum forks have relatively lower bone conduction efficiency. We have found that steel tuning forks can detect a lesser air-bone gap compared to aluminum tuning forks. This is substantiated by observations of clear differences in the relative acoustic versus mechanical outputs of steel and aluminum forks, reflecting underlying inevitable differences in acoustic versus mechanical impedances of these devices, and thus efficiency of coupling sound/vibratory energy to the auditory system. These findings have clinical implications for using tuning forks to determine candidacy for stapes surgery.

  11. Diffraction Techniques in Steel Research: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melzer, Stefan; Moerman, Jaap

    Acquiring knowledge about microstructures and textures is crucial for the improvement and development steel products, because these two characteristics are controlling factors for the properties of steel. Diffraction techniques using X-rays, electrons or neutrons are suitable to study microstructures (e.g. phase relationships) and textures (crystallographic orientations). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) are generally available techniques within an industrial research environment.

  12. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.

    1984-01-01

    The application of the ion beam technique to the nitriding of steels is described. It is indicated that the technique can be successfully applied to nitriding. Some of the structural changes obtained by this technique are similar to those obtained by ion nitriding. The main difference is the absence of the iron nitride diffraction lines. It is found that the dependence of the resultant microhardness on beam voltage for super nitralloy is different from that of 304 stainless steel.

  13. Laser Rewelding of 304L Stainless Steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Michael Christopher; Rodelas, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    Laser welding of 304L stainless steel during component fabrication has been found to alter the chemical composition of the steel due to material evaporation. During repair or rework, or during potential reuse/ rewelding of certain components, the potential exists to alter the composition to the extent that the material becomes prone to solidification cracking. This work aims to characterize the extent of this susceptibility in order to make informed decisions regarding rewelding practice and base metal chemistry allowances.

  14. Improved High Strength Armor Steel through Texturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    80 I 14 02w INTRODUCTION During metal manufacturing processing, such as rolling of sheet and plate, the polycrystalline aggregate of the material...of the quenched martensite has been documented by previous investigators including Kula and Dhosi who ob- served that thermomechanical processing can...textured armor steel exhibits improved ballistic resistance to conventionally uncontrolled rolled steels of equal hardness at normal obliquity. This

  15. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.

    1985-01-01

    The application of the ion beam technique to the nitriding of steels is described. It is indicated that the technique can be successfully applied to nitriding. Some of the structural changes obtained by this technique are similar to those obtained by ion nitriding. The main difference is the absence of the iron nitride diffraction lines. It is found that the dependence of the resultant microhardness on beam voltage for super nitralloy is different from that of 304 stainless steel.

  16. Regularities of bainitic steel deformation transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, V. E.; Nikitina, E. N.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Aksenova, K. V.

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of defect and carbide subsystems evolution in medium-carbon bainitic steel subjected to compressive strain up to 36% was performed by means of transmission electron diffraction microscopy. Dislocation substructure and carbide phase parameters dependence on degree of deformation are identified, possible reasons of staging in their changes are discussed. It is suggested that the reason for bainitic steel softening at high (over 15%) degrees of deformation is activation of deformation microtwinning process.

  17. Colorimetric values of esthetic stainless steel crowns.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Omachi, Koichi; Staninec, Michal

    2002-01-01

    The colorimetric values of two different kinds of esthetic stainless steel crowns were measured and compared with the colorimetric values of primary anterior teeth in Japanese children. The colorimetric values of resin composite-faced stainless steel crowns (Kinder Krown) and epoxy-coated stainless steel crowns (White Steel Crown) were measured with a color difference meter. The Commission Internationale de Eclairage L*, a*, b*, and delta E*ab values and Munsell value, chroma, and hue were calculated. The data were compared with previously reported colorimetric values of Japanese primary anterior teeth measured with the same color difference meter used in this study. Compared to Japanese primary anterior teeth, Kinder Krown Pedo I and Pedo II showed much higher L* values and lower hue; on the other hand, White Steel Crown showed much higher L*, a*, b* values, much higher value and chroma, and much lower hue. Color analysis revealed that the colors of the White Steel Crown and Kinder Krown Pedo I were substantially different from the color of Japanese primary anterior teeth. The color difference between Pedo II crowns and Japanese primary anterior teeth was relatively high, but the color of Pedo II might be acceptable for clinical use.

  18. Ion-nitriding of austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, O.; Hertz, D.; Lebrun, J.P.; Michel, H.

    1995-12-31

    Although ion-nitriding is an extensively industrialized process enabling steel surfaces to be hardened by nitrogen diffusion, with a resulting increase in wear, seizure and fatigue resistance, its direct application to stainless steels, while enhancing their mechanical properties, also causes a marked degradation in their oxidation resistance. However, by adaption of the nitriding process, it is possible to maintain the improved wear resistant properties while retaining the oxidation resistance of the stainless steel. The controlled diffusion permits the growth of a nitrogen supersaturated austenite layer on parts made of stainless steel (AISI 304L and 316L) without chromium nitride precipitation. The diffusion layer remains stable during post heat treatments up to 650 F for 5,000 hrs and maintains a hardness of 900 HV. A very low and stable friction coefficient is achieved which provides good wear resistance against stainless steels under diverse conditions. Electrochemical and chemical tests in various media confirm the preservation of the stainless steel characteristics. An example of the application of this process is the treatment of Reactor Control Rod Cluster Assemblies (RCCAs) for Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactors.

  19. Effects of interactive particles on steel weldability

    SciTech Connect

    Eijk, C. van der; Grong, O.; Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.

    1998-11-01

    The concept of intragranular ferrite nucleation by specific inclusions is well known from steel weld metals. In this paper it is shown that the idea can be transferred to steel metallurgy. Control of the inclusion composition and thus the nucleation potency with respect to ferrite can readily be achieved by the choice of an appropriate deoxidation procedure. Thermodynamic (Thermo-Calc) calculations in addition to X-ray mappings and microprobe analysis are employed to understand and predict the inclusion formation in the steels. Three different steels, two of them Ti-deoxidized, and one Al-Ca-deoxidized, have been subjected to weld thermal simulation at different peak temperatures and cooling programs followed by Charpy-V notch testing at {minus}40 C to reveal differences in the HAZ toughness. The results from these tests show that the titanium deoxidized steels exhibit excellent toughness in the grain coarsened HAZ after high heat input weld simulation because of a refinement of the microstructure. This observation is in contrast to the more traditional behavior of the conventional Al-Ca deoxidized steels, which show no evidence of intragranular ferrite formation.

  20. Development of Steel Foam Materials and Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Kremer; Anthony Liszkiewicz; James Adkins

    2004-10-20

    In the past few years there has been a growing interest in lightweight metal foams. Demands for weight reduction, improved fuel efficiency, and increased passenger safety in automobiles now has manufacturers seriously considering the use of metal foams, in contrast to a few years ago, when the same materials would have been ruled out for technical or economical reasons. The objective of this program was to advance the development and use of steel foam materials, by demonstrating the advantages of these novel lightweight materials in selected generic applications. Progress was made in defining materials and process parameters; characterization of physical and mechanical properties; and fabrication and testing of generic steel foam-filled shapes with compositions from 2.5 wt.% to 0.7 wt.% carbon. A means of producing steel foam shapes with uniform long range porosity levels of 50 to 60 percent was demonstrated and verified with NDE methods. Steel foam integrated beams, cylinders and plates were mechanically tested and demonstrated advantages in bend stiffness, bend resistance, and crush energy absorption. Methods of joining by welding, adhesive bonding, and mechanical fastening were investigated. It is important to keep in mind that steel foam is a conventional material in an unconventional form. A substantial amount of physical and mechanical properties are presented throughout the report and in a properties database at the end of the report to support designer's in applying steel foam in unconventional ways.

  1. Microstructural studies of advanced austenitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, J. A.; Ren, Jyh-Ching

    1989-11-15

    This report presents the first complete microstructural and analytical electron microscopy study of Alloy AX5, one of a series of advanced austenitic steels developed by Maziasz and co-workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for their potential application as reheater and superheater materials in power plants that will reach the end of their design lives in the 1990's. The advanced steels are modified with carbide forming elements such as titanium, niobium and vanadium. When combined with optimized thermo-mechanical treatments, the advanced steels exhibit significantly improved creep rupture properties compared to commercially available 316 stainless steels, 17--14 Cu--Mo and 800 H steels. The importance of microstructure in controlling these improvements has been demonstrated for selected alloys, using stress relaxation testing as an accelerated test method. The microstructural features responsible for the improved creep strengths have been identified by studying the thermal aging kinetics of one of the 16Ni--14Cr advanced steels, Alloy AX5, in both the solution annealed and the solution annealed plus cold worked conditions. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams have been developed for the temperature range 600 C to 900 C and for times from 1 h to 3000 h. 226 refs., 88 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Ultrahigh Ductility, High-Carbon Martensitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Shengwei; Liu, Yu; Hao, Qingguo; Zuo, Xunwei; Rong, Yonghua; Chen, Nailu

    2016-10-01

    Based on the proposed design idea of the anti-transformation-induced plasticity effect, both the additions of the Nb element and pretreatment of the normalization process as a novel quenching-partitioning-tempering (Q-P-T) were designed for Fe-0.63C-1.52Mn-1.49Si-0.62Cr-0.036Nb hot-rolled steel. This high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel exhibits a tensile strength of 1890 MPa and elongation of 29 pct accompanied by the excellent product of tensile and elongation of 55 GPa pct. The origin of ultrahigh ductility for high-carbon Q-P-T martensitic steel is revealed from two aspects: one is the softening of martensitic matrix due to both the depletion of carbon in the matensitic matrix during the Q-P-T process by partitioning of carbon from supersaturated martensite to retained austenite and the reduction of the dislocation density in a martensitic matrix by dislocation absorption by retained austenite effect during deformation, which significantly enhances the deformation ability of martensitic matrix; another is the high mechanical stability of considerable carbon-enriched retained austenite, which effectively reduces the formation of brittle twin-type martensite. This work verifies the correctness of the design idea of the anti-TRIP effect and makes the third-generation advanced high-strength steels extend to the field of high-carbon steels from low- and medium-carbon steels.

  3. Nickel-free duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Uggowitzer, P.J.; Magdowski, R.; Speidel, M.O.

    1998-12-04

    It is well known that nitrogen-alloying in steel produces a variety of exceptional properties such as high strength, high ductility and, eventually, resistance to stress corrosion cracking. High-nitrogen steels (HNS), therefore, have recently been developed to enhance the strength and corrosion resistance of stainless steels. However, due to a low solubility of nitrogen in a liquid steel under atmospheric pressure, the production of such high-nitrogen alloys needs high-pressure facilities that cause an extra cost. A possible route of developing high-nitrogen alloys under atmospheric pressure is to choose a duplex microstructure, where the amount of austenite and ferrite phase is nearly equal. A much lower nitrogen content is needed to maintain a 50% austenite phase compared with the necessary addition of nitrogen to reach a 100% austenitic microstructure. In addition, duplex stainless steels (DSS) with 40--60% ferrite can significantly improve the SCC-resistance. The objective of this work was to develop a new group of nickel-free, high strength and corrosion resistant DSS. Nickel was completely replaced by nitrogen in order to enhance SCC resistance and reduce the alloying element cost. The microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and cost analysis of new alloys are investigated in comparison with some commercial stainless steels.

  4. Stainless steel recycle FY94 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    1994-10-28

    The Materials Technology Section (MTS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was asked to demonstrate the practicality of recycling previously contaminated stainless steel components such as reactor heat exchanger heads, process water piping and slug buckets into 208 liters (55 gallon) drums and 2.8 cubic meter (100 ft{sup 3}) storage boxes. Radioactively contaminated stainless steel scrap will be sent to several industrial partners where it will be melted, decontaminated/cast into ingots, and rolled into plate and sheet and fabricated into the drums and boxes. As part of this recycle initiative, MTS was requested to demonstrate that radioactively contaminated Type 304L stainless steel could be remelted and cast to meet the applicable ASTM specification for fabrication of drums and boxes. In addition, MTS was requested to develop the technical basis of melt decontamination and establish practicality of using this approach for value added products. The findings presented in this investigation lead to the following conclusions: recycle of 18 wt% Cr-8 wt% Ni alloy can be achieved by melting Type 304 stainless steel in a air vacuum induction furnace; limited melt decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel was achieved, surface contamination was removed by standard decontamination techniques; carbon uptake in the as-cast ingots resulted from the graphite susceptor used in this experiment and is unavoidable with this furnace configuration. A new furnace optimized for melting stainless steel has been installed and is currently being tested for use in this program.

  5. Dissolution of steel slags in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shashikant; Mehra, Anurag

    2017-07-01

    Steel slag is a major industrial waste in steel industries, and its dissolution behavior in water needs to be characterized in the larger context of its potential use as an agent for sequestering CO2. For this purpose, a small closed system batch reactor was used to conduct the dissolution of steel slags in an aqueous medium under various dissolution conditions. In this study, two different types of steel slags were procured from steel plants in India, having diverse structural features, mineralogical compositions, and particle sizes. The experiment was performed at different temperatures for 240 h of dissolution at atmospheric pressure. The dissolution rates of major and minor slag elements were quantified through liquid-phase elemental analysis using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy at different time intervals. Advanced analytical techniques such as field emission gun-scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray, BET, and XRD were also used to analyze mineralogical and structural changes in the slag particles. High dissolution of slags was observed irrespective of the particle size distribution, which suggests high carbonation potential. Concentrations of toxic heavy metals in the leachate were far below maximum acceptable limits. Thus, the present study investigates the dissolution behavior of different mineral ions of steel slag in aqueous media in light of its potential application in CO2 sequestration.

  6. Utilization of structural steel in buildings

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Muiris C.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10 000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is ‘rationalization’—providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in ‘embodied’ carbon emissions. PMID:25104911

  7. C5a, but not C5a-des Arg, induces upregulation of heteromer formation between complement C5a receptors C5aR and C5L2.

    PubMed

    Croker, Daniel E; Halai, Reena; Fairlie, David P; Cooper, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Receptors for C5a have an important role in innate immunity and inflammation where their expression and activation is tightly regulated. There are two known receptors for C5a: the C5a receptor (C5aR) and the C5a receptor like-2 (C5L2) receptor. Here we hypothesized that activation of C5aR might lead to heteromer formation with C5L2, as a downregulatory mechanism for C5aR signaling. To investigate this experimentally, bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) was implemented and supported by wide-field microscopy to analyze receptor localization in transfected HEK293 cells and human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). BRET experiments indicated the presence of constitutive C5aR-C5L2 heteromers, where C5a, but not C5a-des Arg, was able to induce further heteromer formation, which was inhibited by a C5aR-specific antagonist. The data obtained suggest that C5aR-C5L2 can form heteromers in a process enhanced by C5a, but not by C5a-des Arg. There was also a significant difference in the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 detected in HMDM following exposure to C5a compared with that seen for C5a-des Arg but no differences in the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6. These subtle differences in C5a and C5a-des Arg induced receptor function may be of benefit in understanding the regulation of C5a in acute inflammation.

  8. Mapping the functional assessment of cancer therapy-breast (FACT-B) to the 5-level EuroQoL Group's 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) utility index in a multi-ethnic Asian population.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Luo, Nan; Ng, Raymond; Lee, Chun Fan

    2014-12-12

    To develop an algorithm for mapping the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) to the 5-level EuroQoL Group's 5-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) utility index. A survey of 238 breast cancer patients in Singapore was conducted. Models using various regression methods with or without recognizing the upper boundary of utility values at 1 were fitted to predict the EQ-5D-5L utility index based on the five subscale scores of the FACT-B. Data from a follow-up survey of these patients were used to validate the results. A model that maps the physical, emotional, functional well-being and the breast cancer concerns subscales of the FACT-B to the EQ-5D-5L utility index was derived. The social well-being subscale was not associated to the utility index. Although theoretical assumptions may not be valid, ordinary least square outperformed other regression methods. The mean predicted utility index within each performance status level at follow-up deviated from the observed mean less than the minimally important difference of EQ-5D for cancer patients. The mapping algorithm converts the FACT-B to the EQ-5D utility index. This enables oncologists, clinical researchers and policy makers to obtain a quantitative utility summary of a patient's health status when only the FACT-B is assessed.

  9. EMPLACEMENT DRIFT INVERT-LOW STEEL EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    M. E. Taylor and D. H. Tang

    2000-09-29

    This technical report evaluates and develops options for reducing the amount of steel in the emplacement drift invert. Concepts developed in the ''Invert Configuration and Drip Shield Interface'' were evaluated to determine material properties required for the proposed invert concepts. Project requirements documents prescribe the use of a carbon steel frame for the invert with a granular material of crushed tuff as ballast. The ''Invert Configuration and Drip Shield Interface'' developed three concepts: (1) All-Ballast Invert; (2) Modified Steel Invert with Ballast; and (3) Steel Tie with Ballast Invert. Analysis of the steel frame members, runway beams, and guide beams, for the modified steel invert with ballast, decreased the quantity of steel in the emplacement drift invert, however a substantial steel support frame for the gantry and waste package/pallet assembly is still required. Use of one of the other two concepts appears to be an alternative to the steel frame and each of the concepts uses considerably less steel materials. Analysis of the steel tie with ballast invert shows that the bearing pressure on the ballast under the single steel tie, C 9 x 20, loaded with the waste package/pallet assembly, drip shield, and backfill exceeds the upper bound of the allowable bearing capacity for tuff used in this study. The single tie, C 10 x 20, will also fail for the same loading condition except for the tie length of 4.2 meters and longer. Analysis also shows that with two ties, C 9 or 10 x 20's, the average ballast pressure is less than the allowable bearing capacity. Distributing the waste package/pallet, drip shield, and backfill loads to two steel ties reduces the contact bearing pressure. Modifying the emplacement pallet end beams to a greater width, reducing the tie spacing, and increasing the width of the ties would ensure that the pallet beams are always supported by two steel ties. Further analysis is required to determine compatible tie size and spacing

  10. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    DOEpatents

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  11. 77 FR 37384 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China... duty order on high pressure steel cylinders (``steel cylinders'') from the People's Republic of China.... See High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Final...

  12. 77 FR 55807 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ....\\1\\ The review covers four companies: Chung Hung Steel Corp., Kao Hsing Chang Iron & Steel Corp. (also known as Kao Hsiung Chang Iron & Steel Corp.), Shin Yang Steel Co., Ltd., and Tension Steel... Hung Steel Corp.; (2) Kao Hsing Chang Iron & Steel Corp. (also known as Kao Hsiung Chang Iron & Steel...

  13. Mechanical properties of irradiated 9Cr-2WVTa steel

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Rieth, M.

    1998-09-01

    An Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) steel has excellent strength and impact toughness before and after irradiation in the Fast Flux Test Facility and the High Flux Reactor (HFR). The ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) increased only 32 C after 28 dpa at 365 C in FFTF, compared to a shift of {approx}60 C for a 9Cr-2WV steel--the same as the 9Cr-2WVTa steel but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile but without tantalum. This difference occurred despite the two steels having similar tensile properties before and after irradiation. The 9Cr-2WVTa steel has a smaller prior-austenite grain size, but otherwise microstructures are similar before irradiation and show similar changes during irradiation. The irradiation behavior of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel differs from the 9Cr-2WV steel and other similar steels in two ways: (1) the shift in DBTT of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF does not saturate with fluence by {approx}28 dpa, whereas for the 9Cr-2WV steel and most similar steels, saturation occurs at <10 dpa, and (2) the shift in DBTT for 9Cr-2WVTa steel irradiated in FFTF and HFR increased with irradiation temperature, whereas it decreased for the 9Cr-2WV steel, as it does for most similar steels. The improved properties of the 9Cr-2WVTa steel and the differences with other steels were attributed to tantalum in solution.

  14. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  15. High Strength, Weldable Precipitation Aged Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Alexander D.

    1987-03-01

    The family of plate steels represented by ASTM Specification A7101 is finding increasing applications. These low carbon, Cu-Ni-Cr-Mo-Cb, copper precipitation hardened steels have been identified by a number of designations over the years. During early development in the late 1960's and first commercial production in 1970, the steels were known as IN-787 (trademark of International Nickel Company).2 ASTM specifications were subsequently developed for structural (A710) and pressure vessel (A736) applications over ten years ago. More recent interest and application of this family of steels by the U.S. Navy has lead to development of a military specification MIL-S-24645 (SH),3 also initially known as "HSLA-80." Significant tonnage is being produced for the U.S. Navy as a replacement for HY80 (MIL-S-16216) in cruiser deck, bulkhead and hull applications.4 In these applications, the enhanced weldability and requirement of no preheat at this high strength and toughness level has been the main motivation for its use. Over the past 15 years, A710 type steels have also been used in a variety of applications, including off-shore platforms, pressure vessels, arctic linepipe valves and off-highway mining truck frames.

  16. Superplastic forming of stainless steel automotive components

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, B.; Elmer, J.; Carol, L.

    1997-02-06

    Exhaust emission standards are governmentally controlled standards, which are increasingly stringent, forcing alternate strategies to meet these standards. One approach to improve the efficiency of the exhaust emission equipment is to decrease the time required to get the catalytic converter to optimum operating temperature. To accomplish this, automotive manufacturers are using double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds to reduce heat loss of the exhaust gases to the converter. The current method to manufacture double wall stainless steel exhaust components is to use a low-cost alloy with good forming properties and extensively form, cut, assemble, and weld the pieces. Superplastic forming (SPF) technology along with alloy improvements has potential at making this process more cost effective. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and USCAR Low Emission Partnership (LEP) worked under a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) to evaluate material properties, SPF behavior, and welding behavior of duplex stainless steel alloy for automotive component manufacturing. Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has a separate CRADA with the LEP to use SPF technology to manufacture a double wall stainless steel exhaust component. As a team these CRADAs developed and demonstrated a technical plan to accomplish making double wall stainless steel exhaust manifolds.

  17. Dislocation substructure in fatigued duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J. . Lab. de Mecanique de Lille Inst. of Physical Metallurgy, Brno . Academy of Sciences); Degallaix, S. . Lab. de Mecanique de Lille); Kruml, T. . Academy of Sciences)

    1993-12-15

    Cyclic plastic straining of crystalline materials results in the formation of specific dislocation structures. Considerable progress in mapping and understanding internal dislocation structures has been achieved by studying single crystal behavior: however, most structural materials have a polycrystalline structure and investigations of polycrystals in comparison to single crystal behavior of simple metals prove to be very useful in understanding more complex materials. There are some classes of materials, however, with complicated structure which do not have a direct equivalent in single crystalline form. Moreover, the specific dimensions and shapes of individual crystallites play an important role both in the cyclic stress-strain response of these materials and in the formation of their interior structure in cyclic straining. Austenitic-ferritic duplex stainless steel, which is a kind of a natural composite, is a material of this type. The widespread interest in the application of duplex steels is caused by approximately doubled mechanical properties and equal corrosion properties, when compared with classical austenitic stainless steels. Fatigue resistance of these steels as well as the surface damage evolution in cyclic straining have been studied; however, much less is known about the internal substructure development in cyclic straining. In this study the dislocation arrangement in ferritic and austenitic grains of the austenitic-ferritic duplex steel alloyed with nitrogen and cyclically strained with two strain amplitudes, is reported and compared to the dislocation arrangement found in single and polycrystals of austenitic and ferritic materials of a similar composition and with the surface relief produced in cyclic plastic straining.

  18. Recycling zinc by dezincing steel scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1995-06-01

    In response to the worldwide increase in consumption of galvanized steel for automobiles in the last fifteen years, and the increased cost of environmental compliance associated with remelting larger quantities of galvanized steel scrap, a process is being developed to separate and recover the steel and zinc from galvanized ferrous scrap. The zinc is dissolved from the scrap in hot caustic using anodic assistance and is recovered electrolytically as dendritic powder. The designed ferrous scrap is rinsed and used directly. The process is effective for zinc, lead, and aluminum removal on loose and baled scrap and on all types of galvanized steel. The process has been pilot tested in Hamilton, Ontario for batch treatment of 900 tonnes of mostly baled scrap. A pilot plant in East Chicago, Indiana has designed in a continuous process mode 900 tonnes of loose stamping plant scrap; this scrap typically has residual zinc below 0.1% and sodium dragout below 0.001%. This paper reviews pilot plant performance and the economics of recycling galvanized steel and recovering zinc using a caustic process.

  19. Hydrogen trapping in high-strength steels

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, B.G.

    1998-10-09

    Hydrogen trapping in three high-strength steels -- AerMet 100 and AISI 4340 and H11 -- was studied using a potentiostatic pulse technique. Irreversible trapping constants (k) and hydrogen entry fluxes were determined for these alloys in 1 mol/1 acetic acid/1 mol/1 sodium acetate. The order of the k values for the three steels and two 18Ni maraging steels previously studies inversely parallels their threshold stress intensities for stress corrosion cracking (K{sub 1SCC}). Irreversible trapping in AerMet 100 varies with aging temperature and appears to depend on the type of carbide (Fe{sub 3}C or M{sub 2}C) present. For 4340 steel, k can be correlated with K{sub 1SCC} over a range of yield strengths. The change in k is consistent with a change in the principal type of irreversible trap from matrix boundaries to incoherent Fe{sub 3}C. The principal irreversible traps in H11 at high yield strengths are thought to be similar to those in 4340 steel.

  20. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1985-10-01

    A program is being conducted to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast-duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. Data from room-temperature Charpy-impact tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 350, 400, and 450/sup 0/C are presented and compared with results from other studies. Microstructures of cast-duplex stainless steels subjected to long-term aging either in the laboratory or in reactor service have been characterized. The results indicate that at least two processes contribute to the low-temperature embrittleent of duplex stainless steels, viz., weakening of the ferrite/austenite phase boundary by carbide precipitation and embrittlement of ferrite matrix by the formation of additional phases such as G-phase, Type X, or the ..cap alpha..' phase. Carbide precipitation has a significant effect on the onset of embrittlement of CF-8 and -8M grades of stainless steels aged at 400 or 450/sup 0/C. The existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 300 to 450/sup 0/C. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  2. 19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON THE CHARGING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP LOOKING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. View of steel warehouses (building 710 second in on right); ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses (building 710 second in on right); camera facing south. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  4. View of steel warehouses (from left: building 807, 808, 809, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses (from left: building 807, 808, 809, 810, 811); camera facing east. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  5. View of steel warehouses, building 710 north sidewalk; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses, building 710 north sidewalk; camera facing east. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  6. View of steel warehouses on Ellsberg Drive, building 710 full ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses on Ellsberg Drive, building 710 full building at center; camera facing southeast. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  7. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  8. View of steel warehouses (building 710 second in on left); ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses (building 710 second in on left); camera facing west. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  9. View of steel warehouses at Gilmore Avenue (building 710 second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel warehouses at Gilmore Avenue (building 710 second in on left); camera facing east. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Steel Warehouse Type, Between James & Humphreys Drives south of Embarcadero, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  10. First Structural Steel Erected at NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-14

    Ten steel columns were incorporated into the ever-growing framework for the National Synchrotron Light Source II last week, the first structural steel erected for the future 400,000-square-foot facility.

  11. 76 FR 18781 - Certain Steel Wheels From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Steel Wheels From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of certain steel...

  12. Northwest view of steel plate "cans" in bay 7 of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northwest view of steel plate "cans" in bay 7 of the main pipe mill building. Historian for scale. - U.S. Steel National Tube Works, Main Pipe Mill Building, Along Monongahela River, McKeesport, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Symbiosis of Steel, Energy, and CO2 Evolution in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunjoung; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Sohn, Il

    2016-09-01

    This study looks at the energy intensity of the steel industry and the greenhouse gas intensity involved with the production of steel. Using several sources of steel production data and the corresponding energy sources used provides a time-series analysis of the greenhouse gas (GHG) and energy intensity from 1990 to 2014. The impact of the steel economy with the gross domestic product (GDP) provides indirect importance of the general manufacturing sector within Korea and in particular the steel industry. Beyond 2008, the shift in excess materials production and significant increase in total imports have led to an imbalance in the Korean steel market and continue to inhibit the growth of the domestic steel market. The forecast of the GHG and energy intensity along with the steel production up to 2030 is provided using the auto regressive integrated moving average analysis.

  14. Casting Stainless-Steel Models Around Pressure Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter; Micol, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Survivability of thin-wall stainless-steel tubing increased to nearly 100 percent. Improves state of art in pressure-model castings and reduces cost associated with machining complete model from stainless-steel blank.

  15. Nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ke; Ren, Yibin

    2010-01-01

    The adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have prompted the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steels for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel in medical stainless steels, the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steels, and emphatically, the development of high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength and good plasticity, better corrosion and wear resistances, and superior biocompatibility compared to the currently used 316L stainless steel, the newly developed high-nitrogen nickel-free stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventional medical stainless steels. PMID:27877320

  16. 5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED LOOKING SE TO CAVED IN SHED, CENTER, AND BRICK AND STEEL SHED. - Western Railway of Alabama Montgomery Rail Shops, 701 North Perry Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  17. 30. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE CLEAN STEEL PRODUCTION BUILDING WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT THE CLEAN STEEL PRODUCTION BUILDING WITH THE BOP SHOP IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST FURNACE 2, SHOWING STEEL FRAME BOXES FOR COUNTERWEIGHTS, AND FURNACE HEATING PIPES AT RIGHT. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  19. 4. VIEW EASTSOUTH ELEVATION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST-SOUTH ELEVATION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  20. 1. VIEW WESTEAST ELEVATION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW WEST-EAST ELEVATION OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD BLACKSMITH SHOP/BOILER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Blacksmith Shop-Boiler Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  1. 3. View of Julia Steele House, north side face and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Julia Steele House, north side face and rear (west) looking south. - Julia Steele House, 5875 Paris Road (US Highway 27/68); 1 1/5 miles north of Bourbon County line, Paris, Bourbon County, KY

  2. 2. View of Julia Steele House, front (east), and northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Julia Steele House, front (east), and northeast corner, looking southwest. - Julia Steele House, 5875 Paris Road (US Highway 27/68); 1 1/5 miles north of Bourbon County line, Paris, Bourbon County, KY

  3. 13. Photocopy of original drawing, Bethlehem Steel Company (Bethlehem, PA) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of original drawing, Bethlehem Steel Company (Bethlehem, PA) 1928 (Source: Vermont Agency of Transportation) STEEL SUPERSTRUCTURE - Jeffersonville Bridge, Spanning Lamoille River on Vermont Route 15, Cambridge, Lamoille County, VT

  4. 1. VIEW NORTHEASTWEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW NORTHEAST-WEST AND SOUTH ELEVATIONS OF THE BETHLEHEM STEEL COMPANY SHIPYARD CARPENTER SHOP. - Bethlehem Steel Company Shipyard, Carpenter Shop, 1201-1321 Hudson Street, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF STEEL PLATES IN WALKWAY CONNECTING NO. 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF STEEL PLATES IN WALKWAY CONNECTING NO. 3 TREATMENT SHOP (HIGH HOUSE) WITH NO. 2 TREATMENT SHOP - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  6. Diamond machining of steel molds for optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, Roland

    2016-08-01

    The requirement of ultra precision diamond machining of lens molds in steel is identified. A solution for this type of machining is presented and results of such a machining in steel compared to standard milling and polishing process are shown.

  7. Casting Stainless-Steel Models Around Pressure Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Peter; Micol, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Survivability of thin-wall stainless-steel tubing increased to nearly 100 percent. Improves state of art in pressure-model castings and reduces cost associated with machining complete model from stainless-steel blank.

  8. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF SMOKEHOUSE UNIT; NOTE STAINLESS STEEL NOZZLES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF SMOKEHOUSE UNIT; NOTE STAINLESS STEEL NOZZLES THAT INTRODUCED SMOKE INTO UNIT; FLOOR IS UNPAINTED STEEL - Rath Packing Company, Smokehouse-Hog Chilling Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. Diffusion bonding between ODS ferritic steel and F82H steel for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Byungjun; Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko

    2012-07-01

    Diffusion bonding techniques were employed to join high Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.2Ti-0.35Y2O3) and F82H steel under uni-axial hydrostatic pressure using a high vacuum hot press, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated. The dissimilar joints were bonded by solid-state diffusion bonding (SSDB) and liquid phase diffusion bonding (LPDB). After bonding process, heat treatments were conducted to utilize the phase transformation of F82H steel for recovering the martensitic structure. Tensile tests with miniaturized specimens were carried out to investigate and compare the bonding strengths of each joint. Microstructure was observed for the bonding interface, and fracture mode was investigated after the tensile tests. LPDB joint of interfacial F82H steel fully recovered to martensite phase by post-joining heat treatments, while SSDB joint had ferrite phases at the interface even after heat treatment, which is considered to be due to decarburization of F82H steel during the bonding process. Therefore it is considered that the insert material plays a role as diffusion barrier of carbon during LPDB process. Microstructure observations and tensile tests of the joints revealed that the LPDB joints possess suitable tensile properties which are comparable to that of F82H steel. This indicates that LPDB is more promising method to bond ODS-FS and F82H steel than SSDB.

  10. Influence of second-phase particles on weld HAZ of Ti-deoxidized steels: Laboratory steels

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaro, F.J.; Chipperfield, C.G.; Krauklis, P.

    1994-12-31

    Over the past few decades, steel has increased in strength and toughness by judicious use of appropriate microalloy additions and thermomechanical controlled processing (TMCP). Considerable improvement in weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) properties has also occurred over this period. This article describes recent work aimed at evaluating the potential to control microstructure by means of Ti-rich particle dispersions for the development of structural steels (0.08%C, 1.4%Mn) with improved weldability. Three different precipitate species [Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ti(O,N) and TiN] were identified in Ti deoxidized steels. The formation of the different precipitate species can be understood in terms of steel composition and published solubility product data for the compounds. The presence of fine Ti-rich oxynitride precipitates indicated the strong competition between oxygen and nitrogen for Ti despite thermodynamic prediction. The purpose of the present work was to study microstructural development in a range of oxide-containing steels and to assess the role of oxides in the critical HAZ region following welding. Ti deoxidized steels contain different precipitate species depending on steel composition. The weld HAZ microstructure and mechanical properties produced by these particle dispersions justified further study in full-scale production heats.

  11. Ultrasonic Spectroscopy of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgriff, Laura M.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Hebsur, Mohan G.; Baaklini, George Y.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Enhanced, lightweight material systems, such as 17-4PH stainless steel sandwich panels are being developed for use as fan blades and fan containment material systems for next generation engines. In order to improve the production for these systems, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as ultrasonic spectroscopy, are being utilized to evaluate the brazing quality between the 17-4PH stainless steel face plates and the 17-4PH stainless steel foam core. Based on NDE data, shear tests are performed on sections representing various levels of brazing quality from an initial batch of these sandwich structures. Metallographic characterization of brazing is done to corroborate NDE findings and the observed shear failure mechanisms.

  12. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, John W., Jr.; Kinney, Chris; Pytlewski, Ken; Adachi, Y.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni) steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified ‘classic’ lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov-Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage.

  13. Solidification Sequence of Spray-Formed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepon, Guilherme; Ellendt, Nils; Uhlenwinkel, Volker; Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    2016-02-01

    Solidification in spray-forming is still an open discussion in the atomization and deposition area. This paper proposes a solidification model based on the equilibrium solidification path of alloys. The main assumptions of the model are that the deposition zone temperature must be above the alloy's solidus temperature and that the equilibrium liquid fraction at this temperature is reached, which involves partial remelting and/or redissolution of completely solidified droplets. When the deposition zone is cooled, solidification of the remaining liquid takes place under near equilibrium conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM) were used to analyze the microstructures of two different spray-formed steel grades: (1) boron modified supermartensitic stainless steel (SMSS) and (2) D2 tool steel. The microstructures were analyzed to determine the sequence of phase formation during solidification. In both cases, the solidification model proposed was validated.

  14. Microstructure and cleavage in lath martensitic steels.

    PubMed

    Morris, John W; Kinney, Chris; Pytlewski, Ken; Adachi, Y

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the microstructure of lath martensitic steels and the mechanisms by which it controls cleavage fracture. The specific experimental example is a 9Ni (9 wt% Ni) steel annealed to have a large prior austenite grain size, then examined and tested in the as-quenched condition to produce a relatively coarse lath martensite. The microstructure is shown to approximate the recently identified 'classic' lath martensite structure: prior austenite grains are divided into packets, packets are subdivided into blocks, and blocks contain interleaved laths whose variants are the two Kurjumov-Sachs relations that share the same Bain axis of the transformation. When the steel is fractured in brittle cleavage, the laths in the block share {100} cleavage planes and cleave as a unit. However, cleavage cracks deflect or blunt at the boundaries between blocks with different Bain axes. It follows that, as predicted, the block size governs the effective grain size for cleavage.

  15. Fracture mechanism of borated stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.Y.; Soliman, S.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Balliett, T.A.

    2000-05-01

    The mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of irradiated and unirradiated boron containing Type 304 stainless steel are studied. Four different batches with different boron weight percentages are used. One of these batches was manufactured by a conventional wrought technique, while the others were manufactured by a powder metallurgy technique. The irradiated specimens were subjected to a fluence level of 5 x 10{sup 19} or 1 {times} 10{sup 21} n/m{sup 2}. The mechanical and fracture tests were performed at temperatures of 233, 298, and 533 K. No significant effects on the mechanical properties or fracture behavior were observed as a result of neutron irradiation and/or temperature. The ductility and toughness of the borated steel were found to decrease with increasing boron content. The effect of boride on void nucleation and linkage was found to play an important role in the fracture behavior of borated steel.

  16. Physical metallurgy of direct-quenched steels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.A. ); Thompson, S.W. ); Fletcher, F.B. )

    1993-01-01

    This symposium was held during November 2-4, 1992 in Chicago as part of Materials Week '92''. This symposium focused on the metallurgy of steels containing martensitic or bainitic microstructures formed from thermomechanically processed austenite, and builds upon two recent topical meetings on the related subject of ferritic accelerated cooled steels. Papers in the first section deal with thermodynamics and kinetics of austenite transformation, the morphology of austenite transformation products, and alloy carbide precipitation. Results of investigations of relationships between processing variables, microstructure, and mechanical properties are contained in the following section. Section III is devoted specifically to boron hardenability effects. papers in the final section are concerned with product development; included here is a comprehensive overview of industrial accelerated cooling/direct quenching technology by researchers from the Nippon Steel Corporation.

  17. Residual stress measurements in carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.; Min, N.

    1986-01-01

    External dc magnetic field-induced changes in natural velocity of Rayleigh surface waves were measured in steel specimens under various stress conditions. The low field slopes of curves representing the fractional changes of natural velocity were proved to provide correct stress information in steels with different metallurgical properties. The slopes of curves under uniaxial compression, exceeding about one third of the yield stress, fell below zero in all the specimens when magnetized along the stress axis. The slopes under tension varied among different steels but remained positive in any circumstances. The stress effect was observed for both applied and residual stress. A physical interpretation of these results is given based on the stress-induced domain structure changes and the delta epsilon effect. Most importantly, it is found that the influence of detailed metallurgical properties cause only secondary effects on the obtained stress information.

  18. Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels in Biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, Alejandra S.; Méndez, Claudia M.; Ares, Alicia E.

    The aim of this work was to study the corrosion behavior of stainless steels in biodiesel of vegetal origin, at room temperature, evaluating its properties according to the differences in the structures (austenitic, ferritic and austenitic — ferritic) and compositions of the materials. The biodiesel employed was obtained by industrially manufactured based on soybean oil as main raw material. The stainless steels used as samples for the tests were: AISI 304L, Sea Cure and Duplex 2205. For obtaining the desired data potentiodynamic polarization and weight loss trials were carried out. These studies were complemented by observations using an optical microscope. The weight loss study allowed the identification of low corrosion rates to the three stainless steels studied.

  19. Application of RST in the steel industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, R. V.; Maringer, R. E.

    1982-05-01

    The rapid solidification technology (RST) involves quenching molten metals at rates of perhaps 102 to 1010 degrees C per second. First reported in 1960, RST has experienced rapid growth during the last decade and is now established on the commercial market-place. This has resulted from the simple facts that unusual properties result from RST, that relatively easy techniques are available to produce large quantities of material, and that applications for these materials have been recognized. Ferrous-base materials produced by RST methods include staple fibers of mild and stainless steel for incorporation into concrete and castable refractories, powder metallurgy tool steels, and amorphous strip for power transformers. Research results suggest that RST will have a strong continuing influence on ferrous powder metallurgy, on the direct casting of strip and foil of carbon and stainless steel, and on core materials for motor and transformers.

  20. Heat Treatment and Properties of Iron and Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    specified as an added element to a standard steel. • Silicon: Because of the technological nature of the process , acid bessemer steels are not...Heat treatment of steels 9 5.1. Annealing ~ 10 a. Full annealing I__ 10 b. Process annealing 10 c. Spheroidizing . 10 5.2. Normalizing 10...treatment of iron and steel and for directions and explanations of such processes . This Monograph has been prepared to answer such inquiries and to give

  1. High Strength Steel Weldment Reliability: Weld Metal Hydrogen Trapping.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    additions to welding consumables to control weld metal hydrogen and thus reduce susceptibility to cold cracking in high strength steel weldments. 14...applying weld metal hydrogen trapping to improve the resistance to hydrogen cracking in welding of high strength steels . Hydrogen cracking in high...requirements which are necessary to prevent hydrogen cracking in high strength steel welding. Common practices to prevent hydrogen cracking in steel

  2. Effect of rust on the wettability of steel by water

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1998-04-01

    Rust, as formed on steel by immersion of low-carbon steel in water, was found to improve the wettability of steel by water. The advancing contact angle decreased from 87{degree} to 32{degree}, and the receding contact angle decreased from 81{degree} to 29{degree}. Cleansing of steel by acetone also helped improve the wettability, but the advancing angle only decreased from 87{degree} to 73{degree}, and the receding angle only decreased from 81{degree} to 41{degree}.

  3. Enhanced Inclusion Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  4. Corrosion inhibition of reinforcing steel by using acrylic latex

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.X.; Lin, W.W.; Ceng, S.A.; Zhang, J.Q.

    1998-05-01

    Acrylic latex was introduced into steel-reinforcing steel concrete as concrete admixtures or rebar coatings in order to prevent corrosion of steel reinforcements. The results showed that applying the latex by both methods took effect in different ways, while the latter was more noticeable. The corrosion prevention mechanism and the surface state of the steel rebar were also explored, based on which suggestions for enhancing the corrosion-resistant ability were made.

  5. Enhanced Incluison Removal from Steel in the Tundish

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. Bradt; M.A.R. Sharif

    2009-09-25

    The objective of this project was to develop an effective chemical filtering system for significantly reducing the content of inclusion particles in the steel melts exiting the tundish for continuous casting. This project combined a multi-process approach that aimed to make significant progress towards an "inclusion free" steel by incorporating several interdependent concepts to reduce the content of inclusions in the molten steel exiting the tundish for the caster. The goal is to produce "cleaner" steel.

  6. Investigation of the plastic fracture of high strength steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, T. B.; Low, J. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This investigation deals in detail with the three recognized stages of plastic fracture in high strength steels, namely, void initiation, void growth, and void coalescence. The particular steels under investigation include plates from both commercial purity and high purity heats of AISI 4340 and 18 Ni, 200 grade maraging steels. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an X-ray energy dispersive analyzer, together with observations made using light microscopy, revealed methods of improving the resistance of high strength steels to plastic fracture.

  7. The effect of 0.5 L 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus 1 L Ringer's lactate preload on the hemodynamic status of parturients undergoing spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery using arterial pulse contour analysis.

    PubMed

    Matsota, Paraskevi; Karakosta, Agathi; Pandazi, Ageliki; Niokou, Dimitra; Christodoulaki, Kalliopi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    Fluid loading attenuates the hypotensive response to spinal anesthesia (SA). This study aimed to compare the preload efficacy of 0.5 L hydroxyethyl starch (HES) versus 1 L Ringer's lactate (R/L) in the prevention of hypotension after SA for elective cesarean delivery (CD). Assessment of maternal hemodynamic variables using FloTrac/Vigileo™ and neonatal outcome constituted secondary outcomes. Thirty-two ASA I/II parturients scheduled for elective CD were preloaded with either 1 L R/L (Group R/L, n = 16) or 0.5 L HES 6% 130/0.42 (Group T, n = 16) approximately 25 min before SA. Hypotension, defined as a 20% decrease of systolic arterial pressure (SAP) from baseline or SAP <100 mmHg, was treated with vasopressors according to a predetermined algorithm. The overall duration of hypotensive episodes and the total amount of vasopressors administered determined the severity of the hemodynamic instability. The incidence of hypotension was 73.3% in Group R/L and 46.7% in Group T. HES compared to R/L preload was associated with a shorter overall duration of hypotensive episodes (p < 0.001), a significantly less usage of ephedrine and phenylephrine (p = 0.015 and p = 0.029, respectively) and a greater impact, although not statistically significant, on cardiac index (CI) and stroke volume index (SVI). Although no statistical difference was detected between groups over time, there was a significant drop in CI, SVI and SAP within groups (p < 0.001) up to 14 min after SA. No difference was recorded in neonatal outcome. Preloading with 0.5 L HES 130/0.42 produced more stable hemodynamics compared to 1 L R/L solution in obstetric patients.

  8. Neutron Irradiation Resistance of RAFM Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Gaganidze, Ermile; Dafferner, Bernhard; Aktaa, Jarir

    2008-07-01

    The neutron irradiation resistance of the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel EUROFER97 and international reference steels (F82H-mod, OPTIFER-Ia, GA3X and MANET-I) have been investigated after irradiation in the Petten High Flux Reactor up to 16.3 dpa at different irradiation temperatures (250-450 deg. C). The embrittlement behavior and hardening are investigated by instrumented Charpy-V tests with sub-size specimens. Neutron irradiation-induced embrittlement and hardening of EUROFER97 was studied under different heat treatment conditions. Embrittlement and hardening of as-delivered EUROFER97 steel are comparable to those of reference steels. Heat treatment of EUROFER97 at a higher austenitizing temperature substantially improves the embrittlement behaviour at low irradiation temperatures. Analysis of embrittlement vs. hardening behavior of RAFM steels within a proper model in terms of the parameter C={delta}DBTT/{delta}{sigma} indicates hardening-dominated embrittlement at irradiation temperatures below 350 deg. C with 0.17 {<=} C {<=} 0.53 deg. C/MPa. Scattering of C at irradiation temperatures above 400 deg. C indicates non hardening embrittlement. A role of He in a process of embrittlement is investigated in EUROFER97 based steels, that are doped with different contents of natural B and the separated {sup 10}B-isotope (0.008-0.112 wt.%). Testing on small scale fracture mechanical specimens for determination of quasi-static fracture toughness will be also presented in a view of future irradiation campaigns. (authors)

  9. Mechanical Property Characterization of ESR (Electroslag Remelted) 4353 Steel with a Comparison to ESR 4340 Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    IThe ESR 4J53 steel exhibits Charpy impact energy values of 12.4 ftib for 400 and 4504 tempers, which decrease to 9.2 ft&,jb for a 5000f temper as a...temperature or hard- ness, the ESR 4340 steel has greater Charpy impact energy and fracture tough- ness( KI )i. -w N .: UNCLASS IF I ED S Cul...pertinent for the consideration of high strength steels for Army applications include tensile -4 properties, hardness, Charpy V-notch impact energy

  10. Corrosion of carbon steels, stainless steels, and titanium in aqueous lithium bromide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Guinon, J.L.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Perez-Herranz, V. . Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear); Lacoste, G. )

    1994-03-01

    Effects of lithium bromide (LiBr) concentration, pH, temperature, exposure time, and the action of some inhibitors on corrosion of several carbon (C) steels, stainless steels (SS), and a titanium (Ti) alloy were studied. Corrosion rates were determined by the polarization resistance method and compared to rates determined by weight-loss measurements. Pitting potentials (E[sub p]) were evaluated in neutral LiBr solution and with different inhibitors. Pit density and average pit depth depended on the metal tested, with lowest values for Ti, the next lowest values for type 316 SS (UNS S31600), and the highest values for UNS G41350 tempered steel.

  11. Guidelines for structural bolting in accordance with the AISC (American Institute of Steel Construction) eighth edition manual of steel construction''

    SciTech Connect

    Western, J.L.; Johns, D.M.

    1990-05-11

    This paper specifies the usage of structural bolts in terms of their design, selection and application, in accordance with the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Eighth Edition. Manual of Steel Construction.'' 1 tab.

  12. Structure and properties of a steel/white-cast-iron bimetal produced by method of carbonizing the steel melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, S. Z.

    1985-11-01

    Centrifugal bimetallization by the method of carbonizing the steel melt makes it possible to obtain a steel/white-cast-iron composition with a cladding layer close to the eutectic in terms of composition.

  13. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Hot Isostatically Pressed-Produced Stainless Steel/High Alloy Tool Steel Compound Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindwall, Greta; Flyg, Jesper; Frisk, Karin; Sandberg, Odd

    2011-05-01

    Consolidation of tool steel powders and simultaneous joining to a stainless 316L steel are performed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Two tool steel grades are considered: a high vanadium alloyed carbon tool steel, and a high vanadium and chromium alloyed nitrogen tool steel. The boundary layer arising during diffusion bonding is in focus and, in particular, the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen over the joint. Measurements of the elemental concentration profiles and corrosion tests by the double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) method are performed. Comparative calculations with the DICTRA software are performed and are found to be in agreement with the experimental results. It is found that the carbon tool steel grade has a more critical influence on the corrosion resistance of the stainless 316L steel in comparison to the nitrogen tool steel grade.

  14. 75 FR 41889 - Certain Steel Grating From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Steel Grating From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... steel grating from China, provided for in subheading 7308.90.70 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... imports of certain steel gratings from China were being subsidized within the meaning of section 703(b)...

  15. Micronutrient availability from steel slag amendment in pine bark substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Steel slag is a byproduct of the steel industry that can be used as a liming agent, but also has a high mineral nutrient content. While micronutrients are present in steel slag, it is not known if the mineral form of the micronutrients would render them available for plant uptake. The objective of...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  17. 19 CFR 360.104 - Steel import monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steel import monitoring. 360.104 Section 360.104 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.104 Steel import monitoring. (a) Throughout the duration of the licensing...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 178 - Specifications for Steel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specifications for Steel A Appendix A to Part 178... to Part 178—Specifications for Steel Table 1 Designation Chemical composition, percent-ladle analysis... be 1.40 percent. 6 Rephosphorized Grade 3 steels containing no more than 0.15 percent phosphorus...

  19. 46 CFR 154.170 - Outer hull steel plating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer hull steel plating. 154.170 Section 154.170... Structure § 154.170 Outer hull steel plating. (a) Except as required in paragraph (b) of this section, the outer hull steel plating, including the shell and deck plating must meet the material standards of...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.858 - Removal of steel construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal of steel construction. 1926.858 Section 1926.858... of steel construction. (a) When floor arches have been removed, planking in accordance with § 1926.855(b) shall be provided for the workers engaged in razing the steel framing. (b) Cranes,...

  1. 19 CFR 360.104 - Steel import monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steel import monitoring. 360.104 Section 360.104 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.104 Steel import monitoring. (a) Throughout the duration of the licensing...

  2. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  3. 49 CFR 192.371 - Service lines: Steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Service lines: Steel. 192.371 Section 192.371 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 192.371 Service lines: Steel. Each steel service line to be operated at less than 100 p.s.i. (689...

  4. 78 FR 78382 - Steel Nails From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Steel Nails From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on steel nails from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury... contained in USITC Publication 4442 (December 2013), entitled Steel Nails from China: Investigation No....

  5. 77 FR 64545 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From China Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing duty and... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of drawn stainless steel... merchandise as ``drawn stainless steel sinks with single or multiple drawn bowls, with or without drain...

  6. 49 CFR 192.309 - Repair of steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Repair of steel pipe. 192.309 Section 192.309... Lines and Mains § 192.309 Repair of steel pipe. (a) Each imperfection or damage that impairs the serviceability of a length of steel pipe must be repaired or removed. If a repair is made by grinding,...

  7. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  8. 77 FR 28404 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... retarded, by reason of imports from China of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings 7217.20.30... retarded, by reason of imports from Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheadings...

  9. 46 CFR 154.188 - Membrane tank: Inner hull steel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. 154.188 Section 154.188... Structure § 154.188 Membrane tank: Inner hull steel. For a vessel with membrane tanks, the inner hull... “Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels”, 1981....

  10. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  11. 76 FR 19382 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20.30 and 7217.20.45 of the Harmonized...., Nashville, TN; National Standard, LLC, Niles, MI; and Oklahoma Steel and Wire Co., Inc., Madill,...

  12. 19 CFR 360.104 - Steel import monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steel import monitoring. 360.104 Section 360.104 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STEEL IMPORT MONITORING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM § 360.104 Steel import monitoring. (a) Throughout the duration of the licensing...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  14. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  15. 30 CFR 57.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 57.7050 Section 57... Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  16. Web-Based Interactive Steel Sculpture for the Google Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Karen C.; Moaveni, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    In almost all the civil engineering programs in the United States, a student is required to take at least one design course in either steel or reinforced concrete. One of the topics covered in an introductory steel design course is the design of connections. Steel connections play important roles in the integrity of a structure, and many…

  17. 30 CFR 56.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 56.7050 Section 56... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....

  18. 21 CFR 872.3350 - Gold or stainless steel cusp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gold or stainless steel cusp. 872.3350 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3350 Gold or stainless steel cusp. (a) Identification. A gold or stainless steel cusp is a prefabricated device made of austenitic alloys or...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 178 - Specifications for Steel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specifications for Steel A Appendix A to Part 178... to Part 178—Specifications for Steel Table 1 Designation Chemical composition, percent-ladle analysis... be 1.40 percent. 6 Rephosphorized Grade 3 steels containing no more than 0.15 percent phosphorus...

  20. 30 CFR 56.7050 - Tool and drill steel racks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tool and drill steel racks. 56.7050 Section 56... Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7050 Tool and drill steel racks. Receptacles or racks shall be provided for drill steel and tools stored or carried on drills....