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Sample records for 5t4-specific antibody responses

  1. Epigenetics of the antibody response.

    PubMed

    Li, Guideng; Zan, Hong; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications and miRNAs, are induced in B cells by the same stimuli that drive the antibody response. They play major roles in regulating somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch DNA recombination (CSR), and differentiation to plasma cells or long-lived memory B cells. Histone modifications target the CSR and, possibly, SHM machinery to the immunoglobulin locus; they together with DNA methylation and miRNAs modulate the expression of critical elements of that machinery, such as activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), as well as factors central to plasma cell differentiation, such as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). These inducible B cell-intrinsic epigenetic marks instruct the maturation of antibody responses. Their dysregulation plays an important role in aberrant antibody responses to foreign antigens, such as those of microbial pathogens, and self-antigens, such as those targeted in autoimmunity, and B cell neoplasia.

  2. How antibodies use complement to regulate antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Sörman, Anna; Zhang, Lu; Ding, Zhoujie; Heyman, Birgitta

    2014-10-01

    Antibodies, forming immune complexes with their specific antigen, can cause complete suppression or several 100-fold enhancement of the antibody response. Immune complexes containing IgG and IgM may activate complement and in such situations also complement components will be part of the immune complex. Here, we review experimental data on how antibodies via the complement system upregulate specific antibody responses. Current data suggest that murine IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b upregulate antibody responses primarily via Fc-receptors and not via complement. In contrast, IgM and IgG3 act via complement and require the presence of complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2) expressed on both B cells and follicular dendritic cells. Complement plays a crucial role for antibody responses not only to antigen complexed to antibodies, but also to antigen administered alone. Lack of C1q, but not of Factor B or MBL, severely impairs antibody responses suggesting involvement of the classical pathway. In spite of this, normal antibody responses are found in mice lacking several activators of the classical pathway (complement activating natural IgM, serum amyloid P component (SAP), specific intracellular adhesion molecule-grabbing non-integrin R1 (SIGN-R1) or C-reactive protein. Possible explanations to these observations will be discussed.

  3. Somatic diversification of antibody responses

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, B.; Kelsoe, G.; Han, S.

    1996-01-01

    The humoral immune response is the culmination of a complex series of cellular interactions and migrations that define specific pathways of antigen-driven B cell differentiation. There are about 5 x 10{sup 8} and 10{sup 12} B lymphocyte lineage cells in the mouse and human, respectively, after the immune system has been established. B lymphocytes perceive antigen in their environment by virtue of their surface receptors (B cell receptor; BCR), in which membrane-associated immunoglobulin (mIg) is the antigen recognition substructure and the associated Ig{alpha} and Ig{beta} molecules transduce the activation signal. mIgs have extensive structural homology to immunoglobulins which are secreted by differentiated daughter cells following antigen stimulation. The specificity of a given BCR or antibody is created by a programmed successive process of gene rearrangements, first of D to J segments, then of V to DJ segments of the Ig heavy (H)-chain gene loci, and finally, of V to J segments of the Ig light (L)-chain gene loci. V,D, and J elements are assembled in a enormous number of combinations; variability is further achieved at the break-points of joining segments, including the insertion of non-germline-encoded nucleotide (N)sequences at the borders of V(D)J points, hence the almost unlimited specificities of the B cells or antibody repertoire. 129 refs.

  4. PASSIVE ANTIBODY AND THE IMMUNE RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Raymond A.; Schierman, Louis W.

    1971-01-01

    The isoimmune response of fowl inoculated with RBC coated with antibody was investigated. Anti-B antiserum from a single animal was used to coat different donor type RBC. With each donor type RBC the immune response to the coated determinants is suppressed. Enhancement of the immune response to noncoated determinants occurs when they are products of an allelic gene or belong to a different blood group system. Coating some B antigen determinants suppresses the response to noncoated determinants of the same antigen, i.e., determinants which are products of the same B gene. Varying the quantity of passive antibody revealed that the degree of suppression and the degree of enhancement are negatively correlated. These findings support the concept that antibody-coated determinants function as carrier for noncoated determinants, provided a certain physical association exists between them. A further interpretation of these studies is that in certain situations an antibody to one antigen may interfere with events which lead to an immune response to a different antigen. The possibility, that the protection afforded by ABO incompatibility against Rh isoimmunization is because of a similar phenomenon, is discussed. A hypothesis is presented which states that where the immune response to certain antigens behaves as a dominantly inherited trait, and is associated with histocompatibility type, the nonresponder animals possess an antibody (perhaps cell bound) which interferes with the response to determinants for which it does not have specificity. Responders are assumed to lack this antibody because it has specificity for their major histocompatibility antigens. PMID:4106486

  5. Gut Microbial Metabolites Fuel Host Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myunghoo; Qie, Yaqing; Park, Jeongho; Kim, Chang H

    2016-08-10

    Antibody production is a metabolically demanding process that is regulated by gut microbiota, but the microbial products supporting B cell responses remain incompletely identified. We report that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced by gut microbiota as fermentation products of dietary fiber, support host antibody responses. In B cells, SCFAs increase acetyl-CoA and regulate metabolic sensors to increase oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis, and fatty acid synthesis, which produce energy and building blocks supporting antibody production. In parallel, SCFAs control gene expression to express molecules necessary for plasma B cell differentiation. Mice with low SCFA production due to reduced dietary fiber consumption or microbial insufficiency are defective in homeostatic and pathogen-specific antibody responses, resulting in greater pathogen susceptibility. However, SCFA or dietary fiber intake restores this immune deficiency. This B cell-helping function of SCFAs is detected from the intestines to systemic tissues and conserved among mouse and human B cells, highlighting its importance. PMID:27476413

  6. Homogeneity of Antibody Responses in Tuberculosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Samanich, K.; Belisle, J. T.; Laal, S.

    2001-01-01

    The goals of the present study were twofold: (i) to compare the repertoires of antigens in culture filtrates of in vitro-grown Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are recognized by antibodies from noncavitary and cavitary tuberculosis (TB) patients and (ii) to determine the extent of variation that exists between the antigen profiles recognized by individual TB patients. Lipoarabinomannan-free culture filtrate proteins of M. tuberculosis were fractionated by one-dimensional (1-D) and 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the Western blots were probed with sera from non-human immunodeficiency virus (non-HIV)-infected cavitary and noncavitary TB patients and from HIV-infected, noncavitary TB patients. In contrast to earlier studies based on recombinant antigens of M. tuberculosis which suggested that antibody responses in TB patients were heterogeneous (K. Lyashchenko et al., 1998, Infect. Immun. 66:3936–3940, 1998), our studies with native culture filtrate proteins show that the antibody responses in TB patients show significant homogeneity in being directed against a well-defined subset of antigens. Thus, there is a well-defined subset of culture filtrate antigens that elicits antibodies during noncavitary and cavitary disease. In addition, another set of antigens is recognized primarily by cavitary TB patients. The mapping with individual patient sera presented here suggests that serodiagnostic tests based on the subset of antigens recognized during both noncavitary and cavitary TB will enhance the sensitivity of antibody detection in TB patients, especially in difficult-to-diagnose, smear-negative, noncavitary TB patients. PMID:11402004

  7. The antibody response in Lyme disease.

    PubMed Central

    Craft, J. E.; Grodzicki, R. L.; Shrestha, M.; Fischer, D. K.; García-Blanco, M.; Steere, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    We determined the antibody response against the Ixodes dammini spirochete in Lyme disease patients by indirect immunofluorescence and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The specific IgM response became maximal three to six weeks after disease onset, and then declined, although titers sometimes remained elevated during later disease. Specific IgM levels correlated directly with total serum IgM. The specific IgG response, often delayed initially, was nearly always present during neuritis and arthritis, and frequently remained elevated after months of remission. Although results obtained by indirect immunofluorescence and the ELISA were similar, the ELISA was more sensitive and specific. Cross-reactive antibodies from patients with other spirochetal infections were blocked by absorption of sera with Borrelia hermsii, but titers of Lyme disease sera were also decreased. To further characterize the specificity of the humoral immune response against the I. dammini spirochete, 35S-methionine-labeled spirochetal antigens were identified by immunoprecipitation with sera from Lyme arthritis patients. These polypeptides had molecular weights of 62, 60, 47, 37, 22, 18, and 15 kDa, and were not recognized by control sera. We conclude that the ELISA, without absorption, is the best method to assay the humoral immune response in Lyme disease, and we have identified methionine-containing spirochetal polypeptides that may be important in Lyme arthritis. PMID:6393607

  8. Antibody Response and Disease Severity in Healthcare Worker MERS Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Imran; Ahmed, Waleed A.; Dada, Ashraf M.; Bayumi, Daniyah T.; Malic, Laut S.; Althawadi, Sahar; Ignacio, Kim; Alsalmi, Hanadi S.; Al-Abdely, Hail M.; Wali, Ghassan Y.; Qushmaq, Ismael A.; Alraddadi, Basem M.; Perlman, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    We studied antibody response in 9 healthcare workers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, who survived Middle East respiratory syndrome, by using serial ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay testing. Among patients who had experienced severe pneumonia, antibody was detected for >18 months after infection. Antibody longevity was more variable in patients who had experienced milder disease. PMID:27192543

  9. The antibody response in seabather's eruption.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Kumar, S; Malecki, J M; Szmant, A M

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-six of 44 patients with seabather's eruption had specific IgG antibodies against Linuche unguilata (thimble jelly) medusae antigen. ELISA detected antibodies in serum stored for 10 years. The extent of the cutaneous eruption or sting severity was correlated with antibody titer. Antibodies were detected in patients acquiring the eruption in Florida, the Bahamas and Aruba, reflecting the habitat of these jellyfish. This serological assay can be useful to confirm the clinical diagnosis. PMID:7778134

  10. Poor specific antibody response immunodeficiency (dysgammaglobulinemia) predates systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Al Hamzi, H; Al Shaikh, A; Arnaout, R K

    2013-08-01

    Poor specific antibody response is a well-known primary immunodeficiency that is related to hypogammaglobulinemia or common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The co-existence of CVID or hypogammaglobulinemia and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been rarely described. In all reported cases, the diagnosis of SLE antedates CVID. We report a 15-year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed with poor specific antibody response at age 6 years in the form of poor or no antibody response and dysgammaglobulinemia. She developed SLE with musculoskeletal and hematological manifestations, positive antinuclear antibody and high anti-dsDNA nine years later. She was treated with rituximab with good response.

  11. Tools to therapeutically harness the human antibody response.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick C; Andrews, Sarah F

    2012-10-01

    The natural human antibody response is a rich source of highly specific, neutralizing and self-tolerant therapeutic reagents. Recent advances have been made in isolating and characterizing monoclonal antibodies that are generated in response to natural infection or vaccination. Studies of the human antibody response have led to the discovery of crucial epitopes that could serve as new targets in vaccine design and in the creation of potentially powerful immunotherapies. With a focus on influenza virus and HIV, herein we summarize the technological tools used to identify and characterize human monoclonal antibodies and describe how these tools might be used to fight infectious diseases.

  12. Studies of viral antibody responses among Amish families.

    PubMed

    Hsia, S; Howell, D N; Amos, D B; Woodbury, M A

    1977-05-01

    Serum antibodies to adenovirus (ADN), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), influenza (INF), para-influenza (PAR), mumps (MUM), coxsackie B4 (Cox B4) and B5 (Cox B5) viruses were measured from 584 individuals belonging to 21 Indiana Amish families. Sex and age effects on antibody responses to cytomegalovirus were observed. Age effect on CMV, HSV, INF, PAR, MUM responses were also found. The percentage of responders to some of the viruses was shown to be age dependent, but the levels of antibody response were not affected by the difference in age. A familial basis for the antibody response was demonstrated. Attempts at demonstrating association between HLA haplotypes and responses were not successful. The unlikelihood of predominantly HLA-associated control of viral antibody response was discussed. PMID:192798

  13. Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure Suppresses T-independent Antibody Responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to  3.75mg/kg of perfluoroocatnoic acid (PFOA) for 15d suppresses T-dependent antibody responses (TDAR), suggesting that T helper cells and/or B cells/plasma cells may be impacted. This study evaluated effects of PFOA exposure on the T cell-independent antibody response...

  14. Polyreactive antibodies in adaptive immune responses to viruses.

    PubMed

    Mouquet, Hugo; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2012-05-01

    B cells express immunoglobulins on their surface where they serve as antigen receptors. When secreted as antibodies, the same molecules are key elements of the humoral immune response against pathogens such as viruses. Although most antibodies are restricted to binding a specific antigen, some are polyreactive and have the ability to bind to several different ligands, usually with low affinity. Highly polyreactive antibodies are removed from the repertoire during B-cell development by physiologic tolerance mechanisms including deletion and receptor editing. However, a low level of antibody polyreactivity is tolerated and can confer additional binding properties to pathogen-specific antibodies. For example, high-affinity human antibodies to HIV are frequently polyreactive. Here we review the evidence suggesting that in the case of some pathogens like HIV, polyreactivity may confer a selective advantage to pathogen-specific antibodies.

  15. B-cell memory and the persistence of antibody responses.

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, I C; García de Vinuesa, C; Casamayor-Palleja, M

    2000-01-01

    Antigens such as viral envelope proteins and bacterial exotoxins induce responses which result in the production of neutralizing antibody. These responses persist for years and provide highly efficient defence against reinfection. During these antibody responses a proportion of participating B cells mutate the genes that encode their immunoglobulin variable regions. This can increase the affinity of the antibody, but can also induce autoreactive B cells. Selection mechanisms operate which allow the cells with high affinity for the provoking antigen to persist, while other B cells recruited into the response die. PMID:10794052

  16. Antibody Response to Hypervariable Region 1 Interferes with Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Zhen-yong; Girard-Blanc, Christine; Wang, Wenyan; Lau, Patrick; Zuiani, Adam; Rey, Felix A.; Krey, Thomas; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) (amino acids [aa] 384 to 410) on the E2 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus contributes to persistent infection by evolving escape mutations that attenuate binding of inhibitory antibodies and by blocking access of broadly neutralizing antibodies to their epitopes. A third proposed mechanism of immune antagonism is that poorly neutralizing antibodies binding to HVR1 interfere with binding of other superior neutralizing antibodies. Epitope mapping of human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) that bind to an adjacent, conserved domain on E2 encompassing aa 412 to 423 revealed two subsets, designated HC33 HMAbs. While both subsets have contact residues within aa 412 to 423, alanine-scanning mutagenesis suggested that one subset, which includes HC33.8, has an additional contact residue within HVR1. To test for interference of anti-HVR1 antibodies with binding of antibodies to aa 412 to 423 and other E2 determinants recognized by broadly neutralizing HMAbs, two murine MAbs against HVR1 (H77.16) and aa 412 to 423 (H77.39) were studied. As expected, H77.39 inhibited the binding of all HC33 HMAbs. Unexpectedly, H77.16 also inhibited the binding of both subsets of HC33 HMAbs. This inhibition also was observed against other broadly neutralizing HMAbs to epitopes outside aa 412 to 423. Combination antibody neutralization studies by the median-effect analysis method with H77.16 and broadly reactive HMAbs revealed antagonism between these antibodies. Structural studies demonstrated conformational flexibility in this antigenic region, which supports the possibility of anti-HVR1 antibodies hindering the binding of broadly neutralizing MAbs. These findings support the hypothesis that anti-HVR1 antibodies can interfere with a protective humoral response against HCV infection. IMPORTANCE HVR1 contributes to persistent infection by evolving mutations that escape from neutralizing antibodies to HVR1 and by shielding broadly neutralizing antibodies from

  17. Maternal antibodies and infant immune responses to vaccines.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Kathryn M

    2015-11-25

    Infants are born with immature immune systems, making it difficult for them to effectively respond to the infectious pathogens encountered shortly after birth. Maternal antibody is actively transported across the placenta and serves to provide protection to the newborn during the first weeks to months of life. However, maternal antibody has been shown repeatedly to inhibit the immune responses of young children to vaccines. The mechanisms for this inhibition are presented and the impact on ultimate immune responses is discussed.

  18. Sequencing Antibody Repertoires Provides Evidence for Original Antigenic Sin Shaping the Antibody Response to Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yann-Chong; Scalfone, Lisa K.; Kongpachith, Sarah; Ju, Chia-Hsin; Cai, Xiaoyong; Lindstrom, Tamsin M.; Sokolove, Jeremy; Robinson, William H.

    2014-01-01

    We used a DNA barcoding method to enable high-throughput sequencing of the cognate heavy- and light-chain pairs of expressed antibodies. We used this approach to elucidate the plasmablast antibody response to influenza vaccination. We show that >75% of the rationally selected plasmablast antibodies bind and neutralize influenza, and that antibodies from clonal families, defined by sharing both heavy chain VJ and light chain VJ sequence usage, do so most effectively. Vaccine-induced heavy chain VJ regions contained on average >20 nucleotide mutations as compared to their predicted germline gene sequences, and some vaccine-induced antibodies exhibited higher binding affinities for hemagglutinins derived from prior years’ seasonal influenza as compared to their affinities for the immunization strains. Our results show that influenza vaccination induces the recall of memory B cells that express antibodies that previously underwent affinity maturation against prior years’ seasonal influenza, suggesting that ‘original antigenic sin’ shapes the antibody response to influenza vaccination. PMID:24525048

  19. Anti-hapten antibodies in response to skin sensitization.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Helen; Popple, Amy; Gellatly, Nichola; Maxwell, Gavin; Williams, Jason; Friedmann, Peter S; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2016-04-01

    Whereas T lymphocyte (T cell) activation is the key event in the acquisition of skin sensitization and subsequent elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis, the humoral component of immune responses to organic contact allergens has received little consideration. There is evidence that, in experimental animals, topical exposure to potent contact allergens is associated with B cell activation and proliferation, and hapten-specific antibody production. However, there is very limited evidence available for anti-hapten antibody responses being induced following topical exposure of humans to contact allergens. Nevertheless, it is important to appreciate that there are almost no negative studies in which evidence for antibody production as the result of skin sensitization has been sought and not found. That is, there is absence of evidence rather than evidence of absence. Furthermore, exposure to chemical respiratory allergens, in which the skin has been implicated as a potential route of sensitization, results in anti-hapten antibody responses. It is proposed that skin sensitization to contact allergens will normally be accompanied by antibody production. The phenomenon is worthy of investigation, as anti-hapten antibodies could potentially influence and/or regulate the induction of skin sensitization. Moreover, such antibodies may provide an informative correlate of the extent to which sensitization has been acquired.

  20. Antibody responses to Bordetella bronchiseptica in vaccinated and infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John; Rhodes, Carrie; Lacoste, Stacey; Krakowka, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) whole cell bacterins have been replaced with acelluar vaccines. We evaluated the response to the acellular Bb vaccines in Bb-seropositive commingled laboratory beagles and client-owned dogs with various lifestyles and vaccination histories. A single parenteral dose of the acellular Bb vaccine resulted in consistent anamnestic IgG, and to a lesser, but notable extent, IgA, Bb-reactive antibody responses in the seropositive beagles. Associated with the increase in antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was an increase in the complement (C)-dependent IgG antibody mediated bactericidal effect on Bb in vitro. Antibody responses in client-owned dogs were more variable and were dependent upon the vaccination history and serological evidence of previous Bb exposure. Antibodies from vaccinated dogs recognized several Bb proteins, notably P68 (pertactin) and P220 (fimbrial hemagglutinin), the response to which has been shown to be disease-sparing in Bp infections. These antibody responses were similar to those in experimentally infected dogs and in dogs that had received a widely used whole cell bacterin.

  1. Antibody responses to Bordetella bronchiseptica in vaccinated and infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John; Rhodes, Carrie; Lacoste, Stacey; Krakowka, Steven

    2014-09-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb) whole cell bacterins have been replaced with acelluar vaccines. We evaluated the response to the acellular Bb vaccines in Bb-seropositive commingled laboratory beagles and client-owned dogs with various lifestyles and vaccination histories. A single parenteral dose of the acellular Bb vaccine resulted in consistent anamnestic IgG, and to a lesser, but notable extent, IgA, Bb-reactive antibody responses in the seropositive beagles. Associated with the increase in antibodies measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was an increase in the complement (C)-dependent IgG antibody mediated bactericidal effect on Bb in vitro. Antibody responses in client-owned dogs were more variable and were dependent upon the vaccination history and serological evidence of previous Bb exposure. Antibodies from vaccinated dogs recognized several Bb proteins, notably P68 (pertactin) and P220 (fimbrial hemagglutinin), the response to which has been shown to be disease-sparing in Bp infections. These antibody responses were similar to those in experimentally infected dogs and in dogs that had received a widely used whole cell bacterin. PMID:25183893

  2. Complement-fixing antibody response to rotavirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Gust, I D; Pringle, R C; Barnes, G L; Davidson, G P; Bishop, R F

    1977-01-01

    A human rotavirus complement-fixing (CF) antigen, prepared by purification of large volumes of fluid feces collected from children with winter diarrhea, was used to study the development and persistence of antibody in children with diarrhea and the prevalence of rotavirus antibody in Melbourne. In children with diarrhea, antibody rises were detectable within 4 to 6 weeks of the onset of illness, and the titers usually remained elevated for the next 1 to 2 years. CF antibody did not develop in two children with proven rotavirus infection aged less than 6 months, an age at which poor CF responses to other viruses have also been observed. A study of CF antibody levels in the general community showed that in Melbourne, most children have been infected with human rotavirus by the age of 3 years. PMID:403196

  3. The germinal center antibody response in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    DeFranco, Anthony L.

    2016-01-01

    The germinal center response is the delayed but sustained phase of the antibody response that is responsible for producing high-affinity antibodies of the IgG, IgA and/or IgE isotypes. B cells in the germinal center undergo re-iterative cycles of somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin gene variable regions, clonal expansion, and Darwinian selection for cells expressing higher-affinity antibody variants. Alternatively, selected B cells can terminally differentiate into long-lived plasma cells or into a broad diversity of mutated memory B cells; the former secrete the improved antibodies to fight an infection and to provide continuing protection from re-infection, whereas the latter may jumpstart immune responses to subsequent infections with related but distinct infecting agents. Our understanding of the molecules involved in the germinal center reaction has been informed by studies of human immunodeficiency patients with selective defects in the production of antibodies. Recent studies have begun to reveal how innate immune recognition via Toll-like receptors can enhance the magnitude and selective properties of the germinal center, leading to more effective control of infection by a subset of viruses. Just as early insights into the nature of the germinal center found application in the development of the highly successful conjugate vaccines, more recent insights may find application in the current efforts to develop new generations of vaccines, including vaccines that can induce broadly protective neutralizing antibodies against influenza virus or HIV-1. PMID:27303636

  4. Antibody Response to Cryptococcus neoformans Proteins in Rodents and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin-Chi; Goldman, David L.; Doering, Tamara L.; Pirofski, Liise-anne; Casadevall, Arturo

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence and specificity of serum antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans proteins was studied in mice and rats with experimental infection, in individuals with or without a history of potential laboratory exposure to C. neoformans, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals who developed cryptococcosis, in matched samples from HIV-positive individuals who did not develop cryptococcosis, and in HIV-negative individuals. Rodents had little or no serum antibody reactive with C. neoformans proteins prior to infection. The intensity and specificity of the rodent antibody response were dependent on the species, the mouse strain, and the viability of the inoculum. All humans had serum antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins regardless of the potential exposure, the HIV infection status, or the subsequent development of cryptococcosis. Our results indicate (i) a high prevalence of antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins in the sera of rodents after cryptococcal infection and in humans with or without HIV infection; (ii) qualitative and quantitative differences in the antibody profiles of HIV-positive individuals; and (iii) similarities and differences between humans, mice, and rats with respect to the specificity of the antibodies reactive with C. neoformans proteins. The results are consistent with the view that C. neoformans infections are common in human populations, and the results have implications for the development of vaccination strategies against cryptococcosis. PMID:10225877

  5. Focusing antibody responses against distraction and loss in diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenshen; Kardar, Mehran; Chakraborty, Arup

    Pathogens are complex and evolving fast. They have developed full ranges of disguises to divert immune responses and often manage to escape recognition and thereby outpace natural immunity. A prominent example is the scarce and staggered development of broadly neutralizing antibodies against highly mutable viruses. It remains unclear under what evolutionary conditions these exceptional antibodies could emerge and dominate the response. To address this challenge, we construct an individual-based stochastic model of the Darwinian evolution of antibody-producing immune cells. We consider complexity of viral epitopes, vary seeding diversity of the immune cell population, and allow a time varying population size and extinction - new aspects essential for designing a realistic vaccine. We show that various temporal statistics of antigenic environments would select distinct evolutionary paths that lead to predominantly non-neutralizing, strain-specific or broadly neutralizing antibody responses. We suggest strategies to focus antibody responses on the targeted vulnerability of the virus and confer selective advantage to cross-reactive lineages. This implies a new step toward an effective vaccine against rapidly mutating complex pathogens. This work is supported by NIH.

  6. Carbohydrate Biopolymers Enhance Antibody Responses to Mucosally Delivered Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, A.; Makin, J.; Sizer, P. J.; Jabbal-Gill, I.; Hinchcliffe, M.; Illum, L.; Chatfield, S.; Roberts, M.

    2000-01-01

    We have evaluated the ability of two carbohydrate biopolymers, chitosan and gellan, to enhance antibody responses to subunit influenza virus vaccines delivered to the respiratory tracts of mice. Groups of mice were vaccinated three times intranasally (i.n.) with 10 μg of purified influenza B/Panama virus surface antigens (PSAs), which consist of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), either alone or admixed with chitosan or gellan solutions. Separate groups were vaccinated subcutaneously (s.c.) with PSAs adsorbed to Alhydrogel or chitosan or gellan alone i.n. Serum antibody responses were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for influenza virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and by HA inhibition (HAI) and NA inhibition (NAI) assays. The local respiratory immune response was measured by assaying for influenza virus-specific IgA antibody in nasal secretions and by enumerating nasal and pulmonary lymphocytes secreting IgA, IgG, and IgM anti-influenza virus-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunospotting (ELISPOT). When administered alone i.n., B/Panama PSA was poorly immunogenic. Parenteral immunization with B/Panama PSA with Alhydrogel elicited high titers of anti-B/Panama antibodies in serum but a very poor respiratory anti-B/Panama IgA response. In contrast, i.n. immunization with PSA plus chitosan stimulated very strong local and systemic anti-B/Panama responses. Gellan also enhanced the local and serum antibody responses to i.n. PSA but not to the same extent as chitosan. The ability of chitosan to augment the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines given i.n. was confirmed using PSA prepared from an influenza A virus (A/Texas H1N1). PMID:10992483

  7. Characteristics of antibody responses in Pigeon Fanciers' Lung.

    PubMed

    Nademi, Zohreh; Todryk, Stephen; Baldwin, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    The aetiology of Pigeon Fanciers' Lung (PFL) is believed to include immune complex formation between inhaled pigeon antigens and antibodies generated against them. However it is unclear why some fanciers are asymptomatic despite the presence of high levels of anti-avian antigen antibodies in their serum. In this study we investigated whether qualitative differences in specific antibodies might contribute to disease. IgG responses among pigeon fanciers were determined by ELISA and the functional affinity of IgG1 and IgG2 against a range of pigeon antigens was determined by inhibition ELISA and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). The median titres of IgG1 and IgG2 against all the pigeon antigens tested was higher in asymptomatic than symptomatic fanciers and these differences were significant for anti-pigeon serum IgG1 (P=0.04), anti-fresh pigeon droppings (PDF) IgG2 (P=0.028), anti-old pigeon droppings (PDO) IgG2 (P=0.04) and anti-pigeon intestinal scrapings IgG2 (P=0.03). The functional affinity of IgG1 and IgG2 against PDO was higher in symptomatic individuals (P=0.006 and P=0.002, respectively) whilst the functional affinity of anti-PDF IgG2 was also significantly higher in these patients (P≤0.001). Symptomatic fanciers were also significantly more likely to have a high reaction enthalphy (ΔH) as measured by ITC and thus had higher affinity antibodies against PDO (P=0.044). This data confirms previous studies showing that the magnitude alone of the antibody response to pigeon antigens cannot determine the presence of PFL, but that antibody affinity may be important. ITC is a rapid method of measuring antibody affinity and has diagnostic potential in PFL, and may be of use in other situations where antibody affinity is important.

  8. Profiling human antibody responses by integrated single-cell analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogunniyi, Adebola O; Thomas, Brittany A; Politano, Timothy J; Varadarajan, Navin; Landais, Elise; Poignard, Pascal; Walker, Bruce D; Kwon, Douglas S; Love, J Christopher

    2014-05-19

    Comprehensive characterization of the antigen-specific B cells induced during infections or following vaccination would facilitate the discovery of novel antibodies and inform how interventions shape protective humoral responses. The analysis of human B cells and their antibodies has been performed using flow cytometry to evaluate memory B cells and expanded plasmablasts, while microtechnologies have also provided a useful tool to examine plasmablasts/plasma cells after vaccination. Here we present an integrated analytical platform, using arrays of subnanoliter wells (nanowells), for constructing detailed profiles for human B cells comprising the immunophenotypes of these cells, the distribution of isotypes of the secreted antibodies, the specificity and relative affinity for defined antigens, and for a subset of cells, the genes encoding the heavy and light chains. The approach combines on-chip image cytometry, microengraving, and single-cell RT-PCR. Using clinical samples from HIV-infected subjects, we demonstrate that the method can identify antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies, is compatible with both plasmablasts/plasma cells and activated memory B cells, and is well-suited for characterizing the limited numbers of B cells isolated from tissue biopsies (e.g., colon biopsies). The technology should facilitate detailed analyses of human humoral responses for evaluating vaccines and their ability to raise protective antibody responses across multiple anatomical compartments. PMID:24602776

  9. Focused antibody response to influenza linked to antigenic drift

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuan-Ying A.; Rijal, Pramila; Schimanski, Lisa; Powell, Timothy J.; Lin, Tzou-Yien; McCauley, John W.; Daniels, Rodney S.; Townsend, Alain R.

    2015-01-01

    The selective pressure that drives antigenic changes in influenza viruses is thought to originate from the human immune response. Here, we have characterized the B cell repertoire from a previously vaccinated donor whose serum had reduced neutralizing activity against the recently evolved clade 6B H1N1pdm09 viruses. While the response was markedly polyclonal, 88% of clones failed to recognize clade 6B viruses; however, the ability to neutralize A/USSR/90/1977 influenza, to which the donor would have been exposed in childhood, was retained. In vitro selection of virus variants with representative monoclonal antibodies revealed that a single amino acid replacement at residue K163 in the Sa antigenic site, which is characteristic of the clade 6B viruses, was responsible for resistance to neutralization by multiple monoclonal antibodies and the donor serum. The K163 residue lies in a part of a conserved surface that is common to the hemagglutinins of the 1977 and 2009 H1N1 viruses. Vaccination with the 2009 hemagglutinin induced an antibody response tightly focused on this common surface that is capable of selecting current antigenic drift variants in H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses. Moreover, amino acid replacement at K163 was not highlighted by standard ferret antisera. Human monoclonal antibodies may be a useful adjunct to ferret antisera for detecting antigenic drift in influenza viruses. PMID:26011643

  10. Focused antibody response to influenza linked to antigenic drift.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Ying A; Rijal, Pramila; Schimanski, Lisa; Powell, Timothy J; Lin, Tzou-Yien; McCauley, John W; Daniels, Rodney S; Townsend, Alain R

    2015-07-01

    The selective pressure that drives antigenic changes in influenza viruses is thought to originate from the human immune response. Here, we have characterized the B cell repertoire from a previously vaccinated donor whose serum had reduced neutralizing activity against the recently evolved clade 6B H1N1pdm09 viruses. While the response was markedly polyclonal, 88% of clones failed to recognize clade 6B viruses; however, the ability to neutralize A/USSR/90/1977 influenza, to which the donor would have been exposed in childhood, was retained. In vitro selection of virus variants with representative monoclonal antibodies revealed that a single amino acid replacement at residue K163 in the Sa antigenic site, which is characteristic of the clade 6B viruses, was responsible for resistance to neutralization by multiple monoclonal antibodies and the donor serum. The K163 residue lies in a part of a conserved surface that is common to the hemagglutinins of the 1977 and 2009 H1N1 viruses. Vaccination with the 2009 hemagglutinin induced an antibody response tightly focused on this common surface that is capable of selecting current antigenic drift variants in H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses. Moreover, amino acid replacement at K163 was not highlighted by standard ferret antisera. Human monoclonal antibodies may be a useful adjunct to ferret antisera for detecting antigenic drift in influenza viruses. PMID:26011643

  11. Focused antibody response to influenza linked to antigenic drift.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan-Ying A; Rijal, Pramila; Schimanski, Lisa; Powell, Timothy J; Lin, Tzou-Yien; McCauley, John W; Daniels, Rodney S; Townsend, Alain R

    2015-07-01

    The selective pressure that drives antigenic changes in influenza viruses is thought to originate from the human immune response. Here, we have characterized the B cell repertoire from a previously vaccinated donor whose serum had reduced neutralizing activity against the recently evolved clade 6B H1N1pdm09 viruses. While the response was markedly polyclonal, 88% of clones failed to recognize clade 6B viruses; however, the ability to neutralize A/USSR/90/1977 influenza, to which the donor would have been exposed in childhood, was retained. In vitro selection of virus variants with representative monoclonal antibodies revealed that a single amino acid replacement at residue K163 in the Sa antigenic site, which is characteristic of the clade 6B viruses, was responsible for resistance to neutralization by multiple monoclonal antibodies and the donor serum. The K163 residue lies in a part of a conserved surface that is common to the hemagglutinins of the 1977 and 2009 H1N1 viruses. Vaccination with the 2009 hemagglutinin induced an antibody response tightly focused on this common surface that is capable of selecting current antigenic drift variants in H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses. Moreover, amino acid replacement at K163 was not highlighted by standard ferret antisera. Human monoclonal antibodies may be a useful adjunct to ferret antisera for detecting antigenic drift in influenza viruses.

  12. REGULATION OF THE SECONDARY ANTIBODY RESPONSE IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Charles T.

    1969-01-01

    Two opposite effects of actinomycin D on antibody synthesis have been studied in organ cultures of rabbit lymph node fragments. These cultures were prepared from previously primed rabbits and stimulated with antigen(s) on day 0 to yield a secondary response, whose inductive phase extended to about day 9 and whose productive phase may last for several months in the serum-free medium described here. Concentrations of actinomycin D above 0.01 µM (0.012 µg/ml) produce inhibition of antibody synthesis during both phases of the response. However, antibody synthesis is about 10 times more sensitive to inhibition by this drug when it is added during the inductive phase than during the productive phase. During the latter phase, synthesis is more rapidly terminated as the drug level approaches 10 /µM (12.5 µg/ml). At this level the 50% synthesis time is about 2.8 hr, which is identical with that found when 5–10 µM puromycin is added to the medium of parallel cultures. Transient enhancement of antibody synthesis is frequently produced by a brief exposure to low levels of actinomycin D (generally less than 0.01 µM). Enhancement appears in precise temporal association with actinomycin pulses added for 2 days or less only between days 6 and 16. This apparent enhancement of antibody synthesis resembles the increased enzyme synthesis described by Garren et al. (6) and led to a search for an antibody-inhibitory material (AIM) whose synthesis might be stopped preferentially by low levels of the drug. Stimulated lymph node cultures produce between days 6 and 15 a nondialyzable material which inhibits antibody synthesis during the productive phase of heterologous antigen-antibody culture systems. Just as enhancement with low levels of actinomycin D appears within 2 hr after the drug has been added to cultures, so inhibition occurs within 4 hr of adding AIM to cultures during their productive phase. These observations suggest that AIM is analogous to the translational

  13. REGULATION OF THE SECONDARY ANTIBODY RESPONSE IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Charles T.

    1973-01-01

    A material inhibiting antibody synthesis in vitro is produced during the productive phase by rabbit lymph node organ cultures undergoing a secondary response. This antibody inhibitory material (AIM) has been isolated from serum-free medium taken from the cultures and also extracted from lymph node fragments as late as their 4th wk in vitro. AIM inhibits most strikingly the early productive phase of the secondary response in vitro (i.e, during the 2nd wk). AIM isolated from cultures undergoing a given immune response inhibits the same as well as different responses, thus indicating an immunologically nonspecific effect. Ultrafiltration and related studies reveal that the molecular size of AIM is 10,000–50,000 daltons and that it is not antibody. AIM can readily be separated from 7S globulin by use of CM-cellulose. The inhibitory activity of AIM is lost by digestion with ribonuclease. Thus the avoidance of serum with its high levels of ribonucleases may be crucial in the study of this material. The presence in eukaryotic cells of metabolic regulators, governors, etc. has been postulated largely by analogy with microbial systems (27). There is little direct evidence about the chemical nature of these presumed regulators. Our data on the RNase sensitivity of AIM raises the possibility in this lymphoid system of regulation by a species of RNA. PMID:4709267

  14. Specific antibody response to oligomannosidic epitopes in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sendid, B; Colombel, J F; Jacquinot, P M; Faille, C; Fruit, J; Cortot, A; Lucidarme, D; Camus, D; Poulain, D

    1996-01-01

    Elevated antibody levels against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been reported in sera from patients with Crohn's disease and not with ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to identify the nature of the epitopes supporting this antibody response. Whole cells from different S. cerevisiae strains were selected in immunofluorescence assay for their ability to differentiate the antibody responses of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Their cell wall phosphopeptidomannans were then tested as antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against sera from 42 patients with Crohn's disease, 20 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 34 healthy controls. Graded chemical degradations were performed on the most reactive strain phosphopeptidomannan. The discriminating epitope was determined through gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The greatest discrimination among patients with Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and controls was obtained with Su1, a S. cerevisiae strain used in brewing of beer. ELISA directed against phosphopeptidomannan of this strain was 64% sensitive and 77% specific for discriminating Crohn's disease versus ulcerative colitis and 71% sensitive and 89% specific for Crohn's disease versus controls. Periodate oxidation and selective degradation demonstrated that the most important polysaccharide epitope was shared by both the acid-stable and the alkali-labile domains of the phosphopeptidomannan. The determination of oligomannose sequences of S. cerevisiae Su1 phosphopeptidomannans suggested that a mannotetraose, Man (1 --> 3)Man(1 --> 2)Man(1 --> 2)Man, supported the serological response seen in Crohn's disease. Further identification of the immunogen eliciting this antibody response as a marker of the disease may help to understand its etiology. PMID:8991640

  15. Global antibody response to Staphylococcus aureus live-cell vaccination.

    PubMed

    Selle, Martina; Hertlein, Tobias; Oesterreich, Babett; Klemm, Theresa; Kloppot, Peggy; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Stentzel, Sebastian; Bröker, Barbara M; Engelmann, Susanne; Ohlsen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus causes a broad range of severe diseases and is feared for its ability to rapidly develop resistance to antibiotic substances. The increasing number of highly resistant S. aureus infections has accelerated the search for alternative treatment options to close the widening gap in anti-S. aureus therapy. This study analyses the humoral immune response to vaccination of Balb/c mice with sublethal doses of live S. aureus. The elicited antibody pattern in the sera of intravenously and intramuscularly vaccinated mice was determined using of a recently developed protein array. We observed a specific antibody response against a broad set of S. aureus antigens which was stronger following i.v. than i.m. vaccination. Intravenous but not intramuscular vaccination protected mice against an intramuscular challenge infection with a high bacterial dose. Vaccine protection was correlated with the strength of the anti-S. aureus antibody response. This study identified novel vaccine candidates by using protein microarrays as an effective tool and showed that successful vaccination against S. aureus relies on the optimal route of administration. PMID:27103319

  16. Global antibody response to Staphylococcus aureus live-cell vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Selle, Martina; Hertlein, Tobias; Oesterreich, Babett; Klemm, Theresa; Kloppot, Peggy; Müller, Elke; Ehricht, Ralf; Stentzel, Sebastian; Bröker, Barbara M.; Engelmann, Susanne; Ohlsen, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus causes a broad range of severe diseases and is feared for its ability to rapidly develop resistance to antibiotic substances. The increasing number of highly resistant S. aureus infections has accelerated the search for alternative treatment options to close the widening gap in anti-S. aureus therapy. This study analyses the humoral immune response to vaccination of Balb/c mice with sublethal doses of live S. aureus. The elicited antibody pattern in the sera of intravenously and intramuscularly vaccinated mice was determined using of a recently developed protein array. We observed a specific antibody response against a broad set of S. aureus antigens which was stronger following i.v. than i.m. vaccination. Intravenous but not intramuscular vaccination protected mice against an intramuscular challenge infection with a high bacterial dose. Vaccine protection was correlated with the strength of the anti-S. aureus antibody response. This study identified novel vaccine candidates by using protein microarrays as an effective tool and showed that successful vaccination against S. aureus relies on the optimal route of administration. PMID:27103319

  17. Antibody

    MedlinePlus

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  18. Antibody response to accelerated immunisation with diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, M E; Rao, M; Begg, N T; Redhead, K; Attwell, A M

    1993-07-24

    From May, 1990, a new schedule of immunisation against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (at 2, 3, and 4 months) replaced the previous more widely spaced schedule. A report that children had lower concentrations of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies a month after an accelerated schedule led us to undertake a controlled study to assess antibody response and the persistence of antibodies a year after immunisation in children receiving vaccine according to widely spaced and accelerated schedules. Concentrations of antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and to Bordetella pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) were measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay (SP-RIA). We studied 57 children who received accelerated immunisation at median ages of 11, 16, and 21 weeks and two control cohorts (total n = 82) who received vaccine at median ages of 15, 21, and 45 weeks. 6-8 weeks after the third dose the accelerated-schedule group had lower (p < 0.0001) geometric mean concentrations of antibody to tetanus (0.522 [95% CI 0.383-0.710] vs 3.43 [2.45-4.81] IU/mL), diphtheria (0.266 [0.179-0.396] vs 2.39 [0.616-3.53] IU/mL), and FHA (0.044 [0.030-0.063] vs 0.270 [0.196-0.374] units/mL) than the longer-schedule group. 12 months after the third dose the differences between the groups had narrowed (tetanus 0.197 vs 0.341 IU/mL, p = 0.29; diphtheria 0.100 vs 0.131 IU/mL, p = 0.64; FHA 0.014 vs 0.016 units/mL, p = 0.72). At that time all children had tetanus antibody concentrations above protective levels (0.01 IU/mL); only 2 of 31 in the accelerated-schedule group and 3 of 31 in the longer-schedule group had diphtheria antibody concentrations below the protective level. The use of an accelerated schedule of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccination is unlikely to lead to an increase in the proportion of children unprotected against these diseases before the preschool booster.

  19. REGULATION OF THE ANTIBODY RESPONSE TO TYPE III PNEUMOCOCCAL POLYSACCHARIDE

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Phillip J.; Reed, Norman D.; Stashak, Philip W.; Amsbaugh, Diana F.; Prescott, Benjamin

    1973-01-01

    The effect of treatment with antilymphocyte serum (ALS) on the magnitude of the plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to Type III pneumococcal polysaccharide (SSS-III) was assessed in athymic nude mice and thymus-bearing littermate controls. Without ALS treatment, the PFC response was slightly higher in nude than in control mice. Treatment with ALS had no effect on the response of nude mice; however, considerable enhancement was noted in thymus-bearing controls. Such enhancement was ALS dose-dependent and demonstrable under conditions in which there was substantial inactivation of thymic-derived "helper" cells required for an antibody response to erythrocyte antigens. These findings suggest that amplifier and suppressor cells, which have been reported to regulate the magnitude of the antibody response to SSS-III, represent populations of thymic-derived cells (T cells) that are not present in nude mice. The activities of "helper" T cells and regulatory T cells appear to be independent of one another and mediated by separate subpopulations of T cells. PMID:4145387

  20. Antibody response and antibody affinity maturation in cats with experimental proliferative immune complex glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S A; Bailey, M; Lucke, V M; Stokes, C R

    1992-07-01

    An experimental model of proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) in the cat, which closely resembles human proliferative forms of GN, has been used to study the role of antibody and antibody affinity in the development of immune complex-mediated renal disease. The serum IgG and IgM antibody response to antigen, average antibody affinity (avidity) and affinity heterogeneity of the IgG and IgM populations was assessed at varying times after commencement of chronic immunization with the antigen, human serum albumin (HSA), by enzyme immunoassay. Cats could be classified according to whether they were "low", "intermediate" or "high" IgG responders, by quantification of serum IgG values. Cats with the lowest serum IgG values failed to develop glomerulonephritis. However, there was no relationship between actual IgG values and the severity of the induced disease. In contrast to IgG, there was no division of cats into low or high IgM anti-HSA responders. Again, cats with the lowest IgM values failed to develop GN, but, more interestingly, a late, marked increase in serum IgM anti-HSA occurred only in cats that developed clinical signs of GN (anterior uveitis and nephrotic syndrome). Maturation of average, functional IgG affinity (avidity) for HSA following chronic immunization was clearly demonstrated for all cats. At the end of the experiment, all cats had IgG of high affinity for HSA and the average affinity heterogeneity of the IgG populations was less than in measurements taken earlier. Values of IgG affinity at the end of the experiment were very similar both in cats which developed GN and in those which remained clinically, biochemically and pathologically normal. In contrast to IgG antibody, some cats developed IgM of increased affinity, whilst others produced antibody of reduced affinity, following chronic immunization. There was no correlation between the development of disease and the production of either low or high affinity IgM antibody. Data indicated that an

  1. B Cells and Functional Antibody Responses to Combat Influenza.

    PubMed

    Lofano, Giuseppe; Kumar, Arun; Finco, Oretta; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Bertholet, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against influenza is the most effective way to protect the population. Current vaccines provide protection by stimulating functional B- and T-cell responses; however, they are poorly immunogenic in particular segments of the population and need to be reformulated almost every year due to the genetic instability of the virus. Next-generation influenza vaccines should be designed to induce cross-reactivity, confer protection against pandemic outbreaks, and promote long-lasting immune responses among individuals at higher risk of infection. Multiple strategies are being developed for the induction of broad functional humoral immunity, including the use of adjuvants, heterologous prime-boost strategies, and epitope-based antigen design. The basic approach is to mimic natural responses to influenza virus infection by promoting cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies that directly prevent the infection. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms underlying humoral responses to influenza vaccination or natural infection, and discusses promising strategies to control influenza virus.

  2. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody levels.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Alam, Jahangir; Afsar, Nure Alam; Huda, Nazmul; Kabir, Yearul; Qadri, Firdausi; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy. Infants received tetanus and pertussis vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. TT and PT anti-IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes was measured at 15 wk. Plasma antibodies were measured at 6 wk (pre-vaccination), 15 wk and 1 y of age. Prior to vaccination, TT and PT antibody were detected in 94.6% and 15.2% of infants. At 15 wk anti-TT-IgG and anti-PT-IgG in plasma was increased by 7-9 fold over pre-vaccination levels, while at 1 y plasma anti-TT-IgG was decreased by approximately 5-fold from the peak and had returned to near the pre-vaccination level. At 1 y plasma anti-PT-IgG was decreased by 2-fold 1 yfrom the 15 wk level. However, 89.5% and 82.3% of infants at 1 y had protective levels of anti-TT and anti-PT IgG, respectively. Pre-vaccination plasma IgG levels were associated with lower vaccine-specific IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes at 15 wk (p < 0.10). This apparent inhibition was seen for anti-TT-IgG at both 15 wk (p < 0.05) and t 1 y (p < 0.10) of age. In summary, we report an apparent inhibitory effect of passively derived maternal antibody on an infants' own antibody response to the same vaccine. However, since the cut-off values for protective titers are low, infants had protective antibody levels throughout infancy. PMID:27176823

  3. Phosphocholine-Specific Antibodies Improve T-Dependent Antibody Responses against OVA Encapsulated into Phosphatidylcholine-Containing Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Leal, Yoelys; López-Requena, Alejandro; Lopetegui-González, Isbel; Machado, Yoan; Alvarez, Carlos; Pérez, Rolando; Lanio, María E.

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes containing phosphatidylcholine have been widely used as adjuvants. Recently, we demonstrated that B-1 cells produce dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-specific IgM upon immunization of BALB/c mice with DPPC-liposomes encapsulating ovalbumin (OVA). Although this preparation enhanced the OVA-specific humoral response, the contribution of anti-DPPC antibodies to this effect was unclear. Here, we demonstrate that these antibodies are secreted by B-1 cells independently of the presence of OVA in the formulation. We also confirm that these antibodies are specific for phosphocholine. The anti-OVA humoral response was partially restored in B-1 cells-deficient BALB/xid mice by immunization with the liposomes opsonized with the serum total immunoglobulin (Ig) fraction containing anti-phosphocholine antibodies, generated in wild-type animals. This result could be related to the increased phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages of the particles opsonized with the serum total Ig or IgM fractions, both containing anti-phosphocholine antibodies. In conclusion, in the present work, it has been demonstrated that phosphocholine-specific antibodies improve T-dependent antibody responses against OVA carried by DPPC-liposomes. PMID:27713745

  4. Defensins Potentiate a Neutralizing Antibody Response to Enteric Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Gounder, Anshu P; Myers, Nicolle D; Treuting, Piper M; Bromme, Beth A; Wilson, Sarah S; Wiens, Mayim E; Lu, Wuyuan; Ouellette, André J; Spindler, Katherine R; Parks, William C; Smith, Jason G

    2016-03-01

    α-defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides with broad, potent antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities in vitro. Although their contribution to host defense against bacteria in vivo has been demonstrated, comparable studies of their antiviral activity in vivo are lacking. Using a mouse model deficient in activated α-defensins in the small intestine, we show that Paneth cell α-defensins protect mice from oral infection by a pathogenic virus, mouse adenovirus 1 (MAdV-1). Survival differences between mouse genotypes are lost upon parenteral MAdV-1 infection, strongly implicating a role for intestinal defenses in attenuating pathogenesis. Although differences in α-defensin expression impact the composition of the ileal commensal bacterial population, depletion studies using broad-spectrum antibiotics revealed no effect of the microbiota on α-defensin-dependent viral pathogenesis. Moreover, despite the sensitivity of MAdV-1 infection to α-defensin neutralization in cell culture, we observed no barrier effect due to Paneth cell α-defensin activation on the kinetics and magnitude of MAdV-1 dissemination to the brain. Rather, a protective neutralizing antibody response was delayed in the absence of α-defensins. This effect was specific to oral viral infection, because antibody responses to parenteral or mucosal ovalbumin exposure were not affected by α-defensin deficiency. Thus, α-defensins play an important role as adjuvants in antiviral immunity in vivo that is distinct from their direct antiviral activity observed in cell culture. PMID:26933888

  5. Defensins Potentiate a Neutralizing Antibody Response to Enteric Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Treuting, Piper M.; Bromme, Beth A.; Wilson, Sarah S.; Wiens, Mayim E.; Lu, Wuyuan; Ouellette, André J.; Spindler, Katherine R.; Parks, William C.; Smith, Jason G.

    2016-01-01

    α-defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides with broad, potent antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities in vitro. Although their contribution to host defense against bacteria in vivo has been demonstrated, comparable studies of their antiviral activity in vivo are lacking. Using a mouse model deficient in activated α-defensins in the small intestine, we show that Paneth cell α-defensins protect mice from oral infection by a pathogenic virus, mouse adenovirus 1 (MAdV-1). Survival differences between mouse genotypes are lost upon parenteral MAdV-1 infection, strongly implicating a role for intestinal defenses in attenuating pathogenesis. Although differences in α-defensin expression impact the composition of the ileal commensal bacterial population, depletion studies using broad-spectrum antibiotics revealed no effect of the microbiota on α-defensin-dependent viral pathogenesis. Moreover, despite the sensitivity of MAdV-1 infection to α-defensin neutralization in cell culture, we observed no barrier effect due to Paneth cell α-defensin activation on the kinetics and magnitude of MAdV-1 dissemination to the brain. Rather, a protective neutralizing antibody response was delayed in the absence of α-defensins. This effect was specific to oral viral infection, because antibody responses to parenteral or mucosal ovalbumin exposure were not affected by α-defensin deficiency. Thus, α-defensins play an important role as adjuvants in antiviral immunity in vivo that is distinct from their direct antiviral activity observed in cell culture. PMID:26933888

  6. Duration of serum antibody response to rabies vaccination in horses.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison M; Watson, Johanna L; Brault, Stephanie A; Edman, Judy M; Moore, Susan M; Kass, Philip H; Wilson, W David

    2016-08-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of age and inferred prior vaccination history on the persistence of vaccine-induced antibody against rabies in horses. DESIGN Serologic response evaluation. ANIMALS 48 horses with an undocumented vaccination history. PROCEDURES Horses were vaccinated against rabies once. Blood samples were collected prior to vaccination, 3 to 7 weeks after vaccination, and at 6-month intervals for 2 to 3 years. Serum rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (RVNA) values were measured. An RVNA value of ≥ 0.5 U/mL was used to define a predicted protective immune response on the basis of World Health Organization recommendations for humans. Values were compared between horses < 20 and ≥ 20 years of age and between horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated and those inferred to be immunologically naïve. RESULTS A protective RVNA value (≥ 0.5 U/mL) was maintained for 2 to 3 years in horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated on the basis of prevaccination RVNA values. No significant difference was evident in response to rabies vaccination or duration of protective RVNA values between horses < 20 and ≥ 20 years of age. Seven horses were poor responders to vaccination. Significant differences were identified between horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated and horses inferred to be naïve prior to the study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A rabies vaccination interval > 1 year may be appropriate for previously vaccinated horses but not for horses vaccinated only once. Additional research is required to confirm this finding and characterize the optimal primary dose series for rabies vaccination. PMID:27479286

  7. The Cellular Bases of Antibody Responses during Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yam-Puc, Juan Carlos; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Aguilar-Medina, Elsa Maribel; Ramos-Payán, Rosalío; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause from an asymptomatic disease to mild undifferentiated fever, classical dengue, and severe dengue. Neutralizing memory antibody (Ab) responses are one of the most important mechanisms that counteract reinfections and are therefore the main aim of vaccination. However, it has also been proposed that in dengue, some of these class-switched (IgG) memory Abs might worsen the disease. Although these memory Abs derive from B cells by T-cell-dependent processes, we know rather little about the (acute, chronic, or memory) B cell responses and the complex cellular mechanisms generating these Abs during DENV infections. This review aims to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective of the B cell responses during DENV infection, starting since the very early events such as the cutaneous DENV entrance and the arrival into draining lymph nodes, to the putative B cell activation, proliferation, and germinal centers (GCs) formation (the source of affinity-matured class-switched memory Abs), till the outcome of GC reactions such as the generation of plasmablasts, Ab-secreting plasma cells, and memory B cells. We discuss topics very poorly explored such as the possibility of B cell infection by DENV or even activation-induced B cell death. The current information about the nature of the Ab responses to DENV is also illustrated. PMID:27375618

  8. The Cellular Bases of Antibody Responses during Dengue Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Yam-Puc, Juan Carlos; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Aguilar-Medina, Elsa Maribel; Ramos-Payán, Rosalío; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause from an asymptomatic disease to mild undifferentiated fever, classical dengue, and severe dengue. Neutralizing memory antibody (Ab) responses are one of the most important mechanisms that counteract reinfections and are therefore the main aim of vaccination. However, it has also been proposed that in dengue, some of these class-switched (IgG) memory Abs might worsen the disease. Although these memory Abs derive from B cells by T-cell-dependent processes, we know rather little about the (acute, chronic, or memory) B cell responses and the complex cellular mechanisms generating these Abs during DENV infections. This review aims to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective of the B cell responses during DENV infection, starting since the very early events such as the cutaneous DENV entrance and the arrival into draining lymph nodes, to the putative B cell activation, proliferation, and germinal centers (GCs) formation (the source of affinity-matured class-switched memory Abs), till the outcome of GC reactions such as the generation of plasmablasts, Ab-secreting plasma cells, and memory B cells. We discuss topics very poorly explored such as the possibility of B cell infection by DENV or even activation-induced B cell death. The current information about the nature of the Ab responses to DENV is also illustrated. PMID:27375618

  9. The Cellular Bases of Antibody Responses during Dengue Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Yam-Puc, Juan Carlos; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Aguilar-Medina, Elsa Maribel; Ramos-Payán, Rosalío; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most significant human viral pathogens transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause from an asymptomatic disease to mild undifferentiated fever, classical dengue, and severe dengue. Neutralizing memory antibody (Ab) responses are one of the most important mechanisms that counteract reinfections and are therefore the main aim of vaccination. However, it has also been proposed that in dengue, some of these class-switched (IgG) memory Abs might worsen the disease. Although these memory Abs derive from B cells by T-cell-dependent processes, we know rather little about the (acute, chronic, or memory) B cell responses and the complex cellular mechanisms generating these Abs during DENV infections. This review aims to provide an updated and comprehensive perspective of the B cell responses during DENV infection, starting since the very early events such as the cutaneous DENV entrance and the arrival into draining lymph nodes, to the putative B cell activation, proliferation, and germinal centers (GCs) formation (the source of affinity-matured class-switched memory Abs), till the outcome of GC reactions such as the generation of plasmablasts, Ab-secreting plasma cells, and memory B cells. We discuss topics very poorly explored such as the possibility of B cell infection by DENV or even activation-induced B cell death. The current information about the nature of the Ab responses to DENV is also illustrated.

  10. Behavioral and Psychological Responses to HIV Antibody Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Considers effects of informing individuals of their antibody status as determined by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Reviews research examining changes in psychological distress and in behaviors associated with HIV infections among individuals who have undergone antibody testing. Identifies methodological issues in studying…

  11. Aleutian disease of mink: the antibody response of sapphire and pastel mink to Aleutian disease virus.

    PubMed

    Bloom, M E; Race, R E; Hadlow, W J; Chesebro, B

    1975-10-01

    The specific antiviral antibody response of sapphire and pastel mink to Pullman strain of ADV has been examined. Sapphire mink inoculated with from 300,000-3 LD50 developed high levels of specific antibody and AD. Pastel mink inoculated with parallel doses of ADV also produced antibody but did not develop AD. The low incidence of AD in pastel mink inoculated with Pullman strain of ADV is probably related to factors other than antiviral antibody.

  12. Temporal analysis of the antibody response to HIV envelope protein in HIV-infected laboratory workers.

    PubMed

    Pincus, S H; Messer, K G; Nara, P L; Blattner, W A; Colclough, G; Reitz, M

    1994-06-01

    Three laboratory workers have been infected with the IIIB strain of HIV; their antibody response to HIV has been studied in serial serum specimens. Because the infecting virus is known, the fine specificity of the antibody response was studied on the homologous strain of HIV. Anti-p17, anti-p24, anti-gp160, CD4/gp120 blocking and neutralizing antibodies developed in parallel. Epitope mapping of the anti-gp160 response indicated several regions that consistently induced an antibody response. Serum contained antibody which reacted with V3-specific peptides corresponding to the very tip of the loop and crossreactivity was seen with V3 loop peptides from other sequence divergent strains of HIV. Antibody to the V1 loop was produced at levels comparable with that seen for the V3-loop. Anti-V1 neutralized HIV with a titration curve equivalent to an anti-V3 monoclonal antibody. Because the infecting virus is known and serial reisolates have been obtained, we explored the relationship between production of antibody to a given epitope and mutation in the virus. The data suggest that an association exists, but do not clearly indicate that antibody drives the selection for mutant viruses. The findings presented here provide a fine specificity analysis of the evolution of the antibody response to HIV in greater detail than has previously been performed.

  13. Antibody response to canine distemper vaccine in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J; Burroughs, R

    1992-07-01

    Antibody levels against canine distemper virus were measured by means of an immunofluorescent antibody test prior to, and after, administration of a modified-live virus booster vaccine to seven African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Positive seroconversion with no harmful side-effects was seen in all the animals.

  14. Preexisting Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity-Activating Antibody Responses Are Stable Longitudinally and Cross-reactive Responses Are Not Boosted by Recent Influenza Exposure.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Sophie A; Zhang, Yanyu; Chan, Ka Y; Leung, Kathy; Wu, Joseph T; Poon, Leo L M

    2016-10-15

    Cross-reactive influenza virus-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-activating antibodies are readily detected in healthy adults. However, little is known about the kinetics of these ADCC responses. We used retrospective serial blood samples from healthy donors to investigate this topic. All donors had ADCC responses against 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) and avian influenza A(H7N9) virus hemagglutinins (HAs) despite being seronegative for these viruses in standard hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization serological assays. A(H1N1)pdm09 exposure did not boost ADCC responses specific for H7 HA antigens. H7 HA ADCC responses were variable longitudinally within donors, suggesting that these cross-reactive antibodies are unstable. We found no correlation between ADCC responses to the H7 HA and either influenza virus-specific immunoglobulin G1 concentration or age. PMID:27493238

  15. Host Anti-antibody Responses Following Adeno-associated Virus-mediated Delivery of Antibodies Against HIV and SIV in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Navio, José M; Fuchs, Sebastian P; Pedreño-López, Sònia; Rakasz, Eva G; Gao, Guangping; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2016-02-01

    Long-term delivery of antibodies against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is a promising approach for the prevention or treatment of HIV infection. However, host antibody responses to the delivered antibody are a serious concern that could significantly limit the applicability of this approach. Here, we describe the dynamics and characteristics of the anti-antibody responses in monkeys that received either rhesus anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antibodies (4L6 or 5L7) in prevention trials or a combination of rhesusized human anti-HIV antibodies (1NC9/8ANC195/3BNC117 or 10-1074/10E8/3BNC117) in therapy trials, all employing AAV1 delivery of IgG1. Eight out of eight monkeys that received the anti-HIV antibodies made persisting antibody responses to all three antibodies in the mix. Six out of six uninfected monkeys that received the anti-SIV antibody 4L6 and three out of six of those receiving anti-SIV antibody 5L7 also generated anti-antibodies. Both heavy and light chains were targeted, predominantly or exclusively to variable regions, and reactivity to complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 peptide could be demonstrated. There was a highly significant correlation of the magnitude of anti-antibody responses with the degree of sequence divergence of the delivered antibody from germline. Our results suggest the need for effective strategies to counteract the problem of antibody responses to AAV-delivered antibodies.

  16. Effect of different routes of immunization with bovine rotavirus on lactogenic antibody response in mice.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, M K; Sabara, M I; Frenchick, P J; Babiuk, L A

    1987-12-01

    The effect of different routes of immunization with either live or killed bovine rotavirus (BRV) on the production of lactogenic antibody response in mice was evaluated. The routes of immunization were intramuscular (IM), oral (O) or intradermal in the mammary region (IMam). Following immunization, serum antibody responses were monitored by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Following whelping, the mice were allowed to stay with their mother until sacrificed on alternate days post-parturition from day 1-11. Milk from their stomach was collected for antibody titration by ELISA and virus neutralization test. Regardless of the routes of immunization, a rapid increase in serum anti-rotavirus antibody titers was observed for the first 5 wk after immunization followed by a gradual decline. After parturition, the mean antibody titer of lacteal secretions, as determined by ELISA, increased gradually for 7 days with the greatest increase on day 9, followed by a decrease in anti-rotavirus antibody. These titers also correlated with antibody titers in milk as measured by virus neutralization test. The best lactogenic antibody response was observed when IMam X IM X 2 route of immunization was used with live BRV as the antigen. Interestingly, immunization via the oral route with killed BRV also resulted in good antibody responses. In contrast, in the group where killed BRV was used, animals receiving 3X orally had the highest antibody titer. The distribution of different antibody subtypes in milk samples revealed IgG to be the predominant antibody followed by IgM and IgA. Irrespective of the route of administration, there was an increase in IgA on day 9 as compared to day 1 in most of the groups. The significant role played by mucosal immunity in passive protection and the possible ways to modulate subtype specific lactogenic immune response are discussed.

  17. Effect of supplemental chromium on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves to vaccines and ovalbumin.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, G X; Mallard, B A; Mowat, D N; Gallo, G F

    1996-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) from organic sources (Cr chelate and high Cr yeast) on antibody responses of newly arrived feeder calves following vaccination with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), para-influenza-3 (PI3), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and Pasteurella haemolytica and ovalbumin (OVA). Using cross bred steer calves purchased at sales in Ontario, vaccines and OVA were given on d 0 and 21 after arrival in the feedlot. Immune responses of calves were measured as serum specific antibody titres against all antigens on d 0 and 28 or d 35. The anti-OVA antibody responses (trial 2) were further investigated by measuring antibody concentrations of calves weekly until d 55 after arrival in the feedlot. Supplemental Cr (0.14 ppm) from an amino acid-chelated source had no effect on antibody responses to IBR, P13 and BRSV, but enhanced (P < 0.05) antibody titres of calves in response to the BVD vaccine on d 28 or d 35. Supplemental Cr from Cr yeast had no effect on antibody titres of calves to any vaccines. Chromium from both sources (trial 1 and 2) had no effect on antibody responses of calves following vaccination with P. haemolytica. However, supplemental Cr (0.75 ppm) from Cr yeast enhanced (P < 0.05) serum antibody responses of calves to OVA during the primary response (d 14) and secondary response (d 35) following immunization. These data confirmed our previous finding that supplemental Cr can enhance humoral immune response of market-transit stressed calves, but its enhancement on vaccine efficacy was antigen-dependent and variable. PMID:8785720

  18. HLA class II genes modulate vaccine-induced antibody responses to affect HIV-1 acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Heather A.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Geraghty, Daniel E.; Apps, Richard; Fong, Youyi; Ehrenberg, Philip K.; Rolland, Morgane; Kijak, Gustavo H.; Krebs, Shelly J.; Nelson, Wyatt; DeCamp, Allan; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Ferrari, Guido; Juliana McElrath, M.; Montefiori, David C.; Bailer, Robert T.; Koup, Richard A.; O’Connell, Robert J.; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Kim, Jerome H.; Thomas, Rasmi

    2016-01-01

    In the RV144 vaccine trial, two antibody responses were found to correlate with HIV-1 acquisition. Because human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II–restricted CD4+ T cells are involved in antibody production, we tested whether HLA class II genotypes affected HIV-1–specific antibody levels and HIV-1 acquisition in 760 individuals. Indeed, antibody responses correlated with acquisition only in the presence of single host HLA alleles. Envelope (Env)–specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were associated with increased risk of acquisition specifically in individuals with DQB1*06. IgG antibody responses to Env amino acid positions 120 to 204 were higher and were associated with decreased risk of acquisition and increased vaccine efficacy only in the presence of DPB1*13. Screening IgG responses to overlapping peptides spanning Env 120–204 and viral sequence analysis of infected individuals defined differences in vaccine response that were associated with the presence of DPB1*13 and could be responsible for the protection observed. Overall, the underlying genetic findings indicate that HLA class II modulated the quantity, quality, and efficacy of antibody responses in the RV144 trial. PMID:26180102

  19. In vivo Therapy with Monoclonal Anti-I-A Antibody Suppresses Immune Responses to Acetylcholine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldor, Matthew K.; Sriram, Subramaniam; McDevitt, Hugh O.; Steinman, Lawrence

    1983-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody to I-A gene products of the immune response gene complex attenuates both humoral and cellular responses to acetylcholine receptor and appears to suppress clinical manifestations of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. This demonstrates that use of antibodies against immune response gene products that are associated with susceptibility to disease may be feasible for therapy in autoimmune conditions such as myasthenia gravis.

  20. Optimizing selection of large animals for antibody production by screening immune response to standard vaccines.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mary K; Fridy, Peter C; Keegan, Sarah; Chait, Brian T; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies made in large animals are integral to many biomedical research endeavors. Domesticated herd animals like goats, sheep, donkeys, horses and camelids all offer distinct advantages in antibody production. However, their cost of use is often prohibitive, especially where poor antigen response is commonplace; choosing a non-responsive animal can set a research program back or even prevent experiments from moving forward entirely. Over the course of production of antibodies from llamas, we found that some animals consistently produced a higher humoral antibody response than others, even to highly divergent antigens, as well as to their standard vaccines. Based on our initial data, we propose that these "high level responders" could be pre-selected by checking antibody titers against common vaccines given to domestic farm animals. Thus, time and money can be saved by reducing the chances of getting poor responding animals and minimizing the use of superfluous animals.

  1. Optimizing selection of large animals for antibody production by screening immune response to standard vaccines.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mary K; Fridy, Peter C; Keegan, Sarah; Chait, Brian T; Fenyö, David; Rout, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies made in large animals are integral to many biomedical research endeavors. Domesticated herd animals like goats, sheep, donkeys, horses and camelids all offer distinct advantages in antibody production. However, their cost of use is often prohibitive, especially where poor antigen response is commonplace; choosing a non-responsive animal can set a research program back or even prevent experiments from moving forward entirely. Over the course of production of antibodies from llamas, we found that some animals consistently produced a higher humoral antibody response than others, even to highly divergent antigens, as well as to their standard vaccines. Based on our initial data, we propose that these "high level responders" could be pre-selected by checking antibody titers against common vaccines given to domestic farm animals. Thus, time and money can be saved by reducing the chances of getting poor responding animals and minimizing the use of superfluous animals. PMID:26775851

  2. Effect of subacute exposure to NO/sub 2/ on lymphocytes required for antibody responses

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimaki, H.; Shimizu, F.; Kubota, K.

    1982-12-01

    BALB/c mice were continuously exposed to 0.4 and 1.6 ppm NO/sub 2/ for 4 weeks and the effects on lymphocytes which are required for primary and secondary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells were examined in vitro. The primary antibody response was significantly suppressed by both concentrations of NO/sub 2/, whereas the secondary antibody response was slightly stimulated by 1.6 ppm NO/sub 2/ exposure. In reconstitution experiments no significant differences were observed in the activities of T and B lymphocytes from mice exposed to 1.6 ppm NO/sub 2/.

  3. Salmonella porins induce a sustained, lifelong specific bactericidal antibody memory response

    PubMed Central

    Secundino, Ismael; López-Macías, Constantino; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Ríos-Sarabia, Nora; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Angel Villasis-Keever, Miguel; Becker, Ingeborg; Luis Puente, José; Calva, Edmundo; Isibasi, Armando

    2006-01-01

    We examined the ability of porins from Salmonella enterica serovar typhi to induce a long-term antibody response in BALB/c mice. These porins triggered a strong lifelong production of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody in the absence of exogenous adjuvant. Analysis of the IgG subclasses produced during this antibody response revealed the presence of the subclasses IgG2b, IgG1, IgG2a and weak IgG3. Despite the high homology of porins, the long-lasting anti-S. typhi porin sera did not cross-react with S. typhimurium. Notably, the antiporin sera showed a sustained lifelong bactericidal-binding activity to the wild-type S. typhi strain, whereas porin-specific antibody titres measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) decreased with time. Because our porin preparations contained the outer membrane proteins C and F (OmpC and OmpF), we evaluated the individual contribution of each porin to the long-lasting antibody response. OmpC and OmpF induced long-lasting antibody titres, measured by ELISA, which were sustained for 300 days. In contrast, although OmpC induced sustained high bactericidal antibody titres for 300 days, postimmunization, the bactericidal antibody titre induced by OmpF was not detected at day 180. These results indicate that OmpC is the main protein responsible for the antibody-mediated memory bactericidal response induced by porins. Taken together, our results show that porins are strong immunogens that confer lifelong specific bactericidal antibody responses in the absence of added adjuvant. PMID:16423041

  4. Suppression of the immune response to ovalbumin in vivo by anti-idiotypic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Grinevich, A.S.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1986-12-01

    Conditions of suppression of the immune response to a food allergin (ovalbumin) were studied with the aid of anti-idiotypic (AID) antibodies. Hen ovalbumin was used and the experiments were performed on mice. Antibodies were isolated from the resulting protein fractions and tested for inhibitor activity by the method of direct radioimmunologic analysis. The test system consisted of the reaction of binding the globulin fraction to the total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin from mice and a /sup 125/I-labeled total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin of the same animals.

  5. Antibody response of sandhill and whooping cranes to an eastern equine encephalitis virus vaccine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, G.G.; Dein, F.J.; Crabbs, C.L.; Carpenter, J.W.; Watts, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    As a possible strategy to protect whooping cranes (Grus americana) from fatal eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viral infection, studies were conducted to determine the immune response of this species and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) to a formalin-inactivated EEE viral vaccine. Viral-specific neutralizing antibody was elicited in both species after intramuscular (IM) vaccination. Subcutaneous and intravenous routes of vaccination failed to elicit detectable antibody in sandhill cranes. Among the IM vaccinated cranes, the immune response was characterized by nondetectable or low antibody titers that waned rapidly following primary exposure to the vaccine. However, one or more booster doses consistently elicited detectable antibody and/or increased antibody titers in the whooping cranes. In contrast, cranes with pre-existing EEE viral antibody, apparently induced by natural infection, exhibited a rapid increase and sustained high-antibody titers. Even though EEE virus vaccine induced neutralizing antibody and produced no adverse side effects, further studies will be required to determine the protective efficacy of the antibody.

  6. Primary antibody responses of herons to experimental infection with Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses.

    PubMed

    Boyle, D B; Marshall, I D; Dickerman, R W

    1983-12-01

    Antibody responses of rufous night herons (Nycticorax caledonicus) and little egrets (Egretta garzetta) following infection with Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin viruses were determined. Haemagglutinin-inhibiting antibodies were first detected on day 5 or 6 after inoculation and increased rapidly, reaching maximum titres of 320 to 2560 between 10 and 20 days after inoculation. Titres declined 20-320 between 60 and 120 days after inoculation, then tended to remain stationary. Titres were 2- to 8-fold higher to infecting virus than heterologous virus. Neutralizing antibody development paralleled that of HI antibodies with titres maintained at a higher level for longer periods; however, they did eventually decline to low levels. Following MVE virus infection IgM (19S), HI antibodies were 80-100% of HI antibodies detectable on day 6 or 7 after inoculation and declined rapidly, becoming undetectable by 20 days after inoculation. With Kunjin virus infections, IgM HI antibodies represented 90-100% of HI antibodies detectable on day 6 or 7 after inoculation. Significant levels of IgM HI antibodies were still detectable 20 days after inoculation (5-30% of total HI antibodies) and, in some birds, even at 27 days after inoculation (up to 10%), IgG (7S) HI antibodies were low or undetectable on day 6 or 7 after inoculation, then increased rapidly with rapidly rising HI antibody titres. The specificity of IgM and IgG antibodies and unfractionated sera was determined by testing against Murray Valley encephalitis, Kunjin, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus haemagglutinating antigens. It was possible to determine with which virus a bird had been infected from the pattern of cross-reaction with these antigens. These results should provide a rational basis for the interpretation of serological results from naturally infected birds.

  7. Genome-wide association study of antibody response to Newcastle disease virus in chicken

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since the first outbreak in Indonesia in 1926, Newcastle disease has become one of the most common and contagious bird diseases throughout the world. To date, enhancing host antibody response by vaccination remains the most efficient strategy to control outbreaks of Newcastle disease. Antibody response plays an important role in host resistance to Newcastle disease, and selection for antibody response can effectively improve disease resistance in chickens. However, the molecular basis of the variation in antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is not clear. The aim of this study was to detect genes modulating antibody response to NDV by a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in chickens. Results To identify genes or chromosomal regions associated with antibody response to NDV after immunization, a GWAS was performed using 39,833 SNP markers in a chicken F2 resource population derived from a cross between two broiler lines that differed in their resistance. Two SNP effects reached 5% Bonferroni genome-wide significance (P<1.26×10-6). These two SNPs, rs15354805 and rs15355555, were both on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 1 and spanned approximately 600 Kb, from 100.4 Mb to 101.0 Mb. Rs15354805 is in intron 7 of the chicken Roundabout, axon guidance receptor, homolog 2 (ROBO2) gene, and rs15355555 is located about 243 Kb upstream of ROBO2. Rs15354805 explained 5% of the phenotypic variation in antibody response to NDV, post immunization, in chickens. Rs15355555 had a similar effect as rs15354805 because of its linkage disequilibrium with rs15354805 (r2=0.98). Conclusion The region at about 100 Mb from the proximal end of chicken chromosome 1, including the ROBO1 and ROBO2 genes, has a strong effect on the antibody response to the NDV in chickens. This study paves the way for further research on the host immune response to NDV. PMID:23663563

  8. A review of human anti-globulin antibody (HAGA, HAMA, HACA, HAHA) responses to monoclonal antibodies. Not four letter words.

    PubMed

    Mirick, G R; Bradt, B M; Denardo, S J; Denardo, G L

    2004-12-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved unconjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for immunotherapy (IT) of B-cell lymphoma, breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. More recently, approval has been given for conjugated ZevalinTM ((90)yttrium ibritumomab tiuxetan, IDEC-Y2B8, Biogen Idec, Cambridge, MA) and BexxarTM ((131)I-tositumomab, Corixa, Corp., Seattle, WA and GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA) anti-CD20 MAbs for use in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), thus redefining the standard care of cancer patients. Because of, and despite a lack of basis for concern about allergic reactions due to human antibody responses to these foreign proteins, assays were developed to determine HAGA (human anti-globulin antibody) levels that developed in patient sera following treatment with MAbs. Strategies were also devised to ''humanize'' MAbs and to temporarily block patient immune function with drugs in order to decrease the seroconversion rates, with considerable success. On the other hand, a survival advantage has been observed in some patients who developed a HAGA following treatment. This correlates with development of an anti-idiotype antibody cascade directed toward the MAbs used to treat these patients. What follows is a selective review of HAGA and its effect on cancer treatment over the past 2 decades.

  9. Germinal center selection and the antibody response to influenza

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Gabriel D.; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    In this minireview, we discuss basic aspects of germinal center biology in the context of immunity to influenza infection, and speculate on how the simultaneous evolutionary races of virus and antibody may impact our efforts to design a universal influenza vaccine. PMID:26496601

  10. Factors influencing the antibody response to vaccination against rabies.

    PubMed

    Jakel, V; König, M; Cussler, K; Hanschmann, K; Thiel, H-J

    2008-01-01

    Preventive vaccination against rabies virus is a highly effective method for preventing rabies in humans and animals. For travel purposes, vaccination of domestic carnivores is obligatory. In addition, some countries require testing for neutralizing antibodies against rabies. The minimal threshold level accepted by WHO/OIE is 0.5 IU/ml. Despite proper vaccination some animals do not reach the threshold. The objective of this study was to identify specific risk factors in dogs and cats for post-vaccination rabies antibody titres below 0.5 IU/ml by FAVN test. Rabies vaccination protocols and recommendations were reviewed with regard to travel regulations. Comprehensive data was collected on animals tested for rabies antibodies via a questionnaire sent to veterinarians who submitted sera for rabies titration. The questionnaire included data on species, age, sex, breed, vaccine used, date of last vaccination and blood sampling, vaccination history and further medical treatments at time of vaccination. Data on around 1,200 animals was analysed. Most animals older than one year had already received more than one rabies vaccination. The influence of breed and sex on antibody titre seems to be insignificant. Young dogs have a high risk of results below 0.5 IU/ml after their first vaccination. This risk can be minimised by the application of a second vaccination and blood sampling according to the manufacturer's recommendations. An important factor for the test outcome might be the virus strain used in the vaccine.

  11. The Human Antibody Response to the Surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Perley, Casey C.; Frahm, Marc; Click, Eva M.; Dobos, Karen M.; Ferrari, Guido; Stout, Jason E.; Frothingham, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaccine-induced human antibodies to surface components of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumonia are correlated with protection. Monoclonal antibodies to surface components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are also protective in animal models. We have characterized human antibodies that bind to the surface of live M. tuberculosis. Methods Plasma from humans with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (n = 23), active TB disease (n = 40), and uninfected controls (n = 9) were assayed by ELISA for reactivity to the live M. tuberculosis surface and to inactivated M. tuberculosis fractions (whole cell lysate, lipoarabinomannan, cell wall, and secreted proteins). Results When compared to uninfected controls, patients with active TB disease had higher antibody titers to the surface of live M. tuberculosis (Δ = 0.72 log10), whole cell lysate (Δ = 0.82 log10), and secreted proteins (Δ = 0.62 log10), though there was substantial overlap between the two groups. Individuals with active disease had higher relative IgG avidity (Δ = 1.4 to 2.6) to all inactivated fractions. Surprisingly, the relative IgG avidity to the live M. tuberculosis surface was lower in the active disease group than in uninfected controls (Δ = –1.53, p = 0.004). Patients with active disease had higher IgG than IgM titers for all inactivated fractions (ratios, 2.8 to 10.1), but equal IgG and IgM titers to the live M. tuberculosis surface (ratio, 1.1). Higher antibody titers to the M. tuberculosis surface were observed in active disease patients who were BCG-vaccinated (Δ = 0.55 log10, p = 0.008), foreign-born (Δ = 0.61 log10, p = 0.004), or HIV-seronegative (Δ = 0.60 log10, p = 0.04). Higher relative IgG avidity scores to the M. tuberculosis surface were also observed in active disease patients who were BCG-vaccinated (Δ = 1.12, p<0.001) and foreign-born (Δ = 0.87, p = 0.01). Conclusions/Significance Humans

  12. Antibody responses of Chlamydophila pneumoniae pneumonia: Why is the diagnosis of C. pneumoniae pneumonia difficult?

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Naoyuki; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Takaaki; Akaike, Hiroto; Teranishi, Hideto; Wakabayashi, Tokio; Nakano, Takashi; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Okimoto, Niro

    2015-07-01

    The ELNAS Plate Chlamydophila pneumoniae commercial test kit for the detection of anti-C. pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA and IgG antibodies has become available in Japan recently. To determine the optimum serum collection point for the ELNAS plate in the diagnosis of C. pneumoniae pneumonia, we analyzed the kinetics of the antibody response in patients with laboratory-confirmed C. pneumoniae pneumonia. We enrolled five C. pneumoniae pneumonia cases and collected sera from patients for several months. The kinetics of the IgM and IgG antibody responses were similar among the five patients. Significant increases in IgM and IgG antibody titer between paired sera were observed in all patients. IgM antibodies appeared approximately 2-3 weeks after the onset of illness, reached a peak after 4-5 weeks, and were generally undetectable after 3-5 months. IgG antibodies developed slowly for the first 30 days and reached a plateau approximately 3-4 months after the onset of illness. The kinetics of IgA antibody responses were different among the five patients, and significant increases in IgA antibody titer between paired sera were observed in only two patients. Although the sample size was small, the best serum collection time seemed to be approximately 3-6 weeks after onset of illness when using a single serum sample for the detection of IgM antibodies. Paired sera samples should be obtained at least 4 weeks apart. IgA antibody analysis using ELNAS may not be a useful marker for acute C. pneumoniae pneumonia.

  13. Modulation of the murine immune response to human IgG by complexing with monoclonal antibodies. II. Antibody responses to idiotopes of the human IgG paraprotein and of the mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ling, N R; Elliott, D; Lowe, J

    1987-09-01

    Anti-idiotope antibodies produced by mice immunized with a human IgG paraprotein complexed with various mouse monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) have been measured. All animals receiving more than one injection of the paraprotein (free or complexed with a mouse McAb) produced antibodies to the idiotypes of the paraprotein. Complexing with a McAb, especially an anti-Fc-gamma McAb, enhanced the response. Antibodies to the idiotopes of mouse McAbs were more difficult to produce and their production was very dependent on the mode and schedule of the immunization. The best antisera were produced by mice receiving a course of injections of pre-formed complexes of the IgG paraprotein and McAbs. Four of five mice produced antibodies to the idiotopes of an anti-light chain McAb (C4) after a course of immunization (one primary plus four boosts) of an IgG-C4 complex. Two of the six mice receiving a similar course of injections of the paraprotein complexed with an anti-gamma McAb (A55) produced high titres of antibodies to A55 idiotypes. Responses were enhanced when complexes were prepared with a pool of McAbs. It is probable that the formation of large multi-cross-linked complexes containing the McAb under study is important in generating the response. Once a response is initiated, very high titres may be achieved.

  14. An Anti-Ubiquitin Antibody Response in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Ardelt, Peter U.; Ebbing, Jan; Adams, Fabian; Reiss, Cora; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Bachmann, Alexander; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Riedmiller, Hubertus; Kneitz, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Background To use combinatorial epitope mapping (“fingerprinting”) of the antibody response to identify targets of the humoral immune response in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. Methods A combinatorial random peptide library was screened on the circulating pool of immunoglobulins purified from an index patient with a high risk TCC (pTa high grade plus carcinoma in situ) to identify corresponding target antigens. A patient cohort was investigated for antibody titers against ubiquitin. Results We selected, isolated, and validated an immunogenic peptide motif from ubiquitin as a dominant epitope of the humoral response. Patients with TCC had significantly higher antibody titers against ubiquitin than healthy donors (p<0.007), prostate cancer patients (p<0.0007), and all patients without TCC taken together (p<0.0001). Titers from superficial tumors were not significantly different from muscle invasive tumors (p = 0.0929). For antibody response against ubiquitin, sensitivity for detection of TCC was 0.44, specificity 0.96, positive predictive value 0.96 and negative predictive value 0.41. No significant titer changes were observed during the standard BCG induction immunotherapy. Conclusions This is the first report to demonstrate an anti-ubiquitin antibody response in patients with TCC. Although sensitivity of antibody production was low, a high specificity and positive predictive value make ubiquitin an interesting candidate for further diagnostic and possibly immune modulating studies. PMID:25742283

  15. Molecular deconvolution of the monoclonal antibodies that comprise the polyclonal serum response

    PubMed Central

    Wine, Yariv; Boutz, Daniel R.; Lavinder, Jason J.; Miklos, Aleksandr E.; Hughes, Randall A.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Jung, Sang Taek; Horton, Andrew P.; Murrin, Ellen M.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.; Georgiou, George

    2013-01-01

    We have developed and validated a methodology for determining the antibody composition of the polyclonal serum response after immunization. Pepsin-digested serum IgGs were subjected to standard antigen-affinity chromatography, and resulting elution, wash, and flow-through fractions were analyzed by bottom-up, liquid chromatography–high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Identification of individual monoclonal antibodies required the generation of a database of IgG variable gene (V-gene) sequences constructed by NextGen sequencing of mature B cells. Antibody V-gene sequences are characterized by short complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of high diversity adjacent to framework regions shared across thousands of IgGs, greatly complicating the identification of antigen-specific IgGs from proteomically observed peptides. By mapping peptides marking unique VH CDRH3 sequences, we identified a set of V-genes heavily enriched in the affinity chromatography elution, constituting the serum polyclonal response. After booster immunization in a rabbit, we find that the antigen-specific serum immune response is oligoclonal, comprising antibodies encoding 34 different CDRH3s that group into 30 distinct antibody VH clonotypes. Of these 34 CDRH3s, 12 account for ∼60% of the antigen-specific CDRH3 peptide mass spectral counts. For comparison, antibodies with 18 different CDRH3s (12 clonotypes) were represented in the antigen-specific IgG fraction from an unimmunized rabbit that fortuitously displayed a moderate titer for BSA. Proteomically identified antibodies were synthesized and shown to display subnanomolar affinities. The ability to deconvolute the polyclonal serum response is likely to be of key importance for analyzing antibody responses after vaccination and for more completely understanding adaptive immune responses in health and disease. PMID:23382245

  16. Local Antiglycan Antibody Responses to Skin Stage and Migratory Schistosomula of Schistosoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Smit, Cornelis H; Kies, Christiaan L; McWilliam, Hamish E G; Meeusen, Els N T; Hokke, Cornelis H; van Diepen, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Although effective drug treatment is available, reinfections are common, and development of immunity is slow. Most antibodies raised during schistosome infection are directed against glycans, some of which are thought to be protective. Developing schistosomula are considered most vulnerable to immune attack, and better understanding of local antibody responses raised against glycans expressed by this life stage might reveal possible glycan vaccine candidates for future vaccine research. We used antibody-secreting cell (ASC) probes to characterize local antiglycan antibody responses against migrating Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula in different tissues of rats. Analysis by shotgun Schistosoma glycan microarray resulted in the identification of antiglycan antibody response patterns that reflected the migratory pathway of schistosomula. Antibodies raised by skin lymph node (LN) ASC probes mainly targeted N-glycans with terminal mannose residues, Galβ1-4GlcNAc (LacNAc) and Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LeX). Also, responses to antigenic and schistosome-specific glycosphingolipid (GSL) glycans containing highly fucosylated GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcβ1)n stretches that are believed to be present at the parasite's surface constitutively upon transformation were found. Antibody targets recognized by lung LN ASC probes were mainly N-glycans presenting GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN) and GlcNAc motifs. Surprisingly, antibodies against highly antigenic multifucosylated motifs of GSL glycans were not observed in lung LN ASC probes, indicating that these antigens are not expressed in lung stage schistosomula or are not appropriately exposed to induce immune responses locally. The local antiglycan responses observed in this study highlight the stage- and tissue-specific expression of antigenic parasite glycans and provide insights into glycan targets possibly involved in resistance to S. japonicum infection

  17. Local Antiglycan Antibody Responses to Skin Stage and Migratory Schistosomula of Schistosoma japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Cornelis H.; Kies, Christiaan L.; McWilliam, Hamish E. G.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; Hokke, Cornelis H.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease affecting over 230 million people worldwide. Although effective drug treatment is available, reinfections are common, and development of immunity is slow. Most antibodies raised during schistosome infection are directed against glycans, some of which are thought to be protective. Developing schistosomula are considered most vulnerable to immune attack, and better understanding of local antibody responses raised against glycans expressed by this life stage might reveal possible glycan vaccine candidates for future vaccine research. We used antibody-secreting cell (ASC) probes to characterize local antiglycan antibody responses against migrating Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula in different tissues of rats. Analysis by shotgun Schistosoma glycan microarray resulted in the identification of antiglycan antibody response patterns that reflected the migratory pathway of schistosomula. Antibodies raised by skin lymph node (LN) ASC probes mainly targeted N-glycans with terminal mannose residues, Galβ1-4GlcNAc (LacNAc) and Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc (LeX). Also, responses to antigenic and schistosome-specific glycosphingolipid (GSL) glycans containing highly fucosylated GalNAcβ1-4(GlcNAcβ1)n stretches that are believed to be present at the parasite's surface constitutively upon transformation were found. Antibody targets recognized by lung LN ASC probes were mainly N-glycans presenting GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc (LDN) and GlcNAc motifs. Surprisingly, antibodies against highly antigenic multifucosylated motifs of GSL glycans were not observed in lung LN ASC probes, indicating that these antigens are not expressed in lung stage schistosomula or are not appropriately exposed to induce immune responses locally. The local antiglycan responses observed in this study highlight the stage- and tissue-specific expression of antigenic parasite glycans and provide insights into glycan targets possibly involved in resistance to S. japonicum infection

  18. Longitudinal analysis of antibody response to immunization in paediatric survivors after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Hiroto; Hartford, Christine M.; Pei, Deqing; Posner, Meredith J.; Yang, Jie; Hayden, Randall T.; Srinivasan, Ashok; Triplett, Brandon M.; McCulllers, Jon A.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Leung, Wing

    2011-01-01

    Summary The long-term antibody responses to re-immunization in recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) have not been well studied. We prospectively and longitudinally evaluated the antibody responses to 8 vaccine antigens (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, and poliovirus) and assessed the factors associated with negative titres in 210 allo-HSCT recipients at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. Antibody responses lasting for more than 5 years after immunization were observed in most patients for tetanus (95.7%), rubella (92.3%), poliovirus (97.9%), and, in diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) recipients, diphtheria (100%). However, responses to pertussis (25.0%), measles (66.7%), mumps (61.5%), hepatitis B (72.9%), and diphtheria in tetanus-diphtheria (Td) recipients (48.6%) were less favourable, with either only transient antibody responses or persistently negative titres. Factors associated with vaccine failure were older age at immunization; lower CD3, CD4 or CD19 counts; higher IgM concentrations; positive recipient cytomegalovirus serology; negative titres before immunization; acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease; and radiation during preconditioning. These response patterns and clinical factors can be used to formulate re-immunization and monitoring strategies. Patients at risk for vaccine failure should have long-term follow-up; those with loss of antibody response or no seroconversion should receive booster immunizations. PMID:22017512

  19. Maternal Antibodies: Clinical Significance, Mechanism of Interference with Immune Responses, and Possible Vaccination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Neonates have an immature immune system, which cannot adequately protect against infectious diseases. Early in life, immune protection is accomplished by maternal antibodies transferred from mother to offspring. However, decaying maternal antibodies inhibit vaccination as is exemplified by the inhibition of seroconversion after measles vaccination. This phenomenon has been described in both human and veterinary medicine and is independent of the type of vaccine being used. This review will discuss the use of animal models for vaccine research. I will review clinical solutions for inhibition of vaccination by maternal antibodies, and the testing and development of potentially effective vaccines. These are based on new mechanistic insight about the inhibitory mechanism of maternal antibodies. Maternal antibodies inhibit the generation of antibodies whereas the T cell response is usually unaffected. B cell inhibition is mediated through a cross-link between B cell receptor (BCR) with the Fcγ-receptor IIB by a vaccine–antibody complex. In animal experiments, this inhibition can be partially overcome by injection of a vaccine-specific monoclonal IgM antibody. IgM stimulates the B cell directly through cross-linking the BCR via complement protein C3d and antigen to the complement receptor 2 (CR2) signaling complex. In addition, it was shown that interferon alpha binds to the CD21 chain of CR2 as well as the interferon receptor and that this dual receptor usage drives B cell responses in the presence of maternal antibodies. In lieu of immunizing the infant, the concept of maternal immunization as a strategy to protect neonates has been proposed. This approach would still not solve the question of how to immunize in the presence of maternal antibodies but would defer the time of infection to an age where infection might not have such a detrimental outcome as in neonates. I will review successful examples and potential challenges of implementing this concept. PMID

  20. IgG subclass distributions of anti-horse serum antibodies and natural venom-antibodies produced in response to antivenom injection or snake bite in humans.

    PubMed

    Ameno, S; Ameno, K; Fuke, C; Kiryu, T; Ijiri, I

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese Mamushi (Agkistrodon halys blomhoffi, BOIE) is the most common snake in Japan. Bite victims treated with antivenom (horse serum) can produce antibodies against the horse serum and the snake venom. We studied distributions of the IgG subclasses of both these antibodies produced in response to antivenom injection and snake bite. We found that IgG1 and IgG4 of each antibody in the victims' serum were present for a long period of time. PMID:2343468

  1. Regional variation in the correlation of antibody and T-cell responses to Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diana L; Marks, Morgan; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Gilman, Robert H; Goodhew, Brook; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Halperin, Anthony; Sanchez, Gerardo; Verastegui, Manuela; Escalante, Patricia; Naquira, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z; Bern, Caryn

    2014-06-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Central and South America. Geographic variations in the sensitivity of serologic diagnostic assays to T. cruzi may reflect differences in T. cruzi exposure. We measured parasite-specific T-cell responses among seropositive individuals in two populations from South America with widely varying antibody titers against T. cruzi. Antibody titers among seropositive individuals were significantly lower in Arequipa, Peru compared with Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Similarly, the proportion of seropositive individuals with positive T-cell responses was lower in Peru than Bolivia, resulting in overall lower frequencies of interferon-γ (IFNγ)-secreting cells from Peruvian samples. However, the magnitude of the IFNγ response was similar among the IFNγ responders in both locations. These data indicate that immunological discrepancies based on geographic region are reflected in T-cell responses as well as antibody responses.

  2. Regional Variation in the Correlation of Antibody and T-Cell Responses to Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Diana L.; Marks, Morgan; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Gilman, Robert H.; Goodhew, Brook; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Halperin, Anthony; Sanchez, Gerardo; Verastegui, Manuela; Escalante, Patricia; Naquira, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z.; Bern, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Central and South America. Geographic variations in the sensitivity of serologic diagnostic assays to T. cruzi may reflect differences in T. cruzi exposure. We measured parasite-specific T-cell responses among seropositive individuals in two populations from South America with widely varying antibody titers against T. cruzi. Antibody titers among seropositive individuals were significantly lower in Arequipa, Peru compared with Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Similarly, the proportion of seropositive individuals with positive T-cell responses was lower in Peru than Bolivia, resulting in overall lower frequencies of interferon-γ (IFNγ)-secreting cells from Peruvian samples. However, the magnitude of the IFNγ response was similar among the IFNγ responders in both locations. These data indicate that immunological discrepancies based on geographic region are reflected in T-cell responses as well as antibody responses. PMID:24710614

  3. Epigenetic Regulation of Antibody Responses by the Histone H2A Deubiquitinase MYSM1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Chou, YuChia; Jones, Lindsey; Wang, Tao; Sanchez, Suzi; Huang, Xue F; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Changyong; Chen, Si-Yi

    2015-01-01

    B cell-mediated antibody response plays critical roles in protective immunity, as well as in the pathogenesis of allergic and autoimmune diseases. Epigenetic histone and DNA modifications regulate gene transcription and immunity; however, so far, little is known about the role of epigenetic regulation in antibody responses. In this study, we found that mice deficient in the histone H2A deubiquitinase MYSM1, despite their severe defect in B cell development, exhibit an enhanced antibody response against both T cell-dependent and independent antigens. We revealed that MYSM1 intrinsically represses plasma cell differentiation and antibody production. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that MYSM1 is a transcriptional activator of Pax5, the repressors of plasma cell differentiation, by facilitating key transcriptional factor recruitment and coordinating histone modifications at the Pax5 loci. Hence, this study uncovers a critical role for MYSM1 in epigenetically repressing plasma cell differentiation and antibody production, in addition to its opposing, active role in B cell development. Importantly, this study further provides a new target and strategy to modulate antibody production and responses with profound therapeutic implications. PMID:26348977

  4. Neutralizing Antibody Response and Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity in HIV-1-Infected Individuals from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Borggren, Marie; Jensen, Sanne Skov; Heyndrickx, Leo; Palm, Angelica A; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, Sanne; da Silva, Zacarias José; Karlsson, Ingrid; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2016-05-01

    The development of therapeutic and prophylactic HIV vaccines for African countries is urgently needed, but the question of what immunogens to use needs to be answered. One approach is to include HIV envelope immunogens derived from HIV-positive individuals from a geographically concentrated epidemic with more limited viral genetic diversity for a region-based vaccine. To address if there is a basis for a regional selected antibody vaccine, we have screened two regionally separate cohorts from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark for neutralizing antibody activity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against local and nonlocal circulating HIV-1 strains. The neutralizing activity did not demonstrate higher potential against local circulating strains according to geography and subtype determination, but the plasma from Danish individuals demonstrated significantly higher inhibitory activity than that from Guinea-Bissau individuals against both local and nonlocal virus strains. Interestingly, an opposite pattern was observed with ADCC activity, where Guinea-Bissau individual plasma demonstrated higher activity than Danish plasma and was specifically against the local circulating subtype. Thus, on basis of samples from these two cohorts, no local-specific neutralizing activity was detected, but a local ADCC response was identified in the Guinea-Bissau samples, suggesting potential use of regional immunogens for an ADCC-inducing vaccine. PMID:26621287

  5. [Antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides among the children population in the Ustí Region].

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Stiborová, I; Pohorská, J; Dobiásová, L; Král, V

    2005-11-01

    A group of 156 children aged between 10 and 12 years were screened for IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides. The study subjects were 64 children of Romany origin and 92 children from the majority population. IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides were detected in 112 (71.8%) children. No difference in the prevalence of IgG antibodies was found between Romany children and those from the majority population. As many as 34.1% of the study subjects had IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides, again with no difference between the two ethnic groups. Children with IgG antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides had significantly higher total IgE levels compared to those who had tested IgG negative. To demonstrate induction of a non-specific IgE response was one of the study objectives. The high prevalence rates of IgG and IgE antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides are suggestive of a high frequency of cross- and non-specific reactions. Possible effect of cross-reactivity to other antigens on the specific IgG and IgE antibody response to Ascaris lumbricoides is discussed.

  6. Epitope specificity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity [ADCC] responses.

    PubMed

    Pollara, Justin; Bonsignori, Mattia; Moody, M Anthony; Pazgier, Marzena; Haynes, Barton F; Ferrari, Guido

    2013-07-01

    Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity [ADCC] has been suggested to play an important role in control of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 [HIV-1] viral load and protection from infection. ADCC antibody responses have been mapped to multiple linear and conformational epitopes within the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Many epitopes targeted by antibodies that mediate ADCC overlap with those recognized by antibodies capable of virus neutralization. In addition, recent studies conducted with human monoclonal antibodies derived from HIV-1 infected individuals and HIV-1 vaccine-candidate vaccinees have identified a number of antibodies that lack the ability to capture primary HIV-1 isolates or mediate neutralizing activity, but are able to bind to the surface of infected CD4+ T cells and mediate ADCC. Of note, the conformational changes in the gp120 that may not exclusively relate to binding of the CD4 molecule are important in exposing epitopes recognized by ADCC responses. Here we discuss the HIV-1 envelope epitopes targeted by ADCC antibodies in the context of the potential protective capacities of ADCC. PMID:24191939

  7. Passive neutralizing antibody controls SHIV viremia and enhances B cell responses in infant macaques

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Cherie T.; Jaworski, J. Pablo; Jayaraman, Pushpa; Sutton, William F.; Delio, Patrick; Kuller, LaRene; Anderson, David; Landucci, Gary; Richardson, Barbra A.; Burton, Dennis R.; Forthal, Donald N.; Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal HIV-1-specific antibodies are efficiently transferred to newborns; their role in disease control is unknown. We administered non-sterilizing levels of neutralizing IgG, including the human neutralizing monoclonal IgG1b12, to six newborn macaques before oral challenge with SHIVSF612P3. All rapidly developed neutralizing antibodies and had significantly reduced plasma viremia for 6 months. These studies support the use of neutralizing antibodies in enhancing B cell responses and viral control in perinatal settings. PMID:20890292

  8. The Role of Interleukin-6 in Mucosal IgA Antibody Responses in Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, Alistair J.; Husband, Alan J.; Ramshaw, Ian A.; Bao, Shisan; Matthaei, Klaus I.; Koehler, Georges; Kopf, Manfred

    1994-04-01

    In mice with targeted disruption of the gene that encodes interleukin-6 (IL-6), greatly reduced numbers of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-producing cells were observed at mucosae and grossly deficient local antibody responses were recorded after mucosal challenge with either ovalbumin or vaccinia virus. The IgA response in the lungs was completely restored after intranasal infection with recombinant vaccinia viruses engineered to express IL-6. These findings demonstrate a critical role for IL-6 in vivo in the development of local IgA antibody responses and illustrate the effectiveness of vector-directed cytokine gene therapy.

  9. Fecal IgA antibody responses after oral poliovirus vaccination in infants and elder children.

    PubMed

    Nishio, O; Sumi, J; Sakae, K; Ishihara, Y; Isomura, S; Inouye, S

    1990-01-01

    We investigated fecal IgA antibody responses after oral polyvalent poliovirus vaccination. Infants were given vaccines twice with an interval of 6 weeks. Specific IgA antibodies in the feces were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and viruses were isolated in tissue cultures. We found that, after the first vaccination, antibody responses seemed to be elicited only against the serotypes of isolated viruses. After the second vaccination, however, antibodies were detected to all three serotypes with higher titers, suggesting that the first vaccination induced the immunologic memory. The IgA antibodies had virus-neutralizing activity, and existed in the feces as both intact 11S and fragmented 4S molecules. Next, children were given the third vaccination 3 or 9 years later. Fecal IgA antibody responses were found to be poorer in elder children, while they responded with high serum neutralization titers. The secretory IgA memory seemed to last much shorter the serum IgG memory.

  10. Immunoglobulin classes of antibodies produced in the primary and secondary responses in man*

    PubMed Central

    Bandilla, K. K.; McDuffie, F. C.; Gleich, G. J.

    1969-01-01

    A method, radio-immunoprecipitation, is described which measures the antibody in the different classes in whole sera by its antigen binding capacity. In nineteen of twenty-four individuals immunized with Limulus polyphemus haemocyanin, haemagglutinating antibodies were produced in the primary response, but in only five were amounts significant enough to measure by radio-immunoprecipitation. In these five individuals, the primary response was characterized by an early appearance of IgM and IgA antibodies; IgG antibody was detectable but only in small amounts and not before the 18th day after immunization. All twenty-four individuals responded to a secondary injection. A sharp rise in IgG antibody after the secondary injection is typical of the secondary response. A definite but much lower anamnestic response for IgM and IgA is observed. The difference is so uniform and striking that it may well be characteristic for some primary responses in man. PMID:4189127

  11. Delivering HIV Gagp24 to DCIR Induces Strong Antibody Responses In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Flamar, Anne-Laure; Contreras, Vanessa; Zurawski, Sandra; Montes, Monica; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathatlie; Martinon, Frédéric; Banchereau, Jacques; Le Grand, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Targeting dendritic cell-specific endocytic receptors using monoclonal antibodies fused to desired antigens is an approach widely used in vaccine development to enhance the poor immunogenicity of protein-based vaccines and to induce immune responses. Here, we engineered an anti-human DCIR recombinant antibody, which cross-reacts with the homologous cynomolgous macaque receptor and was fused via the heavy chain C-terminus to HIV Gagp24 protein (αDCIR.Gagp24). In vitro, αDCIR.Gagp24 expanded multifunctional antigen-specific memory CD4+ T cells recognizing multiple Gagp24 peptides from HIV-infected patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In non human primates, priming with αDCIR.Gagp24 without adjuvant elicited a strong anti-Gagp24 antibody response after the second immunization, while in the non-targeted HIV Gagp24 protein control groups the titers were weak. The presence of the double-stranded RNA poly(I:C) adjuvant significantly enhanced the anti-Gagp24 antibody response in all the groups and reduced the discrimination between the different vaccine groups. The avidity of the anti-Gagp24 antibody responses was similar with either αDCIR.Gagp24 or Gagp24 immunization, but increased from medium to high avidity in both groups when poly(I:C) was co-administered. This data provides a comparative analysis of DC-targeted and non-targeted proteins for their capacity to induce antigen-specific antibody responses in vivo. This study supports the further development of DCIR-based DC-targeting vaccines for protective durable antibody induction, especially in the absence of adjuvant. PMID:26407317

  12. Effects of deceleration on the humoral antibody response in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, R. P.; Caren, L. D.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of hypergravity, simulated by chronic centrifugation, followed by a return to normal G (deceleration) on the immune system of rats were investigated. Two groups of male rats (28 days at 2.1 G, and 3.1 G) were compared to the control group (1.0 G). The animals were immunized by i.p. injections of sheep red blood cells on days 29, 42, and 57, and bled on days 36, 47, and 62. While the centrifuged rats ate and gainedsignificantly less than the control rats, the antibody titers and the organ/body mass ratios for the adrenal glands, kidneys, lungs, heart, and thymus were unaffected by gravity exposures, as were the values of the hematocrit and the white blood cell counts. It is concluded that deceleration does not adversely affect these particular aspects of the immune system.

  13. Human serum antibody response in Campylobacter jejuni enteritis as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Herbrink, P; van den Munckhof, H A; Bumkens, M; Lindeman, J; van Dijk, W C

    1988-06-01

    An ELISA for detection of IgG, IgA, and IgM antibody using an acid-glycine extract from Campylobacter jejuni as antigen was developed. To determine the value of this assay for the diagnosis of acute Campylobacter jejuni infections, the IgG, IgA, and IgM immune response against Campylobacter jejuni was investigated at various timepoints after infection in patients with culture-proven infection. A total of 112 sera from 46 patients and 78 sera from a control group were tested. All but one of the 46 patients with culture-proven Campylobacter jejuni enteritis developed IgG antibodies against Campylobacter jejuni. IgA and IgM ELISA both showed 97% specificity, and sensitivity of 63% and 30% respectively. IgG antibody titers generally remained at a constant level for more than 50 days, whereas IgA and IgM antibody titers declined more rapidly to normal values within 30 to 50 days after onset of clinical symptoms. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni specific IgA antibodies in a single serum sample provided the most useful assay for serological diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis. The presence of Campylobacter jejuni specific IgM antibodies was the sole diagnostic criterion in three cases. Serological diagnosis of Campylobacter jejuni enteritis should therefore include both IgA and IgM antibody determination.

  14. The relationship of the possible allergic response to jellyfish envenomation and serum antibody titers.

    PubMed

    Russo, A J; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1983-01-01

    The sera of patients envenomated by the sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) or the Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) were investigated for immune specific and cross-reacting antibodies. Crude or partially purified (SP-Sephadex column chromatography) nematocyst venom was used as antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to detect IgG and IgE antibodies. The sera of 66 patients who exhibited strictly cutaneous, extracutaneous or anaphylactoid reactions to envenomation were studied. Most of the subjects developed an IgG antibody and many developed an IgE antibody to the venom of the offending animal. The titer of both immunoglobulins correlated directly with the severity of symptoms. Cross-reacting antibodies to these two jellyfish were apparent in a significant number of patients, but detectable cross-reacting IgE antibodies were rare in patients severely stung by the sea nettle. The titer of specific IgG antibody was higher against the partially purified lethal sea nettle venom than fractions lacking lethal activity. These results may support the hypothesis that some of the visible response to jellyfish envenomation may be allergic in nature and that cross-reactivity to these venoms may be clinically important. PMID:6137884

  15. Heterogeneity in the Antibody Response to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Primo-vaccinated Calves.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, S; Brito, B P; Perez, A M; Bucafusco, D; Pega, J; Rodríguez, L; Borca, M V; Pérez-Filgueira, M

    2015-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are routinely used as effective control tools in large regions worldwide and to limit outbreaks during epidemics. Vaccine-induced protection in cattle has been largely correlated with the FMD virus (FMDV)-specific antibodies. Genetic control of cattle immune adaptive responses has been demonstrated only for peptide antigens derived from FMDV structural proteins. Here, we quantify the heterogeneity in the antibody response of cattle primo-vaccinated against FMD and study its association with the genetic background in Holstein and Jersey sires. A total of 377 FMDV-seronegative calves (122 and 255 calves from 16 and 15 Holstein and Jersey sires, respectively) were included in the study. Samples were taken the day prior to primo-vaccination and 45 days post-vaccination (dpv). Animals received commercial tetravalent FMD single emulsion oil vaccines formulated with inactivated FMDV. Total FMDV-specific antibody responses were studied against three viral strains included in the vaccine, and antibody titres were determined by liquid-phase blocking ELISA. Three linear hierarchical mixed regression models, one for each strain, were formulated to assess the heterogeneity in the immune responses to vaccination. The dependent variables were the antibody titres induced against each FMDV strain at 45 dpv, whereas sire's 'breed' was included as a fixed effect, 'sire' was included as a random effect, and 'farm' was considered as a hierarchical factor to account for lack of independence of within herd measurements. A significant association was found between anti-FMDV antibody responses and sire's breed, with lower immune responses found in the Jersey sires' offspring compared with those from Holstein sires. No significant intrabreed variation was detected. In addition, farm management practices were similar in this study, and results of the serological assays were shown to be repeatable. It therefore seems plausible that differences in the

  16. Translating innate response into long-lasting antibody response by the intrinsic antigen-adjuvant properties of papaya mosaic virus

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Ramírez, Elizabeth; Pérez-Flores, Rebeca; Majeau, Nathalie; Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Ramírez-Saldaña, Maricela; Manjarrez-Orduño, Nataly; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo; Becker, Ingeborg; Isibasi, Armando; Leclerc, Denis; López-Macías, Constantino

    2008-01-01

    Identifying the properties of a molecule involved in the efficient activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses that lead to long-lasting immunity is crucial for vaccine and adjuvant development. Here we show that the papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) is recognized by the immune system as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and as an antigen in mice (Pamptigen). A single immunization of PapMV without added adjuvant efficiently induced both cellular and specific long-lasting antibody responses. PapMV also efficiently activated innate immune responses, as shown by the induction of lipid raft aggregation, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on dendritic cells and macrophages, and long-lasting adjuvant effects upon the specific antibody responses to model antigens. PapMV mixed with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. typhi) outer membrane protein C increased its protective capacity against challenge with S. typhi, revealing the intrinsic adjuvant properties of PapMV in the induction of immunity. Antigen-presenting cells loaded with PapMV efficiently induced antibody responses in vivo, which may link the innate and adaptive responses observed. PapMV recognition as a Pamptigen might be translated into long-lasting antibody responses and protection observed. These properties could be used in the development of new vaccine platforms. PMID:18070030

  17. The Role of Protein Excipient in Driving Antibody Responses to Erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Christie, Merry; Peritt, David; Torres, Raul M; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

    2015-12-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is an excipient present in formulations of several recombinant protein products that are approved for clinical use. We investigated the relative contributions of HSA and HSA particles to the generation of antibody responses against recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) and the excipient HSA itself. Protein samples were characterized before injection for quantities of monomeric proteins, soluble protein aggregates, and nano- and micron-sized particles. rhEPO, containing various concentrations of HSA particles, were injected three times a week for 8 weeks into mice. Hematocrits and the production of anti-rhEPO and anti-HSA antibodies were determined at various time points. Levels of antibodies against rhEPO in mice injected with HSA-containing rhEPO were higher than those in mice treated with HSA-free rhEPO. Mice injected with formulations that contained particles of HSA produced strong anti-HSA antibody responses; whereas these responses were greatly reduced when particle-free formulations were administered. In contrast, anti-rhEPO antibody responses were not affected by the presence of particles.

  18. Marmoset species variation in the humoral antibody response: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed Central

    Gengozian, N; Kateley, J R; Nickerson, D A

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of the in vivo and in vitro antibody response capabilities of two marmoset species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus oedipus oedipus, revealed the former to be superior in elaborating humoral antibody. In vivo challenges with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Salmonella typhi flagella consistently yielded higher antibody titres in S. fuscicollis; indeed, with LPS antigen, multiple inoculations of S.o. oedipus marmosets led ultimately to a decrease in antibody formation, in contrast to the anamnestic response of S. fuscicollis. This species differential in immune competence was also suggested in the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (RBC). None of 55 S.o. oedipus PBL cultures and 49 of 89 (55%) S. fuscicollis cultures responded to the test antigen. A similar differential in response to sheep RBC was noted with the spleen cells of each species, although this report contrasts the antibody-forming potential of two marmoset species, a comparison of the immunological response profile of marmosets to those of other laboratory animals challenged with similar antigens suggests these primates may be relatively incompetent. The possible relationship between the haemopoietic chimerism of marmosets and a diminished immune competence is discussed. PMID:100417

  19. Effect of increased CRM₁₉₇ carrier protein dose on meningococcal C bactericidal antibody response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucia H; Blake, Milan S

    2012-04-01

    New multivalent CRM(197)-based conjugate vaccines are available for childhood immunization. Clinical studies were reviewed to assess meningococcal group C (MenC) antibody responses following MenC-CRM(197) coadministration with CRM(197)-based pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Infants receiving a total CRM(197) carrier protein dose of ∼50 μg and concomitant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccine tended to have lower MenC geometric mean antibody titers and continued to have low titers after the toddler dose. Nevertheless, at least 95% of children in the reported studies achieved a MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer of ≥ 1:8 after the last infant or toddler dose. SBA was measured using an assay with a baby rabbit or human complement source. Additional studies are needed to assess long-term antibody persistence and MenC CRM(197) conjugate vaccine immunogenicity using alternative dosing schedules.

  20. Affinity enhancement of antibodies: how low-affinity antibodies produced early in immune responses are followed by high-affinity antibodies later and in memory B-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Herman N

    2014-05-01

    The antibodies produced initially in response to most antigens are high molecular weight (MW) immunoglobulins (IgM) with low affinity for the antigen, while the antibodies produced later are lower MW classes (e.g., IgG and IgA) with, on average, orders of magnitude higher affinity for that antigen. These changes, often termed affinity maturation, take place largely in small B-cell clusters (germinal center; GC) in lymphoid tissues in which proliferating antigen-stimulated B cells express the highly mutagenic cytidine deaminase that mediates immunoglobulin class-switching and sequence diversification of the immunoglobulin variable domains of antigen-binding receptors on B cells (BCR). Of the large library of BCR-mutated B cells thus rapidly generated, a small minority with affinity-enhancing mutations are selected to survive and differentiate into long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells. BCRs are also endocytic receptors; they internalize and cleave BCR-bound antigen, yielding peptide-MHC complexes that are recognized by follicular helper T cells. Imperfect correlation between BCR affinity for antigen and cognate T-cell engagement may account for the increasing affinity heterogeneity that accompanies the increasing average affinity of antibodies. Conservation of mechanisms underlying mutation and selection of high-affinity antibodies over the ≈200 million years of evolution separating bird and mammal lineages points to the crucial role of antibody affinity enhancement in adaptive immunity.

  1. Antibodies to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Potentiate the Response of Human T Lymphocyte Clones to the Same Antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celis, Esteban; Chang, Tse Wen

    1984-04-01

    Human T-helper lymphocyte clones specific for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) proliferate on stimulation with HBsAg in vitro. Antibodies specific for HBsAg, but no other antibodies, augment this proliferative response. In the presence of antibodies to HBsAg, the maximum response could be achieved at HBsAg concentrations that were 1 percent of those required in the absence of the antibodies. These findings suggest that antigen-specific antibodies exert regulatory controls on T cells that recognize the same antigens.

  2. Protein Dynamics and the Diversity of an Antibody Response*

    PubMed Central

    Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Yu, Wayne; Oda, Masayuki; Zimmermann, Jörg; Romesberg, Floyd E.

    2012-01-01

    The immune system is remarkable in its ability to produce antibodies (Abs) with virtually any specificity from a limited repertoire of germ line precursors. Although the contribution of sequence diversity to this molecular recognition has been studied for decades, recent models suggest that protein dynamics may also broaden the range of targets recognized. To characterize the contribution of protein dynamics to immunological molecular recognition, we report the sequence, thermodynamic, and time-resolved spectroscopic characterization of a panel of eight Abs elicited to the chromophoric antigen 8-methoxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (MPTS). Based on the sequence data, three of the Abs arose from unique germ line Abs, whereas the remaining five comprise two sets of siblings that arose by somatic mutation of a common precursor. The thermodynamic data indicate that the Abs recognize MPTS via a variety of mechanisms. Although the spectroscopic data reveal small differences in protein dynamics, the anti-MPTS Abs generally show similar levels of flexibility and conformational heterogeneity, possibly representing the convergent evolution of the dynamics necessary for function. However, one Ab is significantly more rigid and conformationally homogeneous than the others, including a sibling Ab from which it differs by only five somatic mutations. This example of divergent evolution demonstrates that point mutations are capable of fixing significant differences in protein dynamics. The results provide unique insight into how high affinity Abs may be produced that bind virtually any target and possibly, from a more general perspective, how new protein functions are evolved. PMID:22685303

  3. Induction of antibody responses in the common mucosal immune system by respiratory syncytical virus immunostimulating complexes.

    PubMed

    Hu, K F; Ekström, J; Merza, M; Lövgren-Bengtsson, K; Morein, B

    1999-05-01

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) containing envelope proteins of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were explored as a mucosal delivery system for the capacity of inducing a common mucosal antibody response. Two intranasal (i.n.) administrations of BALB/c mice with ISCOMs induced potent serum IgG, and strong IgA responses to RSV locally in the lungs and the upper respiratory, and remotely in the genital and the intestinal tracts. Virtually no measurable IgA response was found in these mucosal organs after two subcutaneous (s.c.) immunizations. Virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies were detected in serum and in all of the mucosal organ extracts after both s.c. and i.n. immunizations indicating that the neutralizing epitopes were preserved after both mucosal and parenteral modes of administration. While the mucosal IgA response appears to be of mucosal origin, the IgG antibodies to RSV detected in the mucosal organs were likely of serum origin. However, the mucosal VN antibodies correlated with the IgG rather than the IgA levels. An enhanced IgA response to gp120 in various mucosal organs was recorded after i.n. immunization with gp120 incorporated in RSV ISCOMs, indicating a role of RSV envelope proteins in enhancing and targeting mucosal responses to passenger antigens. PMID:10363675

  4. VP4-specific intestinal antibody response to rotavirus in a murine model of heterotypic infection.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R D; Groene, W S; Mackow, E R; Merchant, A A; Cheng, E H

    1991-06-01

    We have adapted a murine model of heterotypic rotavirus infection for the purpose of evaluating the intestinal antibody response to an infection that mimics human vaccination. Neonatal mice were infected with the rhesus rotavirus (RRV). The enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used in order to avoid common artifacts in the quantitation of intestinal immune responses inherent in measurements of luminal or serum immunoglobulins and to obtain easily quantifiable data in a flexible and convenient format. Functionally active lymphocytes were harvested from the spleen, small intestinal lamina propria, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes and processed into single-cell suspensions. Antibody-secreting cells (ASC) were quantitated from 5 to 50 days after infection for total, RRV-specific, baculovirus-expressed VP4-specific, and single-shell RRV-specific ASC secreting either immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, or IgA. The response to VP4 constituted less than 1.5% of the total virus-specific response, which was located almost exclusively in the gut and was 90% IgA. Intestinal ASC were directed overwhelmingly toward proteins incorporated in the single-shell particle, predominantly VP2 and VP6. We conclude that the antibody response to VP4, thought to be the site of the important neutralization sites conserved among several rotavirus serotypes, is an extremely small portion of the overall antibody response in the intestinal tract.

  5. High Affinity Antibodies against Influenza Characterize the Plasmablast Response in SLE Patients After Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kaval; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Smith, Kenneth; Huang, Min; Li, Lie; Pauli, Noel T.; Henry Dunand, Carole J.; Lee, Jane-Hwei; Morrissey, Michael; Wu, Yixuan; Joachims, Michelle L.; Munroe, Melissa E.; Lau, Denise; Qu, Xinyan; Krammer, Florian; Wrammert, Jens; Palese, Peter; Ahmed, Rafi; James, Judith A.; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Breakdown of B cell tolerance is a cardinal feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Increased numbers of autoreactive mature naïve B cells have been described in SLE patients and autoantibodies have been shown to arise from autoreactive and non-autoreactive precursors. How these defects, in the regulation of B cell tolerance and selection, influence germinal center (GC) reactions that are directed towards foreign antigens has yet to be investigated. Here, we examined the characteristics of post-GC foreign antigen-specific B cells from SLE patients and healthy controls by analyzing monoclonal antibodies generated from plasmablasts induced specifically by influenza vaccination. We report that many of the SLE patients had anti-influenza antibodies with higher binding affinity and neutralization capacity than those from controls. Although overall frequencies of autoreactivity in the influenza-specific plasmablasts were similar for SLE patients and controls, the variable gene repertoire of influenza-specific plasmablasts from SLE patients was altered, with increased usage of JH6 and long heavy chain CDR3 segments. We found that high affinity anti-influenza antibodies generally characterize the plasmablast responses of SLE patients with low levels of autoreactivity; however, certain exceptions were noted. The high-avidity antibody responses in SLE patients may also be correlated with cytokines that are abnormally expressed in lupus. These findings provide insights into the effects of dysregulated immunity on the quality of antibody responses following influenza vaccination and further our understanding of the underlying abnormalities of lupus. PMID:25951191

  6. Theranostic Nanoparticles Carrying Doxorubicin Attenuate Targeting Ligand Specific Antibody Responses Following Systemic Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Emmy; Qian, Weiping; Cao, Zehong; Wang, Liya; Bozeman, Erica N.; Ward, Christina; Yang, Bin; Selvaraj, Periasamy; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Y. Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the effects of immune responses on targeted delivery of nanoparticles is important for clinical translations of new cancer imaging and therapeutic nanoparticles. In this study, we found that repeated administrations of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) conjugated with mouse or human derived targeting ligands induced high levels of ligand specific antibody responses in normal and tumor bearing mice while injections of unconjugated mouse ligands were weakly immunogenic and induced a very low level of antibody response in mice. Mice that received intravenous injections of targeted and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated IONPs further increased the ligand specific antibody production due to differential uptake of PEG-coated nanoparticles by macrophages and dendritic cells. However, the production of ligand specific antibodies was markedly inhibited following systemic delivery of theranostic nanoparticles carrying a chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. Targeted imaging and histological analysis revealed that lack of the ligand specific antibodies led to an increase in intratumoral delivery of targeted nanoparticles. Results of this study support the potential of further development of targeted theranostic nanoparticles for the treatment of human cancers. PMID:25553097

  7. Antibody responses to the merozoite surface protein-1 complex in cerebral malaria patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Lucchi, Naomi W; Tongren, Jon Eric; Jain, Vidhan; Nagpal, Avinash C; Kauth, Christian W; Woehlbier, Ute; Bujard, Hermann; Dash, Aditya P; Singh, Neeru; Stiles, Jonathan K; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2008-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum infection causes cerebral malaria (CM) in a subset of patients with anti-malarial treatment protecting only about 70% to 80% of patients. Why a subset of malaria patients develops CM complications, including neurological sequelae or death, is still not well understood. It is believed that host immune factors may modulate CM outcomes and there is substantial evidence that cellular immune factors, such as cytokines, play an important role in this process. In this study, the potential relationship between the antibody responses to the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1 complex (which consists of four fragments namely: MSP-183, MSP-130, MSP-138 and MSP-142), MSP-636 and MSP-722 and CM was investigated. Methods Peripheral blood antibody responses to recombinant antigens of the two major allelic forms of MSP-1 complex, MSP-636 and MSP-722 were compared between healthy subjects, mild malaria patients (MM) and CM patients residing in a malaria endemic region of central India. Total IgG and IgG subclass antibody responses were determined using ELISA method. Results The prevalence and levels of IgG and its subclasses in the plasma varied for each antigen. In general, the prevalence of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 was higher in the MM patients and lower in CM patients compared to healthy controls. Significantly lower levels of total IgG antibodies to the MSP-1f38, IgG1 levels to MSP-1d83, MSP-119 and MSP-636 and IgG3 levels to MSP-1f42 and MSP-722 were observed in CM patients as compared to MM patients. Conclusion These results suggest that there may be some dysregulation in the generation of antibody responses to some MSP antigens in CM patients and it is worth investigating further whether perturbations of antibody responses in CM patients contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:18601721

  8. Nonopsonic antibodies in cystic fibrosis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies from infected patient sera inhibit neutrophil oxidative responses.

    PubMed Central

    Eichler, I; Joris, L; Hsu, Y P; Van Wye, J; Bram, R; Moss, R

    1989-01-01

    Antibody opsonins from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients were investigated using nonmucoid and mucoid lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immunotype 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa as bacterial ligands and PMN phagocytes. CF sera were compared to normal sera, polyvalent PA LPS hyperimmune globulin, and isotype switch variant monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for type 1 PA LPS. Sera from PA-infected CF patients (CF PA+) had elevated levels of PA LPS and alginate IgG antibodies and promoted significantly greater antibody-dependent PMN chemiluminescence responses than sera from uninfected CF patients (CF PA-) or normal human sera (NHS). After adjustment for autologous IgG PA LPS antibody content, however, CF PA+ sera had less antibody-dependent opsonic activity than sera from CF PA- patients (P less than 0.025) or NHS (P less than 0.0025), suggesting qualitative opsonic defects of IgG PA LPS antibodies in CF PA+ sera. Antigen-specific immunoprecipitation of PA LPS antibodies enhanced opsonization by 40% of CF PA+ sera while uniformly reducing that from CF PA- sera (P less than 0.01), indicating LPS-specific nonopsonic antibodies in some CF PA+ sera. Alginate antibodies were not critical opsonins in most uninfected CF patient sera. PA LPS IgG antibodies isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography from NHS, hyperimmune globulin, and CF PA- sources were opsonic and had greater activity at equal antigen-binding concentration than identical antibodies isolated from infected CF patients (P less than 0.01-0.05); the majority of isolates from CF PA+ sera did not promote PMN oxidative responses above nonopsonic baseline. A potential isotypic basis for these findings was supported by differences in PMN responses to PA opsonized with MAbs of identical specificity but differing isotypes. PA LPS-specific IgG antibodies inhibiting PMN oxidative responses in infected patient sera demonstrate antigen-specific immunomodulation of host responses by chronic bacterial parasitism in CF, which may play a role

  9. Idiotype and antigen-specific T cell responses in mice on immunization with antigen, antibody, and anti-idiotypic antibody.

    PubMed

    Mitra-Kaushik, S; Shaila, M S; Karande, A K; Nayak, R

    2001-05-01

    Idiotypic determinants of immunoglobulin molecules can evoke both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T responses and exist not only as the integral components of a bona fide antigen binding receptor but also as distinct molecular entities in the processed forms on the cell surface of B lymphocytes. The present work provides experimental evidence for the concept that regulation of memory B cell populations can be achieved through the presentation of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic determinants to helper and cytotoxic cell. The potential of B cells to present antigens to helper and cytotoxic T cells through class II and class I MHC suggests a mechanism by which both B and T cell homeostasis can be maintained. We provide evidence for the generation of idiotype- and antigen-specific Th and Tc cells upon immunization of syngenic mice with antigen or idiotypic antibody (Ab1) or anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2). The selective activation and proliferation of the antigen-specific Th and Tc cells mediated by idiotypic stimulation observed in these experiments suggests a B-cell-driven mechanism for the maintenance of antigen-specific T cell memory in the absence of antigenic stimulation, under certain conditions.

  10. Relationship between exposure to vector bites and antibody responses to mosquito salivary gland extracts.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Albin; Pascual, Aurélie; Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoué, Franck; Pagès, Frédéric; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological

  11. [Salmonella typhi vaccination response study reveals defective antibody production selective IgA deficiency patient].

    PubMed

    Pleguezuelo, Daniel E; Gianelli, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD) is the most prevalent immunodeficiency worldwide, progressing to common variable immunodeficiency only in few reported cases. We report the case of a Spanish female aged 22 and diagnosed of selective IgA deficiency, a long history of bronchitis, several episodes of pneumonia, bilateral bronchiectasis, normal IgG, IgM, IgG subclasses, and detectable pre-vaccination IgG antibodies against tetanus toxoid and Streptococcus pneumoniae. She was evaluated in our clinic in order to rule out common variable immunodeficiency. We observed good antibody response to tetanus toxoid, absence of circulating switched memory B cells, decreased response to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens and a lack of response to Salmonella typhi vaccine. Most SIgAD patients presents with upper respiratory tract infections or mild diarrhea. Those with lower tract infections, pneumonia or untreatable diarrhea should follow B-cell subpopulations' study and antibody response to vaccines. Absence of response to Salmonella typhi vaccine allowed us to expose the defective antibody production.

  12. Characterization of pseudorabies virus antibody responses in young swine after infection and vaccination by using an immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, M B; Molitor, T W; Joo, H S

    1992-01-01

    An immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MACELISA) was developed for the detection of pseudorabies virus (PRV)-specific IgM antibody in swine sera because false-positive reactions frequently occurred when sera from older swine were tested with an indirect IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Monoclonal mouse anti-swine IgM was used as the capturing antibody, and rabbit anti-PRV hyperimmune gamma globulin was used as the indicating antibody. Sera from non-PRV-infected, experimentally infected, vaccinated and challenged, passively immune and challenged, and naturally infected swine were evaluated. The PRV MACELISA had a specificity of 95% and was as sensitive and reproducible as previously reported in direct assays. An antibody response was still detectable with the MACELISA 21 days after inoculation. The PRV MACELISA did not detect a consistent antibody response in sera from swine vaccinated with either killed-PRV or modified live-virus vaccines but did detect an antibody response in sera from passively immune pigs after challenge with virulent PRV. These results indicated that the PRV MACELISA may be useful for the rapid serodiagnosis of recent PRV infection in swine. PMID:1311334

  13. Antibody responses after repeated influenza A virus immunizations among schoolchildren in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, N.; Hiratsuka, M.; Arikawa, J.; Odagiri, T.; Ishida, N.

    1981-01-01

    Antibody responses to influenza virus immunizations were examined among junior high school students. The students received two doses of a commercial split-product vaccine containing influenza A H1N1 during a 2-year period following the first appearance of H1N1 virus in the winter of 1977-78. In haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests, the students who had been infected with H1N1 virus in 1977-78 showed a better response and wider cross-reactivity to the drift strain than the students who had not experienced earlier H1N1 influenza infection. Neuraminidase-inhibition (NAI) antibody titres after immunization depended upon a history of natural infection with H1N1 virus, since students not previously infected showed no significant NAI antibody rise after immunization. PMID:7310122

  14. HIV-1 therapy with monoclonal antibody 3BNC117 elicits host immune responses against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Till; Klein, Florian; Braunschweig, Malte; Kreider, Edward F; Feldmann, Anna; Nogueira, Lilian; Oliveira, Thiago; Lorenzi, Julio C C; Parrish, Erica H; Learn, Gerald H; West, Anthony P; Bjorkman, Pamela J; Schlesinger, Sarah J; Seaman, Michael S; Czartoski, Julie; McElrath, M Juliana; Pfeifer, Nico; Hahn, Beatrice H; Caskey, Marina; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-05-20

    3BNC117 is a broad and potent neutralizing antibody to HIV-1 that targets the CD4 binding site on the viral envelope spike. When administered passively, this antibody can prevent infection in animal models and suppress viremia in HIV-1-infected individuals. Here we report that HIV-1 immunotherapy with a single injection of 3BNC117 affects host antibody responses in viremic individuals. In comparison to untreated controls that showed little change in their neutralizing activity over a 6-month period, 3BNC117 infusion significantly improved neutralizing responses to heterologous tier 2 viruses in nearly all study participants. We conclude that 3BNC117-mediated immunotherapy enhances host humoral immunity to HIV-1. PMID:27199429

  15. Polyanhydride Nanovaccines Induce Germinal Center B Cell Formation and Sustained Serum Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    Vela Ramirez, Julia E; Tygrett, Lorraine T; Hao, Jihua; Habte, Habtom H; Cho, Michael W; Greenspan, Neil S; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Narasimhan, Balaji

    2016-06-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticle-based subunit vaccines have shown promising characteristics by enhancing antigen presentation and inducing protective immune responses when compared with soluble protein. Specifically, polyanhydride nanoparticle-based vaccines (i.e., nanovaccines) have been shown to successfully encapsulate and release antigens, activate B and T cells, and induce both antibody- and cell-mediated immunity towards a variety of immunogens. One of the characteristics of strong thymus-dependent antibody responses is the formation of germinal centers (GC) and the generation of GC B cells, which is part of the T helper cell driven cellular response. In order to further understand the role of nanovaccines in the induction of antigen-specific immune responses, their ability to induce germinal center B cell formation and isotype switching and the effects thereof on serum antibody responses were investigated in these studies. Polyanhydride nanovaccines based on 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane and 1,8-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane were used to subcutaneously administer a viral antigen. GC B cell formation and serum antibody responses induced by the nanovaccines were compared to that induced by alum-based vaccine formulations. It was demonstrated that a single dose of polyanhydride nanovaccines resulted in the formation of robust GCs and serum antibody in comparison to that induced by the alum-based formulation. This was attributed to the sustained release of antigen provided by the nanovaccines. When administered in a multiple dose regimen, the highest post-immunization titer and GC B cell number was enhanced, and the immune response induced by the nanovaccines was further sustained. These studies provide foundational information on the mechanism of action of polyanhydride nanovaccines. PMID:27319223

  16. Control of trypanodestructive antibody responses and parasitemia in mice infected with Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax.

    PubMed Central

    Mahan, S M; Hendershot, L; Black, S J

    1986-01-01

    After infection with a cloned population of Trypanosoma vivax, C57BL/6 mice controlled parasitemia during the exponential growth phase and survived, with intermittent parasitemia, for several weeks. In contrast, most mice of the C3H/He strain did not control the first wave of parasitemia and died within 9 to 13 days after infection. Control of parasitemia in C57BL/6 mice was mediated by the production of a variant surface glycoprotein-specific trypanodestructive antibody response which was accompanied by production of antibodies against antigens shared between procyclic and bloodstream T. vivax as well as antibodies against trinitrophenyl (TNP) and sheep erythrocytes. The infected C3H/He mice did not produce trypanodestructive antibodies or antibodies against procyclic antigens or TNP but did produce antibodies against sheep erythrocytes. Although infected C57BL/6 mice produced levels of serum immunoglobulin M four times higher than infected C3H/He mice, their parasite-induced B-cell DNA synthetic responses were similar, and both sets of mice developed similar numbers of spleen cells with cytoplasmic immunoglobulin M, a proportion of which could react with TNP. In vitro biosynthetic labeling studies accompanied by immunoglobulin precipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the immunoglobulin-containing cells of infected C3H/He mice synthesized and secreted less immunoglobulin than similar cells from infected C57BL/6 mice. We concluded that some parasite-induced antibody-forming cells in C3H/He mice, perhaps including parasite-specific and certainly including TNP-specific cells, had an impaired capacity to make and release immunoglobulin. Within 24 h after Berenil-mediated elimination of T. vivax from infected C3H/He mice, a population of cyclophosphamide-sensitive spleen cells produced large amounts of parasite-specific and TNP-specific antibody. We concluded that the defect in terminal B-cell function leading to

  17. Screening for genes involved in antibody response to sheep red blood cells in the chicken, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tuoyu; Guan, Xiaojing; Smith, Edward J

    2015-09-01

    Antibody response, an important trait in both agriculture and biomedicine, plays a part in protecting animals from infection. Dissecting molecular basis of antibody response may improve artificial selection for natural disease resistance in livestock and poultry. A number of genetic markers associated with antibody response have been identified in the chicken and mouse by linkage-based association studies, which only define genomic regions by genetic markers but do not pinpoint genes for antibody response. In contrast, global expression profiling has been applied to define the molecular bases of a variety of biological traits through identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Here, we employed Affimetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays to identify differentially expressed genes for antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) using chickens challenged with and without SRBC or chickens with high and low anti-SRBC titers. The DEGs include those with known (i.e., MHC class I and IgH genes) or unknown function in antibody response. Classification test of these genes suggested that the response of the chicken to intravenous injection of SRBC involved multiple biological processes, including response to stress or other different stimuli, sugar, carbohydrate or protein binding, and cell or soluble fraction, in addition to antibody response. This preliminary study thus provides an insight into molecular basis of antibody response to SRBC in the chicken.

  18. Preexisting neutralizing antibody responses distinguish clinically inapparent and apparent dengue virus infections in a Sri Lankan pediatric cohort.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Kizzmekia S; Katzelnick, Leah; Tissera, Hasitha; Amerasinghe, Ananda; de Silva, Aruna Dharshan; de Silva, Aravinda M

    2015-02-15

    Dengue viruses (DENVs) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that infect humans. The clinical presentation of DENV infection ranges from inapparent infection to dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. We analyzed samples from a pediatric dengue cohort study in Sri Lanka to explore whether antibody responses differentiated clinically apparent infections from clinically inapparent infections. In DENV-naive individuals exposed to primary DENV infections, we observed no difference in the quantity or quality of acquired antibodies between inapparent and apparent infections. Children who experienced primary infections had broad, serotype-cross-neutralizing antibody responses that narrowed in breadth to a single serotype over a 12-month period after infection. In DENV immune children who were experiencing a repeat infection, we observed a strong association between preexisting neutralizing antibodies and clinical outcome. Notably, children with preexisting monospecific neutralizing antibody responses were more likely to develop fever than children with cross-neutralizing responses. Preexisting DENV neutralizing antibodies are correlated with protection from dengue disease.

  19. Antibodies to interleukin 2. Effects on immune responses in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies to highly purified mouse interleukin 2 (IL-2) were raised in rabbits; a 1:500 dilution of antiserum completely blocked the in vitro mitogenic effect of 10(-9) M IL-2. The antisera functioned effectively to immunoprecipitate biosynthetically labeled IL-2 and the purified immunoglobulins were useful in the construction of affinity columns for the adsorption and one-step immunopurification of IL-2. The antibodies were apparently specific for IL-2 among the lymphokines, they did not block the biological effects of IL-1, IL-3, gamma-IFN, B cell stimulating factor(s), and cytotoxic T cell differentiation factor(s). When anti-IL-2 was added to the in vitro reactions, it blocked mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR) and associated lymphocyte proliferation, the in vitro generation of cytotoxic T cells, and antibody formation as assessed by erythrocyte-specific plaque-forming cells (PFC). When injected into mice, anti-IL-2 antibodies also reduced the formation of cytotoxic lymphocytes in response to allogeneic cells, suggesting that endogenous IL-2 participates in such reactions in vivo. Taken together, the results indicate that these IL-2 antibodies will be useful adjuncts in the analysis of immune response both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:6236276

  20. Antibody response in children infected with Giardia intestinalis before and after treatment with Secnidazole.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Juan C; Pinon, Anthony; Dive, Daniel; Capron, Monique; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Convit, Jacinto

    2009-01-01

    We examined 364 school children for intestinal parasites in a sub-urban zone of Caracas, Venezuela. Giardia intestinalis was the most prevalent parasite in stool samples from 34 children. Levels of IgA and IgG antibodies to G. intestinalis were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot before and after treatment with secnidazole. All patients were cured with a reduction of IgA antibody levels in 26 of 34 children and a reduction in IgG-specific antibody levels in 18 of 34 children. Serum of infected patients reacted with proteins of 14 kD to 137 kD. Some patients did not show a change in IgA serum reactivity for parasite proteins by Western blot after treatment. Seventeen children showed reduction of the reactivity or disappearance of protein reactivity (mainly the 14-kD, 122-kD, and 137-kD proteins). Antibody response was not related to clinical status, but quantitative and qualitative serum antibody response against G. intestinalis infection could be used to assess levels of new protein markers that decrease or disappear with successful chemotherapy. PMID:19141831

  1. Domain specificity of the human antibody response to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Reason, Donald C; Ullal, Anuska; Liberato, Justine; Sun, Jinying; Keitel, Wendy; Zhou, Jianhui

    2008-07-29

    Protective antigen (PA) is the cell surface recognition moiety of the Bacillus anthracis A-B toxin system, and the active immunogenic component in the currently licensed human anthrax vaccine (BioThrax, or AVA). The serum antibody response to the PA protein is polyclonal and complex both in terms of the antibody combining sites utilized to bind PA and the PA-associated epitopes recognized. We have cloned, sequenced, and expressed a large panel of PA-specific human monoclonal antibodies from seven AVA-immunized donors. Dot blots, Western blots, and radiolabeled antigen capture assays employing both proteolytic fragments of PA and engineered PA sub-domain fusion proteins were used to determine the region (domain) of the PA monomer to which each of the cloned human antibodies bound. The domain specificity of the isolated monoclonals was highly biased towards the amino-terminal 20kDa fragment of PA (PA(20)), with the majority (62%) of independently arising antibody clones reacting with determinants located on this PA fragment. A similar bias in domain specificity was also demonstrated in the serum response of AVA-vaccinated donors. Since PA(20) is cleaved from the remainder of the monomer rapidly following cell surface binding and has no known role in the intoxication process, the immunodominance of PA(20)-associated epitopes may directly affect the efficacy of PA-based anthrax vaccines.

  2. Immune and antibody responses to an isolated capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, H L; Moore, D M; McKercher, P D; Polatnick, J

    1975-12-01

    The purified capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus type A12 strain 119 emulsified with incomplete Freund's adjuvant were studied in swine and guinea pigs. Swine inoculated on days 0, 28, and 60 with 100-mug doses of VP3 were protected by day 82 against exposure to infected swine. Serums from animals inoculated with VP3 contained viral precipitating and neutralizing antibodies, but such serums recognized fewer viral antigenic determinants than did antiviral serums. Capsid proteins VP1 and VP2 did not produce detectable antiviral antibody in guinea pigs, and antiviral antibody responses in swine to a mixture of VP1, VP2, and VP3 were lower than the responses to VP3 alone. However, when swine were inoculated with VP1, VP2, and VP3 separately at different body sites, no interference with the response to VP3 was observed. Vaccine containing VP3 isolated from acetylethylenimine-treated virus appeared less protective for swine than vaccine containing VP3 from nontreated virus. Trypsinized virus, which contains the cleaved peptides VP3a and VP3b rather than intact VP3, produced approximately the same levels of antiviral antibody responses in guinea pigs as did virus. Conversely, an isolated mixture of VP3a and VP3b did not produce detectable antiviral antibody responses in guinea pigs. The VP3a-VP3b mixture did, however, sensitize guinea pigs to elicit such responses following reinoculation with a marginally effective dose of trypsinized virus. PMID:171309

  3. Immune response in mice to ingested soya protein: antibody production, oral tolerance and maternal transfer.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Hanne R; Brix, Susanne; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2004-05-01

    While allergic reactions to soya are increasingly investigated, the normal immune response to ingested soya is scarcely described. In the present study, we wanted to characterise the soya-specific immune response in healthy mice ingesting soya protein. Mice fed a soya-containing diet (F0) and mice of the first (F1) and second (F2) offspring generation bred on a soya protein-free diet were used either directly or were transferred between the soya-containing and soya protein-free diet during pregnancy or neonatal life. The mice were compared as to levels of naturally occurring specific antibodies analysed by ELISA, and to the presence of oral tolerance detected as a suppressed antibody and cell-proliferation response upon immunisation with soya protein. F0 mice generated soya-specific antibodies, while oral tolerance to the same soya proteins was also clearly induced. When F0 dams were transferred to soya protein-free feed before mating, the F1 and F2 offspring generations showed no significantly different response, indicating that soya-specific immune components were not maternally transmitted. However, the ingestion of dietary soya protein by F1 mice during late pregnancy and lactation caused a lasting antibody response in the offspring, but in this case in the absence of oral tolerance. This indicates that, under certain conditions, factors involved in spontaneous antibody production can be transmitted from mother to offspring. Understanding the immune response to soya protein ingested under healthy conditions is important in the assessment of adverse effects of soya protein and in the use of animal allergy models. The present results add to this understanding. PMID:15137924

  4. Salivary and Serum Antibody Response Against Neisseria meningitidis After Vaccination With Conjugate Polysaccharide Vaccines in Ethiopian Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bårnes, G K; Workalemahu, B; Kristiansen, P A; Beyene, D; Merdekios, B; Fissiha, P; Aseffa, A; Caugant, D A; Naess, L M

    2016-08-01

    Meningococcal conjugate vaccines induce serum antibodies crucial for protection against invasive disease. Salivary antibodies are believed to be important for hindering meningococcal acquisition and/or clearance of established carriage. In this study, we measured salivary IgA and IgG antibodies induced by vaccination with a monovalent serogroup A conjugate vaccine or a tetravalent A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine, in comparison with antibody levels in serum. Saliva and serum samples from Ethiopian volunteers (1-29 years) collected before and eight times on a weekly basis after receiving the serogroup A conjugate vaccine, the tetravalent serogroup A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine, or no vaccine (control group), were analysed using a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for antibody detection. Serogroup-specific IgG antibody levels in saliva increased significantly after vaccination with both vaccines. The monovalent serogroup A vaccine also induced an increase in salivary IgA antibodies. A strong correlation between serogroup-specific IgG antibodies in saliva and serum, and a somewhat lower correlation for IgA, was observed for all serogroups. There was also a strong correlation between specific secretory IgA and IgA antibodies in saliva for all serogroups. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines are able to elicit salivary antibodies against serogroup A, C, W and Y correlating with antibody levels in serum. The strong correlation between saliva and serum antibody levels indicates that saliva may be used as a surrogate of systemic antibody responses. PMID:27219622

  5. Psychological Factors Capable of Preventing the Inhibition of Antibody Responses in Separated Infant Monkeys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Christopher L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Capacity of infant monkeys to mount an antibody response to viral challenge was evaluated after monkeys' removal from their mothers in several social and physical environments. Results indicated that trauma of separation was reduced when infants were familiar with the separation environment or familiar social companions were available. (PCB)

  6. Fetal immunization of baboons induces a fetal-specific antibody response.

    PubMed

    Watts, A M; Stanley, J R; Shearer, M H; Hefty, P S; Kennedy, R C

    1999-04-01

    Neonates face a high risk of infection because of the immaturity of their immune systems. Although the transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies to the fetus may convey improved postnatal immunity, this transfer occurs late in gestation and may fail to prevent in utero infection. Both fetal immunization and in utero exposure to antigen can result in a state of immunologic tolerance in the neonate. Tolerance induction of fetal and premature infant lymphocytes has become a paradigm for neonatal responsiveness. However, fetal IgM responses have been demonstrated to maternal immunization with tetanus toxoid and to congenital infections such as rubella, toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus. Moreover, 1-week-old infants can respond to standard pediatric vaccination, and neonates immunized with polysaccharide antigens do not develop immunologic tolerance. Here, direct immunization of the baboon fetus with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen produced a specific fetal IgG antibody response. No specific maternal antibody response was detected, eliminating the possibility of vertical antibody transmission to the fetus. Some infants also responded to later vaccinations with hepatitis B surface antigen, indicating that no immunological tolerance was induced by prior fetal immunization. These results characterize the ability of the fetal immune system to respond to in utero vaccination. We demonstrate that active fetal immunization can serve as a safe and efficient vaccination strategy for the fetus and neonate. PMID:10202933

  7. Association of selenocysteine transfer RNA fragments with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to identify transfer RNA fragments (tRFs) associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected...

  8. Association of microRNAs with antibody response to mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in t...

  9. CD301b+ dendritic cells suppress T follicular helper cells and antibody responses to protein antigens

    PubMed Central

    Kumamoto, Yosuke; Hirai, Toshiro; Wong, Patrick W; Kaplan, Daniel H; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Strong antibody response is considered a hallmark of a successful vaccine. While dendritic cells (DCs) are important for T follicular helper (Tfh) cell priming, how this process is regulated in vivo is unclear. We show here that the depletion of CD301b+ DCs specifically enhanced the development of Tfh cells, germinal center B cells and antibody responses against protein antigens. Exaggerated antibody responses in mice depleted of CD301b+ DCs occurred in the absence of any adjuvants, and resulting antibodies had broader specificity and higher affinity to the immunogen. CD301b+ DCs express high levels of PD-1 ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. Blocking PD-1 or PD-L1 during priming in wild-type mice partially mimicked the phenotype of CD301b+ DC-depleted animals, suggesting their role in Tfh suppression. Transient depletion of CD301b+ DC results in the generation of autoreactive IgG responses. These results revealed a novel regulatory mechanism and a key role of CD301b+ DCs in blocking autoantibody generation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17979.001 PMID:27657168

  10. Environmental and management factors influencing BVDV antibody levels and response to vaccination in weanling calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccination has many benefits for disease prevention and overall health status of animals. Not all animals respond equally to vaccinations. A number of factors can be shown to influence a young animal’s response to vaccination. Calves with more maternal antibodies at the time of vaccination have poo...

  11. Parental caregivers of children with developmental disabilities mount a poor antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Stephen; Phillips, Anna C; Drayson, Mark T; Carroll, Douglas

    2009-03-01

    In older populations, caregiving for a spouse with dementia has been associated with a poor antibody response to vaccination. The present study examined whether younger caregivers, specifically the parents of children with developmental disabilities, would also show a diminished antibody response to vaccination. At baseline assessment, 30 parents of children with developmental disabilities and 29 parents of typically developing children completed standard measures of depression, perceived stress, social support, caregiver burden, and child problem behaviours. They also provided a blood sample and were then vaccinated with a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Further blood samples were taken at 1- and 6-month follow-ups. Caregivers mounted a poorer antibody response to vaccination than control parents at both follow-ups. This effect withstood adjustment for a number of possible confounders and appeared to be, at least in part, mediated by child problem behaviours. The negative impact of caregiving on antibody response to vaccination is not restricted to older spousal caregivers, but is also evident in younger parents caring for children with developmental disabilities. The behavioural characteristics of the care recipients may be a key consideration in whether or not immunity is compromised in this context.

  12. Modulation of primary antibody response by protein A in tumor bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, S I; Singh, K P; Raisuddin, S; Jafri, A; Saxena, A K; Choudhary, S; Ray, P K

    1995-11-01

    Protein A (PA) is a cell wall glycoprotein of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I, which possess a number of immunomodulatory and antitumor properties. We have previously shown that PA suppresses the anti-sheep erythrocyte primary antibody response in normal mice. The present investigation evaluates the effect of protein A on the anti-sheep erythrocyte primary antibody response in tumor-bearing mice. The primary antibody response in tumor-bearing mice immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was suppressed by the intraperitoneal administration of PA in a dose-dependent fashion. The plaque forming cell (PFC) assay was used to assess this response. Maximum suppression of the PFC response was observed at 12 micrograms PA/animal (p < 0.001) and could be observed at doses as low as 1 microgram PA/animal (p < 0.01). The amount of suppression was proportional to the number of PA doses administered. In addition this effect was critically dependent on the timing of PA administration. PA showed no significant effect on PFC when injected after immunization, but it produced pronounced suppression when injected prior to the immunization with SRBC. Maximum suppression of the PFC response was observed when PA was administered one day before the antigen challenge. PA also reduced splenic localization of 51Cr labeled SRBC to 42% (p < 0.01). The altered localization of antigen in spleen may be responsible for reduced PFC response in tumor-bearing mice. Depletion of B-lymphocyte is reported to exhibit tumor inhibition. Therefore, we propose that the suppression of the primary antibody response by PA helps in tumor regression by reducing the soluble immunosuppressive immune complexes. PMID:8537611

  13. Anticarrier immunity suppresses the antibody response to polysaccharide antigens after intranasal immunization with the polysaccharide-protein conjugate.

    PubMed Central

    Bergquist, C; Lagergård, T; Holmgren, J

    1997-01-01

    We have conjugated cholera toxin (CT) B subunit (CTB) to dextran and studied the effect in mice of previous immunization with CT and CTB on the response to dextran after intranasal immunizations with conjugate. Preexisting immunity to CTB was found to inhibit both the lung mucosal response and serum antibody response to dextran, but this effect could be overcome by using a higher dose of conjugate and delaying the conjugate immunization until the CTB antibody titers had declined. The role of anti-CTB antibodies on the mucosal surface was probably to prevent uptake of the conjugate through a mechanism of immune exclusion. Passively transferred serum antibodies against CTB, on the other hand, suppressed both the serum response and the local antibody response against CTB but did not affect the response to dextran after intranasal immunization with conjugate. PMID:9125533

  14. Neutralizing antibody immune response in children with primary and secondary rotavirus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Arias, C F; López, S; Mascarenhas, J D; Romero, P; Cano, P; Gabbay, Y B; de Freitas, R B; Linhares, A C

    1994-01-01

    We have characterized the neutralizing antibody immune response to six human rotavirus serotypes (G1 to G4, G8, and G9) in Brazilian children with primary and secondary rotavirus infections and correlated the response with the G serotype of the infecting rotavirus strain. Twenty-five children were studied: 17 had a single rotavirus infection, 4 were reinfected once, and 4 experienced three infections. Two of the reinfections were by non-group A rotaviruses. Among the 25 primary infections, we observed homotypic as well as heterotypic responses; the serotype G1 viruses, which accounted for 13 of these infections, induced mostly a homotypic response, while infections by serotype G2 and G4 viruses induced, in addition to the homotypic, a heterotypic response directed primarily to serotype G1. Two of the primary infections induced heterotypic antibodies to 69M, a serotype G8 virus that by RNA electrophoresis analysis was found not to circulate in the population during the time of the study. The specificity of the neutralizing antibody immune response induced by a virus of a given serotype was the same in primary as well as secondary infections. These results indicate that the heterotypic immune response induced in a primary rotavirus infection is an intrinsic property of the virus strain, and although there seem to be general patterns of serotype-specific seroconversion, these may vary from serotype to serotype and from strain to strain within a serotype. PMID:7496929

  15. Antibody responses in normal infants and in infants receiving chemotherapy for congenital neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Orgel, H A; Hamburger, R N; Mendelson, L M; Miller, J R; Kung, F H

    1977-09-01

    Three infants with congenital neuroblastoma received a primary series of diptheria-pertassis-tetanus (DPT) immunizations during and after courses of chemotherapy with immunosuppressive medications. Serum IgG, IgA and IgM levels and antidiphthria and antitetanus antibody responses were measured and compared with those of normal infants of similar age. Protective levels of antibody were achieved by the study patients as well as by the control group. These results support the view that children with malignancies who are receiving chemotherapy should not be denied immunization with inactivated vaccines.

  16. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.

  17. Regulation of frontline antibody responses by innate immune signals

    PubMed Central

    Chorny, Alejo; Puga, Irene; Cerutti, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Mature B cells generate protective immunity by undergoing immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching and somatic hypermutation, two Ig gene-diversifying processes that usually require cognate interactions with T cells that express CD40 ligand. This T-cell-dependent pathway provides immunological memory but is relatively slow to occur. Thus, it must be integrated with a faster, T-cell-independent pathway for B-cell activation through CD40 ligand-like molecules that are released by innate immune cells in response to microbial products. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the interplay between the innate immune system and B cells, particularly “frontline” B cells located in the marginal zone of the spleen and in the intestine. PMID:22477522

  18. Immunoglobulin genes and antibody responses in the spotted wolffish (Anarhichas minor Olafsen).

    PubMed

    Espelid, S; Halse, M; Solem, S T; Jørgensen, T O

    2001-07-01

    The spotted wolffish Anarhichas minor Olafsen is a promising new species in aquaculture in the cold waters of northern Norway. In this paper, some basic immunological studies of this marine species are reported. Of comparative interest are the cDNA sequences of the immunoglobulin transcript and the antibody responses to model antigens. Of more practical importance are the humoral immune responses and antibody specificities to potentially pathogenic bacteria. Full length cDNA clones encoding the immunoglobulin heavy and light chains in the spotted wolffish were sequenced demonstrating variable degrees of similarity to other teleost fish species. Also in the spotted wolffish the CH4 domain was deleted in the transmembrane form of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) as a receptor on B cells, with the transmembrane exon spliced directly to the CH3 domain. The antibody responses to various antigens like hapten-carrier molecules, protein antigens and bacterial pathogens were relatively high, but with some interesting exceptions. Anti-hapten responses to NIP and FITC were high while anti-DNS responses were low, but more surprisingly, there was hardly any B-cell response to the carrier molecule LPH. On the other hand, protein antigens like CGG and BSA were highly immunogenic in the spotted wolffish as were the bacterial antigens Vibrio anguillarum, V. salmonicida and Aeromonas salmonicida.

  19. Human Antibody Responses to Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Xi; Ren, Lili; Yu, Xuelian; Chen, Lijuan; Zhou, Hongli; Gao, Xin; Teng, Zheng; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Jiayu; Wu, Chao; Xiao, Xia; Zhu, Yiyi; Wang, Quanyi; Pang, Xinghuo; Jin, Qi; Wu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Understanding host antibody response is crucial for predicting disease severity and for vaccine development. We investigated antibody responses against influenza A(H7N9) virus in 48 serum samples from 21 patients, including paired samples from 15 patients. IgG against subtype H7 and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were not detected in acute-phase samples, but ELISA geometric mean titers increased in convalescent-phase samples; NAb titers were 20–80 (geometric mean titer 40). Avidity to IgG against subtype H7 was significantly lower than that against H1 and H3. IgG against H3 was boosted after infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus, and its level in acute-phase samples correlated with that against H7 in convalescent-phase samples. A correlation was also found between hemagglutinin inhibition and NAb titers and between hemagglutinin inhibition and IgG titers against H7. Because of the relatively weak protective antibody response to influenza A(H7N9), multiple vaccinations might be needed to achieve protective immunity. PMID:24447423

  20. High-resolution antibody dynamics of vaccine-induced immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Laserson, Uri; Vigneault, Francois; Gadala-Maria, Daniel; Yaari, Gur; Uduman, Mohamed; Vander Heiden, Jason A.; Kelton, William; Taek Jung, Sang; Liu, Yi; Laserson, Jonathan; Chari, Raj; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Bachelet, Ido; Hickey, Brendan; Lieberman-Aiden, Erez; Hanczaruk, Bozena; Simen, Birgitte B.; Egholm, Michael; Koller, Daphne; Georgiou, George; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Church, George M.

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive immune system confers protection by generating a diverse repertoire of antibody receptors that are rapidly expanded and contracted in response to specific targets. Next-generation DNA sequencing now provides the opportunity to survey this complex and vast repertoire. In the present work, we describe a set of tools for the analysis of antibody repertoires and their application to elucidating the dynamics of the response to viral vaccination in human volunteers. By analyzing data from 38 separate blood samples across 2 y, we found that the use of the germ-line library of V and J segments is conserved between individuals over time. Surprisingly, there appeared to be no correlation between the use level of a particular VJ combination and degree of expansion. We found the antibody RNA repertoire in each volunteer to be highly dynamic, with each individual displaying qualitatively different response dynamics. By using combinatorial phage display, we screened selected VH genes paired with their corresponding VL library for affinity against the vaccine antigens. Altogether, this work presents an additional set of tools for profiling the human antibody repertoire and demonstrates characterization of the fast repertoire dynamics through time in multiple individuals responding to an immune challenge. PMID:24639495

  1. High-resolution antibody dynamics of vaccine-induced immune responses.

    PubMed

    Laserson, Uri; Vigneault, Francois; Gadala-Maria, Daniel; Yaari, Gur; Uduman, Mohamed; Vander Heiden, Jason A; Kelton, William; Taek Jung, Sang; Liu, Yi; Laserson, Jonathan; Chari, Raj; Lee, Je-Hyuk; Bachelet, Ido; Hickey, Brendan; Lieberman-Aiden, Erez; Hanczaruk, Bozena; Simen, Birgitte B; Egholm, Michael; Koller, Daphne; Georgiou, George; Kleinstein, Steven H; Church, George M

    2014-04-01

    The adaptive immune system confers protection by generating a diverse repertoire of antibody receptors that are rapidly expanded and contracted in response to specific targets. Next-generation DNA sequencing now provides the opportunity to survey this complex and vast repertoire. In the present work, we describe a set of tools for the analysis of antibody repertoires and their application to elucidating the dynamics of the response to viral vaccination in human volunteers. By analyzing data from 38 separate blood samples across 2 y, we found that the use of the germ-line library of V and J segments is conserved between individuals over time. Surprisingly, there appeared to be no correlation between the use level of a particular VJ combination and degree of expansion. We found the antibody RNA repertoire in each volunteer to be highly dynamic, with each individual displaying qualitatively different response dynamics. By using combinatorial phage display, we screened selected VH genes paired with their corresponding VL library for affinity against the vaccine antigens. Altogether, this work presents an additional set of tools for profiling the human antibody repertoire and demonstrates characterization of the fast repertoire dynamics through time in multiple individuals responding to an immune challenge. PMID:24639495

  2. Immune response of mallard ducks treated with immunosuppressive agents: antibody response to erythrocytes and in vivo response to phytohemagglutinin-P.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, C.S.; Cook, M.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of two in vivo tests to assay immune competence of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) treated with various immunomodulatory agents was examined. Skin responses to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) injected intradermally and serum antibody levels produced in response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were measured. As measured by the skin response to PHA-P, ducks injected intramuscularly with cyclophosphamide or cyclosporine did not respond differently from control-injected ducks. Dexamethasone injected intramuscularly significantly suppressed the skin response to PHA-P. As measured by antibody levels in response to SRBC, ducks injected intramuscularly with cyclophosphamide responded with antibody titers similar to controls. Cyclosporine injected intramuscularly reduced the level of immunoglobulin (Ig) G significantly in one of two experiments. Dexamethasone injected intramuscularly reduced peak total and IgG titers. These experiments provide information on the viability of these two in vivo tests to reflect immune competence of mallard ducks.

  3. Serum antibody response to recombinant major inner capsid protein following human infection with group B rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, J J; Mouzinho, A; Lindsay, D A; Glass, R I; Fang, Z Y; Taylor, J L

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant major inner capsid protein (VP6) of the IDIR strain of group B rotavirus (GBR) was incorporated in a solid-phase immunoassay to access antibody response to infection in humans. Expression of VP6 in insect cells permitted design of a highly sensitive assay that avoided the contaminants present in GBR antigens obtained from fecal specimens. Among patients infected with the ADRV strain of GBR in China, increased reactivity with recombinant VP6 was observed in convalescent-phase sera in comparison with sera obtained shortly after infection (P = 0.0084). Anti-VP6 antibodies were detectable as soon as 7 days after onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, and serum reactivity persisted in specimens drawn more than 1 year after infection. Solid-phase immunoassay with recombinant VP6 was next employed in order to assess anti-GBR antibody in 513 serum specimens obtained from 423 Maryland residents (ages, 7 months to 96 years; median age, 42 years). Four individuals (< 1%) exhibited serum antibodies directed against the recombinant VP6 (ages, 54 to 95 years; mean age, 77 years). Examination of 129 additional serum specimens including some from other geographic regions of the United States failed to reveal the presence of anti-GBR antibody. Anti-GBR antibody was also not detected in any of 131 serum specimens from 60 staff and residents of a nursing home in Switzerland. While infection of humans with GBR has been uncommon in these locations outside of China, the detection of serum antibodies in older individuals in the United States either indicated an unknown, age-related risk factor or may have indicated infection in the more distant past. The availability of these reagents should allow surveys for GBR infection among additional populations that have not previously been investigated. PMID:8077413

  4. Distinct human antibody response to the biological warfare agent Burkholderia mallei.

    PubMed

    Varga, John J; Vigil, Adam; DeShazer, David; Waag, David M; Felgner, Philip; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2012-10-01

    The genetic similarity between Burkholderia mallei (glanders) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis) had led to the general assumption that pathogenesis of each bacterium would be similar. In 2000, the first human case of glanders in North America since 1945 was reported in a microbiology laboratory worker. Leveraging the availability of pre-exposure sera for this individual and employing the same well-characterized protein array platform that has been previously used to study a large cohort of melioidosis patients in southeast Asia, we describe the antibody response in a human with glanders. Analysis of 156 peptides present on the array revealed antibodies against 17 peptides with a > 2-fold increase in this infection. Unexpectedly, when the glanders data were compared with a previous data set from B. pseudomallei infections, there were only two highly increased antibodies shared between these two infections. These findings have implications in the diagnosis and treatment of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei infections.

  5. HIV-1 Antibody Neutralization Breadth Is Associated with Enhanced HIV-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Soghoian, Damien Z.; Lindqvist, Madelene; Ghebremichael, Musie; Donaghey, Faith; Carrington, Mary; Seaman, Michael S.; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Walker, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigen-specific CD4+ T helper cell responses have long been recognized to be a critical component of effective vaccine immunity. CD4+ T cells are necessary to generate and maintain humoral immune responses by providing help to antigen-specific B cells for the production of antibodies. In HIV infection, CD4+ T cells are thought to be necessary for the induction of Env-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, few studies have investigated the role of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells in association with HIV neutralizing antibody activity in vaccination or natural infection settings. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses in a cohort of 34 untreated HIV-infected controllers matched for viral load, with and without neutralizing antibody breadth to a panel of viral strains. Our results show that the breadth and magnitude of Gag-specific CD4+ T cell responses were significantly higher in individuals with neutralizing antibodies than in those without neutralizing antibodies. The breadth of Gag-specific CD4+ T cell responses was positively correlated with the breadth of neutralizing antibody activity. Furthermore, the breadth and magnitude of gp41-specific, but not gp120-specific, CD4+ T cell responses were significantly elevated in individuals with neutralizing antibodies. Together, these data suggest that robust Gag-specific CD4+ T cells and, to a lesser extent, gp41-specific CD4+ T cells may provide important intermolecular help to Env-specific B cells that promote the generation or maintenance of Env-specific neutralizing antibodies. IMPORTANCE One of the earliest discoveries related to CD4+ T cell function was their provision of help to B cells in the development of antibody responses. Yet little is known about the role of CD4+ T helper responses in the setting of HIV infection, and no studies to date have evaluated the impact of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells on the generation of antibodies that can neutralize

  6. Carrier induced epitopic suppression of antibody responses induced by virus-like particles is a dynamic phenomenon caused by carrier-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jegerlehner, Andrea; Wiesel, Melanie; Dietmeier, Klaus; Zabel, Franziska; Gatto, Dominique; Saudan, Philippe; Bachmann, Martin F

    2010-07-26

    Pre-existing immunity against vaccine carrier proteins has been reported to inhibit the immune response against antigens conjugated to the same carrier by a process termed carrier induced epitopic suppression (CIES). Hence understanding the phenomenon of CIES is of major importance for the development of conjugate vaccines. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a novel class of potent immunological carriers which have been successfully used to enhance the antibody response to virtually any conjugated antigen. In the present study we investigated the impact of a pre-existing VLP-specific immune response on the development of antibody responses against a conjugated model peptide after primary, secondary and tertiary immunization. Although VLP-specific immune responses led to reduced peptide-specific antibody titers, we showed that CIES against peptide-VLP conjugates could be overcome by high coupling densities, repeated injections and/or higher doses of conjugate vaccine. Furthermore we dissected VLP-specific immunity by adoptively transferring VLP-specific antibodies, B-cells or T(helper) cells separately into naïve mice and found that the observed CIES against peptide-VLP conjugates was mainly mediated by carrier-specific antibodies.

  7. Flagellin induces antibody responses through a TLR5- and inflammasome-independent pathway1

    PubMed Central

    López-Yglesias, Américo Harry; Zhao, Xiaodan; Quarles, Ellen K.; Lai, Marvin A.; VandenBos, Tim; Strong, Roland K.; Smith, Kelly D.

    2014-01-01

    Flagellin is a potent immunogen that activates the innate immune system via TLR5 and Naip5/6, and generates strong T and B cell responses. The adaptor protein MyD88 is critical for signaling by TLR5, as well as IL-1 and IL-18 receptors, major downstream mediators of the Naip5/6 Nlrc4-inflammasome. Herein we define roles of known flagellin receptors and MyD88 in antibody responses generated towards flagellin. We used mice genetically deficient in flagellin recognition pathways to characterize innate immune components that regulate isotype specific antibody responses. Using purified flagellin from Salmonella, we dissected the contribution of innate flagellin recognition pathways to promote antibody responses towards flagellin and co-administered ovalbumin in C57BL/6 mice. We demonstrate IgG2c responses towards flagellin were TLR5- and inflammasome-dependent; IgG1 was the dominant isotype and partially TLR5- and inflammasome-dependent. Our data indicates a substantial flagellin-specific IgG1 response was induced through a TLR5-, inflammasome-, and MyD88-independent pathway. IgA anti-FliC responses were TLR5- & MyD88-dependent and caspase-1-independent. Unlike C57BL/6 mice, flagellin immunized A/J mice induced co-dominant IgG1 and IgG2a responses. Furthermore, MyD88-independent flagellin-induced antibody responses were even more pronounced in A/J MyD88−/− mice, and IgA anti-FliC responses were suppressed by MyD88. Flagellin also worked as an adjuvant toward co-administered ovalbumin, but it only promoted IgG1 anti-OVA responses. Our results demonstrate that a novel pathway for flagellin recognition contributes to antibody production. Characterization of this pathway will be useful for understanding immunity to flagellin and the rationale design of flagellin-based vaccines. PMID:24442437

  8. High Preexisting Serological Antibody Levels Correlate with Diversification of the Influenza Vaccine Response

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Sarah F.; Kaur, Kaval; Pauli, Noel T.; Huang, Min; Huang, Yunping

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reactivation of memory B cells allows for a rapid and robust immune response upon challenge with the same antigen. Variant influenza virus strains generated through antigenic shift or drift are encountered multiple times over the lifetime of an individual. One might predict, then, that upon vaccination with the trivalent influenza vaccine across multiple years, the antibody response would become more and more dominant toward strains consistently present in the vaccine at the expense of more divergent strains. However, when we analyzed the vaccine-induced plasmablast, memory, and serological responses to the trivalent influenza vaccine between 2006 and 2013, we found that the B cell response was most robust against more divergent strains. Overall, the antibody response was highest when one or more strains contained in the vaccine varied from year to year. This suggests that in the broader immunological context of viral antigen exposure, the B cell response to variant influenza virus strains is not dictated by the composition of the memory B cell precursor pool. The outcome is instead a diversified B cell response. IMPORTANCE Vaccine strategies are being designed to boost broadly reactive B cells present in the memory repertoire to provide universal protection to the influenza virus. It is important to understand how past exposure to influenza virus strains affects the response to subsequent immunizations. The viral epitopes targeted by B cells responding to the vaccine may be a direct reflection of the B cell memory specificities abundant in the preexisting immune repertoire, or other factors may influence the vaccine response. Here, we demonstrate that high preexisting serological antibody levels to a given influenza virus strain correlate with low production of antibody-secreting cells and memory B cells recognizing that strain upon revaccination. In contrast, introduction of antigenically novel strains generates a robust B cell response. Thus, both the

  9. Correlation between Virus Replication and Antibody Responses in Macaques following Infection with Pandemic Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Gerrit; Dekking, Liesbeth; Mortier, Daniëlla; Nieuwenhuis, Ivonne G.; van Heteren, Melanie; Kuipers, Harmjan; Remarque, Edmond J.; Radošević, Katarina; Bogers, Willy M. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza virus infection of nonhuman primates is a well-established animal model for studying pathogenesis and for evaluating prophylactic and therapeutic intervention strategies. However, usually a standard dose is used for the infection, and there is no information on the relation between challenge dose and virus replication or the induction of immune responses. Such information is also very scarce for humans and largely confined to evaluation of attenuated virus strains. Here, we have compared the effect of a commonly used dose (4 × 106 50% tissue culture infective doses) versus a 100-fold-higher dose, administered by intrabronchial installation, to two groups of 6 cynomolgus macaques. Animals infected with the high virus dose showed more fever and had higher peak levels of gamma interferon in the blood. However, virus replication in the trachea was not significantly different between the groups, although in 2 out of 6 animals from the high-dose group it was present at higher levels and for a longer duration. The virus-specific antibody response was not significantly different between the groups. However, antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus neutralization, and hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers correlated with cumulative virus production in the trachea. In conclusion, using influenza virus infection in cynomolgus macaques as a model, we demonstrated a relationship between the level of virus production upon infection and induction of functional antibody responses against the virus. IMPORTANCE There is only very limited information on the effect of virus inoculation dose on the level of virus production and the induction of adaptive immune responses in humans or nonhuman primates. We found only a marginal and variable effect of virus dose on virus production in the trachea but a significant effect on body temperature. The induction of functional antibody responses, including virus neutralization titer, hemagglutination inhibition

  10. Immune history shapes specificity of pandemic H1N1 influenza antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Myers, Jaclyn L.; Bostick, David L.; Sullivan, Colleen B.; Madara, Jonathan; Linderman, Susanne L.; Liu, Qin; Carter, Donald M.; Wrammert, Jens; Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Ross, Ted M.; Ahmed, Rafi; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Human antibody responses against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus are predominantly directed against conserved epitopes in the stalk and receptor-binding domain of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. This is in stark contrast to pH1N1 antibody responses generated in ferrets, which are focused on the variable Sa antigenic site of HA. Here, we show that most humans born between 1983 and 1996 elicited pH1N1 antibody responses that are directed against an epitope near the HA receptor–binding domain. Importantly, most individuals born before 1983 or after 1996 did not elicit pH1N1 antibodies to this HA epitope. The HAs of most seasonal H1N1 (sH1N1) viruses that circulated between 1983 and 1996 possess a critical K133 amino acid in this HA epitope, whereas this amino acid is either mutated or deleted in most sH1N1 viruses circulating before 1983 or after 1996. We sequentially infected ferrets with a 1991 sH1N1 virus and then a pH1N1 virus. Sera isolated from these animals were directed against the HA epitope involving amino acid K133. These data suggest that the specificity of pH1N1 antibody responses can be shifted to epitopes near the HA receptor–binding domain after sequential infections with sH1N1 and pH1N1 viruses that share homology in this region. PMID:23857983

  11. Antibody response against a Leishmania donovani amastigote-stage-specific protein in patients with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Ghedin, E; Zhang, W W; Charest, H; Sundar, S; Kenney, R T; Matlashewski, G

    1997-01-01

    The antibody response against an amastigote-specific protein (A2) from Leishmania donovani was investigated. Sera from patients with trypanosomiasis and various forms of leishmaniasis were screened for anti-A2 antibodies. Sera from patients infected only with L. donovani or Leishmania mexicana specifically recognized the A2 recombinant protein. These results were consistent with karyotype analyses which revealed that the A2 gene is conserved in L. donovani and L. mexicana strains. The potential of this antigen in diagnosis was further explored by screening a series of sera obtained from patients in regions of the Sudan and India where L. donovani is endemic. The prevalence of anti-A2 antibodies was determined by Western blotting for all samples. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunoprecipitation assay were also performed on some of the samples. Anti-A2 antibodies were detected by ELISA in 82 and 60% of the samples from individuals with active visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) from the Sudan and India, respectively, while the immunoprecipitation assay detected the antibodies in 92% of the samples from India. These data suggest that the A2 protein may be a useful diagnostic antigen for visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:9302200

  12. Dissection of the Antibody Response against Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins in Naturally Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen-Yu; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Ponce de Leon, Manuel; Lou, Huan; Wald, Anna; Krummenacher, Claude; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the extent of the polyclonal antibody (PAb) repertoire elicited by herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins during natural infection and how these antibodies affect virus neutralization. Here, we examined IgGs from 10 HSV-seropositive individuals originally classified as high or low virus shedders. All PAbs neutralized virus to various extents. We determined which HSV entry glycoproteins these PAbs were directed against: glycoproteins gB, gD, and gC were recognized by all sera, but fewer sera reacted against gH/gL. We previously characterized multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and mapped those with high neutralizing activity to the crystal structures of gD, gB, and gH/gL. We used a biosensor competition assay to determine whether there were corresponding human antibodies to those epitopes. All 10 samples had neutralizing IgGs to gD epitopes, but there were variations in which epitopes were seen in individual samples. Surprisingly, only three samples contained neutralizing IgGs to gB epitopes. To further dissect the nature of these IgGs, we developed a method to select out gD- and gB-specific IgGs from four representative sera via affinity chromatography, allowing us to determine the contribution of antibodies against each glycoprotein to the overall neutralization capacity of the serum. In two cases, gD and gB accounted for all of the neutralizing activity against HSV-2, with a modest amount of HSV-1 neutralization directed against gC. In the other two samples, the dominant response was to gD. IMPORTANCE Antibodies targeting functional epitopes on HSV entry glycoproteins mediate HSV neutralization. Virus-neutralizing epitopes have been defined and characterized using murine monoclonal antibodies. However, it is largely unknown whether these same epitopes are targeted by the humoral response to HSV infection in humans. We have shown that during natural infection, virus-neutralizing antibodies are principally

  13. Evaluation of long-term antibody responses to two inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines.

    PubMed

    González, Ana M; Arnaiz, Ignacio; Yus, Eduardo; Eiras, Carmen; Sanjuán, María; Diéguez, Francisco J

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the serological response of heifers after vaccination with two inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines by means of various ELISA tests. Three dairy farms were selected from the Galicia region of Spain. In each herd, a batch of heifers to be vaccinated for the first time was selected and followed for 15 months. Heifers from farm 1 (n=25) were vaccinated with Vaccine A, whereas heifers from farm 2 (n=16) were vaccinated with Vaccine B. Heifers from farm 3 (n=17), where no BVDV vaccines were used, acted as controls. Blood samples were analyzed periodically for BVDV antibodies, using five commercial ELISAs, based on BVDV p80 antigen or whole virus. At the end of the study, none of the animals vaccinated with Vaccine A seroconverted according to p80 antibody status, whereas up to 80% tested positive by ELISA against whole virus antigen. For the animals vaccinated with Vaccine B, 2/16 animals seroconverted according to p80 antibody ELISAs, whereas all had seroconverted according to the ELISA against whole virus antigen. In most cases, based on the use of ELISAs to detect specific antibodies against the p80 protein, at 15 months post-vaccination with inactivated BVDV vaccines the responses did not seem to interfere with detection of antibody to BVDV infection. However, the finding of a small proportion of vaccinated animals seropositive against BVDV p80 antigen suggests that antibodies that interfere with diagnosis of BVDV infection within the herd could exist, even when using p80 ELISAs.

  14. IgE antibody responses in young children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wahn, U; Warner, J; Simons, F E R; de Benedictis, F M; Diepgen, T L; Naspitz, C K; de Longueville, M; Bauchau, V

    2008-06-01

    In 2184 young children aged 13-24 months with atopic dermatitis (SCORAD 5-59) serum IgE antibodies to a standard panel of food and inhalant allergens were assayed. The frequency of positive IgE responses (>0.35 kU/l) increased with greater severity of skin disease. A significant minority of infants had levels of IgE antibody to foods to suggest they were at risk of acute reaction to those foods (7% to hen's egg, 3% to cow's milk, 4% to peanut). Our findings indicate that the frequency of positive IgE responses is related to disease severity and suggest that differences in the time course of the development of IgE responses to food, which are at maximum prevalence within the first year of life, while inhalant allergies, are still developing between 1 and 2 yr and beyond.

  15. Persistence of intestinal antibody response to heterologous rotavirus infection in a murine model beyond 1 year.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, R D; Merchant, A A; Groene, W S; Cheng, E H

    1993-01-01

    We used an ELISPOT (enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot) assay to quantitate the long-term rotavirus-specific intestinal antibody response in a murine model. The frequency of murine intestinal antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) was followed for a period of 1 year after a single dose of rhesus rotavirus (10(6) PFU) was administered at 10 days of age. Some animals were boosted at that time with a second dose. One year after infection, virus-specific ASCs declined from acute-phase levels, but they were still present at significant levels (1.32 x 10(4) virus-specific ASCs per 10(6) intestinal mononuclear cells; approximately 17% of the previously reported response at 1 month after infection). A booster dose 1 year after the primary infection produced a 100% increase in virus-specific ASCs but did not restore the response to that of the primary infection. PMID:8381806

  16. Predictors of the antibody response to influenza vaccination in older adults with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McElhaney, Janet E; Garneau, Hugo; Camous, Xavier; Dupuis, Gilles; Pawelec, Graham; Baehl, Sarra; Tessier, Daniel; Frost, Eric H; Frasca, Daniela; Larbi, Anis; Fulop, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases of the elderly. Its development is related to the alteration of the immune system with aging characterized by immunosenescence and inflamm-aging. In turn, T2DM also alters the immune response. As a consequence, older people with T2DM are more susceptible to influenza and to its complications as compared with healthy controls. Vaccination against influenza has shown poor efficacy in the older population and even less efficacy in patients with diabetes. We studied here the antibody response to vaccination in healthy and diabetic elderly participants. Research design and methods In 2 groups of elderly participants (healthy N=119 and T2DM N=102), we measured the immunogenicity of influenza vaccine by hemagglutination inhibition assays. We assessed several blood and functional parameters as potential predictors of the vaccine efficacy. Results We found no difference between antibody responses in diabetic elderly compared with healthy elderly. Among the biological and functional determinants, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus played a more prominent role in determining the magnitude of response. We concluded that in addition to age and diabetic status, immunological history such as CMV status should be taken into account. None of the other biological or functional parameters studied could be reliably linked to the vaccine antibody response in older adults who are not frail including those with well-controlled diabetes. Conclusions Our data strongly suggest that influenza vaccine should be administered to elderly patients with T2DM; however, the immune determinants of the antibody response to influenza vaccination should be further investigated. PMID:26504526

  17. Anti-HIV Antibody Responses and the HIV Reservoir Size during Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sulggi A.; Bacchetti, Peter; Chomont, Nicolas; Fromentin, Remi; Lewin, Sharon R.; O’Doherty, Una; Palmer, Sarah; Richman, Douglas D.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Yukl, Steven A.; Deeks, Steven G.; Burbelo, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A major challenge to HIV eradication strategies is the lack of an accurate measurement of the total burden of replication-competent HIV (the “reservoir”). We assessed the association of anti-HIV antibody responses and the estimated size of the reservoir during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods We evaluated anti-HIV antibody profiles using luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS) assay in relation to several blood-based HIV reservoir measures: total and 2-LTR DNA (rtPCR or droplet digital PCR); integrated DNA (Alu PCR); unspliced RNA (rtPCR), multiply-spliced RNA (TILDA), residual plasma HIV RNA (single copy PCR), and replication-competent virus (outgrowth assay). We also assessed total HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (rtPCR). Spearman correlations and linear regressions were performed using log-transformed blood- or tissue-based reservoir measurements as predictors and log-transformed antibody levels as outcome variables. Results Among 51 chronically HIV-infected ART-suppressed participants (median age = 57, nadir CD4+ count = 196 cells/mm3, ART duration = 9 years), the most statistically significant associations were between antibody responses to integrase and HIV RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (1.17 fold-increase per two-fold RNA increase, P = 0.004) and between antibody responses to matrix and integrated HIV DNA in resting CD4+ T cells (0.35 fold-decrease per two-fold DNA increase, P = 0.003). However, these associations were not statistically significant after a stringent Bonferroni-adjustment of P<0.00045. Multivariate models including age and duration of ART did not markedly alter results. Conclusions Our findings suggest that anti-HIV antibody responses may reflect the size of the HIV reservoir during chronic treated HIV disease, possibly via antigen recognition in reservoir sites. Larger, prospective studies are needed to validate the utility of antibody levels as a measure of the total body burden of HIV

  18. Paratope diversity in the human antibody response to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhui; Ullal, Anuska; Liberato, Justine; Sun, Jinying; Keitel, Wendy; Reason, Donald C

    2008-01-01

    The active component of the licensed human anthrax vaccine (BioThrax, or AVA) is a Bacillus anthracis toxin known as protective antigen (PA). Second generation anthrax vaccines currently under development are also based on a recombinant form of PA. Since the current and future anthrax vaccines are based on this toxin, it is important that the immunobiology of this protein in vaccinated humans be understood in detail. We have isolated and analyzed the PA-specific antibody repertoire from an AVA-vaccinated individual. When examined at the clonal level, we find an antibody response that is complex in terms of the combinatorial elements and immunoglobulin variable genes employed. All PA-specific antibodies had undergone somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination, both signs of affinity maturation. Although the antigenic epitopes recognized by the response were distributed throughout the PA monomer, the majority of antibodies arising in this individual following vaccination recognize determinants located on the amino-terminal (PA20) sub-domain of the molecule. This latter finding may have implications for the rational design of future PA-based anthrax vaccines.

  19. Diversity of Antibody Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in Experimentally Infected Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Grosenbaugh, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common infection of domestic dogs in areas where there is enzootic transmission of the agent Borrelia burgdorferi. While immunoassays based on individual subunits have mostly supplanted the use of whole-cell preparations for canine serology, only a limited number of informative antigens have been identified. To more broadly characterize the antibody responses to B. burgdorferi infection and to assess the diversity of those responses in individual dogs, we examined sera from 32 adult colony-bred beagle dogs that had been experimentally infected with B. burgdorferi through tick bites and compared those sera in a protein microarray with sera from uninfected dogs in their antibody reactivities to various recombinant chromosome- and plasmid-encoded B. burgdorferi proteins, including 24 serotype-defining OspC proteins of North America. The profiles of immunogenic proteins for the dogs were largely similar to those for humans and natural-reservoir rodents; these proteins included the decorin-binding protein DbpB, BBA36, BBA57, BBA64, the fibronectin-binding protein BBK32, VlsE, FlaB and other flagellar structural proteins, Erp proteins, Bdr proteins, and all of the OspC proteins. In addition, the canine sera bound to the presumptive lipoproteins BBB14 and BB0844, which infrequently elicited antibodies in humans or rodents. Although the beagle, like most other domestic dog breeds, has a small effective population size and features extensive linkage disequilibrium, the group of animals studied here demonstrated diversity in antibody responses in measures of antibody levels and specificities for conserved proteins, such as DbpB, and polymorphic proteins, such as OspC. PMID:24695775

  20. Diversity of antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Baum, Elisabeth; Grosenbaugh, Deborah A; Barbour, Alan G

    2014-06-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common infection of domestic dogs in areas where there is enzootic transmission of the agent Borrelia burgdorferi. While immunoassays based on individual subunits have mostly supplanted the use of whole-cell preparations for canine serology, only a limited number of informative antigens have been identified. To more broadly characterize the antibody responses to B. burgdorferi infection and to assess the diversity of those responses in individual dogs, we examined sera from 32 adult colony-bred beagle dogs that had been experimentally infected with B. burgdorferi through tick bites and compared those sera in a protein microarray with sera from uninfected dogs in their antibody reactivities to various recombinant chromosome- and plasmid-encoded B. burgdorferi proteins, including 24 serotype-defining OspC proteins of North America. The profiles of immunogenic proteins for the dogs were largely similar to those for humans and natural-reservoir rodents; these proteins included the decorin-binding protein DbpB, BBA36, BBA57, BBA64, the fibronectin-binding protein BBK32, VlsE, FlaB and other flagellar structural proteins, Erp proteins, Bdr proteins, and all of the OspC proteins. In addition, the canine sera bound to the presumptive lipoproteins BBB14 and BB0844, which infrequently elicited antibodies in humans or rodents. Although the beagle, like most other domestic dog breeds, has a small effective population size and features extensive linkage disequilibrium, the group of animals studied here demonstrated diversity in antibody responses in measures of antibody levels and specificities for conserved proteins, such as DbpB, and polymorphic proteins, such as OspC.

  1. Characterization of serum antibody responses to natural rotavirus infections in children by VP7-specific epitope-blocking assays.

    PubMed Central

    Matson, D O; O'Ryan, M L; Pickering, L K; Chiba, S; Nakata, S; Raj, P; Estes, M K

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge of the immune response to rotavirus is crucial for vaccine development. We compared an epitope-blocking assay (EBA) that uses VP7-specific monoclonal antibodies with neutralization assays (NAs) with polyclonal antisera for detecting serum antibody responses after natural rotavirus infection in children. Twenty-six serum pairs from children living in an orphanage with and without symptoms during two rotavirus outbreaks were evaluated for VP7 type 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-specific antibody responses. In the first outbreak, which was caused by a VP7 type 3 strain, homotypic antibody responses were detected in 11 of 11 symptomatic children by NA and in 10 of 11 symptomatic children by EBA. Heterotypic antibody responses were detected more frequently (12 of 15 children) by NA than by EBA, and the heterotypic epitope-blocking antibody responses occurred in children older than 14 months of age. Antibody responses in asymptomatic children were more commonly detected by EBA than by NA. EBA results from the sera of children in the second outbreak indicated that it was caused by VP7 type 4, whereas NA results suggested it was caused by VP7 type 3. Our results confirm that EBA is a sensitive and specific method for determining VP7 type-specific immune responses after natural rotavirus infections. PMID:1374761

  2. Characterisation of antibody responses in pigs induced by recombinant oncosphere antigens from Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-12-14

    Recombinant antigens cloned from the oncosphere life cycle stage of the cestode parasite Taenia solium (T. solium) have been proven to be effective as vaccines for protecting pigs against infections with T. solium. Previous studies have defined three different host protective oncosphere antigens, TSOL18, TSOL16 and TSOL45. In this study, we evaluated the potential for combining the antigens TSOL16 and TSOL18 as a practical vaccine. Firstly, in a laboratory trial, we compared the immunogenicity of the combined antigens (TSOL16/18) versus the immunogenicity of the antigens separately. Secondly, in a field trial, we tested the ability of the TSOL16/18 vaccine to induce detectable antibody responses in animals living under environmental stress and traditionally reared in areas where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic; and finally, we characterised the immune response of the study population. Pigs of 8-16 weeks of age were vaccinated with 200 μg each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg of Quil-A. Specific total IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(2) antibody responses induced by TSOL16 and TSOL18 were determined with ELISA. The immunogenicity of both antigens was retained in the combined TSOL16/18 vaccine. The combined vaccine TSOL16/18 induced detectable specific anti-TSOL18 antibody responses in 100% (113/113) and specific anti-TSOL16 in 99% (112/113) of the vaccinated animals measured at 2 weeks following the booster vaccination. From the two IgG antibody subtypes analysed we found there was stronger response to IgG(2).

  3. Antibody Responses to Mycobacterial Antigens in Children with Tuberculosis: Challenges and Potential Diagnostic Value

    PubMed Central

    Ziegenbalg, Anke

    2012-01-01

    The identification of easily detectable biomarkers for active tuberculosis (TB) is a global health priority. Such biomarkers would be of particular value in childhood TB, which poses greater diagnostic challenges than adult TB. Serum antibodies can be detected by simple formats that provide extremely rapid results. However, attempts to develop accurate serodiagnostic tests for TB have been unsuccessful. Whereas antibody responses to mycobacterial antigens in adult TB have been studied extensively and reviewed, the same cannot be said for serologic data in pediatric populations. Here we appraise studies on serological responses in childhood TB and discuss findings and limitations in the context of the developing immune system, the age range, and the spectrum of TB manifestations. We found that the antibody responses to mycobacterial antigens in childhood TB can vary widely, with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 14% to 85% and from 86% to 100%, respectively. We conclude that the limitations in serodiagnostic studies of childhood TB are manifold, thereby restricting the interpretation of currently available data. Concerns about the methodology used in published studies suggest that conclusions about the eventual value of serodiagnosis cannot be made at this time. However, the available data suggest a potential adjunctive value for serology in the diagnosis of childhood TB. Despite the difficulties noted in this field, there is optimism that the application of novel antigens and the integration of those factors which contribute to the serological responses in childhood TB can lead to useful future diagnostics. PMID:23100476

  4. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  5. Genetic control of antibody responses induced by recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing a foreign antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Lagranderie, M; Lo-Man, R; Dériaud, E; Gicquel, B; Gheorghiu, M; Leclerc, C

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing foreign antigens represents a promising candidate for the development of future vaccines and was shown in several experimental models to induce protective immunity against bacterial or parasitic infections. Innate resistance to BCG infection is under genetic control and could modify the immune responses induced against an antigen delivered by such engineered microorganisms. To investigate this question, we analyzed the immune responses of various inbred strains of mice to recombinant BCG expressing beta-galactosidase. These experiments demonstrated that BALB/c mice developed strong antibody responses against BCG expressing beta-galactosidase under the control of two different promoters. In contrast, C57BL/6, C3H, and CBA mice produced high anti-beta-galactosidase antibody titers only when immunized with recombinant BCG expressing beta-galactosidase under the control of the pblaF* promoter, which induced the production of high levels of this antigen. This difference in mouse responsiveness to recombinant BCG was not due to innate resistance to BCG infection, since similar immune responses were induced in Ity(r) and Ity(s) congenic strains of mice. In contrast, the analysis of anti-beta-galactosidase antibody responses of H-2 congenic mice in two different genetic backgrounds demonstrated that H-2 genes are involved in the immune responsiveness to beta-galactosidase delivered by recombinant BCG. Together, these results demonstrate that immune responses to an antigen delivered by recombinant BCG are under complex genetic influences which could play a crucial role in the efficiency of future recombinant BCG vaccines. PMID:9234754

  6. Comparative human and mouse antibody responses against tetanus toxin at clonal level.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Mehdi; Younesi, Vahid; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Abbasi, Ebrahim; Razavi, Alireza; Khosravi-Eghbal, Roya; Asgarin-Omran, Hossein; Shokri, Fazel

    2016-01-01

    Tetanus is a highly fatal disease caused by tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) and remains a major threat to human and animal health, despite preventive strategies. TeNT is composed of heavy and light chain linked by a disulfide bond. The antibody response to TeNT is polyclonal and directed to multiple epitopes within both the light and heavy chains, leading to toxin neutralization. This study was undertaken to localize and compare neutralizing epitopes recognized by human and mouse TeNT-specific antibodies at a clonal level. In the present study, 22 murine hybridoma clones and 50 human lymphoblastoid cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were generated against TeNT. The specificity of these mAb was determined using different recombinant fragments of tetanus toxin. Moreover, this study investigated the in vitro toxin neutralizing activity of these mAb by a ganglioside GT1b assay. The results showed that tetanus toxoid immunization in humans and BALB/c mice induced a vigorous humoral immune response against different fragments of TeNT, particularly the carboxyl-terminal fragment of the heavy chain (known as fragment C). The fragment C-specific human and mouse mAb could largely neutralize TeNT. However, while all fragment C-specific human mAb reacted with the carboxyl-terminal part of this fragment (H(CC)), the majority of the mouse mAb failed to recognize this region. These results suggested that fragment C is the major target for the TeNT neutralizing antibodies, although different epitopes seem to be targeted by human and mouse antibodies.

  7. The anti-MAP and anti-group A carbohydrate antibodies response in streptococcal human infections.

    PubMed

    Mihalcu, F; Stefãnescu, M

    1975-01-01

    The streptococcal infection cases from two outbreaks were serologically examined against two components of the streptococcal cellular wall; the M associated protein (MAP), by a latex agglutination test and the group A carbohydrate (A-CHO), by passive hemagglutination technique. Many positive cases with high levels of both antibodies were found, in rheumatic fever and glomerulo-nephritis, comparatively with the acute streptococcal infections. The differences were statistically significant. The results were correlated with the ASO titres and with the dermic cellular response.

  8. Cytokine, Antibody and Proliferative Cellular Responses Elicited by Taenia solium Calreticulin upon Experimental Infection in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis. PMID:25811778

  9. Cytokine, antibody and proliferative cellular responses elicited by Taenia solium calreticulin upon experimental infection in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Mendlovic, Fela; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Ávila, Guillermina; Vaughan, Gilberto; Flisser, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes two diseases in humans, cysticercosis and taeniosis. Tapeworm carriers are the main risk factor for neurocysticercosis. Limited information is available about the immune response elicited by the adult parasite, particularly the induction of Th2 responses, frequently associated to helminth infections. Calreticulin is a ubiquitous, multifunctional protein involved in cellular calcium homeostasis, which has been suggested to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. In this work, we assessed the effect of recombinant T. solium calreticulin (rTsCRT) on the cytokine, humoral and cellular responses upon experimental infection in Syrian Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were infected with T. solium cysticerci and euthanized at different times after infection. Specific serum antibodies, proliferative responses in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen cells, as well as cytokines messenger RNA (mRNA) were analyzed. The results showed that one third of the infected animals elicited anti-rTsCRT IgG antibodies. Interestingly, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells from either infected or non-infected animals did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with rTsCRT. Additionally, stimulation with a tapeworm crude extract resulted in increased expression of IL-4 and IL-5 mRNA. Upon stimulation, rTsCRT increased the expression levels of IL-10 in spleen and MLN cells from uninfected and infected hamsters. The results showed that rTsCRT favors a Th2-biased immune response characterized by the induction of IL-10 in mucosal and systemic lymphoid organs. Here we provide the first data on the cytokine, antibody and cellular responses to rTsCRT upon in vitro stimulation during taeniasis.

  10. Local and systemic antibody responses to dextran-cholera toxin B subunit conjugates.

    PubMed Central

    Bergquist, C; Lagergård, T; Lindblad, M; Holmgren, J

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to test local and systemic immunity following mucosal immunization with a polysaccharide-protein conjugate. After preparing and characterizing dextran-cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) conjugates, we studied their immunogenicity in mice following systemic or mucosal immunizations. Dextran was chosen as a model polysaccharide antigen and conjugated via adipic acid dihydrazide and N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate to CTB. Mice were immunized either subcutaneously, intranasally, or perorally three times, and cholera toxin was used as an adjuvant for the mucosal immunizations. Three conjugates with different molecular weights for dextran (40,000 and 76,000) or varying dextran/CTB molar ratios were tested. Peroral immunizations with all conjugates evoked local immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody responses against dextran in the small intestine, and intranasal immunizations did the same in the lung. Intranasal immunizations also elicited serum antibody titers that were significantly higher than or equal to those after subcutaneous immunizations. Intranasal immunizations evoked serum IgG antidextran titers which were dependent on the dextran/CTB molar ratio and inversely related to the local IgA response, which was not the case for subcutaneous immunizations. This is the first study of local and systemic immunity following mucosal immunization with a polysaccharide-protein conjugate. The results show that it is possible to evoke a local as well as a systemic antibody response against a polysaccharide by conjugating it to CTB and using an appropriate route of immunization. PMID:7537252

  11. Observed Parent-Child Relationship Quality Predicts Antibody Response to Vaccination in Children

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Wang, Hongyue; Moynihan, Jan A; Wyman, Peter A.; Carnahan, Jennifer; Lofthus, Gerry; Quataert, Sally A.; Bowman, Melissa; Burke, Anne S.; Caserta, Mary T

    2015-01-01

    Background Quality of the parent-child relationship is a robust predictor of behavioral and emotional health for children and adolescents; the application to physical health is less clear. Methods We investigated the links between observed parent-child relationship quality in an interaction task and antibody response to meningococcal conjugate vaccine in a longitudinal study of 164 ambulatory 10-11 year-old children; additional analyses examine associations with cortisol reactivity, BMI, and somatic illness. Results Observed negative/conflict behavior in the interaction task predicted a less robust antibody response to meningococcal serotype C vaccine in the child over a 6 month-period, after controlling for socio-economic and other covariates. Observer rated interaction conflict also predicted increased cortisol reactivity following the interaction task and higher BMI, but these factors did not account for the link between relationship quality and antibody response. Conclusions The results begin to document the degree to which a major source of child stress exposure, parent-child relationship conflict, is associated with altered immune system development in children, and may constitute an important public health consideration. PMID:25862953

  12. Mapping polyclonal antibody responses to bacterial infection using next generation phage display.

    PubMed

    Naqid, Ibrahim A; Owen, Jonathan P; Maddison, Ben C; Spiliotopoulos, Anastasios; Emes, Richard D; Warry, Andrew; Tchórzewska, Monika A; Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J; Davies, Robert H; La Ragione, Roberto M; Gough, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Mapping polyclonal antibody responses to infectious diseases to identify individual epitopes has the potential to underpin the development of novel serological assays and vaccines. Here, phage-peptide library panning coupled with screening using next generation sequencing was used to map antibody responses to bacterial infections. In the first instance, pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was investigated. IgG samples from twelve infected pigs were probed in parallel and phage binding compared to that with equivalent IgG from pre-infected animals. Seventy-seven peptide mimotopes were enriched specifically against sera from multiple infected animals. Twenty-seven of these peptides were tested in ELISA and twenty-two were highly discriminatory for sera taken from pigs post-infection (P < 0.05) indicating that these peptides are mimicking epitopes from the bacteria. In order to further test this methodology, it was applied to differentiate antibody responses in poultry to infections with distinct serovars of Salmonella enterica. Twenty-seven peptides were identified as being enriched specifically against IgY from multiple animals infected with S. Enteritidis compared to those infected with S. Hadar. Nine of fifteen peptides tested in ELISA were highly discriminatory for IgY following S. Enteritidis infection (p < 0.05) compared to infections with S. Hadar or S. Typhimurium. PMID:27072017

  13. Local and systemic antibody responses to dextran-cholera toxin B subunit conjugates.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, C; Lagergård, T; Lindblad, M; Holmgren, J

    1995-05-01

    This study was designed to test local and systemic immunity following mucosal immunization with a polysaccharide-protein conjugate. After preparing and characterizing dextran-cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) conjugates, we studied their immunogenicity in mice following systemic or mucosal immunizations. Dextran was chosen as a model polysaccharide antigen and conjugated via adipic acid dihydrazide and N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate to CTB. Mice were immunized either subcutaneously, intranasally, or perorally three times, and cholera toxin was used as an adjuvant for the mucosal immunizations. Three conjugates with different molecular weights for dextran (40,000 and 76,000) or varying dextran/CTB molar ratios were tested. Peroral immunizations with all conjugates evoked local immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody responses against dextran in the small intestine, and intranasal immunizations did the same in the lung. Intranasal immunizations also elicited serum antibody titers that were significantly higher than or equal to those after subcutaneous immunizations. Intranasal immunizations evoked serum IgG antidextran titers which were dependent on the dextran/CTB molar ratio and inversely related to the local IgA response, which was not the case for subcutaneous immunizations. This is the first study of local and systemic immunity following mucosal immunization with a polysaccharide-protein conjugate. The results show that it is possible to evoke a local as well as a systemic antibody response against a polysaccharide by conjugating it to CTB and using an appropriate route of immunization. PMID:7537252

  14. Antibody Responses to Sarcoptes scabiei Apolipoprotein in a Porcine Model: Relevance to Immunodiagnosis of Recent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rampton, Melanie; Walton, Shelley F.; Holt, Deborah C.; Pasay, Cielo; Kelly, Andrew; Currie, Bart J.; McCarthy, James S.; Mounsey, Kate E.

    2013-01-01

    No commercial immunodiagnostic tests for human scabies are currently available, and existing animal tests are not sufficiently sensitive. The recombinant Sarcoptes scabiei apolipoprotein antigen Sar s 14.3 is a promising immunodiagnostic, eliciting high levels of IgE and IgG in infected people. Limited data are available regarding the temporal development of antibodies to Sar s 14.3, an issue of relevance in terms of immunodiagnosis. We utilised a porcine model to prospectively compare specific antibody responses to a primary infestation by ELISA, to Sar s 14.3 and to S. scabiei whole mite antigen extract (WMA). Differences in the antibody profile between antigens were apparent, with Sar s 14.3 responses detected earlier, and declining significantly after peak infestation compared to WMA. Both antigens resulted in >90% diagnostic sensitivity from weeks 8–16 post infestation. These data provide important information on the temporal development of humoral immune responses in scabies and further supports the development of recombinant antigen based immunodiagnostic tests for recent scabies infestations. PMID:23762351

  15. Analysis of antibody response in human dengue patients from the Mexican coast using recombinant antigens.

    PubMed

    Lazaro-Olán, L; Mellado-Sánchez, G; García-Cordero, J; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A; Santos-Argumedo, L; Gutiérrez-Castañeda, B; Cedillo-Barrón, L

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of using recombinant dengue proteins to discriminate between acute dengue infections versus uninfected dengue samples. Dengue virus proteins E, NS1, NS3, and NS4B were cloned as fusion proteins and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant products were tested in 100 serum samples obtained from acute dengue fever cases collected from 3 states of Mexico where dengue is endemic. Sera from 75 healthy individuals living in nonendemic areas for dengue were used as a control group. In sera from the dengue patients group, antibody responses to E protein were demonstrated in 91% of cases and NS1 protein was recognized to various extents (99%) within the first 7 days of infection. The antibody responses to NS3 and NS4B were frequently of low magnitude. Consistent negative antibody responses to all proteins were found in sera from the control group. These data suggest that the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-dengue fusion proteins may be feasible antigens for a sensitive and specific serological assay.

  16. Mapping polyclonal antibody responses to bacterial infection using next generation phage display

    PubMed Central

    Naqid, Ibrahim A.; Owen, Jonathan P.; Maddison, Ben C.; Spiliotopoulos, Anastasios; Emes, Richard D.; Warry, Andrew; Tchórzewska, Monika A.; Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J.; Davies, Robert H.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Gough, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Mapping polyclonal antibody responses to infectious diseases to identify individual epitopes has the potential to underpin the development of novel serological assays and vaccines. Here, phage-peptide library panning coupled with screening using next generation sequencing was used to map antibody responses to bacterial infections. In the first instance, pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was investigated. IgG samples from twelve infected pigs were probed in parallel and phage binding compared to that with equivalent IgG from pre-infected animals. Seventy-seven peptide mimotopes were enriched specifically against sera from multiple infected animals. Twenty-seven of these peptides were tested in ELISA and twenty-two were highly discriminatory for sera taken from pigs post-infection (P < 0.05) indicating that these peptides are mimicking epitopes from the bacteria. In order to further test this methodology, it was applied to differentiate antibody responses in poultry to infections with distinct serovars of Salmonella enterica. Twenty-seven peptides were identified as being enriched specifically against IgY from multiple animals infected with S. Enteritidis compared to those infected with S. Hadar. Nine of fifteen peptides tested in ELISA were highly discriminatory for IgY following S. Enteritidis infection (p < 0.05) compared to infections with S. Hadar or S. Typhimurium. PMID:27072017

  17. Written disclosure of experiences with racial discrimination and antibody response to an influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Stetler, Cinnamon; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether Blacks who wrote about their experiences with racial discrimination in a laboratory-based disclosure intervention would show greater levels of antibody production in response to an influenza vaccine compared with Blacks who wrote about a neutral topic. Forty-seven participants were randomized to write about their thoughts and feelings around their experiences with racism, or to write about their schedule for the week. Participants wrote on the same topic during each of three 20-min sessions. Blood was drawn prior to the intervention and at 1 and 3 months postvaccination to assess antibody production. Participants in the racism disclosure group produced significantly less antibodies to 2 of 3 viral strains. Post hoc analysis suggests that participants who were unsure about whether their events were due to racism or due to other factors had reduced levels of antibody to 1 viral strain. The attributional ambiguity sometimes associated with racism may inhibit the benefits of disclosure interventions for these types of stressors.

  18. Antibody response in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) immunized with a model antigen associated with different adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Pavan, T R; Di Domenico, J; Kirsten, K S; Nied, C O; Frandoloso, R; Kreutz, L C

    2016-07-25

    Adjuvants are essential to boost the immune response to inoculated antigen and play a central role in vaccine development. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of several adjuvants in the production of anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies in silver catfish. Two hundred and seventy juvenile silver catfish (60-80 g) of both sexes were intraperitoneally vaccinated with BSA (200 µg/fish) alone or mixed to the following adjuvants: Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), Montanide, four types of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and three concentrations of β-glucan, and the immune enhancing property was evaluated by measuring anti-BSA antibodies in blood samples at biweekly intervals. Our results demonstrated that CpGs ODNs and β-glucan were as effective as classical adjuvants (FCA, FIA, AlOH and Montanide) in promoting anti-BSA antibodies and that the kinetics of antibody production induced by all adjuvants used in our study had a similar trend to that observed in other fish species, with a peak at 28 days post-vaccination. These results may be useful for the selection of adjuvants for vaccine formulation intended for silver catfish and for the development of vaccine and vaccination strategies to other fish species. PMID:27464022

  19. Decreased measles antibody response after measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in infants with colds.

    PubMed

    Krober, M S; Stracener, C E; Bass, J W

    1991-04-24

    We examined the possibility that the common cold or afebrile upper respiratory tract infection might interfere with successful immunization in children who receive standard measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Infants 15 to 18 months of age presenting at our well-child clinics for routine examination and immunizations were divided into two groups. Those infants with a history and physical findings of upper respiratory tract infection were compared with healthy control group infants who did not have upper respiratory tract infections, and who did not have a history of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms within the previous month. Both groups were studied for their serologic response to measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Prevaccination serum samples were obtained prior to vaccine administration and postvaccination serum samples were obtained 6 to 8 weeks later. Measles antibody was measured in these serum samples by an indirect fluorescein-tagged antibody test. Ten (21%) of 47 infants with colds failed to develop measles antibody, while only one (2%) of 51 well infants failed to develop antibody. We conclude that infants with colds have a significant seroconversion failure rate associated with measles vaccine administration and that this may be the cause of some primary measles vaccine failures.

  20. Antibody response in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) immunized with a model antigen associated with different adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, T.R.; Di Domenico, J.; Kirsten, K.S.; Nied, C.O.; Frandoloso, R.; Kreutz, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants are essential to boost the immune response to inoculated antigen and play a central role in vaccine development. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of several adjuvants in the production of anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA) antibodies in silver catfish. Two hundred and seventy juvenile silver catfish (60–80 g) of both sexes were intraperitoneally vaccinated with BSA (200 µg/fish) alone or mixed to the following adjuvants: Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA), Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA), aluminum hydroxide (AlOH), Montanide, four types of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) and three concentrations of β-glucan, and the immune enhancing property was evaluated by measuring anti-BSA antibodies in blood samples at biweekly intervals. Our results demonstrated that CpGs ODNs and β-glucan were as effective as classical adjuvants (FCA, FIA, AlOH and Montanide) in promoting anti-BSA antibodies and that the kinetics of antibody production induced by all adjuvants used in our study had a similar trend to that observed in other fish species, with a peak at 28 days post-vaccination. These results may be useful for the selection of adjuvants for vaccine formulation intended for silver catfish and for the development of vaccine and vaccination strategies to other fish species. PMID:27464022

  1. Effect of Increased CRM197 Carrier Protein Dose on Meningococcal C Bactericidal Antibody Response

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Milan S.

    2012-01-01

    New multivalent CRM197-based conjugate vaccines are available for childhood immunization. Clinical studies were reviewed to assess meningococcal group C (MenC) antibody responses following MenC-CRM197 coadministration with CRM197-based pneumococcal or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Infants receiving a total CRM197 carrier protein dose of ∼50 μg and concomitant diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP)-containing vaccine tended to have lower MenC geometric mean antibody titers and continued to have low titers after the toddler dose. Nevertheless, at least 95% of children in the reported studies achieved a MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer of ≥1:8 after the last infant or toddler dose. SBA was measured using an assay with a baby rabbit or human complement source. Additional studies are needed to assess long-term antibody persistence and MenC CRM197 conjugate vaccine immunogenicity using alternative dosing schedules. PMID:22336285

  2. Antibody Avidity in Humoral Immune Responses in Bangladeshi Children and Adults following Administration of an Oral Killed Cholera Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Leung, Daniel T.; Akhtar, Marjahan; Nazim, Mohammad; Akter, Sarmin; Uddin, Taher; Khanam, Farhana; Mahbuba, Deena Al; Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Antibody avidity for antigens following disease or vaccination increases with affinity maturation and somatic hypermutation. In this study, we followed children and adults in Bangladesh for 1 year following oral cholera vaccination and measured the avidity of antibodies to the T cell-dependent antigen cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and the T cell-independent antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in comparison with responses in other immunological measurements. Children produced CTB-specific IgG and IgA antibodies of high avidity following vaccination, which persisted for several months; the magnitudes of responses were comparable to those seen in adult vaccinees. The avidity of LPS-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in vaccinees increased significantly shortly after the second dose of vaccine but waned rapidly to baseline levels thereafter. CTB-specific memory B cells were present for only a short time following vaccination, and we did not find significant memory B cell responses to LPS in any age group. For older children, there was a significant correlation between CTB-specific memory T cell responses after the second dose of vaccine and CTB-specific IgG antibody avidity indices over the subsequent year. These findings suggest that vaccination induces a longer-lasting increase in the avidity of antibodies to a T cell-dependent antigen than is measured by a memory B cell response to that antigen and that early memory T cell responses correlate well with the subsequent development of higher-avidity antibodies. PMID:23925888

  3. Activation of NLRC4 downregulates TLR5-mediated antibody immune responses against flagellin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Yang, Jingyi; Zhang, Ejuan; Zhong, Maohua; Xiao, Yang; Yu, Jie; Zhou, Dihan; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Yi; Li, Yaoming; Yan, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial flagellin is a unique pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), which can be recognized by surface localized Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) protein 4 (NLRC4) receptors. Activation of the TLR5 and/or NLRC4 signaling pathways by flagellin and the resulting immune responses play important roles in anti-bacterial immunity. However, it remains unclear how the dual activities of flagellin that activate the TLR5 and/or NLRC4 signaling pathways orchestrate the immune responses. In this study, we assessed the effects of flagellin and its mutants lacking the ability to activate TLR5 and NLRC4 alone or in combination on the adaptive immune responses against flagellin. Flagellin that was unable to activate NLRC4 induced a significantly higher antibody response than did wild-type flagellin. The increased antibody response could be eliminated when macrophages were depleted in vivo. The activation of NLRC4 by flagellin downregulated the flagellin-induced and TLR5-mediated immune responses against flagellin. PMID:25914934

  4. Murine Antibody Responses to Cleaved Soluble HIV-1 Envelope Trimers Are Highly Restricted in Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Joyce K.; Crampton, Jordan C.; Cupo, Albert; Ketas, Thomas; van Gils, Marit J.; Sliepen, Kwinten; de Taeye, Steven W.; Sok, Devin; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Deresa, Isaiah; Stanfield, Robyn; Ward, Andrew B.; Burton, Dennis R.; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Generating neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) is a major goal of many current HIV-1 vaccine efforts. To be of practical value, these nAbs must be both potent and cross-reactive in order to be capable of preventing the transmission of the highly diverse and generally neutralization resistant (Tier-2) HIV-1 strains that are in circulation. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike is the only target for nAbs. To explore whether Tier-2 nAbs can be induced by Env proteins, we immunized conventional mice with soluble BG505 SOSIP.664 trimers that mimic the native Env spike. Here, we report that it is extremely difficult for murine B cells to recognize the Env epitopes necessary for inducing Tier-2 nAbs. Thus, while trimer-immunized mice raised Env-binding IgG Abs and had high-quality T follicular helper (Tfh) cell and germinal center (GC) responses, they did not make BG505.T332N nAbs. Epitope mapping studies showed that Ab responses in mice were specific to areas near the base of the soluble trimer. These areas are not well shielded by glycans and likely are occluded on virions, which is consistent with the lack of BG505.T332N nAbs. These data inform immunogen design and suggest that it is useful to obscure nonneutralizing epitopes presented on the base of soluble Env trimers and that the glycan shield of well-formed HIV Env trimers is virtually impenetrable for murine B cell receptors (BCRs). IMPORTANCE Human HIV vaccine efficacy trials have not generated meaningful neutralizing antibodies to circulating HIV strains. One possible hindrance has been the lack of immunogens that properly mimic the native conformation of the HIV envelope trimer protein. Here, we tested the first generation of soluble, native-like envelope trimer immunogens in a conventional mouse model. We attempted to generate neutralizing antibodies to neutralization-resistant circulating HIV strains. Various vaccine strategies failed to induce neutralizing antibodies to a neutralization

  5. Leishmania pifanoi pathogenesis: selective lack of a local cutaneous response in the absence of circulating antibody.

    PubMed

    Colmenares, María; Constant, Stephanie L; Kima, Peter E; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2002-12-01

    Recently, a role for B cells in the pathogenesis associated with infection by Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana complex and L. donovani) has been established. In the case of L. mexicana complex parasites (L. mexicana, L. pifanoi, and L. amazonensis), a critical role for immunoglobulin G-mediated mechanisms for the amastigote stage in the host is evident; however, the immunological mechanisms involved remain to be established. In vitro analysis of the kinetics of parasite uptake by macrophages failed to indicate a major effect of antibody opsonization. Given the importance of CD4(+) T cells in the development of disease caused by these parasites, the possibility that the lack of pathogenesis was due to the lack of development of an immune response at the local site (draining lymph node and/or cutaneous site) was explored. Interestingly, the level of CD4(+)-T-cell activation (proliferation and cytokine) in draining lymph nodes from mice lacking circulating antibody (resistant) was found to be comparable to that in nodes from wild-type mice (susceptible) at 2, 5, and 10 weeks postinfection. However, antibody-deficient animals had markedly reduced numbers of monocytes and lymphocytes recruited or retained at the site of cutaneous infection in comparison to wild-type mice, indicating a selective impairment in the local cutaneous immune response. In vitro antigen presentation studies employing tissue-derived (opsonized) amastigotes demonstrated that L. pifanoi-infected FcR(-/-) macrophages, in contrast to comparably infected wild-type cells, failed to activate Leishmania antigen-specific T lymphocytes. These data, taken together, suggest that one possible mechanism for the role of antibody in pathogenesis may be to mediate parasite uptake and regulate the immune response at the local cutaneous site of infection.

  6. Genome-wide genetic and transcriptomic investigation of variation in antibody response to dietary antigens.

    PubMed

    Rubicz, Rohina; Yolken, Robert; Alaedini, Armin; Drigalenko, Eugene; Charlesworth, Jac C; Carless, Melanie A; Severance, Emily G; Krivogorsky, Bogdana; Dyer, Thomas D; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Cole, Shelley A; Almasy, Laura; Moses, Eric K; Blangero, John; Göring, Harald H H

    2014-07-01

    Increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to dietary antigens can be associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction and autoimmunity. The underlying processes contributing to these adverse reactions remain largely unknown, and it is likely that genetic factors play a role. Here, we estimate heritability and attempt to localize genetic factors influencing IgG antibody levels against food-derived antigens using an integrative genomics approach. IgG antibody levels were determined by ELISA in >1,300 Mexican Americans for the following food antigens: wheat gliadin; bovine casein; and two forms of bovine serum albumin (BSA-a and BSA-b). Pedigree-based variance components methods were used to estimate additive genetic heritability (h(2) ), perform genome-wide association analyses, and identify transcriptional signatures (based on 19,858 transcripts from peripheral blood lymphocytes). Heritability estimates were significant for all traits (0.15-0.53), and shared environment (based on shared residency among study participants) was significant for casein (0.09) and BSA-a (0.33). Genome-wide significant evidence of association was obtained only for antibody to gliadin (P = 8.57 × 10(-8) ), mapping to the human leukocyte antigen II region, with HLA-DRA and BTNL2 as the best candidate genes. Lack of association of known celiac disease risk alleles HLA-DQ2.5 and -DQ8 with antigliadin antibodies in the studied population suggests a separate genetic etiology. Significant transcriptional signatures were found for all IgG levels except BSA-b. These results demonstrate that individual genetic differences contribute to food antigen antibody measures in this population. Further investigations may elucidate the underlying immunological processes involved.

  7. Genome-wide genetic and transcriptomic investigation of variation in antibody response to dietary antigens

    PubMed Central

    Rubicz, Rohina; Yolken, Robert; Alaedini, Armin; Drigalenko, Eugene; Charlesworth, Jac C.; Carless, Melanie A.; Severance, Emily G.; Krivogorsky, Bogdana; Dyer, Thomas D.; Kent, Jack W.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Cole, Shelley A.; Almasy, Laura; Moses, Eric K.; Blangero, John; Göring, Harald H.H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to dietary antigens can be associated with gastrointestinal dysfunction and autoimmunity. The underlying processes contributing to these adverse reactions remain largely unknown, and it is likely that genetic factors play a role. Here we estimate heritability and attempt to localize genetic factors influencing IgG antibody levels against food-derived antigens using an integrative genomics approach. IgG antibody levels were determined by ELISA in >1300 Mexican Americans for the following food antigens: wheat gliadin; bovine casein; and two forms of bovine serum albumin (BSA-a and BSA-b). Pedigree-based variance components methods were used to estimate additive genetic heritability (h2), perform genome-wide association analyses, and identify transcriptional signatures (based on 19,858 transcripts from peripheral blood lymphocytes). Heritability estimates were significant for all traits (0.15-0.53), and shared environment (based on shared residency among study participants) was significant for casein (0.09) and BSA-a (0.33). Genome-wide significant evidence of association was obtained only for antibody to gliadin (p=8.57×10-8), mapping to the human leukocyte antigen II region, with HLA-DRA and BTNL2 as the best candidate genes. Lack of association of known celiac disease risk alleles HLA-DQ2.5 and -DQ8 with anti-gliadin antibodies in the studied population suggests a separate genetic etiology. Significant transcriptional signatures were found for all IgG levels except BSA-b. These results demonstrate that individual genetic differences contribute to food antigen antibody measures in this population. Further investigations may elucidate the underlying immunological processes involved. PMID:24962563

  8. A role for plasma cell targeting agents in immune tolerance induction in autoimmune disease and antibody responses to therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, A S; Pariser, A R; Diamond, B; Yao, L; Turka, L A; Lacana, E; Kishnani, P S

    2016-04-01

    Antibody responses to life saving therapeutic protein products, such as enzyme replacement therapies (ERT) in the setting of lysosomal storage diseases, have nullified product efficacy and caused clinical deterioration and death despite treatment with immune-suppressive therapies. Moreover, in some autoimmune diseases, pathology is mediated by a robust antibody response to endogenous proteins such as is the case in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, mediated by antibodies to Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF). In this work, we make the case that in such settings, when the antibody response is high titered, sustained, and refractory to immune suppressive treatments, the antibody response is mediated by long-lived plasma cells which are relatively unperturbed by immune suppressants including rituximab. However, long-lived plasma cells can be targeted by proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib. Recent reports of successful reversal of antibody responses with bortezomib in the settings of ERT and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) argue that the safety and efficacy of such plasma cell targeting agents should be evaluated in larger scale clinical trials to delineate the risks and benefits of such therapies in the settings of antibody-mediated adverse effects to therapeutic proteins and autoantibody mediated pathology. PMID:26928739

  9. Vaccine-Induced Antibody Responses Prevent the Induction of Interferon Type I Responses Upon a Homotypic Live Virus Challenge.

    PubMed

    Chan, J; Babb, R; David, S C; McColl, S R; Alsharifi, M

    2016-03-01

    During acute viral infections, innate immunity provides essential protective measures to minimize virus dissemination and regulate adaptive immunity. This helps to successfully eliminate the pathogen and establish long-term memory. Here, we investigated the effect of vaccine-induced antibody responses on the induction of IFN-I responses and the associated lymphocyte activation using influenza A virus vaccination and challenge models. Mice were vaccinated with gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU) and challenged three weeks later with live virus. Our data show a significant reduction in IFN-I responses and lymphocyte activation following a homotypic virus challenge. We confirmed the role of vaccine-induced antibody responses in the observed impairment of IFN-I and the associated lymphocyte activation using adoptive transfer of immune sera and the administration of sera-treated viruses prior to challenge. Overall, we addressed a fundamental concept in immunology and provided experimental data illustrating the inhibition of IFN-I responses in vaccinated animals upon a homotypic virus challenge. PMID:26715418

  10. INHIBITION OF THE SECONDARY ANTIBODY RESPONSE IN VITRO BY SALICYLATE AND GENTISATE

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Charles Tesch

    1966-01-01

    Salicylate inhibition of the secondary antibody response initiated in vitro on day 0 has been studied in cultures of rabbit lymph node fragments. Levels of 1.25 to 1.5 mM (0.20 to 0.24 mg/ml) sodium salicylate present in serum-free medium throughout an 18- or 21-day culture period completely inhibit the secondary response. This inhibition is largely accomplished by the drug's action during the first 9 days, which corresponds to the inductive phase for this culture system. Relatively little inhibition is produced by adding the drug only after day 9, although over 90% of the antibody produced during a 21-day experiment is synthesized after day 9. Studies with media of different pH's show that this inhibition is more correctly a function of the nonionized salicylic acid concentration in the medium than of the total salicylate concentration. Arguments are presented against the possibility that salicylate at the levels used here inhibits antibody synthesis by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) produces the same degree of inhibition in vitro as do equimolar concentrations of sodium salicylate. Gentisate (5-hydroxysalicylate) is 15-fold more effective in producing 50% inhibition than salicylate; its temporal pattern of inhibition is similar to that of salicylate. PMID:5922744

  11. Antibody response in the intestinal secretions of volunteers immunized with various cholera vaccines*

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, R.; Clem, L. W.; Benčić, Z.; Sinha, R.; Sakazaki, R.; Waldman, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The efficacy of various cholera vaccines in eliciting an intestinal antibody response was assessed in human volunteers who received oral live, oral killed, or parenteral cholera vaccines, or placebo. The intestinal immune response in terms of antibacterial and antitoxin antibodies was determined 2 and 4 weeks after immunization. By means of the mouse peritoneum opsonization assay and the infant mouse protection test, antibacterial activity could be detected in the intestinal secretions of volunteers who had been immunized either orally or by the parenteral route. Significant protective activity and duration of immunity were observed with the oral killed vaccine. The bacteriological data indicated the absence of significant intestinal colonization of the live attenuated strain after oral administration, and probably explains the observed lack of effectiveness of the oral vaccine compared with that of the killed vaccine. The predominant immunoglobulin class of intestinal antibody was found to be IgA. None of the vaccines used in the study elicited significant antitoxin activity in the intestinal secretions, as determined by the skin permeability neutralization test. PMID:779998

  12. Immunization with functionalized carbon nanotubes enhances the antibody response against mode antigen ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; Sun, Jiadi; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted considerable attention because of their potential application as a new nonvehicle. We have covalently conjugated the mode antigen ovalbumin (OVA) to functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Herein, we explored the underlying theoretical mechanisms of CNTs' immunological adjuvant characterization. In vitro, the efficiency of cellular uptake of MWCNT-OVA into DC2.4 cells was improved over that of pure-antigen OVA. The costimulators (CD40/86), the major histocompatibility complex MHCII molecules, and the CD11c molecules were found to be upregulated. Further in vivo experiments established that the MWCNT-OVA group enhanced the IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 cytokine secretion, suggesting that MWCNT reinforced the immune response using different cytokine pathways. Anti-OVA antibodies after inoculation of MWCNT-OVA into mice were measured. The medium dose of MWCNTs conjugated with OVA induced the highest level of OVA-specific antibodies at day 82 and have a synergistic effect with the commercial Freund's adjuvant. MWCNTs-KLH-MC-LR also induced higher levels of MC-LR-specific antibody than did KLH-MC-LR. MWCNTs also could activate the complement system which is closely related with humoral immunity. These results suggested that MWCNTs enhance the immune response and show excellent inherent characteristics to be applied as an adjuvant.

  13. Selective Antibody Response to Streptococcus gallolyticus Pilus Proteins in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boleij, Annemarie; Roelofs, Rian; Danne, Camille; Bellais, Samuel; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Kato, Ikuko; Tjalsma, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (previously called Streptococcus bovis biotype I) infections have long been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). This work aimed to investigate the CRC-associated humoral immune response to four pilus proteins of this bacterium by newly developed ELISAs. Pilus proteins are interesting diagnostic targets as they are the building blocks of pilin-like structures that mediate bacterial virulence and are readily exposed to the host immune system upon infection. The presence of serum antibodies against these pilus proteins was evaluated in Dutch and American populations. These analyses showed that an immune response to these antigens was specific for clinical S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus infections, but that increased serum antibody titers to multiple pilus proteins in single individuals were rarely observed. However, a multiplex approach based on antibody titers against any of these four antigens resulted in assay sensitivities between 16% and 43% for the detection of early-stage CRC. Together these findings underscore the potential of a multi-antigen approach to complement diagnosis of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus–associated CRC. PMID:22012878

  14. Oral iodine supplementation does not reduce neutralizing antibody responses to oral poliovirus vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Taffs, R. E.; Enterline, J. C.; Rusmil, K.; Muhilal; Suwardi, S. S.; Rustama, D.; Djatnika; Cobra, C.; Semba, R. D.; Cohen, N.; Asher, D. M.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is a major cause of impaired mental development, goitre, and cretinism in many parts of the world. Because existing immunization programmes can be used to deliver oral iodized oil (OIO) to infants at risk, it was important to know whether OIO could adversely affect the antibody response to vaccines, such as trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Subang, West Java, Indonesia, in which 617 eight-week-old infants received either OIO or a placebo (poppy-seed oil) during a routine visit for their first dose of OPV as part of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). The infants received two boosters of OPV at 4-week intervals after the first dose, and were followed up when 6 months old. Neutralizing antibody titres to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3 were compared in serum samples that were taken from 478 of these infants just before the first dose of OPV and at 6 months. It was found that oral iodized oil did not reduce the antibody responses to any of the three serotypes of OPV. These results indicate that oral iodine may safely be delivered to infants at the same time as oral poliovirus vaccine according to current EPI immunization schedules. PMID:10427933

  15. An immunomics approach for the analysis of natural antibody responses to Plasmodium vivax infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Hu; Chen, Shen-Bo; Wang, Yue; Ju, Chuan; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Bin; Shen, Hai-Mo; Mo, Xiao-Jin; Molina, Douglas M; Eng, Michael; Liang, Xiaowu; Gardner, Malcolm J; Wang, Ruobing; Hu, Wei

    2015-08-01

    High throughput immunomics is a powerful platform to discover potential targets of host immunity and develop diagnostic tests for infectious diseases. We screened the sera of Plasmodium vivax-exposed individuals to profile the antibody response to blood-stage antigens of P. vivax using a P. vivax protein microarray. A total of 1936 genes encoding the P. vivax proteins were expressed, printed and screened with sera from P. vivax-exposed individuals and normal subjects. Total of 151 (7.8% of the 1936 targets) highly immunoreactive antigens were identified, including five well-characterized antigens of P. vivax (ETRAMP11.2, Pv34, SUB1, RAP2 and MSP4). Among the highly immunoreactive antigens, 5 antigens were predicted as adhesins by MAAP, and 11 antigens were predicted as merozoite invasion-related proteins based on homology with P. falciparum proteins. There are 40 proteins that have serodiagnostic potential for antibody surveillance. These novel Plasmodium antigens identified provide the clues for understanding host immune response to P. vivax infection and the development of antibody surveillance tools.

  16. Immunization with functionalized carbon nanotubes enhances the antibody response against mode antigen ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; Sun, Jiadi; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2016-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted considerable attention because of their potential application as a new nonvehicle. We have covalently conjugated the mode antigen ovalbumin (OVA) to functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Herein, we explored the underlying theoretical mechanisms of CNTs' immunological adjuvant characterization. In vitro, the efficiency of cellular uptake of MWCNT-OVA into DC2.4 cells was improved over that of pure-antigen OVA. The costimulators (CD40/86), the major histocompatibility complex MHCII molecules, and the CD11c molecules were found to be upregulated. Further in vivo experiments established that the MWCNT-OVA group enhanced the IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 cytokine secretion, suggesting that MWCNT reinforced the immune response using different cytokine pathways. Anti-OVA antibodies after inoculation of MWCNT-OVA into mice were measured. The medium dose of MWCNTs conjugated with OVA induced the highest level of OVA-specific antibodies at day 82 and have a synergistic effect with the commercial Freund's adjuvant. MWCNTs-KLH-MC-LR also induced higher levels of MC-LR-specific antibody than did KLH-MC-LR. MWCNTs also could activate the complement system which is closely related with humoral immunity. These results suggested that MWCNTs enhance the immune response and show excellent inherent characteristics to be applied as an adjuvant. PMID:27520072

  17. Antibody response to a T-dependent antigen requires B cell expression of complement receptors

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that antibody responses to T- dependent antigens require complement receptors expressed on either B lymphocytes or follicular dendritic cells. We have used RAG-2 deficient blastocyst complementation to create mice specifically lacking B cell complement receptors. Despite normal expression of complement receptor 1 (CR1[CD35]) and CR2 (CD21) on follicular dendritic cells, these mice have a profound defect in their capacity to mount a T-dependent antibody response. This is the first direct demonstration in vivo that B cell expression of complement receptors is required for a humoral immune response. This is the first direct demonstration in vivo that B cell expression of complement receptors is required for a humoral immune response. This suggests that CD21 and/or CD35 on B lymphocytes may be required for cellular activation, adsorptive endocytosis of antigen, recruitment to germinal centers, and/or protection from apoptosis during the humoral response to T-dependent antigens. PMID:8666942

  18. Antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae-infected and bacterin-vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Furesz, S E; Mallard, B A; Bossé, J T; Rosendal, S; Wilkie, B N; MacInnes, J I

    1997-01-01

    Current porcine pleuropneumonia bacterins afford only partial protection by decreasing mortality but not morbidity. In order to better understand the type(s) of immune response associated with protection, antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) were compared for piglets before and after administration of a commercial bacterin, which confers partial protection, or a low-dose (10(5) CFU/ml) aerosol challenge with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae CM5 (LD), which induces complete protection. Control groups received phosphate-buffered saline or adjuvant. Serum antibody response, antibody avidity, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and lymphocyte blastogenic responses were measured and compared among treatment groups to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsular polysaccharide (CPS), hemolysin (HLY), and outer membrane proteins (OMP) of A. pleuropneumoniae. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and sera were collected prior to and following primary and secondary immunization-infection and high-dose A. pleuropneumoniae CM5 (10(7) CFU/ml) aerosol challenge. Serum antibody and DTH, particularly that to HLY, differed significantly between treatment groups, and increases were associated with protection. LD-infected piglets had higher antibody responses (P < or = 0.01) and antibody avidity (P < or = 0.10) than bacterin-vaccinated and control groups. Anti-HLY antibodies were consistently associated with protection, whereas anti-LPS and anti-CPS antibodies were not. LD-infected animals had higher DTH responses, particularly to HLY, than bacterin-vaccinated pigs (P < or = 0.03). The LD-infected group maintained consistent blastogenic responses to HLY, LPS, CPS, and OMP over the course of infection, unlike the bacterin-vaccinated and control animals. These data suggest that the immune responses induced by a commercial bacterin are very different from those induced by LD aerosol infection and that current bacterins may be modified, for instance, by addition of HLY, so as to

  19. Enhancement of Antibody Response by Mouse Dendritic Cells Pulsed with Tobacco Mosaic Virus or with Rabbit Antiidiotypic Antibodies Raised against a Private Rabbit Idiotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francotte, M.; Urbain, J.

    1985-12-01

    The role of splenic lymphoid dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (Mφ ) from mice in induction of immune responses in vivo has been investigated. Varying numbers of purified DC and Mφ pulsed in vitro with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) or with rabbit antiidiotypic antibodies (Ab2) directed against a private rabbit anti-TMV idiotype were injected back into syngeneic mice. In both systems, DC appeared to strongly enhance the primary and secondary responses to the virus. Optimal responses were obtained with 5 × 104 purified DC carrying TMV or rabbit Ab2. In contrast, Mφ were less efficient by a factor of at least 100. These results show the potency of lymphoid DC as inducing cells in T-dependent antibody responses in vivo.

  20. Antibody and lymphoblastogenic responses of dogs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi isolates from North American mammals.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Dennis, V A; Klei, T R; Norcross, N L

    1991-09-01

    The humoral and cellular immune responses of dogs infected with either a non-pathogenic Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from a North American dog (Tc-D) or a pathogenic T. cruzi isolate from an opossum (Tc-O) were studied over a 240 day period. Antibody to T. cruzi epimastigote antigens prepared from Tc-O or Tc-D isolates were first detected by ELISA by Day 26 post infection (PI), peaked by day 175 PI and remained elevated throughout the experimental period in both Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs. Differences in antibody levels between infected groups were not detected. Western blot analyses were performed using Tc-O and Tc-D epimastigote antigens probed with pooled sera and sera from individual Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs prior to infection (Day 0), and during the acute (Day 16-35 PI), indeterminate (Day 50-135 PI) and chronic (Day 235 PI) stages of infection. Generally, the patterns, number of protein bands, and temporal appearance of the protein bands identified by pooled sera and sera from individual dogs within each antigen preparation were similar. However, similarities and differences were present in antibody responses between sera from Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs. Blastogenic responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Tc-O and Tc-D infected dogs to mitogens (concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed) were not significantly different from controls at any time during the experimental period. The PBMC from both groups of dogs were unresponsive to epimastigote antigens during the acute stage of infection. Statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in PBMC responsiveness from controls were observed on Days 70 and 175 PI. Responses decreased to pre-infection levels by Day 240 PI. These studies demonstrate that although two North American T. cruzi isolates have markedly different virulence for dogs, some aspects of their cellular and humoral immune responses are similar while other responses, such as antibody recognition of specific T

  1. Enhancement of non-Candida antibody responses by Candida albicans cell wall glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Domer, J E; Elkins, K L; Ennist, D L; Stashak, P W; Garner, R E; Baker, P J

    1987-11-01

    Two cell wall glycoprotein extracts from Candida albicans (glycoprotein [GP] and peptidoglucomannan [PGM]) were tested for their influence on antibody responses to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide and sheep erythrocytes. GP was isolated from lipid-extracted cell walls with ethylenediamine, whereas PGM was extracted with dilute sodium hydroxide. Both glycoproteins increased the number of antibody-producing plaque-forming cells in the spleens of mice immunized with type III polysaccharide or sheep erythrocytes, although PGM appeared to be about 10 times more effective. PGM could be administered up to 3 days prior to immunization with sheep erythrocytes to elicit enhancement; it did not have to be administered by the same route as the immunogen to cause significant enhancement. Enhancement did not appear to be the result of a direct mitogenic effect of GP and PGM on lymphocytes, nor did these glycoproteins appear to stimulate the production of B-cell growth factors or interleukin 2.

  2. Antibody responses of red wolves to canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, L A; Munson, L; Ramsay, E C; Lucash, C F; Kania, S A; Potgieter, L N

    1997-07-01

    Twenty captive red wolves (Canis rufus), including 16 intended for release into Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cades Cove, Tennessee (USA), and four housed at Knoxville Zoological Gardens, Inc., Knoxville, Tennessee, were evaluated for immunologic response to vaccination between June 1994 and April 1995. Wolves were vaccinated with modified-live (MLV) canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV2). Sera were collected, and immunofluorescent staining was performed for determination of immunoglobulin titers (CDV IgM, CDV IgG, and CPV2 IgG). A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed for validation purposes, to confirm the reactivity of our standard diagnostic reagents with red wolf serum. All wolves produced a measurable antibody response to CDV and CPV2 vaccination. Titers against CDV and CPV2 varied widely among individual wolves, but between-litter differences in mean titers were not significant. No consistent response between the degree of response to CDV versus CPV2 vaccination was observed in individual wolves. No differences were seen between IgG responses of pups vaccinated with univalent vaccines given concurrently or during alternating weeks. Pups had an IgG response to CDV and CPV2 vaccination as early as 9 wk of age. Mean post-vaccination IgG titers against CDV were at or above the level normally measured in vaccinated domestic dogs. Mean post-vaccination IgG titers against CPV2 were below the level normally measured in domestic dogs. Adult previously-vaccinated wolves had measurable CDV and CPV2 IgG titers more than 1 yr after vaccination, but did not have significant IgG titer increases after revaccination. We conclude that red wolves are capable of producing an antibody response after vaccination with commercial canine products but that their response to CPV2 vaccination was minimal. This response can be assayed using tests developed for domestic dogs.

  3. Dynamics of virus shedding and antibody responses in influenza A virus-infected feral swine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hailiang; Cunningham, Fred L; Harris, Jillian; Xu, Yifei; Long, Li-Ping; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Baroch, John A; Fioranelli, Paul; Lutman, Mark W; Li, Tao; Pedersen, Kerri; Schmit, Brandon S; Cooley, Jim; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-09-01

    Given their free-ranging habits, feral swine could serve as reservoirs or spatially dynamic 'mixing vessels' for influenza A virus (IAV). To better understand virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics in the context of IAV surveillance amongst feral swine, we used IAV of feral swine origin to perform infection experiments. The virus was highly infectious and transmissible in feral swine, and virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics were similar to those in domestic swine. In the virus-inoculated and sentinel groups, virus shedding lasted ≤ 6 and ≤ 9 days, respectively. Antibody titres in inoculated swine peaked at 1 : 840 on day 11 post-inoculation (p.i.), remained there until 21 days p.i. and dropped to < 1 : 220 at 42 days p.i. Genomic sequencing identified changes in wildtype (WT) viruses and isolates from sentinel swine, most notably an amino acid divergence in nucleoprotein position 473. Using data from cell culture as a benchmark, sensitivity and specificity of a matrix gene-based quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method using nasal swab samples for detection of IAV in feral swine were 78.9 and 78.1 %, respectively. Using data from haemagglutination inhibition assays as a benchmark, sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection of IAV-specific antibody were 95.4 and 95.0 %, respectively. Serological surveillance from 2009 to 2014 showed that ∼7.58 % of feral swine in the USA were positive for IAV. Our findings confirm the susceptibility of IAV infection and the high transmission ability of IAV amongst feral swine, and also suggest the need for continued surveillance of IAVs in feral swine populations. PMID:26297148

  4. Dynamics of virus shedding and antibody responses in influenza A virus-infected feral swine

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hailiang; Cunningham, Fred L.; Harris, Jillian; Xu, Yifei; Long, Li-Ping; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Baroch, John A.; Fioranelli, Paul; Lutman, Mark W.; Li, Tao; Pedersen, Kerri; Schmit, Brandon S.; Cooley, Jim; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Given their free-ranging habits, feral swine could serve as reservoirs or spatially dynamic ‘mixing vessels’ for influenza A virus (IAV). To better understand virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics in the context of IAV surveillance amongst feral swine, we used IAV of feral swine origin to perform infection experiments. The virus was highly infectious and transmissible in feral swine, and virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics were similar to those in domestic swine. In the virus-inoculated and sentinel groups, virus shedding lasted ≤ 6 and ≤ 9 days, respectively. Antibody titres in inoculated swine peaked at 1 : 840 on day 11 post-inoculation (p.i.), remained there until 21 days p.i. and dropped to < 1 : 220 at 42 days p.i. Genomic sequencing identified changes in wildtype (WT) viruses and isolates from sentinel swine, most notably an amino acid divergence in nucleoprotein position 473. Using data from cell culture as a benchmark, sensitivity and specificity of a matrix gene-based quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method using nasal swab samples for detection of IAV in feral swine were 78.9 and 78.1 %, respectively. Using data from haemagglutination inhibition assays as a benchmark, sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection of IAV-specific antibody were 95.4 and 95.0 %, respectively. Serological surveillance from 2009 to 2014 showed that ∼7.58 % of feral swine in the USA were positive for IAV. Our findings confirm the susceptibility of IAV infection and the high transmission ability of IAV amongst feral swine, and also suggest the need for continued surveillance of IAVs in feral swine populations. PMID:26297148

  5. Transient CD4+ T Cell Depletion Results in Delayed Development of Functional Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Provine, Nicholas M.; Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; Bricault, Christine A.; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Larocca, Rafael A.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Seaman, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have recently demonstrated that CD4+ T cell help is required at the time of adenovirus (Ad) vector immunization for the development of functional CD8+ T cell responses, but the temporal requirement for CD4+ T cell help for the induction of antibody responses remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that induction of antibody responses in C57BL/6 mice can occur at a time displaced from the time of Ad vector immunization by depletion of CD4+ T cells. Transient depletion of CD4+ T cells at the time of immunization delays the development of antigen-specific antibody responses but does not permanently impair their development or induce tolerance against the transgene. Upon CD4+ T cell recovery, transgene-specific serum IgG antibody titers develop and reach a concentration equivalent to that in undepleted control animals. These delayed antibody responses exhibit no functional defects with regard to isotype, functional avidity, expansion after boosting immunization, or the capacity to neutralize a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Env-expressing pseudovirus. The development of this delayed transgene-specific antibody response is temporally linked to the expansion of de novo antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses, which develop after transient depletion of CD4+ T cells. These data demonstrate that functional vaccine-elicited antibody responses can be induced even if CD4+ T cell help is provided at a time markedly separated from the time of vaccination. IMPORTANCE CD4+ T cells have a critical role in providing positive help signals to B cells, which promote robust antibody responses. The paradigm is that helper signals must be provided immediately upon antigen exposure, and their absence results in tolerance against the antigen. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to the current model that the absence of CD4+ T cell help at priming results in long-term antibody nonresponsiveness, antibody responses can be induced by adenovirus vector immunization or alum

  6. Antibody-mediated immunity in CFW mice infected with Mycobacterium lepraemurium. Humoral immune response in murine leprosy.

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Espinosa, O; Casoluengo-Méndez, M; Díaz, G V

    1976-01-01

    A depression in antibody-mediated immunity (AMI) measured both in terms of circulating antibody and plaque-forming cells in the spleen was observed in CFW mice infected with M. lepraemurium when sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and human gammaglobulin (HGG) were used as antigens. The impairment in AMI was evident only after 75 days of infection thereafter the antibody response to SRBC antigen progressively decreased until the last day of experimentation (135 days). Within the first 60 days of infection no alteration in AMI was observed with the HGG antigen while the response to the SRBC antigen was significantly higher in the infected animals than in uninfected controls. PMID:795574

  7. Antibody responses to allergen Lol pIV are suppressed following adoptive transfer of B lymphocytes from the internal image anti-idiotypic antibody-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-10-01

    An internal image anti-idiotypic antibody, designated B1/1, was generated against an idiotope (Id91) of the monoclonal antibody (mAb91) specific for Lol pIV. The administration of B1/1 in PBS, at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms/mouse, to syngeneic Balb/c mice resulted in the suppression of the formation of anti-Lol pIV antibodies that possessed the Id91. Spleen cells obtained from the mice 2 weeks after the treatment with B1/1 (25 micrograms/mouse) were adoptively transferred intravenously into the syngeneic recipients which were challenged intraperitoneally with Lol pIV in alum 2 hr after the transfer. The recipients were boosted with Lol pIV 14 days later. It was demonstrated that the transfer of splenic B cells (but not of T cells) from B1/1-treated donors induced a significant suppression of not only the level of IgE and IgG antibodies to Lol pIV, but also the level of antibodies possessing the Id91. Treatment of the B cells with mAb91 plus complement abrogated their ability to transfer the suppression. This study indicates that the treatment with the anti-Id B1/1 generated B cells that were characterized, serologically, as possessing the anti-Id-like antibodies on their surface and were responsible for transferring the suppression of the formation of antibodies to allergen Lol pIV and the expression of Id91.

  8. Antibody response of ewes and does to chimeric sheep-goat pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, N A; Anderson, G B; Bondurant, R H; Pashen, R L; Bernoco, D

    1993-12-01

    Antibody production was evaluated in 62 recipients of blastomere-aggregation sheep-goat embryos, including 23 multiparous ewes, 21 multiparous does, 16 primiparous does, and 2 virgin does. The reactivity of sera collected weekly after the embryo transfer surgery was compared to that of sera collected prior to the embryo transfer by means of 1) complement-dependent cytotoxicity tests against peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from the parents of the embryo(s) and from random-bred sheep and goats, 2) hemagglutination and hemolytic assays with red blood cells (RBCs) from the two sires of the embryo(s), and 3) assays with PBLs and RBCs following absorptions with RBCs and PBLs from the parents and offspring. Although cross-reactivity to ovine and caprine PBL antigens was present in the control sera of some recipients, xenogeneic immunization during pregnancy was detected in 20 of 30 recipients that experienced term pregnancy. The xenogeneic response involved the production of antibody that reacted with both PBLs and RBCs. Allogeneic responses to RBCs were not observed, but allogeneic responses to PBLs occurred frequently, beginning after the onset of the xenogeneic response in most recipients (98 +/- 28 vs. 57 +/- 15 days in ewes; 93 +/- 23 vs. 46 +/- 7 days in does; mean day of onset +/- SD). The onsets of the responses were examined in conjunction with data collected on fetal and placental chimerism to evaluate possible routes of immunization. The onsets of the allogeneic responses and the limited serum reactivity to third-party PBLs suggested that fetal lymphocytes leaking across the placenta immunized the recipients to parentally inherited polymorphic antigens. The xenogeneic responses were associated with placental chimerism and appeared to involve the recognition of a species-specific monomorphic antigen shared by PBLs and RBCs. Neither of the responses appeared to affect continuation of pregnancy to term. PMID:7506943

  9. Surface plasmon resonance measurements of plasma antibody avidity during primary and secondary responses to anthrax protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Heather E; Stewart, Shelley M; Kepler, Thomas B; Sempowski, Gregory D; Alam, S Munir

    2014-02-01

    Establishment of humoral immunity against pathogens is dependent on events that occur in the germinal center and the subsequent induction of high-affinity neutralizing antibodies. Quantitative assays that allow monitoring of affinity maturation and duration of antibody responses can provide useful information regarding the efficacy of vaccines and adjuvants. Using an anthrax protective antigen (rPA) and alum model antigen/adjuvant system, we describe a methodology for monitoring antigen-specific serum antibody concentration and avidity by surface plasmon resonance during primary and secondary immune responses. Our analyses showed that following a priming dose in mice, rPA-specific antibody concentration and avidity increases over time and reaches a maximal response in about six weeks, but gradually declines in the absence of antigenic boost. Germinal center reactions were observed early with maximal development achieved during the primary response, which coincided with peak antibody avidity responses to primary immunization. Boosting with antigen resulted in a rapid increase in rPA-specific antibody concentration and five-fold increase in avidity, which was not dependent on sustained GC development. The described methodology couples surface plasmon resonance-based plasma avidity measurements with germinal center analysis and provides a novel way to monitor humoral responses that can play a role in facilitating vaccine and adjuvant development.

  10. Differential Lymphocyte and Antibody Responses in Deer Mice Infected with Sin Nombre Hantavirus or Andes Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C.; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection

  11. Frequency and domain specificity of toxin-neutralizing paratopes in the human antibody response to anthrax vaccine adsorbed.

    PubMed

    Reason, Donald; Liberato, Justine; Sun, Jinying; Keitel, Wendy; Zhou, Jianhui

    2009-05-01

    Protective antigen (PA) is the cell surface recognition unit of the binary anthrax toxin system and the primary immunogenic component in both the current and proposed "next-generation" anthrax vaccines. Several studies utilizing animal models have indicated that PA-specific antibodies, acquired by either active or passive immunization, are sufficient to protect against infection with Bacillus anthracis. To investigate the human antibody response to anthrax immunization, we have established a large panel of human PA-specific monoclonal antibodies derived from multiple individuals vaccinated with the currently approved anthrax vaccine BioThrax. We have determined that although these antibodies bind PA in standard binding assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, capture assays, and dot blots, less than 25% are capable of neutralizing lethal toxin (LT) in vitro. Nonneutralizing antibodies also fail to neutralize toxin when present in combination with other nonneutralizing paratopes. Although neutralizing antibodies recognize determinants throughout the PA monomer, they are significantly less common among those paratopes that bind to the immunodominant amino-terminal portion of the molecule. These findings demonstrate that PA binding alone is not sufficient to neutralize LT and suggest that for an antibody to effectively block PA-mediated toxicity, it must bind to PA such that one of the requisite toxin functions is disrupted. A vaccine design strategy that directed a higher percentage of the antibody response toward neutralizing epitopes may result in a more efficacious vaccine for the prevention of anthrax infection.

  12. V(H)3 antibody response to immunization with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in middle-aged and elderly persons.

    PubMed

    Serpa, Jose A; Valayam, Josemon; Musher, Daniel M; Rossen, Roger D; Pirofski, Liise-anne; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C

    2011-03-01

    Pneumococcal disease continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Older adults may have high levels of anticapsular antibody after vaccination, but their antibodies show decreased functional activity. In addition, the protective effect of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) seems to cease as early as 3 to 5 years postvaccination. Recently, it was suggested that PPV elicits human antibodies that use predominantly V(H)3 gene segments and induce a repertoire shift with increased V(H)3 expression in peripheral B cells. Here we compared V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects receiving PPV as initial immunization or revaccination. We studied pre- and postvaccination sera from 36 (18 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) middle-aged and 40 (22 vaccine-naïve and 18 previously immunized subjects) elderly adults who received 23-valent PPV. Concentrations of IgGs to four individual serotypes (6B, 14, 19F, and 23F) and of V(H)3-idiotypic antibodies (detected by the monoclonal antibody D12) to the whole pneumococcal vaccine were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PPV elicited significant IgG and V(H)3-idiotypic antibody responses in middle-aged and elderly subjects, regardless of whether they were vaccine naïve or undergoing revaccination. Age did not influence the magnitude of the antibody responses, as evidenced by similar postvaccination IgG and V(H)3 antibody levels in both groups, even after stratifying by prior vaccine status. Furthermore, we found similar proportions (around 50%) of elderly and middle-aged subjects experiencing 2-fold increases in V(H)3 antibody titers after vaccination. Age or repeated immunization does not appear to affect the V(H)3-idiotypic immunogenicity of PPV among middle-aged and elderly adults.

  13. Experimental infection with bovine ephemeral fever virus and analysis of its antibody response cattle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, F Y; Chen, Q W; Li, Z; Gong, X W; Wang, J D; Yin, H

    2016-02-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease that occurs throughout mainland China. LS11 obtained in the 2011 BEF epidemic was a wild strain, and its virulence and antibody response have never been studied in China. Therefore, the issues were investigated in this work. Experimental cattle were intravenously infected with different doses of BEF virus, and some non-infected cattle were simultaneously monitored. Blood and serum samples were collected from all animals over the course of our study. Infected cattle were challenged for a second time with BEF virus to determine protective period of the antibodies. BEF virus was detected in blood samples from infected cattle, but not in monitored cattle. The neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against BEFV were easier to be detected and persisted for longer periods in cattle infected with higher doses of BEFV than in those infected with lower doses. When the titer of nAbs was equal to 5 or 6, re-infected cattle still could mount a challenge against BEFV. However, after 3 or 6months, when nAbs were no longer apparent, re-infected cattle displayed typical symptoms of BEF. Our findings indicated that vaccination should be performed once the titer of nAb decreased to 5 or 6.

  14. Lack of antiviral antibody response in koalas infected with koala retroviruses (KoRV).

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Uwe; Keller, Martina; Möller, Annekatrin; Timms, Peter; Denner, Joachim

    2015-02-16

    Many wild koalas are infected with the koala retrovirus, KoRV, some of which suffer from lymphoma and chlamydial disease. Three subgroups, KoRV-A, KoRV-B and KoRV-J, have so far been described. It is well known that other closely related gammaretroviruses can induce tumours and severe immunodeficiencies in their respective hosts and a possible role for KoRV infection in lymphoma and chlamydial disease in koalas has been suggested. In many wild koalas, KoRV-A has become endogenised, i.e., it is integrated in the germ-line and is passed on with normal cellular genes. In this study, sera from koalas in European zoos and from wild animals in Australia were screened for antibodies against KoRV-A. These naturally infected animals all carry endogenous KoRV-A and two zoo animals are also infected with KoRV-B. The antibody response is generally an important diagnostic tool for detecting retrovirus infections. However, when Western blot analyses were performed using purified virus or recombinant proteins corresponding to KoRV-A, none of the koalas tested positive for specific antibodies, suggesting a state of tolerance. These results have implications for koala vaccination, as they suggest that therapeutic immunisation of animals carrying and expressing endogenous KoRV-A will not be successful. However, it remains unclear whether these animals can be immunised against KoRV-B and immunisation of uninfected koalas could still be worthwhile.

  15. Lack of antiviral antibody response in koalas infected with koala retroviruses (KoRV).

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Uwe; Keller, Martina; Möller, Annekatrin; Timms, Peter; Denner, Joachim

    2015-02-16

    Many wild koalas are infected with the koala retrovirus, KoRV, some of which suffer from lymphoma and chlamydial disease. Three subgroups, KoRV-A, KoRV-B and KoRV-J, have so far been described. It is well known that other closely related gammaretroviruses can induce tumours and severe immunodeficiencies in their respective hosts and a possible role for KoRV infection in lymphoma and chlamydial disease in koalas has been suggested. In many wild koalas, KoRV-A has become endogenised, i.e., it is integrated in the germ-line and is passed on with normal cellular genes. In this study, sera from koalas in European zoos and from wild animals in Australia were screened for antibodies against KoRV-A. These naturally infected animals all carry endogenous KoRV-A and two zoo animals are also infected with KoRV-B. The antibody response is generally an important diagnostic tool for detecting retrovirus infections. However, when Western blot analyses were performed using purified virus or recombinant proteins corresponding to KoRV-A, none of the koalas tested positive for specific antibodies, suggesting a state of tolerance. These results have implications for koala vaccination, as they suggest that therapeutic immunisation of animals carrying and expressing endogenous KoRV-A will not be successful. However, it remains unclear whether these animals can be immunised against KoRV-B and immunisation of uninfected koalas could still be worthwhile. PMID:25596496

  16. Immunoglobulin G avidity in differentiation between early and late antibody responses to West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Fox, Janet L; Hazell, Stuart L; Tobler, Leslie H; Busch, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    In 1999 West Nile virus (WNV) surfaced in the United States in the city of New York and spread over successive summers to most of the continental United States, Canada, and Mexico. Because WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies have been shown to persist for up to 1 year, residents in areas of endemicity can have persistent WNV IgM antibodies that are unrelated to a current illness with which they present. We present data on the use of IgG avidity testing for the resolution of conflicting data arising from the testing of serum or plasma for antibodies to WNV. Thirteen seroconversion panels, each consisting of a minimum of four samples, were used. All samples were tested for the presence of WNV IgM and IgG antibodies, and the avidity index for the WNV IgG-positive samples was calculated. Panels that exhibited a rise in the WNV IgM level followed by a sequential rise in the WNV IgG level were designated "primary." Panels that exhibited a marked rise in the WNV IgG level followed by a sequential weak WNV IgM response and that had serological evidence of a prior flavivirus infection were designated "secondary." All samples from the "primary" panels exhibited low avidity indices (less than 40%) for the first 20 to 30 days after the recovery of the index sample (the sample found to be virus positive). All of the "secondary" samples had elevated WNV IgG levels with avidity indices of > or =55%, regardless of the number of days since the recovery of the index sample. These data demonstrate that it is possible to differentiate between recent and past exposure to WNV or another flavivirus through the measurement of WNV IgG avidity indices.

  17. Antibody response to Plasmodium vivax antigens in Fy-negative individuals from the Colombian Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sócrates; Gómez, Andrés; Vera, Omaira; Vergara, Juana; Valderrama-Aguirre, Augusto; Maestre, Amanda; Méndez, Fabián; Wang, Ruobing; Chitnis, Chetan E; Yazdani, Syed S; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2005-11-01

    The Duffy antigen (Fy) is necessary for Plasmodium vivax invasion of human erythrocytes. Some populations have a highly prevalent Fy-negative phenotype; such persons are naturally protected from P. vivax blood infection but are expected to completely support the P. vivax pre-erythrocytic cycle, representing a valuable model for studying the immune response during these parasitic stages. We typed 214 individuals, mostly Afro-Colombians, from a P. vivax-endemic area for Fy expression and determined the antibody response to P. vivax pre-erythrocytic (sporozoites and CS) and blood-stage antigens (blood forms, P. vivax merozoite surface protein 1, and P. vivax Duffy binding protein [PvDBP]). Antibody titers to P. vivax circumsporozoite protein, P11, and N-terminal peptides and the number of responders were similar in Fy-negative and Fy-positive individuals. The number of responders to sporozoites, blood forms, and PvDBP were different between these groups. Thus, Fy-negative individuals from malaria-endemic areas can be used to study the immune response to the P. vivax liver phase without interference of the erythrocytic cycle.

  18. Carrier-induced suppression of the antibody response to a 'self' hapten.

    PubMed Central

    Sad, S; Gupta, H M; Talwar, G P; Raghupathy, R

    1991-01-01

    Immunization of male rats and monkeys with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) conjugated to a carrier results in a dramatic atrophy of the prostate. GnRH, linked to either diphtheria toxoid or tetanus toxoid as carrier, is now being evaluated for its use in the immunotherapy of hormone-dependent prostate enlargement in men. This report deals with the phenomenon of carrier-induced, epitope-specific regulation in the GnRH-carrier system. In experiments designed to assess the influence of the carrier on antibody responses to the 'self' hapten GnRH, we show that preimmunization with carriers diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid results in a strain-dependent inhibition of anti-GnRH responses in mice. Results of adoptive transfer experiments indicate that T cells from carrier-presensitized mice are responsible for suppression of anti-haptenic antibodies and that T cells from conjugate-immunized mice, on the other hand, can actually help overcome hyporesponsiveness. PMID:1748470

  19. Epigenetics of Peripheral B-Cell Differentiation and the Antibody Response

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Hong; Casali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications, such as histone post-translational modifications, DNA methylation, and alteration of gene expression by non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), are heritable changes that are independent from the genomic DNA sequence. These regulate gene activities and, therefore, cellular functions. Epigenetic modifications act in concert with transcription factors and play critical roles in B cell development and differentiation, thereby modulating antibody responses to foreign- and self-antigens. Upon antigen encounter by mature B cells in the periphery, alterations of these lymphocytes epigenetic landscape are induced by the same stimuli that drive the antibody response. Such alterations instruct B cells to undergo immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM), as well as differentiation to memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells for the immune memory. Inducible histone modifications, together with DNA methylation and miRNAs modulate the transcriptome, particularly the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, which is essential for CSR and SHM, and factors central to plasma cell differentiation, such as B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1. These inducible B cell-intrinsic epigenetic marks guide the maturation of antibody responses. Combinatorial histone modifications also function as histone codes to target CSR and, possibly, SHM machinery to the Ig loci by recruiting specific adaptors that can stabilize CSR/SHM factors. In addition, lncRNAs, such as recently reported lncRNA-CSR and an lncRNA generated through transcription of the S region that form G-quadruplex structures, are also important for CSR targeting. Epigenetic dysregulation in B cells, including the aberrant expression of non-coding RNAs and alterations of histone modifications and DNA methylation, can result in aberrant antibody responses to foreign antigens, such as those on microbial

  20. Systemic and mucosal IgE antibody responses of horses to infection with Anoplocephala perfoliata.

    PubMed

    Pittaway, Charles E; Lawson, April L; Coles, Gerald C; Wilson, A Douglas

    2014-01-17

    Infection of horses with Anoplocephala perfoliata induces a severe inflammatory reaction of the caecal mucosa around the site of parasite attachment adjacent to the ileocecal valve. Lesions show epithelial erosion or ulceration of the mucosa with infiltration by eosinophils, lymphocytes and mast cells leading to oedema, gross thickening and fibrosis of the caecal wall. Despite this evidence of an inflammatory reaction to A. perfoliata within the mucosa of the caecum there is little information about the nature of the local immune response to A. perfoliata. An ELISA which assays serum IgG(T) antibodies to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens has been developed as a diagnostic test. However, the specificity of the ELISA remains sub-optimal and the role of other isotypes in the immune response to A. perfoliata has not been reported. This study measured IgA, IgE and IgG(T) antibody responses to A. perfoliata excretory/secretory antigens in sera of 75 horses presented for slaughter. The prevalence of A. perfoliata infection, as confirmed by the presence of parasites in the terminal ileum, caecum or proximal colon, was 55%. A. perfoliata-specific IgG(T) and IgE antibodies were significantly elevated in infected horses compared to controls; IgA antibodies were also detected but did not differ between infected and control horses. Diagnosis by serum IgG(T) ELISA had a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 80%, by comparison the serum IgE ELISA had a sensitivity of just 44% with a specificity of 82% and therefore did not provide an improved diagnostic test. Western blots with sera from infected horses demonstrated IgE-binding to at least 10 separate components of excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens. A similar pattern was also found with IgG(T). Around 30% of horses had high levels of serum IgE which bound fucose-containing carbohydrate antigens on the parasite surface but this was unrelated to the presence of A. perfoliata infection. Immunoperoxidase staining detected

  1. Early cytokine and antibody responses against Coxiella burnetii in aerosol infection of BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Schoffelen, Teske; Self, Joshua S.; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A.; Netea, Mihai G.; van Deuren, Marcel; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Kersh, Gilbert J.

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium, can give rise to Q fever in humans and is transmitted mainly by inhalation of infected aerosols from animal reservoirs. Serology is commonly used to diagnose Q fever, but the early cellular immune response –i.e. C. burnetii-specific interferon(IFN)-γ production in response to antigen challenge– might be an additional diagnostic. Detection of IFN-γ responses has been used to identify past and chronic Q fever infections, but the IFN-γ response in acute Q fever has not been described. By challenging immunocompetent BALB/c mice with aerosols containing phase I C. burnetii, the timing and extent of IFN-γ recall responses was evaluated in an acute C. burnetii infection. Other cytokines were also measured in an effort to identify other potential diagnostic markers. The data show that after initial expansion of bacteria first in lungs and then in other tissues, the infection was cleared from day 10 onwards as reflected by the decreasing number of bacteria. The antigen-induced IFN-γ production by splenocytes coincided with emergence of IgM phase II-antibodies at day 10 post-infection, and preceded appearance of IgG-antibodies. This was accompanied by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, KC and IP-10, followed by MCP-1, but not by IL-1β and TNF-α, and only very low production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These data suggest that analysis of antigen-specific IFN-γ responses could be a useful tool for diagnosis of acute Q-fever. Moreover, the current model of C.burnetii infection could be used to give new insights into immunological factors that predispose to development of persistent infection. PMID:25618420

  2. Diversity of the murine antibody response targeting influenza A(H1N1pdm09) hemagglutinin

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jason R.; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Spesock, April; Music, Nedzad; Guo, Zhu; Barrington, Robert; Stevens, James; Donis, Ruben O.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; York, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    We infected mice with the 2009 influenza A pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09), boosted with an inactivated vaccine, and cloned immunoglobulins (Igs) from HA-specific B cells. Based on the redundancy in germline gene utilization, we inferred that between 72–130 unique IgH VDJ and 35 different IgL VJ combinations comprised the anti-HA recall response. The IgH VH1 and IgL VK14 variable gene families were employed most frequently. A representative panel of antibodies were cloned and expressed to confirm reactivity with H1N1pdm09 HA. The majority of the recombinant antibodies were of high avidity and capable of inhibiting H1N1pdm09 hemagglutination. Three of these antibodies were subtype-specific cross-reactive, binding to the HA of A/South Carolina/1/1918(H1N1), and one further reacted with A/swine/Iowa/15/1930(H1N1). These results help define the genetic diversity of the influenza anti-HA antibody repertoire profile induced following infection and vaccination, which may facilitate the development of influenza vaccines that are more protective and broadly neutralizing. Importance Protection against influenza viruses is mediated mainly by antibodies, and in most cases this antibody response is narrow, only providing protection against closely-related viruses. In spite of this limited range of protection, recent findings indicate individuals immune to one influenza virus may contain antibodies (generally a minority of the overall response) that are more broadly reactive. These findings have raised the possibility that influenza vaccines could induce a more broadly protective response, reducing the need for frequent vaccine strain changes. However, interpretation of these observations is hampered by the lack of quantitative characterization of the antibody repertoire. In this study, we used single-cell cloning of influenza HA-specific B cells to assess the diversity and nature of the antibody response to influenza hemagglutinin in mice. Our findings help put bounds on the

  3. Maternal IgG and IgA Antibodies Dampen Mucosal T Helper Cell Responses in Early Life.

    PubMed

    Koch, Meghan A; Reiner, Gabrielle L; Lugo, Kyler A; Kreuk, Lieselotte S M; Stanbery, Alison G; Ansaldo, Eduard; Seher, Thaddeus D; Ludington, William B; Barton, Gregory M

    2016-05-01

    To maintain a symbiotic relationship between the host and its resident intestinal microbiota, appropriate mucosal T cell responses to commensal antigens must be established. Mice acquire both IgG and IgA maternally; the former has primarily been implicated in passive immunity to pathogens while the latter mediates host-commensal mutualism. Here, we report the surprising observation that mice generate T cell-independent and largely Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent IgG2b and IgG3 antibody responses against their gut microbiota. We demonstrate that maternal acquisition of these antibodies dampens mucosal T follicular helper responses and subsequent germinal center B cell responses following birth. This work reveals a feedback loop whereby T cell-independent, TLR-dependent antibodies limit mucosal adaptive immune responses to newly acquired commensal antigens and uncovers a broader function for maternal IgG. PMID:27153495

  4. Induction of rheumatoid antibodies in the mouse. Regulated production of autoantibody in the secondary humoral response

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    A/J mice were found to produce autoreactive IgM anti-IgG1 in response to secondary immunization with a number of protein antigens. No anti- IgG1 was produced after a single such immunization, indicating that antigen: IgG1 antibody complexes were responsible for inducing the autoreactive response. The size of the anti-IgG1 response was in some cases massive and of the same order of magnitude as the response to the foreign immunizing material. No significant anti-IgG2a, anti-IgG2b, or anti-IgG3 response was found in mice producing anti-IgG1. Virtually all of the anti-IgG1 material produced was of the IgM class and bound to the Fc region of autologous IgG1. A component of the anti-IgG1 was shown to be able to distinguish between the two mouse IgG1 allotypes. These results suggest that self-reactive anti-IgG is a common component of the secondary immune response of mice that may have powerful physiological and immunoregulatory effects. PMID:6350525

  5. Development of enhanced antibody response toward dual delivery of nano-adjuvant adsorbed human Enterovirus-71 vaccine encapsulated carrier.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohamed I; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Hussein, Mohd Z; Elkhidir, Isam M; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a new approach for enhancing immunity toward mucosal vaccines. HEV71 killed vaccine that is formulated with nanosize calcium phosphate adjuvant and encapsulated onto chitosan and alginate delivery carriers was examined for eliciting antibody responses in serum and saliva collected at weeks 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 for viral-specific IgA & IgG levels and viral neutralizing antibody titers. The antibody responses induced in rabbits by the different formulations delivered by a single (buccal) route were compared to those of dual immunization (intradermal / mucosal) and un-immunized control. Chitosan-loaded vaccine adjuvant induced elevated IgA antibody, while Alginate-adjuvant irreversible bonding sequestered the vaccine and markedly reduced immunogenicity. The induced mucosal and parenteral antibody profiles appeared in an inverse manner of enhanced mucosal IgA antibody accompanied by lower systemic IgG following a single oral immunization route. The combined intradermal and oral dual-immunized group developed an elevated salivary IgA, systemic IgG, and virus neutralizing response. A reduced salivary neutralizing antibody titer was observed and attributed to the continual secretion exchanges in saliva. Designing a successful mucosal delivery formulation needs to take into account the vaccine delivery site, dosage, adjuvant and carrier particle size, charge, and the reversibility of component interactions. The dual immunization seems superior and is a important approach for modulating the antibody response and boosting mucosal protection against HEV71 and similar pathogens based on their transmission mode, tissue tropism and shedding sites. Finally, the study has highlighted the significant role of dual immunization for simultaneous inducing and modulating the systemic and mucosal immune responses to EV71. PMID:26186664

  6. Development of enhanced antibody response toward dual delivery of nano-adjuvant adsorbed human Enterovirus-71 vaccine encapsulated carrier

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Mohamed I; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Hussein, Mohd Z; Elkhidir, Isam M; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a new approach for enhancing immunity toward mucosal vaccines. HEV71 killed vaccine that is formulated with nanosize calcium phosphate adjuvant and encapsulated onto chitosan and alginate delivery carriers was examined for eliciting antibody responses in serum and saliva collected at weeks 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 for viral-specific IgA & IgG levels and viral neutralizing antibody titers. The antibody responses induced in rabbits by the different formulations delivered by a single (buccal) route were compared to those of dual immunization (intradermal / mucosal) and un-immunized control. Chitosan-loaded vaccine adjuvant induced elevated IgA antibody, while Alginate-adjuvant irreversible bonding sequestered the vaccine and markedly reduced immunogenicity. The induced mucosal and parenteral antibody profiles appeared in an inverse manner of enhanced mucosal IgA antibody accompanied by lower systemic IgG following a single oral immunization route. The combined intradermal and oral dual-immunized group developed an elevated salivary IgA, systemic IgG, and virus neutralizing response. A reduced salivary neutralizing antibody titer was observed and attributed to the continual secretion exchanges in saliva. Designing a successful mucosal delivery formulation needs to take into account the vaccine delivery site, dosage, adjuvant and carrier particle size, charge, and the reversibility of component interactions. The dual immunization seems superior and is a important approach for modulating the antibody response and boosting mucosal protection against HEV71 and similar pathogens based on their transmission mode, tissue tropism and shedding sites. Finally, the study has highlighted the significant role of dual immunization for simultaneous inducing and modulating the systemic and mucosal immune responses to EV71. PMID:26186664

  7. Rituximab and abatacept but not tocilizumab impair antibody response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of newer biologic treatments including rituximab, abatacept and tocilizumab on antibody response following pneumococcal vaccination using a 7-valent conjugate vaccine in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with RA receiving rituximab, abatacept or tocilizumab as monotherapy or combined with methotrexate (MTX) participated in the study. Specific IgG antibodies against 23F and 6B serotypes were measured at vaccination and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination using standardised ELISA. Geometric mean antibody levels (GML) were calculated. Antibody response (AR) was defined as the ratio between post- and pre-vaccination antibody levels and a positive antibody response (posAR) was AR ≥2. Results In total, 88 patients were enrolled in the study. Of 55 patients treated with rituximab, 26 (46%) were on concomitant MTX. Of patients receiving abatacept (n = 17) and tocilizumab (n = 16) biologic treatment was given in combination with MTX in 13 (76%) and 9 (56%) patients, respectively. Patients treated with rituximab had significantly lower AR compared to those on tocilizumab, as well as compared to previously reported RA patients on MTX and controls (spondylarthropathy patients treated with NSAIDs and/or analgesics). In total, 10.3% of patients on rituximab monotherapy and no patient on rituximab + MTX had posAR for both serotypes. For abatacept and tocilizumab the corresponding figures were 17.6% and 50%. Conclusion In this cohort of patients with established RA, treatment with rituximab and abatacept was associated with diminished antibody response but this was most pronounced for rituximab. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administrated during ongoing tocilizumab treatment seems to be associated with sufficient antibody response. Pneumococcal vaccination should preferably be encouraged before initiation of rituximab or abatacept treatment. Trial registration NCT

  8. Antibody response to a delayed booster dose of anthrax vaccine and botulinum toxoid.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Phillip R; Hack, Dallas; Mangiafico, Joseph; Gibbs, Paul; McKee, Kelly T; Friedlander, Arthur M; Sjogren, Maria H

    2002-05-15

    We evaluated the prevalence and concentration of serum antibodies 18-24 months after primary inoculation with anthrax and botulinum vaccines, and assessed the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a significantly delayed booster dose of these vaccines. Five hundred and eight male active-duty military personnel received one, two or three inoculations with anthrax vaccine and/or botulinum toxoid in 1990/1991 in preparation for Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm. Subjects were vaccinated with the licensed anthrax vaccine, adsorbed (AVA) and pentavalent (ABCDE) botulinum toxoid (PBT) BB-IND 3723. Anthrax protective antigen (PA) IgG antibody was measured in serum using an immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A mouse neutralization test was used to determine the titer of Clostridium botulinum type A antitoxin in serum samples. The prevalence of anti-PA IgG was 30% in individuals 18-24 months after priming with one, two or three doses of AVA. After boosting, 99% of volunteers had detectable anti-PA IgG; only two individuals failed to respond. The prevalence of antibodies against botulinum toxin type A was 28% 18-24 months after initial priming. Following boosting, 99% of volunteers had serum titers >0.02IU/ml, and 97% responded with titers > or =0.25IU/ml. Systemic reactions to booster vaccinations could not be specifically ascribed to one or the other vaccine, but were generally mild and of brief duration. Forty-five percent of volunteers reported one or more systemic reactions over the course of 7 days. Injection site reactions of any kind occurred in 25% of AVA recipients and in 16% of PBT recipients; persistence of local reactions beyond 7 days was infrequent. While the kinetics and durability of immune responses must be studied, these findings suggest that booster doses of anthrax vaccine and botulinum toxoid sufficient to stimulate a robust anamnestic response may be given at times distant from receipt of the primary inoculations.

  9. Upper respiratory tract infection and serum antibody responses in nursing home patients.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, J C; Jordan, W; Milligan, L

    1988-08-01

    Residents of a Veterans Administration nursing home care unit (NHCU) were observed for the development of upper respiratory tract infection (URI) during 12 consecutive months to determine the frequency of sporadic cases or outbreaks of URI and to characterize them clinically and by laboratory means. Fifty-nine episodes of URI occurred in 56 residents during the study period. Serologic testing or virus isolation proved or suggested an etiologic agent on 22 occasions. URI was more common in late Fall and Winter and was caused by various agents, including influenza, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza viruses. A minor outbreak of influenza B in February 1986 contrasted with previous cases of URI in that the patients had a higher mean temperature and abnormal breath sounds, and they were clinically sicker. This suggests that clinical and epidemiologic surveillance during the influenza season may allow the early recognition of influenza in elderly nursing home residents. Over a 4-year period 147 serum antibody responses after influenza infection or influenza vaccination were compiled. Antibody responses to individual influenza vaccine components were measured 75 to 90 days after vaccination. The geometric mean titer (GMT) and the percentage of samples with antibody levels greater than 1:40 were determined for each of the three antigenic subtypes on 3 consecutive years. The GMT to individual vaccine components was consistently greater than 1:40, except to influenza B/Singapore in 1984 and A/Chile and B/U.S.S.R. in 1985, when these subtypes were first included in the vaccine, suggesting the NHCU residents responded less vigorously to unfamiliar vaccine subtypes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Antibody responses to bacteriophage phi X-174 in human subjects exposed to the antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, W. T.; Lugg, D. J.; Rosenblatt, H. M.; Nickolls, P. M.; Sharp, R. M.; Reuben, J. M.; Ochs, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that exposure to long-term spaceflight conditions (stress, isolation, sleep disruption, containment, microbial contamination, and solar radiation) or to ground-based models of spaceflight will alter human immune responses, but specific antibody responses have not been fully evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether exposure to the 8-month Antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight would alter human antibody responses. METHODS: During the 1999 Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions, 11 adult study subjects at Casey, Antarctica, and 7 control subjects at Macquarie Island, sub-Antarctica, received primary and secondary immunizations with the T cell-dependent neoantigen bacteriophage phi X-174. Periodic plasma samples were analyzed for specific antibody function. RESULTS: All of the subjects from Casey, Antarctica, cleared bacteriophage phi X-174 normally by 1 week after primary immunization, and all had normal primary and secondary antibody responses, including immunologic memory amplification and switch from IgM to IgG antibody production. One subject showed a high normal pattern, and one subject had a low normal pattern. The control subjects from Macquarie Island also had normal immune responses to bacteriophage phi X-174. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support the hypothesis that de novo specific antibody responses of subjects become defective during the conditions of the Antarctic winter-over. Because the Antarctic winter-over model of spaceflight lacks the important factors of microgravity and solar radiation, caution must be used in interpreting these data to anticipate normal antibody responses in long-term spaceflight.

  11. Antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax blood-stage and sporozoite antigens in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Alistair R. D.; Boel, Machteld E.; McGready, Rose; Ataide, Ricardo; Drew, Damien; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Beeson, James G.; Nosten, François; Simpson, Julie A.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy a variety of immunological changes occur to accommodate the fetus. It is unknown whether these changes continue to affect humoral immunity postpartum or how quickly they resolve. IgG levels were measured to P. falciparum and P. vivax antigens in 201 postpartum and 201 controls over 12 weeks. Linear mixed-effects models assessed antibody maintenance over time and the effect of microscopically confirmed Plasmodium spp. infection on antibody levels, and whether this was different in postpartum women compared with control women. Postpartum women had reduced Plasmodium spp. antibody levels compared to controls at baseline. Over 12 weeks, mean antibody levels in postpartum women increased to levels observed in control women. Microscopically confirmed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections during follow-up were associated with an increase in species-specific antibodies with similar magnitudes of boosting observed in postpartum and control women. Antibodies specific for pregnancy-associated, VAR2CSA-expressing parasites did not rapidly decline postpartum and did not boost in response to infection in either postpartum or control women. After pregnancy, levels of malaria-specific antibodies were reduced, but recovered to levels seen in control women. There was no evidence of an impaired ability to mount a boosting response in postpartum women. PMID:27558000

  12. Antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax blood-stage and sporozoite antigens in the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    McLean, Alistair R D; Boel, Machteld E; McGready, Rose; Ataide, Ricardo; Drew, Damien; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Beeson, James G; Nosten, François; Simpson, Julie A; Fowkes, Freya J I

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy a variety of immunological changes occur to accommodate the fetus. It is unknown whether these changes continue to affect humoral immunity postpartum or how quickly they resolve. IgG levels were measured to P. falciparum and P. vivax antigens in 201 postpartum and 201 controls over 12 weeks. Linear mixed-effects models assessed antibody maintenance over time and the effect of microscopically confirmed Plasmodium spp. infection on antibody levels, and whether this was different in postpartum women compared with control women. Postpartum women had reduced Plasmodium spp. antibody levels compared to controls at baseline. Over 12 weeks, mean antibody levels in postpartum women increased to levels observed in control women. Microscopically confirmed P. falciparum and P. vivax infections during follow-up were associated with an increase in species-specific antibodies with similar magnitudes of boosting observed in postpartum and control women. Antibodies specific for pregnancy-associated, VAR2CSA-expressing parasites did not rapidly decline postpartum and did not boost in response to infection in either postpartum or control women. After pregnancy, levels of malaria-specific antibodies were reduced, but recovered to levels seen in control women. There was no evidence of an impaired ability to mount a boosting response in postpartum women. PMID:27558000

  13. Early-life and contemporaneous nutritional and environmental predictors of antibody response to vaccination in young Gambian adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sophie E.; Richards, Anna A.; Goldblatt, David; Ashton, Lindsey; Szu, Shousun Chen; Prentice, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research links nutritional exposures early in life with alterations in functional immunity that persist beyond childhood. Here we investigate predictors of antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines in a cohort of Gambian adults with detailed records from birth and early infancy available. 320 adults were given a single dose of a Vi polysaccharide vaccine for Salmonella typhi and a 23-valent capsular polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine. Anti-Vi antibody levels and antibodies against 4 pneumococcal serotypes (1, 5, 14 and 23F) were measured in serum samples collected at baseline and then 14 days following vaccination and compared to data available from birth and early infancy. Post-vaccination antibody titres to serotype 14 of the pneumococcal vaccine were negatively associated with rate of growth from birth to three months of age, infant weight at 12 months of age and season of birth, but no other associations were observed with early-life exposures. The strongest predictor of antibody levels was pre-vaccination antibody titres, with adult height and serum neopterin levels at time of vaccination also implicated. The current study does not support the hypothesis that nutritional exposures early in life consistently compromise antibody response to polysaccharide vaccines administered in young adulthood. PMID:22609011

  14. Persistence of rabies antibody 5 years after postexposure prophylaxis with vero cell antirabies vaccine and antibody response to a single booster dose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Zhenggang; Wang, Chuanlin

    2011-09-01

    This study was done to investigate the antibody response to a Vero cell antirabies vaccine, the persistence of antibody for 5 years, and the effect of a booster dose after this interval. From August 2005 to February 2011, a total of 195 patients were enrolled into our study due to an animal bite. The Essen intramuscular (i.m.) regimen, which is recommended by the WHO for modern vaccines used in postexposure treatment, was adopted in this study. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, day 7, day 14, day 45, year 1, year 2, year 3, year 4, year 5, and year 5 plus 14 days. Immunogenicity was evaluated by the titration of neutralizing antibodies with a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Seroconversion was expressed as the seroconversion rate (SCR). A secondary quantitative evaluation criterion, other than the seroconversion level, was the geometric mean titer (GMT). Of the 195 enrolled patients, 168 (86.4%) of them completed the whole study. No serious adverse reactions to the vaccine were reported during vaccination, the 5-year follow-up period, or revaccination. On day 14, the rabies antibody GMT value was 8.87 IU/ml in the vaccinees. During the next 5 years, the SCR in the ChengDa vaccine group gradually decreased to 34.0% at year 5, down from 90.5% at year 1. There was a significant booster effect: the GMT was 15.22 IU/ml on year 5 plus 14 days. Our findings demonstrate that the ChengDa rabies vaccine offers an alternative with a high degree of efficacy and yet limited side effects and ensures that the exposed patient will be on the safe side of the risk of rabies by the 14th day. Moreover, when followed by a booster dose 5 years later, it could boost the immunity. A further booster is effective in inducing a good neutralizing antibody response even after an interval of 5 years.

  15. Rare and transient anti-D antibody response in D(-) liver transplant recipients transfused with D(+) red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Burin des Roziers, N; Ibanez, C; Samuel, D; Francoz, C; Idri, S; François, A; Mortelecque, R; Bierling, P; Pirenne, F

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on 20 D(-) liver transplant (LT) recipients transfused with D(+) RBCs perioperatively and screened for RBC antibodies between 2 and 6 months later. None developed anti-D detectable by the indirect antiglobulin test. Two patients produced weak anti-D that reacted only with papain-treated RBCs at 10 and 11 days without any sign of immune haemolysis. Antibodies became quickly undetectable. These data suggest an unusual pattern of alloimmunization in LT recipients with rapid, weak and transient antibody response and support the safety of transfusing D(+) RBCs in most of D(-) patients during LT surgery. PMID:26918570

  16. Long-term antibody response and immunologic memory in children immunized with hepatitis B vaccine at birth.

    PubMed

    Saffar, M J; Rezai, M S

    2004-12-01

    Four hundred and fifty three healthy children immunized with a course of hepatitis B vaccine beginning at birth were tested at 10-11 years of age for persistence of anti-hepatitis B-S antigen antibody (anti-HBs); and responses of children without protective antibody to different doses of hepatitis B vaccine booster were evaluated. Although nearly 42% of them were not seroprotected, but most of boosted subjects (87.3%) retained robust immunologic memory and rapidly retained a protective anti-HBs antibody titer of at least 10 IU/L after booster vaccination.

  17. Dietary germanium biotite supplementation enhances the induction of antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential ability of germanium biotite (GB) to stimulate the production of antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). To this aim, we measured the total FMDV-specific antibody responses and IgM production after vaccination against FMD both experimentally and in the field. GB supplementation with FMDV vaccination stimulated the production of anti-FMDV antibodies, and effectively increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. These results suggest that GB may be a novel alternative feed supplement that can serve as a boosting agent and an immunostimulator for increasing the efficacy of FMDV vaccination in pigs.

  18. The antibody response against MART-1 differs in patients with melanoma-associated leucoderma and vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Teulings, Hansje-Eva; Willemsen, Karin J; Glykofridis, Iris; Krebbers, Gabrielle; Komen, Lisa; Kroon, Marije W; Kemp, E Helen; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; van der Veen, J P Wietze; Luiten, Rosalie M; Tjin, Esther P M

    2014-11-01

    Patients with melanoma may develop skin depigmentation spontaneously or following therapy, referred to as melanoma-associated leucoderma (MAL). As clinical presentation of MAL may precede primary/metastatic melanoma detection, recognition of MAL is important to prevent its misdiagnosis as vitiligo and the subsequent application of immunosuppressive treatment. To reveal the immunity involved in MAL development, we investigated the presence of antibody and T-cell immune responses directed against the melanocyte-differentiation-antigens MART-1 (Melan-A), tyrosinase and gp100 in patients with MAL, as compared to patients with vitiligo. Autoantibodies to gp100 and tyrosinase were commonly found in both diseases. Interestingly, MART-1 antibodies were only present in patients with MAL. Melanocyte antigen-specific T cells were found in all patients, with relatively more specific T cells in patients with active vitiligo. Although MAL and vitiligo may appear clinically similar, our results indicate that the humoral immune responses against MART-1 differ between these diseases, which can help to differentiate MAL from vitiligo.

  19. Cryptosporidiosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Kenya: clinical features, epidemiology, molecular characterization and antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Wanyiri, Jane W; Kanyi, Henry; Maina, Samuel; Wang, David E; Steen, Aaron; Ngugi, Paul; Kamau, Timothy; Waithera, Tabitha; O'Connor, Roberta; Gachuhi, Kimani; Wamae, Claire N; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Ward, Honorine D

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the epidemiological and clinical features of cryptosporidiosis, the molecular characteristics of infecting species and serum antibody responses to three Cryptosporidium-specific antigens in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in Kenya. Cryptosporidium was the most prevalent enteric pathogen and was identified in 56 of 164 (34%) of HIV/AIDS patients, including 25 of 70 (36%) with diarrhea and 31 of 94 (33%) without diarrhea. Diarrhea in patients exclusively infected with Cryptosporidium was significantly associated with the number of children per household, contact with animals, and water treatment. Cryptosporidium hominis was the most prevalent species and the most prevalent subtype family was Ib. Patients without diarrhea had significantly higher serum IgG levels to Chgp15, Chgp40 and Cp23, and higher fecal IgA levels to Chgp15 and Chgp40 than those with diarrhea suggesting that antibody responses to these antigens may be associated with protection from diarrhea and supporting further investigation of these antigens as vaccine candidates.

  20. Controlled analysis of nanoparticle charge on mucosal and systemic antibody responses following pulmonary immunization.

    PubMed

    Fromen, Catherine A; Robbins, Gregory R; Shen, Tammy W; Kai, Marc P; Ting, Jenny P Y; DeSimone, Joseph M

    2015-01-13

    Pulmonary immunization enhances local humoral and cell-mediated mucosal protection, which are critical for vaccination against lung-specific pathogens such as influenza or tuberculosis. A variety of nanoparticle (NP) formulations have been tested preclinically for pulmonary vaccine development, yet the role of NP surface charge on downstream immune responses remains poorly understood. We used the Particle Replication in Non-Wetting Templates (PRINT) process to synthesize hydrogel NPs that varied only in surface charge and otherwise maintained constant size, shape, and antigen loading. Pulmonary immunization with ovalbumin (OVA)-conjugated cationic NPs led to enhanced systemic and lung antibody titers compared with anionic NPs. Increased antibody production correlated with robust germinal center B-cell expansion and increased activated CD4(+) T-cell populations in lung draining lymph nodes. Ex vivo treatment of dendritic cells (DCs) with OVA-conjugated cationic NPs induced robust antigen-specific T-cell proliferation with ∼ 100-fold more potency than soluble OVA alone. Enhanced T-cell expansion correlated with increased expression of surface MHCII, T-cell coactivating receptors, and key cytokines/chemokine expression by DCs treated with cationic NPs, which were not observed with anionic NPs or soluble OVA. Together, these studies highlight the importance of NP surface charge when designing pulmonary vaccines, and our findings support the notion that cationic NP platforms engender potent humoral and mucosal immune responses.

  1. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors inhibit antibody response through interference with MAPK/ERK pathways and BLIMP-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Purssell, E

    2014-09-01

    Fever is a common symptom of illness in children, and although not harmful in itself, fever and its associated symptoms are often treated with antipyretic drugs. A number of national and other guidelines now recommend against their routine use; a conclusion that was initially supported by a study showing that the prophylactic use of paracetamol might reduce antibody response to some vaccine antigens, although data from booster vaccinations are more equivocal. Although in vivo data on the cause of this inhibition are scarce, in vitro data suggests that the cause may be due to inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular regulated protein kinase pathways, and a subsequent reduction in the process of plasma cell differentiation at the beginning of the antibody response. This suggests that in high-risk patients these drugs could be avoided in the early part of an infection when plasma-cell differentiation is occurring. More data are needed to define this period; until then existing data support the recommendation against the routine use of these drugs. PMID:25012778

  2. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors inhibit antibody response through interference with MAPK/ERK pathways and BLIMP-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Purssell, E

    2014-09-01

    Fever is a common symptom of illness in children, and although not harmful in itself, fever and its associated symptoms are often treated with antipyretic drugs. A number of national and other guidelines now recommend against their routine use; a conclusion that was initially supported by a study showing that the prophylactic use of paracetamol might reduce antibody response to some vaccine antigens, although data from booster vaccinations are more equivocal. Although in vivo data on the cause of this inhibition are scarce, in vitro data suggests that the cause may be due to inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinase/extracellular regulated protein kinase pathways, and a subsequent reduction in the process of plasma cell differentiation at the beginning of the antibody response. This suggests that in high-risk patients these drugs could be avoided in the early part of an infection when plasma-cell differentiation is occurring. More data are needed to define this period; until then existing data support the recommendation against the routine use of these drugs.

  3. Tracking serum antibody response to viral antigens with arrayed imaging reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Charles R.; Rose, Robert C.; Miller, Benjamin L.

    2009-02-01

    Arrayed Imaging Reflectometry, or "AIR", is a new label-free technique for detecting proteins that relies on bindinginduced changes in the response of an antireflective coating on the surface of a silicon ship. Because the technique provides high sensitivity, excellent dynamic range, and readily integrates with standard silicon wafer processing technology, it is an exceptionally attractive platform on which to build systems for detecting proteins in complex solutions. In our early research, we used AIR chips bearing secreted receptor proteins from enteropathogenic E. coli to develop sensors for this pathogen. Recently, we have been exploring an alternative strategy: Rather than detecting the pathogen directly, can one immobilize antigens from a pathogen, and employ AIR to detect antibody responses to those antigens? Such a strategy would provide enhanced sensitivity for pathogen detection (as the immune system essentially amplifies the "signal" caused by the presence of an organism to which it responds), and would also potentially prove useful in the process of vaccine development. We describe herein preliminary results in the application of such a strategy to the detection of antibodies to human papillomavirus (HPV).

  4. Characterization of the antibody response against EV71 capsid proteins in Chinese individuals by NEIBM-ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yingying; Chen, Xuguang; Qian, Baohua; Wu, Guorong; He, Ting; Feng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Caixia; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Zhao, Chunyan; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, while the anti-EV71 antibody responses other than neutralizing epitopes have not been characterized. In this study, EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP3, VP0 and various VP1 antigens were constructed to analyze anti-EV71 response in severe HFMD cases, non-HFMD outpatient children and normal adults using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA. The high prevalence of antibody responses against all three capsid proteins was demonstrated, and anti-EV71 VP1 showed the main antibody response. Anti-EV71 VP1 antibody response was found to predominantly target to epitopes based on the common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. Moreover, inhibition pattern against anti-EV71 VP1 reactions in three groups was obviously different. Taken together, these results firstly characterized the anti-EV71 antibody responses which are predominantly against VP1 epitopes based on common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. This finding could be helpful for the better understanding of anti-EV71 humoral immunity and useful for seroepidemiological surveillance. PMID:26023863

  5. Characterization of the antibody response against EV71 capsid proteins in Chinese individuals by NEIBM-ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yingying; Chen, Xuguang; Qian, Baohua; Wu, Guorong; He, Ting; Feng, Jiaojiao; Gao, Caixia; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jinhong; Li, Xiangyu; Cao, Mingmei; Peng, Heng; Zhao, Chunyan; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has become the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide, while the anti-EV71 antibody responses other than neutralizing epitopes have not been characterized. In this study, EV71 capsid proteins VP1, VP3, VP0 and various VP1 antigens were constructed to analyze anti-EV71 response in severe HFMD cases, non-HFMD outpatient children and normal adults using a novel evolved immunoglobulin-binding molecule (NEIBM)-based ELISA. The high prevalence of antibody responses against all three capsid proteins was demonstrated, and anti-EV71 VP1 showed the main antibody response. Anti-EV71 VP1 antibody response was found to predominantly target to epitopes based on the common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. Moreover, inhibition pattern against anti-EV71 VP1 reactions in three groups was obviously different. Taken together, these results firstly characterized the anti-EV71 antibody responses which are predominantly against VP1 epitopes based on common enterovirus cross-reactive sequence. This finding could be helpful for the better understanding of anti-EV71 humoral immunity and useful for seroepidemiological surveillance.

  6. DNA vaccine expressing the mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces protective GD2 cross-reactive antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Rotkiewicz, Piotr; Bambach, Barbara; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Horwacik, Irena; Kolinski, Andrzej; Rokita, Hanna; Brecher, Martin; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-04-15

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermally derived tumors, including neuroblastoma and melanoma, is weakly immunogenic in tumor-bearing patients and induces predominantly immunoglobulin (Ig)-M antibody responses in the immunized host. Here, we investigated whether interconversion of GD2 into a peptide mimetic form would induce GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in mice. Screening of the X(15) phage display peptide library with the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a led to isolation of mimetic peptide 47, which inhibited the binding of 14G2a antibody to GD2-positive tumor cells. The peptide was also recognized by GD2-specific serum antibodies from a patient with neuroblastoma, suggesting that it bears an internal image of GD2 ganglioside expressed on the tumor cells. The molecular basis for antigenicity of the GD2 mimetic peptide, established by molecular modeling and mutagenesis studies, led to the generation of a 47-LDA mutant with an increased mimicry to GD2. Immunization of mice with peptide 47-LDA-encoded plasmid DNA elicited GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses, which were increased on subsequent boost with GD2 ganglioside. The vaccine-induced antibodies recognized GD2-positive tumor cells, mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and exhibited protection against s.c. human GD2-positive melanoma growth in the severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft model. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses by minigene vaccination with a protective epitope of GD2 ganglioside.

  7. DNA vaccine expressing the mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces protective GD2 cross-reactive antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Rotkiewicz, Piotr; Bambach, Barbara; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Horwacik, Irena; Kolinski, Andrzej; Rokita, Hanna; Brecher, Martin; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-04-15

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermally derived tumors, including neuroblastoma and melanoma, is weakly immunogenic in tumor-bearing patients and induces predominantly immunoglobulin (Ig)-M antibody responses in the immunized host. Here, we investigated whether interconversion of GD2 into a peptide mimetic form would induce GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in mice. Screening of the X(15) phage display peptide library with the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a led to isolation of mimetic peptide 47, which inhibited the binding of 14G2a antibody to GD2-positive tumor cells. The peptide was also recognized by GD2-specific serum antibodies from a patient with neuroblastoma, suggesting that it bears an internal image of GD2 ganglioside expressed on the tumor cells. The molecular basis for antigenicity of the GD2 mimetic peptide, established by molecular modeling and mutagenesis studies, led to the generation of a 47-LDA mutant with an increased mimicry to GD2. Immunization of mice with peptide 47-LDA-encoded plasmid DNA elicited GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses, which were increased on subsequent boost with GD2 ganglioside. The vaccine-induced antibodies recognized GD2-positive tumor cells, mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and exhibited protection against s.c. human GD2-positive melanoma growth in the severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft model. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses by minigene vaccination with a protective epitope of GD2 ganglioside. PMID:15833876

  8. Antibody responses to an immunodominant nonstructural 1 synthetic peptide in patients with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Huang, J H; Wey, J J; Sun, Y C; Chin, C; Chien, L J; Wu, Y C

    1999-01-01

    Two flaviviruses, dengue (DEN) virus and Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, are important because of their global distribution and the frequency of epidemics in tropical and subtropical areas. To study the B-cell epitopes of nonstructural 1 (NS1) glycoprotein and anti-NS1 antibody response in DEN infection, a series of 15-mer synthetic peptides from the predicted B-cell linear epitopes of DEN-2 NS1 protein were prepared. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to analyze antibody responses to these peptides from sera of both DEN and JE patients. One peptide derived from DEN-2 NS1, D2 NS1-P1 (amino acids 1-15), was identified as the immunodominant epitope that reacted with sera from dengue fever (DF) patients but not JE patients. The isotype of D2 NS1-P1-specific antibodies was mainly immunoglobulin M (IgM) in all sera that tested positive. A specificity study demonstrated that sera from all four DEN types reacted with D2 NS1-P1. A dynamics study showed that specific antibodies to this peptide could be detected as early as 2 days after the onset of symptoms. We observed significant anti-D2 NS1-P1 antibody responses in 45% of patients with primary and secondary infections with DF or with dengue hemorrhagic fever. This is the first report demonstrating that significant anti-DEN NS1 antibodies can be induced in the sera of patients with primary DEN infection.

  9. Povidone Iodine Ointment Application to the Vaccination Site Does Not Alter Immunoglobulin G Antibody Response to Smallpox Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Christine; Brown, Elizabeth S; Quinn, Xiaofei; Korman, Lawrence; Dyas, Beverly K; Ulrich, Robert G; Pittman, Phillip R

    2016-01-01

    U.S. military personnel deployed to high-risk areas receive the live vaccinia virus (VACV) smallpox vaccine ACAM2000. VACV shedding from the vaccination site can result in autoinoculation and contact transmission. We previously found that the application of povidone iodine ointment (PIO) to the scarification site reduced viral shedding without altering the antibody response, as measured by plaque reduction neutralization or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In this study, we used protein microarray assays to measure the amount of immunoglobulin G antibody bound to (1) ACAM2000 itself and (2) individual VACV antigens that are present within ACAM2000. We assessed antibody binding in sera from primary smallpox vaccinees who applied PIO to the scarification site beginning on day 7 (PIO group) and from those who did not apply PIO (control group). In both cohorts, the postvaccination antibody response-in terms of antibody binding, both to ACAM2000 and to 11 individual VACV antigens-was significantly greater than the prevaccination response (all p < 0.0001). The postvaccination antibody binding levels of vaccinees in the PIO group did not differ from those of control vaccinees. These findings further support the topical application of PIO, starting on day 7, to reduce the viral shedding associated with smallpox vaccination. PMID:27214505

  10. Vaccine-induced antibody responses as parameters of the influence of endogenous and environmental factors.

    PubMed Central

    Van Loveren, H; Van Amsterdam, J G; Vandebriel, R J; Kimman, T G; Rümke, H C; Steerenberg, P S; Vos, J G

    2001-01-01

    In laboratory animals, an adequate way to assess effects of environmental exposures on the immune system is to study effects on antigen-specific immune responses, such as after sensitization to T-cell-dependent antigens. This probably also applies to testing effects in the human population. It has thus been suggested that antibody responses to vaccination might be useful in this context. Vaccination responses may be influenced by a variety of factors other than environmental ones. One factor is the vaccine itself; a second is the vaccination procedure used. In addition, the intrinsic capacity of the recipient to respond to a vaccine, which is determined by sex, genetic factors, and age, is important. Psychological stress, nutrition, and (infectious) diseases are also likely to have an impact. We reviewed the literature on vaccine response. With regard to exogenous factors, there is good evidence that smoking, diet, psychological stress, and certain infectious diseases affect vaccination titers, although it is difficult to determine to what extent. Genetic factors render certain individuals nonresponsive to vaccination. In general, in epidemiologic studies of adverse effects of exposure to agents in the environment in which vaccination titers are used, these additional factors need to be taken into consideration. Provided that these factors are corrected for, a study that shows an association of exposure to a given agent with diminished vaccination responses may indicate suboptimal function of the immune system and clinically relevant diminished immune response. It is quite unlikely that environmental exposures that affect responses to vaccination may in fact abrogate protection to the specific pathogen for which vaccination was performed. Only in those cases where individuals have a poor response to the vaccine may exogenous factors perhaps have a clinically significant influence on resistance to the specific pathogen. An exposure-associated inhibition of a

  11. Antibody Secreting Cell Responses following Vaccination with Bivalent Oral Cholera Vaccine among Haitian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Richelle C.; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M.; Teng, Jessica E.; Xu, Peng; Kováč, Pavol; Ryan, Edward T.; Qadri, Firdausi; Franke, Molly F.; Ivers, Louise C.; Harris, Jason B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The bivalent whole-cell (BivWC) oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) is effective in preventing cholera. However, evaluations of immune responses following vaccination with BivWC have been limited. To determine whether BivWC induces significant mucosal immune responses, we measured V. cholerae O1 antigen-specific antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses following vaccination. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled 24 Haitian adults in this study, and administered doses of oral BivWC vaccine 14 days apart (day 0 and day 14). We drew blood at baseline, and 7 days following each vaccine dose (day 7 and 21). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated, and ASCs were enumerated using an ELISPOT assay. Significant increases in Ogawa (6.9 cells per million PBMCs) and Inaba (9.5 cells per million PBMCs) OSP-specific IgA ASCs were detected 7 days following the first dose (P < 0.001), but not the second dose. The magnitude of V. cholerae-specific ASC responses did not appear to be associated with recent exposure to cholera. ASC responses measured against the whole lipolysaccharide (LPS) antigen and the OSP moiety of LPS were equivalent, suggesting that all or nearly all of the LPS response targets the OSP moiety. Conclusions/Significance Immunization with the BivWC oral cholera vaccine induced ASC responses among a cohort of healthy adults in Haiti after a single dose. The second dose of vaccine resulted in minimal ASC responses over baseline, suggesting that the current dosing schedule may not be optimal for boosting mucosal immune responses to V. cholerae antigens for adults in a cholera-endemic area. PMID:27308825

  12. Macrophages from chickens selected for high antibody response produced more nitric oxide and have greater phagocytic capacity.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marco Cesar Cunegundes; Guillermo, Landi Veivi Costilla; Matta, Marcos Fernando de Rezende; Soares, Sandro Gomes; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2011-04-15

    Macrophages are fundamental cells of the innate immune system, which, through phagocytosis and nitric oxide production, eliminate pathogens. The aim of the present study was to determine if macrophages from chicken families divergently selected to high and low antibodies response differ in nitric oxide production and phagocytic capacity. Blood monocytes derived macrophages were activated with lipopolysaccharide and supernatant from chicken spleen lymphocytes cultured with Concanavalin A (containing chicken interferon). Nitric oxide production was evaluated in culture supernatants. Phagocytic capacity of activated and non-activated macrophages was assayed using yeasts and IgY opsonized sheep red blood cells. Activated and non-activated macrophages from the high antibodies response family produced higher nitric oxide levels, internalized more yeast and significantly more opsonized sheep red blood cells than macrophages from the low antibodies response family. Moreover, activated macrophages became more elongated and widely spread. These findings indicate that macrophages from the high antibodies response family were more active suggesting that the differences in antibody response also depend on macrophage function.

  13. Antibody and T-cell responses associated with experimental human malaria infection or vaccination show limited relationships.

    PubMed

    Walker, Karen M; Okitsu, Shinji; Porter, David W; Duncan, Christopher; Amacker, Mario; Pluschke, Gerd; Cavanagh, David R; Hill, Adrian V S; Todryk, Stephen M

    2015-05-01

    This study examined specific antibody and T-cell responses associated with experimental malaria infection or malaria vaccination, in malaria-naive human volunteers within phase I/IIa vaccine trials, with a view to investigating inter-relationships between these types of response. Malaria infection was via five bites of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes, with individuals reaching patent infection by 11-12 days, having harboured four or five blood-stage cycles before drug clearance. Infection elicited a robust antibody response against merozoite surface protein-119 , correlating with parasite load. Classical class switching was seen from an early IgM to an IgG1-dominant response of increasing affinity. Malaria-specific T-cell responses were detected in the form of interferon-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4) ELIspot, but their magnitude did not correlate with the magnitude of antibody or its avidity, or with parasite load. Different individuals who were immunized with a virosome vaccine comprising influenza antigens combined with P. falciparum antigens, demonstrated pre-existing interferon-γ, IL-2 and IL-5 ELIspot responses against the influenza antigens, and showed boosting of anti-influenza T-cell responses only for IL-5. The large IgG1-dominated anti-parasite responses showed limited correlation with T-cell responses for magnitude or avidity, both parameters being only negatively correlated for IL-5 secretion versus anti-apical membrane antigen-1 antibody titres. Overall, these findings suggest that cognate T-cell responses across a range of magnitudes contribute towards driving potentially effective antibody responses in infection-induced and vaccine-induced immunity against malaria, and their existence during immunization is beneficial, but magnitudes are mostly not inter-related. PMID:25471322

  14. Vaccine-induced plasmablast responses in rhesus macaques: phenotypic characterization and a source for generating antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Eduardo L. V.; Kasturi, Sudhir P.; Kovalenkov, Yevgeniy; Ur Rasheed, Ata; Yeiser, Patryce; Jinnah, Zarpheen S.; Legere, Traci H.; Pulendran, Bali; Villinger, Francois; Wrammert, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Over 100 broadly neutralizing antibodies have been isolated from a minority of HIV infected patients, but the steps leading to the selection of plasmacells producing such antibodies remain incompletely understood, hampering the development of vaccines able to elicit them. Rhesus macaques have become a preferred animal model system used to study SIV/HIV, for the characterization and development of novel therapeutics and vaccines as well as to understand pathogenesis. However, most of our knowledge about the dynamics of antibody responses is limited to the analysis of serum antibodies or monoclonal antibodies generated from memory B cells. In a vaccine setting, relatively little is known about the early cellular responses that elicit long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells and the tools to dissect plasmablast responses are not available in macaques. In the current study, we show that the majority (>80%) of the vaccine-induced plasmablast response are antigen-specific by functional ELISPOT assays. While plasmablasts are easily defined and isolated in humans, those same phenotypic markers have not been useful for identifying macaque plasmablasts. Here we describe an approach that allows for the isolation and single cell sorting of vaccine-induced plasmablasts. Finally, we show that isolated plasmablasts can be used to efficiently recover antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies through single cell expression cloning. This will allow detailed studies of the early plasmablast responses in rhesus macaques, enabling the characterization of both their repertoire breadth as well as the epitope specificity and functional qualities of the antibodies they produce, not only in the context of SIV/HIV vaccines but for many other pathogens/vaccines as well. PMID:25445326

  15. The impact of pre-existing antibody on subsequent immune responses to meningococcal A-containing vaccines.

    PubMed

    Idoko, Olubukola T; Okolo, Seline N; Plikaytis, Brian; Akinsola, Adebayo; Viviani, Simonetta; Borrow, Ray; Carlone, George; Findlow, Helen; Elie, Cheryl; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Ota, Martin; Kampmann, Beate

    2014-07-16

    Major epidemics of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis continue to affect the African meningitis belt. The development of an affordable conjugate vaccine against the disease became a priority for World Health Organization (WHO) in the late 1990s. Licensing of meningococcal vaccines has been based on serological correlates of protection alone, but such correlates might differ in different geographical regions. If high pre-vaccination antibody concentrations/titers impacts on the response to vaccination and possibly vaccine efficacy, is not clearly understood. We set out to define the pre-vaccination Meningococcal group A (Men A) antibody concentrations/titers in The Gambia and study their impact on the immunogenicity of Men A containing vaccines. Data from subjects originally enrolled in studies to test the safety and immunogenicity of the MenA vaccine recently developed for Africa meningococcal A polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid, MenAfriVac(®) (PsA-TT) were analyzed. Participants had been randomized to receive either the study vaccine PsA-TT or the reference quadrivalent plain polysaccharide vaccine containing meningococcal groups A, C, W, and Y, Mencevax(®) ACWY, GlaxoSmithKline (PsACWY) in a 2:1 ratio. Venous blood samples were collected before and 28 days after vaccination. Antibodies were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for geometric mean concentrations and serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) for functional antibody. The inter age group differences were compared using ANOVA and the pre and post-vaccination differences by t test. Over 80% of the ≥19 year olds had pre-vaccination antibody concentrations above putatively protective concentrations as compared to only 10% of 1-2 year olds. Ninety-five percent of those who received the study vaccine had ≥4-fold antibody responses if they had low pre-vaccination concentrations compared to 76% of those with high pre-vaccination concentrations. All subjects with low pre

  16. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies and their value for predicting responses to biologic agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Martin-Mola, Emilio; Balsa, Alejandro; García-Vicuna, Rosario; Gómez-Reino, Juan; González-Gay, Miguel Angel; Sanmartí, Raimon; Loza, Estíbaliz

    2016-08-01

    Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs) play an important pathogenic role both at the onset and during the disease course. These antibodies precede the clinical appearance of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are associated with a less favorable prognosis, both clinically and radiologically. The objective of this work was to conduct a comprehensive review of studies published through September 2015 of ACPAs' role as a predictor of the therapeutic response to the biological agents in RA patients. The review also includes summary of the biology and detection of ACPAs as well as ACPAs in relation to joint disease and CV disease and the possible role of seroconversion. The reviews of studies examining TNF inhibitors and tocilizumab yielded negative results. In the case of rituximab, the data indicated a greater probability of clinical benefit in ACPA(+) patients versus ACPA(-) patients, as has been previously described for rheumatoid factor. Nonetheless, the effect is discreet and heterogeneous. Another drug that may have greater effectiveness in ACPA(+) patients is abatacept. Some studies have suggested that the drug is more efficient in ACPA(+) patients and that those patients show greater drug retention. In a subanalysis of the AMPLE trial, patients with very high ACPA titers who were treated with abatacept had a statistically significant response compared to patients with lower titers. In summary, the available studies suggest that the presence of or high titers of ACPA may predict a better response to rituximab and/or abatacept. Evidence regarding TNFi and tocilizumab is lacking. However, there is a lack of studies with appropriate designs to demonstrate that some drugs are superior to others for ACPA(+) patients. PMID:27271502

  17. Influence of Age on Antibody Response and Persistence Following Immunization With MenAfriVac

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuxiao; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A meningococcal group A conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT (MenAfriVac), developed through the Meningitis Vaccine Project and manufactured by the Serum Institute of India, Ltd, was tested in multiple clinical trials conducted mainly in Africa. The impact of age at which subjects were vaccinated on immune response and persistence postimmunization with PsA-TT was the main focus of the current analysis. Methods. Subjects who were vaccinated with a single dose of 10 µg of PsA-TT at 12–23 months or 22–33 months of age in study A conducted in Mali and The Gambia; at 2–10 years, 11–17 years, or 18–29 years of age in study B conducted in Mali, The Gambia, and Senegal; and at 14–18 weeks, 9–12 months, or 12–18 months of age in study C conducted in Ghana are included in the current analysis. Immunogenicity was measured by group A serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titer with baby rabbit complement. Results. Significant differences in SBA titers were found among the age groups in studies B and C both 28 days and 1 year postimmunization. A significant difference in SBA titers between age groups 12–23 months and 22–33 months was only observed 1 year postimmunization in study A. Antibody titers remained at similar levels from 1 to 2 years postimmunization for subjects vaccinated at 12–23 months in study A and at 9–12 months or 12–18 months of age in study C. Conclusions. Subjects immunized at different ages had different postimmunization immune responses as measured by SBA titers. Toddlers tended to have higher immune responses than infants. This pattern persisted at least 1 year postimmunization. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN78147026 (study A), ISRCTN87739946 (study B), and ISRCTN82484612 (study C). PMID:26553685

  18. Effects of adenosine derivatives on cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and primary antibody responses in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kandil, O.; Nakic, M.; Nelson, J.A.

    1986-03-05

    Accumulation of adenosine (Ado) and/or deoxyadenosine (dAdo) in adenosine deaminase deficiency is thought to mediate the immunodeficiency associated with the genetic disease in humans. To study the mechanism by which immune function is impaired, we are using analogs which are not substrates for the deaminase. The analogs and their doses (mg/kg/day, IP) are: an Ado analog, Tubercidin (2); and two dAdo analogs, 2-chlorodeoxy-adenosine (50) and 2-fluoro, arabinosyl AMP (250). CTL were generated by injecting C57B1/6 mice with 2.5 x 10/sup 7/ P815 mastocytoma cells, IP. Groups of mice were then treated once daily on days 9-11 with the analogs. On day 12, the animals were sacrificed and spleen cell suspensions were enriched for CTL by passage through nylon wool columns. CTL were measured against /sup 51/Cr-labeled P815 targets using a standard /sup 51/Cr-release assay. Primary antibody response was assessed in AKR mice following immunization with a T-dependent (sheep erythrocytes) or T-independent (TNP-Ficoll) antigen. Animals were treated with the analogs on days 1-3. On day 4, spleen cells were removed and assayed for antibody response in a plaque-forming assay. The dAdo analogs, but not tubercidin, inhibited the immune functions at these near-maximally tolerated doses. Treatment of the mice with the deaminase inhibitor, deoxycoformycin (1 mg/kg/day), was not inhibitory to these responses.

  19. Different Antibody Response against the Coxsackievirus A16 VP1 Capsid Protein: Specific or Non-Specific

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Teng, Zheng; Gao, Caixia; Qian, Baohua; Wang, Lili; Feng, Jiaojiao; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Guo, Cunjiu; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease worldwide. The non-neutralizing antibody response that targets CA16 VP1 remains poorly elucidated. In the present study, antibody responses against CA16 VP1 in Shanghai blood donors and Shanxi individuals were analyzed by ELISA and inhibitory ELISA using five CA16 VP1 antigens: VP11-297, VP141-297, VP11-60, VP145-58 and VP161-297. The correlation coefficients for most of the reactions against each of the five antigens and the inhibition of the anti-CA16 VP1 antibody response produced by the various antigens were higher in Shanghai blood donors compared to those in Shanxi individuals. VP11-297 and VP141-297 strongly inhibited the anti-CA16 VP1 response in serum samples from both populations, while VP145-58 and VP161-297 intermediately and weakly inhibited the anti-CA16 VP1 response, respectively, in only Shanghai group. A specific type of inhibition (anti-CA16 VP1 was completely inhibited by both VP11-60 and VP141-297) characterized by high neutralizing antibody titers was identified and accounted for 71.4% of the strongly reactive samples from the Shanghai group. These results indicate that the Shanghai blood donors exhibited a consistent and specific antibody response, while the Shanxi individuals showed an inconsistent and non-specific antibody response. These findings may improve the understanding of host humoral immunity against CA16 and help to identify an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance and specific diagnosis of CA16 infection based on normal and competitive ELISA. PMID:27622652

  20. Different Antibody Response against the Coxsackievirus A16 VP1 Capsid Protein: Specific or Non-Specific.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yingying; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Xi; Teng, Zheng; Gao, Caixia; Qian, Baohua; Wang, Lili; Feng, Jiaojiao; Wang, Jinhong; Zhao, Chunyan; Guo, Cunjiu; Pan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease worldwide. The non-neutralizing antibody response that targets CA16 VP1 remains poorly elucidated. In the present study, antibody responses against CA16 VP1 in Shanghai blood donors and Shanxi individuals were analyzed by ELISA and inhibitory ELISA using five CA16 VP1 antigens: VP11-297, VP141-297, VP11-60, VP145-58 and VP161-297. The correlation coefficients for most of the reactions against each of the five antigens and the inhibition of the anti-CA16 VP1 antibody response produced by the various antigens were higher in Shanghai blood donors compared to those in Shanxi individuals. VP11-297 and VP141-297 strongly inhibited the anti-CA16 VP1 response in serum samples from both populations, while VP145-58 and VP161-297 intermediately and weakly inhibited the anti-CA16 VP1 response, respectively, in only Shanghai group. A specific type of inhibition (anti-CA16 VP1 was completely inhibited by both VP11-60 and VP141-297) characterized by high neutralizing antibody titers was identified and accounted for 71.4% of the strongly reactive samples from the Shanghai group. These results indicate that the Shanghai blood donors exhibited a consistent and specific antibody response, while the Shanxi individuals showed an inconsistent and non-specific antibody response. These findings may improve the understanding of host humoral immunity against CA16 and help to identify an effective approach for seroepidemiological surveillance and specific diagnosis of CA16 infection based on normal and competitive ELISA. PMID:27622652

  1. Chronic inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 attenuates antibody responses against vaccinia infection.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Matthew P; Bancos, Simona; Chapman, Timothy J; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Treanor, John J; Rose, Robert C; Topham, David J; Phipps, Richard P

    2010-02-01

    Generation of optimal humoral immunity to vaccination is essential to protect against devastating infectious agents such as the variola virus that causes smallpox. Vaccinia virus (VV), employed as a vaccine against smallpox, provides an important model of infection. Herein, we evaluated the importance cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) in immunity to VV using Cox-2 deficient mice and Cox-2 selective inhibitory drugs. The effects of Cox-2 inhibition on antibody responses to live viruses such as vaccinia have not been previously described. Here, we used VV infection in Cox-2 deficient mice and in mice chronically treated with Cox-2 selective inhibitors and show that the frequency of VV-specific B cells was reduced, as well as the production of neutralizing IgG. VV titers were approximately 70 times higher in mice treated with a Cox-2 selective inhibitor. Interestingly, Cox-2 inhibition also reduced the frequency of IFN-gamma producing CD4(+) T helper cells, important for class switching. The significance of these results is that the chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and other drugs that inhibit Cox-2 activity or expression, blunt the ability of B cells to produce anti-viral antibodies, thereby making vaccines less effective and possibly increasing susceptibility to viral infection. These new findings support an essential role for Cox-2 in regulating humoral immunity.

  2. Chronic Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Attenuates Antibody Responses against Vaccinia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Matthew P.; Bancos, Simona; Chapman, Timothy J.; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Treanor, John J.; Rose, Robert C.; Topham, David J.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Generation of optimal humoral immunity to vaccination is essential to protect against devastating infectious agents such as the variola virus that causes smallpox. Vaccinia virus (VV), employed as a vaccine against smallpox, provides an important model of infection. Herein, we evaluated the importance cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) in immunity to VV using Cox-2 deficient mice and Cox-2 selective inhibitory drugs. The effects of Cox-2 inhibition on antibody responses to live viruses such as vaccinia have not been previously described. Here, we used VV infection in Cox-2 deficient mice and in mice chronically treated with Cox-2 selective inhibitors and show that the frequency of VV-specific B cells was reduced, as well as the production of neutralizing IgG. VV titers were approximately 70 times higher in mice treated with a Cox-2 selective inhibitor. Interestingly, Cox-2 inhibition also reduced the frequency of IFN-γ producing CD4+ T helper cells, important for class switching. The significance of these results is that the chronic use of NSAIDs, and other drugs that inhibit Cox-2 activity or expression, blunt the ability of B cells to produce anti-viral antibodies, thereby making vaccines less effective and possibly increasing susceptibility to viral infection. These new findings support an essential role for Cox-2 in regulating humoral immunity. PMID:19941994

  3. Antibody responses after vaccination against equine influenza in the Republic of Korea in 2013

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Eun-Ju; KIM, Bo-Hye; YANG, Sunjoo; CHOI, Eun-Jin; SHIN, Ye-Jin; SONG, Jae-Young; SHIN, Yeun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, antibody responses after equine influenza vaccination were investigated among 1,098 horses in Korea using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The equine influenza viruses, A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08 (H3N8), were used as antigens in the HI assay. The mean seropositive rates were 91.7% (geometric mean antibody levels (GMT), 56.8) and 93.6% (GMT, 105.2) for A/equine/South Africa/4/03 and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08, respectively. Yearlings and two-year-olds in training exhibited lower positive rates (68.1% (GMT, 14) and 61.7% (GMT, 11.9), respectively, with different antigens) than average. Horses two years old or younger may require more attention in vaccination against equine influenza according to the vaccination regime, because they could be a target of the equine influenza virus. PMID:26062436

  4. Neutralising antibody response in domestic cats immunised with a commercial feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Harris, Matthew; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Beatty, Julia A.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Across human and veterinary medicine, vaccines against only two retroviral infections have been brought to market successfully, the vaccines against feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FeLV vaccines have been a global success story, reducing virus prevalence in countries where uptake is high. In contrast, the more recent FIV vaccine was introduced in 2002 and the degree of protection afforded in the field remains to be established. However, given the similarities between FIV and HIV, field studies of FIV vaccine efficacy are likely to advise and inform the development of future approaches to HIV vaccination. Here we assessed the neutralising antibody response induced by FIV vaccination against a panel of FIV isolates, by testing blood samples collected from client-owned vaccinated Australian cats. We examined the molecular and phenotypic properties of 24 envs isolated from one vaccinated cat that we speculated might have become infected following natural exposure to FIV. Cats vaccinated against FIV did not display broadly neutralising antibodies, suggesting that protection may not extend to some virulent recombinant strains of FIV circulating in Australia. PMID:25613718

  5. Tailoring the Antibody Response to Aggregated Aß Using Novel Alzheimer-Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Petra; Cinar, Yeliz; Pichler, Dagmar; Funke, Susanne Aileen; Willbold, Dieter; Schneeberger, Achim; Schmidt, Walter; Mattner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests Alzheimer-Disease (AD) to be driven by aggregated Aß. Capitalizing on the mechanism of molecular mimicry and applying several selection layers, we screened peptide libraries for moieties inducing antibodies selectively reacting with Aß-aggregates. The technology identified a pool of peptide candidates; two, AFFITOPES AD01 and AD02, were assessed as vaccination antigens and compared to Aβ1-6, the targeted epitope. When conjugated to Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) and adjuvanted with aluminum, all three peptides induced Aß-targeting antibodies (Abs). In contrast to Aß1-6, AD01- or AD02-induced Abs were characterized by selectivity for aggregated forms of Aß and absence of reactivity with related molecules such as Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP)/ secreted APP-alpha (sAPPa). Administration of AFFITOPE-vaccines to APP-transgenic mice was found to reduce their cerebral amyloid burden, the associated neuropathological alterations and to improve their cognitive functions. Thus, the AFFITOME-technology delivers vaccines capable of inducing a distinct Ab response. Their features may be beneficial to AD-patients, a hypothesis currently tested within a phase-II-study. PMID:25611858

  6. Neutralising antibody response in domestic cats immunised with a commercial feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M; Harris, Matthew; Techakriengkrai, Navapon; Beatty, Julia A; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2015-02-18

    Across human and veterinary medicine, vaccines against only two retroviral infections have been brought to market successfully, the vaccines against feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). FeLV vaccines have been a global success story, reducing virus prevalence in countries where uptake is high. In contrast, the more recent FIV vaccine was introduced in 2002 and the degree of protection afforded in the field remains to be established. However, given the similarities between FIV and HIV, field studies of FIV vaccine efficacy are likely to advise and inform the development of future approaches to HIV vaccination. Here we assessed the neutralising antibody response induced by FIV vaccination against a panel of FIV isolates, by testing blood samples collected from client-owned vaccinated Australian cats. We examined the molecular and phenotypic properties of 24 envs isolated from one vaccinated cat that we speculated might have become infected following natural exposure to FIV. Cats vaccinated against FIV did not display broadly neutralising antibodies, suggesting that protection may not extend to some virulent recombinant strains of FIV circulating in Australia.

  7. Tailoring the antibody response to aggregated Aß using novel Alzheimer-vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mandler, Markus; Santic, Radmila; Gruber, Petra; Cinar, Yeliz; Pichler, Dagmar; Funke, Susanne Aileen; Willbold, Dieter; Schneeberger, Achim; Schmidt, Walter; Mattner, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests Alzheimer-Disease (AD) to be driven by aggregated Aß. Capitalizing on the mechanism of molecular mimicry and applying several selection layers, we screened peptide libraries for moieties inducing antibodies selectively reacting with Aß-aggregates. The technology identified a pool of peptide candidates; two, AFFITOPES AD01 and AD02, were assessed as vaccination antigens and compared to Aβ1-6, the targeted epitope. When conjugated to Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) and adjuvanted with aluminum, all three peptides induced Aß-targeting antibodies (Abs). In contrast to Aß1-6, AD01- or AD02-induced Abs were characterized by selectivity for aggregated forms of Aß and absence of reactivity with related molecules such as Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP)/ secreted APP-alpha (sAPPa). Administration of AFFITOPE-vaccines to APP-transgenic mice was found to reduce their cerebral amyloid burden, the associated neuropathological alterations and to improve their cognitive functions. Thus, the AFFITOME-technology delivers vaccines capable of inducing a distinct Ab response. Their features may be beneficial to AD-patients, a hypothesis currently tested within a phase-II-study.

  8. Antibody response to rabies vaccination in captive and freeranging wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federoff, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Fourteen captive and five free-ranging Minnesota gray wolves (Canis lupus) were tested for the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) after vaccination with an inactivated canine rabies vaccine. Blood was collected from all wolves prior to vaccination and at 1 mo postvaccination (PV) and from all captive and three wild wolves at 3 mo PV. In addition, one free-ranging wolf was sampled at 4 mo PV, and two free-ranging wolves were sampled at 6 mo PV. All wolves were seronegative prior to vaccination. RVNA were detected in 14 (100%) captive wolves and in four of five (80%) free-ranging wolves. The geometric mean titer of the captive wolves at 1 mo PV was significantly higher (P = 0.023) than in the free-ranging wolves. Five of 13 (38.5%) captive wolves and none of the three (0%) free-ranging wolves had measurable RVNA at 3 mo PV. No measurable RVNA were detected in the serum samples collected from the free-ranging wolves at 4 and 6 mo PV. These results should be interpreted with caution because of the small number of free-ranging wolves tested. Further research is needed to properly assess immune function and antibody response to vaccination in captive wolves in comparison with their free-ranging counterparts.

  9. Immunoglobulin G antibody response in children and adults with acute dengue 3 infection.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Susana; Acosta, Nadia; Ruiz, Didye; Calzada, Naifi; Alvarez, Angel M; Guzman, Maria G

    2009-07-01

    Using a serological test, different criteria have been established for classifying a case as primary or secondary dengue virus infection. Considering the dengue epidemiological situation in Cuba, IgG antibody response to dengue virus infection in serum samples from children and adults with a dengue 3 infection, in Havana city during the 2001-2002 epidemic was evaluated. Samples were collected on days 5-7 of fever onset and tested by an ELISA inhibition. A total of 713 serum samples positive for IgM antibody, 93 from children and 620 from adult patients were studied. Serum samples collected from healthy blood donors and patients not infected with dengue were included as controls. An IgG primary infection pattern was observed in sera collected from children, with titers of < or =20 in the 89.3% of the patients, while both, a primary and secondary patterns were observed in sera collected from adult patients with titers of < or =20 (13.4%) and > or =1280 (83.9%), respectively. These results permitted the definition of a primary or secondary case of dengue virus infection in serum samples collected during the acute phase of dengue virus infection.

  10. Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Is the Strongest Correlate of Cross-Reactive Antibody Responses in Migratory Bird Handlers

    PubMed Central

    Oshansky, Christine M.; Wong, Sook-San; Jeevan, Trushar; Smallwood, Heather S.; Webby, Richard J.; Shafir, Shira C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Avian species are reservoirs of influenza A viruses and could harbor viruses with significant pandemic potential. We examined the antibody and cellular immune responses to influenza A viruses in field or laboratory workers with a spectrum of occupational exposure to avian species for evidence of zoonotic infections. We measured the seroprevalence and T cell responses among 95 individuals with various types and degrees of prior field or laboratory occupational exposure to wild North American avian species using whole blood samples collected in 2010. Plasma samples were tested using endpoint enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination (HA) inhibition (HAI) assays to subtypes H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, and H12 proteins. Detectable antibodies were found against influenza HA antigens in 77% of individuals, while 65% of individuals tested had measurable T cell responses (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay [ELISPOT]) to multiple HA antigens of avian origin. To begin defining the observed antibody specificities, Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that ELISA responses, which measure both head- and stalk-binding antibodies, do not predict HAI reactivities, which measure primarily head-binding antibodies. This result suggests that ELISA titers can report cross-reactivity based on the levels of non-head-binding responses. However, the strongest positive correlate of HA-specific ELISA antibody titers was receipt of seasonal influenza virus vaccination. Occupational exposure was largely uncorrelated with serological measures, with the exception of individuals exposed to poultry, who had higher levels of H7-specific antibodies than non-poultry-exposed individuals. While the cohort had antibody and T cell reactivity to a broad range of influenza viruses, only occupational exposure to poultry was associated with a significant difference in antibody levels to a specific subtype (H7). There was no evidence that T cell

  11. Human antibody responses to the polyclonal Dryvax vaccine for smallpox prevention can be distinguished from responses to the monoclonal replacement vaccine ACAM2000.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Christine; Keasey, Sarah; Korman, Lawrence; Pittman, Phillip R; Ulrich, Robert G

    2014-06-01

    Dryvax (Wyeth Laboratories, Inc., Marietta, PA) is representative of the vaccinia virus preparations that were previously used for preventing smallpox. While Dryvax was highly effective, the national supply stocks were depleted, and there were manufacturing concerns regarding sterility and the clonal heterogeneity of the vaccine. ACAM2000 (Acambis, Inc./Sanofi-Pasteur Biologics Co., Cambridge, MA), a single-plaque-purified vaccinia virus derivative of Dryvax, recently replaced the polyclonal smallpox vaccine for use in the United States. A substantial amount of sequence heterogeneity exists within the polyclonal proteome of Dryvax, including proteins that are missing from ACAM2000. Reasoning that a detailed comparison of antibody responses to the polyclonal and monoclonal vaccines may be useful for identifying unique properties of each antibody response, we utilized a protein microarray comprised of approximately 94% of the vaccinia poxvirus proteome (245 proteins) to measure protein-specific antibody responses of 71 individuals receiving a single vaccination with ACAM2000 or Dryvax. We observed robust antibody responses to 21 poxvirus proteins in vaccinated individuals, including 11 proteins that distinguished Dryvax responses from ACAM2000. Analysis of protein sequences from Dryvax clones revealed amino acid level differences in these 11 antigenic proteins and suggested that sequence variation and clonal heterogeneity may contribute to the observed differences between Dryvax and ACAM2000 antibody responses.

  12. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients Have a Preserved Cytomegalovirus-Specific Antibody Response despite Progressive Hypogammaglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Vanura, Katrina; Rieder, Franz; Kastner, Marie-Theres; Biebl, Julia; Sandhofer, Michael; Le, Trang; Strassl, Robert; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Steininger, Christoph F.; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Graninger, Wolfgang; Jäger, Ulrich; Steininger, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by progressive hypogammaglobulinemia predisposing affected patients to a variety of infectious diseases but paradoxically not to cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Moreover, we found reactivity of a panel of CLL recombinant antibodies (CLL-rAbs) encoded by a germ-line allele with a single CMV protein, pUL32, despite differing antibody binding motifs. To put these findings into perspective, we studied prospectively relative frequency of viremia, kinetics of total and virus-specific IgG over time, and UL32 genetic variation in a cohort of therapy-naive patients (n=200). CMV-DNA was detected in 3% (6/200) of patients. The decay of total IgG was uniform (mean, 0.03; SD, 0.03) and correlated with that of IgG subclasses 1-4 in the paired samples available (n=64; p<0.001). Total CMV-specific IgG kinetics were more variable (mean, 0,02; SD, 0,06) and mean decay values differed significantly from those of total IgG (p=0.034). Boosts of CMV-specific antibody levels were observed in 49% (22/45) of CMV-seropositive patients. In contrast, VZV- and EBV-specific IgG levels decayed in parallel with total IgG levels (p=0.003 and p=0.001, respectively). VZV-specific IgG even became undetectable in 18% (9/50) of patients whereas CMV-specific ones remained detectable in all seropositive patients. The observed CMV-specific IgG kinetics were predicated upon the highly divergent kinetics of IgG specific for individual antigens - glycoprotein B-specific IgG were boosted in 51% and pUL32-specific IgG in 32% of patients. In conclusion, CLL patients have a preserved CMV-specific antibody response despite progressive decay of total IgG and IgG subclasses. CMV-specific IgG levels are frequently boosted in contrast to that of other herpesviruses indicative of a higher rate of CMV reactivation and antigen-presentation. In contrast to the reactivity of multiple different CLL-rAbs with pUL32, boosts of humoral immunity are triggered apparently by

  13. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients have a preserved cytomegalovirus-specific antibody response despite progressive hypogammaglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Vanura, Katrina; Rieder, Franz; Kastner, Marie-Theres; Biebl, Julia; Sandhofer, Michael; Le, Trang; Strassl, Robert; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Perkmann, Thomas; Steininger, Christoph F; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Graninger, Wolfgang; Jäger, Ulrich; Steininger, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by progressive hypogammaglobulinemia predisposing affected patients to a variety of infectious diseases but paradoxically not to cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Moreover, we found reactivity of a panel of CLL recombinant antibodies (CLL-rAbs) encoded by a germ-line allele with a single CMV protein, pUL32, despite differing antibody binding motifs. To put these findings into perspective, we studied prospectively relative frequency of viremia, kinetics of total and virus-specific IgG over time, and UL32 genetic variation in a cohort of therapy-naive patients (n=200). CMV-DNA was detected in 3% (6/200) of patients. The decay of total IgG was uniform (mean, 0.03; SD, 0.03) and correlated with that of IgG subclasses 1-4 in the paired samples available (n=64; p<0.001). Total CMV-specific IgG kinetics were more variable (mean, 0,02; SD, 0,06) and mean decay values differed significantly from those of total IgG (p=0.034). Boosts of CMV-specific antibody levels were observed in 49% (22/45) of CMV-seropositive patients. In contrast, VZV- and EBV-specific IgG levels decayed in parallel with total IgG levels (p=0.003 and p=0.001, respectively). VZV-specific IgG even became undetectable in 18% (9/50) of patients whereas CMV-specific ones remained detectable in all seropositive patients. The observed CMV-specific IgG kinetics were predicated upon the highly divergent kinetics of IgG specific for individual antigens - glycoprotein B-specific IgG were boosted in 51% and pUL32-specific IgG in 32% of patients. In conclusion, CLL patients have a preserved CMV-specific antibody response despite progressive decay of total IgG and IgG subclasses. CMV-specific IgG levels are frequently boosted in contrast to that of other herpesviruses indicative of a higher rate of CMV reactivation and antigen-presentation. In contrast to the reactivity of multiple different CLL-rAbs with pUL32, boosts of humoral immunity are triggered apparently by

  14. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  15. A comparison of antibody responses to veterinary vaccine antigens potentiated by different adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Usinger, W R

    1997-12-01

    Six adjuvant formulations were compared for their ability to potentiate the primary and memory antibody responses in mice to three companion animal vaccine immunogens--feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and a recombinantly-derived heartworm antigen. The combination of a novel bacterial immunostimulator, gliding bacterial adjuvant (GBA), either adsorbed onto an aluminum hydroxide gel (Rehydragel HPA), or emulsified with a vehicle of polyalcohol and detergent, elicited the strongest memory responses to both virus preparations. Both forms of aluminum hydroxide gels administered without GBA gave similar levels of adjuvant effects, on par with or greater than those generated by incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). The Acemannan immunostimulant was not effective in increasing the responses to the virus antigens, but increased the primary response to the heart-worm antigen over tenfold from control levels. All preparations appeared to be well tolerated, with no detectable adverse reactions observed in any of the 250 mice used. The proven safety of aluminum hydroxide adjuvants and the apparent absence of adverse reactions seen with GBA make this vehicle/adjuvant formulation worthy of additional study. PMID:9413100

  16. Randomized Comparative Study of the Serum Antihemagglutinin and Antineuraminidase Antibody Responses to Six Licensed Trivalent Influenza Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Couch, Robert B.; Atmar, Robert L.; Keitel, Wendy A; Quarles, John; Wells, Janet; Arden, Nancy; Niño, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Background Serum antibody to the hemagglutinin (HA) surface protein of influenza virus induced by influenza vaccinations is a correlate of protection against influenza. The neuraminidase (NA) protein is also on the surface of the virus; antibody to it has been shown to impair virus release from infected cells and to reduce the intensity of influenza infections in animal models and in humans challenged with infectious virus. Recently we have shown that NA inhibiting antibody can independently contribute to immunity to naturally-occurring influenza immunity in the presence of antibody to the HA. Purpose The present study was conducted to evaluate induction of antibody to the NA and the HA by commercially available influenza vaccines. Methods Healthy young adults were vaccinated with one of five commercially available trivalent inactivated vaccines or live influenza vaccine. Frequencies of serum antibody and fold geometric mean titer (GMT) increases four weeks later were measured to each of the three vaccine viruses (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) in hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) and neutralization (neut) assays. Frequency and fold GMT increase in neuraminidase-inhibition (NI) antibody titers were measured to the influenza A viruses (A/H1N1, A/H3N2). Results No significant reactogenicity occurred among the vaccinated subjects. The Fluvirin inactivated vaccine induced more anti-HA antibody responses and a higher fold GMT increase than the other inactivated vaccines but there were no major differences in response frequencies or fold GMT increase among the inactivated vaccines. Both the frequency of antibody increase and fold GMT increase were significantly lower for live vaccine than for any inactivated vaccine in HAI and neut assays for all three vaccine viruses. Afluria inactivated vaccine induced more N1 antibody and Fluarix induced more N2 antibody than the other vaccines but all inactivated vaccines induced serum NI antibody. The live vaccine failed to elicit any NI

  17. Elevated antinuclear antibodies and altered anti-Epstein-Barr virus immune responses.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Laura; Cirone, Mara; Di Gregorio, Ana Oliva; Vitillo, Marina; Cattivelli, Marina; Magliocca, Vittoria; Maiorano, Silvana; Meledandri, Marcello; Scagnolari, Carolina; La Rocca, Sebastiano; Trivedi, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is able to alter the immune response towards self-antigens and may enhance risk of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we evaluated the specific antibody immune response against EBV in patients with anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA) in comparison with ANA-negative healthy controls. For this purpose, 92 patients with an high anti-ANA reactivity with or without concomitant extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) or double stranded DNA (dsDNA) positivity were selected and compared with 146 healthy donors. We found that anti-EBV-VCA and EA IgG concentrations were significantly higher in ANA-positive patients in comparison to the controls (VCA P<0.0001 and EA P<0,03) as well as in those ANA-positive patients that showed a concomitant ENA positivity (P=0.0002). Interestingly, elevated anti-EBNA-1 IgG was found in a group of patients who had anti SSA/Ro antibodies. Anti-VCA IgM Abs were more frequently found in those patients with a very high titer of ANA (P=0.06); moreover detection of anti-VCA IgM/IgG in absence of anti-EBNA-1 IgG was more frequent in the patient than in the control group. Both these conditions correlate with a recent EBV infection or reactivation. The data suggest that EBV, particularly during acute infection or in its reactivation phase, could be involved in the ANA and ENA autoantibody formation.

  18. Concurrent influenza vaccination reduces anti-FVIII antibody responses in murine hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jesse D; Moorehead, Paul C; Sponagle, Kate; Steinitz, Katharina N; Reipert, Birgit M; Hough, Christine; Lillicrap, David

    2016-06-30

    Inflammatory signals such as pathogen- and danger-associated molecular patterns have been hypothesized as risk factors for the initiation of the anti-factor VIII (FVIII) immune response seen in 25% to 30% of patients with severe hemophilia A (HA). In these young patients, vaccines may be coincidentally administered in close proximity with initial exposure to FVIII, thereby providing a source of such stimuli. Here, we investigated the effects of 3 vaccines commonly used in pediatric patients on FVIII immunogenicity in a humanized HA murine model with variable tolerance to recombinant human FVIII (rhFVIII). Mice vaccinated intramuscularly against the influenza vaccine prior to multiple infusions of rhFVIII exhibited a decreased incidence of rhFVIII-specific neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies. Similar findings were observed with the addition of an adjuvant. Upon exposure to media from influenza- or FVIII-stimulated lymph node or splenic lymphocytes, naïve CD4(+) lymphocytes preferentially migrated toward media from influenza-stimulated cells, indicating that antigen competition, by means of lymphocyte recruitment to the immunization site, is a potential mechanism for the observed decrease in FVIII immunogenicity. We also observed no differences in incidence or titer of rhFVIII-specific antibodies and inhibitors in mice exposed to the live-attenuated measles-mumps-rubella vaccine regardless of route of administration. Together, our results suggest that concomitant FVIII exposure and vaccination against influenza does not increase the risk of inhibitor formation and may in fact decrease anti-FVIII immune responses. PMID:27034428

  19. Clonal dysregulation of the antibody response to tetanus-toxoid after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, E J; Van Tol, M J; Van 't Veer, M B; Wels, J M; Khouw, I M; Touw, C R; Jol-Van Der Zijde, C M; Hermans, J; Rümke, H C; Radl, J

    1994-12-15

    After bone marrow transplantation (BMT), a prolonged dysregulation of humoral immunity can be observed. In the present study, we investigated whether this is reflected in an abnormal production of specific antibodies (Ab) to the T-cell-dependent recall antigen tetanus-toxoid (TT). The study group consisted of children receiving transplants of an unmodified allogeneic graft and of adults receiving either a T-cell-depleted allogeneic or an unmodified autologous BM graft. Findings were compared with those in healthy controls. In pediatric graft recipients, who were routinely revaccinated early after BMT, the Ab response was quantitatively superior to that in adult graft recipients who did not receive early revaccination. In the majority of graft recipients, the time period after vaccination required to reach the peak level of antibodies was prolonged and the number of responding TT-specific B-cell clones was markedly decreased in comparison with controls. In controls, a low frequency of dominant B-cell clones may produce low quantities of homogeneous Ab components (H-Ab) against a heterogeneous background. However, in BM graft recipients, "overshooting" of Ab production by separate B-cell clones was observed, resulting in the development of H-Ab at a relatively high concentration. These abnormalities were present up to 10 years after BMT, irrespective of either the age of the recipient, the modulation of the graft, or the vaccination schedule used. It is hypothesized that the dysregulated Ab production is the consequence of activation of a restricted number of resting memory B cells, present in germinal centers, repopulating gradually after BMT. Our data show that routine revaccination early after BMT improves the humoral immune response. However, because of a clonally dysregulated Ab production, long-lasting qualitative defects may be present even after normalization of Ab titers.

  20. Marked variation in MSP-119 antibody responses to malaria in western Kenyan highlands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Assessment of malaria endemicity at different altitudes and transmission intensities, in the era of dwindling vector densities in the highlands, will provide valuable information for malaria control and surveillance. Measurement of serum anti-malarial antibodies is a useful marker of malaria exposure that indicates long-term transmission potential. We studied the serologic evidence of malaria endemicity at two highland sites along a transmission intensity cline. An improved understanding of the micro-geographic variation in malaria exposure in the highland ecosystems will be relevant in planning effective malaria control. Methods Total IgG levels to Plasmodium falciparum MSP-119 were measured in an age-stratified cohort (< 5, 5-14 and ≥ 15 years) in 795 participants from an uphill and valley bottom residents during low and high malaria transmission seasons. Antibody prevalence and level was compared between different localities. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association between antibody prevalence and parasite prevalence. Age-specific MSP-119 seroprevalence data was fitted to a simple reversible catalytic model to investigate the relationship between parasite exposure and age. Results Higher MSP-119 seroprevalence and density were observed in the valley residents than in the uphill dwellers. Adults (> 15 years) recorded high and stable immune response in spite of changing seasons. Lower responses were observed in children (≤ 15 years), which, fluctuated with changing seasons particularly in the valley residents. In the uphill population, annual seroconversion rate (SCR) was 8.3% and reversion rate was 3.0%, with seroprevalence reaching a plateau of 73.3% by age of 20. Contrary, in the valley bottom population, the annual SCR was 35.8% and the annual seroreversion rate was 3.5%, and seroprevalence in the population had reached 91.2% by age 10. Conclusion The study reveals the micro-geographic variation in malaria endemicity in the

  1. Comparison of Antibody Responses to Human Papillomavirus Vaccination as Measured by Three Assays

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Hilary A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Porras, Carolina; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Wacholder, Sholom; Gonzalez, Paula; Schiller, John; Lowy, Douglas; Poncelet, Sylviane; Esser, Mark; Matys, Katie; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A.; Herrero, Rolando; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Different assays, including the competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA), secreted alkaline phosphatase neutralization assay (SEAP-NA), and virus-like particle-based ELISA, are commonly used to measure antibody responses after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Direct assay comparisons aid interpretation of immunogenicity data evaluated by different assays. Methods: We compared cLIA to SEAP-NA and ELISA among 51 HPV16/18-vaccinated women enrolled in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial. We tested replicate serum samples collected at months 0, 1, and 12 by HPV16/18 cLIA, SEAP-NA, and ELISA. For a subset (N = 10), we further tested month 6, 24 and 36 samples. We calculated seroprevalence estimates and Spearman rank correlation coefficients comparing cLIA to SEAP-NA and ELISA. Results: After one vaccine dose, seroprevalence by SEAP-NA and ELISA was 100% (both HPV16 and HPV18), and by cLIA was 96% (95% CI 87–100%) for HPV16 and 71% (95% CI 56–83%) for HPV18. Seroprevalence was 100% by all assays after three doses. Correlation between assays was high after one vaccine dose [cLIA/SEAP-NA ρ = 0.91 (HPV16) and ρ = 0.86 (HPV18); cLIA/ELISA ρ = 0.84 (HPV16) and ρ = 0.74 (HPV18); all p < 0.001] and remained high through month 36. Ratios of mean antibody levels to seropositivity cutoffs at month 36 were lower for cLIA than for SEAP-NA or ELISA, particularly for HPV18 (HPV18 ratio for cLIA 1.9, SEAP-NA 3.5, ELISA 3.4). Conclusion: Though correlation between cLIA and SEAP-NA/ELISA is high and stable after vaccination, the assays differ in scale and sensitivity, with notable differences after one vaccine dose and for HPV18. Our results demonstrate that comparisons of antibody responses to HPV vaccination measured by different assays are approximate, and must consider biological and technical differences between assays. PMID:24455487

  2. Specific and nonspecific antibody responses in different segments of the respiratory tract in rats infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis.

    PubMed Central

    Simecka, J W; Patel, P; Davis, J K; Ross, S E; Otwell, P; Cassell, G H

    1991-01-01

    Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis resulting from Mycoplasma pulmonis infection in rats provides a useful model for the study of immunological and inflammatory mechanisms operative in the respiratory tract. We have previously shown that LEW rats develop more severe disease than do F344 rats. To further study the production of antibody responses in chronic respiratory disease due to M. pulmonis infection, we examined the distribution and development of M. pulmonis-specific antibody-forming cells (AFC) in different segments of the respiratory tracts of infected LEW and F344 rats. In these studies, the upper respiratory nodes were the initial site of antibody production after infection and remained the major site for recovery of AFC. Since infected LEW rats had equal or higher numbers of AFC than did infected F344 rats, these results suggest that the level of local antibody production alone is not responsible for the decreased susceptibility of F344 rats to murine respiratory mycoplasmosis. The differences in total antibody responses appear to be due to the greater numbers of cells recovered from the tissues of infected LEW rats compared with those recovered from F344 rats, suggesting that LEW rats may have greater production of chemotactic factors. Also, we demonstrate that nonspecific activation and/or recruitment of B cells occurs in the respiratory tracts of both LEW and F344 rats after infection with M. pulmonis. PMID:1894371

  3. Antibody responses following incident anal and penile infection with human papillomavirus in teenage men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huachun; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Grulich, Andrew E; Hocking, Jane S; Garland, Suzanne M; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Cornall, Alyssa M; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y

    2016-08-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal cancer. Few data exist on antibody responses following incident anogenital infection with HPV in teenage MSM. A cohort of 200 MSM aged 16-20 years from Melbourne, Australia were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. At each visit anal and penile swabs were collected for HPV DNA and serum for HPV antibodies for genotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Merck's Multiplex Assays using Luminex). The main outcome, seroconversion, was defined as the detection of HPV antibodies following a negative antibody result for the same HPV type at baseline. The seroincidence rates for HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 were: 19 (95% CI 12-26), 7 (3-12), 4 (1-8) and 6 (3-11) per 100 person-years, respectively. Men who experienced incident anal HPV infections from types 6/11 were significantly more likely to develop serum antibodies to the same HPV type(s) than those who experienced incident anal infections from types 16/18 [73 vs. 18%, odds ratio (OR) = 15, 95% CI: 2-118]. The median time between incident anal HPV infection and seroconversion for HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 was: 91, 38, 161 and 182 days, respectively. Antibody responses against HPV types 6/11 were significantly more likely to occur following incident anal compared with incident penile infection with HPV types 6/11 (OR = 6, 95% CI: 2-21). The likelihood of antibody responses following anogenital HPV infections depends on the HPV type and site of infection. PMID:26991809

  4. Functional analysis of antibody responses of feedlot cattle to bovine respiratory syncytial virus following vaccination with mixed vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    West, K; Ellis, J

    1997-01-01

    The antibody response of cattle to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) immunization was investigated using 4 different commercially available mixed vaccines. Forty, 5-6 month old, beef calves, randomly assigned to groups of 10, were vaccinated on day 0 and 21 with 1 of 3 inactivated vaccines, (3 groups), or a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. BRSV-specific antibody responses were measured prior to vaccination and on day 35 by using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), virus neutralization assay (VN), a fusion inhibition assay (FI); and responses were also measured for their ability to facilitate antibody dependent, complement mediated cytotoxicity (ADCMC) of BRSV infected cells. Sera from day 35 were, in addition, analyzed by use of an IgG1, IgG2 isotype specific ELISA. All vaccines induced significant increases in BRSV specific IgG antibody as measured by ELISA, but only one inactivated and the MLV vaccine induced significant increases in VN titers. Fusion inhibiting antibody titers were low or undetected in calves vaccinated with the inactivated vaccines. Vaccination with modified live virus induced significantly higher titers of fusion inhibiting antibodies, which are considered to be most highly correlated with protection. The VN to ELISA and FI to ELISA ratio of the calves that received MLV vaccine were significantly greater than the calves receiving the 3 inactivated vaccines. Vaccination with MLV induced the highest IgG2/IgG1 ratio. This difference was small, and only significant relative to 2 of the inactivated vaccine groups, which were not significantly different from each other. The higher proportion of IgG2 isotype in the MLV sera was not associated with lower ADCMC, a function not attributed to this isotype. The VN and FI titers, but not the ELISA value of the sera, were most predictive of ADCMC. The inactivation processes apparently alter epitopes and affect the induction of functional antibodies. PMID:9008797

  5. Formulation of a killed whole cell pneumococcus vaccine - effect of aluminum adjuvants on the antibody and IL-17 response

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae causes widespread morbidity and mortality. Current vaccines contain free polysaccharides or protein-polysaccharide conjugates, and do not induce protection against serotypes that are not included in the vaccines. An affordable and broadly protective vaccine is very desirable. The goal of this study was to determine the optimal formulation of a killed whole cell pneumococcal vaccine with aluminum-containing adjuvants for intramuscular injection. Methods Four aluminium-containing adjuvants were prepared with different levels of surface phosphate groups resulting in different adsorptive capacities and affinities for the vaccine antigens. Mice were immunized three times and the antigen-specific antibody titers and IL-17 responses in blood were analyzed. Results Although all adjuvants induced significantly higher antibody titers than antigen without adjuvant, the vaccine containing aluminum phosphate adjuvant (AP) produced the highest antibody response when low doses of antigen were used. Aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (AH) induced an equal or better antibody response at high doses compared with AP. Vaccines formulated with AH, but not with AP, induced an IL-17 response. The vaccine formulated with AH was stable and retained full immunogenicity when stored at 4°C for 4 months. Conclusions Antibodies are important for protection against systemic streptococcal disease and IL-17 is critical in the prevention of nasopharyngeal colonization by S. pneumoniae in the mouse model. The formulation of the whole killed bacterial cells with AH resulted in a stable vaccine that induced both antibodies and an IL-17 response. These experiments underscore the importance of formulation studies with aluminium containing adjuvants for the development of stable and effective vaccines. PMID:21801401

  6. Central nervous system immunity in mice infected with theiler's virus. I. Local neutralizing antibody response.

    PubMed

    Lipton, H L; Gonzalez-Scarano, F

    1978-02-01

    Experimental Theiler's mouse encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection in mice is atypical of most other picornavirus infections because virus persists in the host. It was shown previously that low levels of infectious virus are readily detectable in the central nervous system (CNS) despite the presence of substantial titers of serum neutralizing antibody. In this study antibody assays were performed on CNS tissue homogenates, and neutralizing antibody was regularly found in the CNS of TMEV-infected mice. That neutralization by infected CNS extracts was due to antibody was demonstrated by the specificity of neutralization for TMEV and by elimination or marked reduction of neutralization by in vitro treatment with goat antiserum to mouse IgG. In addition, immunofluorescent staining consistently revealed IgG- but not IgM-containing cells in perivascular cuffs and parenchymal lesions of the brains of infected animals. Evidence of local antibody formation in the CNS was found in the actual reversal of the serum-CNS antibody ratio in about one-third of infected mice after three weeks. In contrast, normal mice had a mean serum-CNS antibody ratio of approximately 100:1 after passive transfer of antibody. Possible reasons for the fact that TMEV is not neutralized by antibody and chronic infection is not aborted include the formation of complexes of infectious virus and antibody in the CNS and the production of antibodies with low affinity for TMEV.

  7. Humoral antibody response of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus against Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea).

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Gío, Juan José; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna; Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel

    2008-04-01

    The humoral immune response of the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus was evaluated using a direct ELISA. Serum was tested from fish infected with Cichlidogyrus spp. (Monogenea) and from fish injected intraperitoneally with the Cichlidogyrus spp. antigenic extract, i.e., 150 microl of the Cichlidogyrus spp. saline extract diluted in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) (1:1) were inoculated intraperitoneally at day 0, followed by 2 dosages of 50 microl of the same Cichlidogyrus spp. saline extract diluted in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) (1:1) at weeks 2 and 4, respectively. The humoral response was also evaluated by the double immunodiffusion test (DID) and by serum protein and total immunoglobulin (Ig) determinations. The IgM OD values in the hyperimmune fish were significantly higher than in the infected and uninfected fish groups. In the DID test, a precipitation (antigen-antibody) band was observed between the Cichlidogyrus spp. saline extract and hyperimmune sera, but not with the other groups. Increases in serum protein concentration and total Igs were observed in the immunized fish at weeks 2 and 10 postinjection. Results from this study suggest that tilapia is capable of producing an induced humoral immune response against an antigenic extract of Cichlidogyrus spp. PMID:18564741

  8. Impaired antibody response after immunization of HIV-infected individuals with the polysaccharide vaccine against Salmonella typhi (Typhim-Vi).

    PubMed

    Kroon, F P; van Dissel, J T; Ravensbergen, E; Nibbering, P H; van Furth, R

    1999-08-01

    Infections with Salmonella species, including Salmonella typhi, are more frequently observed in HIV-infected individuals than in healthy individuals. HIV-infected individuals were vaccinated with polysaccharide vaccine against Salmonella typhi (Typhim-Vi) which is assumed to be a T-cell-independent antigen. We found that the antibody response in patients with < 200 x 10(6)/l CD4+ T lymphocytes was significantly lower compared with patients with > or = 200 x 10(6)/l CD4+ T lymphocytes and healthy controls. The antibody response after vaccination with the polysaccharide salmonella Vi-antigen was correlated with the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes and therefore Typhim-Vi can be considered to be a T-cell-independent type 2 antigen. The results of this study indicate that after vaccination the proportion of HIV-infected individuals with protective antibody concentrations against Salmonella typhi will be lower than in healthy controls.

  9. Isoelectric focusing analysis of antibody clonotype changes occurring during immune responses using immobilized pH gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knisley, Keith A.; Rodkey, L. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Serum was collected from rabbits at 2-day intervals following a single injection with tetanus toxoid or at weekly intervals following multiple injections with Micrococcus lysodeikticus cell walls. These sera were analyzed for the presence of individual clonotypes of specific antitetanus or antimicrococcal antibodies by isoelectric focusing in immobilized pH gradients with added carrier ampholytes followed by affinity immunoblotting. The affinity immunoblots obtained clearly defined both the rapid disappearance and late appearance of distinct subsets of antibody clonotypes during the response. These data demonstrate the application of affinity immunoblotting combined with immobilized pH gradients for detecting the subtle changes in specific antibody clonotype patterns which occur during an immune response.

  10. Multi-epitope Models Explain How Pre-existing Antibodies Affect the Generation of Broadly Protective Responses to Influenza

    PubMed Central

    Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Lavine, Jennie; Ellebedy, Ali; Ahmed, Rafi; Antia, Rustom

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation influenza vaccines that elicit strain-transcendent immunity against both seasonal and pandemic viruses is a key public health goal. Targeting the evolutionarily conserved epitopes on the stem of influenza’s major surface molecule, hemagglutinin, is an appealing prospect, and novel vaccine formulations show promising results in animal model systems. However, studies in humans indicate that natural infection and vaccination result in limited boosting of antibodies to the stem of HA, and the level of stem-specific antibody elicited is insufficient to provide broad strain-transcendent immunity. Here, we use mathematical models of the humoral immune response to explore how pre-existing immunity affects the ability of vaccines to boost antibodies to the head and stem of HA in humans, and, in particular, how it leads to the apparent lack of boosting of broadly cross-reactive antibodies to the stem epitopes. We consider hypotheses where binding of antibody to an epitope: (i) results in more rapid clearance of the antigen; (ii) leads to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which inhibit B cell activation through Fcγ receptor-mediated mechanism; and (iii) masks the epitope and prevents the stimulation and proliferation of specific B cells. We find that only epitope masking but not the former two mechanisms to be key in recapitulating patterns in data. We discuss the ramifications of our findings for the development of vaccines against both seasonal and pandemic influenza. PMID:27336297

  11. Mannosylated Mucin-Type Immunoglobulin Fusion Proteins Enhance Antigen-Specific Antibody and T Lymphocyte Responses

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Tomas; Nilsson, Anki; Chatzissavidou, Nathalie; Sjöblom, Magnus; Rova, Ulrika; Holgersson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Targeting antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APC) improve their immunogenicity and capacity to induce Th1 responses and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We have generated a mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion protein (PSGL-1/mIgG2b), which upon expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris became multivalently substituted with O-linked oligomannose structures and bound the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) with high affinity in vitro. Here, its effects on the humoral and cellular anti-ovalbumin (OVA) responses in C57BL/6 mice are presented. OVA antibody class and subclass responses were determined by ELISA, the generation of anti-OVA CTLs was assessed in 51Cr release assays using in vitro-stimulated immune spleen cells from the different groups of mice as effector cells and OVA peptide-fed RMA-S cells as targets, and evaluation of the type of Th cell response was done by IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 ELISpot assays. Immunizations with the OVA − mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b conjugate, especially when combined with the AbISCO®-100 adjuvant, lead to faster, stronger and broader (with regard to IgG subclass) OVA IgG responses, a stronger OVA-specific CTL response and stronger Th1 and Th2 responses than if OVA was used alone or together with AbISCO®-100. Also non-covalent mixing of mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b, OVA and AbISCO®-100 lead to relatively stronger humoral and cellular responses. The O-glycan oligomannoses were necessary because PSGL-1/mIgG2b with mono- and disialyl core 1 structures did not have this effect. Mannosylated mucin-type fusion proteins can be used as versatile APC-targeting molecules for vaccines and as such enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:23071675

  12. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population.

  13. Virus-neutralizing antibody response of mice to consecutive infection with human and avian influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Janulíková, J; Stropkovská, A; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-06-01

    In this work we simulated in a mouse model a naturally occurring situation of humans, who overcame an infection with epidemic strains of influenza A, and were subsequently exposed to avian influenza A viruses (IAV). The antibody response to avian IAV in mice previously infected with human IAV was analyzed. We used two avian IAV (A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) and the attenuated virus rA/Viet Nam/1203-2004 (H5N1)) as well as two human IAV isolates (virus A/Mississippi/1/1985 (H3N2) of medium virulence and A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) of high virulence). Two repeated doses of IAV of H4 or of H5 virus elicited virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice. Exposure of animals previously infected with human IAV (of H3 or H1 subtype) to IAV of H4 subtype led to the production of antibodies neutralizing H4 virus in a level comparable with the level of antibodies against the human IAV used for primary infection. In contrast, no measurable levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies specific to H5 virus were detected in mice infected with H5 virus following a previous infection with human IAV. In both cases the secondary infection with avian IAV led to a significant increase of the titer of VN antibodies specific to the corresponding human virus used for primary infection. Moreover, cross-reactive HA2-specific antibodies were also induced by sequential infection. By virtue of these results we suggest that the differences in the ability of avian IAV to induce specific antibodies inhibiting virus replication after previous infection of mice with human viruses can have an impact on the interspecies transmission and spread of avian IAV in the human population. PMID:26104333

  14. Broad Anti-Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Antibody Responses Are Associated with Improved Clinical Disease Parameters in Chronic HCV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Rachael E.; Cowton, Vanessa M.; Robinson, Mark W.; Cole, Sarah J.; Barclay, Stephen T.; Mills, Peter R.; Thomson, Emma C.; McLauchlan, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses targeting E1E2 envelope glycoproteins are generated in many individuals. It is unclear if these antibodies play a protective or a pathogenic role during chronic infection. In this study, we investigated whether bNAb responses in individuals with chronic infection were associated with differences in clinical presentation. Patient-derived purified serum IgG was used to assess the breadth of HCV E1E2 binding and the neutralization activity of HCV pseudoparticles. The binding and neutralization activity results for two panels bearing viral envelope proteins representing either an intergenotype or an intragenotype 1 group were compared. We found that the HCV load was negatively associated with strong cross-genotypic E1E2 binding (P = 0.03). Overall, we observed only a modest correlation between total E1E2 binding and neutralization ability. The breadth of intergenotype neutralization did not correlate with any clinical parameters; however, analysis of individuals with genotype 1 (gt1) HCV infection (n = 20), using an intragenotype pseudoparticle panel, found a strong association between neutralization breadth and reduced liver fibrosis (P = 0.006). A broad bNAb response in our cohort with chronic infection was associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the HLA-DQB1 gene (P = 0.038), as previously reported in a cohort with acute disease. Furthermore, the bNAbs in these individuals targeted more than one region of E2-neutralizing epitopes, as assessed through cross-competition of patient bNAbs with well-characterized E2 antibodies. We conclude that the bNAb responses in patients with chronic gt1 infection are associated with lower rates of fibrosis and host genetics may play a role in the ability to raise such responses. IMPORTANCE Globally, there are 130 million to 150 million people with chronic HCV infection. Typically, the disease is progressive and is a

  15. Use of dried blood spots to define antibody response to the Strongyloides stercoralis recombinant antigen NIE.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, Kate; Kearns, Therese; Rampton, Melanie; Llewellyn, Stacey; King, Mallory; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart J; Andrews, Ross; Nutman, Thomas; McCarthy, James

    2014-10-01

    An approach to improve the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection is the use of serologic assays utilising the NIE antigen from S. stercoralis, with good diagnostic sensitivity and excellent specificity reported. Detection of antibody eluted from dried blood spots (DBS) has shown utility in large-scale seroepidemiological studies for a range of conditions and is appealing for use with children where sample collection is difficult. We adapted an existing NIE-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the testing of strongyloides antibody response on DBS, and evaluated it in a population screening and mass drug administration programme (MDA) for strongyloidiasis conducted in an Australian indigenous community. Study participants were treated with 200 μg/kg ivermectin (>15 kg) or 3× 400 mg albendazole (<15kg). The sensitivity of the NIE DBS-ELISA was determined by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to be 85.7%. A total of 214 DBS were collected from 184 participants across two screening and MDA encounters. A total of 27 of 164 participants (16.5%) tested positive for S. stercoralis NIE-DBS prior to MDA treatment, and 6 of 50 participants (12.0%) tested positive after treatment. These prevalence values are similar to those documented by standard serology in the same community. For 30 participants where a DBS was collected at both MDA 1 and 2, a significant decline in ELISA values was evident post treatment (0.12-0.02, p=0.0012). These results are in agreement with previous studies documenting the high seroprevalence of S. stercoralis in remote Australian Indigenous communities, and suggest that collection of dried blood spots may be a useful approach for field diagnosis of S. stercoralis seroprevalence.

  16. Immune-mediated steroid-responsive epileptic spasms and epileptic encephalopathy associated with VGKC-complex antibodies.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Jehan; Brenner, Tanja; Gill, Deepak; Troedson, Christopher; Sinclair, Adriane J; Brilot, Fabienne; Vincent, Angela; Lang, Bethan; Dale, Russell C

    2011-11-01

    Autoantibodies that bind to voltage-gated potassium-channel complex proteins (VGKC-complex antibodies) occur frequently in adults with limbic encephalitis presenting with cognitive impairment and seizures. Recently, VGKC-complex antibodies have been described in a few children with limbic encephalitis, and children with unexplained encephalitis presenting with status epilepticus. We report a case of infantile-onset epileptic spasms and developmental delay compatible with epileptic encephalopathy. Our patient was a female infant, aged 4 months at presentation. She had evidence of immune activation in the central nervous system with elevated cerebrospinal fluid neopterin and mirrored oligoclonal bands, which prompted testing for autoantibodies. VGKC-complex antibodies were elevated (201 pmol/L, normal<100), but extended antibody testing, including leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2), was negative. The patient showed a partial response to steroid treatment, which was started late in the disease course. On review at 13 months of age, her development was consistent with an age of 5 to 6 months. These results suggest that VGKC-complex antibodies might represent a marker of immune therapy responsiveness in a subgroup of patients with infantile epileptic encephalopathy.

  17. Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection in Primary Human Macrophages; Balancing Higher Fusion against Antiviral Responses.

    PubMed

    Flipse, Jacky; Diosa-Toro, Mayra A; Hoornweg, Tabitha E; van de Pol, Denise P I; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Smit, Jolanda M

    2016-01-01

    The dogma is that the human immune system protects us against pathogens. Yet, several viruses, like dengue virus, antagonize the hosts' antibodies to enhance their viral load and disease severity; a phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. This study offers novel insights in the molecular mechanism of antibody-mediated enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus infection in primary human macrophages. No differences were observed in the number of bound and internalized DENV particles following infection in the absence and presence of enhancing concentrations of antibodies. Yet, we did find an increase in membrane fusion activity during ADE of DENV infection. The higher fusion activity is coupled to a low antiviral response early in infection and subsequently a higher infection efficiency. Apparently, subtle enhancements early in the viral life cycle cascades into strong effects on infection, virus production and immune response. Importantly, and in contrast to other studies, the antibody-opsonized virus particles do not trigger immune suppression and remain sensitive to interferon. Additionally, this study gives insight in how human macrophages interact and respond to viral infections and the tight regulation thereof under various conditions of infection. PMID:27380892

  18. Antibody responses to surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte-infected erythrocytes and their relation to gametocytaemia.

    PubMed

    Dinko, B; King, E; Targett, G A T; Sutherland, C J

    2016-06-01

    An essential element for continuing transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is the availability of mature gametocytes in human peripheral circulation for uptake by mosquitoes. Natural immune responses to circulating gametocytes may play a role in reducing transmission from humans to mosquitoes. Here, antibody recognition of the surface of mature intra-erythrocytic gametocytes produced either by a laboratory-adapted parasite, 3D7, or by a recent clinical isolate of Kenyan origin (HL1204), was evaluated longitudinally in a cohort of Ghanaian school children by flow cytometry. This showed that a proportion of children exhibited antibody responses that recognized gametocyte surface antigens on one or both parasite lines. A subset of the children maintained detectable anti-gametocyte surface antigen (GSA) antibody levels during the 5 week study period. There was indicative evidence that children with anti-GSA antibodies present at enrolment were less likely to have patent gametocytaemia at subsequent visits (odds ratio = 0·29, 95% CI 0·06-1·05; P = 0·034). Our data support the existence of antigens on the surface of gametocyte-infected erythrocytes, but further studies are needed to confirm whether antibodies against them reduce gametocyte carriage. The identification of GSA would allow their evaluation as potential anti-gametocyte vaccine candidates and/or biomarkers for gametocyte carriage. PMID:27084060

  19. Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection in Primary Human Macrophages; Balancing Higher Fusion against Antiviral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Flipse, Jacky; Diosa-Toro, Mayra A.; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; van de Pol, Denise P. I.; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2016-01-01

    The dogma is that the human immune system protects us against pathogens. Yet, several viruses, like dengue virus, antagonize the hosts’ antibodies to enhance their viral load and disease severity; a phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. This study offers novel insights in the molecular mechanism of antibody-mediated enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus infection in primary human macrophages. No differences were observed in the number of bound and internalized DENV particles following infection in the absence and presence of enhancing concentrations of antibodies. Yet, we did find an increase in membrane fusion activity during ADE of DENV infection. The higher fusion activity is coupled to a low antiviral response early in infection and subsequently a higher infection efficiency. Apparently, subtle enhancements early in the viral life cycle cascades into strong effects on infection, virus production and immune response. Importantly, and in contrast to other studies, the antibody-opsonized virus particles do not trigger immune suppression and remain sensitive to interferon. Additionally, this study gives insight in how human macrophages interact and respond to viral infections and the tight regulation thereof under various conditions of infection. PMID:27380892

  20. Development of a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for the quantitation of salivary antibody responses to selected waterborne pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Saliva has an important advantage over serum as a medium for antibody detection due to non-invasive sampling, which is critical for community-based epidemiological surveys. The development of a Luminex multiplex immunoassay for measurement of salivary IgG and IgA responses to pot...

  1. Association of bta-miR-24-3p with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: summer of 2013, after calves were born; fall of the same year at weaning; and spring, 2014. All sera collec...

  2. DNA vaccination of bison to brucellar antigens elicits elevated antibody and IFN-γ responses.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Beata; Walters, Nancy; Thornburg, Theresa; Hoyt, Teri; Yang, Xinghong; Pascual, David W

    2011-07-01

    Brucella abortus remains a threat to the health and well-being of livestock in states bordering the Greater Yellowstone Area. During the past several years, cohabitation of infected wildlife with cattle has jeopardized the brucellosis-free status of Idaho, USA; Wyoming, USA; and Montana, USA. Current livestock B. abortus vaccines have not proven to be efficacious in bison (Bison bison) or elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). One problem with the lack of vaccine efficacy may stem from the failure to understand wildlife immune responses to vaccines. In an attempt to understand their immune responses, bison were vaccinated with eukaryotic DNA expression vectors encoding the Brucella periplasmic protein, bp26, and the chaperone protein, trigger factor (TF). These DNA vaccines have previously been shown to be protective against Brucella infection in mice. Bison were immunized intramuscularly at weeks 0, 2, and 4 with bp26 and TF DNA vaccines plus CpG adjuvant or empty vector (control) plus CpG. Blood samples were collected before vaccination and at 8, 10, and 12 wk after primary vaccination. The results showed that bison immunized with bp26 and TF DNA vaccines developed enhanced antibody, proliferative T cell, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses upon in vitro restimulation with purified recombinant bp26 or TF antigens, unlike bison immunized with empty vector. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes from the DNA-vaccinated groups were significantly greater than they were for those bison given empty vector. These data suggest that DNA vaccination of bison may elicit strong cellular immune responses and serve as an alternative for vaccination of bison for brucellosis.

  3. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Landais, Elise; Huang, Xiayu; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Murrell, Ben; Price, Matt A.; Wickramasinghe, Lalinda; Ramos, Alejandra; Bian, Charoan B.; Simek, Melissa; Allen, Susan; Karita, Etienne; Kilembe, William; Lakhi, Shabir; Inambao, Mubiana; Kamali, Anatoli; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Edward, Vinodh; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Tang, Jianming; Gilmour, Jill; Kosakovsky-Pond, Sergei L.; Phung, Pham; Wrin, Terri; Crotty, Shane; Godzik, Adam; Poignard, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design. PMID:26766578

  4. Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Responses in a Large Longitudinal Sub-Saharan HIV Primary Infection Cohort.

    PubMed

    Landais, Elise; Huang, Xiayu; Havenar-Daughton, Colin; Murrell, Ben; Price, Matt A; Wickramasinghe, Lalinda; Ramos, Alejandra; Bian, Charoan B; Simek, Melissa; Allen, Susan; Karita, Etienne; Kilembe, William; Lakhi, Shabir; Inambao, Mubiana; Kamali, Anatoli; Sanders, Eduard J; Anzala, Omu; Edward, Vinodh; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Tang, Jianming; Gilmour, Jill; Kosakovsky-Pond, Sergei L; Phung, Pham; Wrin, Terri; Crotty, Shane; Godzik, Adam; Poignard, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are thought to be a critical component of a protective HIV vaccine. However, designing vaccines immunogens able to elicit bnAbs has proven unsuccessful to date. Understanding the correlates and immunological mechanisms leading to the development of bnAb responses during natural HIV infection is thus critical to the design of a protective vaccine. The IAVI Protocol C program investigates a large longitudinal cohort of primary HIV-1 infection in Eastern and South Africa. Development of neutralization was evaluated in 439 donors using a 6 cross-clade pseudo-virus panel predictive of neutralization breadth on larger panels. About 15% of individuals developed bnAb responses, essentially between year 2 and year 4 of infection. Statistical analyses revealed no influence of gender, age or geographical origin on the development of neutralization breadth. However, cross-clade neutralization strongly correlated with high viral load as well as with low CD4 T cell counts, subtype-C infection and HLA-A*03(-) genotype. A correlation with high overall plasma IgG levels and anti-Env IgG binding titers was also found. The latter appeared not associated with higher affinity, suggesting a greater diversity of the anti-Env responses in broad neutralizers. Broadly neutralizing activity targeting glycan-dependent epitopes, largely the N332-glycan epitope region, was detected in nearly half of the broad neutralizers while CD4bs and gp41-MPER bnAb responses were only detected in very few individuals. Together the findings suggest that both viral and host factors are critical for the development of bnAbs and that the HIV Env N332-glycan supersite may be a favorable target for vaccine design.

  5. Antibody response to BK polyomavirus as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Xavier Etienne; Kardas, Piotr; Acevedo, Claudio; Sais, Giovanni; Poyet, Cédric; Banzola, Irina; Mortezavi, Ashkan; Seifert, Burkhardt; Sulser, Tullio

    2015-01-01

    Infectious agents, including the BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), have been proposed as important inflammatory pathogens in prostate cancer. Here, we evaluated whether the preoperative antibody response to BKPyV large T antigen (LTag) and viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) was associated with the risk of biochemical recurrence in 226 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for primary prostate cancer. Essentially, the multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that preoperative seropositivity to BKPyV LTag significantly reduced the risk of biochemical recurrence, independently of established predictors of biochemical recurrence such as tumor stage, Gleason score and surgical margin status. The predictive accuracy of the regression model was denotatively increased by the inclusion of the BKPyV LTag serostatus. In contrast, the VP1 serostatus was of no prognostic value. Finally, the BKPyV LTag serostatus was associated with a peculiar cytokine gene expression profile upon assessment of the cellular immune response elicited by LTag. Taken together, our findings suggest that the BKPyV LTag serology may serve as a prognostic factor in prostate cancer. If validated in additional studies, this biomarker may allow for better treatment decisions after radical prostatectomy. Finally, the favorable outcome of LTag seropositive patients may provide a potential opportunity for novel therapeutic approaches targeting a viral antigen. PMID:25749042

  6. Evaluation of antibody response to vaccination against West Nile virus in thick billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha).

    PubMed

    Glavis, Jennifer; Larsen, R Scott; Lamberski, Nadine; Gaffney, Patricia; Gardner, Ian

    2011-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first documented in North America in New York City in 1999. Several deaths attributable to WNV have been reported in captive thick-billed parrots (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha), an endangered psittacine native to North America. The serologic responses in 12 captive adult thick-billed parrots after a series of three initial WNV vaccine injections with annual boosters over 6 yr was evaluated. In addition, the serologic responses of 11 thick-billed parrot chicks following an initial vaccination series to determine if there were seroconversions were also reported. Most adults (67%) had seroconverted after 5 yr of annual vaccination, with a median titer of 1:80 (range 1:40-1:160) for those that seroconverted. After the first year, birds were likely naturally exposed to WNV, which limited interpretation of titers. None of the chicks seroconverted during the initial three-vaccine series; only two of four chicks (50%) had seroconverted when tested at the 1-yr yearly booster, and at 2 yr, three of four chicks had seroconverted. Although some birds had detectable antibody titers, it is unclear whether this vaccine can reliably provide protection against WNV in thick-billed parrots.

  7. Human antibody responses after dengue virus infection are highly cross-reactive to Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, Lalita; Quicke, Kendra M; Hudson, William H; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Sewatanon, Jaturong; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Mulligan, Mark J; Wilson, Patrick C; Ahmed, Rafi; Suthar, Mehul S; Wrammert, Jens

    2016-07-12

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus of significant public health concern. ZIKV shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology compared with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), resulting in immunological cross-reactivity. Improving our current understanding of the extent and characteristics of this immunological cross-reactivity is important, as ZIKV is presently circulating in areas that are highly endemic for dengue. To assess the magnitude and functional quality of cross-reactive immune responses between these closely related viruses, we tested acute and convalescent sera from nine Thai patients with PCR-confirmed DENV infection against ZIKV. All of the sera tested were cross-reactive with ZIKV, both in binding and in neutralization. To deconstruct the observed serum cross-reactivity in depth, we also characterized a panel of DENV-specific plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for activity against ZIKV. Nearly half of the 47 DENV-reactive mAbs studied bound to both whole ZIKV virion and ZIKV lysate, of which a subset also neutralized ZIKV. In addition, both sera and mAbs from the dengue-infected patients enhanced ZIKV infection of Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggest that preexisting immunity to DENV may impact protective immune responses against ZIKV. In addition, the extensive cross-reactivity may have implications for ZIKV virulence and disease severity in DENV-experienced populations. PMID:27354515

  8. Human antibody responses after dengue virus infection are highly cross-reactive to Zika virus

    PubMed Central

    Priyamvada, Lalita; Quicke, Kendra M.; Hudson, William H.; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Sewatanon, Jaturong; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Mulligan, Mark J.; Wilson, Patrick C.; Ahmed, Rafi; Suthar, Mehul S.; Wrammert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus of significant public health concern. ZIKV shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology compared with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), resulting in immunological cross-reactivity. Improving our current understanding of the extent and characteristics of this immunological cross-reactivity is important, as ZIKV is presently circulating in areas that are highly endemic for dengue. To assess the magnitude and functional quality of cross-reactive immune responses between these closely related viruses, we tested acute and convalescent sera from nine Thai patients with PCR-confirmed DENV infection against ZIKV. All of the sera tested were cross-reactive with ZIKV, both in binding and in neutralization. To deconstruct the observed serum cross-reactivity in depth, we also characterized a panel of DENV-specific plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for activity against ZIKV. Nearly half of the 47 DENV-reactive mAbs studied bound to both whole ZIKV virion and ZIKV lysate, of which a subset also neutralized ZIKV. In addition, both sera and mAbs from the dengue-infected patients enhanced ZIKV infection of Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggest that preexisting immunity to DENV may impact protective immune responses against ZIKV. In addition, the extensive cross-reactivity may have implications for ZIKV virulence and disease severity in DENV-experienced populations. PMID:27354515

  9. Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Receptor 5 Inhibits B Cell Antigen Receptor Signaling and Antibody Response1

    PubMed Central

    Shotts, Kristin; Donovan, Erin E.; Strauch, Pamela; Pujanauski, Lindsey M.; Victorino, Francisco; Al-Shami, Amin; Fujiwara, Yuko; Tigyi, Gabor; Oravecz, Tamas; Pelanda, Roberta; Torres, Raul M.

    2014-01-01

    Lysophospholipids have emerged as biologically important chemoattractants capable of directing lymphocyte development, trafficking and localization. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a major lysophospholipid found systemically and whose levels are elevated in certain pathological settings such as cancer and infections. Here, we demonstrate that BCR signal transduction by mature murine B cells is inhibited upon LPA engagement of the LPA5 (GPR92) receptor via a Gα12/13 – Arhgef1 pathway. The inhibition of BCR signaling by LPA5 manifests by impaired intracellular calcium store release and most likely by interfering with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activity. We further show that LPA5 also limits antigen-specific induction of CD69 and CD86 expression and that LPA5-deficient B cells display enhanced antibody responses. Thus, these data show that LPA5 negatively regulates BCR signaling, B cell activation and immune response. Our findings extend the influence of lysophospholipids on immune function and suggest that alterations in LPA levels likely influence adaptive humoral immunity. PMID:24890721

  10. Antibodies with 'Original Antigenic Sin' Properties Are Valuable Components of Secondary Immune Responses to Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Linderman, Susanne L; Hensley, Scott E

    2016-08-01

    Human antibodies (Abs) elicited by influenza viruses often bind with a high affinity to past influenza virus strains, but paradoxically, do not bind to the viral strain actually eliciting the response. This phenomena is called 'original antigenic sin' (OAS) since this can occur at the expense of generating new de novo Abs. Here, we characterized the specificity and functionality of Abs elicited in mice that were sequentially exposed to two antigenically distinct H1N1 influenza virus strains. Many Abs elicited under these conditions had an OAS phenotype, in that they bound strongly to the viral strain used for the first exposure and very weakly to the viral strain used for the second exposure. We found that OAS and non-OAS Abs target the same general region of the influenza hemagglutinin protein and that B cells expressing these two types of Abs can be clonally-related. Surprisingly, although OAS Abs bound with very low affinities, some were able to effectively protect against an antigenically drifted viral strain following passive transfer in vivo. Taken together, our data indicate that OAS Abs share some level of cross-reactivity between priming and recall viral strains and that B cells producing these Abs can be protective when recalled into secondary immune responses. PMID:27537358

  11. Human antibody responses after dengue virus infection are highly cross-reactive to Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, Lalita; Quicke, Kendra M; Hudson, William H; Onlamoon, Nattawat; Sewatanon, Jaturong; Edupuganti, Srilatha; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Mulligan, Mark J; Wilson, Patrick C; Ahmed, Rafi; Suthar, Mehul S; Wrammert, Jens

    2016-07-12

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus of significant public health concern. ZIKV shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology compared with other flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), resulting in immunological cross-reactivity. Improving our current understanding of the extent and characteristics of this immunological cross-reactivity is important, as ZIKV is presently circulating in areas that are highly endemic for dengue. To assess the magnitude and functional quality of cross-reactive immune responses between these closely related viruses, we tested acute and convalescent sera from nine Thai patients with PCR-confirmed DENV infection against ZIKV. All of the sera tested were cross-reactive with ZIKV, both in binding and in neutralization. To deconstruct the observed serum cross-reactivity in depth, we also characterized a panel of DENV-specific plasmablast-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for activity against ZIKV. Nearly half of the 47 DENV-reactive mAbs studied bound to both whole ZIKV virion and ZIKV lysate, of which a subset also neutralized ZIKV. In addition, both sera and mAbs from the dengue-infected patients enhanced ZIKV infection of Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells in vitro. Taken together, these findings suggest that preexisting immunity to DENV may impact protective immune responses against ZIKV. In addition, the extensive cross-reactivity may have implications for ZIKV virulence and disease severity in DENV-experienced populations.

  12. Diversity and maturation in the anti-dansyl antibody response of the Balb/C mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    Ten hybridoma cell lines that produce antibodies with specificity for the 5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl(dansyl)-lysine hapten, were studied. Single stranded cDNAs were generated by reverse transcription of the immunoglobulin (Ig) mRNAs primed by 5' P-32 labeled oligonucleotides complementary to specific regions of the Ig message. Nucleic acid sequences of 4 mu heavy chains was sufficient to reveal that the early immune response involves members of at least three distinct heavy chain variable region (V/sub H/) gene families. Nucleic acid sequences and Southern blot data from 6 gamma heavy chains reveal that the gamma response is comprised of members of only a single V/sub H/ family although representation from that family derives from at least three distinguishable germline genes. The abrupt restriction of V/sub H/ family usage at the point of class switch can not be explained on the basis of antigen driven selection or of idio-type repression. The data indicate a mechanism for preferential class switch of a particular V/sub H/ family independent of affinity considerations or repression of other idiotypes.

  13. Antibody responses to Brucella abortus 2308 in cattle vaccinated with B. abortus RB51.

    PubMed

    Stevens, M G; Olsen, S C

    1996-03-01

    Cattle vaccinated with Brucella abortus rough strain RB51 (SRB51) produced small amounts of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) but no IgM antibody to smooth strain 2308 (S2308) bacteria and produced no IgG or IgM antibody to S2308 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Western immunoblot analysis revealed that antiserum from SRB51-vaccinated cattle contained IgG antibody that reacted with S2308 proteins of 84 to <20 kDa. However, antiserum from the vaccinated cattle did not contain agglutinating B. abortus antibody in the tube agglutination test for brucellosis. These results suggest that SRB51-vaccinated cattle produced no antibody to S2308 LPS, although they did produce nonagglutinating IgG antibody that reacted with S2308 bacteria and bacterial proteins of 84 to <20 kDa.

  14. Detection of HCV-Specific IFN-γ Responses in HCV Antibody and HCV RNA Negative Injecting Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jacqueline K; Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Higgs, Peter; Aitken, Campbell; Moneer, Sarah; Suppiah, Vijay; Tracy, Lilly; Ffrench, Rosemary; Bowden, Scott; Drummer, Heidi; George, Jacob; Bharadwaj, Mandvi; Hellard, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background: Detectable HCV-specific cellular immune responses in HCV antibody and RNA negative people who inject drugs (PWID) raise the question of whether some are resistant to HCV infection. Immune responses from people who have been exposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and remain anti-HCV negative are of interest for HCV vaccine development; however, limited research addresses this area. Objectives: In a cohort of HCV antibody and RNA negative PWID, we assessed whether the presence of HCV-specific IFN-γ responses or genetic associations provide any evidence of protection from HCV infection. Patients and Methods: One hundred and ninety-eight participants were examined longitudinally for clinical, behavioral, social, environmental and genetic characteristics (IFNL3 genotype [formally IL-28B] and HLA type). Sixty-one of the 198 participants were HCV antibody and RNA negative, with 53 able to be examined longitudinally for HCV-specific IFN-γ ELISpot T cell responses. Results: Ten of the 53 HCV antibody and RNA negative participants had detectable HCV-specific IFN-γ responses at baseline (18%). The magnitude of IFN-γ responses averaged 131 +/- 96 SFC/106 PBMC and the breadth was mean 1 +/- 1 pool positive. The specificity of responses were mainly directed to E2, NS4b and NS5b. Participants with (10) and without (43) HCV-specific IFN-γ responses did not differ in behavioral, clinical or genetic characteristics (P > 0.05). There was a larger proportion sharing needles (with 70%, without 49%, P = 0.320) and a higher incidence of HCV (with 35.1 per 100 py, 95% CI 14.6, 84.4, without 16.0 per 100 py, 95% CI 7.2, 35.6, P = 0.212) in those with IFN-γ responses, although not statistically significant. Half the participants with baseline IFN-γ responses became HCV RNA positive (5/10), with one of these participants spontaneously clearing HCV. The spontaneous clearer had high magnitude and broad Th1 responses, favorable IFNL3 genotype and favorable HLA types. Conclusions

  15. Autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibody responses following initial seroconversion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Moog, C; Fleury, H J; Pellegrin, I; Kirn, A; Aubertin, A M

    1997-01-01

    In the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, patients develop a strong and persistent immune response characterized by the production of HIV-specific antibodies. The aim of our study was to analyze the appearance of autologous and heterologous neutralizing antibodies in the sera of HIV-infected individuals. For this purpose, primary strains have been isolated from 18 HIV-1-infected subjects prior to seroconversion (in one case) or within 1 to 8 months after seroconversion. Sera, collected at the same time as the virus was isolated and at various times after isolation, have been analyzed for their ability to neutralize the autologous primary strains isolated early after infection, heterologous primary isolates, and cell-line adapted strains. Our neutralization assay, which combines serial dilutions of virus and serial dilutions of sera, is based on the determination of the serum dilution at which a fixed reduction in virus titer (90%) occurs. We have shown that (i) we could not detect autologous neutralizing antibodies in sera collected at the same time as we isolated viruses; (ii) we detected neutralizing antibodies against the autologous strains about 1 year after seroconversion, occasionally after 8 months, but sera were not always available to exclude the presence of neutralizing antibodies at earlier times; (iii) after 1 year, the neutralization response was highly specific to virus present during the early phase of HIV infection; and (iv) heterologous neutralization of primary isolates was detected later (after about 2 years). These results reveal the enormous diversity of neutralization determinants on primary isolates as well as a temporal evolution of the humoral response generating cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9094648

  16. Measurement of platelet responsiveness using antibody-coated magnetic beads for lab-on-a-chip applications.

    PubMed

    van Zijp, Helena M; Schot, Claudia C M M; De Jong, Arthur M; Jongmans, Nona; Van Holten, Thijs C; Roest, Mark; Prins, Menno W J

    2012-01-01

    We investigate novel methods for the quantification of platelet responsiveness that are suited for implementation in lab-on-a-chip devices. Magnetic beads are convenient carriers for rapid capture and manipulation of biological cells in a miniaturized system. In this article, we demonstrate that antibody-coated magnetic beads can be used to quantify platelet responsiveness. We use anti-CD62P coated beads to capture activated platelets from samples stimulated with a PAR-1 specific agonist SFLLRN, also known as thrombin receptor activator peptide. The responsiveness of the platelets is analyzed via the remaining unbound platelets in the solution and compared to a reference method in which the number of activated platelets is analyzed via fluorescent labeling. The effective concentrations for platelet activation are in agreement for the two assay types, proving that platelet responsiveness can be quantified using antibody-coated magnetic beads. We discuss the outlook for application in lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:22309047

  17. Serological analysis of human anti-human antibody responses in colon cancer patients treated with repeated doses of humanized monoclonal antibody A33.

    PubMed

    Ritter, G; Cohen, L S; Williams, C; Richards, E C; Old, L J; Welt, S

    2001-09-15

    Mouse monoclonal antibody A33 (mAb A33) recognizes a M(r) 43,000 cell surface glycoprotein (designated A33) expressed in human colonic epithelium and colon cancer but absent from most other normal tissues. In patients, mAb A33 localizes with high specificity to colon cancer and is retained for up to 6 weeks in the cancer but cleared rapidly from normal colon (5-6 days). As a carrier of (125)I or (131)I, mAb A33 has shown antitumor activity. Induction of strong human anti-mouse antibody (immunoglobulin; HAMA) responses in patients, however, limits the use of the murine mAb A33 to very few injections. A humanized version of this antibody (huAb A33) has been prepared for Phase I and II clinical studies in patients with colon cancer. In those studies, immunogenicity of huAb A33 has been monitored using a novel, highly sensitive BIACORE method, which allows measurement of human anti-human antibodies (HAHAs) without the use of secondary reagents. We found that 63% (26 of 41) of the patients treated with repeated doses of huAb A33 developed HAHAs against a conformational antigenic determinant located in the V(L) and V(H) regions of huAb A33. Detailed serological analysis showed two distinct types of HAHAs. HAHA of type I (49% of patients) was characterized by an early onset with peak HAHA levels after 2 weeks of treatment, which declined with ongoing huAb A33 treatment. HAHA of type II (17% of patients) was characterized by a typically later onset of HAHA than in type I and by progressively increasing HAHA levels with each subsequent huAb A33 administration. Colon cancer patients with type I HAHAs did not develop infusion-related adverse events. In contrast, HAHA of type II was indicative of infusion-related adverse events. By using this new method, we were able to distinguish these two types of HAHAs in patients while on antibody treatment, allowing patients to be removed from study prior to the onset of severe infusion-related adverse events.

  18. Persistence of serogroup C antibody responses following quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccination in United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manisha; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Broderick, Michael P; Thomas, Cynthia G; Plikaytis, Brian D; Schmidt, Daniel S; Johnson, Scott E; Milton, Andrea S; Carlone, George M; Clark, Thomas A; Messonnier, Nancy E; Cohn, Amanda C; Faix, Dennis J

    2014-06-24

    Serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) disease accounts for one-third of all meningococcal cases and causes meningococcal outbreaks in the U.S. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (MenACYWD) was recommended in 2005 for adolescents and high risk groups such as military recruits. We evaluated anti-MenC antibody persistence in U.S. military personnel vaccinated with either MenACYWD or meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4). Twelve hundred subjects vaccinated with MenACYWD from 2006 to 2008 or MPSV4 from 2002 to 2004 were randomly selected from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Baseline serologic responses to MenC were assessed in all subjects; 100 subjects per vaccine group were tested during one of the following six post-vaccination time-points: 5-7, 11-13, 17-19, 23-25, 29-31, or 35-37 months. Anti-MenC geometric mean titers (GMT) were measured by rabbit complement serum bactericidal assay (rSBA) and geometric mean concentrations (GMC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Continuous variables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test and the proportion of subjects with an rSBA titer ≥ 8 by chi-square. Pre-vaccination rSBA GMT was <8 for the MenACWYD group. rSBA GMT increased to 703 at 5-7 months post-vaccination and decreased by 94% to 43 at 3 years post-vaccination. GMT was significantly lower in the MenACWYD group at 5-7 months post-vaccination compared to the MPSV4 group. The percentage of MenACWYD recipients achieving an rSBA titer of ≥ 8 decreased from 87% at 5-7 months to 54% at 3 years. There were no significant differences between vaccine groups in the proportion of subjects with a titer of ≥ 8 at any time-point. GMC for the MenACWYD group was 0.14 μg/mL at baseline, 1.07 μg/mL at 5-7 months, and 0.66 μg/mL at 3 years, and significantly lower than the MPSV4 group at all time-points. Anti-MenC responses wane following vaccination with MenACYWD; a booster dose is needed to maintain protective levels

  19. Enhancement of Glioma Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy Response With Targeted Antibody Therapy Against Death Receptor 5

    SciTech Connect

    Fiveash, John B. Gillespie, G. Yancey; Oliver, Patsy G.; Zhou Tong; Belenky, Michael L.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: TRA-8 is an agonistic mouse monoclonal antibody that binds to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptor 5, which induces apoptosis in cancer cells through a caspase-8-dependent mechanism. We investigated the ability of TRA-8 to augment the radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy response of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: The in vitro cytotoxicity of TRA-8 and temozolomide (Tmz) or RT was examined using adenosine triphosphate-dependent viability and clonogenic survival assays with five glioma cell lines. Death receptor 5 expression was determined by flow cytometry. In vivo studies included subcutaneous and intracranial xenograft models testing various combination treatments, including RT, Tmz, and TRA-8. Results: TRA-8, combined with Tmz or RT, produced enhanced cytotoxicity against five glioma cell lines compared with the use of the individual agents alone. Death receptor 5 upregulation occurred in response to RT. Complete tumor regression in the subcutaneous experiments was the most common in animals that received combination therapy with TRA-8/Tmz/RT. TRA-8 enhanced tumor growth delay in combination with RT or Tmz. TRA-8 alone had limited activity against intracranial tumors. In contrast, the median survival of mice treated with TRA-8/Tmz/RT was significantly greater than the control or TRA-8-alone-treated mice. The median survival of the mice treated with TRA-8/Tmz/RT or chemoradiotherapy only was significantly greater than the control or TRA-8-treated mice. A trend toward improved survival was observed between TRA-8/Tmz/RT-treated and Tmz/RT-treated mice. Conclusions: These preliminary findings support the hypothesis that TRA-8 will augment the RT and chemotherapy response in gliomas. A humanized version of TRA-8 is being evaluated in a Phase II clinical trial.

  20. H. pylori-infection and antibody immune response in a rural Tanzanian population

    PubMed Central

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Gold, Benjamin D; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Brubaker, Glen R; Shao, John; Biggar, Robert J; Hisada, Michie

    2006-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is ubiquitous in sub-Saharan Africa, but paradoxically gastric cancer is rare. Methods Sera collected during a household-based survey in rural Tanzania in 1985 were tested for anti-H. pylori IgG and IgG subclass antibodies by enzyme immunoassay. Odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) of association of seropositivity with demographic variables were computed by logistic regression models. Results Of 788 participants, 513 were aged ≤17 years. H. pylori seropositivity increased from 76% at 0–4 years to 99% by ≥18 years of age. Seropositivity was associated with age (OR 11.5, 95% CI 4.2–31.4 for 10–17 vs. 0–4 years), higher birth-order (11.1; 3.6–34.1 for ≥3rd vs. 1st born), and having a seropositive next-older sibling (2.7; 0.9–8.3). Median values of IgG subclass were 7.2 for IgG1 and 2.0 for IgG2. The median IgG1/IgG2 ratio was 3.1 (IQR: 1.7–5.6), consistent with a Th2-dominant immune profile. Th2-dominant response was more frequent in children than adults (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3–4.4). Conclusion H. pylori seropositivity was highly prevalent in Tanzania and the immunological response was Th2-dominant. Th2-dominant immune response, possibly caused by concurrent bacterial or parasitic infections, could explain, in part, the lower risk of H. pylori-associated gastric cancer in Africa. PMID:17150132

  1. Strong Antibody Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE-PGRS62 Protein Are Associated with Latent and Active Tuberculosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Kah Wee; Soh, Shu E; Seah, Geok Teng

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a unique family of PE-PGRS proteins with conserved N-terminal domains (PE) containing site-specific proline-glutamine residues and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequences (PGRS). Tuberculosis (TB) patients produce antibodies against some such proteins, but it is not clear whether these responses correlate with disease. Clinical groups with different mycobacterium exposure were studied for their seroreactivity to PE-PGRS17 and PE-PGRS62 proteins and their respective PE domains. There were minimal antibody responses against both PE domains and full-length PE-PGRS17, even in patients with active TB. However, patients with active and latent TB showed significantly higher PE-PGRS62-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses than treated TB patients and mycobacterium-reactive TB contacts without latent infection. Latently infected persons had high anti-PE-PGRS62 responses but low responses to the 38-kDa antigen commonly used for TB serology, while treated TB cases showed the opposite response. Thus, patterns of seroreactivity to PE-PGRS62 correlate with clinical status and are associated with latent TB infection. PMID:19487480

  2. Associations Between Helminth Infections, Plasmodium falciparum Parasite Carriage and Antibody Responses to Sexual and Asexual Stage Malarial Antigens.

    PubMed

    Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Jones, Sophie; Zinsou, Jeannot Fréjus; Honkpehedji, Josiane; Adegnika, Ayola Akim; Agobe, Jean-Claude Dejon; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Bousema, Teun; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Infections with helminths and Plasmodium spp. overlap in their geographical distribution. It has been postulated that helminth infections may influence malarial transmission by altering Plasmodium falciparum gametocytogenesis. This cross-sectional study assessed the effect of helminth infections on P. falciparum gametocyte carriage and on humoral immune responses to sexual stage antigens in Gabon. Schistosoma haematobium and filarial infections as well as P. falciparum asexual forms and gametocyte carriage were determined. The antibody responses measured were to sexual (Pfs230, Pfs48/45) and asexual P. falciparum antigens (AMA1, MSP1, and GLURP). A total of 287 subjects were included. The prevalence of microscopically detectable P. falciparum asexual parasites was higher in S. haematobium-infected subjects in comparison to their uninfected counterparts (47% versus 26%, P = 0.003), but this was not different when filarial infections were considered. Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage was similar between Schistosoma- or filaria-infected and uninfected subjects. We observed a significant decrease of Pfs48/45 immunoglobulin G titer in S. haematobium-infected subjects (P = 0.037), whereas no difference was seen for Pfs230 antibody titer, nor for antibodies to AMA1, MSP1, or GLURP. Our findings suggest an effect of S. haematobium on antibody responses to some P. falciparum gametocyte antigens that may have consequences for transmission-blocking immunity. PMID:27273645

  3. Leukaemia x fibroblast hybrid cells augment the antibody response to sheep red blood cells in inbred mice.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, E P; Hagen, K

    1985-01-01

    ASL-1 x LM(TK-) hybrid cells, an established murine leukaemia x fibroblast hybrid cell line, augment the antibody response to sheep red blood cells in inbred mice, as determined by the plaque assay method. The intraperitoneal injection of viable hybrid cells or of growth medium conditioned by the cells leads to an increase both in the total number as well as the proportion of cells forming antibodies to sheep red blood cells. CSF-1, (M-CSF), is detected by radioimmunoassay in the medium conditioned by the hybrid and LM(TK-) cells, but not ASL-1 parental cells. Prior treatment of the conditioned medium with CSF-1 antiserum reduces its capacity to augment the antibody response, and its proliferative stimulus on cells from the marrow indicating that CSF-1 may be at least partly responsible for the adjuvant effect observed. The intraperitoneal implantation of diffusion chambers containing viable CSF-1 producing hybrid cells, like the cells themselves, also leads to an increase in the number of spleen cells forming antibodies to sheep red blood cells. PMID:3908292

  4. Response to foot-and-mouth disease vaccines in newborn calves. Influence of age, colostral antibodies and adjuvants.

    PubMed Central

    Sadir, A. M.; Schudel, A. A.; Laporte, O.; Braun, M.; Margni, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Oil-emulsified (OE) and aqueous (Aq) vaccines were prepared with the same batch of inactivated A24 8345 foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). Calves born to vaccinated dams did not respond to the Aq vaccine 30 or 90 days post partum. When the OE vaccine was used on a similar group of calves, no responses were elicited up to 21 days post partum. However, calves 30 or more days old responded like adult cattle to the OE vaccine. When the OE vaccine was used in colostral antibody-free calves 3-30 days old, all animals showed good antibody responses but, in calves vaccinated 3 or 7 days post partum, antibodies were detectable only after a considerable period of time. Our results show that both passively acquired colostral antibodies and age are important in the response of very young calves to FMDV oil vaccines. From a practical point of view, in endemic areas where adult cattle are periodically vaccinated, vaccination of calves between 30 and 60 days post partum with OE vaccines would lead to high levels of herd protection. PMID:2828089

  5. Increased IFNα activity and differential antibody response in patients with a history of Lyme disease and persistent cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Jacek, Elzbieta; Fallon, Brian A; Chandra, Abhishek; Crow, Mary K; Wormser, Gary P; Alaedini, Armin

    2013-02-15

    Following antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease, some patients report persistent or relapsing symptoms of pain, fatigue, and/or cognitive deficits. Factors other than active infection, including immune abnormalities, have been suggested, but few clues regarding mechanism have emerged. Furthermore, the effect of antibiotic treatment on immune response in affected individuals remains unknown. In this study, a longitudinal analysis of specific immune markers of interest was carried out in patients with a history of Lyme disease and persistent objective memory impairment, prior to and following treatment with either ceftriaxone or placebo. IFNα activity was measured by detection of serum-induced changes in specific target genes, using a functional cell-based assay and quantitative real-time PCR. Level and pattern of antibody reactivity to brain antigens and to Borrelia burgdorferi proteins were analyzed by ELISA and immunoblotting. Sera from the patient cohort induced significantly higher expression of IFIT1 and IFI44 target genes than those from healthy controls, indicating increased IFNα activity. Antibody reactivity to specific brain and borrelial proteins was significantly elevated in affected patients. IFNα activity and antibody profile did not change significantly in response to ceftriaxone. The heightened antibody response implies enhanced immune stimulation, possibly due to prolonged exposure to the organism prior to the initial diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. The increase in IFNα activity is suggestive of a mechanism contributing to the ongoing neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:23141748

  6. Increased IFNα activity and differential antibody response in patients with a history of Lyme disease and persistent cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Jacek, Elzbieta; Fallon, Brian A; Chandra, Abhishek; Crow, Mary K; Wormser, Gary P; Alaedini, Armin

    2013-02-15

    Following antibiotic treatment for Lyme disease, some patients report persistent or relapsing symptoms of pain, fatigue, and/or cognitive deficits. Factors other than active infection, including immune abnormalities, have been suggested, but few clues regarding mechanism have emerged. Furthermore, the effect of antibiotic treatment on immune response in affected individuals remains unknown. In this study, a longitudinal analysis of specific immune markers of interest was carried out in patients with a history of Lyme disease and persistent objective memory impairment, prior to and following treatment with either ceftriaxone or placebo. IFNα activity was measured by detection of serum-induced changes in specific target genes, using a functional cell-based assay and quantitative real-time PCR. Level and pattern of antibody reactivity to brain antigens and to Borrelia burgdorferi proteins were analyzed by ELISA and immunoblotting. Sera from the patient cohort induced significantly higher expression of IFIT1 and IFI44 target genes than those from healthy controls, indicating increased IFNα activity. Antibody reactivity to specific brain and borrelial proteins was significantly elevated in affected patients. IFNα activity and antibody profile did not change significantly in response to ceftriaxone. The heightened antibody response implies enhanced immune stimulation, possibly due to prolonged exposure to the organism prior to the initial diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of Lyme disease. The increase in IFNα activity is suggestive of a mechanism contributing to the ongoing neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  7. Tetravalent dengue DIIIC protein together with alum and ODN elicits a Th1 response and neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Zuest, Roland; Valdes, Iris; Skibinski, David; Lin, Yufang; Toh, Ying Xiu; Chan, Katherine; Hermida, Lisset; Connolly, John; Guillen, Gerardo; Fink, Katja

    2015-03-17

    Dengue disease is a global challenge for healthcare systems particularly during outbreaks, and millions of dollars are spent every year for vector control. An efficient and safe vaccine that is cost-effective could resolve the burden that dengue virus imposes on affected countries. We describe here the immunogenicity of a tetravalent formulation of a recombinant fusion protein consisting of E domain III and the capsid protein of dengue serotypes 1-4 (Tetra DIIIC). E domain III is an epitope for efficient neutralizing antibodies while the capsid protein contains T cell epitopes. Besides combining B and T cell epitopes, Tetra DIIIC is highly immunogenic due to its aggregate form and a two-component adjuvant. Following previous studies assessing the monovalent DIIIC formulations, we addressed here the quality and breadth of the T cell- and antibody response of Tetra DIIIC in mice. Tetra DIIIC induced a Th1-type response against all four DENV serotypes and dengue-specific antibodies were predominantly IgG1 and IgG2a and neutralizing, while the induction of neutralizing antibodies was dependent on IFN signaling. Importantly, the Th1 and IgG1/IgG2a profile of the DIIIC vaccine approach is similar to an efficient natural anti-dengue response.

  8. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi-specific immunoglobulin A antibody responses in plasma and antibody in lymphocyte supernatant specimens in Bangladeshi patients with suspected typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Alaullah; Bhuiyan, M Saruar; Khanam, Farhana; Chowdhury, Fahima; Saha, Amit; Ahmed, Dilruba; Jamil, K M A; LaRocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Ahmad, Mian Mashhud; Charles, Richelle; Brooks, W Abdullah; Calderwood, Stephen B; Cravioto, Alejandro; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi

    2009-11-01

    Many currently available diagnostic tests for typhoid fever lack sensitivity and/or specificity, especially in areas of the world where the disease is endemic. In order to identify a diagnostic test that better correlates with typhoid fever, we evaluated immune responses to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (serovar Typhi) in individuals with suspected typhoid fever in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We enrolled 112 individuals with suspected typhoid fever, cultured day 0 blood for serovar Typhi organisms, and performed Widal assays on days 0, 5, and 20. We harvested peripheral blood lymphocytes and analyzed antibody levels in supernatants collected on days 0, 5, and 20 (using an antibody-in-lymphocyte-supernatant [ALS] assay), as well as in plasma on these days. We measured ALS reactivity to a serovar Typhi membrane preparation (MP), a formalin-inactivated whole-cell preparation, and serovar Typhi lipopolysaccharide. We measured responses in healthy Bangladeshi, as well as in Bangladeshi febrile patients with confirmed dengue fever or leptospirosis. We categorized suspected typhoid fever individuals into different groups (groups I to V) based on blood culture results, Widal titer, and clinical features. Responses to MP antigen in the immunoglobulin A isotype were detectable at the time of presentation in the plasma of 81% of patients. The ALS assay, however, tested positive in all patients with documented or highly suspicious typhoid, suggesting that such a response could be the basis of improved diagnostic point-of-care-assay for serovar Typhi infection. It can be important for use in epidemiological studies, as well as in difficult cases involving fevers of unknown origin. PMID:19741090

  9. Carboxypeptidase D is the only enzyme responsible for antibody C-terminal lysine cleavage in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhilan; Zhang, Henry; Haley, Benjamin; Macchi, Frank; Yang, Feng; Misaghi, Shahram; Elich, Joseph; Yang, Renee; Tang, Yun; Joly, John C; Snedecor, Bradley R; Shen, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Heterogeneity of C-terminal lysine levels often observed in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is believed to result from the proteolysis by endogenous carboxypeptidase(s) during cell culture production. Identifying the responsible carboxypeptidase(s) for C-terminal lysine cleavage in CHO cells would provide valuable insights for antibody production cell culture processes development and optimization. In this study, five carboxypeptidases, CpD, CpM, CpN, CpB, and CpE, were studied for message RNA (mRNA) expression by qRT-PCR analysis in two most commonly used blank hosts (DUXB-11 derived DHFR-deficient DP12 host and DHFR-positive CHOK1 host), used for therapeutic antibody production, as well an antibody-expressing cell line derived from each host. Our results showed that CpD had the highest mRNA expression. When CpD mRNA levels were reduced by RNAi (RNA interference) technology, C-terminal lysine levels increased, whereas there was no obvious change in C-terminal lysine levels when a different carboxypeptidase mRNA level was knocked down suggesting that carboxypeptidase D is the main contributor for C-terminal lysine processing. Most importantly, when CpD expression was knocked out by CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology, C-terminal lysine cleavage was completely abolished in CpD knockout cells based on mass spectrometry analysis, demonstrating that CpD is the only endogenous carboxypeptidase that cleaves antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine in CHO cells. Hence, our work showed for the first time that the cleavage of antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine is solely mediated by the carboxypeptidase D in CHO cells and our finding provides one solution to eliminating C-terminal lysine heterogeneity for therapeutic antibody production by knocking out CpD gene expression. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2100-2106. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Elevated PC responsive B cells and anti-PC antibody production in transgenic mice harboring anti-PC immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Pinkert, C A; Manz, J; Linton, P J; Klinman, N R; Storb, U

    1989-12-01

    The rearrangement of heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes is necessary for the production of functional antibody molecules. The myeloma MOPC 167 produces specific antibodies to the antigen phosphorylcholine (PC), which is present on bacterial surfaces, fungi and other environmental contaminants. Rearranged heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes cloned from MOPC 167 were microinjected into mouse eggs. Within the resulting transgenic mice, expression of the transgenes were limited to lymphoid tissues. Transgenic mice produced elevated levels of anti-PC antibodies constitutively, at 16 days of age, when normal non-transgenic mice were not fully immunocompetent. A triggering antigenic stimulus was not necessary to evoke anti-PC immunoglobulin production. Additionally, the frequency of PC-responsive B cells in these transgenic mice was further increased upon specific immunization.

  11. Effect of skin test on serum antibody responses to Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, several serologic tests designed to detect immunodominant antibodies to M. bovis antigens (e.g., MPB83, MPB70, ESAT-6, and CFP10) have emerged for potential use with samples from cattle. Of these, a commercial ELISA to MPB83/MPB70 (M. bovis antibody ELISA) has gained approval for use in ca...

  12. Spontaneous Development of IgM Anti-Cocaine Antibodies in Habitual Cocaine Users: Effect on IgG Antibody Responses to a Cocaine Cholera Toxin B Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Orson, Frank M.; Rossen, Roger D.; Shen, Xiaoyun; Lopez, Angel Y.; Wu, Yan; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives In cocaine vaccine studies, only a minority of subjects made strong antibody responses. To investigate this issue, IgG and IgM antibody responses to cocaine and to cholera toxin B (CTB—the carrier protein used to enhance immune responses to cocaine) were measured in sera from the 55 actively vaccinated subjects in a Phase IIb randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (TA-CD 109). Methods Isotype specific ELISAs were used to measure IgG and IgM anti-cocaine and anti-CTB antibody in serial samples collected prior to and at intervals after immunization. We assessed IgG anti-cocaine responses of patients with pre-vaccination IgM anti-cocaine antibodies. Competitive inhibition ELISA was used to evaluate antibody specificity. Results and Conclusions Before immunization, 36/55 subjects had detectable IgM antibodies to cocaine, and 9 had IgM levels above the 95% confidence limit of 11 µg/ml. These nine had significantly reduced peak IgG anti-cocaine responses at 16 weeks, and all were below the concentration (40 µg/ml) considered necessary to discourage recreational cocaine use. The IgG anti-CTB responses of these same subjects were also reduced. Scientific Significance Subjects who develop an IgM antibody response to cocaine in the course of repeated recreational exposure to this drug are significantly less likely to produce high levels of IgG antibodies from the cocaine conjugate vaccine. The failure may be due to recreational cocaine exposure induction of a type 2 T-cell independent immune response. Such individuals will require improved vaccines and are poor candidates for the currently available vaccine. PMID:23414504

  13. Immunoproteomic analysis of the antibody response obtained in Nile tilapia following vaccination with a Streptococcus iniae vaccine.

    PubMed

    LaFrentz, Benjamin R; Shoemaker, Craig A; Klesius, Phillip H

    2011-09-28

    Streptococcus iniae is one of the most economically important Gram-positive pathogens in cultured fish species worldwide. The USDA-ARS Aquatic Animal Health Research Unit developed a modified (contains concentrated culture supernatant) S. iniae bacterin that has been demonstrated to be efficacious, and protection is mediated by specific anti-S. iniae antibodies. Although effective, the specific vaccine components important for efficacy are not known. In the present study, an immunoproteomic approach was utilized to identify whole-cell lysate proteins of S. iniae that stimulated specific antibody production in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) following vaccination. Groups of tilapia were vaccinated by intraperitoneal injection with the modified S. iniae bacterin or were mock-vaccinated, and at 30 d post-vaccination sera samples were obtained from individual fish. Vaccination of tilapia with the S. iniae vaccine stimulated significantly elevated specific antibody responses against proteins of the bacterium and passive immunization of tilapia with this serum demonstrated the antibodies were highly protective. Whole-cell lysate proteins of S. iniae were separated by 2D-PAGE and were probed with a pooled serum sample from vaccinated tilapia. A total of eleven unique immunogenic proteins were positively identified by mass spectrometry. Based on research conducted on homologous proteins in other Streptococcus spp., antibodies specific for three of the identified proteins, enolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, are likely involved in protection from streptococcosis caused by S. iniae. PMID:21601381

  14. Development of monoclonal antibodies against parathyroid hormone: genetic control of the immune response to human PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, S.R.; Lin, C.S.; Potts, J.T. Jr.; Rosenthal, A.S.; Rosenblatt, M.

    1985-01-01

    Seventeen monocloanl antibodies against the aminoterminal portion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were generated by using BALB/c mouse for immunization fully biologically active synthetic human PTH-(1-34) and bovine PTH-(1-84) as immunogens, monoclonal antibody methods, and a solid-phase screening assay. Isotypic analysis of these monoclonal antibodies was performed using affinity purified goat antimouse immunoglobulins specific for IgG heavy chains and ..mu..(IgM). All antibodies were IgM as evidenced by 40 times greater than background activity when 25,000 cpm of /sup 125/I-labelled goat anti-mouse IgM was used as second antibody in a radioimmunoassay.

  15. Neuraminidase inhibiting antibody responses in pigs differ between influenza A virus N2 lineages and by vaccine type.

    PubMed

    Sandbulte, Matthew R; Gauger, Phillip C; Kitikoon, Pravina; Chen, Hongjun; Perez, Daniel R; Roth, James A; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-07-19

    The neuraminidase (NA) protein of influenza A viruses (IAV) has important functional roles in the viral replication cycle. Antibodies specific to NA can reduce viral replication and limit disease severity, but are not routinely measured. We analyzed NA inhibiting (NI) antibody titers in serum and respiratory specimens of pigs vaccinated with intramuscular whole-inactivated virus (WIV), intranasal live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV), and intranasal wild type (WT) IAV. NI titers were also analyzed in sera from an investigation of piglet vaccination in the presence of passive maternally-derived antibodies. Test antigens contained genetically divergent swine-lineage NA genes homologous or heterologous to the vaccines with mismatched hemagglutinin genes (HA). Naïve piglets responded to WIV and LAIV vaccines and WT infection with strong homologous serum NI titers. Cross-reactivity to heterologous NAs depended on the degree of genetic divergence between the NA genes. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of LAIV and WT-immunized groups also had significant NI titers against the homologous antigen whereas the WIV group did not. Piglets of vaccinated sows received high levels of passive NI antibody, but their NI responses to homologous LAIV vaccination were impeded. These data demonstrate the utility of the enzyme-linked lectin assay for efficient NI antibody titration of serum as well as respiratory tract secretions. Swine IAV vaccines that induce robust NI responses are likely to provide broader protection against the diverse and rapidly evolving IAV strains that circulate in pig populations. Mucosal antibodies to NA may be one of the protective immune mechanisms induced by LAIV vaccines.

  16. Salivary, nasal, genital, and systemic antibody responses in monkeys immunized intranasally with a bacterial protein antigen and the Cholera toxin B subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M W; Moldoveanu, Z; White, P L; Sibert, G J; Mestecky, J; Michalek S, M

    1996-01-01

    Previous attempts to induce mucosal antibodies in rhesus monkeys by enteric immunization have resulted in only modest and short-lived responses, dominated by immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in the plasma. In this study, two groups of rhesus monkeys were immunized intranasally three times at 2-week intervals with a bacterial protein antigen (AgI/II) either chemically coupled to or mixed with the B subunit of cholera toxin (CT), a known potent mucosal immunogen and carrier for other immunogens. Cells secreting antibodies, predominantly of the IgA isotype, to AgI/II and to CT were detected in the peripheral blood 1 week after each immunization, indicating the dissemination of IgA-secreting precursor cells through the mucosal immune system. IgG and, to a lesser extent, IgA antibodies to both proteins were induced in the plasma commencing after the second immunization. Plasma IgE concentrations and IgE antibody levels were not consistently raised during the immunization period. IgA antibodies were found in nasal and vaginal washes. Nasal IgG but not IgA antibodies showed a significant positive correlation with plasma IgG antibody levels, suggesting that they were largely derived by transudation from the circulation. Analysis of the molecular form of vaginal IgA indicated that both secretory and monomeric forms of IgA were present in various proportions. Furthermore, neither IgG nor IgA antibodies in vaginal washes were correlated with plasma antibody responses, suggesting the contribution of locally synthesized antibodies of both isotypes. Comparison of the responses between the two groups of animals showed only sporadic significant differences, indicating that intranasal immunization with AgI/II either coupled to or mixed with the B subunit of CT was equally effective at inducing generalized IgA antibody responses in the mucosal immune system and predominantly IgG antibodies in the plasma. PMID:8606090

  17. Immune response to phosphorylcholine. IX. Characterization of hybridoma anti-TEPC15 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wittner, M K; Bach, M A; Köhler, H

    1982-02-01

    Hybridoma antibodies against the PC-binding T15 BALB/c myeloma protein were raised by cell fusion with anti-T15 A/He immune cells. The idiotype specificity of these monoclonal anti-T15 antibodies was determined with a panel of different myeloma and hybridoma immunoglobulins. Two types of anti-T15 antibodies are seen. One reacts with a number of different IgA myeloma proteins and with serum IgA of certain strains of mice; this reactivity most likely is due to allotypy. The other group consists of anti-T15 antibodies that are specific for the T15 idiotype and are therefore termed anti-idiotypic. The bindings of the anti-idiotype antibodies to T15 were specifically inhibited by T15 (F(ab')2 but not by other PC-binding myeloma proteins of different idiotypes. The relationship of the idiotype-specific anti-T15 antibodies to the PC-binding site of the T15 idiotype was analyzed by hapten inhibition of anti-idiotypic binding and by inhibition of BALB/c anti-PC splenic hemolytic plaque formation. Anti-T15 antibodies, for which the T15 binding is inhibited by PC or PC-BSA, also specifically inhibit anti-PC plaque formation. These antibodies are labeled site and near-site anti-idiotypic antibodies. Site and near-site-specific anti-idiotypic antibodies recognize different idiotopes on the T15 molecules. The possible differential biologic activities of these anti-idiotopes in idiotype network regulation is considered.

  18. Kinetics of antibody and memory B cell responses after MMR immunization in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Kakoulidou, Maria; Ingelman-Sundberg, Hanna; Johansson, Elin; Cagigi, Alberto; Farouk, Salah Eldin; Nilsson, Anna; Johansen, Kari

    2013-01-11

    The persistence of antigen-specific memory B-cells (MBCs) in children and young adults long time after vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) is not known. Here we have looked at the Swedish immunization program and examined children 1-10 years after the first MMR dose in early childhood, as well as young adults 7-18 years after the second dose of MMR. We show that Ab titers and MBCs against measles and rubella have different kinetics, indicating that the MBC pool and the corresponding Ab titers are regulated independently. These data fit well with other findings that continuous IgG secretion comes from long-lived plasma cells and not MBCs. We also demonstrate that individuals with low post-vaccination Ab titers might have an adequate MBC response. It remains to be shown if memory B-cells provide the same protection as specific antibodies, but our data is a valuable complement to the incomplete knowledge about correlates of protection after vaccination. PMID:23174196

  19. Antibody Response to Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Protection of Host and Influence on Outbreaks?

    PubMed Central

    Dumke, Roger; Jacobs, Enno

    2016-01-01

    In humans of all ages, the cell wall-less and genome-reduced species Mycoplasma pneumoniae can cause infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract. The well-documented occurrence of major peaks in the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia cases reported world-wide, the multifaceted clinical manifestations of infection and the increasing number of resistant strains provide reasons for ongoing interest in the pathogenesis of mycoplasmal disease. The results of recent studies have provided insights into the interaction of the limited virulence factors of the bacterium with its host. In addition, the availability of complete M. pneumoniae genomes from patient isolates and the development of proteomic methods for investigation of mycoplasmas have not only allowed characterization of sequence divergences between strains but have also shown the importance of proteins and protein parts for induction of the immune reaction after infection. This review focuses on selected aspects of the humoral host immune response as a factor that might influence the clinical course of infections, subsequent protection in cases of re-infections and changes of epidemiological pattern of infections. The characterization of antibodies directed to defined antigens and approaches to promote their induction in the respiratory mucosa are also preconditions for the development of a vaccine to protect risk populations from severe disease due to M. pneumoniae. PMID:26858711

  20. Serum Strongylus vulgaris-specific antibody responses to anthelmintic treatment in naturally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Martin K; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Bellaw, Jennifer; Gravatte, Holli S; Cao, Xin; Rubinson, Emily F; Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2015-02-01

    Strongylus vulgaris is the most pathogenic helminth parasite of horses, causing verminous endarteritis with thromboembolism and infarction. A serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been validated for detection of antibodies to an antigen produced by migrating larvae of this parasite. The aim was to evaluate ELISA responses to anthelmintic treatment in cohorts of naturally infected horses. Fifteen healthy horses harboring patent S. vulgaris infections were turned out for communal grazing in May 2013 (day 0). On day 55, horses were ranked according to ELISA titers and randomly allocated to the following three groups: no treatment followed by placebo pellets daily; ivermectin on day 60 followed by placebo pellets daily; or ivermectin on day 60 followed by daily pyrantel tartrate. Fecal and serum samples were collected at ∼28-day intervals until study termination on day 231. Increased ELISA values were observed for the first 53 days following ivermectin treatment. Titers were significantly reduced 80 days after ivermectin treatment. Horses receiving daily pyrantel tartrate maintained lower ELISA values from 137 days post ivermectin treatment until trial termination. These results illustrate that a positive ELISA result is indicative of either current or prior exposure to larval S. vulgaris infection within the previous 5 months.

  1. Serum antibody responses to vaccinal antigens in lean and obese geriatric dogs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John; Gow, Sheryl; Rhodes, Carrie; Lacoste, Stacey; Kong, Lyndsay; Musil, Kristyna; Snead, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    The immune responses in control dogs [1 to 4 years of age, body condition score (BCS): 4 to 5 out of 9] were compared to those of aging dogs (based on breed and body size) either categorized as lean (BCS: 4 to 5 out of 9) or obese (BCS: 8 to 9 out of 9). Of interest were the serum titers to the following common agents found in vaccines, canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica. There were no statistical differences in the antibodies to CPIV, B. bronchispetica, and CRCoV, among the age/weight categories, nor among the age/weight categories and the time, in days, between the date of sample collection and the date of the last recorded vaccination for CPIV, B. bronchiseptica, CPV, and CDV. For CPV, the control dogs had significantly (P < 0.002) higher serum neutralization (SN) titers than the lean geriatric dogs and the obese geriatric dogs. For CDV SN titers, the only statistically significant (P = 0.01) difference was that the control dogs had higher SN titers than the lean geriatric dogs.

  2. Serum antibody responses to vaccinal antigens in lean and obese geriatric dogs.

    PubMed

    Ellis, John; Gow, Sheryl; Rhodes, Carrie; Lacoste, Stacey; Kong, Lyndsay; Musil, Kristyna; Snead, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    The immune responses in control dogs [1 to 4 years of age, body condition score (BCS): 4 to 5 out of 9] were compared to those of aging dogs (based on breed and body size) either categorized as lean (BCS: 4 to 5 out of 9) or obese (BCS: 8 to 9 out of 9). Of interest were the serum titers to the following common agents found in vaccines, canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), and Bordetella bronchiseptica. There were no statistical differences in the antibodies to CPIV, B. bronchispetica, and CRCoV, among the age/weight categories, nor among the age/weight categories and the time, in days, between the date of sample collection and the date of the last recorded vaccination for CPIV, B. bronchiseptica, CPV, and CDV. For CPV, the control dogs had significantly (P < 0.002) higher serum neutralization (SN) titers than the lean geriatric dogs and the obese geriatric dogs. For CDV SN titers, the only statistically significant (P = 0.01) difference was that the control dogs had higher SN titers than the lean geriatric dogs. PMID:27152043

  3. Serum Strongylus vulgaris-specific antibody responses to anthelmintic treatment in naturally infected horses.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Martin K; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Bellaw, Jennifer; Gravatte, Holli S; Cao, Xin; Rubinson, Emily F; Reinemeyer, Craig R

    2015-02-01

    Strongylus vulgaris is the most pathogenic helminth parasite of horses, causing verminous endarteritis with thromboembolism and infarction. A serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been validated for detection of antibodies to an antigen produced by migrating larvae of this parasite. The aim was to evaluate ELISA responses to anthelmintic treatment in cohorts of naturally infected horses. Fifteen healthy horses harboring patent S. vulgaris infections were turned out for communal grazing in May 2013 (day 0). On day 55, horses were ranked according to ELISA titers and randomly allocated to the following three groups: no treatment followed by placebo pellets daily; ivermectin on day 60 followed by placebo pellets daily; or ivermectin on day 60 followed by daily pyrantel tartrate. Fecal and serum samples were collected at ∼28-day intervals until study termination on day 231. Increased ELISA values were observed for the first 53 days following ivermectin treatment. Titers were significantly reduced 80 days after ivermectin treatment. Horses receiving daily pyrantel tartrate maintained lower ELISA values from 137 days post ivermectin treatment until trial termination. These results illustrate that a positive ELISA result is indicative of either current or prior exposure to larval S. vulgaris infection within the previous 5 months. PMID:25358238

  4. Genome-Scale Protein Microarray Comparison of Human Antibody Responses in Plasmodium vivax Relapse and Reinfection

    PubMed Central

    Chuquiyauri, Raul; Molina, Douglas M.; Moss, Eli L.; Wang, Ruobing; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Torres, Sonia; Gilman, Robert H.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Felgner, Philip; Liang, Xiaowu; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Large scale antibody responses in Plasmodium vivax malaria remains unexplored in the endemic setting. Protein microarray analysis of asexual-stage P. vivax was used to identify antigens recognized in sera from residents of hypoendemic Peruvian Amazon. Over 24 months, of 106 participants, 91 had two symptomatic P. vivax malaria episodes, 11 had three episodes, 3 had four episodes, and 1 had five episodes. Plasmodium vivax relapse was distinguished from reinfection by a merozoite surface protein-3α restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (MSP3α PCR-RFLP) assay. Notably, P. vivax reinfection subjects did not have higher reactivity to the entire set of recognized P. vivax blood-stage antigens than relapse subjects, regardless of the number of malaria episodes. The most highly recognized P. vivax proteins were MSP 4, 7, 8, and 10 (PVX_003775, PVX_082650, PVX_097625, and PVX_114145); sexual-stage antigen s16 (PVX_000930); early transcribed membrane protein (PVX_090230); tryptophan-rich antigen (Pv-fam-a) (PVX_092995); apical merozoite antigen 1 (PVX_092275); and proteins of unknown function (PVX_081830, PVX_117680, PVX_118705, PVX_121935, PVX_097730, PVX_110935, PVX_115450, and PVX_082475). Genes encoding reactive proteins exhibited a significant enrichment of non-synonymous nucleotide variation, an observation suggesting immune selection. These data identify candidates for seroepidemiological tools to support malaria elimination efforts in P. vivax-endemic regions. PMID:26149860

  5. Immunoregulatory effects of covalent antigen-antibody complexes. IV. Priming and tolerance in T-dependent responses.

    PubMed Central

    Tite, J P; Morrison, C A; Taylor, R B

    1982-01-01

    Stable, covalently bonded, monomeric complexes of rabbit anti-NAP (4-azido-2-nitrophenyl) antibodies and NAP-bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase), when injected into mice, prime the subsequent response to a soluble challenge of RNase. This effect is shown to be dependent on an intact Fc portion of the rabbit antibody and not simply due to foreign determinants recognized on the latter. A study of the kinetics of elimination of radioiodinated complexes from the serum indicates that the generation of a primary anti-rabbit IgG response and subsequent clearance of the complex leads to priming of the anti-RNase response. If mice are previously rendered tolerant to rabbit IgG or the complexes are ultracentrifuged, the priming to RNase is often abolished and tolerance may be induced. PMID:6179858

  6. Antibody response to a T-cell-independent antigen is preserved after splenic artery embolization for trauma.

    PubMed

    Olthof, D C; Lammers, A J J; van Leeuwen, E M M; Hoekstra, J B L; ten Berge, I J M; Goslings, J C

    2014-11-01

    Splenic artery embolization (SAE) is increasingly being used as a nonoperative management strategy for patients with blunt splenic injury following trauma. The aim of this study was to assess the splenic function of patients who were embolized. A clinical study was performed, with splenic function assessed by examining the antibody response to polysaccharide antigens (pneumococcal 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine), B-cell subsets, and the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB). The data were compared to those obtained from splenectomized patients and healthy controls (HC) who had been included in a previously conducted study. A total of 30 patients were studied: 5 who had proximal SAE, 7 who had distal SAE, 8 who had a splenectomy, and 10 HC. The median vaccine-specific antibody response of the SAE patients (fold increase, 3.97) did not differ significantly from that of the HC (5.29; P = 0.90); however, the median response of the splenectomized patients (2.30) did differ (P = 0.003). In 2 of the proximally embolized patients and none of the distally embolized patients, the ratio of the IgG antibody level postvaccination compared to that prevaccination was <2. There were no significant differences in the absolute numbers of lymphocytes or B-cell subsets between the SAE patients and the HC. HJB were not observed in the SAE patients. The splenic immune function of embolized patients was preserved, and therefore routine vaccination appears not to be indicated. Although the median antibody responses did not differ between the patients who underwent proximal SAE and those who underwent distal SAE, 2 of the 5 proximally embolized patients had insufficient responses to vaccination, whereas none of the distally embolized patients exhibited an insufficient response. Further research should be done to confirm this finding.

  7. Recombinant outer membrane protein C of Aeromonas hydrophila elicits mixed immune response and generates agglutinating antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sunita Kumari; Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Sharma, Mahima; Dixit, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium, also responsible for causing opportunistic pathological conditions in humans. It causes a number of diseases in fish due to which the fish industry incurs huge economic losses annually. Due to problems of antibiotic resistance, and the rapidity with which the infection spreads among fishes, vaccination remains the most effective strategy to combat this infection in fish populations. Among various virulence factors associated with bacterial virulence, outer membrane proteins have been widely evaluated for their vaccine potential owing to their surface exposure and related role in pathogenicity. In the present study, we have investigated the immunogenic potential of a non-specific porin, outer membrane protein C (OmpC) whose expression is regulated by the two-component regulatory system and plays a major role in the survival of A. hydrophila under different osmolaric conditions. The full-length gene (~1 kb) encoding OmpC of A. hydrophila was cloned, characterized and expressed in E. coli. High yield (~112 mg/L at shake flask level) of the recombinant OmpC (rOmpC) (~40 kDa) of A. hydrophila was obtained upon purification from inclusion bodies using Ni(2+)-NTA affinity chromatography. Immunization with purified rOmpC in murine model generated high endpoint (>1:40,000) titers. IgG isotyping, ELISA and ELISPOT assay indicated mixed immune response with a TH2 bias. Also, the anti-rOmpC antibodies were able to agglutinate A. hydrophila in vitro and exhibited specific cross-reactivity with different Aeromonas strains, which will facilitate easy detection of different Aeromonas isolates in infected samples. Taken together, these data clearly indicate that rOmpC could serve as an effective vaccine against different strains of Aeromonas, a highly heterogenous group of bacteria. PMID:27328672

  8. Benchmarking B-cell epitope prediction with quantitative dose-response data on antipeptide antibodies: towards novel pharmaceutical product development.

    PubMed

    Caoili, Salvador Eugenio C

    2014-01-01

    B-cell epitope prediction can enable novel pharmaceutical product development. However, a mechanistically framed consensus has yet to emerge on benchmarking such prediction, thus presenting an opportunity to establish standards of practice that circumvent epistemic inconsistencies of casting the epitope prediction task as a binary-classification problem. As an alternative to conventional dichotomous qualitative benchmark data, quantitative dose-response data on antibody-mediated biological effects are more meaningful from an information-theoretic perspective in the sense that such effects may be expressed as probabilities (e.g., of functional inhibition by antibody) for which the Shannon information entropy (SIE) can be evaluated as a measure of informativeness. Accordingly, half-maximal biological effects (e.g., at median inhibitory concentrations of antibody) correspond to maximally informative data while undetectable and maximal biological effects correspond to minimally informative data. This applies to benchmarking B-cell epitope prediction for the design of peptide-based immunogens that elicit antipeptide antibodies with functionally relevant cross-reactivity. Presently, the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) contains relatively few quantitative dose-response data on such cross-reactivity. Only a small fraction of these IEDB data is maximally informative, and many more of them are minimally informative (i.e., with zero SIE). Nevertheless, the numerous qualitative data in IEDB suggest how to overcome the paucity of informative benchmark data.

  9. Immunoprotective mechanisms in swine within the "grey zone" in antibody response after immunization with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liu; Feng, Xia; Jin, Ye; Ma, Junwu; Cai, Hu; Zhang, Xiaoxia

    2016-07-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by the FMD virus (FMDV). Vaccination represents one approach for limiting the effects of FMD. The level of protection in vaccinated animals after challenge with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is closely related to the antibody titer, which can be classified into three zones: a "white zone", a "grey zone", and a "black zone". The aim of the present study was to clarify the immunoprotective mechanisms operating in the grey zone, in which vaccinated animals have intermediate antibody titers, making it difficult to predict the level of protection. Thirty-three pigs were used to analyze the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in whole blood and the expression levels of 40 cytokines before vaccination and challenge. The antibody titer in pigs in the grey zone ranged from 1:6-1:45. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte subpopulations, expression levels of Th1 cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-15, IL-18, and monocyte interferon gamma inducing factor (MIG), and of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1α, transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), and TWEAK R varied between protected and unprotected animals. The results of this study suggest that the cellular immune response is the key factor responsible for immunoprotection in vaccinated animals with antibody titers within the grey zone. PMID:27067203

  10. Comprehensive Mapping of Common Immunodominant Epitopes in the West Nile Virus Nonstructural Protein 1 Recognized by Avian Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Nihong; Yang, Tao; Xu, Qingyuan; Qin, Yongli; Bu, Zhigao; Yang, Yinhui; Lunt, Ross A.; Wang, Linfa; Wu, Donglai

    2012-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that primarily infects birds but occasionally infects humans and horses. Certain species of birds, including crows, house sparrows, geese, blue jays and ravens, are considered highly susceptible hosts to WNV. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of WNV can elicit protective immune responses, including NS1-reactive antibodies, during infection of animals. The antigenicity of NS1 suggests that NS1-reactive antibodies could provide a basis for serological diagnostic reagents. To further define serological reagents for diagnostic use, the antigenic sites in NS1 that are targeted by host immune responses need to be identified and the potential diagnostic value of individual antigenic sites also needs to be defined. The present study describes comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes in the WNV NS1 using avian WNV NS1 antisera. We screened antisera from chickens, ducks and geese immunized with purified NS1 for reactivity against 35 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire WNV NS1. This study identified twelve, nine and six peptide epitopes recognized by chicken, duck and goose antibody responses, respectively. Three epitopes (NS1-3, 14 and 24) were recognized by antibodies elicited by immunization in all three avian species tested. We also found that NS1-3 and 24 were WNV-specific epitopes, whereas the NS1-14 epitope was conserved among the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex viruses based on the reactivity of avian WNV NS1 antisera against polypeptides derived from the NS1 sequences of viruses of the JEV serocomplex. Further analysis showed that the three common polypeptide epitopes were not recognized by antibodies in Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Duck Plague Virus (DPV) and Goose Parvovirus (GPV) antisera. The knowledge and reagents generated in this study have potential applications in differential diagnostic approaches and subunit vaccines

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma B cell-specific deficient mice have an impaired antibody response1

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Sesquile; Bancos, Simona; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Murant, Thomas I.; Moshkani, Safiehkhatoon; Sahler, Julie M.; Bottaro, Andrea; Sime, Patricia J.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPARγ, a ligand activated transcription factor, has important anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative functions and it has been associated with diseases including diabetes, scarring and atherosclerosis among others. PPARγ is expressed in most bone marrow derived cells and influences their function. PPARγ ligands can stimulate human B cell differentiation and promote antibody production. A knowledge gap is that the role of PPARγ in B cells under physiological conditions is not known. We developed a new B cell-specific PPARγ (B-PPARγ) knockout mouse and explored the role of PPARγ during both the primary and secondary immune response. Here, we show that PPARγ deficiency in B cells decreases germinal center B cells and plasma cell development as well as the levels of circulating antigen-specific antibodies during a primary challenge. Inability to generate germinal center B cells and plasma cells is correlated to decreased MHC class II expression and decreased Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 levels. Furthermore, B-PPARγ-deficient mice have an impaired memory response, characterized by low titers of antigen-specific antibodies and low numbers of antigen-experienced antibody-secreting cells. However, B-PPARγ-deficient mice have no differences in B cell population distribution within neither primary nor secondary lymphoid organs during development. This is the first report to show under physiological conditions that PPARγ expression in B cells is required for an efficient B cell-mediated immune response as it regulates B cell differentiation and antibody production. PMID:23041568

  12. Comprehensive mapping of common immunodominant epitopes in the eastern equine encephalitis virus E2 protein recognized by avian antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Encheng; Zhao, Jing; Sun, Liang; Xu, Qingyuan; Yang, Tao; Qin, Yongli; Wang, Wenshi; Wei, Peng; Sun, Jing; Wu, Donglai

    2013-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause both human and equine encephalitis with high case fatality rates. EEEV can also be widespread among birds, including pheasants, ostriches, emu, turkeys, whooping cranes and chickens. The E2 protein of EEEV and other Alphaviruses is an important immunogenic protein that elicits antibodies of diagnostic value. While many therapeutic and diagnostic applications of E2 protein-specific antibodies have been reported, the specific epitopes on E2 protein recognized by the antibody responses of different susceptible hosts, including avian species, remain poorly defined. In the present study, the avian E2-reactive polyclonal antibody (PAb) response was mapped to linear peptide epitopes using PAbs elicited in chickens and ducks following immunization with recombinant EEEV E2 protein and a series of 42 partially overlapping peptides covering the entire EEEV E2 protein. We identified 12 and 13 peptides recognized by the chicken and duck PAb response, respectively. Six of these linear peptides were commonly recognized by PAbs elicited in both avian species. Among them five epitopes recognized by both avian, the epitopes located at amino acids 211-226 and 331-352 were conserved among the EEEV antigenic complex, but not other associated alphaviruses, whereas the epitopes at amino acids 11-26, 30-45 and 151-166 were specific to EEEV subtype I. The five common peptide epitopes were not recognized by avian PAbs against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Duck Plague Virus (DPV). The identification and characterization of EEEV E2 antibody epitopes may be aid the development of diagnostic tools and facilitate the design of epitope-based vaccines for EEEV. These results also offer information with which to study the structure of EEEV E2 protein. PMID:23922704

  13. The Broad Neutralizing Antibody Responses after HIV-1 Superinfection Are Not Dominated by Antibodies Directed to Epitopes Common in Single Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Valerie; Wang, Bingjie; Dingens, Adam; Chen, Mitchell M.; Ronen, Keshet; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; McClelland, R. Scott; Overbaugh, Julie

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 vaccines designed to date have failed to elicit neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) that are capable of protecting against globally diverse HIV-1 subtypes. One relevant setting to study the development of a strong, cross-reactive Nab response is HIV-1 superinfection (SI), defined as sequential infections from different source partners. SI has previously been shown to lead to a broader and more potent Nab response when compared to single infection, but it is unclear whether SI also impacts epitope specificity and if the epitopes targeted after SI differ from those targeted after single infection. Here the post-SI Nab responses were examined from 21 Kenyan women collectively exposed to subtypes A, C, and D and superinfected after a median time of ~1.07 years following initial infection. Plasma samples chosen for analysis were collected at a median time point ~2.72 years post-SI. Because previous studies of singly infected populations with broad and potent Nab responses have shown that the majority of their neutralizing activity can be mapped to 4 main epitopes on the HIV-1 Envelope, we focused on these targets, which include the CD4-binding site, a V1/V2 glycan, the N332 supersite in V3, and the membrane proximal external region of gp41. Using standard epitope mapping techniques that were applied to the previous cohorts, the present study demonstrates that SI did not induce a dominant Nab response to any one of these epitopes in the 21 women. Computational sera delineation analyses also suggested that 20 of the 21 superinfected women’s Nab responses could not be ascribed a single specificity with high confidence. These data are consistent with a model in which SI with diverse subtypes promotes the development of a broad polyclonal Nab response, and thus would provide support for vaccine designs using multivalent HIV immunogens to elicit a diverse repertoire of Nabs. PMID:26158467

  14. A Highly Conserved Residue of the HIV-1 gp120 Inner Domain Is Important for Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Responses Mediated by Anti-cluster A Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shilei; Veillette, Maxime; Coutu, Mathieu; Prévost, Jérémie; Scharf, Louise; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Ferrari, Guido; Robinson, James E.; Stürzel, Christina; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sauter, Daniel; Kirchhoff, Frank; Lewis, George K.; Pazgier, Marzena

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sera from HIV-1-infected individuals contain antibodies able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). These antibodies preferentially recognize envelope glycoprotein (Env) epitopes induced upon CD4 binding. Here, we show that a highly conserved tryptophan at position 69 of the gp120 inner domain is important for ADCC mediated by anti-cluster A antibodies and sera from HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:26637462

  15. The application of anti-Toso antibody enhances CD8(+) T cell responses in experimental malaria vaccination and disease.

    PubMed

    Lapke, Nina; Tartz, Susanne; Lee, Kyeong-Hee; Jacobs, Thomas

    2015-11-27

    Toso is a molecule highly expressed on B cells. It influences their survival and was identified as an IgM binding molecule. B cells and natural antibodies play a role in vaccination-induced CD8(+) T cell responses. We investigated the impact of an anti-Toso antibody on vaccination efficiency in a malaria vaccination model. In this model, CD8(+) T cells exert antiparasitic functions on infected hepatocytes in the liver stage of the disease. In vaccinated anti-Toso treated mice, more antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells were induced than in control mice and after infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) sporozoites, the liver parasite burden was lower. In B cell deficient mice, the anti-Toso antibody did not stimulate the CD8(+) T cell response, indicating that B cells were mediating this effect. Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of anti-Toso treatment on non-vaccinated mice in the PbA infection model, in which CD8(+) T cells cause brain pathology. Anti-Toso treatment increased cerebral pathology and the accumulation of CD8(+) T cells in the brain. Thus, anti-Toso treatment enhanced the CD8(+) T cell response against PbA in a vaccination and in an infection model. Our findings indicate that Toso may be a novel target to boost vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell responses.

  16. Antibody responses to hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1: evidence for cross-reactivity and immune-mediated sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, M U; Cerino, A; Lisa, A; Brambilla, S; Segagni, L; Cividini, A; Bissolati, M; Missale, G; Bellati, G; Meola, A; Bruniercole, B; Nicosia, A; Galfrè, G; Silini, E

    1999-08-01

    Sequence heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is unevenly distributed along the genome, and maximal variation is confined to a short sequence of the HCV second envelope glycoprotein (E2), designated hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), whose biological function is still undefined. We prospectively studied serological responses to synthetic oligopeptides derived from HVR1 sequences of patients with acute and chronic HCV infection obtained at baseline and after a defined follow-up period. Extensive serological cross-reactivity for unrelated HVR1 peptides was observed in the majority of the patients. Antibody response was restricted to the IgG1 isotype and was focused on the carboxyterminal end of the HVR1 region. Cross-reactive antibodies could be readily elicited following immunization of mice with multiple antigenic peptides carrying HVR1 sequences derived from our patients. The vigor and heterogeneity of cross-reactive antibody responses were significantly higher in patients with chronic hepatitis compared with those with acute hepatitis and in patients infected with HCV type 2 compared with patients infected with other viral genotypes (predominantly type 1), which suggest that higher time-related HVR1 sequence diversification previously described for type 2 may result from immune selection. The finding of a statistically significant correlation between HVR1 sequence variation, and intensity, and cross-reactivity of humoral immune responses provided stronger evidence in support of the contention that HCV variant selection is driven by the host's immune pressure.

  17. TLR9-adjuvanted pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces antibody-independent memory responses in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Offersen, Rasmus; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Paludan, Søren R; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Søgaard, Ole S

    2012-08-01

    HIV-patients have excess of pneumococcal infection. We immunized 40 HIV-patients twice with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar, Pfizer) +/- a TLR9 agonist (CPG 7909). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and cytokine concentrations measured. The CPG 7909 adjuvant group had significantly higher relative cytokine responses than the placebo group for IL-1β, IL-2R, IL-6, IFN-γ and MIP-β, which, did not correlate with IgG antibody responses. These findings suggests that CPG 7909 as adjuvant to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces cellular memory to pneumococcal polysaccharides in HIV-patients, independently of the humoral response. PMID:22854665

  18. Investigating B Cell Development, Natural and Primary Antibody Responses in Ly-6A/Sca-1 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Michelle; Spencer, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    Ly-6A/Stem cell antigen-1 (Ly-6A/Sca-1) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expressed on many cell types including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and early lymphoid-specific progenitors. Ly-6A/Sca-1 is expressed on CD4+ T cells and plays a role in regulating cellular responses to foreign antigens. The role of Ly-6A/Sca-1 in primary antibody responses has not been defined. To investigate whether Ly-6A/Sca-1 functions in humoral immunity, we first injected Ly-6A/Sca-1-deficient and wild-type control mice with chicken ovalbumin (c-Ova) protein mixed with an adjuvant. We then assessed the ability of the mice to generate a primary antibody response against cOva. We further examined the development of B cells and circulating antibody isotypes in non-immunized Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient mice to determine if Ly6A/Sca-1 functions in development irrespective of antigen-specific immune activation. Ly-6A/Sca-1/Sca-1-deficient mice did not show any significant changes in the number of B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Interestingly, Ly-6A/Sca-1/Sca-1-/- mice have significantly elevated serum levels of IgA with λ light chains compared to wild type controls. B cell clusters with high reactivity to anti-IgA λ monoclonal antibody were detected in the lamina propria of the gut, though this was not observed in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Despite these differences, the Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient mice generated a similar primary antibody response when compared to the wild-type mice. In summary, we conclude that the primary antibody response to cOva antigen is similar in Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient and sufficient mice. In addition, we report significantly higher expression of the immunoglobulin λ light chain by B cells in lamina propria of Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient mice when compared to the wild-type control. PMID:27322740

  19. Investigating B Cell Development, Natural and Primary Antibody Responses in Ly-6A/Sca-1 Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Jones, Morgan A; DeWolf, Sean; Vacharathit, Vimvara; Yim, Michelle; Spencer, Stacey; Bamezai, Anil K

    2016-01-01

    Ly-6A/Stem cell antigen-1 (Ly-6A/Sca-1) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expressed on many cell types including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and early lymphoid-specific progenitors. Ly-6A/Sca-1 is expressed on CD4+ T cells and plays a role in regulating cellular responses to foreign antigens. The role of Ly-6A/Sca-1 in primary antibody responses has not been defined. To investigate whether Ly-6A/Sca-1 functions in humoral immunity, we first injected Ly-6A/Sca-1-deficient and wild-type control mice with chicken ovalbumin (c-Ova) protein mixed with an adjuvant. We then assessed the ability of the mice to generate a primary antibody response against cOva. We further examined the development of B cells and circulating antibody isotypes in non-immunized Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient mice to determine if Ly6A/Sca-1 functions in development irrespective of antigen-specific immune activation. Ly-6A/Sca-1/Sca-1-deficient mice did not show any significant changes in the number of B lymphocytes in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Interestingly, Ly-6A/Sca-1/Sca-1-/- mice have significantly elevated serum levels of IgA with λ light chains compared to wild type controls. B cell clusters with high reactivity to anti-IgA λ monoclonal antibody were detected in the lamina propria of the gut, though this was not observed in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Despite these differences, the Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient mice generated a similar primary antibody response when compared to the wild-type mice. In summary, we conclude that the primary antibody response to cOva antigen is similar in Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient and sufficient mice. In addition, we report significantly higher expression of the immunoglobulin λ light chain by B cells in lamina propria of Ly-6A/Sca-1deficient mice when compared to the wild-type control.

  20. Kinetics of the in vitro antibody response to transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus from pig mesenteric lymph node cells, using the ELISASPOT and ELISA tests.

    PubMed

    Berthon, P; Bernard, S; Salmon, H; Binns, R M

    1990-08-01

    A method is described for in vitro studies of viral humoral immune responses in the pig. After oral immunization with transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) coronavirus, antibody production from primed mesenteric lymph node cells was revealed by an in vitro boost with viral antigen. For the latter the leukocytes were co-cultured with UV-inactivated virus using a variety of different methods of antigenic stimulation. Enumeration of specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and titration of secreted anti-virus antibodies were performed with ELISASPOT (using 3-amino 9-ethyl carbazole as the peroxidase chromogen) and ELISA tests respectively, according to the Ig isotype. The results showed a close relationship between ASC numbers and secreted antibody titres. The best in vitro antibody synthesis was observed when the sensitized cells were maintained in contact with virus during the whole culture period. Antibody responses were defined by a kinetic profile characterized by a narrow peak, with a maximum occurring after 4 and 6 days of culture and with the IgA response appearing earlier than the IgG. This methodology, which analyses specific antibody responses at the cellular level, may permit studies on the mechanisms of Ig isotype regulation. Extended to leukocytes from other organs of the immune system, it may also constitute an in vitro model to study antibody responses expressed in different lymphoid tissues of the pig.

  1. Antibody response of cattle to vaccination with commercial modified live rabies vaccines in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy; Greenberg, Lauren; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo; Alvarado, Marlon; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Vampire bat rabies is a public and animal health concern throughout Latin America. As part of an ecological study of vampire bat depredation on cattle in southern Guatemala, we conducted a vaccine seroconversion study among three dairy farms. The main objectives of this cross sectional and cohort study were to understand factors associated with bat bites among cattle, to determine whether unvaccinated cattle had evidence of rabies virus exposure and evaluate whether exposure was related to bat bite prevalence, and to assess whether cattle demonstrate adequate seroconversion to two commercial vaccines used in Guatemala. In 2012, baseline blood samples were collected immediately prior to intramuscular inoculation of cattle with one of two modified live rabies vaccines. Post vaccination blood samples were collected 13 and 393 days later. Sera were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA) by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Across two years of study, 36% (254/702) of inspected cattle presented gross evidence of vampire bat bites. Individual cattle with a bat bite in 2012 were more likely have a bat bite in 2013. Prior to vaccination, 12% (42/350) of cattle sera demonstrated rVNA, but bite status in 2012 was not associated with presence of rVNA. Vaccine brand was the only factor associated with adequate rVNA response of cattle by day 13. However, vaccine brand and rVNA status at day 13 were associated with an adequate rVNA titer on day 393, with animals demonstrating an adequate titer at day 13 more likely to have an adequate titer at day 393. Our findings support stable levels of vampire bat depredation and evidence of rVNA in unvaccinated cattle. Brand of vaccine may be an important consideration impacting adequate rVNA response and long-term maintenance of rVNA in cattle. Further, the results demonstrate that initial response to vaccination is associated with rVNA status over one year following vaccination. PMID:25466762

  2. Lineage Structure of the Human Antibody Repertoire in Response to Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ning; He, Jiankui; Weinstein, Joshua A.; Penland, Lolita; Sasaki, Sanae; He, Xiao-Song; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Zheng, Nai-ying; Huang, Min; Sullivan, Meghan; Wilson, Patrick C.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Davis, Mark M.; Fisher, Daniel S.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    The human antibody repertoire is one of the most important defenses against infectious disease, and the development of vaccines has enabled the conferral of targeted protection to specific pathogens. However, there are many challenges to measuring and analyzing the immunoglobulin sequence repertoire, such as the fact that each B cell contains a distinct antibody sequence encoded in its genome, that the antibody repertoire is not constant but changes over time, and the high similarity between antibody sequences. We have addressed this challenge by using high-throughput long read sequencing to perform immunogenomic characterization of expressed human antibody repertoires in the context of influenza vaccination. Informatic analysis of 5 million antibody heavy chain sequences from healthy individuals allowed us to perform global characterizations of isotype distributions, determine the lineage structure of the repertoire and measure age and antigen related mutational activity. Our analysis of the clonal structure and mutational distribution of individuals’ repertoires shows that elderly subjects have a decreased number of lineages but an increased pre-vaccination mutation load in their repertoire and that some of these subjects have an oligoclonal character to their repertoire in which the diversity of the lineages is greatly reduced relative to younger subjects. We have thus shown that global analysis of the immune system’s clonal structure provides direct insight into the effects of vaccination and provides a detailed molecular portrait of age-related effects. PMID:23390249

  3. Toxoplasma-SPECIFIC IgG SUBCLASS ANTIBODY RESPONSE IN CEREBROSPINAL FLUID SAMPLES FROM PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL TOXOPLASMOSIS

    PubMed Central

    NASCIMENTO, Fernanda S.; SUZUKI, Lisandra A.; BRANCO, Nilson; FRANCO, Regina M.B.; ANDRADE, Paula D.; COSTA, Sandra C.B.; PEDRO, Marcelo N.; ROSSI, Cláudio L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cerebral toxoplasmosis can be highly debilitating and occasionally fatal in persons with immune system deficiencies. In this study, we evaluated the Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG subclass antibody response in 19 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis who had a positive IgG anti-T. gondiiELISA standardized with a cyst antigen preparation. There were no significant differences between the rates of positivity and the antibody concentrations (arithmetic means of the ELISA absorbances, MEA) for IgG1 and IgG2, but the rates of positivity and MEA values for these two IgG subclasses were significantly higher than those for IgG3 and IgG4. The marked IgG2 response in CSF from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis merits further investigation. PMID:26603234

  4. Control of Toll-like receptor-mediated T cell-independent type 1 antibody responses by the inducible nuclear protein IκB-ζ.

    PubMed

    Hanihara-Tatsuzawa, Fumito; Miura, Hanae; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Isagawa, Takayuki; Okuma, Atsushi; Manabe, Ichiro; MaruYama, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Antibody responses have been classified as being either T cell-dependent or T cell-independent (TI). TI antibody responses are further classified as being either type 1 (TI-1) or type 2 (TI-2), depending on their requirement for B cell-mediated antigen receptor signaling. Although the mechanistic basis of antibody responses has been studied extensively, it remains unclear whether different antibody responses share similarities in their transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that mice deficient in IκB-ζ, specifically in their B cells, have impaired TI-1 antibody responses but normal T cell-dependent and TI-2 antibody responses. The absence of IκB-ζ in B cells also impaired proliferation triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation, plasma cell differentiation, and class switch recombination (CSR). Mechanistically, IκB-ζ-deficient B cells could not induce TLR-mediated induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a class-switch DNA recombinase. Retroviral transduction of AID in IκB-ζ-deficient B cells restored CSR activity. Furthermore, acetylation of histone H3 in the vicinity of the transcription start site of the gene that encodes AID was reduced in IκB-ζ-deficient B cells relative to IκB-ζ-expressing B cells. These results indicate that IκB-ζ regulates TLR-mediated CSR by inducing AID. Moreover, IκB-ζ defines differences in the transcriptional regulation of different antibody responses.

  5. Combined treatment of L1CAM antibodies and cytostatic drugs improve the therapeutic response of pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Heiner; Dieckmann, Chantal; Korniienko, Olena; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Kiefel, Helena; Salnikov, Alexey; Krüger, Achim; Altevogt, Peter; Sebens, Susanne

    2012-06-01

    The adhesion molecule L1CAM (CD171) accounts for enhanced motility, invasiveness and chemoresistance of tumor cells and represents a novel marker for various tumor entities including pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma. Recently, we showed that L1CAM inhibition increases the apoptotic response of tumor cells towards cytostatic drugs pointing to the potential of L1CAM to serve as a chemosensitizer in anti-cancer therapy. Thus, the present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of combined treatment with L1CAM antibodies and chemotherapeutic drugs in pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma model systems in vivo. Two L1CAM-specific antibodies (L1-14.10 and L1-9.3/2a) exhibiting high binding affinity to the L1CAM expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line Colo357 and the ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV3ip were used for treatment. The combined therapy of SCID mice with either L1CAM antibody and gemcitabine and paclitaxel, respectively, reduced the growth of subcutaneously grown Colo357 or SKOV3ip tumors more efficiently than treatment with the cytostatic drug alone or in combination with control IgG. This was accompanied by an increased number of apoptotic tumor cells along with an elevated procaspase-8 expression. Furthermore, a lowered activation of NF-κB along with a reduced expression of VEGF and a diminished number of CD31-positive blood vessels were observed in tumors after combined therapy compared to control treatments, while the infiltration of F4/80-positive macrophages increased. Overall, these data provide new insights into the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of L1CAM-blocking antibodies in vivo and support the suitability of L1CAM as a target for chemosensitization and of L1CAM-interfering antibodies as an appropriate tool to increase the therapeutic response of pancreatic and ovarian carcinoma.

  6. Determination of specific antibody responses to the six species of ebola and Marburg viruses by multiplexed protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Teddy; Natesan, Mohan; Warfield, Kelly; Aman, M Javad; Ulrich, Robert G

    2014-12-01

    Infectious hemorrhagic fevers caused by the Marburg and Ebola filoviruses result in human mortality rates of up to 90%, and there are no effective vaccines or therapeutics available for clinical use. The highly infectious and lethal nature of these viruses highlights the need for reliable and sensitive diagnostic methods. We assembled a protein microarray displaying nucleoprotein (NP), virion protein 40 (VP40), and glycoprotein (GP) antigens from isolates representing the six species of filoviruses for use as a surveillance and diagnostic platform. Using the microarrays, we examined serum antibody responses of rhesus macaques vaccinated with trivalent (GP, NP, and VP40) virus-like particles (VLP) prior to infection with the Marburg virus (MARV) (i.e., Marburg marburgvirus) or the Zaire virus (ZEBOV) (i.e., Zaire ebolavirus). The microarray-based assay detected a significant increase in antigen-specific IgG resulting from immunization, while a greater level of antibody responses resulted from challenge of the vaccinated animals with ZEBOV or MARV. Further, while antibody cross-reactivities were observed among NPs and VP40s of Ebola viruses, antibody recognition of GPs was very specific. The performance of mucin-like domain fragments of GP (GP mucin) expressed in Escherichia coli was compared to that of GP ectodomains produced in eukaryotic cells. Based on results with ZEBOV and MARV proteins, antibody recognition of GP mucins that were deficient in posttranslational modifications was comparable to that of the eukaryotic cell-expressed GP ectodomains in assay performance. We conclude that the described protein microarray may translate into a sensitive assay for diagnosis and serological surveillance of infections caused by multiple species of filoviruses.

  7. Anti-bevacizumab idiotype antibody vaccination is effective in inducing vascular endothelial growth factor-binding response, impairing tumor outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Jéssica de Souza; de Aguiar, Rodrigo Barbosa; Parise, Carolina Bellini; Suzuki, Juliana Mayumi; Chammas, Roger; de Moraes, Jane Zveiter

    2016-04-01

    Tumors require blood supply and, to overcome this restriction, induce angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in this process, which explains the great number of antiangiogenic therapies targeting VEGF. The research and development of targeted therapy has led to the approval of bevacizumab, a humanized anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (mAb), in clinical settings. However, side effects have been reported, usually as a consequence of bolus-dose administration of the antibody. This limitation could be circumvented through the use of anti-idiotype (Id) antibodies. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of an active VEGF-binding immune response generated by an anti-bevacizumab idiotype mAb, 10.D7. The 10.D7 anti-Id mAb vaccination led to detectable levels of VEGF-binding anti-anti-Id antibodies. In order to examine whether this humoral immune response could have implications for tumor development, 10.D7-immunized mice were challenged with B16-F10 tumor cells. Mice immunized with 10.D7 anti-Id mAb revealed reduced tumor growth when compared to control groups. Histological analyses of tumor sections from 10.D7-immunized mice showed increased necrotic areas, decreased CD31-positive vascular density and reduced CD68-positive cell infiltration. Our results encourage further therapeutic studies, particularly if one considers that the anti-Id therapeutic vaccination maintains stable levels of VEGF-binding antibodies, which might be useful in the control of tumor relapse.

  8. Precisely Molded Nanoparticle Displaying DENV-E Proteins Induces Robust Serotype-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Gabriel; Yi, Xianwen; Stone, Michelle; Horvath, Katie; Miley, Michael J.; DeSimone, Joseph; Luft, Chris J.; de Silva, Aravinda M.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the causative agent of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The virus is endemic in over 120 countries, causing over 350 million infections per year. Dengue vaccine development is challenging because of the need to induce simultaneous protection against four antigenically distinct DENV serotypes and evidence that, under some conditions, vaccination can enhance disease due to specific immunity to the virus. While several live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus vaccines display partial efficacy, it has been challenging to induce balanced protective immunity to all 4 serotypes. Instead of using whole-virus formulations, we are exploring the potentials for a particulate subunit vaccine, based on DENV E-protein displayed on nanoparticles that have been precisely molded using Particle Replication in Non-wetting Template (PRINT) technology. Here we describe immunization studies with a DENV2-nanoparticle vaccine candidate. The ectodomain of DENV2-E protein was expressed as a secreted recombinant protein (sRecE), purified and adsorbed to poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles of different sizes and shape. We show that PRINT nanoparticle adsorbed sRecE without any adjuvant induces higher IgG titers and a more potent DENV2-specific neutralizing antibody response compared to the soluble sRecE protein alone. Antigen trafficking indicate that PRINT nanoparticle display of sRecE prolongs the bio-availability of the antigen in the draining lymph nodes by creating an antigen depot. Our results demonstrate that PRINT nanoparticles are a promising platform for delivering subunit vaccines against flaviviruses such as dengue and Zika. PMID:27764114

  9. Effect of age and maternal antibodies on the systemic and mucosal immune response after neonatal immunization in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Bautista, Edgar R; Garcia-Ruiz, Carlos E; Gama-Espinosa, Alicia L; Ramirez-Estudillo, Carmen; Rojas-Gomez, Oscar I; Vega-Lopez, Marco A

    2014-01-01

    Newborn mammals are highly susceptible to respiratory infections. Although maternal antibodies (MatAb) offer them some protection, they may also interfere with their systemic immune response to vaccination. However, the impact of MatAb on the neonatal mucosal immune response remains incompletely described. This study was performed to determine the effect of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific MatAb on the anti-OVA antibody response in sera, nasal secretions and saliva from specific pathogen-free Vietnamese miniature piglets immunized at 7 or 14 days of age. Our results demonstrated that MatAb increased antigen-specific IgA and IgG responses in sera, and transiently enhanced an early secretory IgA response in nasal secretions of piglets immunized at 7 days of age. In contrast, we detected a lower mucosal (nasal secretion and saliva) anti-OVA IgG response in piglets with MatAb immunized at 14 days of age, compared with piglets with no MatAb, suggesting a modulatory effect of antigen-specific maternal factors on the isotype transfer to the mucosal immune exclusion system. In our porcine model, we demonstrated that passive maternal immunity positively modulated the systemic and nasal immune responses of animals immunized early in life. Our results, therefore, open the possibility of inducing systemic and respiratory mucosal immunity in the presence of MatAb through early vaccination. PMID:24754050

  10. Sustained high-titer antibody responses induced by conjugating a malarial vaccine candidate to outer-membrane protein complex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yimin; Przysiecki, Craig; Flanagan, Elizabeth; Bello-Irizarry, Sheila N; Ionescu, Roxana; Muratova, Olga; Dobrescu, Gelu; Lambert, Lynn; Keister, David; Rippeon, Yvette; Long, Carole A; Shi, Li; Caulfield, Michael; Shaw, Alan; Saul, Allan; Shiver, John; Miller, Louis H

    2006-11-28

    The development of protein subunit vaccines to combat some of the world's deadliest pathogens such as a malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is stalled, due in part to the inability to induce and sustain high-titer antibody responses. Here, we show the induction of persistent, high-titer antibody responses to recombinant Pfs25H, a human malarial transmission-blocking protein vaccine candidate, after chemical conjugation to the outer-membrane protein complex (OMPC) of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and adsorption to aluminum hydroxyphosphate. In mice, the Pfs25H-OMPC conjugate vaccine was >1,000 times more potent in generating anti-Pfs25H ELISA reactivity than a similar 0.5-microg dose of Pfs25H alone in Montanide ISA720, a water-in-oil adjuvant. The immune enhancement requires covalent conjugation between Pfs25H and the OMPC, given that physically mixed Pfs25H and OMPC on aluminum hydroxyphosphate failed to induce greater activity than the nonconjugated Pfs25H on aluminum hydroxyphosphate. The conjugate vaccine Pfs25H-OMPC also was highly immunogenic in rabbits and rhesus monkeys. In rhesus monkeys, the antibody responses were sustained over 18 months, at which time another vaccination with nonconjugated Pfs25H induced strong anamnestic responses. The vaccine-induced anti-Pfs25-specific antibodies in all animal species blocked the transmission of parasites to mosquitoes. Protein antigen conjugation to OMPC or other protein carrier may have general application to a spectrum of protein subunit vaccines to increase immunogenicity without the need for potentially reactogenic adjuvants.

  11. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria enhance mucosal B cell responses and differentially modulate systemic antibody responses to an oral human rotavirus vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig disease model

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sukumar; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    B cells play a key role in generation of protective immunity against rotavirus infection, a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Current RV vaccines are less effective in developing countries compared to developed countries. Commensals/probiotics influence mucosal immunity, but the role of early gut colonizing bacteria in modulating intestinal B cell responses to RV vaccines is largely unknown. We co-colonized neonatal gnotobiotic pigs, the only animal model susceptible to HRV diarrhea, with 2 dominant bacterial species present in the gut of breastfed infants, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium animalis lactis Bb12 to evaluate their impact on B cell responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine. Following HRV challenge, probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated piglets had significantly lower fecal scores and reduced HRV shedding titers compared to uncolonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs. The reduction in HRV diarrhea was significantly correlated with higher intestinal IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal HRV-specific IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers in probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs compared to uncolonized, vaccinated pigs. The significantly higher small intestinal HRV IgA antibody responses coincided with higher IL-6, IL-10 and APRIL responses of ileal mononuclear cells (MNCs) and the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics genomic DNA on TGF-β and IL-10 responses. However, serum RV IgG antibody titers and total IgG titers were significantly lower in probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs compared to uncolonized, vaccinated pigs, both pre- and post-challenge. In summary, LGG and Bb12 beneficially modulated intestinal B cell responses to HRV vaccine. PMID:25483333

  12. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria enhance mucosal B cell responses and differentially modulate systemic antibody responses to an oral human rotavirus vaccine in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig disease model.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sukumar; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    B cells play a key role in generation of protective immunity against rotavirus infection, a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Current RV vaccines are less effective in developing countries compared to developed countries. Commensals/probiotics influence mucosal immunity, but the role of early gut colonizing bacteria in modulating intestinal B cell responses to RV vaccines is largely unknown. We co-colonized neonatal gnotobiotic pigs, the only animal model susceptible to HRV diarrhea, with 2 dominant bacterial species present in the gut of breastfed infants, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium animalis lactis Bb12 to evaluate their impact on B cell responses to an attenuated (Att) human rotavirus (HRV) Wa strain vaccine. Following HRV challenge, probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated piglets had significantly lower fecal scores and reduced HRV shedding titers compared to uncolonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs. The reduction in HRV diarrhea was significantly correlated with higher intestinal IgA HRV antibody titers and intestinal HRV-specific IgA antibody secreting cell (ASC) numbers in probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs compared to uncolonized, vaccinated pigs. The significantly higher small intestinal HRV IgA antibody responses coincided with higher IL-6, IL-10 and APRIL responses of ileal mononuclear cells (MNCs) and the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics genomic DNA on TGF-β and IL-10 responses. However, serum RV IgG antibody titers and total IgG titers were significantly lower in probiotic-colonized, AttHRV vaccinated pigs compared to uncolonized, vaccinated pigs, both pre- and post-challenge. In summary, LGG and Bb12 beneficially modulated intestinal B cell responses to HRV vaccine. PMID:25483333

  13. Sperm Cells Induce Distinct Cytokine Response in Peripheral Mononuclear Cells from Infertile Women with Serum Anti-Sperm Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kverka, Miloslav; Ulcova-Gallova, Zdenka; Bartova, Jirina; Cibulka, Jan; Bibkova, Katarina; Micanova, Zdenka; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Anti-sperm antibodies in can markedly reduce the likelihood of natural conception. The etiology of this anti-sperm immunity in human females is unknown. We compared the cytokine response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from infertile patients with or without anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) and fertile women. Methodology/Principal Findings We cultivated the PBMCs together with sperm antigens (whole cells or cell lysate), and screened the supernatants for 40 cytokines by antibody array. When stimulated with whole sperm cells, the PBMCs from patients with ASA produce less IL-3, IL-11, IL-13, ICAM-1, GCSF and more IL-2, IL-4 and IL-12p70 as compared to healthy women. PBMCs from patients with ASA produce typically less IL-13, IL-7, IL-17 and MIG, and more MIP-1β and IL-8, as compared to PBMCs from patients without ASA. In response to sperm cell lysate, PBMCs from infertile women without ASA respond initially by increase in production of growth factors (GCSF, GM-CSF and PDGF-BB) followed by increase in chemokines (e.g. IL-8, MCP-1 and MIP-1β). Conclusions Cellular immune responses to sperm antigens, measured by production of cytokines, differ among infertile women with ASA, infertile women without ASA and healthy women. This difference could play an important role in the initial steps of the infertility pathogenesis. PMID:22952917

  14. Comparison of the adjuvant activity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response towards Bothrops asper snake venom.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Hidekel; Herrera, María; Rojas, Leonardo; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Leiguez, Elbio; Teixeira, Catarina; Estrada, Ricardo; Gutiérrez, José María; León, Guillermo; Montero, Mavis L

    2014-01-01

    The adjuvanticity of aluminum hydroxide and calcium phosphate on the antibody response in mice towards the venom of the snake Bothrops asper was studied. It was found that, in vitro, most of the venom proteins are similarly adsorbed by both mineral salts, with the exception of some basic phospholipases A2, which are better adsorbed by calcium phosphate. After injection, the adjuvants promoted a slow release of the venom, as judged by the lack of acute toxicity when lethal doses of venom were administered to mice. Leukocyte recruitment induced by the venom was enhanced when it was adsorbed on both mineral salts; however, venom adsorbed on calcium phosphate induced a higher antibody response towards all tested HPLC fractions of the venom. On the other hand, co-precipitation of venom with calcium phosphate was the best strategy for increasing: (1) the capacity of the salt to couple venom proteins in vitro; (2) the venom ability to induce leukocyte recruitment; (3) phagocytosis by macrophages; and (4) a host antibody response. These findings suggest that the chemical nature is not the only one determining factor of the adjuvant activity of mineral salts. PMID:23506358

  15. Revaccination does not improve an observed deficit in antibody responses in Pakistani adults born of a lower birth weight.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Jalil, Fehmida; Szu, Shousun Chen; Hahn-Zoric, Mirjana; Prentice, Andrew M; Hanson, Lars A

    2008-01-10

    We have previously shown that the generation of antibodies to a polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi) is compromised in Pakistani adults born of a lower birth weight. To assess whether this represents a true B-cell-dependent deficit, we revaccinated subjects with a second dose of the same vaccine and with a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine to a different polysaccharide antigen (conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine). Anti-Vi IgG levels remained positively correlated with birth weight (p=0.0284) but no associations were observed between anti-Hib IgG levels and size at birth. These findings indicate that small size at birth results in a poor antibody response to vaccination with a polysaccharide antigen vaccine in adulthood, even following a second dose of the vaccine. No such association was observed in response to a polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine indicating an early-life programming effect on the generation of antibodies during a B-cell-dependent immune response.

  16. Antibody responses of domestic animals to salivary antigens of Triatoma infestans as biomarkers for low-level infestation of triatomines

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Sternberg, Jeremy M.; Johnston, Valerie; Medrano-Mercado, Nora; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Hume, Jen C.C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Schaub, Günter A.; Billingsley, Peter F.

    2009-01-01

    Hematophagous arthropods such as Triatoma infestans, the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, elicit host-immune responses during feeding. Characterization of antibody responses to salivary antigens offers the potential to develop immunologically based monitoring techniques for exposure to re-emergent triatomine bug populations in peridomestic animals. IgG-antibody responses to the salivary antigens of T. infestans have been detected in chickens as soon as 2 days after the first exposure to five adult bugs. Chickens and guinea pigs regularly exposed to this number of triatomines showed a significantly lower anti-saliva antibody titre than animals exposed to 25 adults and fifth instars of four different T. infestans strains originating from Bolivia and from Northern Chile. Highly immunogenic salivary antigens of 14 and 21 kDa were recognised by all chicken sera and of 79 kDa by all guinea pig sera. Cross-reactivity studies using saliva or salivary gland extracts from different hematophagous species, e.g. different triatomines, bed bugs, mosquitoes, sand flies and ticks, as well as chicken sera exposed to triatomines and mosquitoes, demonstrated that the 14 and 21 kDa salivary antigens were only found in triatomines. Sera from peridomestic chickens and guinea pigs in sites of known T. infestans challenge in Bolivia also recognised the 14 and 21 kDa antigens. These represent promising epidemiological markers for the detection of small numbers of feeding bugs and hence may be a new tool for vector surveillance in Chagas disease control programs. PMID:19248784

  17. Loss of TLR3 aggravates CHIKV replication and pathology due to an altered virus-specific neutralizing antibody response

    PubMed Central

    Her, Zhisheng; Teng, Terk-Shin; Tan, Jeslin JL; Teo, Teck-Hui; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Lum, Fok-Moon; Lee, Wendy WL; Gabriel, Christelle; Melchiotti, Rossella; Andiappan, Anand K; Lulla, Valeria; Lulla, Aleksei; Win, Mar K; Chow, Angela; Biswas, Subhra K; Leo, Yee-Sin; Lecuit, Marc; Merits, Andres; Rénia, Laurent; Ng, Lisa FP

    2015-01-01

    RNA-sensing toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate innate immunity and regulate anti-viral response. We show here that TLR3 regulates host immunity and the loss of TLR3 aggravates pathology in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Susceptibility to CHIKV infection is markedly increased in human and mouse fibroblasts with defective TLR3 signaling. Up to 100-fold increase in CHIKV load was observed in Tlr3−/− mice, alongside increased virus dissemination and pro-inflammatory myeloid cells infiltration. Infection in bone marrow chimeric mice showed that TLR3-expressing hematopoietic cells are required for effective CHIKV clearance. CHIKV-specific antibodies from Tlr3−/− mice exhibited significantly lower in vitro neutralization capacity, due to altered virus-neutralizing epitope specificity. Finally, SNP genotyping analysis of CHIKF patients on TLR3 identified SNP rs6552950 to be associated with disease severity and CHIKV-specific neutralizing antibody response. These results demonstrate a key role for TLR3-mediated antibody response to CHIKV infection, virus replication and pathology, providing a basis for future development of immunotherapeutics in vaccine development. PMID:25452586

  18. Altered immune response of immature dendritic cells following dengue virus infection in the presence of specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Torres, Silvia; Flipse, Jacky; Upasani, Vinit C; van der Ende-Metselaar, Heidi; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Smit, Jolanda M; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A

    2016-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) replication is known to prevent maturation of infected dendritic cells (DCs) thereby impeding the development of adequate immunity. During secondary DENV infection, dengue-specific antibodies can suppress DENV replication in immature DCs (immDCs), however how dengue-antibody complexes (DENV-IC) influence the phenotype of DCs remains elusive. Here, we evaluated the maturation state and cytokine profile of immDCs exposed to DENV-ICs. Indeed, DENV infection of immDCs in the absence of antibodies was hallmarked by blunted upregulation of CD83, CD86 and the major histocompatibility complex molecule HLA-DR. In contrast, DENV infection in the presence of neutralizing antibodies triggered full DC maturation and induced a balanced inflammatory cytokine response. Moreover, DENV infection under non-neutralizing conditions prompted upregulation of CD83 and CD86 but not HLA-DR, and triggered production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The effect of DENV-IC was found to be dependent on the engagement of FcγRIIa. Altogether, our data show that the presence of DENV-IC alters the phenotype and cytokine profile of DCs. PMID:27121645

  19. Early regenerative responses induced by monoclonal antibodies directed against a surface glycoprotein of goldfish retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, M; Eshhar, N

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed primarily against antigenic determinants associated with the goldfish optic nerve were prepared and characterized. One selected clone 23-4-C(IgG2a), detected antigenic determinants of glycoprotein nature with an apparent mol. wt. of 140 000. Following injury the level of these molecules increased with a peak at 5-7 days after the lesion (2- to 3-fold higher than the basal level). The results strongly suggest that the increase derives, at least partially, from a real increment in the level of these molecules in the retinal ganglion cells rather than from changes in accessibility. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that the retinal ganglion cells carry the antigenicity. Intraocular injection of the monoclonal antibodies, concomitantly with crush injury, resulted in an earlier and higher regenerative response, reflected by sprouting capacity, protein synthesis and accumulation of radiolabeled material in the tectum contralateral to the side of injury. This may indicate that the antibodies directly activate retinal cells via interaction with surface molecules. Alternatively, the antibodies may be directed against surface molecules which are associated with axonal growth inhibitors, and may therefore mask these surface antigens from further interaction with their native substrate. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. PMID:6204857

  20. QS-21 enhances the early antibody response to oil adjuvant foot-and-mouth disease vaccine in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose One of the most important tools against foot-and-mouth disease, a highly contagious and variable viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, is vaccination. However, the effectiveness of foot-and-mouth disease vaccines on slowing the spread of the disease is questionable. In contrast, high potency vaccines providing early protection may solve issues with the spread of the disease, escaping mutants, and persistency. To increase the potency of the vaccine, additives such as saponin and aluminium hydroxide are used. However, the use of saponin with an oil adjuvant is not common and is sometimes linked to toxicity. QS-21, which is less toxic than Quil A, has been presented as an alternative for use with saponin. In this study, the addition of QS-21 to a commercially available foot-and-mouth disease water-in-oil-in-water emulsion vaccine was evaluated in cattle. Materials and Methods After vaccination, serum samples were collected periodically over 3 months. Sera of the QS-21 and normal oil vaccine groups were compared via serum virus neutralization antibody titre and liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody titre. Results The results showed that there was a significant early antibody increase in the QS-21 group. Conclusion Strong early virus neutralizing antibody response will be useful for emergency or ring vaccinations against foot-and-mouth disease in target animals. PMID:27489804

  1. Antibody-enhanced dengue disease generates a marked CNS inflammatory response in the black-tufted marmoset Callithrix penicillata.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Barbara Cristina Baldez; Vieira, Juliana Almeida; Silva, Geane Oliveira; Fernandes, Taiany Nogueira; Rocha, Luciano Chaves; Viana, André Pereira; Serique, Cássio Diego Sá; Filho, Carlos Santos; Bringel, Raissa Aires Ribeiro; Teixeira, Francisco Fernando Dacier Lobato; Ferreira, Milene Silveira; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; de Melo, Karla Fabiane Lopes; de Castro, Paulo Henrique Gomes; Araújo, Sanderson Corrêa; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Demachki, Samia; Anaissi, Ana Karyssa Mendes; Sosthenes, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro

    2016-02-01

    Severe dengue disease is often associated with long-term neurological impairments, but it is unclear what mechanisms are associated with neurological sequelae. Previously, we demonstrated antibody-enhanced dengue disease (ADE) dengue in an immunocompetent mouse model with a dengue virus 2 (DENV2) antibody injection followed by DENV3 virus infection. Here we migrated this ADE model to Callithrix penicillata. To mimic human multiple infections of endemic zones where abundant vectors and multiple serotypes co-exist, three animals received weekly subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected supernatant of C6/36 cell cultures, followed 24 h later by anti-DENV2 antibody for 12 weeks. There were six control animals, two of which received weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, and four further animals received no injections. After multiple infections, brain, liver, and spleen samples were collected and tissue was immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens, ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1, Ki-67, TNFα. There were marked morphological changes in the microglial population of ADE monkeys characterized by more highly ramified microglial processes, higher numbers of trees and larger surface areas. These changes were associated with intense TNFα-positive immunolabeling. It is unclear why ADE should generate such microglial activation given that IgG does not cross the blood-brain barrier, but this study reveals that in ADE dengue therapy targeting the CNS host response is likely to be important. PMID:26303046

  2. Cysteine protease of the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis preferentially evokes an IgE/IgG1 antibody response in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, I; Yamada, M; Uchikawa, R; Matsuda, S; Arizono, N

    1995-01-01

    Some cysteine proteases such as papain and those of mites and schistosomes have potent allergenic properties. To clarify the allergenicity of nematode cysteine proteases, the enzyme was purified from the intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis using cation exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. The purified protease, of 16 kD and pI 8.5, showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 5.5 and substrate preference for Z-Phe-Arg-MCA. The specific inhibitors of cysteine protease leupeptin, iodoacetic acid, and E-64, completely suppressed the activity, indicating that the purified enzyme belongs to the cysteine protease family. Cysteine protease activity was found not only in somatic extract, but also in the excretory-secretory (ES) product of the nematode. When anti-cysteine protease immunoglobulin isotypes were examined in sera from rats infected with N. brasiliensis, a high level of IgG1 and a lower level of IgE antibody were detected. Depletion of IgG antibodies from the sera using protein G affinity columns resulted in a marked increase in reactivity of anti-cysteine protease IgE with the antigen, possibly due to the removal of competing IgG antibodies. In contrast to IgE and IgG1, production of anti-cysteine protease IgG2a was negligible. These results indicate that the nematode cysteine protease preferentially evokes an IgE/IgG1 antibody response. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7554403

  3. Antigenic sites on the HN domain of botulinum neurotoxin A stimulate protective antibody responses against active toxin

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi Ayyar, B.; Tajhya, Rajeev B.; Beeton, Christine; Zouhair Atassi, M.

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most toxic substances known. BoNT intoxicates cells in a highly programmed fashion initiated by binding to the cell surface, internalization and enzymatic cleavage of substrate, thus, inhibiting synaptic exocytosis. Over the past two decades, immunological significance of BoNT/A C-terminal heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) domains were investigated extensively leading to important findings. In the current work, we explored the significance of BoNT/A heavy chain N-terminal (HN) region as a vaccine candidate. Mice were immunized with recombinant HN519–845 generating antibodies (Abs) that were found to be protective against lethal dose of BoNT/A. Immuno-dominant regions of HN519–845 were identified and individually investigated for antibody response along with synthetic peptides within those regions, using in vivo protection assays against BoNT/A. Results were confirmed by patch-clamp analysis where anti-HN antibodies were studied for the ability to block toxin-induced channel formation. This data strongly indicated that HN519–593 is an important region in generating protective antibodies and should be valuable in a vaccine design. These results are the first to describe and dissect the protective activity of the BoNT/A HN domain. PMID:26508475

  4. Antibody-enhanced dengue disease generates a marked CNS inflammatory response in the black-tufted marmoset Callithrix penicillata.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Barbara Cristina Baldez; Vieira, Juliana Almeida; Silva, Geane Oliveira; Fernandes, Taiany Nogueira; Rocha, Luciano Chaves; Viana, André Pereira; Serique, Cássio Diego Sá; Filho, Carlos Santos; Bringel, Raissa Aires Ribeiro; Teixeira, Francisco Fernando Dacier Lobato; Ferreira, Milene Silveira; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; de Melo, Karla Fabiane Lopes; de Castro, Paulo Henrique Gomes; Araújo, Sanderson Corrêa; Diniz, José Antonio Picanço; Demachki, Samia; Anaissi, Ana Karyssa Mendes; Sosthenes, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Anthony, Daniel Clive; Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley Picanço; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro

    2016-02-01

    Severe dengue disease is often associated with long-term neurological impairments, but it is unclear what mechanisms are associated with neurological sequelae. Previously, we demonstrated antibody-enhanced dengue disease (ADE) dengue in an immunocompetent mouse model with a dengue virus 2 (DENV2) antibody injection followed by DENV3 virus infection. Here we migrated this ADE model to Callithrix penicillata. To mimic human multiple infections of endemic zones where abundant vectors and multiple serotypes co-exist, three animals received weekly subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected supernatant of C6/36 cell cultures, followed 24 h later by anti-DENV2 antibody for 12 weeks. There were six control animals, two of which received weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, and four further animals received no injections. After multiple infections, brain, liver, and spleen samples were collected and tissue was immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens, ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1, Ki-67, TNFα. There were marked morphological changes in the microglial population of ADE monkeys characterized by more highly ramified microglial processes, higher numbers of trees and larger surface areas. These changes were associated with intense TNFα-positive immunolabeling. It is unclear why ADE should generate such microglial activation given that IgG does not cross the blood-brain barrier, but this study reveals that in ADE dengue therapy targeting the CNS host response is likely to be important.

  5. Production of auto-antiidiotypic antibody during the normal immune response. VII. Analysis of the cellular basis for the increased auto- antiidiotype antibody production by aged mice

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We have previously shown that old mice produce more hapten-augmentable plaque-forming cells (PFC) than do young animals, suggesting a greater auto-antiidiotype antibody (auto anti-Id) component in their immune response. In the present studies this is confirmed serologically. The marked auto-anti-Id response of aged mice can be transferred to lethally irradiated young recipients with spleen but not bone marrow cells from old donors, suggesting that it is an intrinsic property of their peripheral B cell population and that the distribution of Id arising from the bone marrow of old and young mice is similar. In contrast with young mice the auto-anti-Id response of old animals is relatively T cell-independent and old donors do not show an increase in their ability to transfer an auto-anti-Id response after priming with TNP-F. These observations suggest that old mice behave as if already primed for auto-anti-Id production. Irradiated mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells from either young or old donors together with splenic T cells from old donors generate a relatively large auto-anti-Id response, whereas mice reconstituted with bone marrow from either young or old donors together with splenic T cells from young donors produce few hapten-augmentable PFC. It is suggested that differences in Id expression and auto-anti-Id production are the consequences of the interaction of Id (and anti-Id) arising from the marrow with anti-Id (and Id) present in the peripheral T cell population which serves as a repository of information about shifts in Id distribution, resulting from lifelong interactions with environmental and self-antigens. PMID:6343547

  6. Immunologic memory with no detectable bactericidal antibody response to a first dose of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine at four years.

    PubMed

    McVernon, Jodie; MacLennan, Jenny; Pollard, Andrew J; Oster, Philipp; Wakefield, Mark J; Danzig, Lisa; Moxon, E Richard

    2003-07-01

    Fourteen children with no detectable bactericidal antibody response to a first dose of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine at 4 years of age were given a booster dose of the same vaccine 2 years later. A rapid 1000-fold rise in postimmunization bactericidal antibody titers, a measured either 7 or 14 days later, suggested previous immunologic priming.

  7. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, Eduardo; Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A; Register, Karen B; McDaneld, Tara G; Neill, John D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis.

  8. Novel polyol-responsive monoclonal antibodies against extracellular β-D-glucans from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Semedo, Magda C; Karmali, Amin; Martins, Sónia; Fonseca, Luís

    2016-01-01

    β-D-glucans from mushroom strains play a major role as biological response modifiers in several clinical disorders. Therefore, a specific assay method is of critical importance to find useful and novel sources of β-d-glucans with anti-tumor activity. Hybridoma technology was used to raise monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against extracellular β-d-glucans (EBG) from Pleurotus ostreatus. Two of these hybridoma clones (3F8_3H7 and 1E6_1E8_B3) secreting Mabs against EBG from P. ostreatus were selected and 3F8_3H7 was used to investigate if they are polyol-responsive Mabs (PR-Mabs) by using ELlSA-elution assay. This hybridoma cell line secreted Mab of IgM class, which was purified in a single step by gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-300HR, which revealed a protein band on native PAGE with Mr of 917 kDa. Specificity studies of Mab 3F8_3H7 revealed that it recognized a common epitope on several β-d-glucans from different basidiomycete strains as determined by indirect ELlSA and Western blotting under native conditions. This Mab exhibited high apparent affinity constant (KApp) for β-d-glucans from several mushroom strains. However, it revealed differential reactivity to some heat-treated β-d-glucans compared with the native forms suggesting that it binds to a conformation-sensitive epitope on β-d-glucan molecule. Epitope analysis of Mab 3F8_3H7 and 1E6_1E8_B3 was investigated by additivity index parameter, which revealed that they bound to the same epitope on some β-d-glucans and to different epitopes in other antigens. Therefore, these Mab can be used to assay for β-d-glucans as well as to act as powerful probes to detect conformational changes in these biopolymers. PMID:26580487

  9. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A.; Register, Karen B.; McDaneld, Tara G.; Neill, John D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis. PMID:27537842

  10. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, Eduardo; Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A; Register, Karen B; McDaneld, Tara G; Neill, John D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis. PMID:27537842

  11. Mapping the AAV Capsid Host Antibody Response toward the Development of Second Generation Gene Delivery Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yu-Shan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2013-01-01

    The recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) gene delivery system is entering a crucial and exciting phase with the promise of more than 20 years of intense research now realized in a number of successful human clinical trials. However, as a natural host to AAV infection, anti-AAV antibodies are prevalent in the human population. For example, ~70% of human sera samples are positive for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2). Furthermore, low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies in the circulation are detrimental to the efficacy of corrective therapeutic AAV gene delivery. A key component to overcoming this obstacle is the identification of regions of the AAV capsid that participate in interactions with host immunity, especially neutralizing antibodies, to be modified for neutralization escape. Three main approaches have been utilized to map antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids. The first is directed evolution in which AAV variants are selected in the presence of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) or pooled human sera. This results in AAV variants with mutations on important neutralizing epitopes. The second is epitope searching, achieved by peptide scanning, peptide insertion, or site-directed mutagenesis. The third, a structure biology-based approach, utilizes cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of AAV capsids complexed to fragment antibodies, which are generated from MAbs, to directly visualize the epitopes. In this review, the contribution of these three approaches to the current knowledge of AAV epitopes and success in their use to create second generation vectors will be discussed. PMID:24523720

  12. Neutralizing antibody response in dogs and cats inoculated with commercial inactivated rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Rikiya; Nishimura, Masaaki; Nakashima, Ryuji; Enta, Chiho; Hirayama, Norio

    2014-04-01

    In Japan, the import quarantine regulation against rabies has required from 2005 that dogs and cats should be inoculated with the rabies vaccine and that the neutralizing antibody titer should be confirmed to be at least 0.5 international units (IU)/ml. The fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test is used as an international standard method for serological testing for rabies. To achieve proper immunization of dogs and cats at the time of import and export, changes in the neutralizing antibody titer after inoculation of the rabies vaccine should be understood in detail. However, few reports have provided this information. In this study, we aimed to determine evaluated, such changes by using sera from experimental dogs and cats inoculated with the rabies vaccine, and we tested samples using the routine FAVN test. In both dogs and cats, proper, regular vaccination enabled the necessary titer of neutralizing antibodies to be maintained in the long term. However, inappropriate timing of blood sampling after vaccination could result in insufficient detected levels of neutralizing antibodies.

  13. Intratracheal exposure to Fab fragments of an allergen-specific monoclonal antibody regulates asthmatic responses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Shin; Mizutani, Nobuaki; Matsuoka, Daiko; Sae-Wong, Chutha

    2014-01-01

    Fab fragments (Fabs) maintain the ability to bind to specific antigens but lack effector functions due to the absence of the Fc portion. In the present study, we tested whether Fabs of an allergen-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) were able to regulate asthmatic responses in mice. Asthmatic responses were induced in BALB/c mice by passive sensitization with anti-ovalbumin (OVA) polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) (day 0) and by active sensitization with OVA (days 0 and 14), followed by intratracheal (i.t.) challenge with OVA on day 1 and days 28, 29, 30 and 35. Fabs prepared by the digestion of an anti-OVA IgG1 (O1-10) mAb with papain were i.t. administered only once 30 min before antigenic challenge on day 1 or day 35. The results showed that i.t. administration of O1-10 Fabs with OVA markedly suppressed the early and/or late phases of asthmatic responses caused by passive and active sensitization. Similar results were obtained when Fabs of anti-OVA IgG2b mAb (O2B-3) were i.t. administered. In contrast, neither i.t. injection of intact 01-10/O2B-3 nor systemic injection of O1-10 Fabs suppressed the asthmatic responses. In vitro studies revealed that the capture of OVA by O1-10 Fabs prevented the subsequent binding of intact anti-OVA pAbs to the captured OVA. These results suggest that asthmatic responses may be down-regulated by the i.t. exposure to Fabs of an allergen-specific mAb via a mechanism involving the capture of allergen by Fabs in the respiratory tract before the interaction of intact antibody and allergen essential for the induction of asthmatic responses. PMID:24303921

  14. ANTIBODY RESPONSE TO EPSILON TOXIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN CAPTIVE RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) OVER A 13-MONTH PERIOD.

    PubMed

    Scala, Christopher; Duffard, Nicolas; Beauchamp, Guy; Boullier, Séverine; Locatelli, Yann

    2016-03-01

    Deer are sensitive to clostridial diseases, and vaccination with clostridial toxoids is the method of choice to prevent these infections in ruminants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the serologic responses in red deer (Cervus elaphus) over a 13-mo period after vaccination with a multivalent clostridial vaccine, containing an aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. Antibody production to the Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin component of the vaccine was measured using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Animals from group 1 (9 mo old; n = 6) were naïve and received an initial vaccination with a booster vaccine 4 wk apart and one annual booster. Animals from group 2 (21 mo old; n = 10) had been previously vaccinated 12 mo prior and received a first annual booster at the beginning of this study and a second annual booster 12 mo later. The multivalent clostridial vaccine induced a high antibody response that peaked after each injection and then slowly decreased with time. In group 1, a booster vaccine was required to obtain an initial high humoral response. The annual booster injection induced a strong, rapid, and consistent anamnestic response in both groups. The serologic responses persisted significantly over the baseline value for 9-12 mo in group 1, but more than 12 mo in group 2. It is unknown whether the measured humoral immune responses would have been protective as no challenge studies were performed. Further investigation is needed to determine the protective antibody titers to challenge and how long this immunity might persist after vaccination. PMID:27010263

  15. Competitive Selection from Single Domain Antibody Libraries Allows Isolation of High-Affinity Antihapten Antibodies That Are Not Favored in the llama Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Sofia Tabares-da; Rossotti, Martin; Carleiza, Carmen; Carrión, Federico; Pritsch, Otto; Ahn, Ki Chang; Last, Jerold A.; Hammock, Bruce D; González-Sapienza, Gualberto

    2011-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) found in camelids, lack a light chain and their antigen-binding site sits completely in the heavy-chain variable domain (VHH). Their simplicity, thermostability, and ease in expression have made VHHs highly attractive. While this has been successfully exploited for macromolecular antigens, their application to the detection of small molecules is still limited to a very few reports, mostly describing low affinity VHHs. Using triclocarban (TCC) as a model hapten, we found that conventional antibodies, IgG1 fraction, reacted with free TCC with a higher relative affinity (IC50 51.0 ng/mL) than did the sdAbs (IgG2 and IgG3, 497 and 370 ng/mL, respectively). A VHH library was prepared, and by elution of phage with limiting concentrations of TCC and competitive selection of binders, we were able to isolate high-affinity clones, KD 0.98–1.37 nM (SPR) which allowed development of a competitive assay for TCC with an IC50 = 3.5 ng/mL (11 nM). This represents a 100-fold improvement with regard to the performance of the sdAb serum fraction, and it is 100-fold better than the IC50 attained with other anti-hapten VHHs reported thus far. Despite the modest overall anti-hapten sdAbs response in llamas, a small subpopulation of high affinity VHHs are generated that can be isolated by carefully design of the selection process. PMID:21827167

  16. The immune response of mice treated with anti-mu antibodies: the effect on antibody-forming cells, their precursors and helper cells assayed in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J; Murgita, R A; Tomasi, T B

    1975-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that mice treated from birth with heterologous anti-mu antiserum are severely immunosuppressed with respect to numbers of splenic plaque-forming cells (PFC) to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in all immunoglobulin classes. In this study we have investigated, using in vitro techniques, the cellular site of the deficit created by anti-mu. The primary PFC response of spleen cells originating from anti-mu-treated mice was completely suppressed in vitro. The response was restored by the addition to the cultures of B cells but not T cells. T cells were derived from normal spleens which had been depleted of B lymphocytes and adherent cells by filtration through cotton wool columns, or by educated thymus cells obtained from the spleens of lethally irradiated mice injected with syngeneic thymocytes and SRBC. Restoration of the PFC response of spleen cells from anti-mu-treated mice by normal B cells suggested that a cellular deficiency rather than an activity process by inhibitory cells was the cause of the imunosuppression. Also, co-culturing spleen cells from normal and suppressed mice did not reveal the presence of inhibitory cells. Spleen cells from x-irradiated mice, injected with bone marrow from anti-mu-suppressed mice, gave rise to PFC cells when cultured with SRBC and normal T cells, suggesting that stem cells giving rise to B cell were not affected by anti-mu treatment. Similarly, educated thymus cells derived from suppressed mice could provide helper function when reconstituted in vitro with normal B cells. Exposure of normal bone marrow and spleen cells to anti-mu serum prior to passage through syngeneic x-irradiated recipients demonstrated that spleen cells were much more sensitive than were bone marrow cells to suppression by anti-mu antibodies. It is concluded that the target of anti-mu antibody is a mu-chain bearing B cell precursor to the IgM-, IgG-, and IgA-producing cell. PMID:805179

  17. Worm recovery and precipitin antibody response in guinea pigs and rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    PubMed

    Su, K E; Wang, F Y; Chi, P Y

    1998-12-01

    Guinea pigs (Hartley strain) and rats (Wistar strain) were each fed 200 and 100 Clonorchis sinensis metacercariae, respectively. Five animals from each species were sacrificed weekly between 1-8 weeks postinfection (WPI) and then at 12, 16, 20 and 30 WPI for collection of worms, bile and sera. The overall worm recovery rates for guinea pigs and rats were 18.7% and 12.4%, respectively. Only one of the five rats examined at 20 WPI still harbored one worm, while all were worm-free at 30 WPI. By a double diffusion test, no antibodies were detected against C. sinensis adult antigens in the bile juice. Serum antibodies were detected in at least 95% of the infected guinea pigs between 4-30 WPI and rats between 3-16 WPI. Precipitin antibodies seemed to be correlated with the presence of live worms in rats that had been infected for more than 12 weeks.

  18. Do vitamin D levels affect antibody titers produced in response to HPV vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Richard K; Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Raviotta, Jonathan M; Nowalk, Mary Patricia

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its well-known effects on bone metabolism, vitamin D is an immunomodulating hormone. Serum vitamin D levels in males 18–25 years were measured at baseline, and HPV antibody titers were measured one month following the third quadrivalent HPV vaccine dose. Vitamin D levels were ≥30 ng/ml (normal) in 60 males and <30 ng/ml (low) in 113 males. Reverse cumulative distribution curves and scatter plots showed higher antibody titers with low vitamin D for all vaccine strains (P < 0.05). In linear regression analyses, antibody titers for all HPV strains were significantly higher among those with lower vitamin D levels and among younger participants (P < 0.05). These relationships add to the body of knowledge of the complex role of vitamin D in immunoregulation. PMID:26176493

  19. Immunotherapy-responsive limbic encephalitis with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Markakis, Ioannis; Alexopoulos, Harry; Poulopoulou, Cornelia; Akrivou, Sofia; Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Katsiva, Vassiliki; Lyrakos, Georgios; Gekas, Georgios; Dalakas, Marinos C

    2014-08-15

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) has been recently identified as a target of humoral autoimmunity in a small subgroup of patients with non-paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (NPLE). We present a patient with NPLE and positive anti-GAD antibodies who showed significant improvement after long-term immunotherapy. A 48-year old female was admitted with a two-year history of anterograde amnesia and seizures. Brain MRI revealed bilateral lesions of medial temporal lobes. Screening for anti-neuronal antibodies showed high anti-GAD titers in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with strong evidence of intrathecal production. The patient received treatment with prednisolone and long-term plasma exchange. During a 12-month follow-up, she exhibited complete seizure remission and an improvement in memory and visuo-spatial skills. Anti-GAD antibodies may serve as a useful marker to identify a subset of NPLE patients that respond to immunoregulatory treatment.

  20. Antibody responses to Fermi antirabies vaccine in 21 patients bitten by a rabid jackal.

    PubMed

    Botros, B A; Ksiazek, T G; Scott, R M; Kolta, F A

    1987-01-01

    In a village in Upper Egypt, 21 persons were bitten by a rabid jackal. All received antirabies vaccine of the Fermi type within a few hours after the exposure. Antirabies hyperimmune serum was not administered. Three of the 21 victims died on days 16, 17 and 27 after exposure. Blood samples were obtained from 19 of the 21 bitten persons 5 days after completion of a series of 20 vaccine doses. Sera were tested for rabies antibodies by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. All 19 persons developed rabies antibodies detectable by these techniques. IFAT titres ranged from 128 to greater than or equal to 1024. ELISA antiglycoprotein titres were generally low, ranging from 0.7 to 18 iu/ml of serum. PMID:3686632

  1. The serum neutralizing antibody response in cattle to Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxoid and possible protection against experimentally induced hepatic abscesses.

    PubMed

    Saginala, S; Nagaraja, T G; Tan, Z L; Lechtenberg, K F; Chengappa, M M; Hine, P M

    1996-01-01

    The serum antileukotoxin antibody response and protection against subsequent experimental challenge with Fusobacterium necrophorum were investigated in 30 steers vaccinated with crude F. necrophorum leukotoxoid. Culture supernatant of F. necrophorum, strain 25, containing leukotoxoid was concentrated. The steers were assigned randomly to six groups (n = 5): PBS control with Stimulon adjuvant; vaccinated with concentrated supernatant diluted to provide 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, or 20.0 ml with the water-soluble Stimulon adjuvant; and 5.0 ml with the Ribi oil-emulsion adjuvant. The steers were injected subcutaneously on days 0 and 21. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals to monitor serum antileukotoxin antibody titres. On day 42, all the steers were challenged intraportally with F. necrophorum culture. Three weeks later (day 63), the steers were killed and necropsied for examination of their livers and assessment of protection. Steers vaccinated with crude leukotoxoid tended to have higher antileukotoxin titres than the controls, but the difference was not significant. Also, the antibody titre did not appear to be dose-dependent. In the control group, 3 out of 5 steers developed liver abscesses. The incidence of liver abscesses in steers vaccinated with Stimulon adjuvant was not dose related; however, only 8 of the 25 vaccinated steers developed abscesses. None of the steers vaccinated with the 5.0 ml dose with Ribi had any abscesses. Evidence for a relationship between antileukotoxin antibody and protection was shown by the lower titre in those steers that developed abscesses compared to those that did not. It was concluded that antileukotoxin antibody titres probably provided some degree of protection against experimentally induced liver abscesses, but further dose-titration studies using Ribi or possibly another more effective adjuvant will be needed to confirm this.

  2. Differences in Antibody Responses of Individuals with Natural Infection and Those Vaccinated against Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza▿

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwok-Hung; To, Kelvin K. W.; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Zhang, Anna J. X.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Tse, Herman; Che, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2011-01-01

    The differential antibody response measured by the commonly used hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays in patients with natural infection and vaccination has not been fully assessed. HI and conventional MN (CMN) assays were performed on sera from 651 patients with natural infection by pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus and on sera from 567 recipients of the corresponding vaccine. Surprisingly, the overall seroprotection rates determined by CMN and HI assays in vaccine recipients were only 44.8 and 35.1%, respectively. Antibody titers measured by the CMN assay was significantly higher than that obtained by HI assay in vaccine recipients aged ≥50 years, but these titers were not significantly different among younger vaccine recipients. In contrast, the HI titer was greater than the CMN titer for the age group from 16 to 29 years but was not significantly different in other age groups for natural infection. Lower antibody levels were found in both naturally infected patients and immunized recipients in the older than in the younger age groups, but naturally infected patients exhibited higher HI and CMN titers than did the corresponding vaccine recipients. In addition, we developed a rapid fluorescent focus microneutralization (FFMN) assay to test sera from naturally infected patients. The FFMN assay has a better correlation with CMN than with HI (ρ = 0.810 versus 0.684), which is expected of neutralizing antibody mainly targeted toward the inhibition of viral entry into cells. The higher antibody level elicited by natural infection than by vaccination may be related to differences between antigen presentation by the intramuscular route of vaccination and mucosal viral replication in mucosal cells of the respiratory tract. PMID:21411604

  3. Immunoproteomic Analysis of Antibody Responses to Extracellular Proteins of Candida albicans Revealing the Importance of Glycosylation for Antigen Recognition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ting; Krüger, Thomas; Knüpfer, Uwe; Kasper, Lydia; Wielsch, Natalie; Hube, Bernhard; Kortgen, Andreas; Bauer, Michael; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Dimopoulos, George; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    During infection, the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans undergoes a yeast-to-hypha transition, secretes numerous proteins for invasion of host tissues, and modulates the host's immune response. Little is known about the interplay of C. albicans secreted proteins and the host adaptive immune system. Here, we applied a combined 2D gel- and LC-MS/MS-based approach for the characterization of C. albicans extracellular proteins during the yeast-to-hypha transition, which led to a comprehensive C. albicans secretome map. The serological responses to C. albicans extracellular proteins were investigated by a 2D-immunoblotting approach combined with MS for protein identification. On the basis of the screening of sera from candidemia and three groups of noncandidemia patients, a core set of 19 immunodominant antibodies against secreted proteins of C. albicans was identified, seven of which represent potential diagnostic markers for candidemia (Xog1, Lip4, Asc1, Met6, Tsa1, Tpi1, and Prx1). Intriguingly, some secreted, strongly glycosylated protein antigens showed high cross-reactivity with sera from noncandidemia control groups. Enzymatic deglycosylation of proteins secreted from hyphae significantly impaired sera antibody recognition. Furthermore, deglycosylation of the recombinantly produced, secreted aspartyl protease Sap6 confirmed a significant contribution of glycan epitopes to the recognition of Sap6 by antibodies in patient's sera. PMID:27386892

  4. Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response in mice is primarily dependent on the Ah phenotype of lymphoid tissue.

    PubMed

    Silkworth, J B; Antrim, L A; Sack, G

    1986-12-01

    Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons act through the aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor in mice to produce a series of toxic effects of the immune system. The receptor protein is a product of the Ah gene locus. Ah responsive (Ahb/Ahb) mice express a high affinity receptor in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues whereas nonresponsive Ahd/Ahd mice express a poor affinity receptor. To determine the role of the Ah receptor of lymphoid tissue relative to that of nonlymphoid tissue in the induction of immune impairment, bone marrow was used to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice of the same or opposite Ah phenotype. All mice were given 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (35 and 350 mumol/kg) ip 2 days before immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC). The immune response to this T dependent antigen and organ weights were determined 5 or 7 days later in normal or chimeric mice, respectively. Monoclonal Lyt 1.1 and Lyt 1.2 antibodies were used to establish the origin of the cells which repopulated the chimeric thymuses. The immune responses of both BALB/cBy (Ahb/Ahb) and the BALB/cBy X DBA/2 hybrid, CByD2F1 (Ahb/Ahd), were significantly suppressed but DBA/2 mice were unaffected. The immune responses of chimeric BALB/cBy----BALB/cBy and BALB/cBy----DBA/2 (donor----recipient) mice were also significantly suppressed and thymic atrophy was observed in both cases. The serum anti-SRBC antibody titers of DBA/2----BALB/cBy chimeras were also significantly decreased although not to the same extent as in BALB/cBy----DBA/2 mice. Chimeric DBA/2----DBA/2 mice were not affected. These results indicate that the sensitivity to Ah receptor mediated suppression of the antibody response is primarily determined by the Ah phenotype of the lymphoid tissue.

  5. Chimpanzees Immunized with Recombinant Soluble CD4 Develop Anti-Self CD4 Antibody Responses with Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Boyson, Jonathan E.; Lord, Carol I.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1992-06-01

    In view of the efficiency with which human immunodeficiency virus replication can be blocked in vitro with anti-CD4 antibodies, the elicitation of an anti-CD4 antibody response through active immunization might represent a useful therapeutic strategy for AIDS. Here we demonstrate that immunization of chimpanzees with recombinant soluble human CD4 elicited an anti-CD4 antibody response. The elicited antibody bound self CD4 on digitonin-treated but not freshly isolated lymphocytes. Nevertheless, this antibody blocked human immunodeficiency virus replication in chimpanzee and human lymphocytes. These observations suggest that immunization with recombinant soluble CD4 from human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans may be feasible and therapeutically beneficial.

  6. Varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody responses in 50-59-year-old recipients of zoster vaccine.

    PubMed

    Levin, Myron J; Schmader, Kenneth E; Gnann, John W; McNeil, Shelly A; Vesikari, Timo; Betts, Robert F; Keay, Susan; Stek, Jon E; Bundick, Nickoya D; Su, Shu-Chih; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Xiaoming; Chan, Ivan S F; Annunziato, Paula W; Parrino, Janie

    2013-11-01

    Prevaccination and 6-week postvaccination samples from the immunogenicity substudy (n = 2269) of the zoster vaccine (ZV) efficacy trial (N = 22 439) in 50-59-year-old subjects were examined for varicella-zoster virus-specific antibody responses to vaccination. The varicella-zoster virus geometric mean titer (GMT) and geometric mean fold rise were higher in ZV recipients than in placebo recipients (GMT, 660.0 vs 293.1 glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units/mL [P < .001], respectively; geometric mean fold rise, 2.31 vs 1.00 [P < .025]). In each group there was a strong inverse correlation between postvaccination GMT and risk of subsequent herpes zoster. Although these data provide strong evidence that relates ZV-induced antibody and the risk of herpes zoster, a protective threshold was not determined. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00534248.

  7. Antibody-forming cells and serum hemolysin responses of pastel and sapphire mink inoculated with Aleutian disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lodmell, D L; Bergman, R K; Hadlow, W J

    1973-11-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV.

  8. Antibody-Forming Cells and Serum Hemolysin Responses of Pastel and Sapphire Mink Inoculated with Aleutian Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, Donald L.; Bergman, R. Kaye; Hadlow, William J.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV. PMID:4584051

  9. Prolonged Response to an IGF-1 Receptor Antibody in a Patient with Metastatic Castration Prostate Cancer with Neuroendocrine Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, George V; Higano, Celestia S; Beer, Tomasz M

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor is the main therapeutic target that has been successfully exploited through direct inhibition to extend survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We present a patient who participated in a Phase II study of an antagonist antibody to insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in men with mCRPC and experienced over five years of stable disease. His disease was rapidly progressing before exposure to the antibody and resumed its aggressive behavior following discontinuation of therapy, strongly supporting the attribution of his stable disease to IGF-1R inhibition. His pre-treatment biopsy exhibited increased protein expression of IGF-1R (and its downstream effector, phosphorylated-S6). Consequently, agents that target IGF-1R may provide profound and durable responses in a subset of patients and upfront molecular selection may enable us to identify those most likely to benefit. PMID:26848415

  10. Effect of elevated environmental temperature on the antibody response of mice to Trypanosoma cruzi during the acute phase of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Dimock, K A; Davis, C D; Kuhn, R E

    1991-01-01

    When held at 36 degrees C, Trypanosoma cruzi-infected C3H mice survive an otherwise lethal infection with significantly decreased parasitemia levels and enhanced immune responsiveness. Treatment of T. cruzi-infected mice with the immunosuppressive agent cyclophosphamide indicated that the positive effects of increased environmental temperature were primarily due to enhancement of immunity. A parasite-specific, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblot analysis were used to examine the effect of elevated environmental temperature on the production of anti-T. cruzi antibodies. Both the reactivity and diversity of anti-T. cruzi antibodies were found to be lower in infected mice held at 36 degrees C than in infected mice held at room temperature. However, reactivity and diversity could be enhanced by vaccination with culture forms of the parasite. Images PMID:1937796

  11. A-Salivary antibody responses as an indicator of waterborne infections: Pilot community study before and after installation of UV treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This ongoing project involves the development, validation and pilot application of a multiplex immunoassay based on Luminex microsphere technology to measure salivary antibody responses to the potentially-waterborne pathogens, noroviruses (Norwalk, VA387 and VA207), rotaviruses, ...

  12. Dengue E Protein Domain III-Based DNA Immunisation Induces Strong Antibody Responses to All Four Viral Serotypes.

    PubMed

    Poggianella, Monica; Slon Campos, José L; Chan, Kuan Rong; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Bestagno, Marco; Ooi, Eng Eong; Burrone, Oscar R

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major emerging disease widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world affecting several millions of people. Despite constants efforts, no specific treatment or effective vaccine is yet available. Here we show a novel design of a DNA immunisation strategy that resulted in the induction of strong antibody responses with high neutralisation titres in mice against all four viral serotypes. The immunogenic molecule is an engineered version of the domain III (DIII) of the virus E protein fused to the dimerising CH3 domain of the IgG immunoglobulin H chain. The DIII sequences were also codon-optimised for expression in mammalian cells. While DIII alone is very poorly secreted, the codon-optimised fusion protein is rightly expressed, folded and secreted at high levels, thus inducing strong antibody responses. Mice were immunised using gene-gun technology, an efficient way of intradermal delivery of the plasmid DNA, and the vaccine was able to induce neutralising titres against all serotypes. Additionally, all sera showed reactivity to a recombinant DIII version and the recombinant E protein produced and secreted from mammalian cells in a mono-biotinylated form when tested in a conformational ELISA. Sera were also highly reactive to infective viral particles in a virus-capture ELISA and specific for each serotype as revealed by the low cross-reactive and cross-neutralising activities. The serotype specific sera did not induce antibody dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) in non-homologous virus serotypes. A tetravalent immunisation protocol in mice showed induction of neutralising antibodies against all four dengue serotypes as well.

  13. Dengue E Protein Domain III-Based DNA Immunisation Induces Strong Antibody Responses to All Four Viral Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kuan Rong; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Bestagno, Marco; Ooi, Eng Eong; Burrone, Oscar R.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a major emerging disease widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world affecting several millions of people. Despite constants efforts, no specific treatment or effective vaccine is yet available. Here we show a novel design of a DNA immunisation strategy that resulted in the induction of strong antibody responses with high neutralisation titres in mice against all four viral serotypes. The immunogenic molecule is an engineered version of the domain III (DIII) of the virus E protein fused to the dimerising CH3 domain of the IgG immunoglobulin H chain. The DIII sequences were also codon-optimised for expression in mammalian cells. While DIII alone is very poorly secreted, the codon-optimised fusion protein is rightly expressed, folded and secreted at high levels, thus inducing strong antibody responses. Mice were immunised using gene-gun technology, an efficient way of intradermal delivery of the plasmid DNA, and the vaccine was able to induce neutralising titres against all serotypes. Additionally, all sera showed reactivity to a recombinant DIII version and the recombinant E protein produced and secreted from mammalian cells in a mono-biotinylated form when tested in a conformational ELISA. Sera were also highly reactive to infective viral particles in a virus-capture ELISA and specific for each serotype as revealed by the low cross-reactive and cross-neutralising activities. The serotype specific sera did not induce antibody dependent enhancement of infection (ADE) in non-homologous virus serotypes. A tetravalent immunisation protocol in mice showed induction of neutralising antibodies against all four dengue serotypes as well. PMID:26218926

  14. Affective and Behavioral Responses of Gay and Bisexual Men to HIV Antibody Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, James; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 56 gay and bisexual men tested for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus. Subjects who tested positive experienced increased anxiety, depression and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome anxiety; subjects who tested negative experienced decrease in these feelings after learning results. Subjects who chose not to learn results experienced…

  15. Human antibody response to Campylobacter jejuni flagellin protein and a synthetic N-terminal flagellin peptide.

    PubMed

    Nachamkin, I; Yang, X H

    1989-10-01

    We measured isotype-specific human antibodies directed against Campylobacter jejuni native flagellin and a synthetic peptide derived from the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein by using a microdilution enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum samples from patients with gastrointestinal infection caused by C. jejuni (n = 20) and control samples (number from normal subjects = 20; number from patients with diarrhea other than campylobacter = 20) were tested in this assay. Serum specimens from patients with campylobacter infection showed statistically significant higher isotype-specific antiflagellin antibody titers than control samples did. Detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was less specific (70%) than detection of either IgA or IgM antibodies in infected patients (95%). The sensitivity of testing for any of the isotypes ranged from 64 to 100% in acute-phase serum specimens and 85 to 95% in convalescent-phase serum specimens. An ELISA with an N-terminal synthetic peptide derived from the flagellin protein as antigen was not sensitive (60%) for detecting campylobacter infection but was very specific (97.5%). In conclusion, detection of serum IgA or IgM against C. jejuni flagellin may be a useful marker of infection. Although the N-terminal synthetic peptide was antigenic in a few patients with infection and showed good specificity in the ELISA, additional amino acid sequences with better sensitivity for detecting infection need to be identified.

  16. Application of a multiplex immunoassay for detection of salivary antibody responses to selected potentially waterborne pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Pathogen-specific antibodies in saliva can be used as bioindicators of recent or ongoing infection. Because collection of saliva is easy and painless, i...

  17. Harnessing the immune system's arsenal: producing human monoclonal antibodies for therapeutics and investigating immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Meghan; Kaur, Kaval; Pauli, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody technology has undergone rapid and innovative reinvention over the last 30 years. Application of these technologies to human samples revealed valuable therapeutic and experimental insights. These technologies, each with their own benefits and flaws, have proven indispensable for immunological research and in our fight to provide new treatments and improved vaccines for infectious disease. PMID:21876728

  18. Cross-Reactive and Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Human Survivors of Natural Ebolavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Flyak, Andrew I; Shen, Xiaoli; Murin, Charles D; Turner, Hannah L; David, Joshua A; Fusco, Marnie L; Lampley, Rebecca; Kose, Nurgun; Ilinykh, Philipp A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Branchizio, Andre; King, Hannah; Brown, Leland; Bryan, Christopher; Davidson, Edgar; Doranz, Benjamin J; Slaughter, James C; Sapparapu, Gopal; Klages, Curtis; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Ward, Andrew B; Bukreyev, Alexander; Crowe, James E

    2016-01-28

    Recent studies have suggested that antibody-mediated protection against the Ebolaviruses may be achievable, but little is known about whether or not antibodies can confer cross-reactive protection against viruses belonging to diverse Ebolavirus species, such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). We isolated a large panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against BDBV glycoprotein (GP) using peripheral blood B cells from survivors of the 2007 BDBV outbreak in Uganda. We determined that a large proportion of mAbs with potent neutralizing activity against BDBV bind to the glycan cap and recognize diverse epitopes within this major antigenic site. We identified several glycan cap-specific mAbs that neutralized multiple ebolaviruses, including SUDV, and a cross-reactive mAb that completely protected guinea pigs from the lethal challenge with heterologous EBOV. Our results provide a roadmap to develop a single antibody-based treatment effective against multiple Ebolavirus infections. PMID:26806128

  19. Antibody response to Brucella ovis outer membrane proteins in ovine brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Riezu-Boj, J I; Moriyón, I; Blasco, J M; Gamazo, C; Díaz, R

    1990-01-01

    Hot saline extracts of Brucella ovis were composed of vesicles with outer membrane proteins (OMPs), lipopolysaccharide, and phospholipid as constituents. Extraction with petroleum ether-chloroform-phenol yielded a protein fraction free of detectable lipopolysaccharide, in which group 3 OMPs (28,500 apparent molecular weight [28.5K], 27.0K, and 25.5K) represented 81% of the total. Group 1 OMPs and 67.0K, 22.5K to 21.5K, and 19.5K to 18.0K proteins were also detected. Adsorption of immune sera with whole bacteria suggested that group 3 OMPs and 67.0K, 22.5K to 21.5K, and 19.5K to 18.0K proteins had antigenic determinants exposed on the surfaces of both B. ovis and rough B. melitensis cells but not on smooth B. melitensis cells. Antibodies to group 3 OMPs and the 67.0K protein in the sera of 93 and 87%, respectively, of B. ovis-infected rams were found by immunoblotting. Antibodies to other proteins were present in 67% of these animals. Compared with B. ovis-infected rams which had not developed lesions, rams with epididymo-orchitis had antibodies to a larger variety of proteins. Although ewes infected with B. melitensis also showed antibodies to OMPs, the immunoblot reactions were less intense. Images PMID:2298488

  20. Antibody response and maternal immunity upon boosting PRRSV-immune sows with experimental farm-specific and commercial PRRSV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Geldhof, Marc F; Van Breedam, Wander; De Jong, Ellen; Lopez Rodriguez, Alfonso; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Vanhee, Merijn; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Maes, Dominiek; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-12-27

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory disease in pigs of all ages. Despite the frequent use of vaccines to maintain PRRSV immunity in sows, little is known on how the currently used vaccines affect the immunity against currently circulating and genetically divergent PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows, i.e. sows that have a pre-existing PRRSV-specific immunity due to previous infection with or vaccination against the virus. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the capacity of commercially available attenuated/inactivated PRRSV vaccines and autogenous inactivated PRRSV vaccines - prepared according to a previously optimized in-house protocol - to boost the antibody immunity against currently circulating PRRSV variants in PRRSV-immune sows. PRRSV isolates were obtained from 3 different swine herds experiencing PRRSV-related problems, despite regular vaccination of gilts and sows against the virus. In a first part of the study, the PRRSV-specific antibody response upon booster vaccination with commercial PRRSV vaccines and inactivated farm-specific PRRSV vaccines was evaluated in PRRSV-immune, non-pregnant replacement sows from the 3 herds. A boost in virus-neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate was observed in all sow groups vaccinated with the corresponding farm-specific inactivated vaccines. Use of the commercial attenuated EU type vaccine boosted neutralizing antibodies against the farm-specific isolate in sows derived from 2 farms, while use of the commercial attenuated NA type vaccine did not boost farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in any of the sow groups. Interestingly, the commercial inactivated EU type vaccine boosted farm-specific virus-neutralizing antibodies in sows from 1 farm. In the second part of the study, a field trial was performed at one of the farms to evaluate the booster effect of an inactivated farm-specific vaccine and a commercial

  1. Influenza Neuraminidase Subtype N1: Immunobiological Properties and Functional Assays for Specific Antibody Response

    PubMed Central

    Changsom, Don; Lerdsamran, Hatairat; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Chakritbudsabong, Warunya; Siridechadilok, Bunpote; Prasertsopon, Jarunee; Noisumdaeng, Pirom; Masamae, Wanibtisam; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2016-01-01

    Influenza neuraminidase (NA) proteins expressed in TK− cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus carrying NA gene of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus or 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were characterized for their biological properties, i.e., cell localization, molecular weight (MW), glycosylation and sialidase activity. Immune sera collected from BALB/c mice immunized with these recombinant viruses were assayed for binding and functional activities of anti-NA antibodies. Recombinant NA proteins were found localized in cytoplasm and cytoplasmic membrane of the infected cells. H1N1pdm NA protein had MW at about 75 kDa while it was 55 kDa for H5N1 NA protein. Hyperglycosylation was more pronounced in H1N1pdm NA compared to H5N1 NA according to N-glycosidase F treatment. Three dimensional structures also predicted that H1N1 NA globular head contained 4 and that of H5N1 contained 2 potential glycosylation sites. H5N1 NA protein had higher sialidase activity than H1N1pdm NA protein as measured by both MUNANA-based assay and fetuin-based enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA). Plaque reduction assay demonstrated that anti-NA antibody could reduce number of plaques and plaque size through inhibiting virus release, not virus entry. Assay for neuraminidase-inhibition (NI) antibody by ELLA showed specific and cross reactivity between H5N1 NA and H1N1pdm NA protein derived from reverse genetic viruses or wild type viruses. In contrast, replication-inhibition assay in MDCK cells showed that anti-H1N1 NA antibody moderately inhibited viruses with homologous NA gene only, while anti-H5N1 NA antibody modestly inhibited the replication of viruses containing homologous NA gene and NA gene derived from H1N1pdm virus. Anti-H1N1 NA antibody showed higher titers of inhibiting virus replication than anti-H5N1 NA antibody, which are consistent with the results on reduction in plaque numbers and sizes as well as in inhibiting NA enzymatic activity. No assay showed cross

  2. Persistence of immunoglobulin M or immunoglobulin G antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi 10-20 years after active Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Kalish, R A; McHugh, G; Granquist, J; Shea, B; Ruthazer, R; Steere, A C

    2001-09-15

    The interpretation of serological results for patients who had Lyme disease many years ago is not well defined. We studied the serological status of 79 patients who had had Lyme disease 10-20 years ago and did not currently have signs or symptoms of active Lyme disease. Of the 40 patients who had had early Lyme disease alone, 4 (10%) currently had IgM responses to Borrelia burgdorferi, and 10 (25%) still had IgG reactivity to the spirochete, as determined by a 2-test approach (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot). Of the 39 patients who had had Lyme arthritis, 6 (15%) currently had IgM responses and 24 (62%) still had IgG reactivity to the spirochete. IgM or IgG antibody responses to B. burgdorferi may persist for 10-20 years, but these responses are not indicative of active infection.

  3. Human anti-murine immune response following administration of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.C.; Carrasquillo, J.C.; Larson, S.M.

    1985-05-01

    The author's purpose is to measure circulating anti-murine immunoglobulin antibodies (HAMA) in patients who previously received radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) for tumor imaging and therapy. Because the presence of HAMA may negate further use of MoAb in patients, it is important to determine the frequency and rate of HAMA development. Patients received radiolabeled MoAb Fab 96.5 (IgG2a), Fab 48.7 (IgG1), T101 (IgG2a), B72.3 (IgG1), 9.2.27 (IgG2a) and 791T/36 (IgG2b). HAMA was measured by incubating I-125 labeled 96.5, 48.7 or B72.3 with serum and isolating human IgG with Staphyloccocal protein A cells by centrifugation. The assays were capable of detecting HAMA concentrations which bound 20 ng/ml of monoclonal antibody. 12 of 37 patients who received IgG developed HAMA within 4 months of a single injection. For one patient this occurred as early as 1 week post injection. 2 of 18 patients who received Fab developed HAMA. One of these patients received multiple injections of MoAb. 2 of 3 patients who received IgG2B were positive for HAMA. There was no apparent difference in the positive HAMA when antibody or fragment was given SubQ or IV. The authors conclude that the use of IgG MoAb are more likely to lead to the development of antimurine immunoglobulin antibodies.

  4. Characterization of the group I and group II antibody response against PC-KLH in normal and T15 idiotype-suppressed BALB/c mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bruderer, U; Aebersold, R; Blaser, K; Heusser, C H

    1988-01-01

    The memory response of BALB/c mice to phosphocholine-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (PC-KLH) consists of two antibody populations, designated Group I and Group II, that differ in their fine specificity, as determined by hapten inhibition using phosphocholine (PC) and p-nitrophenylphosphocholine (NPPC). It is known that Group I response is dominated by T15 idiotype-positive antibodies that utilize the VH1 heavy-chain gene in combination with V kappa 22 light-chain gene. In this paper we show that Group II serum antibodies of BALB/c mice are also highly restricted in their heterogeneity, as determined by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Group II response is not affected by neonatally induced T15 suppression, whereas the Group I response in these mice consists of T15-negative antibodies. This suggests that the expression of the two antibody populations is regulated independently. Finally, we show that the isotype distributions within a fine specificity are the same in normal and T15-suppressed mice. Interestingly this is true not only for the Group II but also for the Group I antibodies. Because the isolated Group I antibodies from normal mice differ in structure from those of T15-suppressed mice, i.e. different light chains, our data indicate that the isotype distribution of these two populations is associated with their fine specificity in addition to their clonal origin. PMID:3410491

  5. Increased humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in growing pigs pre-treated with poly-γ-glutamic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee-Hoon; Kang, Ik-Jae; Kim, A-Reum; Noh, You-Sun; Chung, Hee-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if humoral antibody response of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine improved in 8-week-old growing pigs born to well-vaccinated sows pre-treated with 60 mg of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) three days before vaccination. Antibody against FMD virus serotype O was measured 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-vaccination, using a PrioCHECK FMDV type O ELISA kit. The results showed that positive antibody reactions against FMDV serotype O antigen among a component of the vaccine significantly increased in response to pre-injection with γ-PGA. PMID:26645341

  6. Human Lyme arthritis and the immunoglobulin G antibody response to the 37-kilodalton arthritis-related protein of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Carlos A; Rothemich, Monika; Drouin, Elise E; Glickstein, Lisa; Steere, Allen C

    2005-05-01

    In Borrelia burgdorferi-infected C3H-scid mice, antiserum to a differentially expressed, 37-kDa spirochetal outer-surface protein, termed arthritis-related protein (Arp), has been shown to prevent or reduce the severity of arthritis. In this study, we determined the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses to this spirochetal protein in single serum samples from 124 antibiotic-treated human patients with early or late manifestations of Lyme disease and in serial serum samples from 20 historic, untreated patients who were followed longitudinally from early infection through the period of arthritis. These 20 patients were representative of the spectrum of the severity and duration of Lyme arthritis. Among the 124 antibiotic-treated patients, 53% with culture-proven erythema migrans (EM) had IgG responses to recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Arp, as did 59% of the patients with facial palsy and 68% of those with Lyme arthritis. In addition, 75 to 80% of the 20 past, untreated patients had reactivity with this protein when EM was present, during initial episodes of joint pain, or during the maximal period of arthritis. There was no association at any of these three time points between GST-Arp antibody levels and the severity of the maximal attack of arthritis or the total duration of arthritis. Thus, after the first several weeks of infection, 60 to 80% of patients had IgG antibody responses to GST-Arp, but this response did not correlate with the severity or duration of Lyme arthritis.

  7. Human Lyme Arthritis and the Immunoglobulin G Antibody Response to the 37-Kilodalton Arthritis-Related Protein of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Carlos A.; Rothemich, Monika; Drouin, Elise E.; Glickstein, Lisa; Steere, Allen C.

    2005-01-01

    In Borrelia burgdorferi-infected C3H-scid mice, antiserum to a differentially expressed, 37-kDa spirochetal outer-surface protein, termed arthritis-related protein (Arp), has been shown to prevent or reduce the severity of arthritis. In this study, we determined the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses to this spirochetal protein in single serum samples from 124 antibiotic-treated human patients with early or late manifestations of Lyme disease and in serial serum samples from 20 historic, untreated patients who were followed longitudinally from early infection through the period of arthritis. These 20 patients were representative of the spectrum of the severity and duration of Lyme arthritis. Among the 124 antibiotic-treated patients, 53% with culture-proven erythema migrans (EM) had IgG responses to recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST)-Arp, as did 59% of the patients with facial palsy and 68% of those with Lyme arthritis. In addition, 75 to 80% of the 20 past, untreated patients had reactivity with this protein when EM was present, during initial episodes of joint pain, or during the maximal period of arthritis. There was no association at any of these three time points between GST-Arp antibody levels and the severity of the maximal attack of arthritis or the total duration of arthritis. Thus, after the first several weeks of infection, 60 to 80% of patients had IgG antibody responses to GST-Arp, but this response did not correlate with the severity or duration of Lyme arthritis. PMID:15845501

  8. Clonal Progression during the T Cell-Dependent B Cell Antibody Response Depends on the Immunoglobulin DH Gene Segment Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Trad, Ahmad; Tanasa, Radu Iulian; Lange, Hans; Zemlin, Michael; Schroeder, Harry W.; Lemke, Hilmar

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the third complementarity determining region of the IgH chain is constrained by natural selection of immunoglobulin diversity (DH) sequence. To test the functional significance of this constraint in the context of thymus-dependent (TD) immune responses, we immunized BALB/c mice with WT or altered DH sequence with 2-phenyloxazolone-coupled chicken serum albumin (phOx-CSA). We chose this antigen because studies of the humoral immune response to the hapten phOx were instrumental in the development of the current theoretical framework on which our understanding of the forces driving TD responses is based. To allow direct comparison, we used the classic approach of generating monoclonal Ab (mAb) from various stages of the immune response to phOx to assess the effect of changing the sequence of the DH on clonal expansion, class switching, and affinity maturation, which are hallmarks of TD responses. Compared to WT, TD-induced humoral IgM as well as IgG antibody production in the D-altered ΔD-DμFS and ΔD-iD strains were significantly reduced. An increased prevalence of IgM-producing hybridomas from late primary, secondary, and tertiary memory responses suggested either impaired class switch recombination (CSR) or impaired clonal expansion of class switched B cells with phOx reactivity. Neither of the D-altered strains demonstrated the restriction in the VH/VL repertoire, the elimination of VH1 family-encoded antibodies, the focusing of the distribution of CDR-H3 lengths, or the selection for the normally dominant Ox1 clonotype, which all are hallmarks of the anti-phOx response in WT mice. These changes in clonal selection and expansion, as well as CSR indicate that the genetic constitution of the DH locus, which has been selected by evolution, can strongly influence the functional outcome of a TD humoral response. PMID:25157256

  9. The initial antibody response to HIV-1: induction of ineffective early B cell responses against GP41 by the transmitted/founder virus

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Leslie L; Perelson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A window of opportunity for immune responses to extinguish HIV -1 exists from the moment of transmission through establishment of the latent pool of HIV -I-infected cells. A critical time to study the initial immune responses to the transmitted/founder virus is the eclipse phase of HIV-1 infection (time from transmission to the first appearance of plasma virus) but, to date, this period has been logistically difficult to analyze. Studies in non-human primates challenged with chimeric simianhuman immunodeficiency virus have shown that neutralizing antibodies, when present at the time of infection, can prevent virus infection.

  10. Antibody response of swine to outer membrane components of Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae during infection.

    PubMed Central

    Rapp, V J; Ross, R F

    1986-01-01

    Sera from pigs infected with Haemophilus (Actinobacillus) pleuropneumoniae were tested for antibodies to outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of the organism by immunoblotting. Convalescent sera were produced in naturally born, colostrum-fed pigs and in cesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs given H. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5 intranasally twice at 5-week intervals. Sera, collected at weekly intervals, were reacted with Sarkosyl-insoluble, OMP-enriched preparations of H. pleuropneumoniae which had been separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose. Antibodies were detected to OMPs with an apparent molecular weight of 16,500 (16.5K OMP); to 29K, 38.5K, 43.5K, 45K, 49.5K, and 66.5K OMPs; and to several high-molecular-weight (greater than or equal to 94,000) OMPs, but not to the major 42K OMP. Antibodies to the heat-modifiable OMP (29K/43.5K) and the 38.5K OMP were detected in sera from noninfected pigs. Antibodies were also detected to two broad 54,000- and 95,000-molecular-weight bands which did not stain with Coomassie blue, stained with silver nitrate, resisted proteinase K digestion, and were eliminated by oxidation with sodium metaperiodate. This indicates that the 54,000- and 95,000-molecular-weight bands represent polysaccharide, possibly capsular or lipopolysaccharide immunogens. Adsorption of sera with cells from the homologous serotype 5 strain removed antibodies to the 45K, 49.5K, 66.5K, and greater than or equal to 94K OMPs and to the two polysaccharide bands, indicating that these antibodies were directed primarily to surface-exposed epitopes. When tested with OMP preparations from other serotype 5 strains, heterogeneity was apparent, both in the reactions with OMPs and with the polysaccharide bands. Silver staining of proteinase K-treated, whole-cell lysates from serotype 5 strains also indicated variable expression of the polysaccharide bands. Sera also reacted with OMPs from

  11. Characterization of the Antibody Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in People Living in Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Marzouki, Soumaya; Ahmed, Mélika Ben; Boussoffara, Thouraya; Abdeladhim, Maha; Aleya-Bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Namane, Abdelkader; Hamida, Nabil Belhaj; Salah, Afif Ben; Louzir, Hechmi

    2011-01-01

    Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors carried anti-saliva IgG antibodies, primarily of IgG4 isotype. Positive sera reacted differentially with seven salivary proteins. The protein PpSP30 was prominently recognized by all the sera. The salivary proteins triggered the production of various antibody isotypes. Interestingly, the immunodominant PpSP30 was recognized by all IgG subclasses, whereas PpSP12 was not by IgG4. Immunoproteomic analyses may help to identify the impact of each salivary protein on the L. major infection and to select potential vaccine candidates. PMID:21540371

  12. Induction of protective neutralizing antibody responses against botulinum neurotoxin serotype C using plasmid carried by PLGA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ruwona, Tinashe B; Xu, Haiyue; Li, Junwei; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Kumar, Amit; Zeng, Mingtao; Cui, Zhengrong

    2016-05-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a lethal neurotoxin, for which there is currently not an approved vaccine. Recent efforts in developing vaccine candidates against botulism have been directed at the heavy chain fragment of BoNT, because antibodies against this region have been shown to prevent BoNT from binding to its receptor and thus to nerve cell surface, offering protection against BoNT intoxication. In the present study, it was shown that immunization with plasmid DNA that encodes the 50 KDa C-terminal fragment of the heavy chain of BoNT serotype C (i.e., BoNT/C-Hc50) and is carried by cationic poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles induces stronger BoNT/C-specific antibody responses, as compared to immunization with the plasmid alone. Importantly, the antibodies have BoNT/C-neutralizing activity, protecting the immunized mice from a lethal dose of BoNT/C challenge. A plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the Hc50 fragments of BoNT serotypes that cause human botulism may represent a viable vaccine candidate for protecting against botulinum neurotoxin intoxication. PMID:26837242

  13. Inability to evoke a long-lasting protective immune response to respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice correlates with ineffective nasal antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Richard; Etchart, Nathalie; Hou, Sam; Hyland, Lisa

    2003-11-01

    Long-lasting protective antibody is not normally generated in children following primary respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, frequently leading to reinfection. We used the BALB/c mouse model to examine the role of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue and the bone marrow in the generation of RSV-specific long-lasting plasma cells, with a view to further understanding the mechanisms responsible for the poorly sustained RSV antibody levels following primary infection. We show here that substantial numbers of RSV-specific plasma cells were generated in the bone marrow following challenge, which were maintained thereafter. In contrast, in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue, RSV-specific plasma cell numbers waned quickly both after primary infection and after challenge and were not maintained at a higher level after boosting. These data indicate that the inability to generate a robust local mucosal response in the nasal tissues may contribute substantially to the likelihood of subsequent reinfection and that the presence of serum anti-RSV antibody without local protection is not enough to protect against reinfection. PMID:14557616

  14. Priming a broadly neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1 using a germline-targeting immunogen

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Joseph G.; Ota, Takayuki; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Kulp, Daniel W.; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Skog, Patrick D.; Thinnes, Theresa C.; Bhullar, Deepika; Briney, Bryan; Menis, Sergey; Jones, Meaghan; Kubitz, Mike; Spencer, Skye; Adachi, Yumiko; Burton, Dennis R.; Schief, William R.; Nemazee, David

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of HIV-1 vaccine research is the design of immunogens capable of inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) that bind to the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Poor binding of Env to unmutated precursors of bnAbs, including those of the VRC01-class, appears to be a major problem for bnAb induction. We engineered an immunogen that binds to VRC01-class bnAb precursors and immunized knock-in mice expressing germline-reverted VRC01 heavy chains. Induced antibodies showed characteristics of VRC01-class bnAbs, including a short light chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDRL3) and mutations that favored binding to near-native HIV-1 gp120 constructs. In contrast, native-like immunogens failed to activate VRC01-class precursors. The results suggest that rational epitope design can prime rare B cell precursors for affinity maturation to desired targets. PMID:26089355

  15. Immune response of sheep to Haemonchus contortus: serum antibodies against cross reacting antigens between parasites.

    PubMed

    Charley, J; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Pery, P

    1981-01-01

    Normal and H. contortus infected sera were studied by ELISA technique against different stages of the parasites. In all cases antibody activity was detected. This activity in serum is partially eliminated after absorption with an adult worm extract of N brasiliensis. N. brasiliensis and H. contortus antigens were analysed by TCIEP with a rabbit anti-N. brasiliensis serum to examine shared antigens of H. contortus. A minimum of seven cross reacting antigens were detected. H. contortus adult worm extract was absorbed by the rabbit anti-N. brasiliensis serum. After absorption all cross reacting antigens were removed but at least one antigen reacting with a rabbit serum anti-H. Contortus is maintained. When this antigen is tested in elisa technique only a weak antibody activity is found in normal serum.

  16. The immune response to (3-amino, 5-succinylaminobenzoyl)-p-aminophenylarsenic acid. Immunofluorescent studies of cells making anti-arsanilic acid antibody or anti-m-aminosuccinanilic acid antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Thursh, D. R.

    1970-01-01

    The cells synthesizing antibodies in response to immunization with (3-diazo, 5-succinylaminobenzoyl) p-aminophenylarsenic acid—bovine gamma globulin (3A, 5S-BGG) and related antigens have been studied using fluorescent anti-arsanilic acid (anti-Ars), anti-m-aminosuccinanilic acid (anti-Suc) and anti-BGG antibodies, all fluorescent reagents having been prepared from specific precipitates. In the primary response, 1.6 per cent of all cells staining with anti-hapten antibodies after treatment of the smears with a mixture of Ars-rabbit gamma globulin (Ars-RGG) and Suc-RGG stain with both (1.9 per cent of cells staining with anti-Ars; 9.5 per cent of cells staining with anti-Suc). In the secondary response, 12.8 per cent of all cells staining with antihapten antibody stain with both (17.1 per cent of cells staining with anti-Ars; 50.6 per cent of cells staining with anti-Suc). No differences are noted in the percentages of cells staining with both anti-Ars and anti-Suc in animals given a mixture of Ars-BGG and Suc-BGG compared to animals given 3A, 5S-BGG or a doubly conjugated Ars-Suc-BGG (AS-BGG). Comparable numbers of doubly staining cells are present in controls given only Ars-BGG or only Suc-BGG. This is interpreted as indicating that most and probably all of the doubly staining cells noted in the experimental groups are related to an antigenic cross reaction rather than to the synthesis of two antibodies by a single cell. Evidence that this is a cross reaction of intracellular antibody is presented. No cells staining with both antihapten and anticarrier protein (BGG) antibodies have been observed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:4193666

  17. Antibody response to 17D yellow fever vaccine in Ghanaian infants.

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Kwasi, M.; Dunyo, S. K.; Koram, K. A.; Afari, E. A.; Odoom, J. K.; Nkrumah, F. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the seroresponses to yellow fever vaccination at 6 and 9 months of age; assess any possible adverse effects of immunization with the 17D yellow fever vaccine in infants, particularly at 6 months of age. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty infants who had completed BCG, OPV and DPT immunizations were randomized to receive yellow fever immunization at either 6 or 9 months. A single dose of 0.5 ml of the reconstituted vaccine was administered to each infant by subcutaneous injection. To determine the yellow fever antibody levels of the infants, each donated 1 ml whole blood prior to immunization and 3 months post-immunization. Each serum sample was titred on Vero cells against the vaccine virus. FINDINGS: The most common adverse reactions reported were fever, cough, diarrhoea and mild reactions at the inoculation site. The incidences of adverse reactions were not statistically different in both groups. None of the pre-immunization sera in both age groups had detectable yellow fever antibodies. Infants immunized at 6 months recorded seroconversion of 98.6% and those immunized at 9 months recorded 98% seroconversion. The GMT of their antibodies were 158.5 and 129.8, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that seroresponses to yellow fever immunization at 6 and 9 months as determined by seroconversion and GMTs of antibodies are similar. The findings of good seroresponses at 6 months without significant adverse effects would suggest that the 17D yellow fever vaccine could be recommended for use in children at 6 months in outbreak situations or in high risk endemic areas. PMID:11731813

  18. Antibody responses of domestic animals to salivary antigens of Triatomainfestans as biomarkers for low-level infestation of triatomines.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Sternberg, Jeremy M; Johnston, Valerie; Medrano-Mercado, Nora; Anderson, Jennifer M; Hume, Jen C C; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Schaub, Günter A; Billingsley, Peter F

    2009-07-15

    Hematophagous arthropods such as Triatoma infestans, the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, elicit host-immune responses during feeding. Characterization of antibody responses to salivary antigens offers the potential to develop immunologically based monitoring techniques for exposure to re-emergent triatomine bug populations in peridomestic animals. IgG-antibody responses to the salivary antigens of T.infestans have been detected in chickens as soon as 2 days after the first exposure to five adult bugs. Chickens and guinea pigs regularly exposed to this number of triatomines showed a significantly lower anti-saliva antibody titre than animals exposed to 25 adults and fifth instars of four different T.infestans strains originating from Bolivia and from Northern Chile. Highly immunogenic salivary antigens of 14 and 21kDa were recognised by all chicken sera and of 79kDa by all guinea pig sera. Cross-reactivity studies using saliva or salivary gland extracts from different hematophagous species, e.g. different triatomines, bed bugs, mosquitoes, sand flies and ticks, as well as chicken sera exposed to triatomines and mosquitoes, demonstrated that the 14 and 21kDa salivary antigens were only found in triatomines. Sera from peridomestic chickens and guinea pigs in sites of known T.infestans challenge in Bolivia also recognised the 14 and 21kDa antigens. These represent promising epidemiological markers for the detection of small numbers of feeding bugs and hence may be a new tool for vector surveillance in Chagas disease control programs. PMID:19248784

  19. Serum antibody response to matrix protein 2 following natural infection with 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus in humans.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weimin; Reed, Carrie; Blair, Patrick J; Katz, Jacqueline M; Hancock, Kathy

    2014-04-01

    Natural infection-induced humoral immunity to matrix protein 2 (M2) of influenza A viruses in humans is not fully understood. Evidence suggests that anti-M2 antibody responses following influenza A virus infection are weak and/or transient. We show that the seroprevalence of anti-M2 antibodies increased with age in 317 serum samples from healthy individuals in the United States in 2007-2008. Infection with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) elicited a recall serum antibody response to M2 protein of A(H1N1)pdm09 in 47% of the affected 118 individuals tested. Anti-M2 antibody responses were more robust among individuals with preexisting antibodies to M2 protein. Moreover, the antibodies induced as a result of infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 were cross-reactive with M2 protein of seasonal influenza A viruses. These results emphasize the need to further investigate the possible roles of anti-M2 antibodies in human influenza A virus infection. PMID:24325965

  20. A protein microarray immunoassay for the serological evaluation of the antibody response in vertically transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Ardizzoni, A; Capuccini, B; Baschieri, M C; Orsi, C F; Rumpianesi, F; Peppoloni, S; Cermelli, C; Meacci, M; Crisanti, A; Steensgaard, P; Blasi, E

    2009-09-01

    The detection of specific serum antibodies is mainly achieved by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Here, we describe the setting up of a microarray-based serological assay to screen for IgG and IgM against vertically transmitted pathogens (Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, Chlamydia trachomatis). The test, accommodated onto a restricted area of a microscope slide, consists of: (a) the immobilization of antigens and human IgG and IgM antibody dilution curves, laid down in an orderly manner; (b) addition of serum samples; (c) detection of antigen-serum antibodies complexes by indirect immunofluorescence. The IgG and IgM curves provide an internal calibration system for the interpolation of the signals from the single antigens. The test was optimized in terms of spotting conditions and processing protocol. The detection limit was 400 fg for the IgG assay and 40 fg for the IgM assay; the analytical specificity was >98%. The clinical sensitivity returned an average value of 78%, the clinical specificity was >96%, the predictive values were >73%, and the efficiency was >88%. The results obtained make this test a promising tool, suitable for introduction in the clinical diagnostic routine of vertically transmitted infections, in parallel (and in future as an alternative) to ELISA. PMID:19415353

  1. Novel Ricin Subunit Antigens With Enhanced Capacity to Elicit Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wahome, Newton; Sully, Erin; Singer, Christopher; Thomas, Justin C; Hu, Lei; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B; Fang, Jianwen; Karanicolas, John; Jacobs, Donald J; Mantis, Nicholas J; Middaugh, C Russell

    2016-05-01

    RiVax is a candidate ricin toxin subunit vaccine antigen that has proven to be safe in human phase I clinical trials. In this study, we introduced double and triple cavity-filling point mutations into the RiVax antigen with the expectation that stability-enhancing modifications would have a beneficial effect on overall immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins. We demonstrate that 2 RiVax triple mutant derivatives, RB (V81L/C171L/V204I) and RC (V81I/C171L/V204I), when adsorbed to aluminum salts adjuvant and tested in a mouse prime-boost-boost regimen were 5- to 10-fold more effective than RiVax at eliciting toxin-neutralizing serum IgG antibody titers. Increased toxin neutralizing antibody values and seroconversion rates were evident at different antigen dosages and within 7 days after the first booster. Quantitative stability/flexibility relationships analysis revealed that the RB and RC mutations affect rigidification of regions spanning residues 98-103, which constitutes a known immunodominant neutralizing B-cell epitope. A more detailed understanding of the immunogenic nature of RB and RC may provide insight into the fundamental relationship between local protein stability and antibody reactivity. PMID:26987947

  2. Antibody response to Helicobacter pylori excretory antigen and the cross reaction study.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, S; Uyub, A M

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is recognized as a major case of gastritis and peptic ulcer and a key factor in the development of gastric cancer, gastric lymphoma, and non-ulcerative dyspepsia in man. The detection of antibodies specific for strains of H. pylori has demonstrated the value of serology for providing evidence of infection. The present study was conducted to detect the antigenic proteins of excretory antigen of H. pylori with Western blotting and examine whether anti-H. pylori IgG and IgA antibodies from H. pylori positive patients cross-react with antigens from other common bacterial pathogens. By using SDS-PAGE, 20 different proteins were found in the excretory antigen. By Western blotting and absorption studies, there were indications that anti-H. pylori IgA antibodies directed against 54 kDa, 50 kDa and 27 kDa cross-reacted with antigens from other bacteria, and that H. pylori proteins of 99 kDa, 88 kDa and 81 kDa possibly shared similar epitope with antigens of other pathogens not tested in the absorption studies. The cross-reactivity occurred in this study was not significantly affect the performance of the in-house ELISA.

  3. Increased IgE