Science.gov

Sample records for 5th fuzzy days

  1. Tools of Radio Astronomy, 5th edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Rohlfs, Kristian; Huttemeister, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    New 5th corrected edition of the book http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009tra..book.....W in Russian, translated by O. Verkhodanov and S. Trushkin, editing S.A. Trushkin from Special astrophysical observatory RAS. This edition contains the translation of the 5th Springer edition of 2009 and new additional chapter (wrote by authors) of Solutions of the problems.

  2. Kids & Family Reading Report™. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholastic Inc., 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the 5th Edition of Scholastic's biannual study of children's and parents' attitudes and behaviors about reading. The latest research touches on reading aloud to children of all ages, the impact of reading independently for fun at school and at home, the importance of frequent reading, and the books children want most to read.…

  3. BOOK REVIEW: ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, 5TH EDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Book Review of Environmental Engineering, 5th Edition (Joseph A. Salvato, Nelson L. Nemerow, Franklin J. Agardy (Editors), John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey. 2003.). Author wrote review per the request of the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Environmental Quality.

  4. Apollo 11 5th Annivesary Commemoration Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    On July 3, 1974 NASA commemorated the 5th anniversary of the Apollo 11, first lunar landing mission, at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Launch Pad 39, from which astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins first embarked on their historic journey to the Moon, was dedicated as a national landmark. Apollo 11 was launched at 9:32 am on July 16, 1969 and made the first successful lunar landing July 20th. During the 45 minute ceremony, the three Apollo 11 astronauts unveiled this plaque which was placed at the launch site. Other participating dignitaries included Dr. James Fletcher and Dr. George H. Low, NASA Administrator and Deputy Administrator respectively; Florida Governor Rubin Askew; Senator frank E. Moss; Congressman Olin E. Teague, and Kurt Debus, KSC Director. Apollo 11 launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch which was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  5. Fuzzy Subspace Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgelt, Christian

    In clustering we often face the situation that only a subset of the available attributes is relevant for forming clusters, even though this may not be known beforehand. In such cases it is desirable to have a clustering algorithm that automatically weights attributes or even selects a proper subset. In this paper I study such an approach for fuzzy clustering, which is based on the idea to transfer an alternative to the fuzzifier (Klawonn and Höppner, What is fuzzy about fuzzy clustering? Understanding and improving the concept of the fuzzifier, In: Proc. 5th Int. Symp. on Intelligent Data Analysis, 254-264, Springer, Berlin, 2003) to attribute weighting fuzzy clustering (Keller and Klawonn, Int J Uncertain Fuzziness Knowl Based Syst 8:735-746, 2000). In addition, by reformulating Gustafson-Kessel fuzzy clustering, a scheme for weighting and selecting principal axes can be obtained. While in Borgelt (Feature weighting and feature selection in fuzzy clustering, In: Proc. 17th IEEE Int. Conf. on Fuzzy Systems, IEEE Press, Piscataway, NJ, 2008) I already presented such an approach for a global selection of attributes and principal axes, this paper extends it to a cluster-specific selection, thus arriving at a fuzzy subspace clustering algorithm (Parsons, Haque, and Liu, 2004).

  6. Multi-mode heterodyned 5th-order infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leger, Joel D.; Varner, Clyde; Rubtsov, Igor V.

    2016-10-01

    Fifth-order multidimensional infrared spectroscopy with heterodyned detection was carried out in the three-beam dual-frequency configuration. Numerous 5th-order cross peaks were detected for the 4-azidobutyrate-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester compound in solution involving several vibrational modes ranging in frequency from 1045 to 2100 cm-1. Cross peaks involving overtones (2X/Z) and combination bands (XY/Z) among the tags, modes X and Y excited by the first two mid-IR laser pulses, and the reporter, modes Z excited by the third laser pulse, were acquired and the factors affecting the amplitude of 5th-order cross peaks are discussed. The 5th-order cross peaks were detected among modes that are spatially close (a few bonds apart) as well as for modes spatially separated by ca. 12 Å (eight bonds apart). In both cases, the waiting time dependences for the 3rd and 5th order cross peaks were found to be different. In particular, the waiting time at which the cross-peak maximum is reached, the decay time, and the value of a plateau at large waiting times were all differing strongly. The differences are explained by reduced sensitivity of the 5th-order signals to modes coupled weakly to the reporter mode and different relaxation dynamics involving overtone state of the tag. The ability of the 5th-order peaks to single out the modes coupled strongly to the reporter can help identifying specific energy relaxation and transport pathways, which will be useful for understanding energy transport dynamics in molecules. The absorptive 5th-order cross peaks were constructed which report on three-point correlation functions. It is shown that in addition to the triple-frequency correlation functions, a correlation of the frequencies with the mode coupling (anharmonicity) can be naturally measured by the 5th-order spectroscopy. The current limit for detecting 5th-order signals was estimated at the level of 1 × 10-3 in reduced anharmonicity, which is determined by the corresponding two

  7. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  8. Are You a Reader? 5th Graders Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Diane; Barone, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The author tells the story of a 5th-grade teacher who challenges her class to take on self-identities as readers. Students defined seven characteristics of what it means to be a good reader and considered whether those characteristics applied to them: Good readers read for fun, talk about books, usually finish the book they're reading, can relate…

  9. Are You a Reader? 5th Graders Respond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barone, Diane; Barone, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The author tells the story of a 5th-grade teacher who challenges her class to take on self-identities as readers. Students defined seven characteristics of what it means to be a good reader and considered whether those characteristics applied to them: Good readers read for fun, talk about books, usually finish the book they're reading, can relate…

  10. 5th Latin American pesticide residue workshop (LAPRW 2015)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This invited editorial proceedings article introduces the 6 research papers published in the special topical collection for the 5th Latin American Pesticide Residue Workshop held in Santiago, Chile, May 10-13, 2015. The meeting was a great success with more than 50 talks, 140 posters, 21 vendors, a...

  11. Working Together for Student Achievement. 5th Biennial Joint Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Washington state Board of Education (SBE) and the Professional Educator Standards Board (PESB) submitted this 5th biennial joint report to the Governor, Legislative Education Committees, and Superintendent of Public Instruction. The report outlines the collaborative work of the Boards, highlights accomplishments, and provides goals and…

  12. PREFACE: 5th Workshop of Young Researchers in Astronomy & Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács-Dajka, Emese; Plachy, Emese; Molnár, László

    2010-04-01

    The 5th Workshop of Young Researchers in Astronomy and Astrophysics was held on 2-4 September 2009 at the Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. This meeting fits into a conference series which can already be considered a tradition where the younger generation has the opportunity to present their work. The event was also a great opportunity for senior astronomers and physicists to form new connections with the next generation of researchers. The selection of invited speakers concentrated on the researchers currently most active in the field, mostly on a post-doctoral/tenure/fresh faculty position level. A number of senior experts and PhD students were also invited. As the conference focused on people rather than a specific field, various topics from theoretical physics to planetology were covered in three days. The programme was divided into six sections: Physics of the Sun and the Solar System Gravity and high-energy physics Galactic and extragalactic astronomy, cosmology Celestial mechanics and exoplanets Infrared astronomy and young stars Variable stars We had the pleasure of welcoming 10 invited review talks from senior researchers and 42 contributed talks and a poster from the younger generation. Participants also enjoyed the hospitality of the pub Pál at the Pálvölgyi-cave after giving, hearing and disputing countless talks. Brave souls even descended to the unbuilt, adventurous Mátyásvölgyi-cave. Memories of the conference were shadowed though. Péter Csizmadia, one of our participants and three other climbers attempted a first ever ascent to the Ren Zhong Feng peak in Sichuan, China, but they never returned from the mountains. Péter departed to China shortly after the conference, with best wishes from participants and friends. We dedicate this volume to his memory. The organisers thankthe Physics Doctoral School of Eötvös University for its hospitality. The workshop was supported by the Mecenatúra and Polányi Mihály Programmes of the National

  13. A reduced-order adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system model as a software sensor for rapid estimation of five-day biochemical oxygen demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori, Roohollah; Safavi, Salman; Nateghi Shahrokni, Seyyed Afshin

    2013-07-01

    The five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) is one of the key parameters in water quality management. In this study, a novel approach, i.e., reduced-order adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ROANFIS) model was developed for rapid estimation of BOD5. In addition, an uncertainty analysis of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and ROANFIS models was carried out based on Monte-Carlo simulation. Accuracy analysis of ANFIS and ROANFIS models based on both developed discrepancy ratio and threshold statistics revealed that the selected ROANFIS model was superior. Pearson correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error for the best fitted ROANFIS model were 0.96 and 7.12, respectively. Furthermore, uncertainty analysis of the developed models indicated that the selected ROANFIS had less uncertainty than the ANFIS model and accurately forecasted BOD5 in the Sefidrood River Basin. Besides, the uncertainty analysis also showed that bracketed predictions by 95% confidence bound and d-factor in the testing steps for the selected ROANFIS model were 94% and 0.83, respectively.

  14. 5th Antiviral Drug Discovery and Development Summit.

    PubMed

    Blair, Wade; Perros, Manos

    2004-08-01

    The 5th Antiviral Drug Discovery and Development Summit provided an up-to-date snapshot of the ongoing developments in the area. The topics covered ranged from updates on recently launched drugs (Kaletra), Fuzeon) and new investigational inhibitors (T-1249, Reverset, UK-427857, L-870810, PA-457, remofovir, VX-950), to the discovery of new antiviral targets and advances in technologies that may provide the substrate for the next generation of therapeutics. It is apparent from the range of presentations that much of today's efforts are focused on developing new classes of HIV inhibitors (gp41, integrase), while there is also considerable progress in hepatitis C, where a number of inhibitors have or should reach proof-of-concept studies in the coming months. Here we provide the highlights of this meeting, with particular emphasis on the new developments in HIV and hepatitis C virus.

  15. 5th Annual Global College of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari Shanker

    2008-06-01

    The 5th Global College of Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration (GCNN) was held in the historic charming capital city of Bucharest, Romania in JW Marriott Grand Hotel on 3-6 March, 2008. The meeting was a unique blend of basic researchers and clinicians across the Globe presenting their recent findings in neuroprotection and neuroregeneration in a beautiful exotic ambience. More than 300 students and researchers attended the congress and participated in deliberations. Over 60 representatives from various pharmaceutical industries from all over the world supported this event. This meeting was held for the first time as a joint venture with GCNN and the Society for study on Neuroproetction and Neuroplasticity (SSNN), and was a grand success both scientifically and socially. Thus, these joint meetings of the two societies (GCNN and SSNN) will continue in future in different European cities for the coming 5 years.

  16. 167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    167. GENERAL VIEW DOWN 5TH AVE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST DOWN 5TH AVE. SHOWING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, BUILDING 504, 436, 11, AND 155. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  17. PREFACE: 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezinskis, G.; Bragina, L.; Colombo, P.; Frischat, G. H.; Grabis, J.; Greil, P.; Deja, J.; Kaminskas, R.; Kliava, J.; Medvids, A.; Nowak, I.; Siauciunas, R.; Valancius, Z.; Zalite, I.

    2011-12-01

    Logo This Volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of the contributions to the 5th Baltic Conference on Silicate Materials (BaltSilica2011) held at Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia from 23-25 May 2011. The conference was organized by Riga Technical University (Latvia) and Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania). The series of Baltic conferences on silicate materials was started since 2004: the first conference was held in Riga, Latvia, 2004; the second conference was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2005; the third was held again in Riga, Latvia, 2007, and the fourth was held in Kaunas, Lithuania 2009. BaltSilica 2011 was attended by around 50 participants from Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Ukraine and Russia. In comparison with previous silicate materials conferences, the broadening of participating countries is an indication of the interest of scientists, engineers and students to exchange research ideas, latest results, and to find new research topics for cooperation in the fields of silicate, high temperature materials, and inorganic nanomaterials. The scientific programme included 8 invited plenary lectures 23 oral presentations and 25 posters [1]. Scientific themes covered in the conference and in this special issue: Natural and Artificial Stone Materials; Traditional and New Ceramic and Glass-Like Materials; Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials. This volume consists of 23 selected proceeding papers. The Editor of this special issue is grateful to all the contributors to BaltSilica 2011. I am also very grateful to the scientific committee, the local organizing committee, the session chairs, the referees who refereed the submitted articles to this issue, and to students from the Department of Silicate, High Temperature and Inorganic Nanomaterials Technology of the Riga Technical University who ensured the smooth running of the conference. Particular thanks goes to eight plenary

  18. 75 FR 63478 - 5th Annual PHEMCE Stakeholders Workshop and BARDA Industry Day

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ..., International Governments, Industry, Healthcare Providers, First Responders, Community-Based Organizations, and..., therapeutics, diagnostics, and platform technologies targeting chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and...

  19. 5th Austrian Hungarian workshop on celestial mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süli, Áron

    2011-06-01

    The 5th Hungarian-Austrian Workshop on Celestial Mechanics took place from 9th until the 10th of April 2010 in Vienna, Austria. The workshop was held in the Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University. From the Eötvös University and from the host institute experts and PhD students gathered together to discuss the challenges and new results of the actual problems of celestial mechanics. The workshop was held in the meeting room at the Sternwarte of the Vienna University located in a magnificent park in the heart of Vienna. Following the themes of the four previous events the focus for this workshop ranged from the Trojan problem, dynamics in binary star systems and exoplanetray systems. We were pleased to acknowledge the support of the host university. The talks were characterized by a large spectrum, which is typical of the workshops on celestial mechanics. Several talks discussed different aspects of the trojan problem, such as the three Trojan Problem, dynamics of trojan-like planets in binary stars, the frequencies of their motion around the triangular lagrangian points, etc. Several speakers focused on the formation of planetary systems and on the field of exoplanetary systems, like exoplanetary systems in higher order mean motion resonances, formation of planets in binary systems, stability of exomoons etc. Some of the presentation used sophisticated mathematical tools in order to understand mean motion resonances, the Sitnikov problem applying the KAM and the Nekhoroshev theorem. The theme of a number of talks was the motion of Solar System bodies: dynamics of the newly discovered moons of Pluto and of near-Earth asteroids. General problems were also addressed, among others chaos in Hamiltonian systems, adaptive Lie-integration method and iterative solution approximation to the generalised Sitnikov problem.

  20. Teaching 5th grade science for aesthetic understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girod, Mark A.

    Many scientists speak with great zeal about the role of aesthetics and beauty in their science and inquiry. Few systematic efforts have been made to teach science in ways that appeal directly to aesthetics and this research is designed to do just that. Drawing from the aesthetic theory of Dewey, I describe an analytic lens called learning for aesthetic understanding that finds power in the degree to which our perceptions of the world are transformed, our interests and enthusiasm piqued, and our actions changed as we seek further experiences in the world. This learning theory is contrasted against two other current and popular theories of science learning, that of learning for conceptual understanding via conceptual change theory and learning for a language-oriented or discourse-based understanding. After a lengthy articulation of the pedagogical strategies used to teach for aesthetic understanding the research is described in which comparisons are drawn between students in two 5th grade classrooms---one taught for the goal of conceptual understanding and the other taught for the goal of aesthetic understanding. Results of this comparison show that more students in the treatment classroom had aesthetic experiences with science ideas and came to an aesthetic understanding when studying weather, erosion, and structure of matter than students in the control group. Also statistically significant effects are shown on measures of interest, affect, and efficacy for students in the treatment class. On measures of conceptual understanding it appears that treatment class students learned more and forgot less over time than control class students. The effect of the treatment does not generally depend on gender, ethnicity, or prior achievement except in students' identity beliefs about themselves as science learners. In this case, a significant interaction for treatment class females on science identity beliefs did occur. A discussion of these results as well as elaboration and

  1. 5th Bionanotox and Applications International Research Conference, Peabody, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabb, Taneicie; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    "BioNanoTox and Toxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery" was this year's theme at the 5th BioNanoTox and Applications International Research Conference held at the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Arkansas on November 4-5th, 2010. This year, the international participation in this conference increased to 25 countries spanning the globe. The conference began with opening remarks by Paul Howard, Associate Director of the National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States. Two keynote speakers, Dr. Ananth V. Annapragada and Dr. Merle G. Paule presented lectures on "Toxicity of Novel Nanoparticles for CT imaging" and "The Biology of Neurotoxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery", respectively. Teachers, students, faculty, and scientists presented oral and poster presentations on fundamental and translational research related to BioNanoTox and related fields of science. Six presentation sessions were held over the two-day conference. There were 31 presentations and 39 posters from disciplines ranging from biology to chemistry, toxicology, nanotechnology, computational sciences, mathematics, engineering, plant science, and biotechnology. Poster presentation awards were presented to three high school students, three high school teachers, and three college students. In addition to poster awards a memorial, travel, and BioNanoTox award were presented. This year's meeting paved the way for a more outstanding meeting for the future.

  2. Reflecting on the 5th National Occupational Injury Research Symposium and looking forward ☆

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Dawn N.; Collins, James

    2015-01-01

    For 2-1/2 days in October, 2011, more than 200 researchers convened at the 5th National Occupational Injury Research Symposium (NOIRS) to celebrate advances and successes in the field, to learn from each other about recent and ongoing occupational injury research, and to network and establish new professional relationships to advance occupational injury research in the future. This special issue highlights some of the research presented at that meeting. There has been considerable progress in research and worker safety since the first NOIRS in 1997, with demonstrated reductions in worker deaths and injury, an increased depth and breadth of research, and the development and validation of prevention strategies. Despite this progress, occupational injuries continue to exert too high a toll on workers, employers and society, and there are numerous challenges that need to be addressed to continue advancements in worker safety. PMID:23398698

  3. NASA Participates in 5th Annual California Aerospace Week

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-03

    The fifth annual California Aerospace Days event was recently held at the Capitol in Sacramento. It was an opportunity for NASA's Ames Research Center to showcase some of its key achievements and innovations in the Golden State.

  4. A 5TH GENERATION FIGHTER FOR BELGIUM:LUXURY OR NECESSITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-16

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A 5TH GENERATION FIGHTER FOR BELGIUM: LUXURY OR NECESSITY? by Patrik De Groot, Lieutenant Colonel...objectives? Therefore, do we require investing in top notch technology? Is a 5th generation fighter for Belgium a necessity or a luxury? Through the...maintain its credibility and reputation as an effective and efficient NATO Air Power partner, it will have to invest in a 5th generation fighter

  5. The utility of a 5th nap in multiple sleep latency test

    PubMed Central

    Lykouras, Dimosthenis; Rees, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Background This is the first study that aimed to look specifically at the utility of the 5th nap in the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), a test used to assist in the diagnosis of narcolepsy. Methods Data was retrospectively collected from the Sleep Disorders Centre of a Tertiary Hospital on patients that had a 5th nap during their MSLT from the 08th November 2011 to 12th November 2014. Results Fifty-three patients had a 5th nap performed out of 378 MSLT studies. In 16% of cases a diagnosis of narcolepsy was given directly due to the inclusion of the 5th nap on the MSLT. Here a 5th nap allowed diagnostic criteria of mean sleep latency <8 minutes and >2 SOREMPS to be met. In 53% of cases the mean sleep latency increased due to 5th nap inclusion; the mean sleep latency of the first four naps was 5.6 vs. 6.7 after inclusion of the 5th nap. Conclusions The 5th nap is not often performed within the MSLT studies. Our study shows that only a few patients may benefit from a 5th nap opportunity which also led to increase of the mean sleep latency at the expense of extra time, cost, labour and increased patient anxiety. PMID:26904269

  6. Determination of the Colour Preferences of 5th Grade Students in Relation to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uysal, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the colour preferences of 5th grade students in relation to the concept of gender. The study was conducted with the 19 5th grade students studying at Central District of Bartin Province in 2015 to 2016 academic year. Throughout the research, quantitative research method had been used while survey had…

  7. Fuzzy Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    cognitive map. Three examples illustrate fuzzy cognitive maps‘ potential for understanding a non -state actor‘s decision-making calculus and...of the Cold War, the United States has wrestled with how rational deterrence applies to non -state actors in today’s complex security environment...Fuzzy logic’s themes of flexibility, adaptability, and ambiguity lay the foundation for applying fuzzy logic to non -state actor deterrence. Because

  8. Black sea surface temperature anomaly on 5th August 1998 and the ozone layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manev, A.; Palazov, K.; Raykov, St.; Ivanov, V.

    2003-04-01

    BLACK SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY ON 5th AUGUST 1998 AND THE OZONE LAYER THICKNESS A. Manev , K. Palazov , St. Raykov, V. Ivanov Solar Terrestrial Influences Laboratory, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences amanev@abv.bg This paper focuses on the peculiarities of the Black Sea surface temperature anomaly on 05.08.1998. Researching the daily temperature changes in a number of control fields in the course of 8-10 years, we have found hidden correlations and anomalous deviations in the sea surface temperatures on a global scale. Research proves the statistical reliability of the temperature anomaly on the entire Black Sea surface registered on 04.-05.08.1998. In the course of six days around these dates the temperatures are up to 2°C higher than the maximum temperatures in this period in the other seven years. A more detailed analysis of the dynamics of the anomaly required the investigation of five Black Sea surface characteristic zones of 75x75 km. The analysis covers the period 20 days - 10 days before and 10 days after the anomaly. Investigations aimed at interpreting the reasons for the anomalous heating of the surface waters. We have tried to analyze the correlation between sea surface temperature and the global ozone above the Black Sea by using simultaneously data from the two satellite systems NOAA and TOMS. Methods of processing and comparing the data from the two satellite systems are described. The correlation coefficients values for the five characteristic zones are very high and close, which proves that the character of the correlation ozone - sea surface temperature is the same for the entire Black Sea surface. Despite the high correlation coefficient, we have proved that causality between the two phenomena at the time of the anomaly does not exit.

  9. Fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.

  10. Fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lofti A.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a condensed exposition of some basic ideas underlying fuzzy logic and describes some representative applications. The discussion covers basic principles; meaning representation and inference; basic rules of inference; and the linguistic variable and its application to fuzzy control.

  11. 25. April 5th one month's work. View looking north. Storehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. April 5th one month's work. View looking north. Storehouse #1 under construction, storehouse #2 site work in progress toward foreground. - U.S. Navy Fleet Supply Base, Storehouse No. 1, 830 Third Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  12. Work Values of 5th, 8th, and 11th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Loyde W.; Fenner, Bradford

    1972-01-01

    Self Realization, Job Security, Money, and Altruism were found to be the most important work values, with 5th and 8th grade students differing from 11th grade students on Altruism and Self Realization. (Author)

  13. 6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. 5TH FLOOR, VIEW NORTH OF KETTLE SOAP STORAGE TANKS (RIGHT) AND WEIGH HOPPERS OVER SITES OF REMOVED AMALGAMATORS (LEFT) - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  14. Need for Specific Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Lessons for 4th and 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Jacobs, Laurel; Waits, Juanita; Hartz, Vern; Martinez, Stephanie H.; Standfast, Rebecca D.; Farrell, Vanessa A.; Bawden, Margine; Whitmer, Evelyn; Misner, Scottie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is linked to obesity. We hypothesized that school-based nutrition education would decrease SSB consumption. Design Self-selected interventional cohort with random selection for pre and post measurements Setting Arizona SNAP-Ed eligible schools Participants Randomly selected (9%) 4th and 5th grade classroom students Intervention The University of Arizona Nutrition Network (UANN) provided general nutrition education training and materials to teachers, to be delivered to their students. The UANN administered behavioral questionnaires to students in both Fall and Spring. Main Outcome Measure(s) Change in SSB consumption Analyses Descriptive statistics were computed for student demographics and beverage consumption on the day prior to testing. Paired t-tests evaluated change in classroom averages. Linear regression assessed potential correlates of SSB consumption. Results Fall mean SSB consumption was 1.1 (±0.2) times; mean milk and water intake were 1.6 (±0.2) and 5.2 (±0.7) times, respectively. Beverage consumption increased (3.2%) in springtime, with increased SSBs (14.4%) accounting for the majority (p=0.006). Change in SSB consumption was negatively associated with baseline SSB and water consumption, but positively associated with baseline milk fat (p≤0.05). Conclusions and Implications The results suggest the need for beverage specific education to encourage children to consume more healthful beverages in warmer weather. PMID:25239840

  15. Update from the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, E

    1998-01-01

    Many of the presentations at the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections were prompted by great successes in treating HIV. There are now more than 300 possible drug combinations, and many promising drugs are under development. Results of tests of several drugs, individually and in combination, are presented. Nucleoside analogs, generally in triple combinations, were well tolerated and led to undetectable viral loads. Crixivan is as effective in twice-daily doses as it is in the FDA-mandated three-times-a-day regimen. People with advanced HIV did better when they started with triple combinations with Crixivan, than those with advanced HIV who started on dual therapy or monotherapy. Viracept treatment resulted in undetectable viral loads in up to 92 percent of the participants in a study group. There are several studies underway to test the safety and effectiveness of combinations that include two protease inhibitors. Two experimental drugs, FTC and hydroxyurea (HU), were noted as having strong potential for HIV treatment.

  16. CT demonstration of a 5th ventricle--a finding to KO boxers?

    PubMed

    Macpherson, P; Teasdale, E

    1988-01-01

    The reported prevalence of 5th ventricles based on air studies varies from 1-12% and ranges up to 60% as an autopsy finding. The prevalence of what is usually an incidental anomaly has not been determined by computed tomography (CT). 5th ventricles are however known to be more common in brain damaged boxers and with the introduction of compulsory CT scanning for certain boxers it is necessary to know what significance to attach to the finding of a cavum in these individuals. To ascertain the prevalence and morphology of 5th ventricles as detected by CT in the population, a thousand consecutive scans were analysed for the presence or absence of a 5th ventricle and other associated midline developmental abnormalities and correlations made with any pathology found. A 5th ventricle was present in 5.5% of the group and in most cases was less than 3 mm wide. An apparent association with other pathology was found only in patients under the age of 15. A 6th ventricle was found in 0.5% while a cavum velum interpositum was present in 9.5%. The isolated finding of a small 5th ventricle on the CT scan of a young active boxer almost certainly represents a persistent congenital anomaly of no significance.

  17. Storm Peak Laboratory 5th-6th Grade Climate and Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, I. B.; Hallar, A. G.

    2008-12-01

    science. At the end of the day each student has a data sheet with measurements recorded from 5 locations of different elevations to take back to the classroom. Following the field trip, SPL scientists and educators visit the school for a follow-up to help children grasp concepts, represent their data set collected in graphical formats, answer questions, and evaluate students" learning. Currently, approximately 250 students annually participate in the SPL 5th and 6th grade climate education program.

  18. Fuzzy backward reasoning using fuzzy Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Chen, S M

    2000-01-01

    Chen, Ke and Chang (1990) have presented a fuzzy forward reasoning algorithm for rule-based systems using fuzzy Petri nets. In this paper, we extend the work of Chen, Ke and Chang (1990) to present a fuzzy backward reasoning algorithm for rule-based systems using fuzzy Petri nets, where the fuzzy production rules of a rule-based system are represented by fuzzy Petri nets. The system can perform fuzzy backward reasoning automatically to evaluate the degree of truth of any proposition specified by the user. The fuzzy backward reasoning capability allows the computers to perform reasoning in a more flexible manner and to think more like people.

  19. Freezing Rain Diagnostic Study Over Eastern Canada Using the 5th Generation Canadian Regional Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresson, É.; Paquin, D.; Laprise, R.; Theriault, J. M.; de Elía, R.

    2015-12-01

    Northeastern North America is often affected by freezing rain events during the cold season. They can have significant consequences (from road accidents, to severe power outages) despite their intensity and duration. The 1998 Ice Storm over Eastern Canada and Northeastern United States is an example of an extreme event with catastrophic consequences. A total of up to 150 mm of ice accumulated during 10 days were observed in some areas. This natural disaster has highlighted the need to better understand how such phenomena will evolve with future climate scenario. The goal is to investigate the feasibility of using regional climate modeling to diagnose the occurrence of freezing rain events over Quebec (Canada). To address this issue, we used the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5), from 1979 to 2014. An empirical method (Bourgouin, 2000) developed to determine the type of winter precipitations was chosen to diagnose freezing rain events. The study focused in the Montreal area and the St. Lawrence River Valley (Quebec, Canada). The sensitivity of the model to horizontal resolution was explored by using three resolutions: 0.44°, 0.22° and 0.11°. In general, freezing rain was diagnosed consistently at all resolutions but the higher one (0.11°) produced more realistic results due to a better representation of the orography. Using the higher resolution, the results showed that the climatology of the freezing rain occurrence in the Montreal area is comparable to available observations. It also suggested that the role of the specific orography of the region with the St. Lawrence River Valley can impact the characteristics of freezing rain events in this area. Overall, this study will contribute to a better preparedness for such events in the future. High resolution regional climate simulations are essential to improve the reproduction of local scale orographically-forced phenomena.

  20. Experimental demonstration of a 5th harmonic mm-wave frequency multiplying vacuum tube

    DOE PAGES

    Toufexis, Filippos; Tantawi, Sami G.; Jensen, Aaron; ...

    2017-06-26

    Here, we report the experimental demonstration of a 5th harmonic mm-wave frequency multiplying vacuum electronic device, which uses an over-moded spherical sector output cavity. In this device, a pencil electron beam is helically deflected in a transverse deflecting cavity before entering the output cavity. No magnetic field is required to focus or guide the beam. We built and tested a proof-of-principle device with an output frequency of 57.12 GHz. The measured peak power was 52.67 W at the 5th harmonic of the drive frequency. Power at the 4th, 6th, and 7th harmonics was 33.28 dB lower than that at themore » 5th harmonic.« less

  1. Experimental demonstration of a 5th harmonic mm-wave frequency multiplying vacuum tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toufexis, Filippos; Tantawi, Sami G.; Jensen, Aaron; Dolgashev, Valery A.; Haase, Andrew; Fazio, Michael V.; Borchard, Philipp

    2017-06-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a 5th harmonic mm-wave frequency multiplying vacuum electronic device, which uses an over-moded spherical sector output cavity. In this device, a pencil electron beam is helically deflected in a transverse deflecting cavity before entering the output cavity. No magnetic field is required to focus or guide the beam. We built and tested a proof-of-principle device with an output frequency of 57.12 GHz. The measured peak power was 52.67 W at the 5th harmonic of the drive frequency. Power at the 4th, 6th, and 7th harmonics was 33.28 dB lower than that at the 5th harmonic.

  2. FOREWORD: 5th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourc'h, Eric; Rodet, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific research presented during the 5th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2015 (http://complement.farman.ens-cachan.fr/NCMIP_2015.html). This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 29, 2015. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011, and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012, May 2013 and May 2014. The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, Kernel methods, learning methods

  3. 10. Interior view, working house, scale floor (5th level). View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Interior view, working house, scale floor (5th level). View facing across floor toward no. 2 scale and garner. Tile structure at left center is weighmaster's shack; view facing east. - Saint Anthony Elevator No. 3, 620 Malcom Avenue, Southeast, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  4. How Arizona Compares: Real Numbers and Hot Topics. Policy Choices. 5th Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy is pleased to present "How Arizona Compares: Real Numbers and Hot Topics," the 5th edition of Arizona "Policy Choices." The Arizona "Policy Choices" volumes seek to do more than report. They are designed to assist decision making, stimulate debate, and serve as references. Arizona "Policy Choices" volumes have…

  5. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  6. The 5th World Environmental Education Congress, 2009: A Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob; Sauve, Lucie; Briere, Laurence; Niblett, Blair; Root, Emily

    2010-01-01

    This paper contextualizes the 5th World Environmental Education Congress, discusses the theoretical underpinnings of the Congress theme "Earth Our Common Home," and relates this theorizing to the research project that was woven through the Congress. We provide a rationale for engaging in this research project, as an invitation for…

  7. Successfully Promoting 21st Century Online Research Skills: Interventions in 5th-Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Tara L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.; Tancock, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study was developed to explore the ability to impact elementary student 21st Century online research skills with a planned classroom intervention curriculum. The repeated measures quasi-experimental study randomly assigned all 5th grade classes in a Midwestern, suburban school (n = 418) to a 12-week intervention or control…

  8. 78 FR 53454 - Filing Dates for the Louisiana Special Elections in the 5th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Louisiana Special Elections in the 5th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Louisiana has...

  9. Urban 5th Graders Conceptions during a Place-Based Inquiry Unit on Watersheds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endreny, Anna Henderson

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine how 33 urban 5th grade students' science conceptions changed during a place-based inquiry unit on watersheds. Research on watershed and place-based education was used as a framework to guide the teaching of the unit as well as the research study. A teacher-researcher designed the curriculum, taught the unit and…

  10. The 5th International Conference on Language, Literature and Culture: The Book of Abstracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Language, Literature and Culture has been hosted by Mehmet Akif Ersoy University (Burdur, Turkey), in cooperation with Çankaya University (Ankara, Turkey) and Süleyman Demirel University (Isparta, Turkey). Our main aim has been to provide a forum for discussion, to facilitate integration in these fields, and to…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  12. Socially, Developmentally, and Academically Appropriate Prevention Curriculum for 5th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harthun, Mary L.; Dustman, Patricia A.; Reeves, Leslie J.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a process in which program designers, classroom teachers, and students worked together to adapt the 7th grade "keepin' it REAL" prevention curriculum to a developmentally, socially, and academically appropriate curriculum for 5th graders. A Community-Based Participatory Research methodology (CBPR), combined with a 9-step…

  13. Reflecting on the 5th World Environmental Education Congress, Montreal, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the development of the World Environmental Congress movement and its establishment as an important international forum. Reflecting on the 5th Congress, it notes the particular contribution of the Congress theme, "Our Common Home". Finally, it considers environmental education's place alongside other parallel transformative…

  14. The Effect of Progressive Sentence Development Activities on 5th Graders' Description Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzadayi, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progressive sentence development activities on 5th graders' description skills. The study was conducted based on the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental model with a control group. A total of 58 students participated in the study; 29 in the control group, and 29 in the experimental group. The…

  15. The 5th edition of the Roma-BZCAT. A short presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, E.; Maselli, A.; Leto, C.; Marchegiani, P.; Perri, M.; Giommi, P.; Piranomonte, S.

    2015-05-01

    The 5th edition of the Roma-BZCAT Multifrequency Catalogue of Blazars is available in a printed version and online at the ASDC website (http://www.asdc.asi.it/bzcat); it is also in the NED database. It presents several relevant changes with respect to the past editions which are briefly described in this paper.

  16. Urban 5th Graders Conceptions during a Place-Based Inquiry Unit on Watersheds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endreny, Anna Henderson

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine how 33 urban 5th grade students' science conceptions changed during a place-based inquiry unit on watersheds. Research on watershed and place-based education was used as a framework to guide the teaching of the unit as well as the research study. A teacher-researcher designed the curriculum, taught the unit and…

  17. 9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 5TH FLOOR, INTERIOR DETAIL TO EAST OF SOAP BIN No. 4: UPPER SCREWS MOVED SOAP CHIPS HORIZONTALLY FROM BIN TO BIN; LOWER LEFT-AND RIGHT-HAND SCREWS MOVED CHIPS TO CHUTE LEADING TO 3RD FLOOR SOAP MILLS - Colgate & Company Jersey City Plant, Building No. B-14, 54-58 Grand Street, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  18. The Effect of Progressive Sentence Development Activities on 5th Graders' Description Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzadayi, Ergun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progressive sentence development activities on 5th graders' description skills. The study was conducted based on the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental model with a control group. A total of 58 students participated in the study; 29 in the control group, and 29 in the experimental group. The…

  19. Socially, Developmentally, and Academically Appropriate Prevention Curriculum for 5th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harthun, Mary L.; Dustman, Patricia A.; Reeves, Leslie J.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a process in which program designers, classroom teachers, and students worked together to adapt the 7th grade "keepin' it REAL" prevention curriculum to a developmentally, socially, and academically appropriate curriculum for 5th graders. A Community-Based Participatory Research methodology (CBPR), combined with a 9-step…

  20. [Mediastinal parathyroid adenomas on a 5th ectopic gland. 2 case reports].

    PubMed

    Emy, P; Combe, H; Marchand, J P; Villeneuve, A; Sicre, G; Chadenas, D

    1992-11-01

    Mediastinal parathyroid adenoma located on the 5th ectopic gland is rare. We report here two new cases diagnosed by scintigraphy. In one case the adenoma was found to be located in the mediastinum prior to cervicotomy. The modern imaging methods capable of locating parathyroid adenomas are evaluated.

  1. RTP Speakers Bureau hosts EPA’s 5th Annual Science of Climate Change Workshop

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On June 15-19, 2015, the Speakers Bureau hosted EPA’s 5th Annual Science of Climate Change Workshop in Research Triangle Park, bringing in a group of high-school students eager to learn about the science behind taking action on climate change.

  2. An Investigation of Science and Technology Teachers' Views on the 5th Grade Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasdemir, Ikramettin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the science and technology teachers' views on the implementation of 5th grade science course. Open-ended questions were used as a data collection tool. The study sample consisted of 28 science and technology teachers working in Erzurum in 2012-2013 education year. The data gathered were analysed via content…

  3. Reflecting on the 5th World Environmental Education Congress, Montreal, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob

    2010-01-01

    This article traces the development of the World Environmental Congress movement and its establishment as an important international forum. Reflecting on the 5th Congress, it notes the particular contribution of the Congress theme, "Our Common Home". Finally, it considers environmental education's place alongside other parallel transformative…

  4. Fuzzy jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  5. Fuzzy jets

    DOE PAGES

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; ...

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets . To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets , are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variablesmore » in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.« less

  6. Fuzzy jets

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, Lester; Nachman, Benjamin; Schwartzman, Ariel; Stansbury, Conrad

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets . To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets , are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  7. Cayley Bipolar Fuzzy Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Alshehri, Noura O.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the concept of Cayley bipolar fuzzy graphs and investigate some of their properties. We present some interesting properties of bipolar fuzzy graphs in terms of algebraic structures. We also discuss connectedness in Cayley bipolar fuzzy graphs. PMID:24453797

  8. Anatomic variation of the 5th extensor tendon compartment and extensor digiti minimi tendon.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshikazu; Moran, Steven L; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2007-08-01

    Anatomic variation within the 5th extensor compartment may contribute to the development of tenosynovitis and limit the usefulness of the extensor digiti minimi (EDM) for tendon transfer. The purpose of this study was to assess the anatomic variation of the EDM tendon and its surrounding retinaculum, with particular attention to anatomical variation between specimens. Forty-one fresh cadaver hands were dissected. The length of the 5th compartment retinaculum was noted. The incidence of an intercompartmental septum was noted in each specimen as well as the type of tendinous attachments present between the EDM and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendons. The presence and length of any accessory retinacular bands distal to the edge of proper extensor retinaculum was also noted. Only one specimen contained a single EDM tendon, while 71% (n = 29) of specimens contained two slips and 23% (n = 9) had three slips; 24% (n = 10) of EDC tendons had no slip to the small finger, while 61% (n = 25) of specimens had a single slip to the small finger. The EDC's contribution to the small finger was found to be an independent tendon in 42% of cases (n = 17), while 34% (n = 14) of specimens were found to have a common EDC slip, which branched to both the ring and small finger. Three EDM tendons divided distal to the extensor retinaculum, while the remaining EDM tendons divided beneath or proximal to the extensor retinaculum. Seventy-three percent (n = 30) of the specimens had an accessory retinacular band surrounding the EDM tendon identified at the base of the 5th metacarpal. Eighty-eight percent (n = 36) of hands had a septum between the EDM slips. The surgeon should be aware of variability within the 5th dorsal compartment in cases of trauma and in cases of tendon transfer. In our series 30 of 41 specimens were noted to contain an accessory dorsal retinacular band surrounding the EDM and 36 specimens were noted to contain a septum within the 5th compartment. The presence of an

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Roma BZCAT - 5th edition (Massaro+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, E.; Giommi, P.; Leto, C.; Marchegiani, P.; Maselli, A.; Perri, M.; Piranomonte, S.; Sclavi, S.

    2016-02-01

    In the 5th Edition we use similar denomination of blazars adopted in the previous editions. Each blazar is identified by a code, with 5BZ for all blazars, a fourth letter that specifies the type (B, G, Q or U), followed by the truncated equatorial coordinates (J2000). We introduced the edition number before the letters BZ to avoid possible confusion due to the fact that several sources changed their old names because of the new adopted classification. The codes are defined in the "Note (G1)" below. The 5th edition contains 1151 BZB sources, 92 of which are reported as candidates because we could not find their optical spectra in the literature, 1909 BZQ sources, 274 BZG sources and 227 BZU objects (1 data file).

  10. The Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (Child SCAT5).

    PubMed

    Davis, Gavin A; Purcell, Laura; Schneider, Kathryn J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Gioia, Gerard A; Anderson, Vicki; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Echemendia, Ruben J; Makdissi, Michael; Sills, Allen; Iverson, Grant L; Dvorak, Jiri; McCrory, Paul; Meeuwisse, Willem; Patricios, Jon; Giza, Christopher C; Kutcher, Jeffrey S

    2017-04-26

    This article presents the Child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5th Edition (Child SCAT5). The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool was introduced in 2004, following the 2nd International Conference on Concussion in Sport in Prague, Czech Republic. Following the 4th International Consensus Conference, held in Zurich, Switzerland, in 2012, the SCAT 3rd edition (Child SCAT3) was developed for children aged between 5 and12 years. Research to date was reviewed and synthesised for the 5th International Consensus Conference on Concussion in Sport in Berlin, Germany, leading to the current revision of the test, the Child SCAT5. This article describes the development of the Child SCAT5. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Cycles and Intuitionistic Fuzzy Trees

    PubMed Central

    Alshehri, N. O.

    2014-01-01

    Connectivity has an important role in neural networks, computer network, and clustering. In the design of a network, it is important to analyze connections by the levels. The structural properties of intuitionistic fuzzy graphs provide a tool that allows for the solution of operations research problems. In this paper, we introduce various types of intuitionistic fuzzy bridges, intuitionistic fuzzy cut vertices, intuitionistic fuzzy cycles, and intuitionistic fuzzy trees in intuitionistic fuzzy graphs and investigate some of their interesting properties. Most of these various types are defined in terms of levels. We also describe comparison of these types. PMID:24701155

  12. An 8 x 10 to the 5th bit bubble memory cell for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, F. J.; Murray, G. W.; Bohning, O. D.; Stermer, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A multiple chip magnetic bubble memory cell design developed for NASA embodies the low power, low weight, environmental tolerance and reliability necessary for successful operation in spacecraft launch and mission environments. Packaging of multiple chips in a common magnetic bias, drive coil assembly reduces weight and volume overhead per chip and also reduces the number of coil drive components required. This 8 x 10 to the 5th bit cell is conduction cooled and provides a metal and ceramic sealed hermetic chip environment.

  13. 2005 5th Annual CMMI Technology Conference and User Group. Volume 4: Thursday

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-17

    Business Process Outsourcing • Multi- Supplier environment First Generation : Single Source Second Generation : Multi-Supplier Third Generation ...Norris NGA/IJT; Mail Stop DN-21 12310 Sunrise Valley Dr. Reston, VA 20191 Robert.J.Norris@nga.mil 703-735-3828 Motorola General Business Information...Nowak (Presenter) Don Olexa Marek Rydzy 5th Annual CMMI Technology Conference & User Group Motorola General Business Information

  14. An 8 x 10 to the 5th bit bubble memory cell for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, F. J.; Murray, G. W.; Bohning, O. D.; Stermer, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A multiple chip magnetic bubble memory cell design developed for NASA embodies the low power, low weight, environmental tolerance and reliability necessary for successful operation in spacecraft launch and mission environments. Packaging of multiple chips in a common magnetic bias, drive coil assembly reduces weight and volume overhead per chip and also reduces the number of coil drive components required. This 8 x 10 to the 5th bit cell is conduction cooled and provides a metal and ceramic sealed hermetic chip environment.

  15. Using 5th Force Searches to Place Limits on New Scalars in the Dark Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanninayake, Aruna; Duda, Gintaras

    2011-04-01

    Several dark matter models have been introduced recently that involve new scalar particles. For example, if dark matter decays into a new light boson that is constrained to decay into leptons, the PAMELA positron excess can be explained. This work involves using both historic and modern searches for fifth forces to constrain new dark matter models that introduce new, light, scalar particles. Limits on such models from laboratory 5th force searches will be presented; additionally, astrophysical constraints will be explored.

  16. [The ethical questions raised by the law of July 5th, 2011].

    PubMed

    Mazodier, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The law of 5th July 2011 raises numerous questions relating to care and the procedures for treating patients. Is the purpose of care getting lost in this legislative mosaic? What is the future of the rights of the patients, faced with the world of justice ? The ethical aspect must be questioned and must bring together multi-professional reflections for the benefit of the care projects.

  17. Spelling performance of 2nd to 5th grade students from public school.

    PubMed

    Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Amaral, Amanda Corrêa do; Oliveira, Andrea Batista; Sampaio, Maria Nobre; Fusco, Natália; Cervera-Mérida, José Francisco; Ygual-Fernández, Amparo

    2011-09-01

    To characterize, compare and classify the performance of 2nd to 5th grade students from public schools according to the semiology of spelling errors. Participants were 120 students from 2nd to 5th grades of a public school in Marília (SP), Brazil, 30 students from each grade, who were divided into four groups: GI (2nd grade), GII (3rd grade), GIII (4th grade), and GIV (5th grade). The tasks of the Pro-Ortografia test were applied: collective version (writing of alphabet letters, randomized dictation of letters, words dictation, nonwords dictation, dictation with pictures, thematic writing induced by picture) and individual version (dictation of sentences, purposeful error, spelled dictation, orthographic lexical memory). Significant difference was found in the between-group comparison indicating better performance of students in every subsequent grade in most of the individual and collective version tasks. With the increase of grade level, the groups decreased the average of writing errors. The profile of spelling acquisition of the Portuguese writing system found in these public school students indicates normal writing development in this population.

  18. Measuring Listening Comprehension Skills of 5th Grade School Students with the Help of Web Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acat, M. Bahaddin; Demiral, Hilmi; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to measure listening comprehension skills of 5th grade school students with the help of web based system. This study was conducted on 5th grade students studying at the primary schools of Eskisehir. The scale used in the process of the study is "Web Based Listening Scale". In the process of the study,…

  19. Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, "keepin' it REAL" ("kiR"), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th,…

  20. Analysis of CXCR5(+)Th17 cells in relation to disease activity and TNF inhibitor therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepika; Henkel, Matthew; Sendon, Bernadette; Feng, June; Fabio, Anthony; Metes, Diana; Moreland, Larry W; McGeachy, Mandy J

    2016-12-22

    Th17 and TfH cells are thought to promote tissue inflammation and autoantibody production, respectively, in autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TfH cells that co-express Th17 markers (CXCR5(+)Th17) encompass both of these pathogenic functions, and are increased in some human autoimmune settings including juvenile dermatomyositis. We investigated CXCR5(+)Th17 cells in RA subjects with stable or active disease and before and after TNF inhibitor therapy. CXCR5(+)Th17 cell frequency was increased in RA compared to healthy controls, but other helper T cell subsets were not different. CXCR5(+)Th17 cells correlated with disease activity in subjects with active RA prior to initiation of TNF inhibitor therapy. Baseline CXCR5(+)Th17 cells also correlated with numbers of swollen joints as late as one year post-therapy. CXCR5(+)Th17 cell frequencies were unaltered by TNF blockade and in fact remained remarkably stable within individuals. We conclude that CXCR5(+)Th17 cells are not a direct target of TNF blockade and therefore cannot serve as a biomarker of current disease activity. However, basal CXCR5(+)Th17 cell frequency may indicate underlying differences in disease phenotype between patients and predict ultimate success of TNF inhibitor therapy.

  1. Analysis of CXCR5+Th17 cells in relation to disease activity and TNF inhibitor therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deepika; Henkel, Matthew; Sendon, Bernadette; Feng, June; Fabio, Anthony; Metes, Diana; Moreland, Larry W.; McGeachy, Mandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Th17 and TfH cells are thought to promote tissue inflammation and autoantibody production, respectively, in autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). TfH cells that co-express Th17 markers (CXCR5+Th17) encompass both of these pathogenic functions, and are increased in some human autoimmune settings including juvenile dermatomyositis. We investigated CXCR5+Th17 cells in RA subjects with stable or active disease and before and after TNF inhibitor therapy. CXCR5+Th17 cell frequency was increased in RA compared to healthy controls, but other helper T cell subsets were not different. CXCR5+Th17 cells correlated with disease activity in subjects with active RA prior to initiation of TNF inhibitor therapy. Baseline CXCR5+Th17 cells also correlated with numbers of swollen joints as late as one year post-therapy. CXCR5+Th17 cell frequencies were unaltered by TNF blockade and in fact remained remarkably stable within individuals. We conclude that CXCR5+Th17 cells are not a direct target of TNF blockade and therefore cannot serve as a biomarker of current disease activity. However, basal CXCR5+Th17 cell frequency may indicate underlying differences in disease phenotype between patients and predict ultimate success of TNF inhibitor therapy. PMID:28004828

  2. Effects of the 5th and 7th Grade Enhanced Versions of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, "keepin' it REAL" ("kiR"), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th,…

  3. Effects of the 5th and 7th grade enhanced versions of the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A; Hecht, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the outcomes of adapting the culturally-grounded, middle school, substance-use prevention intervention, keepin ' it REAL (kiR), to target elementary school students and to address acculturation. At the beginning of 5th grade, 29 schools were randomly assigned to conditions obtained by crossing grade of implementation (5th, 7th, 5th + 7th, and control/comparison) by curriculum version [kiR-Plus vs. kiR-Acculturation Enhanced (AE)]. Students (n = 1984) completed 6 assessments through the end of 8th grade. The kiR curricula generally appear no more effective than the comparison schools' programming. Students receiving either version of the kiR intervention in only the 5th grade report greater increases in substance use than did control students. Receiving the kiR-AE version twice (both 5th and 7th grades) has benefits over receiving it once.

  4. PREFACE: 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics (Hadron 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti Roy, Bidyut; Chatterjee, A.; Kailas, S.

    2012-07-01

    The 5th DAE-BRNS Workshop on Hadron Physics was held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai from 31 October to 4 November 2011. This workshop series, supported by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy (BRNS, DAE), Govt. of India, began ten years ago with the first one being held at BARC, Mumbai in October 2002. The second one was held at Puri in 2005, organized jointly by Institute of Physics, Bhubneswar and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata. The 3rd and 4th ones took place, respectively, at Shantineketan in 2006, organized by Visva Bharati University, and at Aligarh in 2008, organized by Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. The aim of the present workshop was to bring together the experts and young researchers in the field of hadron physics (both experiment and theory) and to have in-depth discussions on the current research activities in this field. The format of the workshop was: a series of review lectures by various experts from India and abroad, the presentation of advanced research results by researchers in the field, and a review of major experimental programs being planned and pursued in major laboratories in the field of hadron physics, with the aim of providing a platform for the young participants for interaction with their peers. The upcoming international FAIR facility at GSI is a unique future facility for studies of hadron physics in the charm sector and hyper nuclear physics. The Indian hadron physics community is involved in this mega science project and is working with the PANDA collaboration on the development of detectors, simulation and software tools for the hadron physics programme with antiprotons at FAIR. A one-day discussion session was held at this workshop to discuss India-PANDA activities, the current collaboration status and the work plan. This volume presents the workshop proceedings consisting of lectures and seminars which were delivered during the workshop. We are thankful to

  5. Measuring Pain as the 5th Vital Sign Does Not Improve Quality of Pain Management

    PubMed Central

    Mularski, Richard A; White-Chu, Foy; Overbay, Devorah; Miller, Lois; Asch, Steven M; Ganzini, Linda

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND To improve pain management, the Veterans Health Administration launched the “Pain as the 5th Vital Sign” initiative in 1999, requiring a pain intensity rating (0 to 10) at all clinical encounters. OBJECTIVE To measure the initiative's impact on the quality of pain management. DESIGN We retrospectively reviewed medical records at a single medical center to compare providers' pain management before and after implementing the initiative and performed a subgroup analysis of patients reporting substantial pain (≥4) during a postimplementation visit. PARTICIPANTS Unique patient visits selected from all 15 primary care providers of a general medicine outpatient clinic. MEASUREMENTS We used 7 process indicators of quality pain management, based on appropriately evaluating and treating pain, to assess 300 randomly selected visits before and 300 visits after implementing the pain initiative. RESULTS The quality of pain care was unchanged between visits before and after the pain initiative (P >.05 for all comparisons): subjective provider assessment (49.3% before, 48.7% after), pain exam (26.3%, 26.0%), orders to assess pain (11.7%, 8.3%), new analgesic (8.7%, 11.0%), change in existing analgesics (6.7%, 4.3%), other pain treatment (11.7%, 13.7%), or follow-up plans (10.0%, 8.7%). Patients (n =79) who reported substantial pain often did not receive recommended care: 22% had no attention to pain documented in the medical record, 27% had no further assessment documented, and 52% received no new therapy for pain at that visit. CONCLUSIONS Routinely measuring pain by the 5th vital sign did not increase the quality of pain management. Patients with substantial pain documented by the 5th vital sign often had inadequate pain management. PMID:16808744

  6. Indoor Air '90: the 5th in a series of international conferences on the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Walkinshaw, D

    1992-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate: INDOOR AIR '90 continued a series of international scientific conferences begun in 1978 on a complex, interdisciplinary subject increasingly recognized to be of importance to human comfort, health and productivity, and having important implications for building design and furnishing, office equipment, appliances, cleaning, heating, ventilating, humidifying and air-conditioning. INDOOR AIR '90 constituted a week long program of 542 paper and poster presentations and forum discussions, 100 exhibits, and a public forum. This paper summarizes some of the highlights of this conference and links these to some of the studies reported at earlier INDOOR AIR Conference.

  7. Selected highlights on women and HIV from the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.

    PubMed

    Bartnof, H S

    1998-04-01

    Many sessions at the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections dealt specifically with HIV infection and treatment in women. Highlights are presented from several sessions, including indinavir blood levels at various points in the menstrual cycle, abnormal kidney function associated with women taking indinavir, abnormal pap smears in women with high viral load, the relationship between viral load and the increased risk of death in women, and the impact of ddI crossing the placenta in pregnant women. Information is given on each presentation, including clinical trial results, side effects, and impacts on disease progression.

  8. A Social Medium: ASM's 5th Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria Meeting in Review

    PubMed Central

    Federle, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The 5th American Society for Microbiology Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria (CCCB-5), which convened from 18 to 21 October 2014 in San Antonio, TX, highlighted recent advances in our understanding of microbial intercellular signaling. While the CCCB meetings arose from interests in pheromone signaling and quorum sensing, it was evident at CCCB-5 that the cell-cell communication field is continuing to mature, expanding into new areas and integrating cutting-edge technologies. In this minireview, we recap some of the research discussed at CCCB-5 and the questions that have arisen from it. PMID:25917904

  9. Selected highlights from the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.

    PubMed

    Bartnof, H S

    1998-04-01

    The 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections included 837 abstracts and oral presentations on clinical and basic science aspects of HIV. A major theme of the conference was the effectiveness of newer anti-HIV therapies, and there were many sessions dealing with combination treatments, including six-drug treatments. Results of studies with several drugs, including abacavir, efavirenz, amprenavir, PMPA Prodrug, adefovir dipivoxil, hydroxyurea, and protease inhibitors in several combinations are summarized. Treatments for opportunistic infections, including MAC, CMV retinitis, herpesvirus, and tuberculosis, are also presented.

  10. Fuzzy associative memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1991-01-01

    Mappings between fuzzy cubes are discussed. This level of abstraction provides a surprising and fruitful alternative to the propositional and predicate-calculas reasoning techniques used in expert systems. It allows one to reason with sets instead of propositions. Discussed here are fuzzy and neural function estimators, neural vs. fuzzy representation of structured knowledge, fuzzy vector-matrix multiplication, and fuzzy associative memory (FAM) system architecture.

  11. Universal Approximation of Mamdani Fuzzy Controllers and Fuzzy Logical Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Bo; Klir, George J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we first distinguish two types of fuzzy controllers, Mamdani fuzzy controllers and fuzzy logical controllers. Mamdani fuzzy controllers are based on the idea of interpolation while fuzzy logical controllers are based on fuzzy logic in its narrow sense, i.e., fuzzy propositional logic. The two types of fuzzy controllers treat IF-THEN rules differently. In Mamdani fuzzy controllers, rules are treated disjunctively. In fuzzy logic controllers, rules are treated conjunctively. Finally, we provide a unified proof of the property of universal approximation for both types of fuzzy controllers.

  12. EDITORIAL: 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters 'Best article' prize for the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Dan; Wright, Guillaume

    2011-12-01

    To celebrate the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) the publishers of the journal, IOP Publishing, have awarded a prize for the five best articles published in ERL since the journal began in 2006. The procedure for deciding the winning articles was as thorough as possible to ensure that the most outstanding articles would win the prize. A shortlist of 25 nominated research articles, five for each year since ERL was launched, which were chosen based on a range of criteria including novelty, scientific impact, readership, broad appeal and wider media coverage, was selected. The ERL Editorial Board then assessed and rated these 25 articles in order to choose a winning article for each year. We would like to announce that the following articles have been awarded ERL's 5th anniversary best article prize: 2006/7 The Bodélé depression: a single spot in the Sahara that provides most of the mineral dust to the Amazon forest Ilan Koren, Yoram J Kaufman, Richard Washington, Martin C Todd, Yinon Rudich, J Vanderlei Martins and Daniel Rosenfeld 2006 Environ. Res. Lett. 1 014005 2008 Causes and impacts of the 2005 Amazon drought Ning Zeng, Jin-Ho Yoon, Jose A Marengo, Ajit Subramaniam, Carlos A Nobre, Annarita Mariotti and J David Neelin 2008 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 014002 2009 How difficult is it to recover from dangerous levels of global warming? J A Lowe, C Huntingford, S C B Raper, C D Jones, S K Liddicoat and L K Gohar 2009 Environ. Res. Lett. 4 014012 2010 Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia Matti Kummu, Philip J Ward, Hans de Moel and Olli Varis 2010 Environ. Res. Lett. 5 034006 2011 Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas Jukka Heinonen and Seppo Junnila 2011 Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014018 Our congratulations go to these authors. In recognition of their outstanding work, we are delighted to offer all of the authors of the winning articles free

  13. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Lehrman, Nathan J; Hansen, Lee D

    2014-05-01

    The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has been established in aquatic insect larvae, but OCLTT has not been shown to generally apply to terrestrial insects. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling diapausing codling moth, a quarantine pest in walnuts, but treatment requires long times and the killing mechanism is unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on metabolism in diapausing 5th instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was investigated with multi-channel differential scanning calorimeters, one equipped with an oxygen sensor. O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates in air were measured simultaneously at isothermal temperatures from 5 to 50°C at 5°C intervals. Both rates increased with increasing temperatures from 5 to 40°C. The ratio of metabolic heat rate to O2 consumption rate at temperatures ≤40°C shows that a portion of the metabolic heat is from normal anabolic reactions of metabolism. At 45 and 50°C in air, O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates dropped to near zero. These results indicate that treatment of walnuts in air at >45°C for a short period of time (minutes) is effective in killing diapausing 5th instar codling moth larvae. Continuous heating scans at 0.4°C/min were used to measure metabolic heat rates from 10 to 50°C with air and modified atmospheres with lowered oxygen and high carbon dioxide. A rapid increase was observed in heat rates above 40°C in scans with O2≥11%. Taken together with the isothermal results showing no metabolic heat production or oxygen uptake at 45 and 50°C, these results demonstrate that thermal damage to cell membranes and loss of control of oxidation reactions is the lethal mechanism at high temperature when O2≥11%. The data from scans with O2≤2% and high CO2 show the effects of oxygen limitation as postulated by

  14. The 5th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress in Berlin: a personal perspective

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The 5th annual European League Against Rheumatism congress, held in Berlin, 9–12 June 2004, was attended by a record number of delegates from all continents and offered a large choice of education, state-of-the-art and original research presentations in up to 15 parallel sessions. Some of these were poorly attended, although featuring top-ranked abstracts. The poster sessions remain a problem child. They were not well attended by viewers and largely neglected by presenters, mainly because of the general structure of the meeting. Ways to improve this could be to provide lunch packages and to appoint poster session chairmen. Other changes would involve moving morning hour satellites to other slots. However, in general it was an enjoyable meeting showing important progress in various fields of rheumatology and meeting the expectations of most delegates.

  15. Highlights from the 5th Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Virology.

    PubMed

    Salata, Cristiano; Calistri, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio

    2006-07-01

    The 5th National Congress of the Italian Society of Virology (SIV) was attended by junior- and senior-level virologists to promote interactions and scientific collaborations among the different areas of Virology and allied sciences. The invited and selected lecturers covered the following topics: General Virology and Viral Genetics; Virus-host Interaction and Pathogenesis; Viral Oncogenesis; Viral Immunology and Vaccines; Anti-viral Therapy; Innovative Diagnostics; Viral Biotechnologies and Cell and Gene Therapy. As in the previous editions (Salata and Palù, 2004; Salata et al., 2005), a specific topic was thoroughly covered in a roundtable. This year the elected subject was "HIV: determinants of pathogenicity and clinical implications." The final program and the abstract book can be found at the web site http://www.siv-virologia.it. This report summarizes the lessons learned from the plenary lectures and the selected oral presentations of the 2005 meeting.

  16. Recurrent Idiopathic Catatonia: Implications beyond the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition.

    PubMed

    Caroff, Stanley N; Hurford, Irene; Bleier, Henry R; Gorton, Gregg E; Campbell, E Cabrina

    2015-08-31

    We describe a case of recurrent, life-threatening, catatonic stupor, without evidence of any associated medical, toxic or mental disorder. This case provides support for the inclusion of a separate category of "unspecified catatonia" in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) to be used to classify idiopathic cases, which appears to be consistent with Kahlbaum's concept of catatonia as a distinct disease state. But beyond the limited, cross-sectional, syndromal approach adopted in DSM-5, this case more importantly illustrates the prognostic and therapeutic significance of the longitudinal course of illness in differentiating cases of catatonia, which is better defined in the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard classification system. The importance of differentiating cases of catatonia is further supported by the efficacy of antipsychotics in treatment of this case, contrary to conventional guidelines.

  17. 5th Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference: Individualized Therapy and Patient Factors.

    PubMed

    McGee, J; Bookman, M; Harter, P; Marth, C; McNeish, I; Moore, K N; Poveda, A; Hilpert, F; Hasegawa, K; Bacon, M; Gatsonis, C; Brand, A; Kridelka, F; Berek, J; Ottevanger, N; Levy, T; Silverberg, S; Kim, B-G; Hirte, H; Okamoto, A; Stuart, G; Ochiai, K

    2017-01-24

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements regarding the design and conduct of clinical trials in patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), following deliberation at the 5th Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC), held in Tokyo in November 2015. Three important questions were identified for discussion prior to the meeting and achieved consensus during the meeting: 1) What are the most important factors to be evaluated prior to initial therapy? 2) What are the most important factors to be evaluated specifically in recurrent disease? 3) Are there specific considerations for special patient subpopulations? In addition, we report a list of important unmet needs compiled during the consensus process, which is intended to guide future research initiatives.

  18. Limb flares measurement from Langkawi National Observatory on 5th January 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, F.; Tahar, M. R.; Saibaka, N. R.

    2017-05-01

    Sun is the source of energy and has a lot of activity that will be influence the Earth. One of the solar activities is the limb flare or prominence. It release energy and expel outward the Sun surface. Langkawi National Observatory (LNO) had started photographic solar activity in Hα since 2008. LNO used the dedicated solar telescope to monitor and observed the solar activity daily. In 5th January 2016, LNO captured one limb flare at the south-west position of the Sun. The maximum height of the limb flare is 267,347 km and it increase gradually build up the velocity. Luckily, this eruption does not facing and directed towards Earth so there was no significant impact.

  19. Save life and improve quality: report from the 5th Congress of International Society for Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Chun; Lim, Lee-Moay; Chang, Jer-Ming; Misra, Madhukar

    2014-01-01

    The 5th congress of International Society for Hemodialysis took place last August 3-5, 2012 at the Grand Hotel in Taipei and focused on "Save Life and Improve Quality." It attracted a total of 927 participants from 18 countries. The full spectrum of hemodialysis was covered with plenary lectures and symposiums delivered by experts from different subspecialties in nephrology starting from the history of hemodialysis, mineral bone disease, microinflammation and advanced techniques in hemodialysis. It was followed by critical care in nephrology, anemia, and nutrition in dialysis. Last but not the least, natural disasters and medical economics in hemodialysis were also discussed extensively. This special article will highlight the authentic contributions and innovative clinical presentations from the meeting. © 2013 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  20. Exciting new developments at the 5th International Symposium on Surface and Interface of Biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Grøndahl, Lisbeth; Kingshott, Peter; Griesser, Hans J

    2015-12-17

    Materials intended for use as implantable or diagnostic devices are required not only to display the required functional bulk properties but also have surface properties that elicit a desired biological response, and do so with high selectivity. The area of surface functionalization approaches and bioactive coatings for biomaterials and biomedical devices has been the subject of much research over several decades; yet, many challenges still remain to be solved. The 5th International Symposium on Surface and Interface of Biomaterials (ISSIB) held in Sydney (Australia) in April 2015 was an ideal forum to discuss the most recent developments in biomaterial surface modification, characterization, and evaluation of biological responses. The conference covered a range of topics including antimicrobial coatings, analysis of biomaterial surfaces and interfaces, biomolecules and cells at surfaces and interfaces, nanoparticles, functional coatings, patterned biomaterials, nanofabrication, bioreactors, and biosensors. In this special conference issue, the authors include papers that detail some of the highlights from the meeting.

  1. Chicago hope: an update from the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.

    PubMed

    Rochon, D; Simmons, P; Coppedge, B; Schouten, J

    1998-02-01

    The 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections is a research meeting jointly sponsored by the Foundation for Retrovirology and Human Health, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Selected conference summaries are presented, prepared by several treatment experts for RITA. A keynote presentation by Dr. Ashley Haase covered data showing that HIV resides in lymph nodes after HAART, and another by Dr. David Baltimore addressed the challenges of developing an HIV vaccine. Other sessions dealt with monitoring and mandatory reporting to track the epidemic, antiretroviral chemotherapy, immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection, chemokine receptors, AIDS-related malignancies, using and maintaining protease inhibitor therapy, and viral load predictors among severely infected individuals.

  2. Genomics into Healthcare: the 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics Conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium.

    PubMed

    Fortina, Paolo; Al Khaja, Najib; Al Ali, Mahmoud Taleb; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Nair, Pratibha; Innocenti, Federico; Patrinos, George P; Kricka, Larry J

    2014-05-01

    The joint 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium, "Genomics into Healthcare" was coorganized by the Center for Arab Genomic Studies (http://www.cags.org.ae) in collaboration with the Golden Helix Foundation (http://www.goldenhelix.org) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates from 17 to 19 November, 2013. The meeting was attended by over 900 participants, doctors and biomedical students from over 50 countries and was organized into a series of nine themed sessions that covered cancer genomics and epigenetics, genomic and epigenetic studies, genomics of blood and metabolic disorders, cytogenetic diagnosis and molecular profiling, next-generation sequencing, consanguinity and hereditary diseases, clinical genomics, clinical applications of pharmacogenomics, and genomics in public health. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. Proceedings of the 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Leigh, Christi; Stein, Walter; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Von Berlepsche, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    The 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Santa Fe New Mexico September 8-10, 2014. The forty seven registered participants were equally divided between the United States (US) and Germany, with one participant from The Netherlands. The agenda for the 2014 workshop was under development immediately upon finishing the 4th Workshop. Ongoing, fundamental topics such as thermomechanical behavior of salt, plugging and sealing, the safety case, and performance assessment continue to advance the basis for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt formations. The utility of a salt underground research laboratory (URL) remains an intriguing concept engendering discussion of testing protocol. By far the most interest in this years’ workshop pertained to operational safety. Given events at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this discussion took on a new sense of relevance and urgency.

  4. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, James R; Averill, Frank; Cooper, Valentino R

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  5. Genomics into Healthcare: The 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics Conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Fortina, Paolo; AlKhaja, Najib; Al Ali, Mahmoud Taleb; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Nair, Pratibha; Innocenti, Federico; Patrinos, George P.; Kricka, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The joint 5th Pan Arab Human Genetics conference and 2013 Golden Helix Symposium, “Genomics into Healthcare” was coorganized by the Center for Arab Genomic Studies (http://www.cags.org.ae) in collaboration with the Golden Helix Foundation (http://www.goldenhelix.org) in Dubai, United Arab Emirates from 17 to 19 November, 2013. The meeting was attended by over 900 participants, doctors and biomedical students from over 50 countries and was organized into a series of nine themed sessions that covered cancer genomics and epigenetics, genomic and epigenetic studies, genomics of blood and metabolic disorders, cytogenetic diagnosis and molecular profiling, next-generation sequencing, consanguinity and hereditary diseases, clinical genomics, clinical applications of pharmacogenomics, and genomics in public health. PMID:24526565

  6. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadella, M.; Izquierdo, J. M.; Kuru, S.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    This special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical appears on the occasion of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, from 22-28 July 2007. This is the fith in a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3; and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields of theoretical physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in theoretical physics, as a way of making accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. This is based on the feeling that it is good for a physicist to have a general overview as well as expertise in his/her own field. There are many other conferences devoted to specific topics, which are of interest to gain deeper insight in many technical aspects and that are quite suitable for discussions due to their small size. However, we believe that general conferences like this are interesting and worth keeping. We like the talks, in both plenary and parallel sessions, which are devoted to specific topics, to be prepared so as to be accessible to any researcher in any branch of theoretical physics. We think that this objective is compatible with rigour and high standards. As is well known, similar methods and techniques can be useful for many problems in different fields. We hope that this has been appreciated during the sessions of the QTS5 conference. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: 1. Symmetries in string theory, quantum gravity and related topics 2. Symmetries in quantum field theories, conformal and related field theories, lattice and noncommutative theories, gauge theories 3.Quantum computing, information and control 4. Foundations of quantum theory 5. Quantum optics, coherent states, Wigner functions 6. Dynamical and

  7. PREFACE: The 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, O.; Calzada, J. A.; Gómez-Cubillo, F.; Negro, J.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium in Quantum Theory and Symmetries (QTS5), held in Valladolid, Spain, 22-28 July 2007. This is the fifth of a series of conferences previously held in Goslar (Germany) 1999, QTS1; Cracow (Poland) 2001, QTS2; Cincinnati (USA) 2003, QTS3, and Varna (Bulgaria) 2005, QTS4. The QTS5 symposium gathered 181 participants from 39 countries working in different fields on Theoretical Physics. The spirit of the QTS conference series is to join researchers in a wide variety of topics in Theoretical Physics, as a way to make accessible recent results and the new lines of different fields. The QTS5 conference offered the following list of topics: Symmetries in String Theory, Quantum Gravity and related Symmetries in Quantum Field Theories, Conformal and Related Field Theories, Lattice and Noncommutative Theories, Gauge Theories Quantum Computing, Information and Control Foundations of Quantum Theory Quantum Optics, Coherent States, Wigner Functions Dynamical and Integrable Systems Symmetries in Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics Symmetries in Particle Physics, Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Nonlinear Quantum Mechanics Time Asymmetric Quantum Mechanics SUSY Quantum Mechanics, PT symmetries and pseudo-Hamiltonians Mathematical Methods for Symmetries and Quantum Theories Symmetries in Chemistry Biology and other Sciences Papers accepted for publication in the present issue are based on the contributions from the participants in the QTS5 conference after a peer review process. In addition, a special issue of Journal Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical contains contributions from plenary speakers, some participants as well as contributions from other authors whose works fit into the topics of the conference. The organization of the conference had the following pattern. In the morning there were five plenary or general sessions for all the participants, which aimed to

  8. Electromyography-based analysis of human upper limbs during 45-day head-down bed-rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Anshuang; Wang, Chunhui; Qi, Hongzhi; Li, Fan; Wang, Zheng; He, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Chen, Shanguang; Ming, Dong

    2016-03-01

    Muscle deconditioning occurs in response to simulated or actual microgravity. In spaceflight, astronauts become monkey-like for mainly using their upper limbs to control the operating system and to complete corresponding tasks. The changes of upper limbs' athletic ability will directly affect astronauts' working performance. This study investigated the variation trend of surface electromyography (sEMG) during prolonged simulated microgravity. Eight healthy males participating in this study performed strict 45-day head-down bed-rest (HDBR). On the 5th day of pre-HDBR, and the 15th, the 30th and the 45th days of HDBR, the subjects performed maximum pushing task and maximum pulling task, and sEMG was collected from upper limbs synchronously. Each subject's maximum volunteer contractions of both the tasks during these days were compared, showing no significant change. However, changes were detected by sEMG-based analysis. It was found that integrated EMG, root mean square, mean frequency, fuzzy entropy of deltoid, and fuzzy entropy of triceps brachii changed significantly when comparing pre-HDBR with HDBR. The variation trend showed a recovery tendency after significant decline, which is inconsistent with the monotonic variation of lower limbs that was proved by previous research. These findings suggest that EMG changes in upper limbs during prolonged simulated microgravity, but has different variation trend from lower limbs.

  9. Fuzzy logic controller optimization

    DOEpatents

    Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael

    2004-03-23

    A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.

  10. Multiple Instance Fuzzy Inference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-02

    Zhang, Xin Chen, and Wei-Bang Chen, “An online multiple instance learn - ing system for semantic image retrieval,” in Multimedia Workshops, 2007. ISMW...INFERENCE A novel fuzzy learning framework that employs fuzzy inference to solve the problem of multiple instance learning (MIL) is presented. The...fuzzy learning framework that employs fuzzy inference to solve the problem of multiple instance learning (MIL) is presented. The framework introduces a

  11. Adaptive hierarchical fuzzy controller

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, G.V.S.; Jun Zhou

    1993-07-01

    A methodology for designing adaptive hierarchical fuzzy controllers is presented. In order to evaluate this concept, several suitable performance indices were developed and converted to linguistic fuzzy variables. Based on those variables, a supervisory fuzzy rule set was constructed and used to change the parameters of a hierarchical fuzzy controller to accommodate the variations of system parameters. The proposed algorithm was used in feedwater flow control to a steam generator. Simulation studies are presented that illustrate the effectiveness of the approach

  12. Fuzzy Logic Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna

    2005-01-01

    The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.

  13. Advances in fuzzy theory.

    PubMed

    Sadegh-Zadeh, K

    1999-03-01

    Recent advances in the foundations of fuzzy theory facilitated by Bart Kosko's discovery of the fuzzy hypercube are of high relevance to artificial intelligence in medicine research. The new concepts of set inclusion, equality, and similarity are therefore reported in this paper. A unifying notion of a Lotfi Zadeh space is also introduced to show that Bart Kosko's fuzzy hypercube is a Zadeh space.

  14. Applications of fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect

    Zargham, M.R.

    1995-06-01

    Recently, fuzzy logic has been applied to many areas, such as process control, image understanding, robots, expert systems, and decision support systems. This paper will explain the basic concepts of fuzzy logic and its application in different fields. The steps to design a control system will be explained in detail. Fuzzy control is the first successful industrial application of fuzzy logic. A fuzzy controller is able to control systems which previously could only be controlled by skilled operators. In recent years Japan has achieved significant progress in this area and has applied it to variety of products such as cruise control for cars, video cameras, rice cookers, washing machines, etc.

  15. Recurrent fuzzy ranking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh

    2012-11-01

    With the increasing development of fuzzy set theory in various scientific fields and the need to compare fuzzy numbers in different areas. Therefore, Ranking of fuzzy numbers plays a very important role in linguistic decision-making, engineering, business and some other fuzzy application systems. Several strategies have been proposed for ranking of fuzzy numbers. Each of these techniques has been shown to produce non-intuitive results in certain case. In this paper, we reviewed some recent ranking methods, which will be useful for the researchers who are interested in this area.

  16. Health care and informatics: on IMIA's opportunities and responsibilities in its 5th decade.

    PubMed

    Haux, Reinhold

    2008-01-01

    To report about major past and future activities of IMIA, the International Medical Informatics Association. Summarizing discussions and planning activities within IMIA, in particular with respect to its Board and General Assembly meetings in 2007; looking at recent informatics evolution by commenting on IMIA Yearbook surveys and best paper selections. Major recent IMIA activities include Medinfo 2007, finalizing its long-term strategic plan 'Towards IMIA 2015', and the reinforcement of IMIA's collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics, published annually since 1992, can be regarded as an important observatory for progress in health and biomedical informatics. Future activities comprise implementing IMIA's strategic plan, reshaping its portfolio of conferences, preparing Medinfo 2010, in addition to continuing to support and enable collaborative international exchange of research and education and bridging to the practice of health and biomedical informatics. Informatics has emerged as an increasingly important field for health care and for the health and biomedical sciences. Within the last 40 years IMIA has evolved to a truly global organization, in a world, where medical informatics has gained significant importance for high-quality, efficient health care and for research in biomedicine and in the health sciences. Now in its 5th decade, IMIA's responsibilities as well as opportunities as a global, independent organization have both increased.

  17. The 5th Symposium on Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Gene Expression (PTRoPGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Karen S. Browning; Marie Petrocek; Bonnie Bartel

    2006-06-01

    The 5th Symposium on Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Plant Gene Expression (PTRoPGE) will be held June 8-12, 2005 at the University of Texas at Austin. Exciting new and ongoing discoveries show significant regulation of gene expression occurs after transcription. These post-transcriptional control events in plants range from subtle regulation of transcribed genes and phosphorylation, to the processes of gene regulation through small RNAs. This meeting will focus on the regulatory role of RNA, from transcription, through translation and finally degradation. The cross-disciplinary design of this meeting is necessary to encourage interactions between researchers that have a common interest in post-transcriptional gene expression in plants. By bringing together a diverse group of plant molecular biologist and biochemists at all careers stages from across the world, this meeting will bring about more rapid progress in understanding how plant genomes work and how genes are finely regulated by post-transcriptional processes to ultimately regulate cells.

  18. Design and test of 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong-wei; Zhou, Hong-bin; Lin, Yong-gang; Li, Wei; Gu, Hai-gang

    2016-06-01

    Tidal current energy is prominent and renewable. Great progress has been made in the exploitation technology of tidal current energy all over the world in recent years, and the large scale device has become the trend of tidal current turbine (TCT) for its economies. Instead of the similarity to the wind turbine, the tidal turbine has the characteristics of high hydrodynamic efficiency, big thrust, reliable sealing system, tight power transmission structure, etc. In this paper, a 1/5th scale horizontal axis tidal current turbine has been designed, manufactured and tested before the full scale device design. Firstly, the three-blade horizontal axis rotor was designed based on traditional blade element momentum theory and its hydrodynamic performance was predicted in numerical model. Then the power train system and stand-alone electrical control unit of tidal current turbine, whose performances were accessed through the bench test carried out in workshop, were designed and presented. Finally, offshore tests were carried out and the power performance of the rotor was obtained and compared with the published literatures, and the results showed that the power coefficient was satisfactory, which agrees with the theoretical predictions.

  19. Numerical Fluid Dynamics Symposium, 5th, Tokyo, Japan, Dec. 19-21, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    Various papers on numerical fluid dynamics are presented. Individual topics discussed include: numerical analysis (NA) of shock structure problems, CFD development and a future high-speed computer, simulating vortex motion by 3D method, application of CFD to turbomachine design, numerical simulation (NS) of converging shock waves, NS of unsteady 3D shock wave phenomenon, 5th-order accurate compact upwind scheme, development of a multidimensional upwind scheme, fortified solution algorithm, large-eddy simulation of a bound jet, construction of collision model of diatomic molecules, VSL analysis of nonequilibrium flows around a hypersonic body, NA of chemically nonequilibrium flow, topological transition of flow past some axisymmetric bodies, modeling of scalar transport in free turbulence, a contribution to general application of the vortex method. Also addressed are: vortex simulation of artificial control of mixing layers, 3D motion of vortex filaments, Navier-Stokes simulation of 2D mixing layer, active control of vortex shedding frequency by a jet, direct NS of homogeneous turbulent sheer flow, NA of fuel spray jet by Eulerian method, NS of ignition using a premixed pulsed jet, NS of a scram jet combustor flow, numerical simulation of supersonic flow CO chemical laser, adaptive grid generation using optimal control theory, NS of characteristics of the Stalker tube, imcompressible flow solver using velocity vector and a new variable, unsteady analysis of helicopter rotor.

  20. Classes of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in 5th Grade Children

    PubMed Central

    Dowda, Marsha; Dishman, Rod K; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify classes of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) in 5th grade children, associated factors, and trajectories of change into 7th grade. Methods This study included n=495 children (221 boys, 274 girls) who participated in the Transitions and Activity Changes in Kids (TRACK) Study. PA was assessed objectively and via self-report. Children, parents, and school administrators completed surveys to assess related factors. Latent class analysis, growth modeling, and adjusted multinomial logistic regression procedures were used to classify children based on self-reported PA and SB and examine associated factors. Results Three classes of behavior were identified: Class 1: Low PA/Low SB, Class 2: Moderate PA/High SB, and Class 3: High PA/High SB (boys) or Class 3: High PA (girls). Class 3 children had higher levels of self-efficacy (boys), and enjoyment, parental support, and physical activity equipment at home (girls). Class 2 boys and Class 3 girls did not experience decline in PA (accelerometer) over time. Conclusions Self-efficacy (boys) and home environment (girls) may play a role in shaping patterns of PA in children. Findings may help to inform future interventions to encourage children to meet national PA guidelines. PMID:27103414

  1. Teaching systems thinking to 4th and 5th graders using Environmental Dashboard display technology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shane; Frantz, Cindy M.; Roose, Deborah; Ginn, Joel; Rosenberg Daneri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Tackling complex environmental challenges requires the capacity to understand how relationships and interactions between parts result in dynamic behavior of whole systems. There has been convincing research that these “systems thinking” skills can be learned. However, there is little research on methods for teaching these skills to children or assessing their impact. The Environmental Dashboard is a technology that uses “sociotechnical” feedback–information feedback designed to affect thought and behavior. Environmental Dashboard (ED) combines real-time information on community resource use with images and words that reflect pro-environmental actions of community members. Prior research indicates that ED supports the development of systems thinking in adults. To assess its impact on children, the technology was installed in a primary school and children were passively exposed to ED displays. This resulted in no measurable impact on systems thinking skills. The next stage of this research examined the impact of actively integrating ED into lessons on electricity in 4th and 5th grade. This active integration enhanced both content-related systems thinking skills and content retention. PMID:28448586

  2. Teaching systems thinking to 4th and 5th graders using Environmental Dashboard display technology.

    PubMed

    Clark, Shane; Petersen, John E; Frantz, Cindy M; Roose, Deborah; Ginn, Joel; Rosenberg Daneri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Tackling complex environmental challenges requires the capacity to understand how relationships and interactions between parts result in dynamic behavior of whole systems. There has been convincing research that these "systems thinking" skills can be learned. However, there is little research on methods for teaching these skills to children or assessing their impact. The Environmental Dashboard is a technology that uses "sociotechnical" feedback-information feedback designed to affect thought and behavior. Environmental Dashboard (ED) combines real-time information on community resource use with images and words that reflect pro-environmental actions of community members. Prior research indicates that ED supports the development of systems thinking in adults. To assess its impact on children, the technology was installed in a primary school and children were passively exposed to ED displays. This resulted in no measurable impact on systems thinking skills. The next stage of this research examined the impact of actively integrating ED into lessons on electricity in 4th and 5th grade. This active integration enhanced both content-related systems thinking skills and content retention.

  3. The acquired preparedness risk model applied to smoking in 5th grade children.

    PubMed

    Combs, Jessica L; Spillane, Nichea S; Caudill, Leann; Stark, Brittany; Smith, Gregory T

    2012-03-01

    The very early onset of smoking predicts numerous health problems. The authors conducted the first test of one risk model for elementary school age smoking, known as the acquired preparedness (AP) model of risk, in a cross-sectional sample of 309 5th grade children. The model posits that (a) impulsivity-related personality traits contribute to risk for a variety of risky, maladaptive behaviors; (b) smoking expectancies confer risk only for smoking; and (c) the personality traits contribute to the formation of high risk expectancies for reinforcement from smoking, which in turn increases the likelihood of early onset smoking. The model was supported: the high-risk personality traits distinguished children engaging in any risky, maladaptive behavior from other children, and the smoking expectancies differentiated smokers from all other children. The relationship between personality tendencies to act rashly when experiencing intense positive or negative emotions and smoker status was partially mediated by expectancies for reinforcement from smoking. This model should be investigated longitudinally.

  4. Two Successful Outreach Programs at Storm Peak Laboratory: GRASP for Undergraduates and Partnership for 5th Grade Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.; Wright, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Desert Research Institute operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the Steamboat Springs Ski Resort at an elevation 10,500 ft. SPL provides an ideal location for long-term atmospheric research. The SPL mission statement is to ensure that the laboratory will continue to integrate climate research and education by advancing discovery and understanding within the field of pollution, aerosol and cloud interactions. During the last year, SPL has created two successful outreach programs reaching very different audiences. First, to engage students from local elementary schools, SPL established a 5th grade climate education program. This program is based on a partnership between SPL and Yampatika's&penvironmental educators. Yampatika is a non-profit outdoor environmental education organization. The program spans three days for each school and includes five elementary schools. During the first day, educators from Yampatika visit each classroom to introduce the concepts of climate and weather as well as teach students how to use scientific equipment. During the field program on the second day, students measure and record information about temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, and particle concentration while they travel to SPL via the gondola (in winter) or Suburban (in fall). Once at the laboratory, students tour the facility, discuss SPL research activities, and explore application of these activities to their curriculum. Following the field trip, Yampatika educators and SPL scientists will visit the school for a follow-up to help children explore concepts, answer questions, and evaluate students" learning. The second program, Geoscience Research at Storm Peak (GRASP), was designed to engage students from underrepresented groups and created a partnership between three Minority Serving Institutions and the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR). Undergraduate students from Tennessee State University, Howard University

  5. Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5(th) Percentile Female.

    PubMed

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Iwamoto, Masami; Watanabe, Isao; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50(th) percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5(th) percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0Beta (Kimpara et al. 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al. 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development. The model incorporated not only geometrical gender differences, such as location of the internal organs and structure of the bony skeleton, but also the biomechanical differences of the ribs due to gender. It includes a detailed description of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic spine, skin, superficial muscles, intercostal muscles, heart, lung, diaphragm, major blood vessels and simplified abdominal internal organs and has been validated against a series of six cadaveric experiments on the small female reported by Nahum et al. (1970), Kroell et al. (1974), Viano (1989), Talantikite et al. (1998) and Wilhelm (2003). Results predicted by the model were well-matched to these experimental data for a range of impact speeds and impactor masses. More research is needed in order to increase the accuracy of predicting rib fractures so that the mechanisms responsible for small female injury can be more clearly defined.

  6. Development and Full Body Validation of a 5th Percentile Female Finite Element Model.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew L; Koya, Bharath; Schap, Jeremy M; Gayzik, F Scott

    2016-11-01

    To mitigate the societal impact of vehicle crash, researchers are using a variety of tools, including finite element models (FEMs). As part of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) project, comprehensive medical image and anthropometrical data of the 5th percentile female (F05) were acquired for the explicit purpose of FEM development. The F05-O (occupant) FEM model consists of 981 parts, 2.6 million elements, 1.4 million nodes, and has a mass of 51.1 kg. The model was compared to experimental data in 10 validation cases ranging from localized rigid hub impacts to full body sled cases. In order to make direct comparisons to experimental data, which represent the mass of an average male, the model was compared to experimental corridors using two methods: 1) post-hoc scaling the outputs from the baseline F05-O model and 2) geometrically morphing the model to the body habitus of the average male to allow direct comparisons. This second step required running the morphed full body model in all 10 simulations for a total of 20 full body simulations presented. Overall, geometrically morphing the model was found to more closely match the target data with an average ISO score for the rigid impacts of 0.76 compared to 0.67 for the scaled responses. Based on these data, the morphed model was then used for model validation in the vehicle sled cases. Overall, the morphed model attained an average weighted score of 0.69 for the two sled impacts. Hard tissue injuries were also assessed and the baseline F05-O model was found to predict a greater occurrence of pelvic fractures compared to the GHBMC average male model, but predicted fewer rib fractures.

  7. Patterns of Irregular Burials in Western Europe (1st-5th Century A.D.)

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marco; Mariotti, Valentina; Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Knüsel, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Irregular burials (IB—burials showing features that contrast with the majority of others in their geographic and chronological context) have been the focus of archaeological study because of their relative rarity and enigmatic appearance. Interpretations of IB often refer to supposed fear of the dead or to social processes taking place in time-specific contexts. However, a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of IB for various geographical contexts is still lacking, a fact that hampers any discussion of these burials on a larger scale. Methods Here, we collected a bibliographic dataset of 375 IB from both Britain and Continental Europe, altogether spanning a time period from the 1st to the 5th century AD. Each burial has been coded according to ten dichotomous variables, further analyzed by means of chi-squared tests on absolute frequencies, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. Results Even acknowledging the limits of this study, and in particular the bias represented by the available literature, our results point to interesting patterns. Geographically, IB show a contrast between Britain and Continental Europe, possibly related to historical processes specific to these regions. Different types of IB (especially prone depositions and depositions with the cephalic extremity displaced) present a series of characteristics and associations between features that permit a more detailed conceptualization of these occurrences from a socio-cultural perspective that aids to elucidate their funerary meaning. Conclusions and Significance Altogether, the present work stresses the variability of IB, and the need to contextualize them in a proper archaeological and historical context. It contributes to the discussion of IB by providing a specific geographic and chronological frame of reference that supports a series of hypotheses about the cultural processes possibly underlying their occurrence. PMID:26115408

  8. 5th International conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Bikash; Alam, Jan-E.; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2006-11-01

    The 5th International Conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPAQGP 2005) was held on 8 - 12 February 2005 at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre and Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics campus, Kolkata, India. The conference was enriched by the august presence of about 300 participants representing 18 countries across the globe. It had plenary talks and oral presentations, which form a part of these proceedings. Besides invited and contributed talks there were also a large number of poster presentations. The conference was energized by discussions of fresh experimental data from RHIC on strong elliptic flow, jet quenching, single photon spectra etc. Moreover, new theoretical results were brought to the discussion forum during this conference. Colour glass condensates, hydrodynamical flow, jet quenching and sQGP were intensely debated by the participants. The highlight of ICPAQGP 2005 was the presentation of fresh experimental results from the RHIC-IV run. The ICPAQGP series, since its inception in 1988, has placed emphasis on the role of quark matter in the fields of astrophysics and cosmology. The subsequent conferences held in 1993, 1997, 2001 and 2005 had also retained this focus. The conference was preceded by a Fest Colloquium in honour of Professor Bikash Sinha. Professor Sinha, regarded as the pioneer in establishing quark gluon plasma research in India, has successfully encouraged a group of young Indian researchers to devote themselves wholeheartedly to QGP research - both theoretical and experimental. Members of the International Advisory Committee played a pivotal role mainly in the selection of speakers. The contributions of the Organizing Committee in all aspects, from selecting the contributory talks posters down to arranging local hospitality, were much appreciated. We thank the members of both committees for making ICPAQGP 2005 an interesting platform for scientific deliberation. The ICPAQGP 2005 was supported financially by

  9. Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to fuzzy set theory is described. Topics covered include: neural networks and fuzzy systems; the dynamical systems approach to machine intelligence; intelligent behavior as adaptive model-free estimation; fuzziness versus probability; fuzzy sets; the entropy-subsethood theorem; adaptive fuzzy systems for backing up a truck-and-trailer; product-space clustering with differential competitive learning; and adaptive fuzzy system for target tracking.

  10. Fuzzy mathematical techniques with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, A.

    1986-01-01

    This text presents the basic concepts of fuzzy set theory within a context of real-world applications. The book is self-contained and can be used as a starting point for people interested in this fast growing field as well as by researchers looking for new application techniques. The section on applications includes: Manipulation of knowledge in expert systems; relational database structures; pattern clustering; analysis of transient behavior in digital systems; modeling of uncertainty and search trees. Contents: Fuzzy sets; Possibility theory and fuzzy quantification; Fuzzy functions; Fuzzy events and fuzzy statistics; Fuzzy relations; Fuzzy logics; Some applications; Bibliography.

  11. Malik Goes to School: Examining the Language Skills of African American Students from Preschool-5th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Washington, Julie A.

    2005-01-01

    "Malik Goes to School: Examining the Language Skills of African American Students From Preschool-5th Grade" synthesizes a decade of research by the authors, Holly Craig and Julie Washington, on the oral language and literacy skills of African American children from preschool to fifth grade. Their research has characterized significant influences…

  12. Proceedings of the International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (5th, Chania, Greece, June 19-21, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Educational Data Mining Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2012) is held in picturesque Chania on the beautiful Crete island in Greece, under the auspices of the International Educational Data Mining Society (IEDMS). The EDM 2012 conference is a leading international forum for high quality research that mines large data sets of educational…

  13. Using Functional Behavior Assessment to Match Task Difficulty for a 5th Grade Student: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Todd

    2012-01-01

    We used an AB design with a control condition to examine the effects of an academic strategy on a student with a learning disability during a 5th grade math class. During baseline the student had high rates of disruptive behavior, low percentages of intervals of on-task behavior, and low percentages of correct responses. An antecedent-based…

  14. Brief Report: Data on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th Ed.) in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolican, Jamesie; Bryson, Susan E.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2008-01-01

    The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5; Roid, G. H. (2003). "Stanford Binet intelligence scales" (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing) is relatively new, with minimal published research on general populations and none with special populations. The present study provides information on the cognitive profiles of…

  15. Using Functional Behavior Assessment to Match Task Difficulty for a 5th Grade Student: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Todd

    2012-01-01

    We used an AB design with a control condition to examine the effects of an academic strategy on a student with a learning disability during a 5th grade math class. During baseline the student had high rates of disruptive behavior, low percentages of intervals of on-task behavior, and low percentages of correct responses. An antecedent-based…

  16. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  17. From Cooks to Carpenters: Measuring - A Saleable Work Skill. Occupation Simulation Packet. Grades 5th-6th.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Helena

    This teacher's guide contains simulated work experiences for 5th and 6th grade students using the isolated skill concept - measuring. Teacher instructions include objectives, evaluation, and sequence of activities. The guide contains pre-tests and post-tests with instructions and answer keys. Three pre-skill activities are suggested, such as…

  18. Brief Report: Data on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th Ed.) in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolican, Jamesie; Bryson, Susan E.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2008-01-01

    The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5; Roid, G. H. (2003). "Stanford Binet intelligence scales" (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing) is relatively new, with minimal published research on general populations and none with special populations. The present study provides information on the cognitive profiles of…

  19. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered…

  20. WWW.com: A Brief Intervention to Bolster a 5th Grader's Regrouping Skills in Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugh, Matthew; Harrison, Gina L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief math intervention using cognitive behaviour instruction (CBI) supplemented by a mnemonic cue system for a 5th grade student with math computation and fluency difficulties. Regrouping operations in addition and subtraction were the targeted skills. Curriculum-based measurements were conducted at the end…

  1. Fuzzy risk matrix.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Adam S; Mannan, M Sam

    2008-11-15

    A risk matrix is a mechanism to characterize and rank process risks that are typically identified through one or more multifunctional reviews (e.g., process hazard analysis, audits, or incident investigation). This paper describes a procedure for developing a fuzzy risk matrix that may be used for emerging fuzzy logic applications in different safety analyses (e.g., LOPA). The fuzzification of frequency and severity of the consequences of the incident scenario are described which are basic inputs for fuzzy risk matrix. Subsequently using different design of risk matrix, fuzzy rules are established enabling the development of fuzzy risk matrices. Three types of fuzzy risk matrix have been developed (low-cost, standard, and high-cost), and using a distillation column case study, the effect of the design on final defuzzified risk index is demonstrated.

  2. News from the "5th International Meeting on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases" CAPRI 2010.

    PubMed

    Latella, Giovanni; Fiocchi, Claudio; Caprili, Renzo

    2010-12-01

    At the "5th International Meeting on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases selected topics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including the environment, genetics, the gut flora, the cell response and immunomodulation were discussed in order to better understand specific clinical and therapeutic aspects. The incidence of IBD continues to rise, both in low and in high-incidence areas. It is believed that factors associated with 'Westernization' may be conditioning the expression of these disorders. The increased incidence of IBD among migrants from low-incidence to high-incidence areas within the same generation suggests a strong environmental influence. The development of genome-wide association scanning (GWAS) technologies has lead to the discovery of more than 100 IBD loci. Some, as the Th 17 pathway genes, are shared between Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), while other are IBD subtype-specific (autophagy genes, epithelial barrier genes). Disease-specific therapies targeting these pathways should be developed. Epigenetic regulation of the inflammatory response also appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of IBD. The importance of gut flora in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation was reinforced, the concepts of eubiosis and dysbiosis were introduced, and some strategies for reverting dysbiosis to a homeostatic state of eubiosis were proposed. The current status of studies on the human gut microbiota metagenome, metaprotome, and metabolome was also presented. The cell response in inflammation, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses, autophagy and inflammasome-dependent events were related to IBD pathogenesis. It was suggested that inflammation-associated ER stress responses may be a common trait in the pathogenesis of various chronic immune and metabolic diseases. How innate and adaptive immunity signaling events can perpetuate chronic inflammation was discussed extensively. Signal transduction pathways provide intracellular

  3. PREFACE: 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, Zoubir; Czerwiec, Thierry; Horwat, David; Jamart, Brigitte

    2009-07-01

    This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, contains manuscripts of talks that will be presented at the 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research that will be held at the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux - European School of Materials Science and Engineering (EEIGM) in Nancy on November 4-5 2009. The conference will be organized by the EEIGM. The aim of the conference is to bring together scientists from the six European universities involved in the EEIGM and in the ''Erasmus Mundus'' AMASE Master (Advanced Materials Science and Engineering) programmes and in the Tempus FORGEMAT European project: Nancy-Université - EEIGM/INPL (Nancy, France), Universität des Saarlandes (Saarbrücken, Germany), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - ETSEIB (Barcelona, Spain), Luleå Tekniska Universitet (Luleå, Sweden), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia - ETSII (Valencia, Spain) and AGH University of Science and Technology, (Kralow, Poland). This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and it will provide a forum for exchange of ideas, cooperation and future directions by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. After careful refereeing of all manuscripts, equally shared between the four editors, 26 papers have been selected for publication in this issue. The papers are grouped together into different subject categories: polymers, metallurgy, ceramics, composites and nanocomposites, simulation and characterization. The editors would like to take this opportunity to thank all the participants who submitted their manuscripts during the conference and responded in time to the editors' request at every stage from reviewing to final acceptance. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for painstakingly reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are called for the sponsors of the conference including

  4. Fuzzy and neural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1992-01-01

    Fuzzy logic and neural networks provide new methods for designing control systems. Fuzzy logic controllers do not require a complete analytical model of a dynamic system and can provide knowledge-based heuristic controllers for ill-defined and complex systems. Neural networks can be used for learning control. In this chapter, we discuss hybrid methods using fuzzy logic and neural networks which can start with an approximate control knowledge base and refine it through reinforcement learning.

  5. Health in the 5th 5-years Development Plan of Iran: Main Challenges, General Policies and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vosoogh Moghaddam, A; Damari, B; Alikhani, S; Salarianzedeh, MH; Rostamigooran, N; Delavari, A; Larijani, B

    2013-01-01

    Access to the right to the highest attainable level of health is a constitutional right that obliges governments and other players to take step to increase all individuals’ chances of obtaining good health. At the least, health and education are two crucial requirements for this as well. Iran’s vision 2025 is going to lead the country to a developed state with the highest rank of economic, scientific and technological status in the region. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, etc, are also considered as part of characteristics of Iranian society in 2025. Although health system of Iran has many achievements in providing health services specially for the poor following the Islamic Revolution of 1979, but the evidences gathered to develop the 5th 5-years economical, social and cultural plan (5th5YDP:2011–2015), listed a variety of main challenges in stewardship, financing, resources generation and service provision functions of the existing health system. Thus, to overcome the main challenges, about 11% of general policies of 5th5YDP are directly address health related issues with emphasizing on healthy human and comprehensive health approach with considering: Integration of policy making, planning, evaluation, supervision and public financing; Developing both quantity and quality of health insurance system and reducing out-of-pocket expenditures for health services to 30% by the end of the 5th plan. The strategies of 5th5YDP adopted by the parliament as an Act will change the health system fundamentally through tuning the main drivers; so, its implementation needs brave leaders, capable managers, motivated technical staff and social mobilization. PMID:23865015

  6. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224

  7. Some properties of fuzzy soft proximity spaces.

    PubMed

    Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre

    2015-01-01

    We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities.

  8. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamanna, G.; Boisvert, V.; Cerrito, L.; Khan, A.; Moretti, S.; Owen, M.; Schwanenberger, C.

    2013-07-01

    The 5th International Workshop on Top Quark Physics (TOP 2012) took place in Winchester, UK, from the 16-21 September. It gathered students as well as people active in the top quark sector and provided a framework to highlight the newest results and matters related to top quark physics. Discovered in 1995, the top quark is the sixth and heaviest of all quarks, and it is the only one with a lifetime short enough to be observed 'naked'. This makes it an important testing ground in the search for new physics. In fact, the fact of its mass being so much larger than the other quarks, hints at its special role in the Higgs mechanism. For the same reason, in many models of New Physics, new heavy resonances are expected to couple mostly with top quarks. Even if no new particles are observed, the direct correlation between its angular momentum and that of its detectable decay products allows us to probe indirectly New Physics in action when top quarks are created. In this edition of the TOP conference series, for the first time, the agenda was equally balanced between 'traditional' measurements and the now vast number of searches for physics BSM in the top quark sector, thanks mostly to the amount of data collected at the LHC in its Run I. New results were presented by both the Tevatron and the LHC collaborations: improved ttbar and single top cross-section measurements, refined techniques to measure the top quark mass and a large number of results on properties such as spin correlation and W boson polarization in top quark decays were shown. More technical discussions on the experimental issues, both from the detector and the simulation side also took place, drawing together experimentalists and theorists. Reviews of the latest results on ttbar asymmetry both from CDF and D0 and from ATLAS and CMS were shown, and theorists active in the field made some interesting points on this hot topic. Additionally, results on the search for fourth generation fermions and new

  9. Novel human vaccine strategies and the 5th Framework Programme: pushing the envelope.

    PubMed

    Tagliabue, Aldo; Cesaroni, Maria Paola; Lewis, David J M

    2003-06-01

    Mucosal vaccines could result in a great scientific and practical achievement. More than three decades of research in experimental models have shown promising results in stimulating mucosal immune responses, thus, it was expected that within a short time mucosal vaccines for human use could be achieved. Indeed this is not being the case. In the last few years, the most important oral vaccine, the anti-polio developed by Sabin in the fifties, has been progressively abandoned in developed countries to avoid the few cases of disease caused by the vaccine. Furthermore, two recently developed mucosal vaccines for human use against rotavirus diarrhoea and influenza were withdrawn after a short period in the market because of adverse reactions among the vaccinees. This controversial situation has created a difficult future for research on mucosal vaccine at the industrial level. A great help and encouragement for believers in mucosal vaccines has been given by the EU Commission through the 5th Framework Programme (5FP). At the end of the first projects of the 5FP, it is quite clear that mucosal vaccines are experiencing a real renaissance. The Euroconference/Workshop "Novel Strategies of Mucosal Immunisation through Exploitation of Mechanisms of Innate Immunity in Pathogen-Host Interaction", organised under the sponsorship of the EU Commission and reported in this special issue of Vaccine, witnesses a very creative moment of European groups involved in mucosal immunology. This conclusive paper of the issue is intended to describe a positive experience of some European scientists that have been working together in organised fashion within two EU projects. The first, defined by the acronym MUCIMM, was aimed to pave the way to tackle mucosal vaccines with different approaches, mainly that of new delivery systems and adjuvants, that of dissecting the fine mechanisms of basic mucosal responses and that of obtaining meaningful assays to measure human immune responses to mucosal

  10. EDITORIAL: 5th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry, PIV'03

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Hyung Jin; Kim, Kyung Chun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2004-06-01

    The advent of particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the late 20th century brought about a paradigm change in the technique of flow field measurement, from point measurement to field measurement. This revolution is a result of the recent advances in computers, video cameras, optics and lasers and a deeper understanding of the theory of image processing, and such advances continue by keeping pace with leading-edge technologies such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and so forth. Recently, the PIV technique has been extended in new directions such as stereoscopic PIV, holographic PIV, dynamic PIV, micro PIV and simultaneous PLIF/PIV techniques. This special issue contains research dealing with many of the most recent developments in PIV. The papers were selected from more than 120 papers presented at the 5th International Symposium on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV'03) held in Busan, Korea, during 22-24 September 2003. Special thanks are due to the invited speakers who have contributed their original work to this special issue, which will enhance the academic reputation of Measurement Science and Technology (MST). Fourteen papers were selected by the Scientific Committee of PIV'03. After the standard refereeing process of MST, nine papers were finally accepted for publication. The selected papers can be categorized into three groups: new PIV algorithms and evaluation methods, three-dimensional velocity field measurement techniques and micro/bio PIV applications. As a new PIV technique, Lecuona et al introduced PIV evaluation algorithms for industrial applications having high shear flow structures. Billy et al used a single-pixel-based cross-correlation method for measuring flow inside a microchannel. Foucaut et al carried out PIV optimization using spectral analysis for the study of turbulent flows. Doh et al applied a 3D PTV method to the wake behind a sphere using three CCD cameras. Hori and Sakakibara developed a high-speed scanning stereoscopic PIV system and

  11. PREFACE: The 5th International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, Thomas G.; Pappas, Evangelos

    2009-07-01

    The International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL) is held every two years. Its purpose is to bring together basic science and clinical researchers, medical physicists and clinicians from around the world to discuss the state-of-the-art of the gel dosimetry technique and to set the directions and trends for its future improvements. Gel dosimetry can be broadly defined as using a gel that can react to the absorption of ionizing radiation, and that can retain this information which can subsequently be retrieved by an external imaging modality. Examples of radiation-sensitive gels include, but are not limited to, polymer gel dosimeters, Fricke gel dosimeters and others. Imaging modalities that are of general use in this field are (in alphabetical order) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical light computed tomography and x-ray computed tomography. This volume comprises the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Radiotherapy Gel Dosimetry (DOSGEL 2008). The conference, organised by the University of Crete, Medical Physics Department, took place in Hersonissos, Crete, Greece from 29 September to 3 October 2008. The meeting aimed to continue the series of biannual DOSGEL conferences and focused on the promotion of gel dosimetry techniques by setting the trends for their future improvements. The main scientific session topics of DOSGEL 2008 were the following: Chemistry and fundamental properties of polymer gel dosimeters Gel dosimetry with Optical Computed Tomography Gel dosimetry with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Gel dosimetry with other than Optical CT and MR scan Techniques Other 3D dosimeters Gel dosimetry applications Local Organizing Committee Thomas G Maris (University of Crete, Greece, Chairman DOSGEL 2008) John Damilakis (University of Crete, Greece) Evangelos Pappas (University of Crete, Greece) Antonios Papadakis (University of Crete, Greece) Fotini Zacharopoulou (University of Crete, Greece) John Stratakis (University of Crete

  12. Closing Plenary Reports from Breakout Groups at the 5th ESA Workshop

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and its federal partner held a two-day meeting that provided a forum for stakeholder suggestions for refining some of the interim scientific methods used in the recently released draft Biological Evaluations for three pilot chemicals

  13. 5th ESA Workshop on Joint Interim Approaches to NAS Recommendations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and its federal partners, Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service, held a two-day meeting that provided a forum for stakeholder suggestions for refining some of the interim scientific methods

  14. Opening Plenary Presentations from the Agencies at the 5th ESA Workshop

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and its federal partner held a two-day meeting that provided a forum for stakeholder suggestions for refining some of the interim scientific methods used in the recently released draft Biological Evaluations for three pilot chemicals

  15. Clustering by Fuzzy Neural Gas and Evaluation of Fuzzy Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Geweniger, Tina; Fischer, Lydia; Kaden, Marika; Lange, Mandy; Villmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider some modifications of the neural gas algorithm. First, fuzzy assignments as known from fuzzy c-means and neighborhood cooperativeness as known from self-organizing maps and neural gas are combined to obtain a basic Fuzzy Neural Gas. Further, a kernel variant and a simulated annealing approach are derived. Finally, we introduce a fuzzy extension of the ConnIndex to obtain an evaluation measure for clusterings based on fuzzy vector quantization. PMID:24396342

  16. Coordinated signal control for arterial intersections using fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermanian, Davood; Zare, Assef; Balochian, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    Every day growth of the vehicles has become one of the biggest problems of urbanism especially in major cities. This can waste people's time, increase the fuel consumption, air pollution, and increase the density of cars and vehicles. Fuzzy controllers have been widely used in many consumer products and industrial applications with success over the past two decades. This article proposes a comprehensive model of urban traffic network using state space equations and then using Fuzzy Logic Tool Box and SIMULINK Program MATLAB a fuzzy controller in order to optimize and coordinate signal control at two intersections at an arterial road. The fuzzy controller decides to extend, early cut or terminate a signal phase and phase sequence to ensure smooth flow of traffic with minimal waiting time and length of queue. Results show that the performance of the proposed traffic controller at novel fuzzy model is better that of conventional controllers under normal and abnormal traffic conditions.

  17. Pacific Armies Management Seminar (5th) Held at manila, Republic of the Philippines on 16-20 November 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Assistant Army Attache, Republic of the Philippines LTC Charles J. ROTHLISBERGER , Commander, Ist Battalion, 5th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division LTC...Alfonso CAGURANGAN BG Muhammad ASHRAF LTC Jack JONES LTC KIM Jong Seob LTC Ponclano MILLENA LTC Sitiveni RABUKA **LTC Charles ROTHLISBERGER MAJ Fetu’utolu...Recorder LTC Karl P. Piotrowski, Chief of Staff LTC Charles J. Rothlisberger , Panel Recorder LTC Ronald 0. Turner, Panel Recorder LTC Ted K. Yamashi ta

  18. Force Projection, the 5th Marine Expeditionary Brigade, and the Planned Amphibious Assault during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE Military History by TIMOTHY R. NEWKIRK, MAJOR, U.S. MARINE CORPS B.S., Embry Riddle Aeronautical...operations. Additionally, a brief history regarding the development of the Cuban invasion plans is reviewed with special emphasis on the role of the 5th...and combat operations. Additionally, a brief history regarding the development of the Cuban invasion plans is reviewed with special emphasis on the

  19. Time-Dependent 5th Order Bands in Nominally 3rd Order 2D IR Vibrational Echo Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Thielges, Megan C.; Fayer, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of 2D IR vibrational spectroscopy has been bolstered by the production of intense mid-IR laser pulses. As higher energy pulses are employed, a concomitant increase occurs in the likelihood of 5th order contributions to the 2D IR spectra. We report the appearance of 5th order signals in 2D IR spectra of CO bound to the active site of the enzyme cytochrome P450cam with the substrate norcamphor. Two bands with novel time dependences, one on the diagonal and one off-diagonal, are not accounted for by normal 3rd order interactions. These bands are associated with v = 1 to v = 2 vibrational transition frequency. Both bands decay to zero and then grow back in with opposite sign. The diagonal band is positive at short time, decays to zero, reappears with negative sign, before eventually decaying to zero. The off-diagonal band is negative at short time, decays to zero and reappears positive, and then decays to zero. The appearance and time dependence of these bands are characterized. Understanding these 5th order bands is useful because they may be misidentified with time dependent bands that arise from other processes, such as chemical exchange, vibrational coupling, or energy transfer. The presence and unusual time dependences of the 5th order bands are reproduced with model calculations that account for the fact that vibrational relaxation from the v = 2 to 1 level is approximately a factor of two faster than from the v = 1 to 0 level. PMID:21648438

  20. Risk Factors for Elementary School Drinking: Pubertal Status, Personality, and Alcohol Expectancies Concurrently Predict 5th Grade Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Rachel L.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the correlates and potential causes of very early drinking. The authors proposed this risk theory: (a) pubertal onset is associated with increased levels of positive urgency (the tendency to act rashly when experiencing intensely positive mood), negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed), and sensation seeking; (b) those traits predict increased endorsement of high-risk alcohol expectancies; (c) the expectancies predict drinker status among 5th graders; and (d) the apparent influence of positive urgency, negative urgency, and sensation seeking on drinker status is mediated by alcohol expectancies. The authors conducted a concurrent test of whether the relationships among these variables were consistent with the theory in a sample of 1,843 5th grade students. In a well-fitting structural model, their hypotheses were supported. Drinker status among 5th graders is not just a function of context and factors external to children: it is predictable from a combination of pubertal status, personality characteristics, and learned alcohol expectancies. PMID:20822192

  1. Development of THOR-FLx: A Biofidelic Lower Extremity for Use with 5th Percentile Female Crash Test Dummies.

    PubMed

    Shams, Tariq; Beach, David; Huang, Tsai-Jeon; Rangarajan, N; Haffner, Mark

    2002-11-01

    A new lower leg/ankle/foot system has been designed and fabricated to assess the potential for lower limb injuries to small females in the automotive crash environment. The new lower extremity can be retrofitted at present to the distal femur of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummy. Future plans are for integration of this design into the 5th percentile female THOR dummy now under development. The anthropometry of the lower leg and foot is based mainly on data developed by Robbins for the 5th percentile female, while the biomechanical response requirements are based upon scaling of 50th percentile male THOR-Lx responses. The design consists of the knee, tibia, ankle joints, foot, a representation of the Achilles tendon, and associated flesh/skins. The new lower extremity, known as THOR-FLx, is designed to be biofidelic under dynamic axial loading of the tibia, static and dynamic dorsiflexion, static plantarflexion and inversion/eversion. Instrumentation includes accelerometers, load cells, and rotary potentiometers to capture relevant kinematic and dynamic information from the foot and tibia. This paper will describe the performance requirements for THOR-FLx, the methodology used in its' development, results of component tests, and the biofidelity tests conducted on the full assembly.

  2. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association--5th edition: a review of additions and changes in style requirements.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cynthia L; Aud, Myra A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the substantive changes and enhancements between the 4th edition and new 5th edition of the so that modifications and enhancements are more easily incorporated into the reader's writing and editing practice. The 4th and new 5th editions of the were compared and substantive changes are presented. The following text style requirements are addressed: (a) use of parentheses to enclose statistical values, (b) use of italics, and (c) presentation of statistical data. Reference citation style changes include: (a) use of italics instead of underlining, (b) use of et al., and (c) use of the hanging indent. With the explosion of electronic media use, guidelines for documenting these sources are reviewed. Appropriate use of adverbs and research subject descriptors, submission of manuscripts on disks or files, responsibilities of corresponding authors, and converting the dissertation into a journal article are addressed. This information should assist the reader to quickly and accurately focus upon the enhancements and changes in the recently released 5th edition. Hopefully these changes will easily be incorporated into the readers' editing responsibilities, manuscripts, and subsequent publications.

  3. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in 1.5th Generation, 2nd Generation Immigrant Children, and Foreign Adoptees.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2016-10-01

    Existing theories (e.g., acculturative stress theory) cannot adequately explain why mental disorders in immigrants are less prevalent than in non-immigrants. In this paper, the culture-gene co-evolutionary theory of mental disorders was utilized to generate a novel hypothesis that connection to heritage culture reduces the risk for mental disorders in immigrant children. Four groups of children aged 2-17 years were identified from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health: 1.5th generation immigrant children (n = 1378), 2nd generation immigrant children (n = 4194), foreign adoptees (n = 270), and non-immigrant children (n = 54,877). The 1.5th generation immigrant children's connection to their heritage culture is stronger than or similar to the 2nd generation immigrants, while the foreign adoptees have little connection to their birth culture. Controlling for age, sex, family type and SES, the odds for having ADD/ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, and Depression diagnosis were the lowest for the 1.5th generation immigrant children, followed by the 2nd generation immigrant children and the foreign adoptees. The foreign adoptees and non-adopted children were similar in the odds of having these disorders. Connection to heritage culture might be the underlying mechanism that explained recent immigrants' lower rates of mental disorders.

  4. Mountain Medicine Papers. Proceedings of the Mountain Medicine Symposium (5th, Issaquah, Washington, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Dick; And Others

    The proceedings of the fifth symposium on mountain and survival medicine include the program for the 4-day conference which was addressed by 21 guest lecturers from Canada, Nepal, and the United States. The proceedings include abstracts for and background information on the authors of 17 papers. It also includes the texts of 13 symposium papers:…

  5. Mountain Medicine Papers. Proceedings of the Mountain Medicine Symposium (5th, Issaquah, Washington, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Dick; And Others

    The proceedings of the fifth symposium on mountain and survival medicine include the program for the 4-day conference which was addressed by 21 guest lecturers from Canada, Nepal, and the United States. The proceedings include abstracts for and background information on the authors of 17 papers. It also includes the texts of 13 symposium papers:…

  6. Overview of the 80(th) Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society - The Past, Present and Future of Cardiovascular Medicine in Japan - - The 5(th) Anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Jun; Satoh, Kimio; Fukuda, Koji; Sugimura, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Nakano, Makoto; Tsuburaya, Ryuji; Aoki, Tatsuo; Hao, Kiyotaka; Nishimiya, Kensuke; Ito, Kenta; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2016-07-25

    The 80(th)Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society was held in Sendai, Japan, on March 18-20, 2016, which coincided with the 5(th)anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake that hit the Tohoku area on March 11, 2011. Thus, the main themes for this meeting were "The Past, Present and Future of Cardiovascular Medicine in Japan" and "The 5(th)Anniversary of the Great East Japan Earthquake". Despite the provincial location, approximately 15,000 people attended during the 3-day meeting, and there were in-depth discussions in each of the various sessions on these themes. Especially, to our great pleasure, the Japanese Royals, Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko, kindly visited the panel exhibition of the Great East Japan Earthquake and spoke words of appreciation to us. The meeting successfully completed and we sincerely appreciate the great cooperation and support from all affiliates. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1689-1694).

  7. On fuzzy ideals of BL-algebras.

    PubMed

    Meng, Biao Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true.

  8. Fuzzy modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrycz, Witold

    1993-12-01

    The paradigm of fuzzy modelling entails development of relationships (dependencies) between the linguistic entities defined for system's variables. The key feature of the fuzzy models pertains to their significant flexibility so they could easily be modified to comply with the principle of incompatibility. Considering the existing panoply of fuzzy models one can easily conclude that most of them are embraced under an umbrella of a single conceptual structure. From a functional point of view this structure is perceived as a combination of the two conceptual interfaces and a single processing block aimed at developing calculus of the linguistic labels. The interfaces produce all the links that are necessary to combine the physical (numerical) level of the real-world system with that of a conceptual character realized within the fuzzy model and articulated at the level of the linguistic entities. The presentation will address the main methodological aspects concerning these functional components with a particular emphasis placed on the associated design principles. The main issues dominating the design of the interfaces pertain to the implemented level of information granularity, optimality of linguistic labels, and linguistic-to-numerical transformations. The processing level of the fuzzy modelling will be considered through the use of fuzzy neural networks. These distributed computing structures are highly heterogeneous as they are constructed with the aid of several distinct types of logic-oriented neurons. The advantages of the fuzzy neural networks such as an implicit scheme of knowledge encapsulation that is carried out there will be discussed in detail.

  9. The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

    2013-01-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

  10. Estimating outcomes in newborn infants using fuzzy logic

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Luciano Eustáquio; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To build a linguistic model using the properties of fuzzy logic to estimate the risk of death of neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: Computational model using fuzzy logic. The input variables of the model were birth weight, gestational age, 5th-minute Apgar score and inspired fraction of oxygen in newborn infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Taubaté, Southeast Brazil. The output variable was the risk of death, estimated as a percentage. Three membership functions related to birth weight, gestational age and 5th-minute Apgar score were built, as well as two functions related to the inspired fraction of oxygen; the risk presented five membership functions. The model was developed using the Mandani inference by means of Matlab(r) software. The model values were compared with those provided by experts and their performance was estimated by ROC curve. RESULTS: 100 newborns were included, and eight of them died. The model estimated an average possibility of death of 49.7±29.3%, and the possibility of hospital discharge was 24±17.5%. These values are different when compared by Student's t-test (p<0.001). The correlation test revealed r=0.80 and the performance of the model was 81.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This predictive, non-invasive and low cost model showed a good accuracy and can be applied in neonatal care, given the easiness of its use. PMID:25119746

  11. Estimating outcomes in newborn infants using fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luciano Eustáquio; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C

    2014-06-01

    To build a linguistic model using the properties of fuzzy logic to estimate the risk of death of neonates admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Computational model using fuzzy logic. The input variables of the model were birth weight, gestational age, 5th-minute Apgar score and inspired fraction of oxygen in newborn infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Taubaté, Southeast Brazil. The output variable was the risk of death, estimated as a percentage. Three membership functions related to birth weight, gestational age and 5th-minute Apgar score were built, as well as two functions related to the inspired fraction of oxygen; the risk presented five membership functions. The model was developed using the Mandani inference by means of Matlab(r) software. The model values were compared with those provided by experts and their performance was estimated by ROC curve. 100 newborns were included, and eight of them died. The model estimated an average possibility of death of 49.7±29.3%, and the possibility of hospital discharge was 24±17.5%. These values are different when compared by Student's t-test (p<0.001). The correlation test revealed r=0.80 and the performance of the model was 81.9%. This predictive, non-invasive and low cost model showed a good accuracy and can be applied in neonatal care, given the easiness of its use.

  12. Anomalous magmatic degassing prior to the 5th April 2003 paroxysm on Stromboli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiuppa, A.; Federico, C.

    2004-07-01

    A major explosion occurred at Stromboli on April 5 2003, being the most powerful event over a period of exceptional eruptive activity lasting from December to July. Here, we describe results from a network of diffusive tubes set up on the Stromboli's summit area, aimed at a characterisation of plume composition (SO2, HCl, HF) prior to and after April 5. Data analysis revealed anomalous sulphur degassing 2-3 days before the event, when SO2/HCl ratios (~9) significantly higher than those typical of quiescent degassing (~1) were recorded. We interpret this exceptional plume signature as an evidence of S-rich magmas ascending in the shallow plumbing system, and propose high SO2/HCl as a potential precursor of major explosions on the volcano. The post-April 5 phase was characterised by time-decreasing SO2/HCl and SO2/HF plume ratios, ascribed to declining magma feeding as a prelude to restoration of ``normal'' Strombolian activity.

  13. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  14. Organization of ESOMM-2014: 5th International Meeting on the Effects of Sound in the Ocean on Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    on the Effects of Sound in the Ocean on Marine Mammals 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 2 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Organization of ESOMM-2014: 5th international meeting on the Effects of Sound in the Ocean on Marine Mammals Dr. Frans-Peter A. Lam Acoustics & Sonar

  15. Factors affecting the output pulse flatness of the linear transformer driver cavity systems with 5th harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexeenko, V. M.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Kim, A. A.; Kondratiev, S. S.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.; Volkov, S. N.; Cuneo, M. E.; Kiefer, M. L.; Leckby, J. J.; Oliver, B. V.; Maloney, P. D.

    2016-09-19

    Here, we describe the study we have undertaken to evaluate the effect of component tolerances in obtaining a voltage output flat top for a linear transformer driver (LTD) cavity containing 3rd and 5th harmonic bricks [A. A. Kim et al., in Proc. IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science PPPS2013 (San Francisco, California, USA, 2013), pp. 1354–1356.] and for 30 cavity voltage adder. Our goal was to define the necessary component value precision in order to obtain a voltage output flat top with no more than ±0.5% amplitude variation.

  16. Factors affecting the output pulse flatness of the linear transformer driver cavity systems with 5th harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeenko, V. M.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Kim, A. A.; Kondratiev, S. S.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.; Volkov, S. N.; Cuneo, M. E.; Kiefer, M. L.; Leckby, J. J.; Oliver, B. V.; Maloney, P. D.

    2016-09-01

    We describe the study we have undertaken to evaluate the effect of component tolerances in obtaining a voltage output flat top for a linear transformer driver (LTD) cavity containing 3rd and 5th harmonic bricks [A. A. Kim et al., in Proc. IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science PPPS2013 (San Francisco, California, USA, 2013), pp. 1354-1356.] and for 30 cavity voltage adder. Our goal was to define the necessary component value precision in order to obtain a voltage output flat top with no more than ±0.5 % amplitude variation.

  17. The 14th international workshop on wave hindcasting and forecasting and the 5th coastal hazards symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breivik, Øyvind; Alves, Jose Henrique; Greenslade, Diana; Horsburgh, Kevin; Swail, Val

    2017-04-01

    Following the 14th International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting and 5th Coastal Hazards Symposium in November 2014 in Key West, Florida, a topical collection has appeared in recent issues of Ocean Dynamics. Here, we give a brief overview of the 16 papers published in this topical collection as well as an overview of the widening scope of the conference in recent years. A general trend in the field has been towards closer integration between the wave and ocean modelling communities. This is also seen in this topical collection, with several papers exploring the interaction between surface waves and mixed layer dynamics and sea ice.

  18. Factors affecting the output pulse flatness of the linear transformer driver cavity systems with 5th harmonics

    DOE PAGES

    Alexeenko, V. M.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Kim, A. A.; ...

    2016-09-19

    Here, we describe the study we have undertaken to evaluate the effect of component tolerances in obtaining a voltage output flat top for a linear transformer driver (LTD) cavity containing 3rd and 5th harmonic bricks [A. A. Kim et al., in Proc. IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science PPPS2013 (San Francisco, California, USA, 2013), pp. 1354–1356.] and for 30 cavity voltage adder. Our goal was to define the necessary component value precision in order to obtain a voltage output flat top with no more than ±0.5% amplitude variation.

  19. IBA investigations of loose garnets from Pietroasa, Apahida and Cluj-Someşeni treasures (5th century AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugoi, R.; Oanţă-Marghitu, R.; Calligaro, T.

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports the archaeometric investigations of 418 loose garnets from Pietroasa and Cluj-Someşeni treasures and Apahida II and III princely grave inventories (5th century AD). The chemical composition of the gems was determined by external beam micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator of C2RMF, Paris, France. Complementary observations made by Optical Microscopy revealed details on the gemstones cutting and polishing and permitted to identify certain mineral inclusions. The compositional results evidenced several types of garnets from the pyralspite series, suggesting distinct provenances for these Early Medieval gems.

  20. Fuzzy forecasting based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shyi-Ming; Wang, Nai-Yi

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to predict the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups (FTLRGs). The proposed method divides fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs based on the trend of adjacent fuzzy sets appearing in the antecedents of fuzzy logical relationships. First, we apply an automatic clustering algorithm to cluster the historical data into intervals of different lengths. Then, we define fuzzy sets based on these intervals of different lengths. Then, the historical data are fuzzified into fuzzy sets to derive fuzzy logical relationships. Then, we divide the fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs for forecasting the TAIEX. Moreover, we also apply the proposed method to forecast the enrollments and the inventory demand, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed method gets higher average forecasting accuracy rates than the existing methods.

  1. Parallel optical fuzzy logic inference using improved fuzzy associative memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, ShuQun; Karim, Mohammad A.

    1999-10-01

    A new optoelectronic fuzzy inference system is proposed for processing a large number of fuzzy rules in parallel. The proposed system using spatial light modulator implements various membership functions as well as max-min inference. It has the features of easy implementation and large data processing capability. The membership function decomposition method in the improved fuzzy associative memory is used to save both space bandwidth and accommodate multiple-input fuzzy inference.

  2. What predicts the selection of nursing as a career choice in 5th and 6th year school students?

    PubMed

    Neilson, Gavin R; Jones, Martyn C

    2012-07-01

    Demand for nursing care, and nurses, is growing in the United Kingdom given an increasingly ageing patient population with long-term co-morbidities. An ageing nursing workforce and fewer school leavers entering nursing are key barriers to student nurse recruitment. This paper aims to identify the socio-demographic and correlates nursing as a career choice in 5th and 6th year school students. This cross-sectional descriptive study gathered self-administered questionnaires from a total cohort of 5th and 6th year school students (n=1059) in one educational authority in Scotland. A response rate of 100% was achieved, with 702 students expressing a career choice. Some 71.7% (n=503) of students providing a full data set would never consider nursing, even if they obtained poor grades. Only 28.3% (n=199) would ever consider nursing. Students cited nursing as a career choice if they were female, of average to below average academic ability/achievement, expressed a positive attitude to nursing as a degree subject which was shared by their career guidance teacher. Each additional higher reduced the likelihood of nursing as a career choice by 22%. Nursing is an unpopular career choice amongst school students. Strategies are required to improve the occupational image of nursing in secondary education. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of an intervention program on the reading comprehension processes and strategies in 5th and 6th grade students.

    PubMed

    Gayo, Elena; Deaño, Manuel; Conde, Ángeles; Ribeiro, Iolanda; Cadime, Irene; Alfonso, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Various investigations have revealed that the promotion of cognitive and metacognitive strategies can improve reading comprehension and that when readers receive this type of instruction, they can use monitoring processes and regulation strategies adequately. The goal of this work is to analyze the effects of strategic and metacognitive instruction on reading comprehension processes and strategies, using the "Aprender a Comprender" [Learning to Understand] program. Instruction was carried out in the classroom by two teachers during six months. Ninety-four students participated, 49 from 5th grade and 45 from 6th grade. A pretest-intervention-posttest-follow-up design was used with a comparison group by grade. The analysis of variance shows an impact of the intervention and its differential maintenance in each grade. The 5th-grade intervention group scored higher than the comparison group in the reading comprehension test, both at posttest and at follow-up. The 6th-grade intervention group scored higher than the comparison group in the Planning scale, both at posttest and at follow-up. Textual strategy instruction favors reading comprehension and the progressive development of planning, which is necessary for supervision and regulation, and its effects are maintained over time.

  4. Effects of Fraxinellone on the Midgut Enzyme Activities of the 5th Instar Larvae of Oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata Walker

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Min; Wu, Wenjun; Liu, Huixia

    2014-01-01

    Isolated from Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., fraxinellone exhibited multiple bioactivities against insects. In the present paper, the changes of digestive enzymes and detoxification enzymes of Mythimna separata Walker (5th instar larvae), treated with fraxinellone, were investigated. Compared with those of the control, the α-amylase activity of the fraxinellone-treated 5th instar larvae was inhibited, whereas the level of their protease activity was increased. Based upon further studies on the specific proteases, the levels of the active alkaline trypsin-like enzyme (BApNA as the substrate) and the chymotrypsin-like enzyme (BTEE as the substrate) activities of the treated larvae were declined; however, the level of activity of the weak alkaline trypsin-like enzyme (TAME as the substrate) of the treated ones was increased. Meanwhile, the activities of two detoxification enzymes, such as carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), of the treated larvae were increased to some extent, but the activities of NADPH-P450 reductase and O-demethylase of the treated ones declined. Therefore, protease (especially the weak alkaline trypsin-like enzyme), CarE and GST played important roles in the metabolism of fraxinellone in the midgut of Mythimna separata (M. separata). PMID:25216084

  5. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  6. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  7. Living Day by Day

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Rachel L.; Khoury, Cynthia El; Field, Emily R. S.; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    We examined the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in Lebanon. Ten women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) described their experiences via semistructured in-depth interviews. They navigated a process of HIV diagnosis acceptance that incorporated six overlapping elements: receiving the news, accessing care, starting treatment, navigating disclosure decisions, negotiating stigma, and maintaining stability. Through these elements, we provide a framework for understanding three major themes that were constructed during data analysis: Stand by my side: Decisions of disclosure; Being “sick” and feeling “normal”: Interacting with self, others, and society; and Living day by day: focusing on the present. We contribute to the existing literature by providing a theoretical framework for understanding the process of diagnosis and sero-status acceptance among WLWHA. This was the first study of its kind to examine the meaning of living with HIV/AIDS among women in a Middle Eastern country. PMID:28462340

  8. Component Models for Fuzzy Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppi, Renato; Giordani, Paolo; D'Urso, Pierpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The fuzzy perspective in statistical analysis is first illustrated with reference to the "Informational Paradigm" allowing us to deal with different types of uncertainties related to the various informational ingredients (data, model, assumptions). The fuzzy empirical data are then introduced, referring to "J" LR fuzzy variables as observed on "I"…

  9. It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters It takes a community to define a discipline: the 5th anniversary of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Dan

    2012-03-01

    commentary environment, a unique service in itself, and also a specific forum for research published in ERL. Individual topics often come up that warrant not only single articles, but collections of assessments, and ERL has published focus issues in key areas of environmental science including: tropical deforestation, wind energy, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and climate engineering. ERL is currently publishing seven high-quality focus issues in cutting-edge areas such as arctic vegetation dynamics and cryospheric changes. Research letters appearing in ERL have received regular and significant coverage in the wider media, with several major news outlets and agencies choosing to cover ERL research, such as Nature, BBC News, New Scientist, The Guardian, Scientific American, Le Monde and many others. 4.The future community of ERL The process of community support will take many forms at ERL. The journal is growing—we have published the highest number of articles ever in a single volume in 2011 and are looking to continue this growth through into 2012. ERL had an over 50% increase in submissions from 2010 to 2011. One initiative to mark the journal's 5th anniversary was the 'Best articles' collection [1] a nominated compilation of articles showcasing the quality of published work in ERL as well as the subject area breadth. Co-authors of the five winning articles have been awarded free publication in ERL until the end of 2012. We can also see the open access model working, in that our articles are highly downloaded outside of the traditionally strong geographical areas of academia (North America and Western Europe), showing that the journal's readership is geographically diverse with high interest from Asia, South America and Africa. The journal is committed to progress and innovation; coming soon will be a set of new communication tools and online innovations, including: Video abstracts from the start of 2012 (for example, the video commentary published alongside this

  10. Fuzzy control system design via fuzzy Lyapunov functions.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Zhou, S; Xu, S

    2008-12-01

    This correspondence deals with the problems of analysis and design for a class of continuous-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control systems. Sufficient conditions for the stability of fuzzy control systems are derived based on a fuzzy Lyapunov function. Both parallel and nonparallel distributed compensation controllers are considered. Sufficient conditions for the solvability of the controller design problem are given in the form of linear matrix inequalities. Unlike the fuzzy Lyapunov function approaches reported in the literature, the bound of the time derivatives of the fuzzy basis functions is not required in the proposed approaches. The effectiveness of the proposed approaches is shown through a numerical example.

  11. Measuring Distance of Fuzzy Numbers by Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjari, Tayebeh

    2010-11-01

    Fuzzy numbers and more generally linguistic values are approximate assessments, given by experts and accepted by decision-makers when obtaining value that is more accurate is impossible or unnecessary. Distance between two fuzzy numbers plays an important role in linguistic decision-making. It is reasonable to define a fuzzy distance between fuzzy objects. To achieve this aim, the researcher presents a new distance measure for fuzzy numbers by means of improved centroid distance method. The metric properties are also studied. The advantage is the calculation of the proposed method is far simple than previous approaches.

  12. PREFACE: 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers (IC-MAST2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Vlachos, D. S.; Giouroudi, I.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Potirakis, S.

    2016-03-01

    The 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers, Mykonos island, Greece, hosted about 110 oral and poster papers and more than 90 participants. IC-MAS, as an international annual conference which tries to meet the needs for various types of sensors, particularly those which may be manufactured by low cost methods (i.e. hybrid sensors, smart specialization devices, particular applications not necessarily requiring integrated micro-nano technologies), covering all types of materials and physical effects, appears to be a necessity. IC-MAST has been established as a high quality international conference by: I. Gathering together multinational researchers from all over the world, working in different materials for sensors and transducers and technical applications of sensors, but also in some cases in the management of the data coming from sensors and transducers. The careful selection of the conference place (like Aegean Sea, Budapest, Prague, Bilbao, Mykonos etc) allows for enjoying the local hospitality and sightseeing. II. Emphasizing in hybrid sensors and smart specialization devices produced by inexpensive methods, without excluding of course micro-nano technology, from all kinds of solid state, liquid and gaseous materials, as well as in particular transducer applications (design and development, as well as use of sensing data) III. Innovatively implementing the Virtual Paper Concept, allowing for large impact of research works presented in the conference by authors who either have no time or no funding support for visiting a conference; this year more than 12 virtual papers are presented in the 5th IC MAST, following a standardized procedure via the our robust and reliable Conference Site (www.icmast.net!) > IV. Allowing for lengthy technical and managerial discussions in terms of sensor, material and instrumentation development; furthermore, the different research groups gathered together are offered the particular

  13. Distributed fuzzy system modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrycz, W.; Chi Fung Lam, P.; Rocha, A.F.

    1995-05-01

    The paper introduces and studies an idea of distributed modeling treating it as a new paradigm of fuzzy system modeling and analysis. This form of modeling is oriented towards developing individual (local) fuzzy models for specific modeling landmarks (expressed as fuzzy sets) and determining the essential logical relationships between these local models. The models themselves are implemented in the form of logic processors being regarded as specialized fuzzy neural networks. The interaction between the processors is developed either in an inhibitory or excitatory way. In more descriptive way, the distributed model can be sought as a collection of fuzzy finite state machines with their individual local first or higher order memories. It is also clarified how the concept of distributed modeling narrows down a gap between purely numerical (quantitative) models and the qualitative ones originated within the realm of Artificial Intelligence. The overall architecture of distributed modeling is discussed along with the detailed learning schemes. The results of extensive simulation experiments are provided as well. 17 refs.

  14. Towards autonomous fuzzy control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoi, Sujeet; Ramer, Arthur

    1993-01-01

    The efficient implementation of on-line adaptation in real time is an important research problem in fuzzy control. The goal is to develop autonomous self-organizing controllers employing system-independent control meta-knowledge which enables them to adjust their control policies depending on the systems they control and the environments in which they operate. An autonomous fuzzy controller would continuously observe system behavior while implementing its control actions and would use the outcomes of these actions to refine its control policy. It could be designed to lie dormant when its control actions give rise to adequate performance characteristics but could rapidly and autonomously initiate real-time adaptation whenever its performance degrades. Such an autonomous fuzzy controller would have immense practical value. It could accommodate individual variations in system characteristics and also compensate for degradations in system characteristics caused by wear and tear. It could also potentially deal with black-box systems and control scenarios. On-going research in autonomous fuzzy control is reported. The ultimate research objective is to develop robust and relatively inexpensive autonomous fuzzy control hardware suitable for use in real time environments.

  15. A neural fuzzy controller learning by fuzzy error propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nauck, Detlef; Kruse, Rudolf

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a procedure to integrate techniques for the adaptation of membership functions in a linguistic variable based fuzzy control environment by using neural network learning principles. This is an extension to our work. We solve this problem by defining a fuzzy error that is propagated back through the architecture of our fuzzy controller. According to this fuzzy error and the strength of its antecedent each fuzzy rule determines its amount of error. Depending on the current state of the controlled system and the control action derived from the conclusion, each rule tunes the membership functions of its antecedent and its conclusion. By this we get an unsupervised learning technique that enables a fuzzy controller to adapt to a control task by knowing just about the global state and the fuzzy error.

  16. A neural fuzzy controller learning by fuzzy error propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nauck, Detlef; Kruse, Rudolf

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a procedure to integrate techniques for the adaptation of membership functions in a linguistic variable based fuzzy control environment by using neural network learning principles. This is an extension to our work. We solve this problem by defining a fuzzy error that is propagated back through the architecture of our fuzzy controller. According to this fuzzy error and the strength of its antecedent each fuzzy rule determines its amount of error. Depending on the current state of the controlled system and the control action derived from the conclusion, each rule tunes the membership functions of its antecedent and its conclusion. By this we get an unsupervised learning technique that enables a fuzzy controller to adapt to a control task by knowing just about the global state and the fuzzy error.

  17. Persistent complex bereavement disorder: clinical utility and classification of the category proposed for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kanako; Kikuchi, Senichiro; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) was proposed as a bereavement-related clinical category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, which included the disorder among conditions for further study. This is an independent clinical category in which intense yearning for the deceased continues for at least 12 months. However, the diagnostic features are still inconclusive. We suggest a variation of PCBD for making category from our clinical experiences. We presented two representative case studies in which grief caused by bereavement was observed as the root of the pathological condition. We examined the disorder's pathological conditions, diagnoses, and appropriate treatments based on the cases we experienced. Both cases involved elderly women who lost their spouse through illness and experienced prolonged grief for an extended period, resulting in hospital admission. Based on the two cases, we believe that PCBD can also include a psychotic type with hallucinations as a major symptom. While studying PCBD, we took into account specific cultural characteristics of Japanese people and their present day social environment. Such cases would be suggestive when determining the PCBD clinical category in the future. PCBD is considered to be clinically very useful, especially in an extremely aged society as seen in developed countries, including Japan. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  18. Compositional analysis with atomic column spatial resolution by 5th-order aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Maldonado, David; Herrera, Miriam; Alonso-González, Pablo; González, Yolanda; González, Luisa; Gazquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Pennycook, Stephen J; Guerrero-Lebrero, María de la Paz; Pizarro, Joaquín; Galindo, Pedro L; Molina, Sergio I

    2011-08-01

    We show in this article that it is possible to obtain elemental compositional maps and profiles with atomic-column resolution across an InxGa1-xAs multilayer structure from 5th-order aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images. The compositional profiles obtained from the analysis of HAADF-STEM images describe accurately the distribution of In in the studied multilayer in good agreement with Muraki's segregation model [Muraki, K., Fukatsu, S., Shiraki, Y. & Ito, R. (1992). Surface segregation of In atoms during molecular beam epitaxy and its influence on the energy levels in InGaAs/GaAs quantums wells. Appl Phys Lett 61, 557-559].

  19. Proceedings from the CIH(LMU) 5th Infectious Diseases Symposium 2016 "Drug Resistant Tuberculosis: Old Disease - New Challenge".

    PubMed

    Khosa, Celso; Patel, Krutarth; Abdiyeva, Karlygash; Turebekov, Nurkeldi; Prüller, Bettina; Heinrich, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The 5th CIH(LMU) Infectious Disease Symposium, Munich, Germany, March 12, 2016 brought together Tuberculosis Experts from developed and low middle-income countries to discuss the control of drug resistance Tuberculosis. The meeting featured 9 presentations: Tuberculosis history and current scenario, Tuberculosis and migration - current scenario in Germany, Mechanism of Tuberculosis resistance development, Epidemiology of resistance - transmission vs. new generation of resistance, The impact of diagnostic in patients beyond - sensitivity and specificity, The Bangladesh regimen - new hope trough old drugs, New drugs and regimens - an overview on studies and Multi and Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis from Europe. The presentations were followed by a panel discussion. Serious Multidrug Resistance epidemic in some countries may jeopardize the progress in Tuberculosis control. In this meeting epidemiology, mechanism, immigration and screening, diagnosis, research and treatment of drug resistant tuberculosis were discussed.

  20. The 5th Annual One Mind Summit: Lessons Learned About "Science Informing Brain Health Policies and Practice".

    PubMed

    Hicks, Ramona; Johnson, Stephen; Porter, Amy; Zatzick, Douglas F; One Mind Summit Panel Participants, The

    2017-03-29

    Advances in science frequently precede changes in clinical care by several years or even decades. To better understand the path to translation, we invited experts to share their perspectives at the 5th Annual One Mind Summit: "Science Informing Brain Health Policies and Practice", which was held on May 24-25, 2016 in Crystal City, VA. While the translation of brain research throughout the pipeline - from basic science research to patient care - was discussed, the focus was on the implementation of "best evidence" into patient care. The Summit identified key steps, including the need for professional endorsement and clinical guidelines or policies, acceptance by regulators and payers, dissemination and training for clinicians, patient advocacy, and learning healthcare models. The path to implementation was discussed broadly, as well as in the context of a specific project to implement concussion screening in emergency and urgent care centers throughout the U.S.

  1. Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus Eggs in Canine Coprolite from the Sasanian Era in Iran (4th/5th Century CE)

    PubMed Central

    MOWLAVI, Gholamreza; MAKKI, Mahsasadat; HEIDARI, Zahra; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ARAUJO, Adauto; BOENKE, Nicole; AALI, Abolfazl; STOLLNER, Thomas; MOBEDI, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    Present paper is the second publication introducing the paleoparasitological findings from animal coprolites obtained from archeological site of Chehrabad salt mine in northwestern Iran. The current archeological site is located in northwest of Iran, dated to the Sassanian Era (4th/5th century CE). In the summer 2012 the carnivore coprolite was obtained within the layers in the mine and were thoroughly analyzed for parasites using TSP rehydration technique. Eggs of 0 were successfully retrieved from the examined coprolite and were confidently identified based on reliable references. Identifying of M. hirudinaceus eggs in paleofeces with clear appearance as demonstrated herein, is much due to appropriate preservation condition has been existed in the salt mine .The present finding could be regarded as the oldest acanthocephalan infection in Iran. PMID:26246822

  2. Brief report: data on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th ed.) in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Coolican, Jamesie; Bryson, Susan E; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2008-01-01

    The Fifth Edition of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5; Roid, G. H. (2003). Stanford Binet intelligence scales (5th ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing) is relatively new, with minimal published research on general populations and none with special populations. The present study provides information on the cognitive profiles of children with ASD (N=63) and on the whether the abbreviated battery is representative of the full scale. A high percentage of the children had significantly stronger nonverbal (vs. verbal) skills. This pattern was not related to Full Scale IQ, age or diagnostic subgroup. IQs derived from the abbreviated battery accounted for a large proportion of the variance in FSIQ relative to comparable abbreviated batteries. However, caution is warranted when using the abbreviated battery, as it misrepresents actual ability in a small percentage of cases.

  3. Proceedings of the 5th International DAWN Summit 2014: Acting together to make person-centred diabetes care a reality.

    PubMed

    Bootle, Stuart; Skovlund, Soren E

    2015-07-01

    Almost 250 stakeholders from across the world, representing all aspects of diabetes, attended the 5th International DAWN Summit. The summit focussed on the issues raised by the recently published DAWN2 study, placing particular emphasis on promoting the concept of person-centred diabetes care. Discussions between the delegates took place throughout a variety of sessions, with presentations, interactive exchanges and workshops providing a platform for clarification of common global priorities and opportunities for joint action. Following the summit, these ideas were developed further, leading to the creation of a Global Action Framework. The framework aims to support the ongoing local implementation of change in response to the DAWN2 results, while helping enable person-centred diabetes care to become a reality at all levels.

  4. Primary School 5th and 8th Graders' Understanding and Mental Models about the Shape of the World and Gravity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öztürk, Ayse; Doganay, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated primary school 5th and 8th graders' understanding and mental models related to the shape of the world and gravity, and how these models reflected the fact and what kind of a change there is from 5th to 8th graders. This research is based on a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in a low socioeconomic level…

  5. Changes in Breast Density Reporting Patterns of Radiologists After Publication of the 5th Edition BI-RADS Guidelines: A Single Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Abid; Leddy, Rebecca; Lewis, Madelene; Cluver, Abbie; Ackerman, Susan; Pavic, Dag; Collins, Heather

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of 5th edition BI-RADS breast density assessment guidelines on density reporting patterns in our clinical practice. PenRad reporting system was used to collect mammographic breast density data reported by five radiologists: 16,907 density assignments using 5th edition BI-RADS guidelines were compared with 19,066 density assessments using 4th edition guidelines. Changes in the density assessment pattern were noted between the 4th and 5th edition guidelines, and agreement in density distribution was compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient. A chi-square analysis was conducted for each reader to examine the change in the proportion of dense versus nondense assignments and on each category type to examine specific changes in proportion of density assignments from the 4th to the 5th edition. All reported p values are two-sided, and statistical significance was considered at the p < 0.001 threshold. Using the 5th edition, there was an overall 5.0% decrease in fatty assessments (p < 0.001), 2.8% increase in scattered densities (p < 0.001), 2.6% increase in heterogeneously dense (p < 0.001), and 0.4% decrease in extremely dense assessments (p = 0.15). Comparing the dense with nondense categories, there was a 2.3% overall increase in the dense assessments (p < 0.001) using 5th edition guidelines, mainly in the heterogeneously dense category. Two radiologists showed increased dense assessments (p < 0.001) using the 5th edition, and three radiologists showed no change (p = 0.39, 0.67, and 0.76). There was an overall increase in the dense assessments using the 5th edition, but individual radiologists in our clinical practice showed a variable adaptation to new guidelines.

  6. Reconfigurable fuzzy cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, George A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a reconfigurable fuzzy cell comprising a digital control programmable gain operation amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an electrically erasable PROM, and 8-bit counter and comparator, and supporting logic configured to achieve in real-time fuzzy systems high throughput, grade-of-membership or membership-value conversion of multi-input sensor data. The invention provides a flexible multiplexing-capable configuration, implemented entirely in hardware, for effectuating S-, Z-, and PI-membership functions or combinations thereof, based upon fuzzy logic level-set theory. A membership value table storing 'knowledge data' for each of S-, Z-, and PI-functions is contained within a nonvolatile memory for storing bits of membership and parametric information in a plurality of address spaces. Based upon parametric and control signals, analog sensor data is digitized and converted into grade-of-membership data. In situ learn and recognition modes of operation are also provided.

  7. Assessment of Flood Vulnerability to Climate Change Using Fuzzy Operators in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to apply the IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) concept of vulnerability to climate change and verify the use of a combination of vulnerability index and fuzzy operators to flood vulnerability analysis and mapping in Seoul using GIS. In order to achieve this goal, this study identified indicators influencing floods based on literature review. We include indicators of exposure to climate(daily max rainfall, days of 80㎜ over), sensitivity(slope, geological, average DEM, Impermeability layer, topography and drainage), and adaptive capacity(retarding basin and green-infra). Also, this research used fuzzy operator model for aggregating indicators, and utilized frequency ratio to decide fuzzy membership values. Results show that number of days of precipitation above 80㎜, the distance from river and impervious surface have comparatively strong influence on flood damage. Furthermore, when precipitation is over 269㎜, areas with scare flood mitigation capacities, industrial land use, elevation of 16˜20m, within 50m distance from rivers are quite vulnerable to floods. Yeongdeungpo-gu, Yongsan-gu, Mapo-gu include comparatively large vulnerable areas. The relative weight of each factor was then converted into a fuzzy membership value and integrated as a flood vulnerability index using fuzzy operators (fuzzy AND, fuzzy OR, fuzzy algebraic sum, and fuzzy algebraic product). Comparing the results of the highest for the fuzzy AND operator, fuzzy gamma operator (γ = 0.2) is higher with improved computational. This study improved previous flood vulnerability assessment methodology by adopting fuzzy operator model. Also, vulnerability map provides meaningful information for decision makers regarding priority areas for implementing flood mitigation policies. Acknowledgements: The authors appreciate the support that this study has received from "Development of Time Series Disaster Mapping Technologies through Natural Disaster Factor Spatial

  8. Fast Fuzzy Arithmetic Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, Michael; Kosheleva, Olga

    1997-01-01

    In engineering applications of fuzzy logic, the main goal is not to simulate the way the experts really think, but to come up with a good engineering solution that would (ideally) be better than the expert's control, In such applications, it makes perfect sense to restrict ourselves to simplified approximate expressions for membership functions. If we need to perform arithmetic operations with the resulting fuzzy numbers, then we can use simple and fast algorithms that are known for operations with simple membership functions. In other applications, especially the ones that are related to humanities, simulating experts is one of the main goals. In such applications, we must use membership functions that capture every nuance of the expert's opinion; these functions are therefore complicated, and fuzzy arithmetic operations with the corresponding fuzzy numbers become a computational problem. In this paper, we design a new algorithm for performing such operations. This algorithm is applicable in the case when negative logarithms - log(u(x)) of membership functions u(x) are convex, and reduces computation time from O(n(exp 2))to O(n log(n)) (where n is the number of points x at which we know the membership functions u(x)).

  9. Games with fuzzy parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messaoud, Deghdak

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we study the existence of equilibrium in non-cooperative game with fuzzy parameters. We generalize te results of Larbani and Kacher(2008, 2009) in infinite dimentional spaces. The proof is based on the Browder-Fan fixed point theorem.

  10. Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controller. I, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chuen Chien

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in the theory and applications of fuzzy-logic controllers (FLCs) are examined in an analytical review. The fundamental principles of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are recalled; the basic FLC components (fuzzification and defuzzification interfaces, knowledge base, and decision-making logic) are described; and the advantages of FLCs for incorporating expert knowledge into a control system are indicated. Particular attention is given to fuzzy implication functions, the interpretation of sentence connectives (and, also), compositional operators, and inference mechanisms. Applications discussed include the FLC-guided automobile developed by Sugeno and Nishida (1985), FLC hardware systems, FLCs for subway trains and ship-loading cranes, fuzzy-logic chips, and fuzzy computers.

  11. On the intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadati, Reza; Park, Jin Han

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we define precompact set in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces and prove that any subset of an intuitionistic fuzzy metric space is compact if and only if it is precompact and complete. Also we define topologically complete intuitionistic fuzzy metrizable spaces and prove that any $G_{\\delta }$ set in a complete intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces is a topologically complete intuitionistic fuzzy metrizable space and vice versa. Finally, we define intuitionistic fuzzy normed spaces and fuzzy boundedness for linear operators and so we prove that every finite dimensional intuitionistic fuzzy normed space is complete.

  12. Bipolar-value fuzzy soft lie subalgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong-wei

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the notions of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebras are given, some of their properties are studied. Furthermore, we shall define the definition of bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphism of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebras and show that the theorem of bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphic pre-image of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra, we shall give a counterexample which the image of a bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra under bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphism needs not be bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra.

  13. Final Report for DOE Support of 5th the International Workshop on Oxide Surfaces (IWOX-V)

    SciTech Connect

    Charles T. Campbell

    2007-02-02

    The 5th International Workshop on Oxide Surfaces (IWOX-V) was held at Granlibakken Conference center in Lake Tahoe, CA, January 7-12. The total attendance was ~90. The breakdown of attendees by country is as follows: USA 41 Germany 18 Japan 7 UK 5 Italy 5 France 4 Austria 3 Denmark 3 Cech. Repub. 1 Ireland 1 New Zealand 1 India 1 The technical program included oral sessions on the electronic and magnetic properties of oxide surfaces, surface and interface structure, advances in theory, surface defects, thin film oxides on metals and on oxides, thin film metals on oxides, surface photochemistry, surface reactivity, and interactions with water. Two evening poster sessions had similar themes. As in previous years, the program stimulated significant interest and discussion among the attendees. The local expenses (food and lodging, $918 per person) for eight foreign invited speakers were covered by BES funds. In addition, partial reimbursement for travel ($328 per person) was supported by BES funds for two more foreign invited speakers.

  14. Fast Food Consumption and Food Prices: Evidence from Panel Data on 5th and 8th Grade Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents. PMID:22292115

  15. 5th European conference on Progress in Vaccination Against Cancer. 20-21 September 2005, Athens, Greece.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Federica

    2005-12-01

    'Progress In Vaccination Against Cancer' (PIVAC) examines the latest advances in tumour immunology and their clinical applications. Previous conferences were held in Blaubeuren, London, Cambridge, Oxford, Copenhagen, Stockholm, Nottingham and Freudenstadt-Lauterbad in the Black Forest. The residential format of these conferences encourages interactions between participants and permits a focussed discussion on the new data and concepts. The main topic of the 5th European PIVAC was the induction and maintenance of an active immune memory against cancer. The results of clinical trials with different cancer vaccines were presented. The correlations between tumour regression and immune response, the role of innate and specific immunity, and ways of enhancing these two arms of the antitumour response were explored. Particular attention was devoted to the presence and function of regulatory T cells as a prelude to improving the design of these trials and understanding why they have produced unimpressive results. A consensus was reached on the need to combine vaccination with strategies for suppressing regulatory T cell function. The immune-escape mechanisms of tumours and the emerging importance of some newly discovered mutations were also fully discussed.

  16. [Coding in neuropediatrics based on the International Classification Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9), 5th edition (2006)].

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, A; Martínez-Granero, M A; Verdú-Pérez, A; de Castro-De Castro, P; Garzo-Fernández, C; Vázquez-López, M; Martínez-Bermejo, A; Simón-De las Heras, R; Martínez-Menéndez, B; San Antonio-Arce, V; de Santos-Moreno, M T; Carrasco-Marina, M L; Cazorla-Calleja, M R

    To analyze International Classification Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) coding and adapt it, on a consensus basis, to 'reasons for medical consultation', 'diagnoses' and 'procedures' in child neurology. The most frequent reasons for medical consultation, diagnoses and procedures in neuropediatrics were selected and assigned the most appropriate ICD-9, Clinical Modification (5th ed.) (ICD-9-CM) codes in accordance with this system's coding rules. Disorders were grouped by sections, and allocated to the various members of the working group (13 child neurologists from 10 hospitals in Madrid and environs). Available on the web www.neurologia.com/cie-9. ICD-9-CM codes were assigned to: 158 reasons for medical consultation; 886 diagnoses; 73 diagnostic procedures; and 53 therapeutic procedures. In every case, the most appropriate ICD-9 code was sought for the respective diagnosis. No codes were invented but the working group did take certain liberties with interpretation, which nevertheless showed respect for general ICD-9-CM philosophy and are described in full in the text. The creation of this ICD-9 adaptation will not only enhance diagnostic coding in child neurology departments, but will also provide them with a useful tool for setting up databases to enable information to be retrospectively analyzed and shared by the different health centers.

  17. Fast food consumption and food prices: evidence from panel data on 5th and 8th grade children.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tamkeen; Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Fast food consumption is a dietary factor associated with higher prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States. The association between food prices and consumption of fast food among 5th and 8th graders was examined using individual-level random effects models utilizing consumption data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), price data from American Chamber of Commerce Researchers Association (ACCRA), and contextual outlet density data from Dun and Bradstreet (D&B). The results found that contextual factors including the price of fast food, median household income, and fast food restaurant outlet densities were significantly associated with fast food consumption patterns among this age group. Overall, a 10% increase in the price of fast food was associated with 5.7% lower frequency of weekly fast food consumption. These results suggest that public health policy pricing instruments such as taxes may be effective in reducing consumption of energy-dense foods and possibly reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children and young adolescents.

  18. [Progress and prospects on evaluation of ecological restoration: a review of the 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing-Yi; Zhao, Wen-Wu

    2014-09-01

    The 5th World Conference on Ecological Restoration was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA on October 6-11, 2013. About 1200 delegates from more than 50 countries attended the conference, and discussed the latest developments in different thematic areas of ecological restoration. Discussions on evaluation of ecological restoration were mainly from three aspects: The construction for evaluation indicator system of ecological restoration; the evaluation methods of ecological restoration; monitoring and dynamic evaluation of ecological restoration. The meeting stressed the importance of evaluation in the process of ecological restoration and concerned the challenges in evaluation of ecological restoration. The conference had the following enlightenments for China' s research on evaluation of ecological restoration: 1) Strengthening the construction of comprehensive evaluation indicators system and focusing on the multi-participation in the evaluation process. 2) Paying more attentions on scale effect and scale transformation in the evaluation process of ecological restoration. 3) Expanding the application of 3S technology in assessing the success of ecological restoration and promoting the dynamic monitoring of ecological restoration. 4) Carrying out international exchanges and cooperation actively, and promoting China's international influence in ecological restoration research.

  19. Clinical development of new prophylactic antimalarial drugs after the 5th Amendment to the Declaration of Helsinki.

    PubMed

    Dow, Geoffrey S; Magill, Alan J; Ohrt, Colin

    2008-08-01

    Malaria is of continuing concern in nonimmune traveling populations. Traditionally, antimalarial drugs have been developed as agents for dual indications (treatment and prophylaxis). However, since 2000, when the 5th Amendment to the Declaration of Helsinki (DH2000) was adopted, development of new malaria prophylaxis drugs in this manner has ceased. As a consequence, there may not be any new drugs licensed for this indication in the foreseeable future. Major pharmaceutical companies have interpreted DH2000 to mean that the traditional development paradigm may be considered unethical because of doubt over the likelihood of benefit to endemic populations participating in clinical studies, the use of placebo, and the sustainability of post-trial access to study medications. In this article, we explore the basis of these concerns and suggest that the traditional development paradigm remains ethical under certain circumstances. We also consider alternative approaches that may be more attractive to sponsors as they either do not use placebo, or utilize populations in endemic countries who may unambiguously benefit. These approaches represent the way forward in the future, but are at present unproven in clinical practice, and face numerous regulatory, logistical and technical challenges. Consequently, in the short term, we argue that the traditional clinical development paradigm remains the most feasible approach and is ethical and consistent with the spirit of DH2000 under the appropriate circumstances.

  20. Clinical development of new prophylactic antimalarial drugs after the 5th Amendment to the Declaration of Helsinki

    PubMed Central

    Dow, Geoffrey S; Magill, Alan J; Ohrt, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is of continuing concern in nonimmune traveling populations. Traditionally, antimalarial drugs have been developed as agents for dual indications (treatment and prophylaxis). However, since 2000, when the 5th Amendment to the Declaration of Helsinki (DH2000) was adopted, development of new malaria prophylaxis drugs in this manner has ceased. As a consequence, there may not be any new drugs licensed for this indication in the foreseeable future. Major pharmaceutical companies have interpreted DH2000 to mean that the traditional development paradigm may be considered unethical because of doubt over the likelihood of benefit to endemic populations participating in clinical studies, the use of placebo, and the sustainability of post-trial access to study medications. In this article, we explore the basis of these concerns and suggest that the traditional development paradigm remains ethical under certain circumstances. We also consider alternative approaches that may be more attractive to sponsors as they either do not use placebo, or utilize populations in endemic countries who may unambiguously benefit. These approaches represent the way forward in the future, but are at present unproven in clinical practice, and face numerous regulatory, logistical and technical challenges. Consequently, in the short term, we argue that the traditional clinical development paradigm remains the most feasible approach and is ethical and consistent with the spirit of DH2000 under the appropriate circumstances. PMID:19209263

  1. Communicating Science to Impact Learning? A Phenomenological Inquiry into 4th and 5th Graders' Perceptions of Science Information Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmez Burakgazi, Sevinc; Yildirim, Ali; Weeth Feinstein, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Rooted in science education and science communication studies, this study examines 4th and 5th grade students' perceptions of science information sources (SIS) and their use in communicating science to students. It combines situated learning theory with uses and gratifications theory in a qualitative phenomenological analysis. Data were gathered through classroom observations and interviews in four Turkish elementary schools. Focus group interviews with 47 students and individual interviews with 17 teachers and 10 parents were conducted. Participants identified a wide range of SIS, including TV, magazines, newspapers, internet, peers, teachers, families, science centers/museums, science exhibitions, textbooks, science books, and science camps. Students reported using various SIS in school-based and non-school contexts to satisfy their cognitive, affective, personal, and social integrative needs. SIS were used for science courses, homework/project assignments, examination/test preparations, and individual science-related research. Students assessed SIS in terms of the perceived accessibility of the sources, the quality of the content, and the content presentation. In particular, some sources such as teachers, families, TV, science magazines, textbooks, and science centers/museums ("directive sources") predictably led students to other sources such as teachers, families, internet, and science books ("directed sources"). A small number of sources crossed context boundaries, being useful in both school and out. Results shed light on the connection between science education and science communication in terms of promoting science learning.

  2. Bond Strength of 5th, 6th and 7th Generation Bonding Agents to Intracanal Dentin of Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hossein; Baradaran Nakhjavani, Yahya; Rahro Taban, Sedighe; Baniameri, Zahra; Nahvi, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This in-vitro study sought to assess the push-out bond strength of a total etch and 2 self-etch bonding systems to intracanal dentin of primary anterior teeth (PAT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six primary anterior teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 5th generation (Single Bond 2), 6th generation (Clearfil SE) and 7th generation (Single Bond Universal) bonding agents. The canal orifice was restored with composite resin and the push-out test was carried out to assess the bond strength. After applying the push-out load, specimens were evaluated under a light microscope at 40X magnification. One-way ANOVA and log-rank test on Kaplan-Meier curves were applied for the comparison of bond strength among the 3 groups. Results: The mean± standard deviation (SD) bond strength was 13.6±5.33 MPa for Single Bond 2, 13.85±5.86 MPa for Clearfil SE and 12.28±5.24 MPa for Single Bond Universal. The differences in bond strength among the 3 groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: All three bonding agents are recommended for use with composite posts in PAT. However, due to high technical sensitivity of the Total Etch system, single or two-step self etch systems may be preferred for uncooperative children. PMID:26056518

  3. Fuzzy logic particle tracking velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    Fuzzy logic has proven to be a simple and robust method for process control. Instead of requiring a complex model of the system, a user defined rule base is used to control the process. In this paper the principles of fuzzy logic control are applied to Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). Two frames of digitally recorded, single exposure particle imagery are used as input. The fuzzy processor uses the local particle displacement information to determine the correct particle tracks. Fuzzy PTV is an improvement over traditional PTV techniques which typically require a sequence (greater than 2) of image frames for accurately tracking particles. The fuzzy processor executes in software on a PC without the use of specialized array or fuzzy logic processors. A pair of sample input images with roughly 300 particle images each, results in more than 200 velocity vectors in under 8 seconds of processing time.

  4. Fuzzy pharmacology: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Sproule, Beth A; Naranjo, Claudio A; Türksen, I Burhan

    2002-09-01

    Fuzzy pharmacology is a term coined to represent the application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory to pharmacological problems. Fuzzy logic is the science of reasoning, thinking and inference that recognizes and uses the real world phenomenon that everything is a matter of degree. It is an extension of binary logic that is able to deal with complex systems because it does not require crisp definitions and distinctions for the system components. In pharmacology, fuzzy modeling has been used for the mechanical control of drug delivery in surgical settings, and work has begun evaluating its use in other pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic applications. Fuzzy pharmacology is an emerging field that, based on these initial explorations, warrants further investigation.

  5. Fuzzy-Contextual Contrast Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan

    2017-02-08

    This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.

  6. IMMEDIATE AND SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF THE 5TH GRADE VERSION OF THE keepin’ it REAL SUBSTANCE USE PREVENTION INTERVENTION*

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Marsiglia, Flavio; Dustman, Patricia; Reeves, Leslie; Harthun, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the immediate and short-term outcomes of adapting a culturally-grounded middle school program, keepin’ it REAL, for elementary school students. After curriculum adaptation, 10 schools were randomly assigned to the intervention in 5th grade with follow-up boosters in 6th grade; 13 schools were randomly assigned to the control condition, implementing the school’s pre-existing substance use prevention programming. Students (n = 1,566) completed a questionnaire prior to curriculum implementation and follow-up questionnaires toward the end of 5th and 6th grade. The 5th grade kiR curriculum generally appeared no more effective than the control schools’ programming in changing students’ resistance or decision-making skills; substance use intentions, expectancies, or normative beliefs; or lifetime and recent substance use. Such findings have implications for the age appropriateness of school-based programs. PMID:19157042

  7. [Examining the reliability and validity of a Japanese version of the 12-item Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (the 5th stage)].

    PubMed

    Hatano, Kai; Sugimura, Kazumi; Nakama, Reiko; Mizokami, Shinichi; Tsuzuki, Manabu

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to develop a 12-item version of the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (the 5th stage) (EPSI (5th)) and examine its reliability and validity. University students (N = 545) participated in this study. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor model provided a better fit than alternative one-factor models. An analysis of Cronbach's α coefficients and the test-retest method showed acceptable scale reliability. In accordance with our hypotheses, correlation analyses revealed that the EPSI (5th) subscale scores (i.e., synthesis and confusion) were significantly related to measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction with life, and identity confusion. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  8. The retinoic acid receptor-α modulators ATRA and Ro415253 reciprocally regulate human IL-5+ Th2 cell proliferation and cytokine expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Th2 cytokine responses are enhanced by all trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the bioavailable form of vitamin A. Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) is the high affinity receptor for ATRA that mediates these pro-Th2 effects. We have previously characterized two major human Th2 subpopulations: IL-5- Th2 (IL-5-, IL-4+, IL-13+) and IL-5+ Th2 cells (IL-5+, IL-4+, IL-13+), which represent less and more highly differentiated Th2 cells, respectively. We hypothesized that the pro-Th2 effects of ATRA may differentially affect these Th2 subpopulations. Methods Specific cytokine producing Th2 subpopulations were identified using intracellular cytokine staining. Proliferation was measured using the Cell Trace Violet proliferation tracking dye. Apoptotic cells were identified using either annexin-V or active caspase 3 staining. Th2 gene expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results ATRA increased the output of Th2 cells from house dust mite allergen (HDM) specific short-term cell lines, and this enhancement was limited to the IL-5+ Th2 subpopulation. Conversely, the RARα antagonist Ro415253 decreased Th2 cell output from these cultures, and this effect was again limited to the IL-5+ Th2 subpopulation. ATRA and Ro415253 respectively augmented and inhibited Th2 cell proliferation, and this affect was more pronounced for the IL-5+ vs. IL-5- Th2 subpopulation. ATRA and Ro415253 respectively augmented and inhibited the expression of IL5 in a significant manner, which was not found for IL4 or IL13. Conclusions We report that the reciprocal regulation of Th2 cytokine expression and proliferation by RARα modulators are largely limited to modulation of IL-5 gene expression and to proliferation of the highly differentiated IL-5+ Th2 subpopulation. These results suggest that RARα antagonism is a potential means to therapeutically target allergic inflammation. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01212016 PMID:24314292

  9. Implementing SPRINTT [Student Polar Research with IPY National(and International)Teacher Training] in 5th Grade Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    I implemented the new NSF-funded SPRINTT (Student Polar Research with IPY National (and International) Teacher Training) curriculum with a 5th grade science class. SPRINTT, developed at U.S. Satellite Laboratory, Inc., is a 5-8 week science program teaching 5th through 10th graders to investigate climate change using polar data. The program includes perspectives of both Western scientists and the indigenous Northern population. The course contains three phases: Phase 1 includes content, data interpretation, and hands-on experiments to study Frozen Water, Frozen Land, and Food; Phase 2 (optional) includes further content on specific polar topics; and Phase 3 is a scaffolded research investigation. Before the course, teachers were trained via live webinars. This curriculum capitalizes on children’s innate fascination with our planet’s final frontier and combines it with the politically and scientifically relevant topic of climate change. In 2009, I used SPRINTT with 23 heterogeneous fifth grade students at National Presbyterian School in Washington DC for an environmental science unit. Overall, it was a success. The students met most of the learning objectives and showed enthusiasm for the material. I share my experiences to help other educators and curriculum developers. The Phase 1 course includes earth science (glaciers, sea ice, weather and climate, greenhouse gases, seasons, and human impacts on environments), life science (needs of living things, food and energy transfer, adaptations, and ecosystems and biomes) and physical science (phases of matter). Tailoring the program, I focused on Phase 1, the most accessible material and content, while deemphasizing the more cumbersome Phase 3 online research project. Pre-assessments documented the students’ misconceptions and informed instruction. The investigations were appropriately educational and interesting. For example, students enjoyed looking at environmental factors and their impact on the people in the

  10. When should orthostatic blood pressure changes be evaluated in elderly: 1st, 3rd or 5th minute?

    PubMed

    Soysal, Pinar; Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Koc Okudur, Saadet; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2016-01-01

    Detection of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is very important in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality, ischemic stroke, falls, cognitive failure and depression. It was aimed to determine the most appropriate time for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in elderly. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) including Head up Tilt Table (HUT) test was performed in 407 geriatric patients. Orthostatic changes were assessed separately for the 1st, 3rd and 5th minutes (HUT1, HUT3 and HUT5, respectively) taking the data in supine position as the basis. The mean age, recurrent falls, presence of dementia and Parkinson's disease, number of drugs, alpha-blocker and anti-dementia drug use, and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the patients with versus without OH; whereas, albumin and 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly lower (p<0.05). However, different from HUT3 and HUT5, Charlson Comorbidity Index and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were higher, the use of antidiabetics, antipsychotics, benzodiazepine, opioid and levodopa were more common (p<0.05). Statistical significance of the number of drugs and fasting blood glucose level was prominent in HUT1 as compared to HUT3 (p<0.01, p<0.05). Comparison of the patients that had OH only in HUT1, HUT3or HUT5 revealed no difference in terms of CGA parameters. These results suggests that orthostatic blood pressure changes determined at the 1st minute might be more important for geriatric practice. Moreover, 1st minute measurement might be more convenient in the elderly as it requires shorter time in practice.

  11. Validating the proposed diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition, severity indicator for personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Morey, Leslie C; Bender, Donna S; Skodol, Andrew E

    2013-09-01

    The authors sought to determine whether a 5-point global rating of personality dysfunction on the Level of Personality Functioning Scale proposed as a severity index for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), would be related to DSM-IV personality disorder diagnosis as well as to other key clinical judgments. Data were collected from a national sample of 337 mental health clinicians who provided complete diagnostic information relevant to DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 personality disorder diagnoses, as well as demographic information and other clinical judgments, on one of their patients. Of the 337 patients described, 248 met criteria for 1 of the 10 specific DSM-IV personality disorders. A "moderate" or greater rating of impairment in personality functioning on the Level Scale demonstrated 84.6% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity for identifying patients meeting criteria for a specific DSM-IV personality disorder. The Level of Personality Functioning Scale had significant and substantial validity correlations with other measures of personality pathology and with clinical judgments regarding functioning, risk, prognosis, and optimal treatment intensity. Furthermore, the single-item Level of Personality Functioning rating was viewed as being as clinically useful as the 10 DSM-IV categories for treatment planning and patient description and was a better predictor of clinician ratings of broad psychosocial functioning than were the 10 DSM-IV categories combined. These results confirm hypotheses that the single-item Level of Personality Functioning Scale rating provides an indication of severity of personality pathology that predicts both assignment of personality disorder diagnosis and clinician appraisals of functioning, risk, prognosis, and needed treatment intensity.

  12. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  13. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: protocol, methods, and analysis of data.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    Accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) with recall is a potentially distressing complication of general anaesthesia that can lead to psychological harm. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) was designed to investigate the reported incidence, predisposing factors, causality, and impact of accidental awareness. A nationwide network of local co-ordinators across all the UK and Irish public hospitals reported all new patient reports of accidental awareness to a central database, using a system of monthly anonymized reporting over a calendar year. The database collected the details of the reported event, anaesthetic and surgical technique, and any sequelae. These reports were categorized into main types by a multidisciplinary panel, using a formalized process of analysis. The main categories of accidental awareness were: certain or probable; possible; during sedation; on or from the intensive care unit; could not be determined; unlikely; drug errors; and statement only. The degree of evidence to support the categorization was also defined for each report. Patient experience and sequelae were categorized using current tools or modifications of such. The NAP5 methodology may be used to assess new reports of AAGA in a standardized manner, especially for the development of an ongoing database of case reporting. This paper is a shortened version describing the protocols, methods, and data analysis from NAP5--the full report can be found at http://www.nationalauditprojects.org.uk/NAP5_home. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Breastfeeding, introduction of other foods and effects on health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The overall aim was to review recent scientific data valid in a Nordic setting on the short- and long-term health effects of breastfeeding (duration of both any and exclusive breastfeeding) and introduction of foods other than breast milk. The initial literature search resulted in 2,011 abstracts; 416 identified as potentially relevant. Full paper review resulted in 60 quality assessed papers (6A, 48B, and 6C). A complementary search found some additional papers. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-no conclusion. The evidence was convincing of a protective dose/duration effect of breastfeeding against overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence, overall infections, acute otitis media, and gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. The evidence was probable that exclusive breastfeeding for longer than 4 months is associated with slower weight gain during the second half of the first year which could be part of the reason behind the reduced risk of later overweight or obesity. There was also probable evidence that breastfeeding is a protective factor against inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and diabetes (type 1 and 2), provides beneficial effects on IQ and developmental scores of children as well as a small reductive effect on blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels in adulthood. Other associations explored were limited-suggestive or inconclusive. In conclusion, convincing and probable evidence was found for benefits of breastfeeding on several outcomes. The recommendation in NNR2004 about exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued partial breastfeeding thereafter can stand unchanged. The relatively low proportion of infants in the Nordic countries following this recommendation indicates that strategies that protect, support and promote breastfeeding should be

  15. Emergent fuzzy geometry and fuzzy physics in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ydri, Badis; Rouag, Ahlam; Ramda, Khaled

    2017-03-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo calculation of the phase diagram of bosonic mass-deformed IKKT Yang-Mills matrix models in three and six dimensions with quartic mass deformations is given. Background emergent fuzzy geometries in two and four dimensions are observed with a fluctuation given by a noncommutative U (1) gauge theory very weakly coupled to normal scalar fields. The geometry, which is determined dynamically, is given by the fuzzy spheres SN2 and SN2 × SN2 respectively. The three and six matrix models are effectively in the same universality class. For example, in two dimensions the geometry is completely stable, whereas in four dimensions the geometry is stable only in the limit M ⟶ ∞, where M is the mass of the normal fluctuations. The behaviors of the eigenvalue distribution in the two theories are also different. We also sketch how we can obtain a stable fuzzy four-sphere SN2 × SN2 in the large N limit for all values of M as well as models of topology change in which the transition between spheres of different dimensions is observed. The stable fuzzy spheres in two and four dimensions act precisely as regulators which is the original goal of fuzzy geometry and fuzzy physics. Fuzzy physics and fuzzy field theory on these spaces are briefly discussed.

  16. Fuzzy learning under and about an unfamiliar fuzzy teacher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasarathy, Belur V.

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the problem of optimal parametric learning in unfamiliar fuzzy environments. Prior studies in the domain of unfamiliar environments, which employed either crisp or fuzzy approaches to model the uncertainty or imperfectness of the learning environment, assumed that the training sample labels provided by the unfamiliar teacher were crisp, even if not perfect. Here, the more realistic problem of fuzzy learning under an unfamiliar teacher who provides only fuzzy (instead of crisp) labels, is tackled by expanding the previously defined fuzzy membership concepts to include an additional component representative of the fuzziness of the teacher. The previously studied scenarios, namely, crisp and fuzzy learning under (crisp) unfamiliar teacher, can be looked upon as special cases of this new methodology. As under the earlier studies, the estimated membership functions can then be deployed during the ensuing classification decision phase to judiciously take into account the imperfectness of the learning environment. The study also offers some insight into the properties of several of these fuzzy membership function estimators by examining their behavior under certain specific scenarios.

  17. Fuzzy learning under and about an unfamiliar fuzzy teacher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasarathy, Belur V.

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the problem of optimal parametric learning in unfamiliar fuzzy environments. Prior studies in the domain of unfamiliar environments, which employed either crisp or fuzzy approaches to model the uncertainty or imperfectness of the learning environment, assumed that the training sample labels provided by the unfamiliar teacher were crisp, even if not perfect. Here, the more realistic problem of fuzzy learning under an unfamiliar teacher who provides only fuzzy (instead of crisp) labels, is tackled by expanding the previously defined fuzzy membership concepts to include an additional component representative of the fuzziness of the teacher. The previously studied scenarios, namely, crisp and fuzzy learning under (crisp) unfamiliar teacher, can be looked upon as special cases of this new methodology. As under the earlier studies, the estimated membership functions can then be deployed during the ensuing classification decision phase to judiciously take into account the imperfectness of the learning environment. The study also offers some insight into the properties of several of these fuzzy membership function estimators by examining their behavior under certain specific scenarios.

  18. Fusion techniques of fuzzy systems and neural networks, and fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Hideyuki

    1993-12-01

    This paper overviews four combinations of fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms: (1) neural networks to auto-design fuzzy systems, (2) employing fuzzy rule structure to construct structured neural networks, (3) genetic algorithms to auto-design fuzzy systems, and (4) a fuzzy knowledge-based system to control genetic parameter dynamically.

  19. Fuzzy Logic in Medicine and Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Angela; Nieto, Juan J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general view of the current applications of fuzzy logic in medicine and bioinformatics. We particularly review the medical literature using fuzzy logic. We then recall the geometrical interpretation of fuzzy sets as points in a fuzzy hypercube and present two concrete illustrations in medicine (drug addictions) and in bioinformatics (comparison of genomes). PMID:16883057

  20. On Fuzzy Ideals of BL-Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im⁡(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true. PMID:24892085

  1. Representation of Fuzzy Symmetric Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-19

    Std Z39-18 REPRESENTATION OF FUZZY SYMMETRIC RELATIONS L. Valverde Dept. de Matematiques i Estadistica Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Avda...REPRESENTATION OF FUZZY SYMMETRIC RELATIONS L. "Valverde* Dept. de Matematiques i Estadistica Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya Avda. Diagonal, 649

  2. Teaching Machines to Think Fuzzy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy logic programs for computers make them more human. Computers can then think through messy situations and make smart decisions. It makes computers able to control things the way people do. Fuzzy logic has been used to control subway trains, elevators, washing machines, microwave ovens, and cars. Pretty much all the human has to do is push one…

  3. Teaching Machines to Think Fuzzy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy logic programs for computers make them more human. Computers can then think through messy situations and make smart decisions. It makes computers able to control things the way people do. Fuzzy logic has been used to control subway trains, elevators, washing machines, microwave ovens, and cars. Pretty much all the human has to do is push one…

  4. Fuzzy sets and data analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gesù, V.

    Methods and their applications to data analysis problems in fuzzy-sets theory are presented. Fuzzy-sets theory seems to be a powerful tool to model uncertainty and vagueness present in the data and to represent the human thinking in a more natural way.

  5. Demand forecasting using fuzzy neural computation, with special emphasis on weekend and public holiday forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, D.; Chang, C.S.; Liew, A.C.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the implementation and forecasting results of a hybrid fuzzy neural technique, which combines neural network modeling, and techniques from fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory for electric load forecasting. The strengths of this powerful technique lie in its ability to forecast accurately on weekdays, as well as, on weekends, public holidays, and days before and after public holidays. Furthermore, use of fuzzy logic effectively handles the load variations due to special events. The Fuzzy-Neural Network (FNN) has been extensively tested on actual data obtained from a power system for 24-hour ahead prediction based on forecast weather information. Very impressive results, with an average error of 0.62% on weekdays, 0.83% on Saturdays and 1.17% on Sundays and public holidays have been obtained. This approach avoids complex mathematical calculations and training on many years of data, and is simple to implement on a personal computer.

  6. Time Management Problem in Science Course in Secondary School 5th-8th Grades in Turkey: Units Emphasized Less and the Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2016-01-01

    This study is carried out to reveal which units teachers who encounter problems about falling behind the science course curriculum in secondary school in the 5th grade through the 8th grade prefer to focus on less and the reasons for their preferences. Survey model was used in the research study. Total 302 science teachers from 28 different cities…

  7. Indian Health Career Handbook and Report on Ned Hatathli Seminar for Southern Arizona Indian Students (5th, Tucson, Arizona, February 6-7, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Arnold, Ed.; And Others

    Utilizing comments from teachers, professionals, college and high school students, this report is derived from the 5th Ned Hatathli Seminar, sponsored by the Navajo Health Authority, and presents factual information relative to American Indian participation in Indian Health careers. The following major speeches are presented: (1) "The Practice of…

  8. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  9. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  10. The Effect of Direct Instruction Strategy on Math Achievement of Primary 4th and 5th Grade Students with Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Makahleh, Ahmad Abdulhameed Aufan

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to verify the effect of direct instruction strategy on Math achievment of students with learning difficulties in the fourth and fifth grade levels and measure the improvement in their attitudes to Mathematics. Sample consisted of sixty (60) students with Math learning difficulties attending 4th and 5th grade level resource rooms…

  11. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  12. Determination of Motivation of 5th Grade Students Living in Rural and Urban Environments towards Science Learning and Their Attitudes towards Science-Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenar, Ismail; Köse, Mücahit; Demir, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this research, determination of motivation of 5th grade students living in rural and urban environments towards science learning and their attitudes towards science-technology course is aimed. This research is conducted based on descriptive survey model. Samples are selected through teleological model in accordance with the aim of this…

  13. Evaluation of the Effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th Grade Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Subjects Related to "Matter and Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çinar, Derya; Bayraktar, Sule

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Argumentation Based Science Teaching on 5th grade students' conceptual understanding of the subjects related to "Matter and Change". This research is a qualitative research and its design is a multiple (compare) case study. In this study, semi-structured interviews related to the…

  14. The Social Interactions of Students with Disabilities in a 5th Grade Level Inclusive Classroom and the Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall-Reed, Estella

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative, ethnographic case study of 3 students with disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to observe and collect descriptive accounts of the social interactions that exist between the cultures in a 5th grade level inclusive classroom, such as the interactions between the special education students, general…

  15. The Analysis of the 5th Grade Students' Attitudes and Self-Efficacy for Physical Education Course in Terms of Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogan, Hayri

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the 5th grade students' attitudes and self-efficacy for the physical education course that they have come across for the first time which is taught by physical education and sports teachers. Law No. 6287 was issued by the Turkish Grand National Assembly National Education Culture Youth and Sports Commission on…

  16. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks [which] depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The…

  17. An Analysis of the Learning Activities Covered in the 5th Grade Science Textbooks Based on 2005 and 2013 Turkish Science Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogdu, Cemil; Idin, Sahin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the learning activities covered in 5th grade elementary science textbooks which depend on 2005 and 2013 elementary science curricula. Two elementary science textbooks depends on 2005 science curriculum and two elementary science textbooks depend on 2013 science curriculum were researched. The study is a…

  18. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...

  19. Immediate and Short-Term Effects of the 5th Grade Version of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Marsiglia, Flavio; Dustman, Patricia; Reeves, Leslie; Harthun, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the immediate and short-term outcomes of adapting a culturally-grounded middle school program, "keepin' it REAL", for elementary school students. After curriculum adaptation, 10 schools were randomly assigned to the intervention in 5th grade with follow-up boosters in 6th grade; 13 schools were randomly assigned to the control…

  20. Immediate and Short-Term Effects of the 5th Grade Version of the "keepin' it REAL" Substance Use Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira; Wagstaff, David A.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Marsiglia, Flavio; Dustman, Patricia; Reeves, Leslie; Harthun, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the immediate and short-term outcomes of adapting a culturally-grounded middle school program, "keepin' it REAL", for elementary school students. After curriculum adaptation, 10 schools were randomly assigned to the intervention in 5th grade with follow-up boosters in 6th grade; 13 schools were randomly assigned to the control…

  1. EUNIS '99: Information Technology Shaping European Universities. Proceedings of the International European University Information Systems (5th, Espoo, Finland, June 7-9, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document presents the proceedings from the 5th International European University Information Systems (EUNIS) Conference on Information Technology that took place in Helsinki, Finland on June 7-9, 1999. Topics of the conference proceedings were divided into five tracks (A through E): Use of Information Technology in Learning and Teaching;…

  2. Engaging Minds. Proceedings of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning Annual Conference (5th, Galway, Ireland, June 9-10, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication contains the papers presented at the 5th Annual Conference of National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) and the 9th Galway Symposium. Presenters from across Ireland and overseas share their perspectives. The theme of engagement touches on the very heart of what a "higher" education…

  3. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade.

    PubMed

    Crouter, Scott E; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K; Osganian, Stavroula K; Feldman, Henry A; Hayman, Laura L

    2015-01-01

    Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min·d(-1) physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d·wk(-1) at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min·d(-1), respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min·d(-1), respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min·d(-1) (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min·d(-1) (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min·d(-1)) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min·d(-1)); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min·d(-1) (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential to promote

  4. Integration of physical activity and technology motion devices within a combined 5th and 6th grade science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Kevin Eugene

    Background: National recommendations to increase school-based physical activity and promote academic success advise incorporating movement into traditional classroom lessons. Classroom-based physical activities have favorable associations with indicators of cognitive functioning, academic behaviors, and academic achievement. Purpose: This study analyzed the Active Science framework, which incorporated school-based physical activity within interactive science classroom lessons. Specifically, the study measured the effects of the Active Science framework on student physical activity levels in the classroom, student learning of science inquiry skills and content knowledge, and student perceptions of physical activity and science. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the teachers' perceptions on the implementation of the framework. Subjects: Participants were 37 Hispanic girls (age=11.1 +/-0.8 yr) in mixed 5th/6th grade science classes in a private, urban middle school. Methods: Physical activity levels of the students during the Active Science framework were measured using pedometers and heart rate monitors. Pre- and post-tests were used to assess the levels of learning achieved by the students in science inquiry skills and content during the Active Science framework. Student perceptions and attitudes toward science and physical activity were measured during student focus groups and pre-post perception surveys. Lesson plan evaluations completed by the teachers and structured interviews provided data on implementation of the framework. Results: Physical activity results showed heart rate (146 +/-9 bpm); maximal heart rate (196 +/-10.6 bpm); time (35 +/-2.5 mins); steps (3050 +/-402.7); calories (99 +/-8.4 kcal); and distance (1.1 +/-0.2 miles) while performing the activity portion of the science lessons were consistent with national recommendations for accumulating school-based physical activity. Significant increases in science content and skills test scores with a 22

  5. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission

  6. PREFACE: PASREG 2005: The 5th International Workshop on Processing and Applications of Superconducting (RE)BCO Large Grain Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masato; Cardwell, David; Salama, Kamel; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2006-07-01

    Large grain, (RE)BCO bulk superconductors fabricated by top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) have outstanding potential for a variety of engineering applications such as magnetic separators, flywheel energy storage, magnetic bearings and permanent magnet-like devices due to their ability to generate large magnetic fields. Recent developments in materials and systems research has led to the manufacture of proto-type devices for use in magnetron sputtering, magnetic stirrers and a mobile magnetic separator based on bulk materials technology. This issue contains selected papers presented at the 5th International Workshop on the Processing and Applications of Superconducting (RE)BCO Large Grain Materials held on 21-23 October 2005 at Tokyo Marine University to report progress made in this field over the previous two years. The workshop followed those held previously in Cambridge, UK (1997), Morioka, Japan (1999), Seattle, USA (2001), and Jena, Germany (2003). A total of 76 papers were presented at this workshop, of which 27 were presented in oral form and 49 were presented as posters. This issue contains a total of 36 selected papers in the following categories of bulk (RE)BCO large grain material: processing, characterization, and applications. The editors are grateful for the support of many colleagues both within and outside the immediate bulk community who reviewed the manuscripts to guarantee their high technical quality. Finally, the attendees wish to acknowledge the efforts of Professor Mitsuru Izumi and his research staff from Tokyo Marine University for being generous hosts during the workshop, and the efforts of Professor Masato Murakami for the overall organization of the meeting. The International PASREG Board selected the following distinguished researchers as recipients of the 2005 PASREG Award of Excellence to acknowledge their contribution to the development of bulk high temperature superconductors: • Dr Michael Strasik (Boeing, Seattle, USA) • Dr Hiroshi

  7. Technological Characterization of Wall Paintings from the A Mithraic Tomb Dated to 4th-5th Century AD, Gargaresc, Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El Salam, S.; Maniatis, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The excavations of Gargaresc started in 1965 and were one of the most important archaeological sites in Tripoli because it includes a period of about 500 years starting from the 1stc. AD was and continuing until the 5th century AD. The Mithraic tomb is one of the most important outlying monuments of Oea, 200 yards south of the western end of Gargaresc oasis, on the left of the Tripoli-Zuara road between kilometers 5 & 6. The tomb is cut in an outcrop of soft sandstone. The wall paintings found were symbolic to the religion of that period; which contained a mixture of older religions and Christian, and presented the interaction between the artistic and religious elements of that time. Several optical, chemical and mineralogical methods were applied to identify the materials, composition and technology of the plasters and mortars, as well as, the pigments used in the tomb. These are: -OP: Optical microscopy was used as the initial examination of polished cross-sections to identify the structure and microstratigraphy of the plasters and mortars as well as the painted layers. -MCT: Micro-chemical tests were used to identify the type of the plasters and mortars- calcium aluminium silicate and water-soluble salt to identify sulphates, chlorides, carbonates, nitrites and nitrates. -SM: Standard methods for chemical analysis to identify the quantitative and qualitative nature of the plasters and mortars and their mixture. -SEM & EDS: Analytical Scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray analysis system to examine the micrmorphology and determine the chemical composition of the plasters, pigments and the inclusions. -XRD: X-ray powder diffraction to identify the mineralogical composition of the plasters, mortars and pigments. On the bases of all the data obtained, it was possible to establish the nature of the plasters, mortars and their binder. The examination and analysis gave a full picture about the materials and the approximate ratio of amount of

  8. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  9. Comparison of Visual Assessment of Breast Density in BI-RADS 4th and 5th Editions With Automated Volumetric Measurement.

    PubMed

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, So Jung; Son, Eun Ju; Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Jeong-Ah

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare visual assessments of mammographic breast density by radiologists using BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions in correlation with automated volumetric breast density measurements. A total of 337 consecutive full-field digital mammographic examinations with standard views were retrospectively assessed by two radiologists for mammographic breast density according to BI-RADS 4th and 5th editions. Fully automated measurement of the volume of fibroglandular tissue and total breast and percentage breast density was performed with a commercially available software program. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was assessed with kappa statistics. The distributions of breast density categories for both editions of BI-RADS were compared and correlated with volumetric data. Interobserver agreement on breast density category was moderate to substantial (κ = 0.58-0.63) with use of BI-RADS 4th edition and substantial (κ = 0.63-0.66) with use of the 5th edition but without significant difference between the two editions. For intraobserver agreement between the two editions, the distributions of density category were significantly different (p < 0.0001), the proportions of dense breast increased, and the proportion of fatty breast decreased with use of the 5th edition compared with the 4th edition (p < 0.0001). All volumetric breast density data, including percentage breast density, were significantly different among density categories (p < 0.0001) and had significant correlation with visual assessment for both editions of BI-RADS (p < 0.01). Assessment using BI-RADS 5th edition revealed a higher proportion of dense breast than assessment using BI-RADS 4th edition. Nevertheless, automated volumetric density assessment had good correlation with visual assessment for both editions of BI-RADS.

  10. Norepinephrine weaning in septic shock patients by closed loop control based on fuzzy logic

    PubMed Central

    Merouani, Mehdi; Guignard, Bruno; Vincent, François; Borron, Stephen W; Karoubi, Philippe; Fosse, Jean-Philippe; Cohen, Yves; Clec'h, Christophe; Vicaut, Eric; Marbeuf-Gueye, Carole; Lapostolle, Frederic; Adnet, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The rate of weaning of vasopressors drugs is usually an empirical choice made by the treating in critically ill patients. We applied fuzzy logic principles to modify intravenous norepinephrine (noradrenaline) infusion rates during norepinephrine infusion in septic patients in order to reduce the duration of shock. Methods Septic patients were randomly assigned to norepinephrine infused either at the clinician's discretion (control group) or under closed-loop control based on fuzzy logic (fuzzy group). The infusion rate changed automatically after analysis of mean arterial pressure in the fuzzy group. The primary end-point was time to cessation of norepinephrine. The secondary end-points were 28-day survival, total amount of norepinephine infused and duration of mechanical ventilation. Results Nineteen patients were randomly assigned to fuzzy group and 20 to control group. Weaning of norepinephrine was achieved in 18 of the 20 control patients and in all 19 fuzzy group patients. Median (interquartile range) duration of shock was significantly shorter in the fuzzy group than in the control group (28.5 [20.5 to 42] hours versus 57.5 [43.7 to 117.5] hours; P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in duration of mechanical ventilation or survival at 28 days between the two groups. The median (interquartile range) total amount of norepinephrine infused during shock was significantly lower in the fuzzy group than in the control group (0.6 [0.2 to 1.0] μg/kg versus 1.4 [0.6 to 2.7] μg/kg; P < 0.01). Conclusions Our study has shown a reduction in norepinephrine weaning duration in septic patients enrolled in the fuzzy group. We attribute this reduction to fuzzy control of norepinephrine infusion. Trial registration Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00763906. PMID:19068113

  11. Designing Fuzzy Algorithms to Develop Healthy Dietary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Golaleh; Ejtahed, Hanieh-Sadat; Sarsharzadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Nazeri, Pantea; Mirmiran, Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Background Fuzzy logic, a mathematical approach, defines the percentage of desirability for recommended amount of food groups and describes the range of intakes, from deficiency to excess. Objectives The purpose of this research was to find the best fuzzy dietary pattern that constraints energy and nutrients by the iterative algorithm. Materials and Methods An index is derived that reflects how closely the diet of an individual meets all the nutrient requirements set by the dietary reference intake. Fuzzy pyramid pattern was applied for the energy levels from 1000 to 4000 Kcal which estimated the range of recommended servings for seven food groups including fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, milk, oils, fat and added sugar. Results The optimum (lower attention – upper attention) recommended servings per day for fruits, vegetables, grain, meat, dairy, and oils of the 2000 kcal diet were 4.06 (3.75-4.25), 6.69 (6.25-7.00), 5.69 (5.75-6.25), 4.94 (4.5-5.2), 2.75(2.50-3.00), and 2.56 (2.5-2.75), respectively. The fuzzy pattern met most recommended nutrient intake levels except for potassium and vitamin E, which were estimated at 98% and 69% of the dietary reference intake, respectively. Conclusions Using fuzzy logic provides an elegant mathematical solution for finding the optimum point of food groups in dietary pattern. PMID:24454416

  12. Fuzzy portfolio model with fuzzy-input return rates and fuzzy-output proportions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Ruey-Chyn

    2015-02-01

    In the finance market, a short-term investment strategy is usually applied in portfolio selection in order to reduce investment risk; however, the economy is uncertain and the investment period is short. Further, an investor has incomplete information for selecting a portfolio with crisp proportions for each chosen security. In this paper we present a new method of constructing fuzzy portfolio model for the parameters of fuzzy-input return rates and fuzzy-output proportions, based on possibilistic mean-standard deviation models. Furthermore, we consider both excess or shortage of investment in different economic periods by using fuzzy constraint for the sum of the fuzzy proportions, and we also refer to risks of securities investment and vagueness of incomplete information during the period of depression economics for the portfolio selection. Finally, we present a numerical example of a portfolio selection problem to illustrate the proposed model and a sensitivity analysis is realised based on the results.

  13. Complex fuzzy soft expert sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvachandran, Ganeshsree; Hafeed, Nisren A.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2017-04-01

    Complex fuzzy sets and its accompanying theory although at its infancy, has proven to be superior to classical type-1 fuzzy sets, due its ability in representing time-periodic problem parameters and capturing the seasonality of the fuzziness that exists in the elements of a set. These are important characteristics that are pervasive in most real world problems. However, there are two major problems that are inherent in complex fuzzy sets: it lacks a sufficient parameterization tool and it does not have a mechanism to validate the values assigned to the membership functions of the elements in a set. To overcome these problems, we propose the notion of complex fuzzy soft expert sets which is a hybrid model of complex fuzzy sets and soft expert sets. This model incorporates the advantages of complex fuzzy sets and soft sets, besides having the added advantage of allowing the users to know the opinion of all the experts in a single model without the need for any additional cumbersome operations. As such, this model effectively improves the accuracy of representation of problem parameters that are periodic in nature, besides having a higher level of computational efficiency compared to similar models in literature.

  14. Proceedings for the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine: creating an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    De Grace, M; Ericson, D; Folz, H; Greene, W; Ho, K; Pearce, L

    2001-01-01

    Disaster medicine has come to the forefront and has become the focus of interest not only in the medical community, but also in the eyes of the public. The 5th APCDM was convened in Vancouver, Canada, 27-30 September 2000. It brought together over 300 delegates from 32 countries to share their experiences and thoughts regarding disaster events and how to effectively manage them. The conference was devoted to the task of establishing priorities and creating an Agenda for Action. From the discussions, key actions required were defined: COMMUNICATIONS: (1) Identify existing regional telehealth groups and gather lessons to be learned from them; (2) Form a telehealth advisory group to work with regional groups to compile telehealth initiatives, identify international protocols in telehealth already in existence, and solicit feedback before setting international standards; and (3) Increase corporate partnerships in the fields of telehealth and telecommunications, and invite corporations to send delegates to future APCDM meetings. This should be an initiative of the APCDM, the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM), or the European Society of Emergency Medicine. EDUCATION AND RESEARCH: (1) Formalize education in disaster medicine and management. The World Health Organization and WADEM should take a leadership role; (2) WADEM is requested to hold a conference with a focus on qualitative research; (3) WHO is requested to continue the provision of international research teams, but to advocate for the development of national disaster research infrastructure; (4) Make research findings and reports available on web sites of such organizations as WHO and PAHO; (5) Develop the translation of research for community utilization. The WHO and PAHO are organizations that are requested to consider this action; and (6) WADEM/APCDM are requested to focus future conferences on applied research. INFORMATION AND DATA: (1) Create an "Information and Data Clearinghouse

  15. Fuzzy expert systems using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thach C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a CLIPS-based fuzzy expert system development environment called FCLIPS and illustrates its application to the simulated cart-pole balancing problem. FCLIPS is a straightforward extension of CLIPS without any alteration to the CLIPS internal structures. It makes use of the object-oriented and module features in CLIPS version 6.0 for the implementation of fuzzy logic concepts. Systems of varying degrees of mixed Boolean and fuzzy rules can be implemented in CLIPS. Design and implementation issues of FCLIPS will also be discussed.

  16. Fuzzy resource optimization for safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.; Markin, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Authorization, enforcement, and verification -- three key functions of safeguards systems -- form the basis of a hierarchical description of the system risk. When formulated in terms of linguistic rather than numeric attributes, the risk can be computed through an algorithm based on the notion of fuzzy sets. Similarly, this formulation allows one to analyze the optimal resource allocation by maximizing the overall detection probability, regarded as a linguistic variable. After summarizing the necessary elements of the fuzzy sets theory, we outline the basic algorithm. This is followed by a sample computation of the fuzzy optimization. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Entanglement entropy on fuzzy spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, Djamel; Ydri, Badis

    2006-08-15

    We study the entanglement entropy of a scalar field in 2+1 spacetime where space is modeled by a fuzzy sphere and a fuzzy disc. In both models we evaluate numerically the resulting entropies and find that they are proportional to the number of boundary degrees of freedom. In the Moyal plane limit of the fuzzy disc the entanglement entropy per unite area (length) diverges if the ignored region is of infinite size. The divergence is (interpreted) of IR-UV mixing origin. In general we expect the entanglement entropy per unite area to be finite on a noncommutative space if the ignored region is of finite size.

  18. Strong sum distance in fuzzy graphs.

    PubMed

    Tom, Mini; Sunitha, Muraleedharan Shetty

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the idea of strong sum distance which is a metric, in a fuzzy graph is introduced. Based on this metric the concepts of eccentricity, radius, diameter, center and self centered fuzzy graphs are studied. Some properties of eccentric nodes, peripheral nodes and central nodes are obtained. A characterisation of self centered complete fuzzy graph is obtained and conditions under which a fuzzy cycle is self centered are established. We have proved that based on this metric, an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree G is a fuzzy end node of G and a node is an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree if and only if it is a peripheral node of G and the center of a fuzzy tree consists of either one or two neighboring nodes. The concepts of boundary nodes and interior nodes in a fuzzy graph based on strong sum distance are introduced. Some properties of boundary nodes, interior nodes and complete nodes are studied.

  19. Implementation of Steiner point of fuzzy set.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiuzhen; Wang, Dejiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the implementation of Steiner point of fuzzy set. Some definitions and properties of Steiner point are investigated and extended to fuzzy set. This paper focuses on establishing efficient methods to compute Steiner point of fuzzy set. Two strategies of computing Steiner point of fuzzy set are proposed. One is called linear combination of Steiner points computed by a series of crisp α-cut sets of the fuzzy set. The other is an approximate method, which is trying to find the optimal α-cut set approaching the fuzzy set. Stability analysis of Steiner point of fuzzy set is also studied. Some experiments on image processing are given, in which the two methods are applied for implementing Steiner point of fuzzy image, and both strategies show their own advantages in computing Steiner point of fuzzy set.

  20. Evaluation of fuzzy inference systems using fuzzy least squares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to develop evaluation methods for fuzzy inference systems which are not based on crisp, quantitative data or processes (i.e., where the phenomenon the system is built to describe or control is inherently fuzzy) are just beginning. This paper suggests that the method of fuzzy least squares can be used to perform such evaluations. Regressing the desired outputs onto the inferred outputs can provide both global and local measures of success. The global measures have some value in an absolute sense, but they are particularly useful when competing solutions (e.g., different numbers of rules, different fuzzy input partitions) are being compared. The local measure described here can be used to identify specific areas of poor fit where special measures (e.g., the use of emphatic or suppressive rules) can be applied. Several examples are discussed which illustrate the applicability of the method as an evaluation tool.

  1. Fuzzy Thinking in Non-Fuzzy Situations: Understanding Students' Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina

    1995-01-01

    In mathematics a true statement is always true, but some false statements are more false than others. Fuzzy logic provides a way of handling degrees of set membership and has implications for helping students appreciate logical thinking. (MKR)

  2. Fuzzy Thinking in Non-Fuzzy Situations: Understanding Students' Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zazkis, Rina

    1995-01-01

    In mathematics a true statement is always true, but some false statements are more false than others. Fuzzy logic provides a way of handling degrees of set membership and has implications for helping students appreciate logical thinking. (MKR)

  3. Fuzzy Content-Based Retrieval in Image Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jian Kang; Narasimhalu, A. Desai

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a fuzzy-image database model and a concept of fuzzy space; describes fuzzy-query processing in fuzzy space and fuzzy indexing on complete fuzzy vectors; and uses an example image database, the computer-aided facial-image inference and retrieval system (CAFIIR), for explanation throughout. (Author/LRW)

  4. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Christopher J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Documented here are papers presented at the Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic Workshop sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and cosponsored by the University of Houston, Clear Lake. The workshop was held June 1-3, 1992 at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. During the three days approximately 50 papers were presented. Technical topics addressed included adaptive systems; learning algorithms; network architectures; vision; robotics; neurobiological connections; speech recognition and synthesis; fuzzy set theory and application, control, and dynamics processing; space applications; fuzzy logic and neural network computers; approximate reasoning; and multiobject decision making.

  5. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbert, Christopher J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers presented at the Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic Workshop sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and cosponsored by the University of Houston, Clear Lake, held 1-3 Jun. 1992 at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas are included. During the three days approximately 50 papers were presented. Technical topics addressed included adaptive systems; learning algorithms; network architectures; vision; robotics; neurobiological connections; speech recognition and synthesis; fuzzy set theory and application, control and dynamics processing; space applications; fuzzy logic and neural network computers; approximate reasoning; and multiobject decision making.

  6. Comments on fuzzy control systems design via fuzzy Lyapunov functions.

    PubMed

    Guelton, Kevin; Guerra, Thierry-Marie; Bernal, Miguel; Bouarar, Tahar; Manamanni, Noureddine

    2010-06-01

    This paper considers the work entitled "Fuzzy control systems design via fuzzy Lyapunov functions" and published in IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part B , where the authors try to extend the work of Rhee and Won. Nevertheless, the results proposed by Li have been obtained without taking into account a necessary path independency condition to ensure the line integral function to be a Lyapunov function candidate, and consequently, the proposed global asymptotic stability and stabilization conditions are unsuitable.

  7. [The blocade of glutamate metabotropic 5-th tipe receptors prevents the locomotor behavior changes produced by intrastriatal picrotoxin microinjections in rats].

    PubMed

    Iakimovskiĭ, A F; Red'ka, Iu A; Iakubenko, A L

    2010-01-01

    It was demonstrated in chronic experiments in Wistar rats that only the first of daily multiple microinjections of glutamate metabotropic 5-th type receptor antagonist MTEP into the rostral region of neostriatum impaired the avoidance conditioning in a shuttle box. Within the next two weeks, MTEP was ineffective but being injected into the neostriatum simultaneously with picrotoxin prevented the impairment of avoidance conditioning in a shuttle-box and decreased the hyperactivity (open-field locomotor hyperactivity and choreic hyperkinesis) produced by this GABA-A receptor antagonist. The results do not suggest the involvement of striatal glutamate metabotropic 5-th type receptors in avoidance conditioning control but demonstrate that glutamate metabotropic system is involved in behavioral disorders mediated by inhibition of GABA-A receptors. In principle, it might be possible to treat the human hyperkinetic basal ganglia dysfunction (Huntington's horea), athetosis and similar disorders with glutamate metabotropic receptor antagonists.

  8. Blast Mitigation Seat Analysis - Assessment of the Effect of Personal Protective Equipment on the 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic Test Devices Performance in Drop Tower Evaluations (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER Blast Mitigation Seat Analysis – Assessment of the Effect of Personal ...notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does...AND SUBTITLE Blast Mitigation Seat Analysis - Assessment of the Effect of Personal Protective Equipment on the 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic

  9. Conference highlights of the 5th international workshop on HIV persistence during therapy, 6-9 December 2011, St. Maartin, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mario; Chomont, Nicolas; Lafeuillade, Alain

    2012-03-12

    The December 2011 5th International Workshop on HIV Persistence during Therapy addressed the issue of HIV persistence among 210 scientists from 10 countries involved in the study of HIV reservoirs and the search of an HIV cure. High quality abstracts were selected and discussed as oral or poster presentations. The aim of this review is to distribute the scientific highlights of this workshop outside the group as analyzed and represented by experts in retrovirology, immunology and clinical research.

  10. CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices (Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 14 17 May 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G. S.; Na, Yong-Su; Becoulet, A.; Ide, S.; Kessel, C. E.; Komori, A.; Kuteev, B. V.; Mank, G.; Olstad, R. A.; Sarkar, B.; Sips, A. C. C.; van Houtte, D.; Vdovin, V. L.

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices, held in Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 14-17 May 2007. The main topics of the meeting were overview and superconducting devices, long pulse operation and advanced tokamak, steady state fusion technology, heating and current drive, particle control and power exhaust and ITER-related issues.

  11. Completeness and regularity of generalized fuzzy graphs.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Sovan; Sarkar, Biswajit; Shin, Dongmin; Pal, Madhumangal

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy graphs are the backbone of many real systems like networks, image, scheduling, etc. But, due to some restriction on edges, fuzzy graphs are limited to represent for some systems. Generalized fuzzy graphs are appropriate to avoid such restrictions. In this study generalized fuzzy graphs are introduced. In this study, matrix representation of generalized fuzzy graphs is described. Completeness and regularity are two important parameters of graph theory. Here, regular and complete generalized fuzzy graphs are introduced. Some properties of them are discussed. After that, effective regular graphs are exemplified.

  12. (Fuzzy) Ideals of BN-Algebras.

    PubMed

    Dymek, Grzegorz; Walendziak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The notions of an ideal and a fuzzy ideal in BN-algebras are introduced. The properties and characterizations of them are investigated. The concepts of normal ideals and normal congruences of a BN-algebra are also studied, the properties of them are displayed, and a one-to-one correspondence between them is presented. Conditions for a fuzzy set to be a fuzzy ideal are given. The relationships between ideals and fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are established. The homomorphic properties of fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are provided. Finally, characterizations of Noetherian BN-algebras and Artinian BN-algebras via fuzzy ideals are obtained.

  13. Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lotfi A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.

  14. Type-2 fuzzy fractional derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazandarani, Mehran; Najariyan, Marzieh

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce two definitions of the differentiability of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions of fractional order. The definitions are in the sense of Riemann-Liouville and Caputo derivative of order β ɛ (0, 1), and based on type-2 Hukuhara difference and H2-differentiability. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions of type-2 fuzzy fractional differential equations (T2FFDEs) under Caputo type-2 fuzzy fractional derivative and the definition of Laplace transform of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions are also given. Moreover, the approximate solution to T2FFDE by a Predictor-Evaluate-Corrector-Evaluate (PECE) method is presented. Finally, the approximate solutions of two examples of linear and nonlinear T2FFDEs are obtained using the PECE method, and some cases of T2FFDEs applications in some sciences are presented.

  15. Knowledge representation in fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zadeh, Lotfi A.

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a summary of the basic concepts and techniques underlying the application of fuzzy logic to knowledge representation. He then describes a number of examples relating to its use as a computational system for dealing with uncertainty and imprecision in the context of knowledge, meaning, and inference. It is noted that one of the basic aims of fuzzy logic is to provide a computational framework for knowledge representation and inference in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. In such environments, fuzzy logic is effective when the solutions need not be precise and/or it is acceptable for a conclusion to have a dispositional rather than categorical validity. The importance of fuzzy logic derives from the fact that there are many real-world applications which fit these conditions, especially in the realm of knowledge-based systems for decision-making and control.

  16. FOREWORD: The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchang-Brillet, Wad Lydia; Wyart, Jean-François; Zeippen, Claude

    1996-01-01

    The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas was held in Meudon, France, from August 28 to 31 1995. It was the fifth in a series started by the Atomic Spectroscopic Group at the University of Lund, Sweden, in 1983. Then followed the meetings in Toledo, USA, Amsterdam, The Nether- lands and Gaithersburg, USA, with a three year period. The original title of the series ended with "... for Astrophysics and Fusion Research" and became more general with the 4th colloquium in Gaithersburg. The purpose of the present meeting was, in line with tradition, to bring together "producers" and "users" of atomic data so as to ensure optimal coordination. Atomic physicists who study the structure of atoms and their radiative and collisional properties were invited to explain the development of their work, emphasizing the possibilities of producing precise transition wavelengths and relative line intensities. Astrophysicists and laboratory plasma physicists were invited to review their present research interests and the context in which atomic data are needed. The number of participants was about 70 for the first three meetings, then exploded to 170 at Gaithersburg. About 140 participants, coming from 13 countries, attended the colloquium in Meudon. This large gathering was partly due to a number of participants from Eastern Europe larger than in the past, and it certainly showed a steady interest for interdisciplinary exchanges between different communities of scientists. This volume includes all the invited papers given at the conference and, in the appendix, practical information on access to some databases. All invited speakers presented their talks aiming at good communication between scientists from different backgrounds. A separate bound volume containing extended abstracts of the poster papers has been published by the Publications de l'Observatoire de Paris, (Meudon 1996), under the responsibility of

  17. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  18. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  19. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  20. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein α subunit hypofunction in children with short stature and disproportionate shortening of the 4th and 5th metacarpals.

    PubMed

    Inta, Ioana Monica; Choukair, Daniela; Bender, Sebastian; Kneppo, Carolin; Knauer-Fischer, Sabine; Meyenburg, Kahina; Ivandic, Boris; Pfister, Stefan M; Bettendorf, Markus

    2014-01-01

    GNAS encodes the α subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsα). Maternal inherited Gsα mutations cause pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia), associated with shortening of the 4th and 5th metacarpals. Here we investigated the Gsα pathway in short patients with distinct shortening of the 4th and 5th metacarpals. In 571 children with short stature and 4 patients with PHP-Ia metacarpal bone lengths were measured. In identified patients we analysed the Gsα protein function in platelets, performed GNAS sequencing, and epigenetic analysis of four significant differentially methylated regions. In 51 patients (8.9%) shortening of the 4th and 5th metacarpals was more pronounced than their height deficit. No GNAS coding mutations were identified in 20 analysed patients, except in 2 PHP-Ia patients. Gsα activity was reduced in all PHP-Ia patients and in 25% of the analysed patients. No significant methylation changes were identified. Our findings suggest that patients with short stature and distinct metacarpal bone shortening could be part of the wide variety of PHP/PPHP, therefore it was worthwhile analysing the Gsα protein function and GNAS gene in these patients in order to further elucidate the phenotype and genotype of Gsα dysfunction.

  1. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  2. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  3. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  4. A Novel Method for Discovering Fuzzy Sequential Patterns Using the Simple Fuzzy Partition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ruey-Shun; Hu, Yi-Chung

    2003-01-01

    Discusses sequential patterns, data mining, knowledge acquisition, and fuzzy sequential patterns described by natural language. Proposes a fuzzy data mining technique to discover fuzzy sequential patterns by using the simple partition method which allows the linguistic interpretation of each fuzzy set to be easily obtained. (Author/LRW)

  5. A Novel Method for Discovering Fuzzy Sequential Patterns Using the Simple Fuzzy Partition Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ruey-Shun; Hu, Yi-Chung

    2003-01-01

    Discusses sequential patterns, data mining, knowledge acquisition, and fuzzy sequential patterns described by natural language. Proposes a fuzzy data mining technique to discover fuzzy sequential patterns by using the simple partition method which allows the linguistic interpretation of each fuzzy set to be easily obtained. (Author/LRW)

  6. Annual National Small Business Conference (5th) Held in San Diego, California on May 19-21, 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-21

    kick-off event of the conference. Network with government and industry over beverages and hors d’oeuvres while you walk the display floor. monDay mAy...Diego NDIA Membership Oshkosh Corporation Ralphs-Pugh Co., Inc. Raytheon Company Referentia SAIC Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command Sullivan...Tactical and Survival Specialties, Inc. (TSSI), Bill established his company in 1990 with a very modest budget and a basic purpose to provide the best

  7. Career Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  8. Zoo Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Marian

    1978-01-01

    Zoo Day was one of the culminating activities of Art Extravaganza, a pilot summer art program for high ability first-and second-graders. Field trips, art history lessons, box sculpture, and a study of cavemen were included. (SJL)

  9. Pi Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldner, Bruce C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a day of activities to encourage students to participate in mathematics. Five contests include poster; model; mathematics puzzle; mathematics problem challenge; and essay. Some student entries and the rules for each contest are described. (MKR)

  10. Type-2 fuzzy Bezier curve modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Rozaimi; Wahab, Abd Fatah; Gobithaasan, R. U.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the development of type-2 fuzzy set theory (T2FST) in geometric modeling which type-2 fuzzy Bezier curve is discussed. This theory development is the extension from type-1 fuzzy set theory (T1FST) which was adapted in Bezier curve modeling. Point's data that have the complex uncertainty behave is defined based on type-2 fuzzy number (T2FN) concepts which constructed from the T2FST. Then, the alpha-cut operation is applied towards type-2 fuzzy data (T2FD) to obtain an interval fuzzy solution. Also, type-reduction method is discussed, which is used to reduce T2FD to become type-1 fuzzy data (T1FD). Then, the defuzzification process is carried out for finding the crisp fuzzy solution of data points.

  11. On some fuzzy filters in pseudo-BCI algebras.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    Some new properties of fuzzy associative filters (also known as fuzzy associative pseudo-filters), fuzzy p-filter (also known as fuzzy pseudo-p-filters), and fuzzy a-filter (also known as fuzzy pseudo-a-filters) in pseudo-BCI algebras are investigated. By these properties, the following important results are proved: (1) a fuzzy filter (also known as fuzzy pseudo-filters) of a pseudo-BCI algebra is a fuzzy associative filter if and only if it is a fuzzy a-filter; (2) a filter (also known as pseudo-filter) of a pseudo-BCI algebra is associative if and only if it is an a-filter (also call it pseudo-a filter); (3) a fuzzy filter of a pseudo-BCI algebra is fuzzy a-filter if and only if it is both a fuzzy p-filter and a fuzzy q-filter.

  12. Computer assisted instruction on "learning nutrition flags for deaf 5th grade and 6th grad students": effectiveness of instruction.

    PubMed

    Srisorachatr, Suwat; Huadong, Yotsinee; Hudthagosol, Chatrapa; Danthanavanich, Suksiri

    2013-12-01

    Deaf students are of a number of under privilege group for whom there are limited resources for their use, related to health including nutrition. The purpose of this research was to create computer-assisted instruction for "nutrition flags" for 5 and 6th grade students. The content of nutrition included the concept of a healthy balance diets and portion sizes of each food group. The content and pictures for computer-assisted instruction came from existing curriculum, and focused on nutritional content. The contents in this instruction were divided into three units according to students' learning capacity. The story boards were developed by staff including nutritionists, Thai sign language interpreters, and deaf students. Then, the contents and nutrition vocabulary were translated into Thai sign language. After recording the sign language on video, this material was merged with the contents and converted into a computer program. The computer assisted instruction was tested with students from Nakon Pathom School for the Deaf The first trial was conducted with three students, the second with five students, and the third with 15 students during the academic year 2009. The computer- assisted instruction was revised until it met the standard criteria of 80/80. Effectiveness testing was carried out with 36 students for five consecutive days. On the first day, the pre-test was completed, and on days 2-4, the students performed self-study and completed the exercises for units 1-3, with 50 minutes spent on each unit. The post-test was completed on the last day. The study was conducted during the 2010 academic year Data analysis was performed using the t-test. The results showed an effectiveness of 81.85/82.22, which was higher than the standard criteria of 80/80. The post-test average score was higher than the pre-test average score with a statistical significance level at p < 0.0001. Suggestions for instruction for the deaf are that the length of the instruction in each

  13. Consistent linguistic fuzzy preference relations method with ranking fuzzy numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan, Siti Amnah Mohd; Mohamad, Daud; Kamis, Nor Hanimah

    2014-12-01

    Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods have been developed to help decision makers in selecting the best criteria or alternatives from the options given. One of the well known methods in MCDM is the Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relation (CFPR) method, essentially utilizes a pairwise comparison approach. This method was later improved to cater subjectivity in the data by using fuzzy set, known as the Consistent Linguistic Fuzzy Preference Relations (CLFPR). The CLFPR method uses the additive transitivity property in the evaluation of pairwise comparison matrices. However, the calculation involved is lengthy and cumbersome. To overcome this problem, a method of defuzzification was introduced by researchers. Nevertheless, the defuzzification process has a major setback where some information may lose due to the simplification process. In this paper, we propose a method of CLFPR that preserves the fuzzy numbers form throughout the process. In obtaining the desired ordering result, a method of ranking fuzzy numbers is utilized in the procedure. This improved procedure for CLFPR is implemented to a case study to verify its effectiveness. This method is useful for solving decision making problems and can be applied to many areas of applications.

  14. Fuzzy logic and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Combine fuzzy logic`s fuzzy sets, fuzzy operators, fuzzy inference, and fuzzy rules - like defuzzification - with neural networks and you can arrive at very unfuzzy real-time control. Fuzzy logic, cursed with a very whimsical title, simply means multivalued logic, which includes not only the conventional two-valued (true/false) crisp logic, but also the logic of three or more values. This means one can assign logic values of true, false, and somewhere in between. This is where fuzziness comes in. Multi-valued logic avoids the black-and-white, all-or-nothing assignment of true or false to an assertion. Instead, it permits the assignment of shades of gray. When assigning a value of true or false to an assertion, the numbers typically used are {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}0{close_quotes}. This is the case for programmed systems. If {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}false{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}true,{close_quotes} then {open_quotes}shades of gray{close_quotes} are any numbers between 0 and 1. Therefore, {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.8 or 0.9, {open_quotes}nearly false{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.1 or 0.2, and {close_quotes}your guess is as good as mine{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.5. The flexibility available to one is limitless. One can associate any meaning, such as {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes}, to any value of any granularity, such as 0.9999. 2 figs.

  15. Decomposed fuzzy systems and their application in direct adaptive fuzzy control.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Yao-Chu; Su, Shun-Feng; Chen, Ming-Chang

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a novel fuzzy structure termed as the decomposed fuzzy system (DFS) is proposed to act as the fuzzy approximator for adaptive fuzzy control systems. The proposed structure is to decompose each fuzzy variable into layers of fuzzy systems, and each layer is to characterize one traditional fuzzy set. Similar to forming fuzzy rules in traditional fuzzy systems, layers from different variables form the so-called component fuzzy systems. DFS is proposed to provide more adjustable parameters to facilitate possible adaptation in fuzzy rules, but without introducing a learning burden. It is because those component fuzzy systems are independent so that it can facilitate minimum distribution learning effects among component fuzzy systems. It can be seen from our experiments that even when the rule number increases, the learning time in terms of cycles is still almost constant. It can also be found that the function approximation capability and learning efficiency of the DFS are much better than that of the traditional fuzzy systems when employed in adaptive fuzzy control systems. Besides, in order to further reduce the computational burden, a simplified DFS is proposed in this paper to satisfy possible real time constraints required in many applications. From our simulation results, it can be seen that the simplified DFS can perform fairly with a more concise decomposition structure.

  16. Fuzzy image processing in sun sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasser, S.; Liebe, C. C.; Howard, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will describe how the fuzzy image processing is implemented in the instrument. Comparison of the Fuzzy image processing and a more conventional image processing algorithm is provided and shows that the Fuzzy image processing yields better accuracy then conventional image processing.

  17. Forecasting Enrollments with Fuzzy Time Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Qiang; Chissom, Brad S.

    The concept of fuzzy time series is introduced and used to forecast the enrollment of a university. Fuzzy time series, an aspect of fuzzy set theory, forecasts enrollment using a first-order time-invariant model. To evaluate the model, the conventional linear regression technique is applied and the predicted values obtained are compared to the…

  18. Fuzzy image processing in sun sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobasser, S.; Liebe, C. C.; Howard, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will describe how the fuzzy image processing is implemented in the instrument. Comparison of the Fuzzy image processing and a more conventional image processing algorithm is provided and shows that the Fuzzy image processing yields better accuracy then conventional image processing.

  19. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business day...

  20. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  1. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  2. Capitol Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-19

    Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman visits with Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour during NASA Day at the Capitol activities on Feb. 19. During the visit, Goldman presented the governor with a model of the J-2X rocket engine currently in development. Stennis engineers did early component testing for the new engine.

  3. Capitol Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman visits with Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour during NASA Day at the Capitol activities on Feb. 19. During the visit, Goldman presented the governor with a model of the J-2X rocket engine currently in development. Stennis engineers did early component testing for the new engine.

  4. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133

  5. Imprecise (fuzzy) information in geostatistics

    SciTech Connect

    Bardossy, A.; Bogardi, I.; Kelly, W.E.

    1988-05-01

    A methodology based on fuzzy set theory for the utilization of imprecise data in geostatistics is presented. A common problem preventing a broader use of geostatistics has been the insufficient amount of accurate measurement data. In certain cases, additional but uncertain (soft) information is available and can be encoded as subjective probabilities, and then the soft kriging method can be applied (Journal, 1986). In other cases, a fuzzy encoding of soft information may be more realistic and simplify the numerical calculations. Imprecise (fuzzy) spatial information on the possible variogram is integrated into a single variogram which is used in a fuzzy kriging procedure. The overall uncertainty of prediction is represented by the estimation variance and the calculated membership function for each kriged point. The methodology is applied to the permeability prediction of a soil liner for hazardous waste containment. The available number of hard measurement data (20) was not enough for a classical geostatistical analysis. An additional 20 soft data made it possible to prepare kriged contour maps using the fuzzy geostatistical procedure.

  6. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry.

    PubMed

    Tserkovny, Alex

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects "as if they were points." Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation "extended lines sameness" is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy "degree of indiscernibility" and "discernibility measure" of extended points.

  7. (S)Partners for Heart Health: a school-based program for enhancing physical activity and nutrition to promote cardiovascular health in 5th grade students.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Joseph J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Jager, Kathleen B; Sehnert, Scott T; Yee, Kimbo E; Klavinski, Rita A; Feltz, Deborah L

    2008-12-22

    The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA). In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU) faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(S)partner" with elementary school physical education (PE) teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (S)partnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1) improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2) increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3) increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly) designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students (Spartners). The final 10 minutes of each lesson

  8. The 5th world symposium for lymphedema surgery-Recent updates in lymphedema surgery and setting up of a global knowledge exchange platform.

    PubMed

    Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Wu, Jerry Chih-Wei; Nguyen, Alexander; Dayan, Joseph; Smith, Mark; Masia, Jaume; Chang, David; Koshima, Isao; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2017-01-01

    The successful completion of the 5th World Symposium for Lymphedema Surgery (WSLS) marks another milestone in the development and advancement of the management of lymphedema. We present our experience in organizing such a scientific lymphedema conference as well as a summary of seven variable live surgeries used for treating lymphedema. An update of current knowledge and determination of future direction in the treatment of lymphedema was made possible via WSLS 2016. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:6-12. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. (S)Partners for Heart Health: a school-based program for enhancing physical activity and nutrition to promote cardiovascular health in 5th grade students

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Joseph J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Jager, Kathleen B; Sehnert, Scott T; Yee, Kimbo E; Klavinski, Rita A; Feltz, Deborah L

    2008-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association Position Statement on Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Public Schools encourages school-based interventions for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through risk factor prevention or reduction in children with an emphasis on creating an environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity (PA). In an effort to address issues related to CVD risk factors including obesity in Michigan children, a multi-disciplinary team of Michigan State University (MSU) faculty, clinicians, and health profession students was formed to "(S)partner" with elementary school physical education (PE) teachers and MSU Extension staff to develop and implement a cost-effective, sustainable program aimed at CVD risk factor prevention and management for 5th grade students. This (S)partnership is intended to augment and improve the existing 5th grade PE, health and nutrition curriculum by achieving the following aims: 1) improve the students' knowledge, attitudes and confidence about nutrition, PA and heart health; 2) increase the number of students achieving national recommendations for PA and nutrition; and 3) increase the number of students with a desirable CVD risk factor status based on national pediatric guidelines. Secondary aims include promoting school staff and parental support for heart health to help children achieve their goals and to provide experiential learning and service for MSU health profession students for academic credit. Methods/Design This pilot effectiveness study was approved by the MSU IRB. At the beginning and the end of the school year students undergo a CVD risk factor assessment conducted by MSU medical students and graduate students. Key intervention components include eight lesson plans (conducted bi-monthly) designed to promote heart healthy nutrition and PA behaviors conducted by PE teachers with assistance from MSU undergraduate dietetic and kinesiology students (Spartners). The final

  10. The 5th World Congress of chemical engineering: Technologies critical to a changing World. Volume II: Agriculture, food biotechnology biomedical electric power process safety

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Volume 2 of the proceedings from the 5th World Congress of Chemical Engineering covers four major topic areas from which papers were selected for the database: Agriculture, Food; Biotechnology; Electric Power, and Process Safety. Pertinent subtopics include: Renewable Resource Engineering; Special Processes in the Food Industry; Advances in Metabolite Production; Advances in Fermentation and Cell Culture Engineering; Coal and Nuclear Central Station Power Plants; Large Natural Gas Fired Power Stations; Distributed Generation; Potential Impact of Biomass Energy; and Chemical Hazards in Plant Design. 29 papers were selected from Volume 1 for the database.

  11. Routing cancer immunology and immunotherapy from the lab to the clinic 4-5 th March 2014, Center for Applied Medical Research and University Clinic, Pamplona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M Ángela; Melero, Ignacio; Quetglas, José I

    2014-07-24

    New approaches to generate effective anticancer responses by either inducing immune responses or inhibiting immunosuppression are under development to improve efficacy in patients. On March 4-5th, 2014, a symposium was held in Pamplona, Spain, to report the new strategies showing preclinical and clinical results regarding translational research efforts on the topic. Participants interacted through oral presentations of 15 speakers and further discussions on topics that included novel therapeutic agents for cancer immunotherapy, viral vectors and interferon-based approaches, experimental tumor imaging and immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies. Promising agents to target cancer cells and therapeutic approaches that are under translation from bench to patients were presented.

  12. Routing cancer immunology and immunotherapy from the lab to the clinic 4–5 th March 2014, Center for Applied Medical Research and University Clinic, Pamplona, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    New approaches to generate effective anticancer responses by either inducing immune responses or inhibiting immunosuppression are under development to improve efficacy in patients. On March 4-5th, 2014, a symposium was held in Pamplona, Spain, to report the new strategies showing preclinical and clinical results regarding translational research efforts on the topic. Participants interacted through oral presentations of 15 speakers and further discussions on topics that included novel therapeutic agents for cancer immunotherapy, viral vectors and interferon-based approaches, experimental tumor imaging and immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies. Promising agents to target cancer cells and therapeutic approaches that are under translation from bench to patients were presented. PMID:25060862

  13. Health effects of different dietary iron intakes: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Domellöf, Magnus; Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorstensen, Ketil

    2013-01-01

    Background The present literature review is part of the NNR5 project with the aim of reviewing and updating the scientific basis of the 4th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) issued in 2004. Objective The objective of this systematic literature review was to assess the health effects of different intakes of iron, at different life stages (infants, children, adolescents, adults, elderly, and during pregnancy and lactation), in order to estimate the requirement for adequate growth, development, and maintenance of health. Methods The initial literature search resulted in 1,076 abstracts. Out of those, 276 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Of those, 49 were considered relevant and were quality assessed (A, B, or C). An additional search on iron and diabetes yielded six articles that were quality assessed. Thus, a total of 55 articles were evaluated. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing (grade 1), probable (grade 2), suggestive (grade 3), and inconclusive (grade 4). Results There is suggestive evidence that prevention or treatment of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) improves cognitive, motoric, and behavioral development in young children, and that treatment of IDA improves attention and concentration in school children and adult women. There is insufficient evidence to show negative health effects of iron intakes in doses suggested by the NNR 4. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that normal birth weight, healthy, exclusively breast-fed infants need additional dietary iron before 6 months of life in the Nordic countries. An iron concentration of 4–8 mg/L in infant formulas seems to be safe and effective for normal birth weight infants. There is probable evidence that iron supplements (1–2 mg/kg/day) given up to 6 months of age to infants with low birth weight (<2,500 g) prevents IDA and possibly reduce the risk of behavioral problems later on. There is probable evidence that ID and IDA in

  14. Induction of ICOS+CXCR3+CXCR5+ TH cells correlates with antibody responses to influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Lopez, Santiago; Obermoser, Gerlinde; Schmitt, Nathalie; Mueller, Cynthia; Harrod, Carson; Flano, Emilio; Mejias, Asuncion; Albrecht, Randy A; Blankenship, Derek; Xu, Hui; Pascual, Virginia; Banchereau, Jacques; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Palucka, Anna Karolina; Ramilo, Octavio; Ueno, Hideki

    2013-03-13

    Seasonal influenza vaccine protects 60 to 90% of healthy young adults from influenza infection. The immunological events that lead to the induction of protective antibody responses remain poorly understood in humans. We identified the type of CD4+ T cells associated with protective antibody responses after seasonal influenza vaccinations. The administration of trivalent split-virus influenza vaccines induced a temporary increase of CD4+ T cells expressing ICOS, which peaked at day 7, as did plasmablasts. The induction of ICOS was largely restricted to CD4+ T cells coexpressing the chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR5, a subpopulation of circulating memory T follicular helper cells. Up to 60% of these ICOS+CXCR3+CXCR5+CD4+ T cells were specific for influenza antigens and expressed interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, IL-21, and interferon-γ upon antigen stimulation. The increase of ICOS+CXCR3+CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in blood correlated with the increase of preexisting antibody titers, but not with the induction of primary antibody responses. Consistently, purified ICOS+CXCR3+CXCR5+CD4+ T cells efficiently induced memory B cells, but not naïve B cells, to differentiate into plasma cells that produce influenza-specific antibodies ex vivo. Thus, the emergence of blood ICOS+CXCR3+CXCR5+CD4+ T cells correlates with the development of protective antibody responses generated by memory B cells upon seasonal influenza vaccination.

  15. Accurate segmentation of leukocyte in blood cell images using Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory.

    PubMed

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2014-06-01

    In this paper automatic leukocyte segmentation in pathological blood cell images is proposed using intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory. This is done to count different types of leukocytes for disease detection. Also, the segmentation should be accurate so that the shape of the leukocytes is preserved. So, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval Type II fuzzy set that consider either more number of uncertainties or a different type of uncertainty as compared to fuzzy set theory are used in this work. As the images are considered fuzzy due to imprecise gray levels, advanced fuzzy set theories may be expected to give better result. A modified Cauchy distribution is used to find the membership function. In intuitionistic fuzzy method, non-membership values are obtained using Yager's intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Optimal threshold is obtained by minimizing intuitionistic fuzzy divergence. In interval type II fuzzy set, a new membership function is generated that takes into account the two levels in Type II fuzzy set using probabilistic T co norm. Optimal threshold is selected by minimizing a proposed Type II fuzzy divergence. Though fuzzy techniques were applied earlier but these methods failed to threshold multiple leukocytes in images. Experimental results show that both interval Type II fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy methods perform better than the existing non-fuzzy/fuzzy methods but interval Type II fuzzy thresholding method performs little bit better than intuitionistic fuzzy method. Segmented leukocytes in the proposed interval Type II fuzzy method are observed to be distinct and clear.

  16. Effect of noise on chaotic fuzzy mappings

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.

    1996-03-01

    Chaotic mappings in the space of fuzzy sets induced by mappings of the underlying reference set are investigated. Different fuzzification schemes are considered and their impact on the resultant iterated fuzzy set, under a quadratic mapping, is studied numerically. The fuzzy set mapping is described in terms of the mapping of level cuts, resulting from the resolution theorem for fuzzy sets. In the two-dimensional case, a generalized notion, given as a fuzzy set, of the Hausdorff dimension is formulated. An example, based on the Henon Mapping, is provided.

  17. Parallel Fuzzy Segmentation of Multiple Objects*

    PubMed Central

    Garduño, Edgar; Herman, Gabor T.

    2009-01-01

    The usefulness of fuzzy segmentation algorithms based on fuzzy connectedness principles has been established in numerous publications. New technologies are capable of producing larger-and-larger datasets and this causes the sequential implementations of fuzzy segmentation algorithms to be time-consuming. We have adapted a sequential fuzzy segmentation algorithm to multi-processor machines. We demonstrate the efficacy of such a distributed fuzzy segmentation algorithm by testing it with large datasets (of the order of 50 million points/voxels/items): a speed-up factor of approximately five over the sequential implementation seems to be the norm. PMID:19444333

  18. Dynamic Response Analysis of Fuzzy Stochastic Truss Structures under Fuzzy Stochastic Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Juan; Chen, Jian-Jun; Gao, Wei

    2006-08-01

    A novel method (Fuzzy factor method) is presented, which is used in the dynamic response analysis of fuzzy stochastic truss structures under fuzzy stochastic step loads. Considering the fuzzy randomness of structural physical parameters, geometric dimensions and the amplitudes of step loads simultaneously, fuzzy stochastic dynamic response of the truss structures is developed using the mode superposition method and fuzzy factor method. The fuzzy numerical characteristics of dynamic response are then obtained by using the random variable’s moment method and the algebra synthesis method. The influences of the fuzzy randomness of structural physical parameters, geometric dimensions and step load on the fuzzy randomness of the dynamic response are demonstrated via an engineering example, and Monte-Carlo method is used to simulate this example, verifying the feasibility and validity of the modeling and method given in this paper.

  19. An improved robust fuzzy-PID controller with optimal fuzzy reasoning.

    PubMed

    Li, Han-Xiong; Zhang, Lei; Cai, Kai-Yuan; Chen, Guanrong

    2005-12-01

    Many fuzzy control schemes used in industrial practice today are based on some simplified fuzzy reasoning methods, which are simple but at the expense of losing robustness, missing fuzzy characteristics, and having inconsistent inference. The concept of optimal fuzzy reasoning is introduced in this paper to overcome these shortcomings. The main advantage is that an integration of the optimal fuzzy reasoning with a PID control structure will generate a new type of fuzzy-PID control schemes with inherent optimal-tuning features for both local optimal performance and global tracking robustness. This new fuzzy-PID controller is then analyzed quantitatively and compared with other existing fuzzy-PID control methods. Both analytical and numerical studies clearly show the improved robustness of the new fuzzy-PID controller.

  20. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  1. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  2. Fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K; Anbarasan, K

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the design and development of fuzzy scheduled robustness, tracking, disturbance rejection and overall aggressiveness (RTDA) controller design for non-linear processes are discussed. pH process is highly non-linear and the design of good controller for this process is always a challenging one due to large gain variation. Fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design based on normalized integral square error (N_ISE) performance criteria for pH neutralization process is developed. The applicability of the proposed controller is tested for other different non-linear processes like type I diabetic process and conical tank process. The servo and regulatory performance of fuzzy scheduled RTDA controller design is compared with well-tuned internal model control (IMC) and dynamic matrix control (DMC)-based control schemes. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contra continuity and almost contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Baby; Chakraborty, Jayasree

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we introduce fuzzy contra continuity and almost contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological space. Fuzzy almost contra continuity is weaker than fuzzy contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological space. Then we investigate their characterizations and properties. We also established some equivalent relation on fuzzy contra continuity and fuzzy almost contra continuity in generalized fuzzy topological spaces.

  4. Designing boosting ensemble of relational fuzzy systems.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Rafał

    2010-10-01

    A method frequently used in classification systems for improving classification accuracy is to combine outputs of several classifiers. Among various types of classifiers, fuzzy ones are tempting because of using intelligible fuzzy if-then rules. In the paper we build an AdaBoost ensemble of relational neuro-fuzzy classifiers. Relational fuzzy systems bond input and output fuzzy linguistic values by a binary relation; thus, fuzzy rules have additional, comparing to traditional fuzzy systems, weights - elements of a fuzzy relation matrix. Thanks to this the system is better adjustable to data during learning. In the paper an ensemble of relational fuzzy systems is proposed. The problem is that such an ensemble contains separate rule bases which cannot be directly merged. As systems are separate, we cannot treat fuzzy rules coming from different systems as rules from the same (single) system. In the paper, the problem is addressed by a novel design of fuzzy systems constituting the ensemble, resulting in normalization of individual rule bases during learning. The method described in the paper is tested on several known benchmarks and compared with other machine learning solutions from the literature.

  5. Anaesthesia monitoring using fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Kouzani, Abbas; Harrison, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Humans have a limited ability to accurately and continuously analyse large amount of data. In recent times, there has been a rapid growth in patient monitoring and medical data analysis using smart monitoring systems. Fuzzy logic-based expert systems, which can mimic human thought processes in complex circumstances, have indicated potential to improve clinicians' performance and accurately execute repetitive tasks to which humans are ill-suited. The main goal of this study is to develop a clinically useful diagnostic alarm system based on fuzzy logic for detecting critical events during anaesthesia administration. The proposed diagnostic alarm system called fuzzy logic monitoring system (FLMS) is presented. New diagnostic rules and membership functions (MFs) are developed. In addition, fuzzy inference system (FIS), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and clustering techniques are explored for developing the FLMS' diagnostic modules. The performance of FLMS which is based on fuzzy logic expert diagnostic systems is validated through a series of off-line tests. The training and testing data set are selected randomly from 30 sets of patients' data. The accuracy of diagnoses generated by the FLMS was validated by comparing the diagnostic information with the one provided by an anaesthetist for each patient. Kappa-analysis was used for measuring the level of agreement between the anaesthetist's and FLMS's diagnoses. When detecting hypovolaemia, a substantial level of agreement was observed between FLMS and the human expert (the anaesthetist) during surgical procedures. The diagnostic alarm system FLMS demonstrated that evidence-based expert diagnostic systems can diagnose hypovolaemia, with a substantial degree of accuracy, in anaesthetized patients and could be useful in delivering decision support to anaesthetists.

  6. Fuzzy lattice neurocomputing (FLN) models.

    PubMed

    Kaburlasos, V G; Petridis, V

    2000-12-01

    In this work it is shown how fuzzy lattice neurocomputing (FLN) emerges as a connectionist paradigm in the framework of fuzzy lattices (FL-framework) whose advantages include the capacity to deal rigorously with: disparate types of data such as numeric and linguistic data, intervals of values, 'missing' and 'don't care' data. A novel notation for the FL-framework is introduced here in order to simplify mathematical expressions without losing content. Two concrete FLN models are presented, namely 'sigma-FLN' for competitive clustering, and 'FLN with tightest fits (FLNtf)' for supervised clustering. Learning by the sigma-FLN, is rapid as it requires a single pass through the data, whereas learning by the FLNtf, is incremental, data order independent, polynomial theta(n3), and it guarantees maximization of the degree of inclusion of an input in a learned class as explained in the text. Convenient geometric interpretations are provided. The sigma-FLN is presented here as fuzzy-ART's extension in the FL-framework such that sigma-FLN widens fuzzy-ART's domain of application to (mathematical) lattices by augmenting the scope of both of fuzzy-ART's choice (Weber) and match functions, and by enhancing fuzzy-ART's complement coding technique. The FLNtf neural model is applied to four benchmark data sets of various sizes for pattern recognition and rule extraction. The benchmark data sets in question involve jointly numeric and nominal data with 'missing' and/or 'don't care' attribute values, whereas the lattices involved include the unit-hypercube, a probability space, and a Boolean algebra. The potential of the FL-framework in computing is also delineated.

  7. Learning and Tuning of Fuzzy Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter, we review some of the current techniques for learning and tuning fuzzy rules. For clarity, we refer to the process of generating rules from data as the learning problem and distinguish it from tuning an already existing set of fuzzy rules. For learning, we touch on unsupervised learning techniques such as fuzzy c-means, fuzzy decision tree systems, fuzzy genetic algorithms, and linear fuzzy rules generation methods. For tuning, we discuss Jang's ANFIS architecture, Berenji-Khedkar's GARIC architecture and its extensions in GARIC-Q. We show that the hybrid techniques capable of learning and tuning fuzzy rules, such as CART-ANFIS, RNN-FLCS, and GARIC-RB, are desirable in development of a number of future intelligent systems.

  8. Fuzzy modelling of HEART methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamirra, M.; Castiglia, F.; Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.

    This study refers to the results obtained by Fuzzy Fault Tree analyses of accidental scenarios that entail the potential exposure of operators working in irradiation industrial plants. For these analyses, the HEART methodology, a first generation of the Human Reliability Analysis method, has been employed to evaluate the probability of human erroneous actions. This technique has been modified on the basis of a fuzzy set concept to more directly take into account the uncertainties of the so-called error-promoting factors, on which the method is grounded. The results also allow us to provide some recommendations on procedures and safety equipment to reduce the risk of radiological exposure.

  9. Fuzzy simulation in concurrent engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraslawski, A.; Nystrom, L.

    1992-01-01

    Concurrent engineering is becoming a very important practice in manufacturing. A problem in concurrent engineering is the uncertainty associated with the values of the input variables and operating conditions. The problem discussed in this paper concerns the simulation of processes where the raw materials and the operational parameters possess fuzzy characteristics. The processing of fuzzy input information is performed by the vertex method and the commercial simulation packages POLYMATH and GEMS. The examples are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the method in the simulation of chemical engineering processes.

  10. The semantics of fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruspini, Enrique H.

    1991-01-01

    Summarized here are the results of recent research on the conceptual foundations of fuzzy logic. The focus is primarily on the principle characteristics of a model that quantifies resemblance between possible worlds by means of a similarity function that assigns a number between 0 and 1 to every pair of possible worlds. Introduction of such a function permits one to interpret the major constructs and methods of fuzzy logic: conditional and unconditional possibility and necessity distributions and the generalized modus ponens of Zadeh on the basis of related metric relationships between subsets of possible worlds.

  11. Fuzzy simulation in concurrent engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraslawski, A.; Nystrom, L.

    1992-01-01

    Concurrent engineering is becoming a very important practice in manufacturing. A problem in concurrent engineering is the uncertainty associated with the values of the input variables and operating conditions. The problem discussed in this paper concerns the simulation of processes where the raw materials and the operational parameters possess fuzzy characteristics. The processing of fuzzy input information is performed by the vertex method and the commercial simulation packages POLYMATH and GEMS. The examples are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the method in the simulation of chemical engineering processes.

  12. The 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics: Making progress in the number of women in physics around the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Beth

    2015-04-01

    A short report on the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (ICWIP) will be presented. In particular, a summary of the structure of the 5th ICWIP that occurred in Waterloo, Canada in August 2014 will be provided and placed into context of the previous four conferences. In addition, a synopsis of the recent efforts that are happening around the world to encourage girls and women to participate in physics will be given. Several US projects have been very successful in introducing girls to science and physics (e.g., ``Expanding Your Horizons'' intervention) and encouraging undergraduate women physics majors to continue into physics careers (e.g., Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics). Projects from other countries, such as the Juno Project in the UK that rates physics departments on their climate for women, might be implemented by US physics professional societies as well as colleges and universities. Several projects originating from the conference will be described: the new ``HERstories: Encouraging words from women in physics'' video based on interviews with delegates of the Conference, the My STEM Story project (http://mystemstory.wlu.ca), and the proceedings of the conference. Partial support provided by NSF #PHY-1419453.

  13. Using a Spreadsheet to Compute the Maximum Wind Sector 99.5th Percentile X/Q Value in Accordance with DOE-STD-3009-2014.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Standard 3009-2014 requires one of two methods to determine the simple Gaussian relative concentration (X/Q) of pollutant at plume centerline downwind to a receptor for a 2-h exposure duration from a ground-level release (i.e., less than 10 m height) which are (1) the 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method and (2) the 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method. This paper describes how to determine the simple Gaussian 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method using an electronic spreadsheet. Refer to a previous paper to determine the simple Gaussian 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method using an electronic spreadsheet (Vickers 2015). The method described herein is simple, quick, accurate, and transparent because all of the data, calculations, and results are visible for validation and verification.

  14. [The change in the epidemiological profile of maternal mortality in Chile will hinder the fulfillment of the Millennium 5th goal].

    PubMed

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-10-01

    The death of women during pregnancy, childbirth or puerperium, remains a serious public health problem worldwide. Chile is committed to comply with the Millennium 5th Goal of reducing maternal mortality to 9.9/100,000 live births in 2015. To analyze trends in maternal mortality in Chile during 2000-2009. A descriptive population analysis using raw data obtained from the yearbooks of the National Institute of Statistics of Chile. Maternal mortality, causes of death and age of the dead mothers were evaluated. The causes of maternal death were classified according to the tenth revision of International Classification of Diseases. Trend studies were performed using Pearson correlation analysis. In the studied period there were no significant changes in maternal mortality and fertility. The five major causes of maternal death were concurrent diseases, hypertension, abortion, obstetric embolism and postpartum hemorrhage. Mortality associated with concurrent illness showed a significant upward trend (r = 0.656, p = 0.035). Abortion associated mortality had a significant downward trend (r = -0.712, p = 0.023). The group of women 40 years and older significantly increased its birth rate (r = 0.930, p < 0.001), this group showed the highest maternal mortality, especially in association with concurrent diseases. The increased birth rate occurring in women over 40 years old and its larger maternal mortality rate, probably will hinder the fulfillment of the Millennium 5th goal in Chile.

  15. Rabies vaccine standards: comparison of the 5th and 6th WHO international reference standards to the USDA veterinary reference standard.

    PubMed

    Hermann, J; Fry, A; Reising, M; Patterson, P; Siev, D; Gatewood, D

    2012-11-06

    Ensuring rabies vaccines are potent and effective is paramount in preventing transmission of this deadly disease and safeguarding public health. Efficacy of human and veterinary vaccines is ensured by evaluating relative potency estimates of the vaccine compared to a rabies reference standard using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) test. Reference vaccines are based on the International Standard for Rabies Vaccine provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). A comparison study was conducted to determine the relative potency of the 5th WHO, 6th WHO, and United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) 08-14 reference standards using the NIH test. Results from the study demonstrate that the 6th WHO reference standard is approximately twice as potent as the 5th WHO reference when reconstituted to contain 1 IU per ml. Based on these results, the Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB) doubled the reconstitution volume of USDA veterinary reference 08-14 from 13 ml to 26 ml, for an initial use dilution of 0.7 IU per ml for use by veterinary biologics manufacturers in the NIH test. This study emphasizes the importance of reference standard calibration for use in the National Institutes of Health test.

  16. Universal fuzzy models and universal fuzzy controllers for discrete-time nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing; Feng, Gang; Dong, Daoyi; Liu, Lu

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the problems of universal fuzzy model and universal fuzzy controller for discrete-time nonaffine nonlinear systems (NNSs). It is shown that a kind of generalized T-S fuzzy model is the universal fuzzy model for discrete-time NNSs satisfying a sufficient condition. The results on universal fuzzy controllers are presented for two classes of discrete-time stabilizable NNSs. Constructive procedures are provided to construct the model reference fuzzy controllers. The simulation example of an inverted pendulum is presented to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method. These results significantly extend the approach for potential applications in solving complex engineering problems.

  17. Complex fuzzy set-valued complex fuzzy measures and their properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shengquan; Li, Shenggang

    2014-01-01

    Let F*(K) be the set of all fuzzy complex numbers. In this paper some classical and measure-theoretical notions are extended to the case of complex fuzzy sets. They are fuzzy complex number-valued distance on F*(K), fuzzy complex number-valued measure on F*(K), and some related notions, such as null-additivity, pseudo-null-additivity, null-subtraction, pseudo-null-subtraction, autocontionuous from above, autocontionuous from below, and autocontinuity of the defined fuzzy complex number-valued measures. Properties of fuzzy complex number-valued measures are studied in detail.

  18. Fuzzy PID controller combines with closed-loop optimal fuzzy reasoning for pitch control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yezi; Xiao, Cheng; Sun, Jinhao

    2013-03-01

    PID and fuzzy PID controller are applied into the pitch control system. PID control has simple principle and its parameters setting are rather easy. Fuzzy control need not to establish the mathematical of the control system and has strong robustness. The advantages of fuzzy PID control are simple, easy in setting parameters and strong robustness. Fuzzy PID controller combines with closed-loop optimal fuzzy reasoning (COFR), which can effectively improve the robustness, when the robustness is special requirement. MATLAB software is used for simulations, results display that fuzzy PID controller which combines with COFR has better performances than PID controller when errors exist.

  19. PREFACE: 5th Symposium on Large TPCs for Low Energy Rare Event Detection and Workshop on Neutrinos from Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irastorza, Igor G.; Scholberg, Kate; Colas, Paul; Giomataris, Ioannis

    2011-08-01

    The Fifth International Symposium on large TPCs for low-energy rare-event detection was held at the auditorium of the Astroparticle and Cosmology (APC) Laboratory in Paris, on 14-17 December 2010. As for all previous meetings, always held in Paris in 2008, 2006, 2004 and 2002, it brought together a significant community of physicists involved in rare event searches and/or development of time projection chambers (TPCs). As a novelty this year, the meeting was extended with two half-day sessions on Supernova physics. These proceedings also include the contributions corresponding to the supernova sessions. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss the status of current experiments or projects involving the use of TPCs to search for rare events, like low-energy neutrinos, double beta decay, dark matter or axion experiments, as well as to discuss new results and ideas in the framework of the last developments of Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD), and how these are being - or could be - applied to these searches. As in previous meetings in this series, the format included an informal program with some recent highlighted results, rather than exhaustive reviews, with time for discussion and interaction. The symposium, the fifth of the series, is becoming consolidated as a regular meeting place for the synergic interplay between the fields of rare events and TPC development. The meeting started with a moving tribute by Ioannis Giomataris to the memory of George Charpak, who recently passed away. We then moved on to the usual topics like the status of some low-energy neutrino physics and double beta decay experiments, dark matter experiments with directional detectors, axion searches, or development results. A relevant subject this time was the electroluminescence in Xe TPCs, covered by several speakers. Every time the conference program is enriched with original slightly off-topic contributions that trigger the curiosity and stimulate further thought. As

  20. A fuzzy control design case: The fuzzy PLL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teodorescu, H. N.; Bogdan, I.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a typical fuzzy control design case. The analyzed controlled systems are the phase-locked loops (PLL's)--classic systems realized in both analogic and digital technology. The crisp PLL devices are well known.

  1. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Vitamin D – a systematic literature review for the 5th edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lamberg-Allardt, Christel; Brustad, Magritt; Meyer, Haakon E.; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2013-01-01

    concerning bone health, total mortality and the risk of falling. Moreover, the effect was often only seen in persons with low basal 25(OH)D concentrations. In addition, most intervention studies leading to these conclusions report that intervention with vitamin D combined with calcium and not vitamin D alone gives these benefits. It was difficult to establish an optimal 25(OH)D concentration or vitamin D intake based on the SLRs, but there are evidence that a concentration of ≥50 nmol/l could be optimal. The dose–response studies relating vitamin D intake (fortification and supplementation) to S-25(OH)D suggested that an intake of 1–2.5 µg/day will increase the serum concentration by 1–2 nmol/l but this is dependent on the basal concentration with a response being greater when the basal concentration is low. Conclusion Data show that a S-25(OH)D concentration of 50 nmol/l would reflect a sufficient vitamin D status. Results from this review support that the recommendation in NNR 2004 needs to be re-evaluated and increased for all age groups beyond 2 years of age. We refer to the total intake from food as well as supplements, given minimal sun exposure. Limited sunshine, however, does not reflect the situation for the majority of the Nordic population in the summertime. It should also be emphasized that there are large differences in results depending on assay methods and laboratories measuring 25(OH)D, adding to the uncertainty of determining an appropriate target concentration. Moreover, the dose–response of vitamin D on serum 25(OH)D-concentrations is not well established and is dependent on the basal concentrations, sunshine exposure and dietary intake. We advise that these uncertainties should be taken into account when setting the final Nordic recommendations. PMID:24106457

  3. PREFACE: 5th International Workshop DICE2010: Space-Time-Matter - Current Issues in Quantum Mechanics and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos; Elze, Hans-Thomas; Fronzoni, Leone; Halliwell, Jonathan; Prati, Enrico; Vitiello, Giuseppe; Yearsley, James

    2011-07-01

    These proceedings present the Invited Lectures and Contributed Papers of the Fifth International Workshop on Decoherence, Information, Complexity and Entropy - DICE 2010, held at Castello Pasquini, Castiglioncello (Tuscany), 13-17 September 2010. These proceedings are intended to document the stimulating exchange of ideas at this conference for both the interested public and the wider scientific community, as well as for the participants. The number of participants attending this series of meetings has been growing steadily, which reflects its increasing attraction. Our intention to bring together leading researchers, advanced students, and renowned scholars from various areas in order to stimulate new ideas and their exchange across the borders of specialization seems to bear fruit. In this way, the series of meetings has continued successfully from the beginning with DICE 2002 [1], followed by DICE 2004 [2], DICE 2006 [3], and DICE 2008 [4], uniting more than 100 participants representing almost 30 countries worldwide. It has been a great honour and inspiration to have Professor Luc Montagnier (Nobel Prize for Medicine 2008) from the World Foundation for AIDS Research and Prevention with us, who presented the lecture DNA waves and water (included in this volume). The discussions took place under the wider theme Space-Time-Matter - current issues in quantum mechanics and beyond in the very pleasant and inspiring atmosphere of Castello Pasquini, which - with its beautiful surroundings, overlooking the Tuscany coast - hosted the conference very successfully for the second time. The five-day program was grouped according to the following topics: Gravity and Quantum Mechanics Quantum Coherent Processes in Biology / Many-Body Systems From Quantum Foundations to Particle Physics The Deep Structure of Spacetime Quantum - Relativity - Cosmology A Public Roundtable Discussion formed an integral part of the program under the theme Sull' Onda Della Coerenza" - le nuove

  4. Fuzzy associative conjuncted maps network.

    PubMed

    Goh, Hanlin; Lim, Joo-Hwee; Quek, Chai

    2009-08-01

    The fuzzy associative conjuncted maps (FASCOM) is a fuzzy neural network that associates data of nonlinearly related inputs and outputs. In the network, each input or output dimension is represented by a feature map that is partitioned into fuzzy or crisp sets. These fuzzy sets are then conjuncted to form antecedents and consequences, which are subsequently associated to form if-then rules. The associative memory is encoded through an offline batch mode learning process consisting of three consecutive phases. The initial unsupervised membership function initialization phase takes inspiration from the organization of sensory maps in our brains by allocating membership functions based on uniform information density. Next, supervised Hebbian learning encodes synaptic weights between input and output nodes. Finally, a supervised error reduction phase fine-tunes the network, which allows for the discovery of the varying levels of influence of each input dimension across an output feature space in the encoded memory. In the series of experiments, we show that each phase in the learning process contributes significantly to the final accuracy of prediction. Further experiments using both toy problems and real-world data demonstrate significant superiority in terms of accuracy of nonlinear estimation when benchmarked against other prominent architectures and exhibit the network's suitability to perform analysis and prediction on real-world applications, such as traffic density prediction as shown in this paper.

  5. Commutative POVMs and Fuzzy Observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S. Twareque; Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we review some properties of fuzzy observables, mainly as realized by commutative positive operator valued measures. In this context we discuss two representation theorems for commutative positive operator valued measures in terms of projection valued measures and describe, in some detail, the general notion of fuzzification. We also make some related observations on joint measurements.

  6. Fuzzy C P2 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, A.; Stern, A.

    2017-02-01

    Four-dimensional manifolds with changing signature are obtained by taking the large N limit of fuzzy C P2 solutions to a Lorentzian matrix model. The regions of Lorentzian signature give toy models of closed universes which exhibit cosmological singularities. These singularities are resolved at finite N , as the underlying C P2 solutions are expressed in terms of finite matrix elements.

  7. Fuzzy coordinator in control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rueda, A.; Pedrycz, W.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a hierarchical control structure using a fuzzy system for coordination of the control actions is studied. The architecture involves two levels of control: a coordination level and an execution level. Numerical experiments will be utilized to illustrate the behavior of the controller when it is applied to a nonlinear plant.

  8. Learning fuzzy logic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lung, Leung Kam

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  9. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: summary of main findings and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M

    2014-10-01

    We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia. Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19 600 anaesthetics (95% CI 1:16 700-23 450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialties. The incidence with neuromuscular blockade was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without it was ~1:135 900 (1:78 600-299 000). The cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia reported to 5th National Audit Project were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during neuromuscular blockade. The incidence of accidental awareness during caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental; rapid sequence induction; obesity; difficult airway management; neuromuscular blockade; and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, most due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex; age (younger adults, but not children); obesity; anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees); previous awareness; out-of-hours operating; emergencies; type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic); and use of neuromuscular blockade. The following factors were

  10. Using LDR as Sensing Element for an External Fuzzy Controller Applied in Photovoltaic Pumping Systems with Variable-Speed Drives

    PubMed Central

    Maranhão, Geraldo Neves De A.; Brito, Alaan Ubaiara; Leal, Anderson Marques; Fonseca, Jéssica Kelly Silva; Macêdo, Wilson Negrão

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, a fuzzy controller applied to a Variable-Speed Drive (VSD) for use in Photovoltaic Pumping Systems (PVPS) is proposed. The fuzzy logic system (FLS) used is embedded in a microcontroller and corresponds to a proportional-derivative controller. A Light-Dependent Resistor (LDR) is used to measure, approximately, the irradiance incident on the PV array. Experimental tests are executed using an Arduino board. The experimental results show that the fuzzy controller is capable of operating the system continuously throughout the day and controlling the direct current (DC) voltage level in the VSD with a good performance. PMID:26402688

  11. Using LDR as Sensing Element for an External Fuzzy Controller Applied in Photovoltaic Pumping Systems with Variable-Speed Drives.

    PubMed

    Maranhão, Geraldo Neves De A; Brito, Alaan Ubaiara; Leal, Anderson Marques; Fonseca, Jéssica Kelly Silva; Macêdo, Wilson Negrão

    2015-09-22

    In the present paper, a fuzzy controller applied to a Variable-Speed Drive (VSD) for use in Photovoltaic Pumping Systems (PVPS) is proposed. The fuzzy logic system (FLS) used is embedded in a microcontroller and corresponds to a proportional-derivative controller. A Light-Dependent Resistor (LDR) is used to measure, approximately, the irradiance incident on the PV array. Experimental tests are executed using an Arduino board. The experimental results show that the fuzzy controller is capable of operating the system continuously throughout the day and controlling the direct current (DC) voltage level in the VSD with a good performance.

  12. Can fuzzy logic bring complex problems into focus? Modeling imprecise factors in environmental policy

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Deshpande, Ashok W.

    2004-06-14

    In modeling complex environmental problems, we often fail to make precise statements about inputs and outcome. In this case the fuzzy logic method native to the human mind provides a useful way to get at these problems. Fuzzy logic represents a significant change in both the approach to and outcome of environmental evaluations. Risk assessment is currently based on the implicit premise that probability theory provides the necessary and sufficient tools for dealing with uncertainty and variability. The key advantage of fuzzy methods is the way they reflect the human mind in its remarkable ability to store and process information which is consistently imprecise, uncertain, and resistant to classification. Our case study illustrates the ability of fuzzy logic to integrate statistical measurements with imprecise health goals. But we submit that fuzzy logic and probability theory are complementary and not competitive. In the world of soft computing, fuzzy logic has been widely used and has often been the ''smart'' behind smart machines. But it will require more effort and case studies to establish its niche in risk assessment or other types of impact assessment. Although we often hear complaints about ''bright lines,'' could we adapt to a system that relaxes these lines to fuzzy gradations? Would decision makers and the public accept expressions of water or air quality goals in linguistic terms with computed degrees of certainty? Resistance is likely. In many regions, such as the US and European Union, it is likely that both decision makers and members of the public are more comfortable with our current system in which government agencies avoid confronting uncertainties by setting guidelines that are crisp and often fail to communicate uncertainty. But some day perhaps a more comprehensive approach that includes exposure surveys, toxicological data, epidemiological studies coupled with fuzzy modeling will go a long way in resolving some of the conflict, divisiveness

  13. Design of fuzzy system by NNs and realization of adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takagi, Hideyuki

    1993-01-01

    The issue of designing and tuning fuzzy membership functions by neural networks (NN's) was started by NN-driven Fuzzy Reasoning in 1988. NN-driven fuzzy reasoning involves a NN embedded in the fuzzy system which generates membership values. In conventional fuzzy system design, the membership functions are hand-crafted by trial and error for each input variable. In contrast, NN-driven fuzzy reasoning considers several variables simultaneously and can design a multidimensional, nonlinear membership function for the entire subspace.

  14. Variations in the geomagnetic field strength in the 5th 3rd centuries BC in the eastern Mediterranean (according to narrowly dated ceramics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Il'Ina, T. A.

    2008-06-01

    The magnetization of ceramics from the eastern Mediterranean dated within a short period (mostly shorter than ±20 years) has been studied, which made it possible to specify the geomagnetic field variations on the time interval 5th 3rd centuries BC. The 11-year time series of the geomagnetic field strength values has been constructed. The field strength changes have been considered, which indicated that the centennial variation with a characteristic time of ˜130 years (according to the obtained data) is observed on this time interval as well as during the last two millennia. The ceramic material from the Mayskaya Gora archeological site (Taman), the preparation succession of which was established based on the shape of pottery but the problem of absolute dating was not solved, has been dated.

  15. [The Revision and 5th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5): Consequences for the Diagnostic Work with Children and Adolescents].

    PubMed

    Zulauf Logoz, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The Revision and 5th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5): Consequences for the Diagnostic Work with Children and Adolescents.The present paper describes and discusses the major revisions in DSM-5 for children and adolescents. A major modification is that the separate chapter for disorders first diagnosed in childhood and adolescence was abandoned in favour of the integration of these clinical pictures into the relevant disorder-specific chapters. Several new diagnoses and diagnostic groups were introduced: "Disruptive mood regulation disorder" is a new diagnosis; the different diagnoses for autism were brought together into one, and a new diagnostic group for obsessive-compulsive disorders has been established. The developmental approach of DSM-5 and the integration of dimensional assessment tools are to be welcomed. Practice will show if the critiques afraid of possible increases in prevalences or those who approve the changes will end up being right.

  16. [Reasons for abolishing the Massage Department of the Imperial Academy of Medicine in the 5(th) year of Longqing Period of the Ming Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    In the 5th year of the Longqing Period (1571) of the Ming Dynasty, with the abolishment of the Massage and Zhuyou Departments (the latter with a primitive witch doctor, who was dominant in administering incantations, prayers, fortune telling and medicine), the number of departments of the Imperial Academy of Medicine was reduced from thirteen to eleven. In the Jiaqing Period, Taoists occupied some positions in the Imperial Academy of Medicine. Some of them became imperial doctors or even the president, which resulted in Emperor Jiaqing pursuing immortality and neglecting duty on national affairs for more than 20 years. The abolishment of the Massage Department was associated with the official system of reform developed by Emperor Longqing and the prime minister, Gao Gong. Against the background of official reform, they also advanced bold reform in the two departments which Taoists occupied.

  17. Systematically frameshifting by deletion of every 4th or 4th and 5th nucleotides during mitochondrial transcription: RNA self-hybridization regulates delRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondria, secondary structures punctuate post-transcriptional RNA processing. Recently described transcripts match the human mitogenome after systematic deletions of every 4th, respectively every 4th and 5th nucleotides, called delRNAs. Here I explore predicted stem-loop hairpin formation by delRNAs, and their associations with delRNA transcription and detected peptides matching their translation. Despite missing 25, respectively 40% of the nucleotides in the original sequence, del-transformed sequences form significantly more secondary structures than corresponding randomly shuffled sequences, indicating biological function, independently of, and in combination with, previously detected delRNA and thereof translated peptides. Self-hybridization decreases delRNA abundances, indicating downregulation. Systematic deletions of the human mitogenome reveal new, unsuspected coding and structural informations.

  18. Investigation of the aerodynamic performance and noise characteristics of a 1/5th scale model of the Dowty Rotol R212 propeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebble, W. J. G.

    1983-11-01

    The four-bladed Dowty Rotol R212 propeller (NACA 16 sections) was studied at 1/5th scale (0.7 m diameter) in 1.5 m acoustic tunnel. Propeller power absorption and thrust were measured over a range of rotational speeds up to 8000 rev/min at mainstream speeds from 15 to 60 m/sec for a range of blade settings. Slipstream wake surveys show outward movement of the position of the peak pressure as propeller loading is increased. Noise analysis demonstrates the predominance of multiple tones whose number and intensity increase with helical-tip Mach number. An empirical formula shows that the fundamental tone sound pressure level varies with tip speed and power loading in an identical manner to that observed on an ARA-D section propeller.

  19. Computer integrated drug prevention: a new approach to teach lower socioeconomic 5th and 6th grade Israeli children to say no to drugs.

    PubMed

    Gropper, M; Liraz, Z; Portowicz, D; Schindler, M

    1995-01-01

    Drug prevention education provides an important first line of defense against future drug use. Many drug prevention strategies have been developed which teach youngsters of all ages how to say no to drugs. Nevertheless, the problem of drug use and abuse continues to escalate, and younger children, particularly those undergoing harsh psychosocial stress (e.g., hunger, lack of housing, broken homes, family unemployment, etc.), are increasingly becoming a population at-risk. In this paper, the authors describe an original drug prevention program that was developed in Israel aimed at teaching resiliency skills to 5th and 6th grade children growing up in a poverty stricken, urban community. The program, drawing on social learning theory, utilizes an attractive, cartoon illustrated, computer program combined with games, role-playing and group work techniques to prevent future drug use in preadolescent children.

  20. Using Community-based Participatory Research to Adapt keepin’ it REAL: Creating a Socially, Developmentally, and Academically Appropriate Prevention Curriculum for 5th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Harthun, Mary L.; Dustman, Patricia A.; Reeves, Leslie J.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a process in which program designers, classroom teachers, and students worked together to adapt the 7th grade “keepin’ it REAL” prevention curriculum to a developmentally, socially, and academically appropriate curriculum for 5th graders. A Community-Based Participatory Research methodology (CBPR), combined with a 9-step adaptation model, emphasized a collaborative approach, both transformative and empowering. Essential adaptation elements were the Risk-to-Resiliency Continuum; the teaching of a wide range of skills including risk assessment, decision making, and resistance strategies; and, maintaining the theoretical grounding of Narrative Theory, Communication Competence, and Focus Theory of Norms. This paper describes how CBPR methodology can be conducted successfully while focusing on sustained theoretical grounding and effective research practices in a school-based setting. PMID:21057596

  1. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n  =  26, 55%) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (n  =  21, 45%). Analysis showed that the full sample received significantly higher scores on the Leiter-R than SB5 (mean discrepancy of 20.91 points), specific diagnosis was not a significant factor, and younger children had a larger discrepancy between tests. These analyses strongly suggest that the Leiter-R and the SB5 may not be equivalent measures of intellectual functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders, and that use of one or the other exclusively could lead to misclassification of intellectual capacity.

  2. Comparison of Values in 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Primary Education Music Class Students'? Workbooks According to Rokeach?s and Akbas's Value Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakirer, H. Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the values in the songs of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education music classes students? workbooks according to the value categorizations proposed by Rockeach and Akbas and which values among the categories mentioned are taught to the students in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education…

  3. Comparison of Values in 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th Grade Primary Education Music Class Students'? Workbooks According to Rokeach?s and Akbas's Value Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakirer, H. Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the values in the songs of 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education music classes students? workbooks according to the value categorizations proposed by Rockeach and Akbas and which values among the categories mentioned are taught to the students in the 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade primary education…

  4. A fuzzy expert system for diabetes decision support application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Shing; Wang, Mei-Hui

    2011-02-01

    An increasing number of decision support systems based on domain knowledge are adopted to diagnose medical conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. It is widely pointed that the classical ontologies cannot sufficiently handle imprecise and vague knowledge for some real world applications, but fuzzy ontology can effectively resolve data and knowledge problems with uncertainty. This paper presents a novel fuzzy expert system for diabetes decision support application. A five-layer fuzzy ontology, including a fuzzy knowledge layer, fuzzy group relation layer, fuzzy group domain layer, fuzzy personal relation layer, and fuzzy personal domain layer, is developed in the fuzzy expert system to describe knowledge with uncertainty. By applying the novel fuzzy ontology to the diabetes domain, the structure of the fuzzy diabetes ontology (FDO) is defined to model the diabetes knowledge. Additionally, a semantic decision support agent (SDSA), including a knowledge construction mechanism, fuzzy ontology generating mechanism, and semantic fuzzy decision making mechanism, is also developed. The knowledge construction mechanism constructs the fuzzy concepts and relations based on the structure of the FDO. The instances of the FDO are generated by the fuzzy ontology generating mechanism. Finally, based on the FDO and the fuzzy ontology, the semantic fuzzy decision making mechanism simulates the semantic description of medical staff for diabetes-related application. Importantly, the proposed fuzzy expert system can work effectively for diabetes decision support application.

  5. Characterizations of Some Fuzzy Prefilters (Filters) in EQ-Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiao Long; Yang, Yong Wei

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and study some types of fuzzy prefilters (filters) in EQ-algebras. First, we present several characterizations of fuzzy positive implicative prefilters (filters), fuzzy implicative prefilters (filters), and fuzzy fantastic prefilters (filters). Next, using their characterizations, we mainly consider the relationships among these special fuzzy filters. Particularly, we find some conditions under which a fuzzy implicative prefilter (filter) is equivalent to a fuzzy positive implicative prefilter (filter). As applications, we obtain some new results about classical filters in EQ-algebras and some related results about fuzzy filters in residuated lattices. PMID:24892096

  6. Army Focus (5th Issue)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    it was first published in November 1988. In that time, the United States has won three wars — the Cold War, Operation JUST CAUSE , and Operation...of national security strategy. Where possible, programs must stress training and professional development as the most cost effective ways to improve...deployment capabilities. Surge requirements for airlift and in-country reception capabilities significantly stressed the ability of the Military

  7. Nuclear Electricity. 5th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore-Lacy, Ian

    Educators must address the need for young people to be informed about both the scientific concepts and the reasons for controversy when dealing with controversial issues. Young people must be given the opportunity to form their own opinions when presented with evidence for conflicting arguments. Previous editions of "Nuclear Electricity" have…

  8. Environmental chemistry. 5th edition

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, S.E. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    This book is organized around several major sections: aquatic Chemistry, atmospheric chemistry, the geosphere and hazardous wastes, toxicological chemistry, and resources and energy. Specific topics discussed in the book include a general introduction to environment chemistry, basic principles of aquatic chemistry, water pollution and water treatment, the essential role of microorganisms in aquatic chemical phenomena, atmospheric chemistry, a discussion of major threats to the global atmosphere (particularly greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting chemicals), the geosphere and hazardous substances, soil chemistry, and the nature and sources of hazardous wastes. The environmental chemistry of hazardous wastes, their treatment, minimization, and recycling, and the effects of these hazardous substances in also presented.

  9. An application of ranking function of fuzzy numbers to solve fuzzy revised simplex algorithm and fuzzy decomposition algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostamy-Malkhalifeh, Mohsen; Farajollahi, Homa

    2011-12-01

    The decomposition algorithm is the one of the method that have be applied for converting large scale problem into one or more smaller problem. In the condition of uncertainty, one way is using fuzzy linear programming(FLP) to solve this algorithm . For solving FLP problems we can use ranking functions of fuzzy numbers. in this paper, we use a new ranking function suggested by Hajarri[11], and propose a method for solving fuzzy revised simplex algorithm and then apply this algorithm to solve fuzzy decomposition algorithm, in the case of bounded space.

  10. An application of ranking function of fuzzy numbers to solve fuzzy revised simplex algorithm and fuzzy decomposition algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostamy-Malkhalifeh, Mohsen; Farajollahi, Homa

    2012-01-01

    The decomposition algorithm is the one of the method that have be applied for converting large scale problem into one or more smaller problem. In the condition of uncertainty, one way is using fuzzy linear programming(FLP) to solve this algorithm . For solving FLP problems we can use ranking functions of fuzzy numbers. in this paper, we use a new ranking function suggested by Hajarri[11], and propose a method for solving fuzzy revised simplex algorithm and then apply this algorithm to solve fuzzy decomposition algorithm, in the case of bounded space.

  11. Combinational Reasoning of Quantitative Fuzzy Topological Relations for Simple Fuzzy Regions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Li, Dajun; Xia, Yuanping; Ruan, Jian; Xu, Lili; Wu, Huanyi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, formalization and reasoning of topological relations have become a hot topic as a means to generate knowledge about the relations between spatial objects at the conceptual and geometrical levels. These mechanisms have been widely used in spatial data query, spatial data mining, evaluation of equivalence and similarity in a spatial scene, as well as for consistency assessment of the topological relations of multi-resolution spatial databases. The concept of computational fuzzy topological space is applied to simple fuzzy regions to efficiently and more accurately solve fuzzy topological relations. Thus, extending the existing research and improving upon the previous work, this paper presents a new method to describe fuzzy topological relations between simple spatial regions in Geographic Information Sciences (GIS) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Firstly, we propose a new definition for simple fuzzy line segments and simple fuzzy regions based on the computational fuzzy topology. And then, based on the new definitions, we also propose a new combinational reasoning method to compute the topological relations between simple fuzzy regions, moreover, this study has discovered that there are (1) 23 different topological relations between a simple crisp region and a simple fuzzy region; (2) 152 different topological relations between two simple fuzzy regions. In the end, we have discussed some examples to demonstrate the validity of the new method, through comparisons with existing fuzzy models, we showed that the proposed method can compute more than the existing models, as it is more expressive than the existing fuzzy models. PMID:25775452

  12. Combinational reasoning of quantitative fuzzy topological relations for simple fuzzy regions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Li, Dajun; Xia, Yuanping; Ruan, Jian; Xu, Lili; Wu, Huanyi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, formalization and reasoning of topological relations have become a hot topic as a means to generate knowledge about the relations between spatial objects at the conceptual and geometrical levels. These mechanisms have been widely used in spatial data query, spatial data mining, evaluation of equivalence and similarity in a spatial scene, as well as for consistency assessment of the topological relations of multi-resolution spatial databases. The concept of computational fuzzy topological space is applied to simple fuzzy regions to efficiently and more accurately solve fuzzy topological relations. Thus, extending the existing research and improving upon the previous work, this paper presents a new method to describe fuzzy topological relations between simple spatial regions in Geographic Information Sciences (GIS) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Firstly, we propose a new definition for simple fuzzy line segments and simple fuzzy regions based on the computational fuzzy topology. And then, based on the new definitions, we also propose a new combinational reasoning method to compute the topological relations between simple fuzzy regions, moreover, this study has discovered that there are (1) 23 different topological relations between a simple crisp region and a simple fuzzy region; (2) 152 different topological relations between two simple fuzzy regions. In the end, we have discussed some examples to demonstrate the validity of the new method, through comparisons with existing fuzzy models, we showed that the proposed method can compute more than the existing models, as it is more expressive than the existing fuzzy models.

  13. Optical generation of fuzzy-based rules.

    PubMed

    Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2002-08-10

    In the last third of the 20th century, fuzzy logic has risen from a mathematical concept to an applicable approach in soft computing. Today, fuzzy logic is used in control systems for various applications, such as washing machines, train-brake systems, automobile automatic gear, and so forth. The approach of optical implementation of fuzzy inferencing was given by the authors in previous papers, giving an extra emphasis to applications with two dominant inputs. In this paper the authors introduce a real-time optical rule generator for the dual-input fuzzy-inference engine. The paper briefly goes over the dual-input optical implementation of fuzzy-logic inferencing. Then, the concept of constructing a set of rules from given data is discussed. Next, the authors show ways to implement this procedure optically. The discussion is accompanied by an example that illustrates the transformation from raw data into fuzzy set rules.

  14. Predictive fuzzy controller for robotic motion control

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.J.; Hu, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    A system output prediction strategy incorporated with a fuzzy controller is proposed to manipulate the robotic motion control. Usually, the current position and velocity errors are used to operate the fuzzy logic controller for picking out a corresponding rule. When the system has fast planning speed or time varying behavior, the required tracking accuracy is difficult to achieve by adjusting the fuzzy rules. In order to improve the position control accuracy and system robustness for the industrial application, the current position error in the fuzzy rules look-up table is substituted by the predictive position error of the next step by using the grey predictive algorithm. This idea is implemented on a five degrees of freedom robot. The experimental results show that this fuzzy controller has effectively improve the system performance and achieved the facilitation of fuzzy controller implementation.

  15. Analysis of inventory difference using fuzzy controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Zardecki, A.

    1994-08-01

    The principal objectives of an accounting system for safeguarding nuclear materials are as follows: (a) to provide assurance that all material quantities are present in the correct amount; (b) to provide timely detection of material loss; and (c) to estimate the amount of any loss and its location. In fuzzy control, expert knowledge is encoded in the form of fuzzy rules, which describe recommended actions for different classes of situations represented by fuzzy sets. The concept of a fuzzy controller is applied to the forecasting problem in a time series, specifically, to forecasting and detecting anomalies in inventory differences. This paper reviews the basic notion underlying the fuzzy control systems and provides examples of application. The well-known material-unaccounted-for diffusion plant data of Jaech are analyzed using both feedforward neural networks and fuzzy controllers. By forming a deference between the forecasted and observed signals, an efficient method to detect small signals in background noise is implemented.

  16. (Fuzzy) Ideals of BN-Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Walendziak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The notions of an ideal and a fuzzy ideal in BN-algebras are introduced. The properties and characterizations of them are investigated. The concepts of normal ideals and normal congruences of a BN-algebra are also studied, the properties of them are displayed, and a one-to-one correspondence between them is presented. Conditions for a fuzzy set to be a fuzzy ideal are given. The relationships between ideals and fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are established. The homomorphic properties of fuzzy ideals of a BN-algebra are provided. Finally, characterizations of Noetherian BN-algebras and Artinian BN-algebras via fuzzy ideals are obtained. PMID:26125050

  17. Fuzzy Identities and Attribute-Based Encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Amit; Waters, Brent

    We introduce a new type of Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) scheme that we call Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. In fuzzy IBE, we view an identity as a set of descriptive attributes. A fuzzy IBE scheme allows for a private key for an identity,ωù, to decrypt a ciphertext encrypted with an identity, ùω´, if and only if the identities ùω and ùω´are close to each other as measured by the "set overlap" distance metric. A fuzzy IBE scheme can be applied to enable encryption using biometric inputs as identities; the error-tolerance property of a fuzzy IBE scheme is precisely what allows for the use of biometric identities, which inherently will have some noise each time they are sampled. Additionally, we show that fuzzy IBE can be used for a type of application that we term "attribute-based encryption."

  18. Optical Generation of Fuzzy-Based Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gur, Eran; Mendlovic, David; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2002-08-01

    In the last third of the 20th century, fuzzy logic has risen from a mathematical concept to an applicable approach in soft computing. Today, fuzzy logic is used in control systems for various applications, such as washing machines, train-brake systems, automobile automatic gear, and so forth. The approach of optical implementation of fuzzy inferencing was given by the authors in previous papers, giving an extra emphasis to applications with two dominant inputs. In this paper the authors introduce a real-time optical rule generator for the dual-input fuzzy-inference engine. The paper briefly goes over the dual-input optical implementation of fuzzy-logic inferencing. Then, the concept of constructing a set of rules from given data is discussed. Next, the authors show ways to implement this procedure optically. The discussion is accompanied by an example that illustrates the transformation from raw data into fuzzy set rules.

  19. STS-73 Flight Day 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Leslie, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Coleman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown include the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment, the Astroculture(tm)(ASC) experiment, the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment, and the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE). The High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) system is further tested and an in-orbit interview with Lopez-Alegria by NBC Nightside is conducted. The entire flightcrew salutes the 5th game of the World Series between the Atlanta Braves and Cleveland Indians by pretending to throw out the first ball of the game through a downlink to the stadium. Earth views taken from the payload bay cameras include some cloud cover, oceans, land masses, and the Nile River and the Red Sea.

  20. STS-73 flight day 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-73 sixteen day mission, the crew Cmdr. Kenneth Bowersox, Pilot Kent Rominger, Payload Specialists Albert Sacco and Fred Gregory, and Mission Specialists Kathryn Thornton, Catherine 'Cady' Collman, and Michael Lopez-Alegria are shown performing several of the spaceborne experiments onboard the United States Microgravity Lab-2 (USML-2). The experiments shown include the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment, the Astroculture(tm)(ASC) experiment, the Drop Physics Module (DPM) experiment, and the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE). The High-Packed Digital Television (HI-PAC) system is further tested and an in-orbit interview with Lopez-Alegria by NBC Nightside is conducted. The entire flightcrew salutes the 5th game of the World Series between the Atlanta Braves and Cleveland Indians by pretending to throw out the first ball of the game through a downlink to the stadium. Earth views taken from the payload bay cameras include some cloud cover, oceans, land masses, and the Nile River and the Red Sea.

  1. Fuzzy multiple linear regression: A computational approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, C. H.; Huang, X. H.; Fleming, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational approach for performing fuzzy regression. In contrast to Bardossy's approach, the new approach, while dealing with fuzzy variables, closely follows the conventional regression technique. In this approach, treatment of fuzzy input is more 'computational' than 'symbolic.' The following sections first outline the formulation of the new approach, then deal with the implementation and computational scheme, and this is followed by examples to illustrate the new procedure.

  2. Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.

  3. A fuzzy classifier system for process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. L.; Phillips, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    A fuzzy classifier system that discovers rules for controlling a mathematical model of a pH titration system was developed by researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). Fuzzy classifier systems successfully combine the strengths of learning classifier systems and fuzzy logic controllers. Learning classifier systems resemble familiar production rule-based systems, but they represent their IF-THEN rules by strings of characters rather than in the traditional linguistic terms. Fuzzy logic is a tool that allows for the incorporation of abstract concepts into rule based-systems, thereby allowing the rules to resemble the familiar 'rules-of-thumb' commonly used by humans when solving difficult process control and reasoning problems. Like learning classifier systems, fuzzy classifier systems employ a genetic algorithm to explore and sample new rules for manipulating the problem environment. Like fuzzy logic controllers, fuzzy classifier systems encapsulate knowledge in the form of production rules. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the ability of fuzzy classifier systems to generate a fuzzy logic-based process control system.

  4. Refining fuzzy logic controllers with machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the GARIC (Generalized Approximate Reasoning-Based Intelligent Control) architecture, which learns from its past performance and modifies the labels in the fuzzy rules to improve performance. It uses fuzzy reinforcement learning which is a hybrid method of fuzzy logic and reinforcement learning. This technology can simplify and automate the application of fuzzy logic control to a variety of systems. GARIC has been applied in simulation studies of the Space Shuttle rendezvous and docking experiments. It has the potential of being applied in other aerospace systems as well as in consumer products such as appliances, cameras, and cars.

  5. Equipment Selection by using Fuzzy TOPSIS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Mahmut

    2016-10-01

    In this study, Fuzzy TOPSIS method was performed for the selection of open pit truck and the optimal solution of the problem was investigated. Data from Turkish Coal Enterprises was used in the application of the method. This paper explains the Fuzzy TOPSIS approaches with group decision-making application in an open pit coal mine in Turkey. An algorithm of the multi-person multi-criteria decision making with fuzzy set approach was applied an equipment selection problem. It was found that Fuzzy TOPSIS with a group decision making is a method that may help decision-makers in solving different decision-making problems in mining.

  6. Fuzzy control of small servo motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maor, Ron; Jani, Yashvant

    1993-01-01

    To explore the benefits of fuzzy logic and understand the differences between the classical control methods and fuzzy control methods, the Togai InfraLogic applications engineering staff developed and implemented a motor control system for small servo motors. The motor assembly for testing the fuzzy and conventional controllers consist of servo motor RA13M and an encoder with a range of 4096 counts. An interface card was designed and fabricated to interface the motor assembly and encoder to an IBM PC. The fuzzy logic based motor controller was developed using the TILShell and Fuzzy C Development System on an IBM PC. A Proportional-Derivative (PD) type conventional controller was also developed and implemented in the IBM PC to compare the performance with the fuzzy controller. Test cases were defined to include step inputs of 90 and 180 degrees rotation, sine and square wave profiles in 5 to 20 hertz frequency range, as well as ramp inputs. In this paper we describe our approach to develop a fuzzy as well as PH controller, provide details of hardware set-up and test cases, and discuss the performance results. In comparison, the fuzzy logic based controller handles the non-linearities of the motor assembly very well and provides excellent control over a broad range of parameters. Fuzzy technology, as indicated by our results, possesses inherent adaptive features.

  7. Fuzzy set classifier for waste classification tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gavel, D.T.

    1992-11-04

    We have developed an expert system based on fuzzy logic theory to fuse the data from multiple sensors and make classification decisions for objects in a waste reprocessing stream. Fuzzy set theory has been applied in decision and control applications with some success, particularly by the Japanese. We have found that the fuzzy logic system is rather easy to design and train, a feature that can cut development costs considerably. With proper training, the classification accuracy is quite high. We performed several tests sorting radioactive test samples using a gamma spectrometer to compare fuzzy logic to more conventional sorting schemes.

  8. Fuzzy logic control and optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Lou, Xinsheng [West Hartford, CT

    2012-04-17

    A control system (300) for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input signal (369) and an output for outputting an output signal (367), and a hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) operably connected to the chemical loop. The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) includes a plurality of fuzzy controllers (330). The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) receives the output signal (367), optimizes the input signal (369) based on the received output signal (367), and outputs an optimized input signal (369) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  9. A proposal of fuzzy connective with learning function and its application to fuzzy retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayashi, Isao; Naito, Eiichi; Ozawa, Jun; Wakami, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    A new fuzzy connective and a structure of network constructed by fuzzy connectives are proposed to overcome a drawback of conventional fuzzy retrieval systems. This network represents a retrieval query and the fuzzy connectives in networks have a learning function to adjust its parameters by data from a database and outputs of a user. The fuzzy retrieval systems employing this network are also constructed. Users can retrieve results even with a query whose attributes do not exist in a database schema and can get satisfactory results for variety of thinkings by learning function.

  10. Consistency of crisp and fuzzy pairwise comparison matrix using fuzzy preference programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminuddin, Adam Shariff Adli; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the consistency of crisp pairwise comparison matrix is compared with the fuzzy pairwise comparison matrix of Analytic Network Process (ANP). The fuzzy input in the form of triangular membership function is converted into crisp value using Fuzzy Preference Programming (FPP) method which is implemented using MATLAB. The consistency ratio (CR) for both of the crisp and fuzzy pairwise comparison matrix is calculated using SuperDecisions. Main finding shows that the involvement of fuzzy elements into the decision maker's judgment can reduce the inconsistency of the pairwise comparison matrix compared with the crisp judgment.

  11. Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

  12. Fuzzy polynucleotide spaces and metrics.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Juan J; Torres, A; Georgiou, D N; Karakasidis, T E

    2006-04-01

    The study of genetic sequences is of great importance in biology and medicine. Mathematics is playing an important role in the study of genetic sequences and, generally, in bioinformatics. In this paper, we extend the work concerning the Fuzzy Polynucleotide Space (FPS) introduced in Torres, A., Nieto, J.J., 2003. The fuzzy polynucleotide Space: Basic properties. Bioinformatics 19(5); 587-592 and Nieto, J.J., Torres, A., Vazquez-Trasande, M.M. 2003. A metric space to study differences between polynucleotides. Appl. Math. Lett. 27:1289-1294: by studying distances between nucleotides and some complete genomes using several metrics. We also present new results concerning the notions of similarity, difference and equality between polynucleotides. The results are encouraging since they demonstrate how the notions of distance and similarity between polynucleotides in the FPS can be employed in the analysis of genetic material.

  13. Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

  14. What Fuzzy HOS May Mean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    HIGHER ORDER SOFTWAHE, INC, S!806 Massacysetts Avenue Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 i ’ ~ii ý4 TECHNICAL REPORT #18 • Bi 1 WHAT FUZZY HOS MAY MEAN 4...by H. Prade and L. Vatna i Nov~ 1978 OA.04i•. 81 3 0e 044 ;!. i81 ’- ----- - HIGHER ORDER SOFTWARE, INC. 806 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge...reliability is then dealt with I. INTRODUCTION Higher Order Software (HOS) has been developed by Magaret Hamilton and Saydean Zeldin [43 as a

  15. Fuzzy Bags and Wilson Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarski, R. D.

    I start with an elementary observation about the pressurein the deconfined phase of a SU(3) gauge theory without quarks. This suggests a ``fuzzy'' bag model for the analogous pressure in QCD, with dynamical quarks. I then sketch how the deconfined phase might be described using an effective theory of Wilson lines. To leading order in weak coupling, the effective electric field appears in a form familiar from the lattice theory of Banks and Ukawa.

  16. A recurrent fuzzy network for fuzzy temporal sequence processing and gesture recognition.

    PubMed

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Ku, Ksuan-Chun

    2005-08-01

    A fuzzified Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK)-type recurrent fuzzy network (FTRFN) for handling fuzzy temporal information is proposed in this paper. The FTRFN extends our previously proposed network, TRFN, to deal with fuzzy temporal signals represented by Gaussian or triangular fuzzy numbers. In the precondition part of FTRFN, matching degrees between input fuzzy variables and fuzzy antecedent sets is performed by similarity measure. In the TSK-type consequence, a linear combination of fuzzy variables is computed, where two sets of combination coefficients, one for the center and the other for the width of each fuzzy number, are used. Derivation of the linear combination results and final network output is based on left-right fuzzy number operation. There are no rules in FTRFN initially; they are constructed online by concurrent structure and parameter learning, where all free parameters in the precondition/consequence of FTRFN are all tunable. FTRFN can be applied on a variety of domains related to fuzzy temporal information processing. In this paper, it has been applied on one-dimensional and two-dimensional fuzzy temporal sequence prediction and CCD-based temporal gesture recognition. The performance of FTRFN is verified from these examples.

  17. Intuitionistic Fuzzy Weighted Linear Regression Model with Fuzzy Entropy under Linear Restrictions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gaurav; Bajaj, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In fuzzy set theory, it is well known that a triangular fuzzy number can be uniquely determined through its position and entropies. In the present communication, we extend this concept on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number for its one-to-one correspondence with its position and entropies. Using the concept of fuzzy entropy the estimators of the intuitionistic fuzzy regression coefficients have been estimated in the unrestricted regression model. An intuitionistic fuzzy weighted linear regression (IFWLR) model with some restrictions in the form of prior information has been considered. Further, the estimators of regression coefficients have been obtained with the help of fuzzy entropy for the restricted/unrestricted IFWLR model by assigning some weights in the distance function.

  18. Weighted Fuzzy Interpolative Reasoning Based on the Slopes of Fuzzy Sets and Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shyi-Ming; Hsin, Wen-Chyuan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new weighted fuzzy interpolative reasoning method for sparse fuzzy rule-based systems based on the slopes of fuzzy sets. We also propose a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based weights-learning algorithm to automatically learn the optimal weights of the antecedent variables of fuzzy rules for weighted fuzzy interpolative reasoning. We apply the proposed weighted fuzzy interpolative reasoning method using the proposed PSO-based weights-learning algorithm to deal with the computer activity prediction problem, the multivariate regression problems, and the time series prediction problems. The experimental results show that the proposed weighted fuzzy interpolative reasoning method using the proposed PSO-based weights-learning algorithm outperforms the existing methods for dealing with the computer activity prediction problem, the multivariate regression problems, and the time series prediction problems.

  19. Order of Search in Fuzzy ART and Fuzzy ARTMAP: Effect of the Choice Parameter.

    PubMed

    Heileman, Gregory L.; Bebis, George; Fernlund, Hans; Georgiopoulos, Michael

    1996-12-01

    This paper focuses on two ART architectures, the Fuzzy ART and the Fuzzy ARTMAP. Fuzzy ART is a pattern clustering machine, while Fuzzy ARTMAP is a pattern classification machine. Our study concentrates on the order according to which categories in Fuzzy ART, or the ART(a) model of Fuzzy ARTMAP are chosen. Our work provides a geometrical, and clearer understanding of why, and in what order, these categories are chosen for various ranges of the choice parameter of the Fuzzy ART module. This understanding serves as a powerful tool in developing properties of learning pertaining to these neural network architectures; to strengthen this argument, it is worth mentioning that the order according to which categories are chosen in ART 1 and ARTMAP provided a valuable tool in proving important properties about these architectures. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Probabilistic and fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Licata, G

    2007-06-01

    In this study I have compared classic and fuzzy logic and their usefulness in clinical diagnosis. The theory of probability is often considered a device to protect the classical two-valued logic from the evidence of its inadequacy to understand and show the complexity of world [1]. This can be true, but it is not possible to discard the theory of probability. I will argue that the problems and the application fields of the theory of probability are very different from those of fuzzy logic. After the introduction on the theoretical bases of fuzzy approach to logic, I have reported some diagnostic argumentations employing fuzzy logic. The state of normality and the state of disease often fight their battle on scalar quantities of biological values and it is not hard to establish a correspondence between the biological values and the percent values of fuzzy logic. Accordingly, I have suggested some applications of fuzzy logic in clinical diagnosis and in particular I have utilised a fuzzy curve to recognise subjects with diabetes mellitus, renal failure and liver disease. The comparison between classic and fuzzy logic findings seems to indicate that fuzzy logic is more adequate to study the development of biological events. In fact, fuzzy logic is useful when we have a lot of pieces of information and when we dispose to scalar quantities. In conclusion, increasingly the development of technology offers new instruments to measure pathological parameters through scalar quantities, thus it is reasonable to think that in the future fuzzy logic will be employed more in clinical diagnosis.

  1. A Combination of Extended Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy GRA for Government E-Tendering in Hybrid Fuzzy Environment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Xi, Chengyu; Zhang, Shuai; Yu, Dejian; Zhang, Wenyu; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The recent government tendering process being conducted in an electronic way is becoming an inevitable affair for numerous governmental agencies to further exploit the superiorities of conventional tendering. Thus, developing an effective web-based bid evaluation methodology so as to realize an efficient and effective government E-tendering (GeT) system is imperative. This paper firstly investigates the potentiality of employing fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) along with fuzzy gray relational analysis (GRA) for optimal selection of candidate tenderers in GeT process with consideration of a hybrid fuzzy environment with incomplete weight information. We proposed a novel hybrid fuzzy AHP-GRA (HFAHP-GRA) method that combines an extended fuzzy AHP with a modified fuzzy GRA. The extended fuzzy AHP which combines typical AHP with interval AHP is proposed to obtain the exact weight information, and the modified fuzzy GRA is applied to aggregate different types of evaluation information so as to identify the optimal candidate tenderers. Finally, a prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example for GeT to confirm the feasibility of our approach. PMID:25057506

  2. A combination of extended fuzzy AHP and fuzzy GRA for government E-tendering in hybrid fuzzy environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xi, Chengyu; Zhang, Shuai; Yu, Dejian; Zhang, Wenyu; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The recent government tendering process being conducted in an electronic way is becoming an inevitable affair for numerous governmental agencies to further exploit the superiorities of conventional tendering. Thus, developing an effective web-based bid evaluation methodology so as to realize an efficient and effective government E-tendering (GeT) system is imperative. This paper firstly investigates the potentiality of employing fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) along with fuzzy gray relational analysis (GRA) for optimal selection of candidate tenderers in GeT process with consideration of a hybrid fuzzy environment with incomplete weight information. We proposed a novel hybrid fuzzy AHP-GRA (HFAHP-GRA) method that combines an extended fuzzy AHP with a modified fuzzy GRA. The extended fuzzy AHP which combines typical AHP with interval AHP is proposed to obtain the exact weight information, and the modified fuzzy GRA is applied to aggregate different types of evaluation information so as to identify the optimal candidate tenderers. Finally, a prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example for GeT to confirm the feasibility of our approach.

  3. Fuzzy logic based robotic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, F.; Upadhyaya, M.

    1994-01-01

    Existing Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) robotic controllers rely on an inverse kinematic model to convert user-specified cartesian trajectory coordinates to joint variables. These joints experience friction, stiction, and gear backlash effects. Due to lack of proper linearization of these effects, modern control theory based on state space methods cannot provide adequate control for robotic systems. In the presence of loads, the dynamic behavior of robotic systems is complex and nonlinear, especially where mathematical modeling is evaluated for real-time operators. Fuzzy Logic Control is a fast emerging alternative to conventional control systems in situations where it may not be feasible to formulate an analytical model of the complex system. Fuzzy logic techniques track a user-defined trajectory without having the host computer to explicitly solve the nonlinear inverse kinematic equations. The goal is to provide a rule-based approach, which is closer to human reasoning. The approach used expresses end-point error, location of manipulator joints, and proximity to obstacles as fuzzy variables. The resulting decisions are based upon linguistic and non-numerical information. This paper presents a solution to the conventional robot controller which is independent of computationally intensive kinematic equations. Computer simulation results of this approach as obtained from software implementation are also discussed.

  4. Offshore observations of aftershocks following the January 5th 2013 Mw 7.5 Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault earthquake, southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, E. C.; Gulick, S. P.; Levoir, M. A.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present initial results from a rapid-response ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) deployment that recorded aftershock activity on the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather (QC-F) fault following the Mw 7.5 earthquake on January 5th 2013 near Craig, Alaska. This earthquake was the second of two Mw > 7 events on this fault system in a 3 month time period; the Craig earthquake followed a Mw 7.8 thrust event that occurred in October 2012, west of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Although the QC-F is a major plate boundary fault, little is known about the regional fault structure, interseismic coupling, and rheological controls on the depth distribution of seismic slip along the continent-ocean transform. The majority of the QC-F fault system extends offshore western British Columbia and southeast Alaska, making it difficult to characterize earthquakes and fault deformation with land-based seismic and geodetic instruments. This experiment is the first ever offshore seismometer deployment to record earthquake activity along this northern segment of the QC-F system, and was set in motion with help from the US Coast Guard, who provided a vessel and crew to deploy and recover the OBS array on short notice. The seismic array utilized 6 GeoPro short period OBS from the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics, which recorded approximately 3 weeks of aftershock activity in April-May of 2013. Combining high-quality local OBS recordings with land-based seismic observations from Alaska Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) stations to the east, we present more precise aftershock locations and depths that help to better characterize fault zone architecture along the northern section of the QC-F. Although moment tensor solutions indicate that the January 5th mainshock sustained slip consistent with Pacific-North America plate motions, aftershock focal mechanisms indicate some interaction with neighboring faults, such as the Chatham Straight fault. This new OBS dataset will also help to

  5. Micromorphology of resin/dentin interfaces using 4th and 5th generation dual-curing adhesive/cement systems: a confocal laser scanning microscope analysis.

    PubMed

    Arrais, Cesar A G; Miyake, Katsuia; Rueggeberg, Frederick A; Pashley, David H; Giannini, Marcelo

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the differential composition of resin/dentin interfaces of indirect restorations created by the application of 4th and 5th generation dual-curing luting systems (bonding agents/resin cements), when each material was either light cured or allowed to self-cure. Occlusal flat dentin surfaces of 60 human third molars were assigned into 12 groups (n = 5) according to curing mode and dual-curing cementing system: 4th generation All Bond2 (AB2)/Duolink (Bisco) and 5th generation (B1) Bond1/Lute-it (Pentron). Fluorescein-labeled dextran (FDx) was mixed with the bonding agents, while rhodamine-labeled dextran (RhDx) was incorporated into resin cements and Pre-Bond resin from AB2. Resin cements were applied to 2-mm-thick, precured resin composite disks (Z250, 3M ESPE), which were fixed to dentin surfaces containing adhesive resin in either cured (light cured; LC) or uncured (self-cured; SC) states. The restored teeth were light activated (XL3000, 3M ESPE) according to the manufacturers' instructions (LRC) or allowed to self-cure (SRC), were stored for 24 h, and then vertically, serially sectioned into l-mm-thick slabs, which were analyzed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Fluorescent additives indicated where individual components of the bonding/cement systems were located. Additional specimens were prepared and analyzed using a conventional scanning electron microscope. AB2/LC and B1/LC exhibited nonuniform primer/adhesive layer thickness. AB2/SC showed adhesive resin penetration within the primed dentin, and resin cement penetration at the entrance of the dentin tubules. B1/SC/LRC demonstrated resin cement penetration within the hybrid layer and into the dentin tubules. More resin cement penetration was observed in B1/SC/SRC groups than in its LRC equivalent. The morphological features and component interactions among materials at resin/dentin interfaces are related to the activation modes of the primer/adhesive layer and of the resin cement

  6. Proceedings of the 5th International LISA Symposium and the 38th ESLAB Symposium, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 12-15 July 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennrich, Oliver

    2005-05-01

    In its 10th year, the International LISA Symposium of 2004 was the first to be organized by ESA. After the first Symposium at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in 1996, and subsequent Symposia at Caltech (1998), the Albert Einstein Institute in Golm (2000) and Penn State University (2002), ESA's European Space and Technology Centre (ESTEC) is proud to have hosted the 5th International LISA Symposium in 2004 in conjunction with the 38th ESLAB Symposium. During these 10 years, we have seen the technology required for such ambitious space missions as LISA and LISA Pathfinder developing and maturing to a point where flightlevel hardware can be produced and tested. The technology demonstrator LISA Pathfinder has become a mission well established in the ESA programme and has entered its project implementation phase; the LISA mission is in the formulation phase. At the same time, the preparations for LISA data analysis and first activities on data archives and LISA simulators have begun, indicating that LISA is regarded as more than just a mission far in the future. The astrophysics of the sources of gravitational waves is emerging as a rapidly growing field that will become even more important in the coming years, when the focus of the activities on LISA and LISA Pathfinder will shift from making the missions possible to deriving scientific results from the data. The 5th International LISA Symposium had presentations on all of the above topics, from the technology of LISA and LISA Pathfinder, LISA data analysis, and modelling and simulation, to the astrophysics of the sources. The programme included an overview of the activities at the ground-based detectors, with which LISA shares not only a common technological heritage but also the prospect of detecting gravitational waves in the next 10 years. Such a conference would not be possible without the help of many people, not least the Scientific Organizing Committee, and the local organization, provided by ESA

  7. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent and medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

    2014-10-01

    The 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for < 5 min, yet 51% of patients (95% CI 43-60%) experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer-term adverse effect. Distress and longer-term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected accidental awareness during general anaesthesia or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39% and mixed in 31%. Three quarters of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (75%) were judged preventable. In 12% of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia, care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia included medication, patient and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organisation and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15 000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19 000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted

  8. Impact on smoking behaviour of the New Zealand annual increase in tobacco tax: Data for the 5th and 6th year of increases.

    PubMed

    Li, Judy; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Guiney, Hayley; Walton, Darren

    2016-09-13

    New Zealand has implemented a series of seven annual increases in tobacco tax since 2010. All tax increases, except for the first in the series, were pre-announced. It is unusual for governments to introduce small, persistent, and predictable increases in tobacco tax, and little is known about the impact of such a strategy. This paper evaluates the impact of the 5(th) and 6(th) annual increases. Smokers' behaviours were self-reported during the three-month period before, and the three-month period after, the two annual increases. Responses to the two increases were analysed separately, and GEE models were used to control for socio-demographic variables, recent quit attempts, and the research design. Findings were consistent across years. The proportion of participants who made a smoking-related (54-56% before and after each tax increase) or product-related change (5(th) tax increase: 17-19%; 6(th) tax increase: 21-22%) did not significantly alter from before to after each tax increase. However, it should be noted that the proportion of participants making smoking-related changes was generally high, even prior to each increase. For example, before the 2015 tax increase, 1% reported quitting completely, 21% trying to quit, and 53% cutting down. In New Zealand, with its series of annual tobacco tax increases since 2010, there were no significant changes in smoking- or product- related behaviour associated with the fifth and sixth increases. Nevertheless, overall cessation-related activity was high, with a majority of participants reporting either quitting and/or cutting-down recently. Little is known about the impact of small, persistent, predictable tobacco tax increases on smoking behaviour. This study evaluated the impact of the fifth (in 2014) and sixth (2015) tax increases in an annual series implemented in New Zealand. Although there were no detectable changes in smoking behaviours from before to after each tax increase, self-reported cessation-related activity

  9. Fuzzy electron density fragments in macromolecular quantum chemistry, combinatorial quantum chemistry, functional group analysis, and shape-activity relations.

    PubMed

    Mezey, Paul G

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Just as complete molecules have no boundaries and have "fuzzy" electron density clouds approaching zero density exponentially at large distances from the nearest nucleus, a physically justified choice for electron density fragments exhibits similar behavior. Whereas fuzzy electron densities, just as any fuzzy object, such as a thicker cloud on a foggy day, do not lend themselves to easy visualization, one may partially overcome this by using isocontours. Whereas a faithful representation of the complete fuzzy density would need infinitely many such isocontours, nevertheless, by choosing a selected few, one can still obtain a limited pictorial representation. Clearly, such images are of limited value, and one better relies on more complete mathematical representations, using, for example, density matrices of fuzzy fragment densities. A fuzzy density fragmentation can be obtained in an exactly additive way, using the output from any of the common quantum chemical computational techniques, such as Hartree-Fock, MP2, and various density functional approaches. Such "fuzzy" electron density fragments properly represented have proven to be useful in a rather wide range of applications, for example, (a) using them as additive building blocks leading to efficient linear scaling macromolecular quantum chemistry computational techniques, (b) the study of quantum chemical functional groups, (c) using approximate fuzzy fragment information as allowed by the holographic electron density theorem, (d) the study of correlations between local shape and activity, including through-bond and through-space components of interactions between parts of molecules and relations between local molecular shape and substituent effects, (e) using them as tools of density matrix extrapolation in conformational changes, (f) physically valid averaging and statistical distribution of several local electron densities of common stoichiometry, useful in electron density databank mining, for

  10. Minimal Solution of Singular LR Fuzzy Linear Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nikuie, M.; Ahmad, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the singular LR fuzzy linear system is introduced. Such systems are divided into two parts: singular consistent LR fuzzy linear systems and singular inconsistent LR fuzzy linear systems. The capability of the generalized inverses such as Drazin inverse, pseudoinverse, and {1}-inverse in finding minimal solution of singular consistent LR fuzzy linear systems is investigated. PMID:24737977

  11. Minimal solution of singular LR fuzzy linear systems.

    PubMed

    Nikuie, M; Ahmad, M Z

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the singular LR fuzzy linear system is introduced. Such systems are divided into two parts: singular consistent LR fuzzy linear systems and singular inconsistent LR fuzzy linear systems. The capability of the generalized inverses such as Drazin inverse, pseudoinverse, and {1}-inverse in finding minimal solution of singular consistent LR fuzzy linear systems is investigated.

  12. On Topological Structures of Fuzzy Parametrized Soft Sets

    PubMed Central

    Zorlutuna, İdris

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the topological structure of fuzzy parametrized soft sets and fuzzy parametrized soft mappings. We define the notion of quasi-coincidence for fuzzy parametrized soft sets and investigated its basic properties. We study the closure, interior, base, continuity, and compactness and properties of these concepts in fuzzy parametrized soft topological spaces. PMID:24955386

  13. Optoelectronic fuzzy associative memory with controllable attraction basin sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Zhiqing; Campbell, Scott; Wu, Weishu; Yeh, Pochi

    1995-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new fuzzy associative memory model that provides an option to control the sizes of the attraction basins in neural networks. In our optoelectronic implementation we use spatial/polarization encoding to represent the fuzzy variables. Shadow casting of the encoded patterns is employed to yield the fuzzy-absolute difference between fuzzy variables.

  14. Image segmentation using trainable fuzzy set classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schalkoff, Robert J.; Carver, Albrecht E.; Gurbuz, Sabri

    1999-07-01

    A general image analysis and segmentation method using fuzzy set classification and learning is described. The method uses a learned fuzzy representation of pixel region characteristics, based upon the conjunction and disjunction of extracted and derived fuzzy color and texture features. Both positive and negative exemplars of some visually apparent characteristic which forms the basis of the inspection, input by a human operator, are used together with a clustering algorithm to construct positive similarity membership functions and negative similarity membership functions. Using these composite fuzzified images, P and N, are produced using fuzzy union. Classification is accomplished via image defuzzification, whereby linguistic meaning is assigned to each pixel in the fuzzy set using a fuzzy inference operation. The technique permits: (1) strict color and texture discrimination, (2) machine learning of color and texture characteristics of regions, (3) and judicious labeling of each pixel based upon leaned fuzzy representation and fuzzy classification. This approach appears ideal for applications involving visual inspection and allows the development of image-based inspection systems which may be trained and used by relatively unskilled workers. We show three different examples involving the visual inspection of mixed waste drums, lumber and woven fabric.

  15. Approximation abilities of neuro-fuzzy networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrówczyńska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the operation of two neuro-fuzzy systems of an adaptive type, intended for solving problems of the approximation of multi-variable functions in the domain of real numbers. Neuro-fuzzy systems being a combination of the methodology of artificial neural networks and fuzzy sets operate on the basis of a set of fuzzy rules "if-then", generated by means of the self-organization of data grouping and the estimation of relations between fuzzy experiment results. The article includes a description of neuro-fuzzy systems by Takaga-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) and Wang-Mendel (WM), and in order to complement the problem in question, a hierarchical structural self-organizing method of teaching a fuzzy network. A multi-layer structure of the systems is a structure analogous to the structure of "classic" neural networks. In its final part the article presents selected areas of application of neuro-fuzzy systems in the field of geodesy and surveying engineering. Numerical examples showing how the systems work concerned: the approximation of functions of several variables to be used as algorithms in the Geographic Information Systems (the approximation of a terrain model), the transformation of coordinates, and the prediction of a time series. The accuracy characteristics of the results obtained have been taken into consideration.

  16. Inducing Fuzzy Models for Student Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nykanen, Ossi

    2006-01-01

    We report an approach for implementing predictive fuzzy systems that manage capturing both the imprecision of the empirically induced classifications and the imprecision of the intuitive linguistic expressions via the extensive use of fuzzy sets. From end-users' point of view, the approach enables encapsulating the technical details of the…

  17. Modeling Research Project Risks with Fuzzy Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodea, Constanta Nicoleta; Dascalu, Mariana Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    The authors propose a risks evaluation model for research projects. The model is based on fuzzy inference. The knowledge base for fuzzy process is built with a causal and cognitive map of risks. The map was especially developed for research projects, taken into account their typical lifecycle. The model was applied to an e-testing research…

  18. Fuzzy Query Processing Using Clustering Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamel, M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problem of processing fuzzy queries in databases and information retrieval systems and presents a prototype of a fuzzy query processing system for databases that is based on data clustering and uses Pascal programing language. Clustering schemes are explained, and the system architecture that uses natural language is described. (14…

  19. Intuitionistic fuzzy segmentation of medical images.

    PubMed

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2010-06-01

    This paper proposes a novel and probably the first method, using Attanassov intuitionistic fuzzy set theory to segment blood vessels and also the blood cells in pathological images. This type of segmentation is very important in detecting different types of human diseases, e.g., an increase in the number of vessels may lead to cancer in prostates, mammary, etc. The medical images are not properly illuminated, and segmentation in that case becomes very difficult. A novel image segmentation approach using intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and a new membership function is proposed using restricted equivalence function from automorphisms, for finding the membership values of the pixels of the image. An intuitionistic fuzzy image is constructed using Sugeno type intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Local thresholding is applied to threshold medical images. The results showed a much better performance on poor contrast medical images, where almost all the blood vessels and blood cells are visible properly. There are several fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy thresholding methods, but these methods are not related to the medical images. To make a comparison with the proposed method with other thresholding methods, the method is compared with six nonfuzzy, fuzzy, and intuitionistic fuzzy methods.

  20. An inclusion measure between fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new inclusion measure between fuzzy sets. Firstly, we select an axiomatic definition for the inclusion measure. Then, we present a new computation formula based on the selected axiomatic definition, and demonstrate its two properties. Finally, we give examples to validate its performance. The results show that the new inclusion measure is rational for fuzzy sets.

  1. Fuzzy logic mode switching in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, Porter D.; Warburton, Frank W.

    1993-01-01

    The application of fuzzy logic to a wide range of control problems has been gaining momentum internationally, fueled by a concentrated Japanese effort. Advanced Research & Development within the Engineering Department at Sikorsky Aircraft undertook a fuzzy logic research effort designed to evaluate how effective fuzzy logic control might be in relation to helicopter operations. The mode switching module in the advanced flight control portion of Sikorsky's motion based simulator was identified as a good candidate problem because it was simple to understand and contained imprecise (fuzzy) decision criteria. The purpose of the switching module is to aid a helicopter pilot in entering and leaving coordinated turns while in flight. The criteria that determine the transitions between modes are imprecise and depend on the varied ranges of three flight conditions (i.e., simulated parameters): Commanded Rate, Duration, and Roll Attitude. The parameters were given fuzzy ranges and used as input variables to a fuzzy rulebase containing the knowledge of mode switching. The fuzzy control program was integrated into a real time interactive helicopter simulation tool. Optimization of the heading hold and turn coordination was accomplished by interactive pilot simulation testing of the handling quality performance of the helicopter dynamic model. The fuzzy logic code satisfied all the requirements of this candidate control problem.

  2. Inducing Fuzzy Models for Student Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nykanen, Ossi

    2006-01-01

    We report an approach for implementing predictive fuzzy systems that manage capturing both the imprecision of the empirically induced classifications and the imprecision of the intuitive linguistic expressions via the extensive use of fuzzy sets. From end-users' point of view, the approach enables encapsulating the technical details of the…

  3. Homeopathic drug selection using Intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

    PubMed

    Kharal, Athar

    2009-01-01

    Using intuitionistic fuzzy set theory, Sanchez's approach to medical diagnosis has been applied to the problem of selection of single remedy from homeopathic repertorization. Two types of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations (IFRs) and three types of selection indices are discussed. I also propose a new repertory exploiting the benefits of soft-intelligence.

  4. Transportation optimization with fuzzy trapezoidal numbers based on possibility theory.

    PubMed

    He, Dayi; Li, Ran; Huang, Qi; Lei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a parametric method is introduced to solve fuzzy transportation problem. Considering that parameters of transportation problem have uncertainties, this paper develops a generalized fuzzy transportation problem with fuzzy supply, demand and cost. For simplicity, these parameters are assumed to be fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. Based on possibility theory and consistent with decision-makers' subjectiveness and practical requirements, the fuzzy transportation problem is transformed to a crisp linear transportation problem by defuzzifying fuzzy constraints and objectives with application of fractile and modality approach. Finally, a numerical example is provided to exemplify the application of fuzzy transportation programming and to verify the validity of the proposed methods.

  5. Use of fuzzy logic in lignite inventory estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Tutmez, B.; Dag, A.

    2007-07-01

    Seam thickness is one of the most important parameters for reserve estimation of a lignite deposit. This paper addresses a case study on fuzzy estimation of lignite seam thickness from spatial coordinates. From the relationships between input (Cartesian coordinates) and output (thickness) parameters, fuzzy clustering and a fuzzy rule-based inference system were designed. Data-driven fuzzy model parameters were derived from numerical values directly. In addition, estimations of the fuzzy model were compared with kriging estimations. It was concluded that the performance ofthe fuzzy model was more satisfactory. The results indicated that the fuzzy modeling approach is very reliable for the estimation of lignite reserves.

  6. Hepatitis C and Why the Treatment is Needed Now? The Summary Report From the Cross-Border Symposium of the 5th Tehran Hepatitis Congress May 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi Daryani, Nasser; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The cross-border symposium on hepatitis C, entitled “why treating now?” was held on 15th May 2013 during the 5th International Tehran Hepatitis Congress. The present report summarizing communicated insights during this symposium is intended to help health care providers to make well-informed decisions when treating patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Since today’s evolving science of hepatitis C management has introduced new treatment options, one should be well-versed about the potential benefits as well as untoward effects or practical challenges when using these regimens. In addition to outline HCV treatment advances, this symposium focused on the central question that why eligible patients with hepatitis C who may mostly benefit from the currently available protease inhibitors, should be treated now rather than be waited for the future therapies. Moreover, an overview of long term local experience with protease inhibitors in our challenging hepatitis C patients was presented during this interactive symposium.

  7. Proceedings from the 5th International Symposium on Light and Human Health: November 3-5, 2002, Orlando, Florida--EPRI Lighting Research Office

    SciTech Connect

    2004-05-01

    The 5th EPRI/LRO Lighting Research Symposium (November, 2002) was organized to present and examine current research information on the subject of Light and Human Health in response to a growing sense that light--both electric lighting and daylighting--impacts human beings well beyond what has been traditionally studied as vision and visual performance. This Final Report of the Symposium is a collection of 23 presented and seven poster papers grouped under the following headings: (1) Medical Applications of Light; (2) Circadian Effects of Light; (3) Hazards of Optical Radiation; and (4) Environmental Applications and Human Factors. Research from the medical, measurement, elderly, lighting, psychological, and vision fields is included, as well as an extensive commentary and summary. The direction of the research, taken as a whole, indicates that the definition of ''good lighting'' should be expanded to include ''healthy lighting,'' and that ongoing research will require better measurement and specification tools such as a new system of circadian photometry. Enhanced interaction between the medical research and lighting design communities will be required to bring the benefits of what is being discovered into common lighting practice.

  8. Cornelia de Lange syndrome: further delineation of phenotype, cohesin biology and educational focus, 5th Biennial Scientific and Educational Symposium abstracts.

    PubMed

    Kline, Antonie D; Calof, Anne L; Schaaf, Cheri A; Krantz, Ian D; Jyonouchi, Soma; Yokomori, Kyoko; Gauze, Maria; Carrico, Cheri S; Woodman, Julie; Gerton, Jennifer L; Vega, Hugo; Levin, Alex V; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Champion, Michele; Goodban, Marjorie T; O'Connor, Julia T; Pipan, Mary; Horsfield, Julia; Deardorff, Matthew A; Ishman, Stacey L; Dorsett, Dale

    2014-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is the prototype for the cohesinopathy disorders that have mutations in genes associated with the cohesin subunit in all cells. Roberts syndrome is the next most common cohesinopathy. In addition to the developmental implications of cohesin biology, there is much translational and basic research, with progress towards potential treatment for these conditions. Clinically, there are many issues in CdLS faced by the individual, parents and caretakers, professionals, and schools. The following abstracts are presentations from the 5th Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Scientific and Educational Symposium on June 20-21, 2012, in conjunction with the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation National Meeting, Lincolnshire, IL. The research committee of the CdLS Foundation organizes the meeting, reviews and accepts abstracts and subsequently disseminates the information to the families. In addition to the basic science and clinical discussions, there were educationally-focused talks related to practical aspects of management at home and in school. AMA CME credits were provided by Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Consensus for Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from The 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014): Current Practice and Future Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Zeng, Zhao Chong; Hong, Ji Hong; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Kim, Mi Sook; Chi, Kwan Hwa; Liang, Po-Ching; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lau, Wan-Yee; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-01-01

    A consensus meeting to develop practice guidelines and to recommend future clinical trials for radiation therapy (RT), including external beam RT (EBRT), and selective internal RT (SIRT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was held at the 5th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert consortium. Although there is no randomized phase III trial evidence, the efficacy and safety of RT in HCC has been shown by prospective and retrospective studies using modern RT techniques. Based on these results, the committee came to a consensus on the utility and efficacy of RT in the management of HCC according to each disease stage as follows: in early and intermediate stage HCC, if standard treatment is not compatible, RT, including EBRT and SIRT can be considered. In locally advanced stage HCC, combined EBRT with transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and SIRT can be considered. In terminal stage HCC, EBRT can be considered for palliation of symptoms and reduction of morbidity caused by the primary tumor or its metastases. Despite the currently reported benefits of RT in HCC, the committee agreed that there is a compelling need for large prospective studies, including randomized phase III trial evidence evaluating the role of RT. Specifically studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of sequential combination of EBRT and SIRT are strongly recommended. PMID:27493892

  10. Fuzzy control of a fluidized bed dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Taprantzis, A.V.; Siettos, C.I.; Bafas, G.V.

    1997-05-01

    Fluidized bed dryers are utilized in almost every area of drying applications and therefore improved control strategies are always of great interest. The nonlinear character of the process, exhibited in the mathematical model and the open loop analysis, implies that a fuzzy logic controller is appropriate because, in contrast with conventional control schemes, fuzzy control inherently compensates for process nonlinearities and exhibits more robust behavior. In this study, a fuzzy logic controller is proposed; its design is based on a heuristic approach and its performance is compared against a conventional PI controller for a variety of responses. It is shown that the fuzzy controller exhibits a remarkable dynamic behavior, equivalent if not better than the PI controller, for a wide range of disturbances. In addition, the proposed fuzzy controller seems to be less sensitive to the nonlinearities of the process, achieves energy savings and enables MIMO control.

  11. Markowitz portfolio optimization model employing fuzzy measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Suhailywati; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah

    2017-04-01

    Markowitz in 1952 introduced the mean-variance methodology for the portfolio selection problems. His pioneering research has shaped the portfolio risk-return model and become one of the most important research fields in modern finance. This paper extends the classical Markowitz's mean-variance portfolio selection model applying the fuzzy measure to determine the risk and return. In this paper, we apply the original mean-variance model as a benchmark, fuzzy mean-variance model with fuzzy return and the model with return are modeled by specific types of fuzzy number for comparison. The model with fuzzy approach gives better performance as compared to the mean-variance approach. The numerical examples are included to illustrate these models by employing Malaysian share market data.

  12. Molecular processors: from qubits to fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Pier Luigi

    2011-03-14

    Single molecules or their assemblies are information processing devices. Herein it is demonstrated how it is possible to process different types of logic through molecules. As long as decoherent effects are maintained far away from a pure quantum mechanical system, quantum logic can be processed. If the collapse of superimposed or entangled wavefunctions is unavoidable, molecules can still be used to process either crisp (binary or multi-valued) or fuzzy logic. The way for implementing fuzzy inference engines is declared and it is supported by the examples of molecular fuzzy logic systems devised so far. Fuzzy logic is drawing attention in the field of artificial intelligence, because it models human reasoning quite well. This ability may be due to some structural analogies between a fuzzy logic system and the human nervous system. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Improvement on fuzzy controller design techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Paul P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses three main issues, which are somewhat interrelated. The first issue deals with the classification or types of fuzzy controllers. Careful examination of the fuzzy controllers designed by various engineers reveals distinctive classes of fuzzy controllers. Classification is believed to be helpful from different perspectives. The second issue deals with the design according to specifications, experiments related to the tuning of fuzzy controllers, according to the specification, will be discussed. General design procedure, hopefully, can be outlined in order to ease the burden of a design engineer. The third issue deals with the simplicity and limitation of the rule-based IF-THEN logical statements. The methodology of fuzzy-constraint network is proposed here as an alternative to the design practice at present. It is our belief that predicate calculus and the first order logic possess much more expressive power.

  14. On m-polar fuzzy graph structures.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Akmal, Rabia; Alshehri, Noura

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes information in a network model is based on multi-agent, multi-attribute, multi-object, multi-polar information or uncertainty rather than a single bit. An m-polar fuzzy model is useful for such network models which gives more and more precision, flexibility, and comparability to the system as compared to the classical, fuzzy and bipolar fuzzy models. In this research article, we introduce the notion of m-polar fuzzy graph structure and present various operations, including Cartesian product, strong product, cross product, lexicographic product, composition, union and join of m-polar fuzzy graph structures. We illustrate these operations by several examples. We also investigate some of their related properties.

  15. Non-stationary stochastic vibration analysis of fuzzy truss system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Juan; Chen, Jian-jun; Gao, Wei; Zhai, Tian-song

    2006-11-01

    A new method (fuzzy factor method based on the fuzzy sets theory) for the dynamic response analysis of fuzzy truss system under non-stationary stochastic excitation is presented. Considering the fuzziness of the structural physical parameters and geometric dimensions simultaneously, the fuzzy correlation function matrix of the structural displacement response in time domain is derived using the fuzzy factor method and the optimisation method; then from the structural non-stationary stochastic response in the frequency domain, the fuzzy mean square values of the displacement and stress response are developed by the fuzzy factor method. The influences of the fuzziness of the physical parameters and geometric dimensions on the fuzziness of the mean square values of the structural displacement and stress response are illustrated via two engineering examples and some important conclusions are obtained.

  16. 75 FR 53572 - Safety Zone; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... [Docket No. USCG-2010-0799] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Olympia Harbor Days Tug Boat Races, Budd Inlet, WA... races. This safety zone is necessary to restrict vessel movement during racing activity in order to... boat races. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 a.m. until 8 p.m. on September 5th, 2010. ADDRESSES...

  17. 49 CFR 230.17 - One thousand four hundred seventy-two (1472) service day inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND... (1472) service day inspection. (a) General. Before any steam locomotive is initially put in service or... 5th annual, inspection requirements, as well as any items required by the steam locomotive owner and...

  18. 49 CFR 230.17 - One thousand four hundred seventy-two (1472) service day inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND... (1472) service day inspection. (a) General. Before any steam locomotive is initially put in service or... 5th annual, inspection requirements, as well as any items required by the steam locomotive owner and...

  19. 49 CFR 230.17 - One thousand four hundred seventy-two (1472) service day inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND... (1472) service day inspection. (a) General. Before any steam locomotive is initially put in service or... 5th annual, inspection requirements, as well as any items required by the steam locomotive owner and...

  20. The fuzzy transformation and its applications in image processing.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yao; Barner, Kenneth E

    2006-04-01

    The spatial and rank (SR) orderings of samples play a critical role in most signal processing algorithms. The recently introduced fuzzy ordering theory generalizes traditional, or crisp, SR ordering concepts and defines the fuzzy (spatial) samples, fuzzy order statistics, fuzzy spatial indexes, and fuzzy ranks. Here, we introduce a more general concept, the fuzzy transformation (FZT), which refers to the mapping of the crisp samples, order statistics, and SR ordering indexes to their fuzzy counterparts. We establish the element invariant and order invariant properties of the FZT. These properties indicate that fuzzy spatial samples and fuzzy order statistics constitute the same set and, under commonly satisfied membership function conditions, the sample rank order is preserved by the FZT. The FZT also possesses clustering and symmetry properties, which are established through analysis of the distributions and expectations of fuzzy samples and fuzzy order statistics. These properties indicate that the FZT incorporates sample diversity into the ordering operation, which can be utilized in the generalization of conventional filters. Here, we establish the fuzzy weighted median (FWM), fuzzy lower-upper-middle (FLUM), and fuzzy identity filters as generalizations of their crisp counterparts. The advantage of the fuzzy generalizations is illustrated in the applications of DCT coded image deblocking, impulse removal, and noisy image sharpening.

  1. Fuzzy Edge Connectivity of Graphical Fuzzy State Space Model in Multi-connected System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harish, Noor Ainy; Ismail, Razidah; Ahmad, Tahir

    2010-11-01

    Structured networks of interacting components illustrate complex structure in a direct or intuitive way. Graph theory provides a mathematical modeling for studying interconnection among elements in natural and man-made systems. On the other hand, directed graph is useful to define and interpret the interconnection structure underlying the dynamics of the interacting subsystem. Fuzzy theory provides important tools in dealing various aspects of complexity, imprecision and fuzziness of the network structure of a multi-connected system. Initial development for systems of Fuzzy State Space Model (FSSM) and a fuzzy algorithm approach were introduced with the purpose of solving the inverse problems in multivariable system. In this paper, fuzzy algorithm is adapted in order to determine the fuzzy edge connectivity between subsystems, in particular interconnected system of Graphical Representation of FSSM. This new approach will simplify the schematic diagram of interconnection of subsystems in a multi-connected system.

  2. Construction and utilization of a script concordance test as an assessment tool for DCEM3 (5th year) medical students in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Sylvain; Couderc, Marion; Glace, Baptiste; Tournadre, Anne; Malochet-Guinamand, Sandrine; Pereira, Bruno; Dubost, Jean-Jacques; Soubrier, Martin

    2013-12-13

    The script concordance test (SCT) is a method for assessing clinical reasoning of medical students by placing them in a context of uncertainty such as they will encounter in their future daily practice. Script concordance testing is going to be included as part of the computer-based national ranking examination (iNRE).This study was designed to create a script concordance test in rheumatology and use it for DCEM3 (fifth year) medical students administered via the online platform of the Clermont-Ferrand medical school. Our SCT for rheumatology teaching was constructed by a panel of 19 experts in rheumatology (6 hospital-based and 13 community-based). One hundred seventy-nine DCEM3 (fifth year) medical students were invited to take the test. Scores were computed using the scoring key available on the University of Montreal website. Reliability of the test was estimated by the Cronbach alpha coefficient for internal consistency. The test comprised 60 questions. Among the 26 students who took the test (26/179: 14.5%), 15 completed it in its entirety. The reference panel of rheumatologists obtained a mean score of 76.6 and the 15 students had a mean score of 61.5 (p = 0.001). The Cronbach alpha value was 0.82. An online SCT can be used as an assessment tool for medical students in rheumatology. This study also highlights the active participation of community-based rheumatologists, who accounted for the majority of the 19 experts in the reference panel.A script concordance test in rheumatology for 5th year medical students.

  3. Unclassified cases of behavioral variant of major frontotemporal neurocognitive disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Koji; Hattori, Hideyuki

    2014-04-01

    In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), the behavioral variant of major frontotemporal neurocognitive disorder (bvFT-NCD) is subclassified into "probable bvFT-NCD" or "possible bvFT-NCD." When genetic evidence is unavailable, cases without clinical neuroimaging are subclassified into "possible bvFT-NCD," whereas cases whose clinical images show the typical characteristics are subclassified into "probable bvFT-NCD." Thus, the cases that meet the diagnostic criteria of bvFT-NCD based on their symptoms, but lack the neuroimaging characteristics, fall between the two categories of probable and possible bvFT-NCD. These cases herein are defined as "unclassified bvFT-NCD," and the present study aims at considering an appropriate diagnostic approach to such cases, that is, whether unclassified bvFT-NCD should be included in bvFT-NCD as a third subcategory, or whether it should be classified into diseases other than bvFT-NCD. All patients who presented at the Department of Psychiatry of the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology with suspicion of the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia between 1 May 2011 and 30 April 2013 were retrospectively rediagnosed based on the DSM-5 criteria. A total of 16 cases met the criteria of bvFT-NCD, and among them, eight cases corresponded to unclassified bvFT-NCD. From a cross-sectional and clinical perspective, all eight cases of unclassified bvFT-NCD fulfilled the symptomatic criteria for bvFT-NCD, although the possibilities of Alzheimer's disease and other mental disorders could not be ruled out completely. To establish clinical diagnostic criteria for unclassified bvFT-NCD, accumulation of cases and evidence will be required along with longitudinal observation using various diagnostic technologies and post-mortem examination. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. 5th Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG): Clinical trial design for rare ovarian tumours.

    PubMed

    Leary, A F; Quinn, M; Fujiwara, K; Coleman, R L; Kohn, E; Sugiyama, T; Glasspool, R; Ray-Coquard, I; Colombo, N; Bacon, M; Zeimet, A; Westermann, A; Gomez-Garcia, E; Provencher, D; Welch, S; Small, W; Millan, D; Okamoto, A; Stuart, G; Ochiai, K

    2016-12-19

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements on designing clinical trials in rare ovarian tumours reached at the 5th Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC) held in Tokyo, November 2015. Three important questions were identified concerning rare ovarian tumours (rare epithelial ovarian cancers (eOC), sex-cord stromal tumours (SCST) and germ cell tumours (GCT)): (1) What are the research and trial issues that are unique to rare ovarian tumours? There is a lack of randomised phase III data defining standards of care which makes it difficult to define control arms, but identifies unmet needs that merit investigation. Internationally agreed upon diagnostic criteria, expert pathological review, and translational research are crucial. (2) What should be investigated in rare eOC, GCT and SCST? Trials dedicated to each rare ovarian tumour should be encouraged. Nonetheless, where the question is relevant, rare eOC can be included in eOC trials but with rigorous stratification. Although there is emerging evidence suggesting that rare eOC have different molecular profiles, trials are needed to define new type-specific standards for each rare eOC (clear cell, low grade serous and mucinous). For GCTs, a priority is reducing toxicities from treatment while maintaining cure rates. Both a robust prognostic scoring system and more effective treatments for de novo poor prognosis and relapsed GCTs are needed. For SCSTs, validated prognostic markers as well as alternatives to the current standard of bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin (BEP) should be identified. (3) Are randomised trials feasible? Randomised controlled trials (RCT) should be feasible in any of the rare tumours through international collaboration. Ongoing trials have already demonstrated the feasibility of RCT in rare eOC and SCST. Mucinous OC may be considered for inclusion, stratified, into RCTs of non-gynaecological mucinous tumours, while RCTs in high risk or relapsed GCT may be performed as a subset of male and

  5. Protein intake from 0 to 18 years of age and its relation to health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is a part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The aim was to assess the health effects of different levels of protein intake in infancy and childhood in a Nordic setting. The initial literature search resulted in 435 abstracts, and 219 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 37 quality-assessed papers (4A, 30B, and 3C). A complementary search found four additional papers (all graded B). The evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-inconclusive. Higher protein intake in infancy and early childhood is convincingly associated with increased growth and higher body mass index in childhood. The first 2 years of life is likely most sensitive to high protein intake. Protein intake between 15 E% and 20 E% in early childhood has been associated with an increased risk of being overweight later in life, but the exact level of protein intake above which there is an increased risk for being overweight later in life is yet to be established. Increased intake of animal protein in childhood is probably related to earlier puberty. There was limited-suggestive evidence that intake of animal protein, especially from dairy, has a stronger association with growth than vegetable protein. The evidence was limited-suggestive for a positive association between total protein intake and bone mineral content and/or other bone variables in childhood and adolescence. Regarding other outcomes, there were too few published studies to enable any conclusions. In conclusion, the intake of protein among children in the Nordic countries is high and may contribute to increased risk of later obesity. The upper level of a healthy intake is yet to be firmly established. In the meantime, we suggest a mean intake of 15 E% as an upper limit of recommended intake at 12 months, as a higher intake may contribute to increased risk for later obesity. PMID:23717219

  6. Protein intake from 0 to 18 years of age and its relation to health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is a part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The aim was to assess the health effects of different levels of protein intake in infancy and childhood in a Nordic setting. The initial literature search resulted in 435 abstracts, and 219 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 37 quality-assessed papers (4A, 30B, and 3C). A complementary search found four additional papers (all graded B). The evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-inconclusive. Higher protein intake in infancy and early childhood is convincingly associated with increased growth and higher body mass index in childhood. The first 2 years of life is likely most sensitive to high protein intake. Protein intake between 15 E% and 20 E% in early childhood has been associated with an increased risk of being overweight later in life, but the exact level of protein intake above which there is an increased risk for being overweight later in life is yet to be established. Increased intake of animal protein in childhood is probably related to earlier puberty. There was limited-suggestive evidence that intake of animal protein, especially from dairy, has a stronger association with growth than vegetable protein. The evidence was limited-suggestive for a positive association between total protein intake and bone mineral content and/or other bone variables in childhood and adolescence. Regarding other outcomes, there were too few published studies to enable any conclusions. In conclusion, the intake of protein among children in the Nordic countries is high and may contribute to increased risk of later obesity. The upper level of a healthy intake is yet to be firmly established. In the meantime, we suggest a mean intake of 15 E% as an upper limit of recommended intake at 12 months, as a higher intake may contribute to increased risk for later obesity.

  7. Fuzzy probabilistic design of water distribution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Guangtao; Kapelan, Zoran

    2011-05-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to present a fuzzy probabilistic approach for optimal design and rehabilitation of water distribution systems, combining aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties in a unified framework. The randomness and imprecision in future water consumption are characterized using fuzzy random variables whose realizations are not real but fuzzy numbers, and the nodal head requirements are represented by fuzzy sets, reflecting the imprecision in customers' requirements. The optimal design problem is formulated as a two-objective optimization problem, with minimization of total design cost and maximization of system performance as objectives. The system performance is measured by the fuzzy random reliability, defined as the probability that the fuzzy head requirements are satisfied across all network nodes. The satisfactory degree is represented by necessity measure or belief measure in the sense of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. An efficient algorithm is proposed, within a Monte Carlo procedure, to calculate the fuzzy random system reliability and is effectively combined with the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) to derive the Pareto optimal design solutions. The newly proposed methodology is demonstrated with two case studies: the New York tunnels network and Hanoi network. The results from both cases indicate that the new methodology can effectively accommodate and handle various aleatoric and epistemic uncertainty sources arising from the design process and can provide optimal design solutions that are not only cost-effective but also have higher reliability to cope with severe future uncertainties.

  8. Fuzzy expert system: applications to geology

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Expert systems are potentially valuable tools for scientists who are in so-called inexact sciences, such as geology. This is because expert-system technology deemphasizes the number-crunching aspect of computers; instead, symbol manipulation is the kernel of the expert-system software. Most geologic data are imprecise and often incomplete; yet, geologists must make decisions under uncertainty based on approximate reasoning. To deal with those situations, Aristotelian logic of true/false employed in most expert-system shells is inadequate; fuzzy logic must be incorporated in the inference engine as well as knowledge base of the expert system. Furthermore, many geological problems cannot be solved by a deductive chain of reasoning, but the solutions have to rely on a collection of related facts in an inductive fashion. An expert system shell which can accomplish all these is FLOPS - Fuzzy Logic Production System. The system employs fuzzy concepts throughout: production rules use fuzzy logic; data types include fuzzy numbers; and fuzzy predicates are provided for fuzzy comparison of numbers. It handles inductive reasoning by a production system which fires rules in parallel rather than sequentially, using weakly monotonic logic to solve memory conflicts. This paper is illustrated by examples from qualitative x-ray phase analysis and determination of clastic depositional environments.

  9. Fuzzy Modeling and Control of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Hassan; Kamyad, Ali Vahidian; Heydari, Ali Akbar

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposes a fuzzy mathematical model of HIV infection consisting of a linear fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) system describing the ambiguous immune cells level and the viral load which are due to the intrinsic fuzziness of the immune system's strength in HIV-infected patients. The immune cells in question are considered CD4+ T-cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). The dynamic behavior of the immune cells level and the viral load within the three groups of patients with weak, moderate, and strong immune systems are analyzed and compared. Moreover, the approximate explicit solutions of the proposed model are derived using a fitting-based method. In particular, a fuzzy control function indicating the drug dosage is incorporated into the proposed model and a fuzzy optimal control problem (FOCP) minimizing both the viral load and the drug costs is constructed. An optimality condition is achieved as a fuzzy boundary value problem (FBVP). In addition, the optimal fuzzy control function is completely characterized and a numerical solution for the optimality system is computed. PMID:22536298

  10. Design of supply chain in fuzzy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kandukuri Narayana; Subbaiah, Kambagowni Venkata; Singh, Ganja Veera Pratap

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, customer expectations are increasing and organizations are prone to operate in an uncertain environment. Under this uncertain environment, the ultimate success of the firm depends on its ability to integrate business processes among supply chain partners. Supply chain management emphasizes cross-functional links to improve the competitive strategy of organizations. Now, companies are moving from decoupled decision processes towards more integrated design and control of their components to achieve the strategic fit. In this paper, a new approach is developed to design a multi-echelon, multi-facility, and multi-product supply chain in fuzzy environment. In fuzzy environment, mixed integer programming problem is formulated through fuzzy goal programming in strategic level with supply chain cost and volume flexibility as fuzzy goals. These fuzzy goals are aggregated using minimum operator. In tactical level, continuous review policy for controlling raw material inventories in supplier echelon and controlling finished product inventories in plant as well as distribution center echelon is considered as fuzzy goals. A non-linear programming model is formulated through fuzzy goal programming using minimum operator in the tactical level. The proposed approach is illustrated with a numerical example.

  11. Finding the maximal membership in a fuzzy set of an element from another fuzzy set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    2010-11-01

    The problem of finding the maximal membership grade in a fuzzy set of an element from another fuzzy set is an important class of optimisation problems manifested in the real world by situations in which we try to find what is the optimal financial satisfaction we can get from a socially responsible investment. Here, we provide a solution to this problem. We then look at the proposed solution for fuzzy sets with various types of membership grades, ordinal, interval value and intuitionistic.

  12. Algebraic and Probabilistic Bases for Fuzzy Sets and the Development of Fuzzy Conditioning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    bij.ction’ relative to the base spaces . Section 4 develops operations isomorphic to fuzzy set membership operations, including cartesian products, sums...conditional events to fuzzy sets. 2. Fundamental Spaces and Bijective Mappings. Throughout the remaining paper denote the unit interval [0, 1] = {t: 0 < t S...constructs the isomorphic counterparts of the above over Flou(X). 4. Construction of Operations over Flou Spaces Isomnorphic to Those over Fuzzy Set

  13. Fuzzy Mixed Assembly Line Sequencing and Scheduling Optimization Model Using Multiobjective Dynamic Fuzzy GA

    PubMed Central

    Tahriri, Farzad; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    A new multiobjective dynamic fuzzy genetic algorithm is applied to solve a fuzzy mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem in which the primary goals are to minimize the total make-span and minimize the setup number simultaneously. Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are implemented for variables such as operation and travelling time in order to generate results with higher accuracy and representative of real-case data. An improved genetic algorithm called fuzzy adaptive genetic algorithm (FAGA) is proposed in order to solve this optimization model. In establishing the FAGA, five dynamic fuzzy parameter controllers are devised in which fuzzy expert experience controller (FEEC) is integrated with automatic learning dynamic fuzzy controller (ALDFC) technique. The enhanced algorithm dynamically adjusts the population size, number of generations, tournament candidate, crossover rate, and mutation rate compared with using fixed control parameters. The main idea is to improve the performance and effectiveness of existing GAs by dynamic adjustment and control of the five parameters. Verification and validation of the dynamic fuzzy GA are carried out by developing test-beds and testing using a multiobjective fuzzy mixed production assembly line sequencing optimization problem. The simulation results highlight that the performance and efficacy of the proposed novel optimization algorithm are more efficient than the performance of the standard genetic algorithm in mixed assembly line sequencing model. PMID:24982962

  14. Robust H infinity fuzzy control for a class of uncertain discrete fuzzy bilinear systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Tzuu-Hseng; Tsai, Shun-Hung; Lee, Jia-Zhen; Hsiao, Ming-Ying; Chao, Chan-Hong

    2008-04-01

    The main theme of this paper is to present robust fuzzy controllers for a class of discrete fuzzy bilinear systems. First, the parallel distributed compensation method is utilized to design a fuzzy controller, which ensures the robust asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system and guarantees an H(infinity) norm-bound constraint on disturbance attenuation for all admissible uncertainties. Second, based on the Schur complement and some variable transformations, the stability conditions of the overall fuzzy control system are formulated by linear matrix inequalities. Finally, the validity and applicability of the proposed schemes are demonstrated by a numerical simulation and the Van de Vusse example.

  15. Fuzzy topological digital space and digital fuzzy spline of electroencephalography during epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Mazlina Muzafar; Wahab, Abdul Fatah

    2017-08-01

    Epilepsy disease occurs because of there is a temporary electrical disturbance in a group of brain cells (nurons). The recording of electrical signals come from the human brain which can be collected from the scalp of the head is called Electroencephalography (EEG). EEG then considered in digital format and in fuzzy form makes it a fuzzy digital space data form. The purpose of research is to identify the area (curve and surface) in fuzzy digital space affected by inside epilepsy seizure in epileptic patient's brain. The main focus for this research is to generalize fuzzy topological digital space, definition and basic operation also the properties by using digital fuzzy set and the operations. By using fuzzy digital space, the theory of digital fuzzy spline can be introduced to replace grid data that has been use previously to get better result. As a result, the flat of EEG can be fuzzy topological digital space and this type of data can be use to interpolate the digital fuzzy spline.

  16. Fuzzy mixed assembly line sequencing and scheduling optimization model using multiobjective dynamic fuzzy GA.

    PubMed

    Tahriri, Farzad; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    A new multiobjective dynamic fuzzy genetic algorithm is applied to solve a fuzzy mixed-model assembly line sequencing problem in which the primary goals are to minimize the total make-span and minimize the setup number simultaneously. Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are implemented for variables such as operation and travelling time in order to generate results with higher accuracy and representative of real-case data. An improved genetic algorithm called fuzzy adaptive genetic algorithm (FAGA) is proposed in order to solve this optimization model. In establishing the FAGA, five dynamic fuzzy parameter controllers are devised in which fuzzy expert experience controller (FEEC) is integrated with automatic learning dynamic fuzzy controller (ALDFC) technique. The enhanced algorithm dynamically adjusts the population size, number of generations, tournament candidate, crossover rate, and mutation rate compared with using fixed control parameters. The main idea is to improve the performance and effectiveness of existing GAs by dynamic adjustment and control of the five parameters. Verification and validation of the dynamic fuzzy GA are carried out by developing test-beds and testing using a multiobjective fuzzy mixed production assembly line sequencing optimization problem. The simulation results highlight that the performance and efficacy of the proposed novel optimization algorithm are more efficient than the performance of the standard genetic algorithm in mixed assembly line sequencing model.

  17. Evolutionary Local Search of Fuzzy Rules through a novel Neuro-Fuzzy encoding method.

    PubMed

    Carrascal, A; Manrique, D; Ríos, J; Rossi, C

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach for constructing fuzzy knowledge bases using evolutionary methods. We have designed a genetic algorithm that automatically builds neuro-fuzzy architectures based on a new indirect encoding method. The neuro-fuzzy architecture represents the fuzzy knowledge base that solves a given problem; the search for this architecture takes advantage of a local search procedure that improves the chromosomes at each generation. Experiments conducted both on artificially generated and real world problems confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. The Modeling of Fuzzy Systems Based on Lee-Oscillatory Chaotic Fuzzy Model (LoCFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Max H. Y.; Liu, James N. K.; Shum, Dennis T. F.; Lee, Raymond S. T.

    This paper introduces a new fuzzy membership function — LEE-oscillatory Chaotic Fuzzy Model (LoCFM). The development of this model is based on fuzzy logic and the incorporation of chaos theory — LEE Oscillator. Prototype systems are being developed for handling imprecise problems, typically involving linguistic expression and fuzzy semantic meaning. In addition, the paper also examines the mechanism of the LEE Oscillator through analyzing its structure and neural dynamics. It demonstrates the potential application of the model in future development.

  19. Image Edge Extraction via Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus A. (Inventor); Klinko, Steve (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A computer-based technique for detecting edges in gray level digital images employs fuzzy reasoning to analyze whether each pixel in an image is likely on an edge. The image is analyzed on a pixel-by-pixel basis by analyzing gradient levels of pixels in a square window surrounding the pixel being analyzed. An edge path passing through the pixel having the greatest intensity gradient is used as input to a fuzzy membership function, which employs fuzzy singletons and inference rules to assigns a new gray level value to the pixel that is related to the pixel's edginess degree.

  20. Fuzzy Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Paradigm (FHDRP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarmadi, Hengameth

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to introduce a new concept for incorporating fuzzy sets in hybrid deliberative/reactive paradigm. After a brief review on basic issues of hybrid paradigm the definition of agent-based fuzzy hybrid paradigm, which enables the agents to proceed and extract their behavior through quantitative numerical and qualitative knowledge and to impose their decision making procedure via fuzzy rule bank, is discussed. Next an example performs a more applied platform for the developed approach and finally an overview of the corresponding agents architecture enhances agents logical framework.

  1. Adaptive Fuzzy Systems in Computational Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in computational intelligence techniques, which currently includes neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary programming, has grown significantly and a number of their applications have been developed in the government and industry. In future, an essential element in these systems will be fuzzy systems that can learn from experience by using neural network in refining their performances. The GARIC architecture, introduced earlier, is an example of a fuzzy reinforcement learning system which has been applied in several control domains such as cart-pole balancing, simulation of to Space Shuttle orbital operations, and tether control. A number of examples from GARIC's applications in these domains will be demonstrated.

  2. Fuzzy geometry, entropy, and image information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, Sankar K.

    1991-01-01

    Presented here are various uncertainty measures arising from grayness ambiguity and spatial ambiguity in an image, and their possible applications as image information measures. Definitions are given of an image in the light of fuzzy set theory, and of information measures and tools relevant for processing/analysis e.g., fuzzy geometrical properties, correlation, bound functions and entropy measures. Also given is a formulation of algorithms along with management of uncertainties for segmentation and object extraction, and edge detection. The output obtained here is both fuzzy and nonfuzzy. Ambiguity in evaluation and assessment of membership function are also described.

  3. Fuzzy α-minimum spanning tree problem: definition and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Chen, Lu; Wang, Ke; Yang, Fan

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the minimum spanning tree problem is investigated on the graph with fuzzy edge weights. The notion of fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree is presented based on the credibility measure, and then the solutions of the fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree problem are discussed under different assumptions. First, we respectively, assume that all the edge weights are triangular fuzzy numbers and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and prove that the fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree problem can be transformed to a classical problem on a crisp graph in these two cases, which can be solved by classical algorithms such as the Kruskal algorithm and the Prim algorithm in polynomial time. Subsequently, as for the case that the edge weights are general fuzzy numbers, a fuzzy simulation-based genetic algorithm using Prüfer number representation is designed for solving the fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree problem. Some numerical examples are also provided for illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

  4. Models of neural networks with fuzzy activation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, A. T.; Korikov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the application of a new form of neuron activation functions that are based on the fuzzy membership functions derived from the theory of fuzzy systems. On the basis of the results regarding neuron models with fuzzy activation functions, we created the models of fuzzy-neural networks. These fuzzy-neural network models differ from conventional networks that employ the fuzzy inference systems using the methods of neural networks. While conventional fuzzy-neural networks belong to the first type, fuzzy-neural networks proposed here are defined as the second-type models. The simulation results show that the proposed second-type model can successfully solve the problem of the property prediction for time - dependent signals. Neural networks with fuzzy impulse activation functions can be widely applied in many fields of science, technology and mechanical engineering to solve the problems of classification, prediction, approximation, etc.

  5. FUZZY SUPERNOVA TEMPLATES. I. CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney, Steven A.; Tonry, John L. E-mail: jt@ifa.hawaii.ed

    2009-12-20

    Modern supernova (SN) surveys are now uncovering stellar explosions at rates that far surpass what the world's spectroscopic resources can handle. In order to make full use of these SN data sets, it is necessary to use analysis methods that depend only on the survey photometry. This paper presents two methods for utilizing a set of SN light-curve templates to classify SN objects. In the first case, we present an updated version of the Bayesian Adaptive Template Matching program (BATM). To address some shortcomings of that strictly Bayesian approach, we introduce a method for Supernova Ontology with Fuzzy Templates (SOFT), which utilizes fuzzy set theory for the definition and combination of SN light-curve models. For well-sampled light curves with a modest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N >10), the SOFT method can correctly separate thermonuclear (Type Ia) SNe from core collapse SNe with >=98% accuracy. In addition, the SOFT method has the potential to classify SNe into sub-types, providing photometric identification of very rare or peculiar explosions. The accuracy and precision of the SOFT method are verified using Monte Carlo simulations as well as real SN light curves from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the SuperNova Legacy Survey. In a subsequent paper, the SOFT method is extended to address the problem of parameter estimation, providing estimates of redshift, distance, and host galaxy extinction without any spectroscopy.

  6. Fuzzy control of battery chargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, Jack

    1996-03-01

    The increasing reliance on battery power for portable terrestrial purposes, such as portable tools, portable computers, and telecommunications, provides motivation to optimize the battery charging process with respect to speed of charging and charging cycle lifetime of the battery. Fuzzy control, implemented on a small microcomputer, optimizes charging in the presence of nonlinear effects and large uncertainty in the voltage vs. charge state characteristics for the battery. Use of a small microcontroller makes possible a small, capable, and affordable package for the charger. Microcontroller-based chargers provide improved performance by adjusting both charging voltage and charging current during the entire charging process depending on a current estimate of the state of charge of the battery. The estimate is derived from the zero-current voltage of the battery and the temperature and their rates of change. All of these quantities are uncertain due to the variation in condition between the individual cells in a battery, the rapid and nonlinear dependence of the fundamental electrochemistry on the internal temperature, and the placement of a single temperature sensor within the battery package. While monitoring the individual cell voltages and temperatures would be desirable, cost and complexity considerations preclude the practice. NASA has developed considerable technology in batteries for supplying significant amounts of power for spacecraft and in fuzzy control techniques for the space applications. In this paper, we describe how we are using both technologies to build an optimal charger prototype as a precursor to a commercial version.

  7. Improving land resource evaluation using fuzzy neural network ensembles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xue, Yue-Ju; HU, Y.-M.; Liu, S.-G.; YANG, J.-F.; CHEN, Q.-C.; BAO, S.-T.

    2007-01-01

    Land evaluation factors often contain continuous-, discrete- and nominal-valued attributes. In traditional land evaluation, these different attributes are usually graded into categorical indexes by land resource experts, and the evaluation results rely heavily on experts' experiences. In order to overcome the shortcoming, we presented a fuzzy neural network ensemble method that did not require grading the evaluation factors into categorical indexes and could evaluate land resources by using the three kinds of attribute values directly. A fuzzy back propagation neural network (BPNN), a fuzzy radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), a fuzzy BPNN ensemble, and a fuzzy RBFNN ensemble were used to evaluate the land resources in Guangdong Province. The evaluation results by using the fuzzy BPNN ensemble and the fuzzy RBFNN ensemble were much better than those by using the single fuzzy BPNN and the single fuzzy RBFNN, and the error rate of the single fuzzy RBFNN or fuzzy RBFNN ensemble was lower than that of the single fuzzy BPNN or fuzzy BPNN ensemble, respectively. By using the fuzzy neural network ensembles, the validity of land resource evaluation was improved and reliance on land evaluators' experiences was considerably reduced. ?? 2007 Soil Science Society of China.

  8. Fuzzy logic for personalized healthcare and diagnostics: FuzzyApp--a fuzzy logic based allergen-protein predictor.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Vijayakumar; Lakshmi, P T V

    2014-09-01

    The path to personalized medicine demands the use of new and customized biopharmaceutical products containing modified proteins. Hence, assessment of these products for allergenicity becomes mandatory before they are introduced as therapeutics. Despite the availability of different tools to predict the allergenicity of proteins, it remains challenging to predict the allergens and nonallergens, when they share significant sequence similarity with known nonallergens and allergens, respectively. Hence, we propose "FuzzyApp," a novel fuzzy rule based system to evaluate the quality of the query protein to be an allergen. It measures the allergenicity of the protein based on the fuzzy IF-THEN rules derived from five different modules. On various datasets, FuzzyApp outperformed other existing methods and retained balance between sensitivity and specificity, with positive Mathew's correlation coefficient. The high specificity of allergen-like putative nonallergens (APN) revealed the FuzzyApp's capability in distinguishing the APN from allergens. In addition, the error analysis and whole proteome dataset analysis suggest the efficiency and consistency of the proposed method. Further, FuzzyApp predicted the Tropomyosin from various allergenic and nonallergenic sources accurately. The web service created allows batch sequence submission, and outputs the result as readable sentences rather than values alone, which assists the user in understanding why and what features are responsible for the prediction. FuzzyApp is implemented using PERL CGI and is freely accessible at http://fuzzyapp.bicpu.edu.in/predict.php . We suggest the use of Fuzzy logic has much potential in biomarker and personalized medicine research to enhance predictive capabilities of post-genomics diagnostics.

  9. A Study on Reading Comprehension Skills of Primary School 5th Grade Students--Learning Basic Reading and Writing Skills through Phonics-Based Sentence Method or Decoding Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusdemir Kayiran, Bilge; Karabay, Aysegul

    2012-01-01

    This research aims at investigating the influence of two methods implemented in primary reading and writing teaching programs--phonics-based sentence method and decoding (analysis) method--on primary school 5th grade students' reading comprehension achievement. Also, the study considers the relationship between socio-economic status and reading…

  10. Mountain Dew[R] or Mountain Don't?: A Pilot Investigation of Caffeine Use Parameters and Relations to Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in 5th- and 10th-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Caffeine, the only licit psychoactive drug available to minors, may have a harmful impact on students' health and adjustment, yet little is known about its use or effects on students, especially from a developmental perspective. Caffeine use in 5th- and 10th-grade students was examined in a cross-sectional design, and relations and…

  11. How Do 4th, 5th, and 6th Grade Students' Categories of Cognitive Reflections in Interviews on Derivational Morphology Compare to Their Upper Level Spelling Inventory Orthographic Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Darcie D.

    2012-01-01

    Eighty-seven 4th, 5th and 6th grade students were administered the "Derivational Relatedness Interview" (DRI) (Templeton, Smith, Moloney, Van Pelt, & Ives, 2009). The purpose of this instrument is to explore students' understanding of derivational morphology. During the same week, the subjects were also administered an Upper…

  12. A Response to Lawrence Ferrara's Chapter Four in R. Phelps, R. Sadoff, E. Warburton, and L. Ferrara, "A Guide to Research in Music Education," 5th Edition (Lanham, Maryland, Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Jack

    2006-01-01

    A reply to Lawrence Ferrara's Chapter 4 in R. Phelps, R. Sadoff, E. Warburton, and L. Ferrara, "A Guide to Research in Music Education," 5th Edition is presented. It it curious that Ferrara disagrees with Jack Heller and Edward J. P. O'Connor's view that "philosophy" is not "research," yet in the chapter headings in the book A Guide to Research in…

  13. A Response to Lawrence Ferrara's Chapter Four in R. Phelps, R. Sadoff, E. Warburton, and L. Ferrara, "A Guide to Research in Music Education," 5th Edition (Lanham, Maryland, Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Jack

    2006-01-01

    A reply to Lawrence Ferrara's Chapter 4 in R. Phelps, R. Sadoff, E. Warburton, and L. Ferrara, "A Guide to Research in Music Education," 5th Edition is presented. It it curious that Ferrara disagrees with Jack Heller and Edward J. P. O'Connor's view that "philosophy" is not "research," yet in the chapter headings in the book A Guide to Research in…

  14. Mountain Dew[R] or Mountain Don't?: A Pilot Investigation of Caffeine Use Parameters and Relations to Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in 5th- and 10th-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Caffeine, the only licit psychoactive drug available to minors, may have a harmful impact on students' health and adjustment, yet little is known about its use or effects on students, especially from a developmental perspective. Caffeine use in 5th- and 10th-grade students was examined in a cross-sectional design, and relations and…

  15. [Predicting Incidence of Hepatitis E in Chinausing Fuzzy Time Series Based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Analysis].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Zhang, Tao; Li, Xiao-song

    2016-05-01

    To explore the application of fuzzy time series model based on fuzzy c-means clustering in forecasting monthly incidence of Hepatitis E in mainland China. Apredictive model (fuzzy time series method based on fuzzy c-means clustering) was developed using Hepatitis E incidence data in mainland China between January 2004 and July 2014. The incidence datafrom August 2014 to November 2014 were used to test the fitness of the predictive model. The forecasting results were compared with those resulted from traditional fuzzy time series models. The fuzzy time series model based on fuzzy c-means clustering had 0.001 1 mean squared error (MSE) of fitting and 6.977 5 x 10⁻⁴ MSE of forecasting, compared with 0.0017 and 0.0014 from the traditional forecasting model. The results indicate that the fuzzy time series model based on fuzzy c-means clustering has a better performance in forecasting incidence of Hepatitis E.

  16. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  17. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION...

  18. 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia: patient experiences, human factors, sedation, consent, and medicolegal issues.

    PubMed

    Cook, T M; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Pandit, J J

    2014-10-01

    The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for <5 min, yet 51% of patients [95% confidence interval (CI) 43-60%] experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer term adverse effect. Distress and longer term harm occurred across the full range of experiences but were particularly likely when the patient experienced paralysis (with or without pain). The patient's interpretation of what is happening at the time of the awareness seemed central to later impact; explanation and reassurance during suspected AAGA or at the time of report seemed beneficial. Quality of care before the event was judged good in 26%, poor in 39%, and mixed in 31%. Three-quarters of cases of AAGA (75%) were judged preventable. In 12%, AAGA care was judged good and the episode not preventable. The contributory and human factors in the genesis of the majority of cases of AAGA included medication, patient, and education/training. The findings have implications for national guidance, institutional organization, and individual practice. The incidence of 'accidental awareness' during sedation (~1:15,000) was similar to that during general anaesthesia (~1:19,000). The project raises significant issues about information giving and consent for both sedation and anaesthesia. We propose a novel approach to describing sedation from the patient's perspective which could be used in communication and consent. Eight (6%) of the patients had resorted to legal action (12, 11%, to formal complaint) at the time of reporting. NAP5 methodology provides a standardized template that might usefully inform

  19. Fuzzy Q-Learning for Generalization of Reinforcement Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1996-01-01

    Fuzzy Q-Learning, introduced earlier by the author, is an extension of Q-Learning into fuzzy environments. GARIC is a methodology for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we introduce GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Q-Learning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on GARIC. GARIC-Q improves the speed and applicability of Fuzzy Q-Learning through generalization of input space by using fuzzy rules and bridges the gap between Q-Learning and rule based intelligent systems.

  20. Advanced Fuzzy Potential Field Method for Mobile Robot Obstacle Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Wook; Kwak, Hwan-Joo; Kang, Young-Chang; Kim, Dong W.

    2016-01-01

    An advanced fuzzy potential field method for mobile robot obstacle avoidance is proposed. The potential field method primarily deals with the repulsive forces surrounding obstacles, while fuzzy control logic focuses on fuzzy rules that handle linguistic variables and describe the knowledge of experts. The design of a fuzzy controller—advanced fuzzy potential field method (AFPFM)—that models and enhances the conventional potential field method is proposed and discussed. This study also examines the rule-explosion problem of conventional fuzzy logic and assesses the performance of our proposed AFPFM through simulations carried out using a mobile robot. PMID:27123001